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1

Taste-aversion learning produced by combined treatment with subthreshold radiation and lithium chloride  

SciTech Connect

These experiments were designed to determine whether treatment with two subthreshold doses of radiation or lithium chloride, either alone or in combination, could lead to taste-aversion learning. The first experiment determined the threshold for a radiation-induced taste aversion at 15-20 rad and for lithium chloride at 0.30-0.45 mEq/kg. In the second experiment it was shown that exposing rats to two doses of 15 rad separated by up to 3 hr produced a taste aversion. Treatment with two injections of lithium chloride did produce a taste aversion when the two treatments were administered within 1 hr or each other. The results are discussed in terms of the implications of these findings for understanding the nature of the unconditional stimuli leading to the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion.

Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

1987-01-01

2

Effects of antiemetics on the acquisition and recall of radiation- and lithium chloride-induced conditioned taste aversions  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments were run to evaluate the effect of antiemetics on the acquisition and recall of a conditioned taste aversion induced by exposure to ionizing radiation or by injection of lithium chloride. Groups of male rats were exposed to 100 rad gamma radiation or 3 mEq/kg lithium chloride following consumption of a 10% sucrose solution. They were then injected with saline or with one of three antiemetics (prochlorperazine, trimethobenzamide, or cyclizine) at dose levels that have been reported to be effective in attenuating a previously acquired lithium chloride-induced taste aversion. The pretreatments with antiemetics had no effect on the acquisition or recall of either the lithium chloride- or radiation-induced taste aversion. The data suggest that antiemetics do not disrupt lithium chloride-induced taste aversions as previously reported, nor do they effect radiation-induced taste aversion learning.

Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.

1983-04-01

3

Acquisition of lithium chloride- and radiation-induced taste aversions in hypophysectomized rats  

SciTech Connect

The effects of hypophysectomy on the acquisition of conditioned taste aversions following injection of lithium chloride and following exposure to ionizing radiation were studied using a two-bottle preference test. Hypophysectomy did not disrupt the acquisition of a taste aversion following either treatment. The results are interpreted as: (a) suggesting that pituitary/adrenal hormones do not mediate the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion following injections of lithium chloride or following exposure to ionizing radiation in a two-bottle preference test, and (b) consistent with other research suggesting that the involvement of pituitary/adrenal hormones in taste aversion learning may be related to the conflict induced by using a one-bottle test and not to the learning itself.

Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

1983-03-01

4

Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis  

E-print Network

Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis Lekha Gupta, 2008 Ortholithiations of a range of arenes mediated by lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in THF at -78 °C protocols with unpurified commercial samples of n-butyl- lithium to prepare LDA or commercially available

Collum, David B.

5

Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

Parry, J. M.

1978-01-01

6

The third-order elastic constants of potassium chloride, sodium chloride and lithium fluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete set of third-order elastic constants of potassium chloride, sodium chloride and lithium fluoride have been measured at room temperature under conditions which eliminate the possibility that plastic deformation occurred during the experiments. A partial check on these values, provided by the pressure derivatives of the elastic constants, shows satisfactory agreement with experiment for potassium chloride and sodium chloride

J. R. Drabble; R. E. B. Strathen

1967-01-01

7

Thermoluminescence of ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride (10?30gcm?3) have been irradiated by X- and ?-rays at 77K, then progressively rewarmed to room temperature. During that phase, their thermoluminescence has been studied and it was found that, despite their dilution beyond the Avogadro number, the emitted light was specific of the original salts dissolved initially.

Louis Rey

2003-01-01

8

Optimization of the lithium/thionyl chloride battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1-D math model for the lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell is used in conjunction with a parameter estimation technique in order to estimate the electro-kinetic parameters of this electrochemical system. The electro-kinetic parameters include the anodic transfer coefficient and exchange current density of the lithium oxidation, alpha sub a,1 and i sub o,i,ref, the cathodic transfer coefficient and the effective exchange current density of the thionyl chloride reduction, alpha sub c,2 and a sup o i sub o,2,ref, and a morphology parameter, Xi. The parameter estimation is performed on simulated data first in order to gain confidence in the method. Data, reported in the literature, for a high rate discharge of an experimental lithium/thionyl chloride cell is used for an analysis.

White, Ralph E.

1989-01-01

9

User safety considerations in lithium thionyl chloride batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanics of failure of lithium batteries with thionyl chloride as a catholyte are discussed, and methods available to provide user safety are outlined. Advantages of using the batteries are discussed, including a high cell voltage of 3.6 V, a high specific energy density greater than 200 W-hr per pound, excellent voltage stability over 95% of the discharge life of

L. J. Johnson; A. H. Willis

1981-01-01

10

Diffusion of oxygen (1); water (2); lithium chloride (3)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) oxygen; (2) water; (3) lithium chloride

Winkelmann, J.

11

Design of a safe cylindrical lithium/thionyl chloride cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cell design criteria were established which can result in a safe lithium/thionyl chloride cell. A cell vent, a low area internal anode cell, cell balance and composition of the cathode-electrolyte solution were found to be important factors in the design of a safe cell. In addition to routine testing, both undischarged and discharged cells were subjected to electrical abuse, environmental abuse and mechanical abuse without disassembly.

Johnson, D. H.

1983-01-01

12

Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (active lithium\\/thionyl chloride) batteries. [Active lithium\\/thionyl chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

(ALTC = active lithium\\/thionyl chloride.) We have investigated the corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin materials in 1.5M LiAlClâ\\/SOClâ electrolyte using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4 PH, and

F. S. Bovard; W. R. Cieslak

1987-01-01

13

Calorimetry of 25 Ah lithium/thionyl chloride cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat flow measurements of 25-Ah lithium thionyl chloride cells provided a method to calculate an effective thermal potential, E(TP) of 3.907 V. The calculation is useful to determine specific heat generation of this cell chemistry and design. The E(TP) value includes heat generation by electrochemical cell reactions, competitive chemical reactions, and resistance heating at the tabs, connectors, and leads. Heat flow was measured while applying electrical loads to the cell in an isothermal calorimeter set at 0, 20, and 60 C.

Johnson, C. J.; Dawson, S.

1991-01-01

14

Hydrodynamic simulation of a lithium chloride salt system.  

SciTech Connect

A fused lithium chloride salt system's constitutive properties were evaluated and compared to a number of fluid properties, and water was shown to be an excellent simulant of lithium chloride salt. With a simple flow model, the principal scaling term was shown to be a function of the kinematic viscosity. A water mock-up of the molten salt was also shown to be within a {+-}3% error in the scaling analysis. This made it possible to consider developing water scaled tests of the molten salt system. Accurate flow velocity and pressure measurements were acquired by developing a directional velocity probe. The device was constructed and calibrated with a repeatable accuracy of {+-}15%. This was verified by a detailed evaluation of the probe. Extensive flow measurements of the engineering scale mockup were conducted, and the results were carefully compared to radial flow patterns of a straight blade stirrer. The flow measurements demonstrated an anti-symmetric nature of the stirring, and many additional effects were also identified. The basket design was shown to prevent fluid penetration into the fuel baskets when external stirring was the flow mechanism.

Eberle, C. S.; Herrmann, S. D.; Knighton, G. C.

1999-02-12

15

High-rate lithium thionyl-chloride battery development  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a lithium thionyl-chloride cell for use in a high rate battery application to provide power for a missile computer and stage separation detonators. The battery pack contains 20 high surface area ``DD`` cells wired in a series-parallel configuration to supply a nominal 28 volts with a continuous draw of 20 amperes. The load profile also requires six squib firing pulses of one second duration at a 20 ampere peak. Performance and safety of the cells were optimized in a ``D`` cell configuration before progressing to the longer ``DD` cell. Active surface area in the ``D`` cell is 735 cm{sup 2}, and 1650 cm{sup 2} in the ``DD`` cell. The design includes 1.5M LiAlCl{sub 4}/SOCl{sub 2} electrolyte, a cathode blend of Shawinigan Acetylene Black and Cabot Black Pearls 2000 carbons, Scimat ETFE separator, and photoetched current collectors.

Cieslak, W.R.; Weigand, D.E.

1993-12-31

16

A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

Shah, Pinakin M.

1993-03-01

17

Acute and chronic effects of lithium chloride on physiological and psychological measures in normals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the acute experiment six healthy volunteers were given orally two doses of lithium chloride, 16 and 32 mmol, and placebo sodium chloride 32 mmol in a double-blind standardized procedure, with a 1-week interval between treatments. Compared to sodium, lithium produced a decrease in subjective well-being, decrease of skin conductance fluctuations, and increase in plasma calcium concentrations. Dose-related effects were

I. G. Karniol; J. Dalton; M. H. Lader

1978-01-01

18

Lrp5-independent activation of Wnt signaling by lithium chloride increases bone formation  

E-print Network

Lrp5-independent activation of Wnt signaling by lithium chloride increases bone formation and bone in disorders of reduced bone mass, we tested whether lithium could improve bone mass in mice. We gavage) and assessed the effect on bone metabolism after 4 weeks of therapy. Lrp5 / mice lack the Wnt coreceptor low

19

Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (active lithium/thionyl chloride) batteries. [Active lithium/thionyl chloride  

SciTech Connect

(ALTC = active lithium/thionyl chloride.) We have investigated the corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin materials in 1.5M LiAlCl/sub 4//SOCl/sub 2/ electrolyte using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4 PH, and 446), three Fe-Ni glass sealing alloys (Kovar, Alloy 52, and Niromet 426), a Ni-based alloy (Hastelloy B-2) and a zirconium-based alloy (Zircaloy), were compared to the reference materials Ni and 316L SS. All of the candidate materials showed some evidence of corrosion and, therefore, did not perform as well as the reference materials. The Hastelloy B-2 and Zircaloy are clearly unacceptable materials for this application. Of the remaining alternate materials, the 446 SS and Alloy 52 are the most promising candidates.

Bovard, F.S.; Cieslak, W.R.

1987-09-01

20

Lithium chloride protects retinal neurocytes from nutrient deprivation by promoting DNA non-homologous end-joining  

SciTech Connect

Lithium chloride is a therapeutic agent for treatment of bipolar affective disorders. Increasing numbers of studies have indicated that lithium has neuroprotective effects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of lithium have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate whether lithium chloride produces neuroprotective function by improving DNA repair pathway in retinal neurocyte. In vitro, the primary cultured retinal neurocytes (85.7% are MAP-2 positive cells) were treated with lithium chloride, then cultured with serum-free media to simulate the nutrient deprived state resulting from ischemic insult. The neurite outgrowth of the cultured cells increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner when exposed to different levels of lithium chloride. Genomic DNA electrophoresis demonstrated greater DNA integrity of retinal neurocytes when treated with lithium chloride as compared to the control. Moreover, mRNA and protein levels of Ligase IV (involved in DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway) in retinal neurocytes increased with lithium chloride. The end joining activity assay was performed to determine the role of lithium on NHEJ in the presence of extract from retinal neurocytes. The rejoining levels in retinal neurocytes treated with lithium were significantly increased as compared to the control. Furthermore, XRCC4, the Ligase IV partner, and the transcriptional factor, CREB and CTCF, were up-regulated in retinal cells after treating with 1.0 mM lithium chloride. Therefore, our data suggest that lithium chloride protects the retinal neural cells from nutrient deprivation in vitro, which may be similar to the mechanism of cell death in glaucoma. The improvement in DNA repair pathway involving in Ligase IV might have an important role in lithium neuroprotection. This study provides new insights into the neural protective mechanisms of lithium chloride.

Zhuang Jing; Li Fan; Liu Xuan; Liu Zhiping; Lin Jianxian [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Ge Yihong [Department of Stomatology, the Southern Medical University (China); Kaminski, Joseph M. [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation, University of South Alabama (United States); Summers, James Bradley [Department of Radiology, University of South Alabama (United States); Wang Zhichong [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Ge Jian [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)], E-mail: gejian@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Yu Keming [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)], E-mail: yukeming@mail.sysu.edu.cn

2009-03-13

21

Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery with Electrolyte Flow  

E-print Network

Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery with Electrolyte Flow W are performed using a finite volume method of computational fluid dynamics. The predicted discharge curves-time. The present paper is a continuation of the recent series of work to explore computational fluid dynamics (CFD

Wang, Chao-Yang

22

Zero-gravity growth of a sodium chloride-lithium fluoride eutectic mixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous and discontinuous lithium fluoride fibers embedded in a sodium chloride matrix were produced in space and on Earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convective current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and Earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of lithium fluoride fibers along the growth direction.

Yue, A. S.; Yeh, C. W.; Yue, B. K.

1982-01-01

23

Evaluation of high-energy lithium thionyl chloride primary cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced commercial primary lithium cell (LiSoCl2) was evaluated in order to establish baseline data for improved lithium batteries for aerospace applications. The cell tested had nominal capacity of 6 Ah. Maximum energy density at low rates (less than C/30, where C is the cell capacity in amp-hrs and 30 corresponds to a 30 hr discharge time) was found to be near 300 Wh/kg. An equation which predicts the operating voltage of these cells as a function of current and state of charge is presented. Heat generation rates of these cells were determined as a function of current in a calorimeter. It was found that heat rates could be theoretically predicted with some degree of accuracy at currents less than 1 amp or the C/6 rate. No explosions were observed in the cells during the condition of overdischarge or reversal nor during high rate discharge. It was found, however, that the cells can vent when overdischarge currents are greater than C/30 and when discharge rates are greater than 1.5C.

Frank, H. A.

1980-01-01

24

Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (Active Lithium\\/Thionyl Chloride) batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin material candidates for ALTC (Active Lithium\\/Thionyl Chloride) batteries in 1.5M LiAlCl4\\/SOCl2 electrolyte have been investigated using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4

Francine S. Bovard; Wendy R. Cieslak

1987-01-01

25

Selective Reduction of Active Metal Chlorides from Molten LiCl-KCl using Lithium Drawdown  

SciTech Connect

In support of optimizing electrorefining technology for treating spent nuclear fuel, lithium drawdown has been investigated for separating actinides from molten salt electrolyte. Drawdown reaction selectivity is a major issue that needs to be investigated, since the goal is to remove actinides while leaving the fission products in the salt. A series of lithium drawdown tests with surrogate fission product chlorides was run to obtain selectivity data with non-radioactive salts, develop a predictive model, and draw conclusions about the viability of using this process with actinide-loadd salt. Results of tests with CsCl, LaCl3, CeCl3, and NdCl3 are reported here. An equilibrium model has been formulated and fit to the experimental data. Excellent fits to the data were achieved. Based on analysis and results obtained to date, it is concluded that clean separation between minor actinides and lanthanides will be difficult to achieve using lithium drawdown.

Michael F. Simpson; Daniel LaBrier; Michael Lineberry; Tae-Sic Yoo

2012-10-01

26

Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for missile applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative performance study has been conducted for silver-zinc, thionyl chloride, and thermal batteries designed for such missile applications as ICBM guidance system power supplies. Attention is given to each of the three candidates' conformity to requirements concerning mechanical configuration, electrochemical design, electrolyte reservoir, external case, and gas generator. The silver-zinc and Li-SOCl2 candidates employ similar cell configurations and yield comparable performance. The thermal battery is found to be incapable of meeting battery case temperature-related requirements.

Planchat, J. P.; Descroix, J. P.; Sarre, G.

27

Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for high rate extended mission applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effort has been made to develop technology for lithium-thionyl chloride batteries whose emission times will extend beyond 20 min and whose power levels will be in excess of 1800 W, using the requirements for an existing silver-zinc battery's electrical requirements as a baseline. The target design encompasses separate 31- and 76-V sections; the design goal was the reduction of battery weight to 50 percent that of the present silver/zinc cell. A cell has been achieved whose mission can be conducted without container heat losses.

Peabody, Mark; Brown, Robert A.

28

Preexposure and Extinction Effects of Lithium Chloride Induced Taste-Potentiated Aversions for Spatially Contiguous Auditory Food Cues in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taste potentiated illness-induced aversions for noisy food were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats ate from receptacles containing salty food and a contiguous tone produced by speakers under the food followed by lithium chloride injections. In preference tests, the rats then avoided noisy food in favor of quiet food followed by extinction and spontaneous recovery of the auditory aversion over

Stuart R. Ellins; Silvia von Kluge

1987-01-01

29

Comparing immune activation (lipopolysaccharide) and toxin (lithium chloride)-induced gustatory conditioning: lipopolysaccharide produces conditioned taste avoidance but not aversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding and drinking typically involve both appetitive and consummatory behaviors. Appetitive behaviors include those behaviors produced by an animal prior to the actual consumption, such as approach movements, whereas consummatory behaviors (such as licking and chewing) are involved in the actual consumption of food. The present research compared the gustatory conditioning effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lithium chloride (LiCl)

Shelley K. Cross-Mellor; Martin Kavaliers; Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp

2004-01-01

30

Implications of Chloride, Boron, and Lithium in Hydrothermal Systems of Jamaica, WI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chloride (Cl) often termed a "relatively conservative element" served as a very useful tracer (pathfinder element) in fluids from hydrothermal systems by comparing its concentration to those of select ions in solution. The concentrations of major ions of three thermal spring water samples: Bath hot springs (BTHS and BTHN), Milk River (MKR), Windsor (WS) and a cold spring water sample-Salt River spring (SR) of Jamaica were plotted against the Cl concentration. Results of chemical analyses, graphical analyses, and hydrogeochemical modeling confirmed three water types: Na-Cl-SO4, Na-Cl, and Ca-Na-Cl. Whereas chloride concentrations at MKR, WS and SR strongly indicate the influence of sea water mixing, the concentrations at MKR and SR are spatially related to a major tectonic feature, the South Coast Fault Zone (SCFZ). A principal component analysis (PCA) performed for the water samples showed a direct correlation between the concentrations of chloride and other conservative elements: boron (B), lithium (Li), bromide (Br), strontium (Sr), arsenic (As), and cesium (Cs). Isotope results (?18O, ?2H, 3H) of the water samples implied minimal shallow mixing with deep circulating thermal fluids at the Bath site and the predominance of mixing with deep-circulating brines at the WS, MKR, and SR sites. Ionic ratios (Cl/B, Br/Cl, Li/B, have provided further interesting results for these hydrothermal systems including (1) a power series relationship between Li/B and SO4/Cl ratios; (2) the variation of B/Li versus Cl/SO4 concentrations with relatively prolonged water-rock contact time for these waters occurring at depth; and (3) low enthalpy. A discriminant analysis (DA) aided in the delineation of three independent hydrothermal systems based on processes affecting the chemical compositions of the water samples. Calculated chloride convective heat fluxes range between compared to the boron flux range of 3.41 x 104 - 1.63 x 106 Calories/second.

Wishart, D.

2012-12-01

31

Use of submicron carbon filaments in place of carbon black as a porous reduction electrode in lithium batteries with a catholyte comprising bromine chloride in thionyl chloride  

SciTech Connect

Submicron carbon filaments used in place of carbon black as porous reduction electrodes in carbon limited lithium batteries in plate and jellyroll configurations with the BCX (bromine chloride in thionyl chloride) catholyte gave a specific capacity (at 2 V cut-off) of up to 8,700 mAh/g carbon, compared to a value of up to 2,900 mAh/g carbon for carbon black. The high specific capacity per g carbon (demonstrating superior carbon efficiency) for the filament electrode is partly due to the filaments` processability into sheets as thin as 0.2 mm with good porosity and without a binder, and partly due to the high catholyte absorptivity and high rate of catholyte absorption of the filament electrode.

Frysz, C.A. [Wilson Greatbatch, Ltd., Clarence, NY (United States); Shui, X.; Chung, D.D.L. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Composite Materials Research Lab.

1995-12-31

32

Lithium chloride inhibits the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus in cell culture.  

PubMed

The avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a major economic pathogen of domestic poultry that, despite vaccination, causes mortality and significant losses in production. During replication of the RNA genome there is a high frequency of mutation and recombination, which has given rise to many strains of IBV and results in the potential for new and emerging strains. Currently the live-attenuated vaccine gives poor cross-strain immunity. Effective antiviral agents may therefore be advantageous in the treatment of IBV. Lithium chloride (LiCl) is a potent inhibitor of the DNA virus herpes simplex virus but not RNA viruses. The effect of LiCl on the replication of IBV was examined in cell culture using two model cell types; Vero cells, an African Green monkey kidney-derived epithelial cell line; and DF-1 cells, an immortalized chicken embryo fibroblast cell line. When treated with a range of LiCl concentrations, IBV RNA and protein levels and viral progeny production were reduced in a dose-dependent manner in both cell types, and the data indicated that inhibition was a cellular rather than a virucidal effect. Host cell protein synthesis still took place in LiCl-treated cells and the level of a standard cellular housekeeping protein remained unchanged, indicating that the effect of LiCl was specifically against IBV. PMID:17479370

Harrison, Sally M; Tarpey, Ian; Rothwell, Lisa; Kaiser, Pete; Hiscox, Julian A

2007-04-01

33

Reentrant condensation of lysozyme: Implications for studying dynamics of lysozyme in aqueous solutions of lithium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have outlined the use of eutectic solution of lithium chloride in water to study microscopic dynamics of lysozyme in an aqueous solvent that is remarkably similar to pure water in many respects, yet allows experiments over a wide temperature range without the solvent crystallization. The eutectic point in (H2O)R(LiCl) system corresponds to R 7.3, and it is of interest to investigate whether less concentrated aqueous solutions of LiCl could be employed in low-temperature studies of a solvated protein. We have investigated a range of concentrations of lysozyme and LiCl in aqueous solutions to identify systems that do not show phase separation and avoid solvent crystallization on cooling down. Compared to the lysozyme concentration in solution, the concentration of LiCl in the aqueous solvent plays the major role in determining systems suitable for low-temperature studies. We have observed interesting and rich phase behavior reminiscent of reentrant condensation of proteins.

Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL] [ORNL; O'Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

34

Lithium chloride attenuates cell death in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy by perturbing Wnt/?-catenin pathway.  

PubMed

Expansion of polyalanine tracts causes at least nine inherited human diseases. Among these, a polyalanine tract expansion in the poly (A)-binding protein nuclear 1 (expPABPN1) causes oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). So far, there is no treatment for OPMD patients. Developing drugs that efficiently sustain muscle protection by activating key cell survival mechanisms is a major challenge in OPMD research. Proteins that belong to the Wnt family are known for their role in both human development and adult tissue homeostasis. A hallmark of the Wnt signaling pathway is the increased expression of its central effector, beta-catenin (?-catenin) by inhibiting one of its upstream effector, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3?. Here, we explored a pharmacological manipulation of a Wnt signaling pathway using lithium chloride (LiCl), a GSK-3? inhibitor, and observed the enhanced expression of ?-catenin protein as well as the decreased cell death normally observed in an OPMD cell model of murine myoblast (C2C12) expressing the expanded and pathogenic form of the expPABPN1. Furthermore, this effect was also observed in primary cultures of mouse myoblasts expressing expPABPN1. A similar effect on ?-catenin was also observed when lymphoblastoid cells lines (LCLs) derived from OPMD patients were treated with LiCl. We believe manipulation of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway may represent an effective route for the development of future therapy for patients with OPMD. PMID:24091664

Abu-Baker, A; Laganiere, J; Gaudet, R; Rochefort, D; Brais, B; Neri, C; Dion, P A; Rouleau, G A

2013-01-01

35

Activation of Wnt Signaling Using Lithium Chloride: Inquiry-Based Undergraduate Laboratory Exercises  

PubMed Central

Abstract Zebrafish provide researchers and students alike with an excellent model of vertebrate nervous system development due to a high degree of conserved developmental mechanisms and transparent embryos that develop in synchrony. In these laboratory exercises, undergraduate students explore cell biological concepts while performing hypothesis-driven novel research utilizing methodologies such as immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy, image analysis, pharmacology, and basic statistics. In the first block of exercises, students perform anti-acetylated tubulin (anti-AT) immunofluorescence, identify spinal tracts and neuronal subtypes, and perform conventional and confocal microscopy. Building on knowledge acquired in the first block of exercises, during the second block, students subsequently perform pharmacological activation of Wnt signaling through lithium chloride treatments, and assess nervous system integrity through anti-AT immunofluorescence. Students perform various quantitative methods and apply statistics to determine outcomes of Wnt activation. In their final laboratory report, students contextualize their results with foundations of molecular mechanisms of nervous system development. In sum, these exercises offer undergraduate students a model of independent research at the graduate level. PMID:23098089

Ross, Andrew William

2012-01-01

36

Lithium chloride attenuates cell death in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy by perturbing Wnt/?-catenin pathway  

PubMed Central

Expansion of polyalanine tracts causes at least nine inherited human diseases. Among these, a polyalanine tract expansion in the poly (A)-binding protein nuclear 1 (expPABPN1) causes oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). So far, there is no treatment for OPMD patients. Developing drugs that efficiently sustain muscle protection by activating key cell survival mechanisms is a major challenge in OPMD research. Proteins that belong to the Wnt family are known for their role in both human development and adult tissue homeostasis. A hallmark of the Wnt signaling pathway is the increased expression of its central effector, beta-catenin (?-catenin) by inhibiting one of its upstream effector, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3?. Here, we explored a pharmacological manipulation of a Wnt signaling pathway using lithium chloride (LiCl), a GSK-3? inhibitor, and observed the enhanced expression of ?-catenin protein as well as the decreased cell death normally observed in an OPMD cell model of murine myoblast (C2C12) expressing the expanded and pathogenic form of the expPABPN1. Furthermore, this effect was also observed in primary cultures of mouse myoblasts expressing expPABPN1. A similar effect on ?-catenin was also observed when lymphoblastoid cells lines (LCLs) derived from OPMD patients were treated with LiCl. We believe manipulation of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway may represent an effective route for the development of future therapy for patients with OPMD. PMID:24091664

Abu-Baker, A; Laganiere, J; Gaudet, R; Rochefort, D; Brais, B; Neri, C; Dion, P A; Rouleau, G A

2013-01-01

37

Lithium chloride attenuates root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement in rats  

PubMed Central

Root resorption is a common side effect of orthodontic treatment. In the current study, lithium chloride (LiCl), a Wnt signaling activator, was examined to determine its effect on root resorption. In total, 10 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly allocated into the experimental group (EG) and control group (CG). Each group consisted of five subjects. By using closed nickel-titanium coil springs, a 50-g force was applied between the upper incisors and the maxillary right first molars in order to mimic orthodontic biomechanics in the EG and CG for 14 days. During the 14 days, the EG rats were gavage-fed 200 mg/kg LiCl every 48 h. Next, digital radiographs were captured using a micro-computational tomography scanner. The movement of the maxillary first molars and the root resorption area ratio were measured electronically on the digital radiographs. The outcomes were analyzed using ANOVA. Following 14 days of experimental force application, all rats had spaces of varying sizes between the first and second right maxillary molars. The average distance measured in the CG was slightly higher than in the EG, however, the difference was not found to be statistically significant (P=0.224). Root resorption craters were observed in the groups following the experiment. Rough cementum areas were observed on the mesial surface of the distobuccal and distopalatal roots. The mean root resorption area ratio of CG was significantly greater than EG (P<0.05). Results of the present study indicate that LiCl can attenuate orthodontically induce root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. The effect of LiCl on tooth movement is insignificant. PMID:24396427

WANG, YU; GAO, SHANG; JIANG, HUAN; LIN, PENG; BAO, XINGFU; ZHANG, ZHIMIN; HU, MIN

2014-01-01

38

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2012, estimated world lithium consumption was about 28 kt (31,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, an 8 percent increase from that of 2011. Estimated U.S. consumption was about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, the same as that of 2011. The United States was thought to rank fourth in consumption of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Rockwood Lithium Inc., produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

Jaskula, B.W.

2013-01-01

39

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2010, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1 kt (1,100 st) of contained lithium, a 23-percent decrease from 2009. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium. It remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2010, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 21 kt (22,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 12-percent increase from 2009.

Jaskula, B.W.

2011-01-01

40

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2009, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1.2 kt (1,300 st) of contained lithium, a 40-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium, and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2009, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 18.7 kt (20,600 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds.

Jaskula, B.W.

2010-01-01

41

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2011, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 25 kt (25,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 10-percent increase from 2010. U.S. consumption was estimated to have been about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, a 100-percent increase from 2010. The United States was estimated to be the fourth-ranked consumer of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

Jaskula, B.W.

2012-01-01

42

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2005, lithium consumption in the United States was at 2.5 kt of contained lithium, nearly 32% more than the estimate for 2004. World consumption was 14.1 kt of lithium contained in minerals and compounds in 2003. Exports from the US increased slightly compared with 2004. Due to strong demand for lithium compounds in 2005, both lithium carbonate plants in Chile were operating at or near capacity.

Ober, J.A.

2006-01-01

43

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lithium industry can be divided into two sectors: ore concentrate producers and chemical producers. Ore concentrate producers mine lithium minerals. They beneficiate the ores to produce material for use in ceramics and glass manufacturing.

Ober, J.

1998-01-01

44

Involvement of nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in the anticonvulsant effects of lithium chloride on PTZ-induced seizure in mice.  

PubMed

Lithium is still the mainstay in the treatment of affective disorders as a mood stabilizer. Lithium also shows some anticonvulsant properties. While the underlying mechanisms of action of lithium are not yet exactly understood, we used a model of clonic seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male NMRI mice to investigate whether the anticonvulsant effect of lithium is mediated via NO-cGMP pathway. Injection of a single effective dose of lithium chloride (25 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) increased significantly the seizure threshold (P<0.01). The anticonvulsant properties of the effective dose of lithium were prevented by pre-treatment with the per se non-effective doses of L-ARG [the substrate for nitric oxide synthase; NOS] (30 and 50 mg/kg) or sildenafil [a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor] (10 and 20 mg/kg). L-NAME [a non-specific NOS inhibitor] (5, 15 and 30 mg/kg), 7-NI [a specific neural NOS inhibitor] (30 and 60 mg/kg) or MB [a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor] (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) augmented the anticonvulsant effect of a sub-effective dose of lithium (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Whereas several doses of aminoguanidine [an inducible NOS inhibitor] (20, 50 and 100 mg/kg) failed to alter the anticonvulsant effect of lithium. Our findings demonstrated that nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway could be involved in the anticonvulsant properties of the lithium chloride. In addition, the role of constitutive NOS versus inducible NOS is prominent in this phenomenon. PMID:20304610

Bahremand, Arash; Nasrabady, Sara Ebrahimi; Ziai, Pouya; Rahimian, Reza; Hedayat, Tina; Payandemehr, Borna; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

2010-05-01

45

Lithium Chloride Enhances Cathepsin H Expression and BMP-4 Degradation in C3H10T1/2 Cells  

PubMed Central

The effect of canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling on chondrogenic differentiation induced by transfection of BMP4 expressing plasmid was analyzed. Lithium chloride (LiCl) which mimics canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling was added to cells transfected with BMP4 expressing plasmid. Although BMP4 mRNA expression was not affected by LiCl, LiCl decreased BMP4 protein accumulation. Gene expression analysis exhibited upregulation of cathepsin H by LiCl treatment. Gene silencing of cathepsin H enhanced BMP4 protein accumulation from BMP4 expressing cells. These results suggested that cathepsin H is regulated by Wnt/?-catenin signaling and plays an important role in the regulation of BMP4 biological activity. PMID:24312905

Kishimoto, Koshi N.; Itoi, Eiji

2013-01-01

46

Preexposure and extinction effects of lithium chloride induced taste-potentiated aversions for spatially contiguous auditory food cues in rats.  

PubMed

Taste potentiated illness-induced aversions for noisy food were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats ate from receptacles containing salty food and a contiguous tone produced by speakers under the food followed by lithium chloride injections. In preference tests, the rats then avoided noisy food in favor of quiet food followed by extinction and spontaneous recovery of the auditory aversion over repeated nonreinforced trials. Other rats were given either 4 or 10 days of exposure to the noisy food prior to taste-toxicosis treatment. None of these rats subsequently avoided noisy food. The importance of spatial contiguity and methodological variation in associating nongustatory food cues with illness is discussed. PMID:3034302

Ellins, S R; von Kluge, S

1987-04-01

47

Radiation and phase change of lithium fluoride in an annulus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one-dimensional thermal model is developed to evaluate the effect of radiation on the phase change of lithium-fluoride (LiF) in an annular canister under gravitational and microgravitational conditions. Specified heat flux at the outer wall of the canister models focused solar flux; adiabatic and convective conditions are considered for the inner wall. A two-band radiation model is used for the combined-mode heat transfer within the canister, and LiF optical properties relate metal surface properties in vacuum to those in LiF. For axial gravitational conditions, the liquid LiF remains in contact with the two bounding walls, whereas a void gap is used at the outer wall to model possible microgravitational conditions. For the adiabatic cases, exact integrals are obtained for the time required for complete melting of the LiF. Melting was found to occur primarily from the outer wall in the 1-g model, whereas it occurred primarily from the inner wall in the mu-g model. For the convective cases, partially melted steady-state conditions and fully melted conditions are determined to depend on the source flux level, with radiation extending the melting times.

Lund, Kurt O.

1993-01-01

48

Radiation hardness of the storage phosphor europium doped potassium chloride for radiation therapy dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: An important property of a reusable dosimeter is its radiation hardness, that is, its ability to retain its dosimetric merits after irradiation. The radiation hardness of europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu{sup 2+}), a storage phosphor material recently proposed for radiation therapy dosimetry, is examined in this study. Methods: Pellet-style KCl:Eu{sup 2+} dosimeters, 6 mm in diameter, and 1 mm thick, were fabricated in-house for this study. The pellets were exposed by a 6 MV photon beam or in a high dose rate {sup 137}Cs irradiator. Macroscopic properties, such as radiation sensitivity, dose response linearity, and signal stability, were studied with a laboratory photostimulated luminescence (PSL) readout system. Since phosphor performance is related to the state of the storage centers and the activator, Eu{sup 2+}, in the host lattice, spectroscopic and temporal measurements were carried out in order to explore radiation-induced changes at the microscopic level. Results: KCl:Eu{sup 2+} dosimeters retained approximately 90% of their initial signal strength after a 5000 Gy dose history. Dose response was initially supralinear over the dose range of 100-700 cGy but became linear after 60 Gy. Linearity did not change significantly in the 0-5000 Gy dose history spanned in this study. Annealing high dose history chips resulted in a return of supralinearity and a recovery of sensitivity. There were no significant changes in the PSL stimulation spectra, PSL emission spectra, photoluminescence spectra, or luminescence lifetime, indicating that the PSL signal process remains intact after irradiation but at a reduced efficiency due to reparable radiation-induced perturbations in the crystal lattice. Conclusions: Systematic studies of KCl:Eu{sup 2+} material are important for understanding how the material can be optimized for radiation therapy dosimetry purposes. The data presented here indicate that KCl:Eu{sup 2+} exhibits strong radiation hardness and lends support for further investigations of this novel material.

Driewer, Joseph P.; Chen, Haijian; Osvet, Andres; Low, Daniel A.; Li, H. Harold [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 and Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, E4431 Lafferre Hall, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstrasse 7, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

2011-08-15

49

The 250AH/90A active lithium-thionyl chloride cell for Centaur-G application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high rate active Li/SOCl2 cell was designed for use in a 28 volt, 250 amp-hour space battery system. The lithium battery is being considered as a replacement of its heavier silver-zinc counterpart on board the Centaur-G booster rocket which is used to launch payloads from the Space Shuttle cargo bay into deep-space. Basically a feasibility study, this development effort is demonstrating the ability of the lithium cell to deliver up to 90 amps safely at power densities of approximately 25 watts per pound. Test data on 4 prototype units is showing an energy density of 85 watt-hours per pound and 9.0 watt-hours/cu in. The cells tested typically delivered 280 to 300 amp-hours under ambient temperature test conditions using alternating continuous loads of 90, 55, and 20 amperes throughout life. Data from four cells tested are presented to demonstrate the capability of Li/SOCl2 technology for a C/3 discharge rate in active and hermetic cell units.

Zolla, A. E.; Tura, D. D.

1987-09-01

50

Structure and neutron imaging characteristics of lithium borate barium chloride glass-ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A glass-ceramic has been developed which can be used as a thermal neutron imaging plate (NIP) for neutron radiography. The plate consists of nanocrystallites of the storage phosphor BaCl 2:Eu 2+ embedded within a neutron sensitive lithium borate glass-matrix. Details of their preparation and structure are discussed. Neutron images were read out using a Fuji BAS2500 imaging plate scanner and the quality of the images obtained is comparable to those recorded on a commercial NIP. Details of the response to neutron and X-irradiation as well as the obtained spatial resolution of the images are presented. The neutron activation of the materials studied is also calculated.

Appleby, G. A.; Edgar, A.; Williams, G. V. M.; Vontobel, P.

2006-08-01

51

Effects of heavy particle irradiation and diet on amphetamine- and lithium chloride-induced taste avoidance learning in rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rats were maintained on diets containing either 2% blueberry or strawberry extract or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to 1.5 Gy of 56Fe particles in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Three days following irradiation, the rats were tested for the effects of irradiation on the acquisition of an amphetamine- or lithium chloride-induced (LiCl) conditioned taste avoidance (CTA). The rats maintained on the control diet failed to show the acquisition of a CTA following injection of amphetamine. In contrast, the rats maintained on antioxidant diets (strawberry or blueberry extract) continued to show the development of an amphetamine-induced CTA following exposure to 56Fe particles. Neither irradiation nor diet had an effect on the acquisition of a LiCl-induced CTA. The results are interpreted as indicating that oxidative stress following exposure to 56Fe particles may be responsible for the disruption of the dopamine-mediated amphetamine-induced CTA in rats fed control diets; and that a reduction in oxidative stress produced by the antioxidant diets functions to reinstate the dopamine-mediated CTA. The failure of either irradiation or diet to influence LiCl-induced responding suggests that oxidative stress may not be involved in CTA learning following injection of LiCl.

Rabin, Bernard M.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Szprengiel, Aleksandra; Joseph, James A.

2002-01-01

52

A potentiodynamic study of aluminum-lithium alloys in an aqueous sodium chloride environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of the potentiodynamic curves for Al-Li alloys in 3.5 percent NaCl aqueous solution are explained and the electrochemical parameters of the potentiodynamic technique are correlated to observed pitting and intergranular cracking behavior. It is shown that the oxygen content of the sodium chloride electrolyte plays an important role in the electrochemical behavior of Al-Li alloys. The potentiodynamic behavior of the alloys is found to be insensitive to variation in compositional content and heat treatment, both of which affect the stress-corrosion behavior. Stringer oxide particle attack and random pitting are observed. It is shown that alternate-immersion exposure prior to potentiodynamic polarization may offer a means of assessing susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking.

Tsao, C.-H. T.; Pizzo, P. P.

1985-01-01

53

Radiation Grafting of Acrylonitrile onto Polyester Fiber as the Reinforcing Filler for Poly (Vinyl Chloride).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies have been carried out on radiation-induced grafting of acrylonitrile onto polyester fiber and on the properties of the grafted fiber in an attempt to increase the strength of polyester fiber reinforced soft poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) sheet by imp...

K. Kaji, I. Ando

1985-01-01

54

BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Green-emitting mercury chloride laser pumped by wide-band optical radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description is given of the first photodissociation laser utilizing the B-X electronic transition in mercury chloride (? = 558, 559 nm). Wide-band optical radiation (representing thermal radiation of a plasma) was used to pump HgCl2 vapor. The energy of the laser output pulses reached 2.1 J and the duration was 7.6?sec. The laser efficiency, relative to the stored energy, was 0.1%.

Bazhulin, S. P.; Basov, N. G.; Bugrimov, S. N.; Zuev, V. S.; Kamrukov, A. S.; Kashnikov, G. N.; Kozlov, N. P.; Ovchinnikov, P. A.; Opekan, A. G.; Orlov, V. K.; Protasov, Yu S.

1986-06-01

55

Effect of lithium chloride on the production and sialylation of Fc-fusion protein in Chinese hamster ovary cell culture.  

PubMed

Lithium chloride (LiCl), which is a specific inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3?, is known to induce cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and to regulate apoptosis. To determine the potential of LiCl as a chemical additive to enhance specific productivity (q p) of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells through cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, rCHO cells producing Fc-fusion protein were cultivated in serum-free media with LiCl concentrations ranging from 0 to 20 mM. The addition of LiCl induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and thereby decreased the specific cell growth rate. However, LiCl increased q p in a dose-dependent manner. The beneficial effect of LiCl on q p outweighed its detrimental effect on ?, resulting in improved maximum Fc-fusion protein concentration (MFPC) at 10 mM LiCl. The q p and MFPC in the bioreactor culture with 10 mM LiCl were 5.0 and 2.1 times higher than those without LiCl, respectively. In addition, the presence of LiCl at 10 mM did not significantly affect either intracellular ?2,3-ST or extracellular sialidase activity. LiCl also inhibited apoptosis of cells in the decline phase of growth by increasing Bcl-2 expression. Taken together, the results obtained in this study demonstrate the potential of LiCl as a q p-enhancing additive in CHO cell culture for improved recombinant protein production. PMID:25132065

Ha, Tae Kwang; Kim, Yeon-Gu; Lee, Gyun Min

2014-11-01

56

Ab initio MRSDCI study on the low-lying electronic states of the lithium chloride molecule (LiCl)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential energy curves (PECs) for the low-lying states of the lithium chloride molecule (LiCl) have been calculated using the internally contracted multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) method with the aug-cc-PVnZ (AVnZ) and aug-cc-PCVnZ (ACVnZ) basis sets, where n = T, Q, and 5. First, we calculate PECs for 7 spin-orbit (SO)-free ?-S states, X1?+, A1?+, 3?+, 1?, and 3?, and then obtain PECs for 13 SO ? states, X0+, A0+, B0+, 0-(I), 0-(II), 1(I), 1(II), 1(III), and 2, by diagonalizing the matrix of the electronic Hamiltonian plus the Breit-Pauli SO Hamiltonian. The MRSDCI calculations not including core orbital correlation through the single and double excitations are also performed with the AV5Z and ACV5Z basis sets. The Davidson corrections (Q0) are added to both the ?-S and ? state energies. Vibrational eigenstates for the obtained X1?+ and X0+ PECs are calculated by solving the time-independent Schrödinger equation with the grid method. Thus, the effects of basis set, core orbital correlation, and the Davidson correction on the X1?+ and X0+ PECs of LiCl are investigated by comparing the spectroscopic constants calculated from the PECs with one another and with experiment. It is confirmed that to accurately predict the spectroscopic constants we need to include core-electron correlation in the CI expansion and use the basis sets designed to describe core-valence correlation, i.e., ACVnZ. The SO PECs presented in this paper will be of help in the future study of diatomic alkali halide dynamics.

Kurosaki, Yuzuru; Yokoyama, Keiichi

2012-08-01

57

Ab initio MRSDCI study on the low-lying electronic states of the lithium chloride molecule (LiCl).  

PubMed

Potential energy curves (PECs) for the low-lying states of the lithium chloride molecule (LiCl) have been calculated using the internally contracted multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) method with the aug-cc-PVnZ (AVnZ) and aug-cc-PCVnZ (ACVnZ) basis sets, where n = T, Q, and 5. First, we calculate PECs for 7 spin-orbit (SO)-free ?-S states, X(1)?(+), A(1)?(+), (3)?(+), (1)?, and (3)?, and then obtain PECs for 13 SO ? states, X0(+), A0(+), B0(+), 0(-)(I), 0(-)(II), 1(I), 1(II), 1(III), and 2, by diagonalizing the matrix of the electronic Hamiltonian plus the Breit-Pauli SO Hamiltonian. The MRSDCI calculations not including core orbital correlation through the single and double excitations are also performed with the AV5Z and ACV5Z basis sets. The Davidson corrections (Q0) are added to both the ?-S and ? state energies. Vibrational eigenstates for the obtained X(1)?(+) and X0(+) PECs are calculated by solving the time-independent Schro?dinger equation with the grid method. Thus, the effects of basis set, core orbital correlation, and the Davidson correction on the X(1)?(+) and X0(+) PECs of LiCl are investigated by comparing the spectroscopic constants calculated from the PECs with one another and with experiment. It is confirmed that to accurately predict the spectroscopic constants we need to include core-electron correlation in the CI expansion and use the basis sets designed to describe core-valence correlation, i.e., ACVnZ. The SO PECs presented in this paper will be of help in the future study of diatomic alkali halide dynamics. PMID:22897271

Kurosaki, Yuzuru; Yokoyama, Keiichi

2012-08-14

58

A comparison between taste avoidance and conditioned disgust reactions induced by ethanol and lithium chloride in preweanling rats  

PubMed Central

Adult rats display taste avoidance and disgust reactions when stimulated with gustatory stimuli previously paired with aversive agents such as lithium chloride (LiCl). By the second postnatal week of life, preweanling rats also display specific behaviors in response to a tastant conditioned stimulus (CS) that predicts LiCl-induced malaise. The present study compared conditioned disgust reactions induced by LiCl or ethanol (EtOH) in preweanling rats. In Experiment 1 we determined doses of ethanol and LiCl that exert similar levels of conditioned taste avoidance. After having equated drug dosage in terms of conditioned taste avoidance, 13-Day old rats were given a single pairing of a novel taste (saccharin) and either LiCl or ethanol (2.5 g/kg; Experiment 2). Saccharin intake and emission of disgust reactions were assessed 24 and 48 hours after training. Pups given paired presentations of saccharin and the aversive agents (ethanol or LiCl) consumed less saccharin during the first testing Day than controls. These pups also showed more aversive behavioral reactions to the gustatory CS than controls. Specifically, increased amounts of grooming, general activity, head shaking and wall climbing as well as reduced mouthing were observed in response to the CS. Conditioned aversive reactions but not taste avoidance were still evident on the second testing Day. In conclusion, a taste CS paired with post-absorptive effects of EtOH and LiCl elicited a similar pattern of conditioned rejection reactions in preweanling rats. These results suggest that similar mechanisms may be underlying CTAs induced by LiCl and a relatively high EtOH dose. PMID:20806327

Arias, Carlos; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Molina, Juan Carlos; Spear, Norman E.

2011-01-01

59

1,4-Addition of Lithium Diisopropylamide to Unsaturated Esters: Role of Rate-Limiting Deaggregation, Autocatalysis, Lithium Chloride Catalysis and Other Mixed Aggregation Effects  

PubMed Central

Lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in tetrahydrofuran at ?78 °C undergoes 1,4-addition to an unsaturated ester via a rate-limiting deaggregation of LDA dimer followed by a post-rate-limiting reaction with the substrate. Muted autocatalysis is traced to a lithium enolate-mediated deaggregation of the LDA dimer and the intervention of LDA-lithium enolate mixed aggregates displaying higher reactivities than LDA. Striking accelerations are elicited by <1.0 mol % LiCl. Rate and mechanistic studies reveal that the uncatalyzed and catalyzed pathways funnel through a common monosolvated-monomer-based intermediate. Four distinct classes of mixed aggregation effects are discussed. PMID:20961095

Ma, Yun; Hoepker, Alexander C.; Gupta, Lekha; Faggin, Marc F.; Collum, David B.

2010-01-01

60

Photoassociation intensities and radiative trap loss in lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

We interpret measurements of photoassociative spectroscopy in a gas of lithium atoms at ultralow temperatures in which photons are absorbed into high vibrational levels of excited electronic singlet and triplet states of Li2. The excited vibrational levels decay by spontaneous emission into the vibrational continuum and the discrete vibrational levels of the ground singlet and lowest triplet electronic states. Spontaneous

R. Côté; A. Dalgarno

1998-01-01

61

Study of interaction among silicon, lithium, oxygen and radiation-induced defects for radiation-hardened solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to improve reliability and the useful lifetime of solar cell arrays for space use, a program was undertaken to develop radiation-hardened lithium-doped silicon solar cells. These cells were shown to be significantly more resistant to degradation by ionized particles than the presently used n-p nonlithium-doped silicon solar cells. The results of various analyses performed to develop a more complete understanding of the physics of the interaction among lithium, silicon, oxygen, and radiation-induced defects are presented. A discussion is given of those portions of the previous model of radiation damage annealing which were found to be in error and those portions which were upheld by these extensive investigations.

Berman, P. A.

1973-01-01

62

Lithium ion conducting electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group

C. A. Angell; C. Liu

1996-01-01

63

Lithium niobate bulk crystallization promoted by CO2 laser radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystallization induced by laser radiation is a very promising technique to promote glass/ceramic transformation, being already used to produce crystalline patterns on glass surfaces. In this work, a SiO2-Li2O-Nb2O5 glass, prepared by the sol-gel route, was submitted to CO2 laser radiation and conventional heat-treatments in order to induce the LiNbO3 crystallization. The structure and morphology of the samples prepared by both routes was analyzed as a function of exposure time, radiation power and heat-treatment temperatures by XRD, Raman spectroscopy and SEM. The results reveal a correlation between the crystallization degree of LiNbO3 particles and glass matrix with the heat treatment type and experimental parameters. An heat-treatment at 650 °C/4 h was necessary to induce crystallization in heat treatments samples while 4 W/500 s was enough for laser radiation ones, corresponding a reduction time processing of ˜14 000 s.

Ferreira, N. M.; Costa, F. M.; Nogueira, R. N.; Graça, M. P. F.

2012-09-01

64

Radiation-induced grafting of diallyldimethylammonium chloride onto acrylic acid grafted polyethylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC) was grafted onto polyethylene (PE) films by a double grafting procedure. The PE film was initially modified by grafting acrylic acid (AA), through a mutual irradiation method. AA-g-PE film, thus obtained was subjected to subsequent radiation grafting reaction of DADMAC, to give a DADMAC-g-AA-g-PE film having a comb-type structure. The influence of different conditions, such as the extent of AA grafting, DADMAC concentration, absorbed dose and dose rate, on the grafting yield of DADMAC was investigated. A maximum DADMAC grafting of 30% was achieved. The equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) of the grafted films were gravimetrically determined. TGA and FT-IR techniques were employed to characterize the grafted PE films.

Francis, Sanju; Dhanawade, B. R.; Mitra, D.; Varshney, Lalit; Sabharwal, Sunil

2009-01-01

65

Radiation-damage-assisted ferroelectric domain structuring in magnesium-doped lithium niobate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation of 5% magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals (LiNbO3:Mg) with high-energy, low-mass 3He ions, which are transmitted through the crystal, changes the domain reversal properties of the material. This enables easier domain engineering compared to non-irradiated material and assists the formation of small-sized periodically poled domains in LiNbO3:Mg. Periodic domain structures exhibiting a width of ?520 nm are obtained in radiation-damaged sections of the crystals. The ferroelectric poling behavior between irradiated and non-treated material is compared.

Jentjens, L.; Peithmann, K.; Maier, K.; Steigerwald, H.; Jungk, T.

2009-06-01

66

Leading E1 and M1 contributions to radiative neutron capture on lithium-7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a model-independent calculation of the radiative neutron capture on lithium-7 over an energy range where the contribution from the 3+ resonance becomes important by using halo effective field theory. We describe how the couplings in the EFT Lagrangian are constrained from available data on low-lying bound and resonance states. We also present power counting arguments that establish a hierarchy for electromagnetic one- and two-body currents. Our model independent results quantify the current uncertainties in nuclear theory in the single particle approximation.

Fernando, Lakma; Higa, Renato; Rupak, Gautam

2012-10-01

67

Depopulation of metastable helium He(21S) by radiative association with hydrogen and lithium cations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depopulation of metastable He(21S) by radiative association with hydrogen and lithium ions resulting in the formation of the HeH+ and HeLi+ molecular ions is investigated. Energy dependent cross-sections for spontaneous and stimulated processes on the spin-singlet manifold are calculated using a fully quantal approach and considering the association to rotational-vibrational states of the lowest singlet electronic states X?+1, A?+1, and B?+1 from the continuum states of the B?+1 electronic state. Evaluation of the cross-sections is based on highly accurate quantum calculations taking into account all possible state-to-state transitions at thermal energies (for spontaneous association) or at higher background temperatures (stimulated association). The corresponding rate coefficients are then presented as functions of temperature. As expected calculations show that the rate coefficients for radiative association to the X and A states are several orders of magnitude larger than the one for the B state formation. On the other hand, stimulation of the radiative association by black-body background radiation has a noticeable effect only on the B?B process.

Augustovi?ová, Lucie; Kraemer, Wolfgang P.; Soldán, Pavel

2014-11-01

68

Lithium ion conducting electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of

C. Austen Angell; Changle Liu

1996-01-01

69

Structuring of material parameters in lithium niobate crystals with low-mass, high-energy ion radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferroelectric lithium niobate crystals offer a great potential for applications in modern optics. To provide powerful optical components, tailoring of key material parameters, especially of the refractive index n and the ferroelectric domain landscape, is required. Irradiation of lithium niobate crystals with accelerated ions causes strong structured modifications in the material. The effects induced by low-mass, high-energy ions (such as 3He with 41 MeV, which are not implanted, but transmit through the entire crystal volume) are reviewed. Irradiation yields large changes of the refractive index ?n, improved domain engineering capability within the material along the ion track, and waveguiding structures. The periodic modification of ?n as well as the formation of periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) (supported by radiation damage) is described. Two-step knock-on displacement processes, 3He?Nb and 3He?O causing thermal spikes, are identified as origin for the material modifications.

Peithmann, K.; Eversheim, P.-D.; Goetze, J.; Haaks, M.; Hattermann, H.; Haubrich, S.; Hinterberger, F.; Jentjens, L.; Mader, W.; Raeth, N. L.; Schmid, H.; Zamani-Meymian, M.-R.; Maier, K.

2011-10-01

70

A mechanism for large divertor plasma energy loss via lithium radiation in tokamaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium has been used as a wall-conditioning element in a number of tokamaks over the years, including TFTR, FTU, and NSTX, where core plasma energy confinement and particle control are often found to improve following such conditioning. Here the possible role of Li in providing substantial energy loss for divertor plasmas via line radiation is reported. A multi-charge-state 2D UEDGE fluid model is used where the hydrogenic and Li ions and neutrals are each evolved as separate species and separate equations are solved for the electron and ion temperatures. It is shown that a sufficient level of Li neutrals evolving from the divertor surface via sputtering or evaporation can induce energy detachment of the divertor plasma, yielding a strongly radiating zone near the divertor where ionization and recombination from/to neutral Li can radiate most of the power flowing into the scrape-off layer while maintaining low core contamination. A local peaking of Li emissivity for electron temperatures near 1 eV appears to play an important role in the detachment of the mixed deuterium/Li plasma. Evidence of such behavior from NSTX discharges will be discussed.

Rognlien, T. D.; Meier, E. T.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

2012-10-01

71

A statistical approach to domain performance modeling for oxyhalide primary lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium batteries have emerged as the power source of choice for a large number of commercial and medical applications. Commercially important lithium battery chemistries include lithium\\/iodine, lithium silver vanadium oxide, lithium\\/carbon monofluoride, lithium\\/sulfuryl chloride with chlorine, and lithium\\/thionyl chloride. The ability to accurately estimate the discharge performance of a cell is a paramount consideration in cell selection. Here, the authors

Kenneth C. Syracuse; William D. K. Clark

1997-01-01

72

Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the generation of broadband terahertz (THz) pulses using Cherenkov-type generation in magnesium oxide-doped lithium niobate (MgO:LN). The efficiency of the output coupling process of THz radiation at higher frequencies into free space is considerably increased by the use of a properly cut silicon prism. The achieved spectrum is broader compared to the normal Cherenkov-cut geometry. Due to

M. Theuer; G. Torosyan; C. Rau; R. Beigang; K. Maki; C. Otani; K. Kawase

2006-01-01

73

Synthesis of high-molecular-weight polymer of methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate by radiation-induced polymerization at high pressure. [Gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

Polymer of the methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and its copolymer with acrylamide are used as cationic flocculants for the treatment of waste water containing organic suspensions. As reported, radiation-induced polymerization is one of the most convenient methods because of its temperature independence of initiation and extremely large G-value. In general, a flocculant with higher molecular weight has larger flocculation effects. The high-molecular-weight products were prepared in high monomer concentration and a low dose rate. This paper concerns the polymerization and copolymerization of methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate at high pressure, up to 7000 kg/cm/sup 2/, providing high-molecular-weight cationic flocculants.

Ishigaki, I.; Okada, T.; Sasuga, T.; Takehisa, M.; Machi, S.

1981-02-01

74

Generation of activated carbon nanofibers from electrospun polyacrylonitrile-zinc chloride composites for use as anodes in lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with large surface areas and small pores were prepared by electrospinning and subsequent thermal and chemical treatments. These activated CNFs were examined as anodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) without adding any non-active material. Their electrochemical behaviors show improved lithium-ion storage capability and better cyclic stability compared with unactivated counterparts. The results demonstrate that the unique structures

Liwen Ji; Xiangwu Zhang

2009-01-01

75

Lithium cell test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three lithium SO2 cells, two lithium CF cells, and a vinyl chloride cell, all with crimped seals, and all strictly experimental, were independently discharged on resistors. Three temperatures were used and several different storage temperatures. Discharge rate generally on the nominal discharges were 0.1 amp, 0.5 amp, and 1 amp. Tests results show that the crimp seals are inadequate, especially for the SO2 cells. Normal discharges present no hazards. All cells discharge to zero. The problem of lithium cell explosions, such as occurred during off-limits testing, is discussed.

Bragg, B. J.

1977-01-01

76

LITHIUM--2002 46.1 By Joyce A. Ober  

E-print Network

LITHIUM--2002 46.1 LITHIUM By Joyce A. Ober Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Maria agreement with SQM would be more economical than continuing to produce lithium carbonate from its own operation in Argentina that began production in 1997 (FMC Corp., 2001, p. 25). FMC produced lithium chloride

77

Strontium-89 Chloride  

MedlinePLUS

Your doctor has ordered the drug strontium-89 chloride to help treat your illness. The drug is given by injection into a vein or a catheter that ... Strontium-89 chloride is in a class of drugs known as radioisotopes. It delivers radiation to cancer ...

78

Optical spectroscopy and microscopy of radiation-induced light-emitting point defects in lithium fluoride crystals and films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broad-band light-emitting radiation-induced F2 and F3+ electronic point defects, which are stable and laser-active at room temperature in lithium fluoride crystals and films, are used in dosimeters, tuneable color-center lasers, broad-band miniaturized light sources and novel radiation imaging detectors. A brief review of their photoemission properties is presented, and their behavior at liquid nitrogen temperatures is discussed. Some experimental data from optical spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy of these radiation-induced point defects in LiF crystals and thin films are used to obtain information about the coloration curves, the efficiency of point defect formation, the effects of photo-bleaching processes, etc. Control of the local formation, stabilization, and transformation of radiation-induced light-emitting defect centers is crucial for the development of optically active micro-components and nanostructures. Some of the advantages of low temperature measurements for novel confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy techniques, widely used for spatial mapping of these point defects through the optical reading of their visible photoluminescence, are highlighted.

Montereali, R. M.; Bonfigli, F.; Menchini, F.; Vincenti, M. A.

2012-08-01

79

Radiation-induced grafting of vinylbenzyl chloride onto a poly(ether ether ketone) film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the effects of various irradiation conditions including solvent, monomer concentration, total dose, and dose rate on the radiation grafting of a VBC monomer onto a PEEK aromatic hydrocarbon film for the preparation of a PVBC-grafted PEEK (PEEK-g-PVBC) film were investigated. The results show that the desired PVBC-grafted PEEK film can be prepared using a simultaneous irradiation grafting method, and that the degree of grafting (DOG) of the film is largely influenced by the irradiation conditions. Among the applied solvents, halogenated solvents, dichloromethane and chloroform, were found to be suitable for grafting. The successful preparation of the grafted film was confirmed using analytical instruments such as FT-IR, TGA, and SEM-EDX.

Hwang, Mi-Lim; Song, Ju-Myung; Ko, Beom-Seok; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Nho, Young-Chang; Shin, Junhwa

2012-06-01

80

Refractive index changes in lithium niobate crystals by high-energy particle radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation of lithium niobate crystals with 41 MeV 3He ions causes strong changes of the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indexes. We present a detailed study of this effect. Small fluence of irradiation already yields refractive index changes about 5×10-4; the highest values reach 3×10-3. These index modulations are stable up to 100°C and can be erased thermally, for which temperatures up to 500°C are required. A direct correlation between the refractive index changes and the produced lattice vacancies is found.

Peithmann, Konrad; Zamani-Meymian, Mohammad-Reza; Haaks, Matz; Maier, Karl; Andreas, Birk; Breunig, Ingo

2006-10-01

81

Fabrication of embedded waveguides in lithium-niobate crystals by radiation damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation of lithium-niobate crystals (LiNbO3) with fast, high-energy 3He ions changes the refractive index in the interaction region where the ions speed through the material. Thus an inhomogeneous flux density profile can be used for a tailored modification of the optical properties of LiNbO3 crystals, without employing ion implantation. A new method to fabricate embedded, polarization sensitive channel waveguides in LiNbO3 utilizing accelerated 3He ions with an energy of 40 MeV is demonstrated.

Peithmann, K.; Zamani-Meymian, M.-R.; Haaks, M.; Maier, K.; Andreas, B.; Buse, K.; Modrow, H.

2006-03-01

82

Refractive index changes in lithium niobate crystals by high-energy particle radiation  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation of lithium niobate crystals with 41 MeV {sup 3}He ions causes strong changes of the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indexes. We present a detailed study of this effect. Small fluence of irradiation already yields refractive index changes about 5x10{sup -4}; the highest values reach 3x10{sup -3}. These index modulations are stable up to 100 degree sign C and can be erased thermally, for which temperatures up to 500 degree sign C are required. A direct correlation between the refractive index changes and the produced lattice vacancies is found.

Peithmann, Konrad; Zamani-Meymian, Mohammad-Reza; Haaks, Matz; Maier, Karl; Andreas, Birk; Breunig, Ingo [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Wegelerstrasse 8, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

2006-10-15

83

Cesium Chloride  

MedlinePLUS

... tachycardia after alternative treatment with cesium chloride for brain cancer. Mayo Clin Proc . 2004:79(8);1065-1069. ... Zero efficacy with cesium chloride self-treatment for brain cancer. Mayo Clin Proc. 2004;79:1588. Sartori HE. ...

84

Suppression of lithium chloride-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats (using the taste reactivity test) with metoclopramide is enhanced by cannabidiolic acid.  

PubMed

We aimed to determine the potential of various doses of metoclopramide (MCP, a dopamine antagonist) to reduce lithium chloride (LiCl)-induced conditioned gaping (a nausea-induced behaviour) in rats, using the taste reactivity test. We then evaluated whether an ineffective low dose of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA, 0.1 ?g/kg, Rock and Parker, 2013), the potent acidic precursor of cannabidiol (CBD, a non-psychoactive component of cannabis) could enhance the anti-nausea effects of an ineffective low dose of MCP. MCP (3.0 mg/kg) reduced conditioned gaping responses. Coadministration of ineffective doses of MCP (0.3 mg/kg) and CBDA (0.1 ?g/kg) enhanced the suppression of conditioned gaping, over that of either drug alone, without interfering with conditioned taste avoidance. MCP dose-dependently reduced nausea-induced conditioned gaping in rats. As well, the suppression of conditioned gaping was enhanced when ineffective doses of MCP and CBDA were coadministered. These data suggest that CBDA could be a powerful adjunct treatment to anti-emetic regimens for chemotherapy-induced nausea. PMID:24012649

Rock, E M; Parker, L A

2013-10-01

85

Radiation synthesis and characteristic of IPN hydrogels composed of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and Kappa-Carrageenan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new system of IPN hydrogels composed of diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC) and natural macromolecule, Kappa-Carrageenan (KC) were prepared by ?-irradiation. Their gel fraction and swelling behavior were studied. Elemental analysis and gel strength measurement results showed that there was an amount of KC that remained in the gels and the gel strength was enhanced obviously.

Jing, Ren; Yanqun, Zhang; Jiuqiang, Li; Hongfei, Ha

2001-09-01

86

Characterization of electrode materials for lithium ion and sodium ion batteries using synchrotron radiation techniques.  

PubMed

Intercalation compounds such as transition metal oxides or phosphates are the most commonly used electrode materials in Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. During insertion or removal of alkali metal ions, the redox states of transition metals in the compounds change and structural transformations such as phase transitions and/or lattice parameter increases or decreases occur. These behaviors in turn determine important characteristics of the batteries such as the potential profiles, rate capabilities, and cycle lives. The extremely bright and tunable x-rays produced by synchrotron radiation allow rapid acquisition of high-resolution data that provide information about these processes. Transformations in the bulk materials, such as phase transitions, can be directly observed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), while X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) gives information about the local electronic and geometric structures (e.g. changes in redox states and bond lengths). In situ experiments carried out on operating cells are particularly useful because they allow direct correlation between the electrochemical and structural properties of the materials. These experiments are time-consuming and can be challenging to design due to the reactivity and air-sensitivity of the alkali metal anodes used in the half-cell configurations, and/or the possibility of signal interference from other cell components and hardware. For these reasons, it is appropriate to carry out ex situ experiments (e.g. on electrodes harvested from partially charged or cycled cells) in some cases. Here, we present detailed protocols for the preparation of both ex situ and in situ samples for experiments involving synchrotron radiation and demonstrate how these experiments are done. PMID:24300777

Doeff, Marca M; Chen, Guoying; Cabana, Jordi; Richardson, Thomas J; Mehta, Apurva; Shirpour, Mona; Duncan, Hugues; Kim, Chunjoong; Kam, Kinson C; Conry, Thomas

2013-01-01

87

Ionization of nS, nP, and nD lithium, potassium, and cesium Rydberg atoms by blackbody radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of theoretical calculations of the blackbody ionization rates of lithium, potassium, and cesium atoms residing in Rydberg states are presented. The calculations are performed for nS, nP, and nD states in a wide range of principal quantum numbers, n = 8-65, for blackbody radiation temperatures T = 77, 300, and 600 K. The calculations are performed using the known quasi-classical formulas for the photoionization cross sections and for the radial matrix elements of transitions in the discrete spectrum. The effect of the blackbody-radiation-induced population redistribution between Rydberg states on the blackbody ionization rates measured under laboratory conditions is quantitatively analyzed. Simple analytical formulas that approximate the numerical results and that can be used to estimate the blackbody ionization rates of Rydberg atoms are presented. For the S series of lithium, the rate of population of high-lying Rydberg levels by blackbody radiation is found to anomalously behave as a function of n. This anomaly is similar to the occurrence of the Cooper minimum in the discrete spectrum.

Beterov, I. I.; Ryabtsev, I. I.; Tretyakov, D. B.; Bezuglov, N. N.; Ékers, A.

2008-07-01

88

Line radiation of cesium and lithium evaporation in a hypersonic flow around a cone  

SciTech Connect

An experimental technique is developed for studying the radiation that arises when the products of the destruction of indicator layers based on the alkaline metal salts CsCl and LiF are carried out to outer supersonic air flow around conic models. To create a supersonic flow, an aerodynamic device with an arc jet was used. A supersonic nozzle at the outlet of the plasmotron provides the flow with the parameters V{sub infinity} = 8.2 km/s, T = 8000 K, and p = 1 - 10 Torr. The intensities I{sub {lambda}} of the spectral lines of Li, {lambda} = 670.7 nm and Cs, {lambda} = 455.5 nm were recorded simultaneously. Substances with different volume contents of Li and Cs were used on the cone surfaces. To determine the gas dynamic parameters, a theory for the calculation of mass loss and equilibrium vapor composition in a free-molecular flow was developed. A method for the determination of the temperature and electron concentration in the blast layer on the surface of a cone by means of measured spectral intensities of atomic lines I{sub {lambda}} was developed. It is based on the theory of spectral line broadening and the curves and growth. We obtained the following values: T = 3175 {+-} 135 K and n{sub e} = 4.04 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} for the Cs line; and T = 2890 {+-} 75 K and n{sub e} = 1.71 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} for the Li line.

Pilyugin, N.N. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation); Orfanov, I.V. [Keldysh Research Institute of Thermal Processes, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-09-01

89

High-rate lithium thionyl chloride cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-rate C cell with disc electrodes was developed to demonstrate current rates which are comparable to other primary systems. The tests performed established the limits of abuse beyond which the cell becomes hazardous. Tests include: impact, shock, and vibration tests; temperature cycling; and salt water immersion of fresh cells.

Goebel, F.

1982-01-01

90

Methylene Chloride Management Plan Review and Approval Authority  

E-print Network

Waste Management, Fire Protection, Radiation Safety, Insurance Services, Hazard Communication, AccidentMETHYLENE CHLORIDE MANAGEMENT PLAN #12;#12;Methylene Chloride Management Plan Review and Approval Date #12;ii Methylene Chloride Management Plan #12;Methylene Chloride Management Plan Table of Contents

Rubloff, Gary W.

91

Behavior of lithium in irradiated solar cells.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current state of the art in radiation resistant lithium-doped silicon solar cells is reviewed. Fabrication techniques are reviewed. Characteristics of lithium-doped cells are discussed. Behavior of lithium-doped cells during 1 MeV electron irradiation are studied for various types of cells. Effects of variations in lithium and oxygen concentration are shown and discussed. Capacitance measurements at various voltages, frequencies and temperatures are used to detect charges in lithium donor concentration and the formation of defects during irradiation. Physical models to explain the observed effects are presented.

Carter, J. R., Jr.; Downing, R. G.

1971-01-01

92

Lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning design, development, components, testing, electrolytes, and safety aspects of lithium cells. Applications include use in electric vehicles, and in utility load leveling operations. Lithium chloride and lithium sulfur batteries are among the types discussed.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-02-01

93

Chloride transport by intact rat liver and cultured rat hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Chloride is the predominant inorganic anion in bile, and it has been proposed that active chloride transport, possibly via a sodium-coupled mechanism, may contribute to that portion of canalicular bile formation not directly related to bile acid transport (bile acid-dependent bile formation or BAIBF). We have therefore examined the anion specificity of BAIBF using the isolated perfused rat liver and have studied sodium-chloride flux coupling and the sodium dependence of intracellular chloride content using 22Na and 36Cl transport by cultured rat hepatocytes. BAIBF by the isolated rat liver was unaltered by replacement of chloride with nitrate or benzenesulfonate but was significantly reduced by replacement of chloride with sulfate or thiocyanate. In cultured hepatocytes, sodium entry rate was reduced when chloride in the incubation medium was replaced by cyclamate, benzenesulfonate, or sulfate and mannitol but was unaffected when chloride was replaced by nitrate, gluconate, or thiocyanate. Conversely, chloride entry rate was decreased when sodium was replaced with choline but was unaffected when sodium was replaced by lithium or when ouabain was added to the medium. Thus no consistent evidence of sodium-chloride flux coupling was observed. Steady-state exchangeable intracellular chloride in the cultured hepatocytes was unaffected by ouabain or by replacement of sodium with choline and was increased when sodium was replaced by lithium. These findings indicate that basal BAIBF exhibits no specific chloride requirement. Although they do not exclude the possible existence in rat liver of sodium-coupled chloride transport, they provide no evidence that such a mechanism accounts for a major portion either of chloride transport by individual rat hepatocytes or of basal BAIBF by intact rat liver. PMID:7091336

Scharschmidt, B F; Van Dyke, R W; Stephens, J E

1982-06-01

94

International Meeting on Lithium Batteries, 4th, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, May 24-27, 1988, Proceedings. Parts I & II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conference presents papers on the properties of thionyl chloride solutions, electrolyte solvation in aprotic solvents, polymer electrolytes, high-temperature high-pulse-power lithium batteries, and materials science principles related to alloys of potential use in rechargeable lithium cells. Consideration is also given to the kinetics of charge-transfer reactions on passive lithium electrodes, the kinetics of porous insertion electrodes, and the kinetics of the reduction of thionyl chloride. Other topics include the behavior of lithium batteries in a fire, safety test results of lithium-thionyl chloride wound-type cells, and low-temperature testing of Li-SOCl2 cells.

Haering, R. R.

1989-05-01

95

Morphological and histochemical observations of hepatic peroxisomes and lysosomes of rats after treatment with methylmercuric chloride, hydrogen peroxide and gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

The ultrastructure of cytochemically identified hepatic peroxisomes and lysosomes was studied at days 2, 7 and 21 following treatment with hydrogen peroxide (HP), methylmercuric chloride (MMC) and gamma radiation (I). Morphological observations revealed severe cytoplasmic degradation at day 2 after HP treatment which persisted to a moderate extent at day 7; no signs of toxic effect were observed at day 21. Livers of MMC treated rats demonstrated disruption of peroxisomal, lysosomal and mitochondrial membranes and formation of different shapes and sizes of peroxisomes at day 2. Damage appeared to be mild at day 7 and no apparent damage persisted until day 21. Following the whole body irradiation of 750 R, granularity in hepatic peroxisomes, accumulation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, loss of mitochondril cristae and presence of polyribosomes and/or glycogen were observed at day 2. Seepage of hydrolytic enzymes from disrupted lysosomal membrane and persistence of polyribosomes or glycogen and dissolution of mitochondrial cristae were observed at day 7. Diffusion of reaction products from peroxisomes and apparent dissolution and peripheral movement of crystalline cores was observed at day 21 after irradiation.

Chowdhury, A.

1985-01-01

96

Effect of chlorine, sodium chloride, trisodium phosphate, and ultraviolet radiation on the reduction of Yersinia enterocolitica and mesophilic aerobic bacteria from eggshell surface.  

PubMed

Eggshell sanitizing practices are necessary to improve microbiological safety of fresh hen eggs and their products. In this work, the effects of 100 mg/liter free chlorine (chl), 3% sodium chloride (NaCl), 1, 5, and 12% trisodium phosphate (TSP) in wash solutions, and UVR (ultraviolet radiation; 4.573 microW/cm2) were studied at different times on uninoculated and Yersinia enterocolitica-inoculated eggs. On uninoculated eggs, the best results were obtained with 100 mg/liter chlorine and UV exposure for >25 min, with reductions of 1.28 and 1.60 log cycles, respectively, compared to the average bacterial count (4.55 log CFU/egg) on the control (untreated eggs). On Y. enterocolitica-inoculated eggs, highest reductions of the average bacterial count (7.35 log CFU/egg) were obtained with 5 and 12% TSP and 100 mg/liter chl. The decrease obtained with 12% TSP (3.74-log reduction) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those obtained with the remaining treatments. Y. enterocolitica was more resistant to UVR than the eggshell natural mesophilic aerobic microflora, except when low inoculum (4.39 log CFU/egg) was assayed. Changes in eggshell microstructure were measured by the blue lake staining method. The presence of Yersinia and Salmonella in eggshell natural flora was also investigated. PMID:11601717

Favier, G L; Escudero, M E; de Guzman, A M

2001-10-01

97

Determination of lithium in rocks by distillation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the quantitative extraction and recovery of lithium from rocks is based on a high temperature volatilization procedure. The sample is sintered with a calcium carbonate-calcium chloride mixture at 1200?? C. for 30 minutes in a platinum ignition tube, and the volatilization product is collected in a plug of Pyrex glass wool in a connecting Pyrex tube. The distillate, which consists of the alkali chlorides with a maximum of 5 to 20 mg. of calcium oxide and traces of a few other elements, is removed from the apparatus by dissolving in dilute hydrochloric acid and subjected to standard analytiaal procedures. The sinter residues contained less than 0.0005% lithium oxide. Lithium oxide was recovered from synthetic samples with an average error of 1.1%.

Fletcher, M.H.

1949-01-01

98

Accumulation of radiation defects and products of radiolysis in lithium orthosilicate pebbles with silicon dioxide additions under action of high absorbed doses and high temperature in air and inert atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the technological problems of a fusion reactor is the change in composition and structure of ceramic breeders (Li4SiO4 or Li2TiO3 pebbles) during long-term operation. In this study changes in the composition and microstructure of Li4SiO4 pebbles with 2.5 wt% silicon dioxide additions, fabricated by a melt-spraying process, were investigated after fast electron irradiation (E = 5 MeV, dose rate up to 88 MGy h-1) with high absorbed dose from 1.3 to 10.6 GGy at high temperature (543-573 K) in air and argon atmosphere. Three types of pebbles with different diameters and grain sizes were investigated. Products of radiolysis were studied by means of FTIR and XRD. TSL and ESR spectroscopy were used to detect radiation defects. SEM was used to investigate structure of pebbles. Experiments showed that Li4SiO4 pebbles with a diameter of 500 ?m had similar radiation stability as pebbles with diameter <50 ?m which were annealed at 1173 K for 128 h in argon and air atmosphere. As well as determined that lithium orthosilicate pebbles with size 500 (1243 K 168 h) and <50 ?m (1173 K 128 h) have a higher radiation stability in air and argon atmosphere than pebbles with size <50 ?m (1073 K 1 h). Degree of decomposition ?10.56 of the lithium orthosilicate pebbles at an absorbed dose of 10.56 GGy in air atmosphere is 1.5% and 0.15% at irradiation in dry argon. It has been suggested that changes of radiation stability of lithium orthosilicate pebbles in air atmosphere comparing with irradiated pebbles in argon atmosphere is effect of chemical reaction of lithium orthosilicate surface with air containing - H2O and CO2 in irradiation process. As well as it has been suggested that silicon dioxide - lithium metasilicate admixtures do not affect formation mechanism of radiation defect and products of radiolysis in lithium orthosilicate pebbles.

Zarins, A.; Supe, A.; Kizane, G.; Knitter, R.; Baumane, L.

2012-10-01

99

Effect of UV and gamma radiation on Rn222 permeation through polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Application to the packaging of radium sources for the purpose of storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining of uranium and thorium, as well as the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy, have caused, during the 20th century, the production of waste with a varying concentration in long-lived radionucleides (particularly radium). This waste cannot be stored in traditional storage sites which will return to the public domain after 300 years, due to, on the one hand, the radium period (1620 years) and, on the other hand, the build-up of radon, its gaseous daughter. One solution, in order to optimize the packaging and storage of such products, could be to use successive barriers, made of polymer membranes, intended to limit radon emission. Laboratory tests have shown that polyvinyl chloride (PVC) greatly reduces radon emission from a radium source. However one should take into account the damage of the polymer in time, due to radioactive waste storage itself over long periods of time. Therefore, in order to check the durability of such barriers, PVC samples have been subjected to different accelerated ageing processes by exposure to ultra-violet (UV) radiations or gamma rays. We have determined the effect of such radiation of the samples using two approaches: — demonstration of structural changes using analytical method (Infra-red with Fourier Transform or IRTF), — study of variations in the radon permeation factor. In the first analysis, it seems that the UV irradiation, causes structural changes in the PVC as a function of the irradiation length of time. This leads first to an increase in the efficiency of the polymer as a "radon barrier", i.e. a reduction in its permeation factor (2.41 × 10 -12m 2s -1 for a non exposed membrane, against 3.30 × 10 -13m 2.s -1 for a membrane exposed during 284 hours, with an exposure rate of 62.5 W.m -2, thus a reduction by a factor 10 of the radon emission) then to a long-term weakness. The gamma irradiation (dose rate: 1.05 kGy.h -1, dose: 0.71 MGy) also causes a reduction in the permeation factor of PVC, but only by a factor 2.7.

Tomasella, E.; Labed, V.; Klein, D.; Robé, M. C.; Cetier, Ph.; Chambaudet, A.

1995-11-01

100

Infrared radiation generated by quasi-phase-matched difference-frequency mixing in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coherent sources of infrared radiation in the wave- length range of 2-4 ,um are required for applications such as spectroscopy, sensors, infrared fibers, and laser radar. Although laser sources exist in this spectral region, guided- wave difference-frequency mixinglV3 of near-infrared diode lasers offers the possibility of achieving milliwatt power levels of mid-infrared radiation in a compact, room-tem- perature device. This

E. J. Lim; H. M. Herka; M. L. Bortz; M. M. Fejer

101

Cell and defect behavior in lithium-counterdoped solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some n(+)/p cells in which lithium is introduced as a counterdopant, by ion-implantation, into the cell's boron-doped p-region were studied. To determine if the cells radiation resistance could be significantly improved by lithium counterdoping. Defect behavior was related to cell performance using deep level transient spectroscopy. Results indicate a significantly increased radiation resistance for the lithium counterdoped cells when compared to the boron doped 1 ohm-cm control cell. The increased radiation resistance of the lithium counterdoped cells is due to the complexing of lithium with divacancies and boron. It is speculated that complexing with oxygen and single vacancies also contributes to the increased radiation resistance. Counterdoping silicon with lithium results in a different set of defects.

Weinberg, I.; Mehta, S.; Swartz, C. K.

1984-01-01

102

Lithium Local Pseudopotential Using  

E-print Network

Lithium Local Pseudopotential Using DFT Sergio Orozco Student Advisor: Chen Huang Faculty Mentor Lithium LPS Test Lithium LPS #12;Density Functional Theory (DFT) Successful quantum mechanical approach (1979) #12;Building LPS for Lithium Create a LPS using NLPS density for Lithium Test LPS by comparing

Petta, Jason

103

Europium- and lithium-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals that provide a linear emissive response with X-ray radiation exposure.  

PubMed

Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2-xO3; Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2-xO3; Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40-220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2-xO3; Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 ± 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 ?m sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605-617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precision XRAD 225Cx small-animal image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. For both 80 and 225 kVp energies, this radiotransparent device recorded scintillation intensities that tracked linearly with total radiation exposure, highlighting its capability to provide alternately accurate dosimetry measurements for both diagnostic imaging (80 kVp) and radiation therapy treatment (225 kVp). PMID:24696056

Stanton, Ian N; Belley, Matthew D; Nguyen, Giao; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Yifan; Kirsch, David G; Yoshizumi, Terry T; Therien, Michael J

2014-05-21

104

The Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) satellite: radiation exposure in low-earth orbit and supporting laboratory studies of iron tetraphenylporphyrin chloride.  

PubMed

We report results from the exposure of the metalloporphyrin iron tetraphenylporphyrin chloride (FeTPPCl) to the outer space environment, measured in situ aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses nanosatellite. FeTPPCl was exposed for a period of 17 months (3700?h of direct solar exposure), which included broad-spectrum solar radiation (?122?nm to the near infrared). Motivated by the potential role of metalloporphyrins as molecular biomarkers, the exposure of thin-film samples of FeTPPCl to the space environment in low-Earth orbit was monitored in situ via ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy and reported telemetrically. The space data were complemented by laboratory exposure experiments that used a high-fidelity solar simulator covering the spectral range of the spaceflight measurements. We found that thin-film samples of FeTPPCl that were in contact with a humid headspace gas (0.8-2.3% relative humidity) were particularly susceptible to destruction upon irradiation, degrading up to 10 times faster than identical thin films in contact with dry headspace gases; this degradation may also be related to the presence of oxides of nitrogen in those cells. In the companion terrestrial experiments, simulated solar exposure of FeTPPCl films in contact with either Ar or CO2:O2:Ar (10:0.01:1000) headspace gas resulted in growth of a band in the films' infrared spectra at 1961?cm(-1). We concluded that the most likely carriers of this band are allene (C3H4) and chloropropadiene (C3H3Cl), putative molecular fragments of the destruction of the porphyrin ring. The thin films studied in space and in solar simulator-based experiments show qualitatively similar spectral evolution as a function of contacting gaseous species but display significant differences in the time dependence of those changes. The relevance of our findings to planetary science, biomarker research, and the photostability of organic materials in astrobiologically relevant environments is discussed. PMID:24512475

Cook, Amanda M; Mattioda, Andrew L; Ricco, Antonio J; Quinn, Richard C; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricca, Alessandra; Jones, Nykola C; Hoffmann, Søren V

2014-02-01

105

Performance of a Multifunctional Space Evaporator- Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR) is a nonventing thermal control subsystem that combines a Space Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) with a Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). The LCAR is a heat pump radiator that absorbs water vapor produced in the SWME. Because of the very low water vapor pressure at equilibrium with lithium chloride solution, the LCAR can absorb water vapor at a temperature considerably higher than the SWME, enabling heat rejection by thermal radiation from a relatively small area radiator. Prior SEAR prototypes used a flexible LCAR that was designed to be installed on the outer surface of a portable life support system (PLSS) backpack. This paper describes a SEAR subsystem that incorporates a very compact LCAR. The compact, multifunctional LCAR is built in the form of thin panels that can also serve as the PLSS structural shell. We designed and assembled a 2 sq ft prototype LCAR based on this design and measured its performance in thermal vacuum tests when supplied with water vapor by a SWME. These tests validated our models for SEAR performance and showed that there is enough area available on the PLSS backpack shell to enable heat rejection from the LCAR.

Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

2013-01-01

106

Performance of a Multifunctional Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR) is a nonventing thermal control subsystem that combines a Space Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) with a Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). The LCAR is a heat pump radiator that absorbs water vapor produced in the SWME. Because of the very low water vapor pressure at equilibrium with lithium chloride solution, the LCAR can absorb water vapor at a temperature considerably higher than the SWME, enabling heat rejection sufficient for most EVA activities by thermal radiation from a relatively small area radiator. Prior SEAR prototypes used a flexible LCAR that was designed to be installed on the outer surface of a portable life support system (PLSS) backpack. This paper describes a SEAR subsystem that incorporates a very compact LCAR. The compact, multifunctional LCAR is built in the form of thin panels that can also serve as the PLSS structural shell. We designed and assembled a 2 ft² prototype LCAR based on this design and measured its performance in thermal vacuum tests when supplied with water vapor by a SWME. These tests validated our models for SEAR performance and showed that there is enough area available on the PLSS backpack shell to enable rejection of metabolic heat from the LCAR. We used results of these tests to assess future performance potential and suggest approaches for integrating the SEAR system with future space suits.

Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

2014-01-01

107

Lithium and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... lithium? Lithium is a medication used to treat bipolar disorder, which is also called manic-depression. Lithium may ... associated with relapse of symptoms in individuals with bipolar disorder and is not recommended. If you continue on ...

108

Europium- and lithium-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals that provide a linear emissive response with X-ray radiation exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40-220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2-xO3 Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 +/- 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 ?m sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605-617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precision XRAD 225Cx small-animal image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. For both 80 and 225 kVp energies, this radiotransparent device recorded scintillation intensities that tracked linearly with total radiation exposure, highlighting its capability to provide alternately accurate dosimetry measurements for both diagnostic imaging (80 kVp) and radiation therapy treatment (225 kVp).Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40-220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2-xO3 Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 +/- 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 ?m sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605-617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precisi

Stanton, Ian N.; Belley, Matthew D.; Nguyen, Giao; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Yifan; Kirsch, David G.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.; Therien, Michael J.

2014-04-01

109

Attenuation of radiation- and drug-induced conditioned taste aversions following area postrema lesions in the rat  

SciTech Connect

The effects of lesions of the area postrema on the acquisition of radiation- and drug-induced (histamine and lithium chloride) conditioned taste aversions were investigated. The results indicated that area postrema lesions caused a significant attenuation of the aversion produced by pairing a novel sucrose solution with radiation (100 rad) or drug injection. Further, the area postrema lesions produced a similar level of attenuation of the taste aversion in all three treatment conditions. The results are discussed in terms of the implications of this finding for defining the mechanisms by which exposure to ionizing radiation can lead to the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion.

Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

1983-02-01

110

Mercuric chloride poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are ... mercury poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric chloride. This is for information only and not for ...

111

Lithium-6 foil neutron detector  

SciTech Connect

A neutron detection apparatus is provided which includes a selected number of flat surfaces of lithium-6 foil, and which further includes a gas mixture in contact with each of the flat surfaces for selectively reacting to charged particles emitted by or radiated from the lithium foil. A container is provided to seal the lithium foil and the gas mixture in a volume from which water vapor and atmospheric gases are excluded, the container having one or more walls which are transmissive to neutrons. Monitoring equipment in contact with the gas mixture detects reactions taking place in the gas mixture, and, in response to such reactions, provides notice of the flux of neutrons passing through the volume of the detector.

Young, C.A.

1982-12-21

112

A putative amino acid transporter of the SLC6 family is up-regulated by lithium and is required for resistance to lithium toxicity in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Lithium is an efficacious drug for the treatment of mood disorders, and its application is also considered a potential therapy for brain damage. However, the mechanisms underlying lithium’s therapeutic action and toxic effects in the nervous system remain largely elusive. Here we report on the use of a versatile genetic model, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, to discover novel molecular components involved in the lithium-responsive neurobiological process. We previously identified CG15088, which encodes a putative nutrient amino acid transporter of the solute carrier 6 (SLC6) family, as one of the genes most significantly up-regulated in response to lithium treatment. This gene was the only SLC6 gene induced by lithium, and was thus designated as Lithium-inducible SLC6 transporter or List. Either RNAi-mediated knockdown or complete deletion of List resulted in a remarkable increase in the susceptibility of adult flies to lithium’s toxic effects, whereas transgenic expression of wild-type List significantly suppressed the lithium hypersensitive phenotype of List-deficient flies. Other ions such as sodium, potassium and chloride did not induce List up-regulation, nor did they affect the viability of flies with suppressed List expression. These results indicate that lithium’s biochemical or physical properties, rather than general osmotic responses, are responsible for the lithium-induced up-regulation of List, as well as for the lithium-susceptible phenotype observed in List knockdown flies. Interestingly, flies became significantly more susceptible to lithium toxicity when List RNAi was specifically expressed in glia than when it was expressed in neurons or muscles, which is consistent with potential glial expression of List. These results show that the List transporter confers resistance to lithium toxicity, possibly as a consequence of its amino acid transporter activity in CNS glia. Our results have provided a new avenue of investigation toward a better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie lithium-responsive neurobiological process. PMID:19619614

Kasuya, Junko; Kaas, Garrett A.; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

2009-01-01

113

Safety considerations for fabricating lithium battery packs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium cell safety is a major issue with both manufacturers and end users. Most manufacturers have taken great strides to develop the safest cells possible while still maintaining performance characteristics. The combining of lithium cells for higher voltages, currents, and capacities requires the fabricator of lithium battery packs to be knowledgable about the specific electrochemical system being used. Relatively high rate, spirally wound (large surface area) sulfur oxychloride cells systems, such as Li/Thionyl or Sulfuryl chloride are considered. Prior to the start of a design of a battery pack, a review of the characterization studies for the cells should be conducted. The approach for fabricating a battery pack might vary with cell size.

Ciesla, J. J.

1986-01-01

114

Calcium/thionyl chloride battery technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program is structured to develop both active and reserve configuration calcium-thionyl chloride electrochemical cells. The active configuration has required extensive work toward the storability on the calcium-anode in electrolyte solution. A variety of electrolyte salts have been screened in an effort to improve storage characteristics. The reserve configuration could lend itself to high temperature operation since calcium has such a high melting point when compared to lithium. Emphasis has been on the development of a high discharge rate cathode structure.

Higgins, R. I.; Potts, I.

1985-01-01

115

Calcium/thionyl chloride battery technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This final report documents the development efforts conducted by the Lithium Batteries Group of the Couples Department of Eagle-Picher Industries. The objective of the project was to develop calcium-thionyl chloride cell technology. The original project was divided into two main tasks. Task One was to consist of component optimization and stability studies. Once sufficiently advanced, the ongoing results of Task One were to be integrated with Task Two. Task Two was to consist of demonstration of an optimized primary cell. In July, 1983, the program was redirected. Task Two was split, with effort to be directed toward both the original primary cell and toward a high discharge rate reserve configuration cell. Additional electrolyte salts were to be evaluated as a means of improving the storability of the active calcium-thionyl chloride cell.

Counts, T.

1985-12-01

116

Lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and applications of lithium batteries. Topics include electrochemical aspects, cycling characteristics, performance evaluations, and applications in cardiac pacemaker devices. Batteries using organic compounds, chlorides, and metal sulfides are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01

117

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1982-02-09

118

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1983-01-01

119

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

1980-07-18

120

Effects of bicarbonate on lithium transport in human red cells  

PubMed Central

Lithium influx into human erythrocytes increased 12-fold, when chloride was replaced with bicarbonate in a 150 mM lithium medium (38 degrees C. pH 7.4). The increase was linearly related to both lithium- and bicarbonate concentration, and was completely eliminated by the amino reagent 4, 4'- diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS). DIDS binds to an integral membrane protein (mol wt approximately 10(5) dalton) involved in anion exchange. Inhibition of both anion exchange and of bicarbonate-stimulated lithium influx was linearly related to DIDS binding. 1.1 X 10(6) DIDS molecules per cell caused complete inhibition of both processes. Both Cl- and Li+ can apparently be transported by the anion transport mechanism. The results support our previous proposal that bicarbonate-induced lithium permeability is due to transport of lithium-carbonate ion pairs (LiCO-3). DIDS-sensitive lithium influx had a high activation energy (24 kcal/mol), compatible with transport by the anion exchange mechanism. We have examined how variations of passive lithium permeability, induced by bicarbonate, affect the sodium-driven lithium counter-transport in human erythrocytes. The ability of the counter-transport system to establish a lithium gradient across the membrane decrease linearly with bicarbonate concentration in the medium. The counter-transport system was unaffected by DIDS treatement. At a plasma bicarbonate concentration of 24 mM, two-thirds of the lithium influx is mediated by the bicarbonate-stimulated pathway, and the fraction will increase significantly in metabolic alkalosis. PMID:670928

1978-01-01

121

Synthesis of cationic flocculant by radiation-induced copolymerization of methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate with acrylamide in aqueous solution. II. Copolymerization at higher monomer concentration  

SciTech Connect

The radiation-induced copolymerization of methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate with acrylamide was studied to prepare a polymer flocculant that can be handled as a solid. The product obtained in the presence of 5 to 20% water was a solid and could be ground to a powder without drying. In order to obtain a water-soluble polymer at a higher concentration, the effect of various additives on the copolymerization was investigated and found that alcohols bearing a hydrogen atom attached to the tertiary carbon atom effectively inhibit intermolecular crosslinking to give water-soluble polymer. It is suggested that the formation of water-insoluble polymer is predominantly attributable to the crosslinking of polymer chains rather than to the imidation of amide groups. Copolymerization in the presence of isopropyl alcohol as inhibitor of the crosslinking was also studied and compared with that reported previously, which was carried out at a lower monomer concentration without additives.

Ishigaki, I.; Fukuzaki, H.; Okada, T.; Okada, T.; Okamoto, J.; Machi, S.

1981-05-01

122

NSTX Plasma Response to Lithium Coated Divertor  

SciTech Connect

NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

H.W. Kugel, M.G. Bell, J.P. Allain, R.E. Bell, S. Ding, S.P. Gerhardt, M.A. Jaworski, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, R. Maingi, R. Majeski, R. Maqueda, D.K. Mansfield, D. Mueller, R. Nygren, S.F. Paul, R. Raman, A.L. Roquemore, S.A. Sabbagh, H. Schneider, C.H. Skinner, V.A. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor, J.R. Timberlak, W.R. Wampler, L.E. Zakharov, S.J. Zweben, and the NSTX Research Team

2011-01-21

123

Improved rechargeable lithium electrode  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the research were (1) to demonstrate that a synthetically generated lithium-ion-conducting interphase could extend the cycle life of the lithium electrode; and (2) to determine whether an organic solvent's stability toward lithium is intrinsic or simply due to mediating surface films. The presence of superoxide ion was found to quadruple the life of LiAlCl4/tetrahydrofuran electrolyte and to allow lithium to be cycled to LiAlCl4/2-methyl tetrahydrofuran. The discovery that 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran is more stable toward lithium-mercury amalgam than is tetrahydrofuran suggests that structural features of a solvent molecule may be manipulated so as to decrease its propensity for reduction by lithium metal. These results are said to provide a basis upon which solvents and the lithium solvent interface may be modified, leading to a practical secondary lithium electrode for use in rechargeable high-energy-density batteries.

Koch, V.R.

1983-04-01

124

Molten Salt Lithium Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in th...

I. D. Raistrick, J. Poris, R. A. Huggins

1980-01-01

125

Lithium Ion Production NDE  

E-print Network

Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations David Wood, Debasish Mohanty, Jianlin Li, and Claus Daniel 12/9/13 EERE Quality Control Workshop #12;2 Presentation name Lithium Ion Electrode to be meaningful and provide electrode and cell QC. #12;3 Presentation name New Directions in Lithium Ion Electrode

126

Lithium nephrotoxicity revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium is widely used to treat bipolar disorder. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is the most common adverse effect of lithium and occurs in up to 40% of patients. Renal lithium toxicity is characterized by increased water and sodium diuresis, which can result in mild dehydration, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and renal tubular acidosis. The concentrating defect and natriuretic effect develop within

Bernard C. Rossier; Jean-Pierre Grünfeld

2009-01-01

127

Tetrabutylammonium 2-pyridyltriolborate salts for Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions with aryl chlorides.  

PubMed

Palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of tetrabutylammonium 2-pyridyltriolborate salts with various aryl (heteroaryl) chlorides can produce the corresponding desired coupling products with good to excellent yields. These tetrabutylammonium salts are more reactive than the corresponding lithium salts. The coupling reactions with aryl chlorides progressed in the presence of PdCl2dcpp (3 mol %) and CuI/MeNHCH2CH2OH (20 mol %) in anhydrous DMF without bases. PMID:23952320

Sakashita, Shohei; Takizawa, Miho; Sugai, Juugaku; Ito, Hajime; Yamamoto, Yasunori

2013-09-01

128

Lithium use in batteries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

Goonan, Thomas G.

2012-01-01

129

Silicon solar cells improved by lithium doping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of conference on characteristics of lithium-doped silicon solar cells and techniques required for fabrication indicate that output of cells has been improved to point where cells exhibit radiation resistance superior to those currently in use, and greater control and reproducibility of cell processing have been achieved.

Berman, P. A.

1970-01-01

130

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)\\/(2+x)M'.sub.2x\\/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)\\/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic

Michael M. Thackeray; Jeom-Soo Kim; Christopher S. Johnson

2008-01-01

131

Additive Screen HTTM -HR2-138 Scoring Sheet 1. (A1) 0.1 M Barium Chloride  

E-print Network

Lithium Chloride 18. (B6) 2.0 M Sodium Chloride 19. (B7) 0.5 M Sodium Fluoride 20. (B8) 1.0 M Sodium Citrate 24. (B12) 1.0 M Cesium Chloride 25. (C1) 1.0 M Sodium Malonate pH 7.0 26. (C2) 0.1 M L-Proline 27Additive Screen HTTM - HR2-138 Scoring Sheet 1. (A1) 0.1 M Barium Chloride 2. (A2) 0.1 M Cadmium

Hill, Chris

132

Highly selective lithium recovery from brine using a ?-MnO2-Ag battery.  

PubMed

The demand for lithium has greatly increased with the rapid development of rechargeable batteries. Currently, the main lithium resource is brine lakes, but the conventional lithium recovery process is time consuming, inefficient, and environmentally harmful. Rechargeable batteries have been recently used for lithium recovery, and consist of lithium iron phosphate as a cathode. These batteries feature promising selectivity between lithium and sodium, but they suffer from severe interference from coexisting magnesium ions, an essential component of brine, which has prompted further study. This study reports on a highly selective and energy-efficient lithium recovery system using a rechargeable battery that consists of a ?-MnO2 positive electrode and a chloride-capturing negative electrode. This system can be used to recover lithium from brine even in the presence of magnesium ions as well as other dissolved cations. In addition, lithium recovery from simulated brine is successfully demonstrated, consuming 1.0 W h per 1 mole of lithium recovered, using water similar to that from the artificial brine, which contains various cations (mole ratio: Na/Li ? 15.7, K/Li ? 2.2, Mg/Li ? 1.9). PMID:23595419

Lee, Jaehan; Yu, Seung-Ho; Kim, Choonsoo; Sung, Yung-Eun; Yoon, Jeyong

2013-05-28

133

Electrochemistry of a lithium electrode in lithium polysulfide solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of lithium polysulfides on the cycling of a lithium electrode and the corrosion rate of lithium cathodic deposits\\u000a in sulfolane electrolytes is studied. Lithium polysulfides are found to affect the shape of polarization curves, the overpotential\\u000a of electrode processes, and the cycling time. The presence of lithium polysulfides in electrolyte systems increases the cycling\\u000a time of a lithium

V. S. Kolosnitsyn; E. V. Karaseva; A. L. Ivanov

2008-01-01

134

Synthesis of lithium nitride for neutron production target of BNCT by in situ lithium deposition and ion implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To achieve high performance of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) device, Li3N/Li/Pd/Cu four layered Li target was designed and the structures of the synthesized four layered target were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. For the purpose of avoiding the radiation blistering and lithium evaporation, in situ vacuum deposition and nitridation techniques were established for in situ production and repairing maintenance of the lithium target. Following conclusions were derived: Uniform lithium layer of a few hundreds nanometer was formed on Pd/Cu multilayer surface by in situ vacuum deposition technique using metallic lithium as a source material. Lithium nitrides were formed by in situ nitridation reaction by the implantation of low-energy nitrogen ions on the deposited lithium layer surface. The chemical states of the nitridated zone were close to the stoichiometric lithium nitride, Li3N. This nitridated zone formed on surface of four layered lithium target is stable for a long time in air condition. The in situ nitridation is effective to protect lithium target from degradation by unfavorable reactions.

Ishiyama, S.; Baba, Y.; Fujii, R.; Nakamura, M.; Imahori, Y.

2012-12-01

135

Chronic lithium downregulates cyclooxygenase-2 activity and prostaglandin E2 concentration in rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats treated with lithium chloride for 6 weeks have been reported to demonstrate reduced turnover of arachidonic acid (AA) in brain phospholipids, and decreases in mRNA and protein levels, and enzyme activity, of AA-selective cytosolic phospholipase A2(cPLA2). We now report that chronic lithium administration to rats significantly reduced the brain protein level and enzyme activity of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), without affecting

F Bosetti; J Rintala; R Seemann; T A Rosenberger; M A Contreras; S I Rapoport; M C Chang

2002-01-01

136

Lithium Lens for Ilc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium Lens is a key element of FERMILAB proton conversion system in use for many years. We are analyzing the ILC positron source equipped with a scaled version of Lithium lens. Usage of liquid Lithium allows efficient cooling of Lithium container and entrance/exit windows. For the temperature just ~80°C higher, than the temperature of boiling water, the system for circulation of liquid Lithium is a compact and reliable. Overall efficiency of 1.5 secondary positrons per each initial electron passing the undulator is feasible with a compact Lithium lens. Axially symmetric motion of liquid Li does not perturb the field quality required for minimization of emittance of the secondary positrons/electrons polarized longitudinally.

Mikhailichenko, Alexander A.

2013-10-01

137

Phosphates behaviours in conversion of FP chlorides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spent electrolyte of the pyroprocessing by metal electrorefining method should be considered for recycling after removal of fission products (FP) such as, alkali metals (AL), alkaline earth metals (ALE), and/or rare earth elements (REE), to reduce the volume of high-level radioactive waste. Among the various methods suggested for this purpose is precipitation by converting FP from chlorides to phosphates. Authors have been carrying out the theoretical analysis and experiment showing the behaviours of phosphate precipitates so as to estimate the feasibility of this method. From acquired results, it was found that AL except lithium and ALE are unlikely to form phosphate precipitates. However their conversion behaviours including REE were compatible with the theoretical analysis; in the case of LaPO 4 as one of the REE precipitates, submicron-size particles could be observed while that of Li 3PO 4 was larger; the precipitates were apt to grow larger at higher temperature; etc.

Amamoto, I.; Kofuji, H.; Myochin, M.; Takasaki, Y.; Terai, T.

2009-06-01

138

Lithium purification technique  

DOEpatents

A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

Keough, Robert F. (Richland, WA); Meadows, George E. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01

139

Lithium purification technique  

DOEpatents

A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

Keough, R.F.; Meadows, G.E.

1984-01-10

140

Lithium ion cell safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The safety characteristics of recent commercial lithium ion cells are examined in relation to their use for cellular phones. These are prismatic cells with an aluminum cell housing (can) and a 500-600 mA h capacity. They have one of two types of 4-V class cathodes, lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO 2) or lithium manganese oxide (LiMn 2O 4). This report provides results of the safety tests that we performed on lithium ion cells and outlines our views regarding their safety.

Tobishima, Shin-ichi; Takei, Koji; Sakurai, Yoji; Yamaki, Jun-ichi

141

Self-diffusion coefficient study of liquid lithium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little liquid lithium experimental self-diffusion coefficient were reported in the literature because of higher risk of radiation measurement method of diffusion coefficient. In the paper, the EAM potential is applied to calculate self-diffusion coefficient of liquid lithium with emphasis on a wide range of temperature, pressure, magnetic field, and gravity acceleration. The results show that the liquid lithium self-diffusion coefficient increases with temperature increasing and decreases with pressure increasing. Calculated self-diffusion coefficient is in good agreement with Murday's experiment results in atmosphere. We get the Arrhenius equation according to the simulation results. The increasing of pressure enlarges the liquid lithium activation energy and lowers the movement of atom in liquid lithium.

Wang, Z. H.; Ni, M. J.

2012-02-01

142

Self-diffusion coefficient study of liquid lithium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little liquid lithium experimental self-diffusion coefficient were reported in the literature because of higher risk of radiation measurement method of diffusion coefficient. In the paper, the EAM potential is applied to calculate self-diffusion coefficient of liquid lithium with emphasis on a wide rage of temperature, pressure, magnetic field, and gravity acceleration. The results show that the liquid lithium self-diffusion coefficient increases with temperature increasing and decreases with pressure increasing. Calculated self-diffusion coefficient is in good agreement with Murday's experiment results in atmosphere. We get the Arrhenius equation according to the simulation results. The increasing of pressure enlarges the liquid lithium activation energy and lowers the movement of atom in liquid lithium.

Wang, Z. H.; Ni, M. J.

2011-08-01

143

Rechargeable lithium batteries in the Navy -- Policy and protocol  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable lithium batteries are an emerging technology that is finding widespread use in myriad applications. These batteries are supplanting many others because of superior performance characteristics, including high energy density and improved cycle life. The newest model laptop computers, camcorders and cellular phones are using these systems to provide lighter products with longer battery life. Potential military-use scenarios for this technology range from propulsion power for autonomous unmanned vehicles to power sources for exercise mines. Current battery chemistries that might eventually be replaced by rechargeable lithium batteries include silver-zinc batteries, lithium-thionyl chloride batteries, and possibly lithium thermal batteries. The Navy is developing and implementing a universal test protocol for evaluating the safety characteristics of rechargeable lithium power sources, as discussed by Winchester et al (1995). Test plans based on this protocol are currently being used to evaluate both commercially available and developmental products. In this paper the authors will review the testing protocol that has been developed for evaluating the safety of rechargeable lithium batteries. Relevant data from current test programs will be presented.

Banner, J.A.; Winchester, C.S. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Silver Spring, MD (United States). Carderock Div.

1996-12-31

144

Chloride removal from vitrification offgas  

SciTech Connect

This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

Slaathaug, E.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-06-01

145

Molecular Structure of Barium Chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Barium Chloride was the byproduct of the discovery of radium by Madame Curie. When refining radium, the final separation resulted in barium chloride and radium chloride. Electrophoresis of barium chloride produces small-scale amounts of barium atom. This can be used for obtaining barium for commercial uses. Applications of barium chloride include stimulating the heart and other muscles for medicinal purposes, and also for softening water. Other uses of barium chloride include the manufacturing of barium salts, as pesticide, pigments, boiler detergent, in purifying sugar, as mordant in dyeing and printing textiles, and in the manufacture of caustic soda, polymers, and stabilizers.

2002-08-15

146

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide: A View of Lithium Ion Solvation  

E-print Network

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide: A View of Lithium Ion Solvation through a Glass-Bottom Boat BRETT L and reactivities, we were drawn to lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS; (Me3Si)2NLi) by its promi- nence principles of lithium ion coordination chemistry.2 Understanding how solvation influences organolithium

Collum, David B.

147

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: POLYVINYL CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes data on air emissions from the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry. PVC is manufactured by 20 companies at 35 plants. Each plant uses one or more of four possible polymerization processes: (1) suspension polymerization, (2) emulsion polymerization, (3) bulk p...

148

Moxifloxacinium chloride monohydrate  

PubMed Central

The title compound {systematic name: 7-[(1S,6S)-8-aza-2-azonia­bicyclo­[4.3.0]non-8-yl]-1-cyclo­propyl-6-fluoro-8-meth­oxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydro­quinoline-3-carb­oxy­lic acid chloride monohydrate}, C21H25FN3O4 +·Cl?·H2O, crystallizes with two moxi­floxa­cinium cations, two chloride ions and two uncoordinated water mol­ecules in the unit cell. The crystal structure has a pseudo-inversion center except for the chloride ions. In both moxi­floxa­cinium cations, the quinoline rings are approximately planar, the maximum atomic deviations being 0.107?(3) and 0.118?(3)?Å. The piperidine rings adopt a chair conformation while the pyrrolidine rings display a half-chair conformation. In the crystal, the carboxyl groups, the protonated piperidyl groups, the uncoordinated water mol­ecule and chloride anions participate in O—H?O, O—H?Cl and N—H?Cl hydrogen bonding; weak inter­molecular C—H?O and C—H?Cl hydrogen bonding is also present in the crystal structure. PMID:22058817

Qian, Jing-Jing; Gu, Jian-Ming; Shen, Jin; Hu, Xiu-Rong; Wu, Su-Xiang

2011-01-01

149

PHOTOOXIDATION OF ALLYL CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The photooxidation of allyl chloride was studied by irradiation either in 100-L Teflon bags or in a 22.7-cu m Teflon smog chamber in the presence of added NOx. In the absence of added hydrocarbons, the reaction involves a Cl atom chain, which leads to a highly reactive system. A ...

150

Mania Pre-Lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes that lithium brought are most fully understood when we grasp the difficulties for management that acute mania presented. Restraint in canvas camisoles, padded cells, paraldehyde, water-baths and salts—Epsom, not Lithium—met mania in echos of Bedlam still heard in the early 1950s. It is a part of psychiatric history important to remember.

John Cawte

1999-01-01

151

Anodic dissolution of uranium mononitride in lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic melt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium-plutonium nitride is a candidate fuel for fast reactors, but its major drawback is ¹⁴C formation from natural nitrogen. One would probably have to use highly ¹⁵N-enriched nitrogen. A pyrochemical process with molten-salt electrorefining has been proposed as a means to increase the nuclear proliferation resistance of the fuel cycle. Molten-salt electrorefining could also be applied to nitride fuels to

Fumiaki Kobayashi; Toru Ogawa; Mitsuo Akabori; Yoshio Kato

1995-01-01

152

Anodic dissolution of uranium mononitride in lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic melt  

SciTech Connect

Uranium-plutonium nitride is a candidate fuel for fast reactors, but its major drawback is {sup 14}C formation from natural nitrogen. One would probably have to use highly {sup 15}N-enriched nitrogen. A pyrochemical process with molten-salt electrorefining has been proposed as a means to increase the nuclear proliferation resistance of the fuel cycle. Molten-salt electrorefining could also be applied to nitride fuels to make possible the recycling of {sup 15}N. The anodic dissolution behavior of UN in LiCl-KCl melt was studied to provide the basis for a feasibility study of electrorefining of irradiated nitride fuels.

Kobayashi, Fumiaki; Ogawa, Toru; Akabori, Mitsuo; Kato, Yoshio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

1995-08-01

153

Cathode material for lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

2013-07-23

154

Tokamaks with lithium covered walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic aspects of tokamaks with the lithium covered walls are presented. They include a) magnetic propulsion of intense lithium streams along the plasma facing surface of the first wall, which gives a new, consistent with reactor environment, approach for the power extraction from the tokamak reactors; b) stabilization of resistive wall modes by the lithium streams; c) physics of lithium

Leonid E. Zakharov

2000-01-01

155

Chloride ATPase Pumps in Epithelia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Five widely documented mechanisms for chloride transport across biological membranes are known: anion-coupled antiport, Na+ and H(+)-coupled symport, Cl? channels and an electrochemical coupling process. These transport processes for chloride are either secondarily active or\\u000a are driven by the electrochemical gradient for chloride. Until recently, the evidence in favour of a primary active transport\\u000a mechanism for chloride has been inconclusive

George A. Gerencser

156

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

2008-01-01

157

Nephrocalcinosis in chloride depleted rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructural features of the nephrocalcinosis associated with chloride depletion in the rat are described. The extent of calcification appeared to depend on the degree of chloride restriction. Within 3 days of chloride deprivation electron-dense granules were deposited on the brush border of proximal tubules in a concentric manner. Coalescence of satellite deposits formed large, lobulated liths with laminations, which

K. Sarkar; G. Tolnai; D. Z. Levine

1973-01-01

158

Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

159

Determination of lithium isotopes at natural abundance levels by atomic absorption spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The relationships of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li hollow cathode lamp emissions are used to determine lithium isotopic composition in the natural abundance range of geologic materials. Absorption was found to have a nonlinear dependence upon total lithium concentration and isotopic composition. A method using nonlinear equations to describe the relationship of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li lamp radiation is proposed as a means of calculating isotopic composition that is independent of total lithium concentration.

Meier, A.L.

1982-01-01

160

Chloride and Salinity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-07-15

161

Lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and applications of lithium batteries. Topics include electrochemical aspects, cycling characteristics, performance evaluations, and applications in cardiac pacemaker devices. Batteries using organic compounds, chlorides, and metal sulfides are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-12-01

162

Lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and applications of lithium batteries. Topics include electrochemical aspects, cycling characteristics, performance evaluations, and applications in cardiac pacemaker devices. Batteries using organic compounds, chlorides, and metal sulfides are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-02-01

163

Lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and applications of lithium batteries. Topics include electrochemical aspects, cycling characteristics, performance evaluations, and applications in cardiac pacemaker devices. Batteries using organic compounds, chlorides, and metal sulfides are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-10-01

164

Lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and applications of lithium batteries. Topics include electrochemical aspects, cycling characteristics, performance evaluations, and applications in cardiac pacemaker devices. Batteries using organic compounds, chlorides, and metal sulfides are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-03-01

165

The versatility of MnO2 for lithium battery applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese dioxide has for many years found widespread use as a cathode material in aqueous Leclanche, zinc chloride and alkaline cells and, more recently, in nonaqueous lithium cells. However, despite the large number of polymorphic structures that exist in the manganese dioxide family, the battery industry has used y-MnOz exclusively as the positive electrode in these cells. With the advent

M. M. Thackeray; M. H. Rossouw; A. de Kock; A. P. de la Harpe; R. J. Gummow; K. Pearce; D. C. Liles

1993-01-01

166

Radiation  

Cancer.gov

DCEG researchers carry out a broad-based research program designed to identify, understand, and quantify the risk of cancer in populations exposed to medical, occupational, or environmental radiation. They study ionizing radiation exposures (e.g., x-rays,

167

Lithium intercalation from aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

Lithium can be intercalated into a wide variety of materials using nonaqueous electrochemical cells. The use of aqueous methods is less common because of the reactivity of many lithium intercalation compounds with water. Here the authors show that lithium can be intercalated into host compounds from aqueous LiOH solution, provided the chemical potential of the intercalated lithium is sufficiently lower than the chemical potential of lithium in lithium metal. Using LiMn[sub 2]O[sub 4] as the host, the authors formed Li[sub 2]Mn[sub 2]O[sub 4] by intercalating Li from LiOH solution in an aqueous cell. This method may prove to be an economical way of preparing lithium transition metal oxides with high lithium contents for lithium-ion cell cathodes.

Li, W.; Dahn, J.R. (Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Physics); McKinnon, W.R. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Inst. of Microstructural Sciences)

1994-09-01

168

Ion exchange in a zeolite-molten chloride system  

SciTech Connect

Electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel results in a secondary waste stream of radioactive fission products dissolved in chloride salt. Disposal plans include a waste form that can incorporate chloride forms featuring one or more zeolites consolidated with sintered glass. A candidate method for incorporating fission products in the zeolites is passing the contaminated salt over a zeolite column for ion exchange. To date, the molten chloride ion-exchange properties of four zeolites have been investigated for this process: zeolite A, IE95{reg_sign}, clinoptilolite, and mordenite. Of these, zeolite A has been the most promising. Treating zeolite 4A, the sodium form of zeolite A , with the solvent salt for the waste stream-lithium-potassium chloride of eutectic melting composition, is expected to provide a material with favorable ion-exchange properties for the treatment of the waste salt. The authors constructed a pilot-plant system for the ion-exchange column. Initial results indicate that there is a direct relationship between the two operating variable of interest, temperature, and initial sodium concentration. Also, the mass ratio has been about 3--5 to bring the sodium concentration of the effluent below 1 mol%.

Woodman, R.H.; Pereira, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

1997-07-01

169

Lithium battery management system  

DOEpatents

Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

Dougherty, Thomas J. (Waukesha, WI)

2012-05-08

170

Aluminum-lithium for aerospace  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum-lithium alloys were developed primarily to reduce the weight of aircraft and aerospace structures. Lithium is the lightest metallic element, and each 1% of lithium added to aluminum reduces alloy density by about 3% and increases modulus by about 5%. Though lithium has a solubility limit of 4.2% in aluminum, the amount of lithium ranges between 1 and 3% in commercial alloys. Aluminum-lithium alloys are most often selected for aerospace components because of their low density, high strength, and high specific modulus. However, other applications now exploit their excellent fatigue resistance and cryogenic toughness.

Fielding, P.S.; Wolf, G.J. [Reynolds Metals Co., Richmond, VA (United States)

1996-10-01

171

Lithium protects against spinal cord injury in rats: role of nitric oxide.  

PubMed

Objective?Lithium improves locomotor scores after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Herein, we assess the role of nitric oxide (NO) in this action. Methods?The first set of experiments were performed to determine a dose of lithium that effectively improves locomotor scores in rats with SCI. Therefore, rats received different doses of lithium chloride (1, 4, 10, and 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or saline 1 hour before SCI. In the next step, the role of NO in the effect of lithium on SCI was investigated. For this purpose, rats were co-treated with an effective dose of lithium (20 mg/kg 1 hour before SCI) and a noneffective dose of N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a nonselective NO synthase inhibitor; 15 mg/kg intraperitoneally 30 minutes before SCI). SCI was induced by compressing the T9 spinal segment with an aneurysmal clip for 60?seconds in anesthetized rats. Locomotor scores were determined at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after SCI. Plasma lithium levels were measured 12 hours after SCI. Spinal histopathologies were examined 30 days after SCI. Results?Lithium (20 mg/kg) significantly improved locomotor scores and decreased histopathologic spinal damage. l-NAME (15 mg/kg) reversed the beneficial effects of lithium. The 20-mg/kg dose of lithium resulted in a 0.68?±?0.02 mEq/L plasma lithium concentration, which is lower than the therapeutic level in humans (0.8-1.2 mEq/L). Conclusion?Lithium protects against SCI through an NO-dependent mechanism. PMID:24202963

Zakeri, Marjan; Afshari, Khashayar; Gharedaghi, Mohammad Hadi; Shahsiah, Reza; Rahimian, Reza; Maleki, Farid; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Javidan, Abbas Norouzi

2014-11-01

172

Lithium-methomyl induced seizures in rats: A new model of status epilepticus?  

SciTech Connect

Behavioral, electroencephalographic (EEG) and neuropathological effects of methomyl, a carbamate insecticide reversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity, were studied in naive or lithium chloride (24 h, 3 mEq/kg, s.c.) pretreated male Wistar rats. In naive animals, methomyl with equal potency produced motor limbic seizures and fatal status epilepticus. Thus, the CD50 values (50% convulsant dose) for these seizure endpoints were almost equal to the LD50 (50% lethal dose) of methomyl (13 mg/kg). Lithium pretreated rats were much more susceptible to convulsant, but not lethal effect of methomyl. CD50 values of methomyl for motor limbic seizures and status epilepticus were reduced by lithium pretreatment to 3.7 mg/kg (a 3.5-fold decrease) and 5.2 mg/kg (a 2.5-fold decrease), respectively. In contrast, lithium pretreatment resulted in only 1.3-fold decrease of LD50 value of methomyl (9.9 mg/kg). Moreover, lithium-methomyl treated animals developed a long-lasting status epilepticus, which was not associated with imminent lethality observed in methomyl-only treated rats. Scopolamine (10 mg/kg) or diazepam (10 mg/kg) protected all lithium-methomyl treated rats from convulsions and lethality. Cortical and hippocampal EEG recordings revealed typical epileptic discharges that were consistent with behavioral seizures observed in lithium-methomyl treated rats. In addition, convulsions induced by lithium-methomyl treatment were associated with widespread neurodegeneration of limbic structures. Our observations indicate that lithium pretreatment results in separation between convulsant and lethal effects of methomyl in rats. As such, seizures induced by lithium-methomyl administration may be an alternative to lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus, which is associated with high lethality.

Kaminski, Rafal M. [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland)]. E-mail: kaminskr@mail.nih.gov; Blaszczak, Piotr [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Dekundy, Andrzej [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Parada-Turska, Jolanta [Department of Rheumatology and Connective Tissue Diseases, Medical University, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-090 Lublin (Poland); Calderazzo, Lineu [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Laboratory of Experimental Neurology, Escola Paulista de Medicina, R. Botucatu 862, BR-04023 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Cavalheiro, Esper A. [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Laboratory of Experimental Neurology, Escola Paulista de Medicina, R. Botucatu 862, BR-04023 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Turski, Waldemar A. [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-090 Lublin (Poland)

2007-03-15

173

Novel Lithium Salt and Polymer Electrolytes for Polymer Lithium Batteries.  

E-print Network

?? Synthesis and characterization of a novel lithium salt that operates on the principle of steric occlusion was conducted. Lithium tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate (LiTMPB) incorporating a bulky… (more)

Lin, Jian

2008-01-01

174

Molecular Structure of Ferric chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ferric chloride is a corrosive chemical, thus, it is used to deodorize sewage and industrial waste by partially reducing to ferrous chloride. It is also employed as an engraving reagent on metal surfaces. Other applications include its use as a flocculating agent in water treatment. Ferric chloride is a hazardous chemical that irritates the skin and eyes and is toxic if ingested, however it can be used as a reagent in pharmaceutical preparations.

2002-08-27

175

US Navy lithium cell applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications of lithium systems that are already in the fleet are discussed. The approach that the Navy is taking in the control of the introduction of lithium batteries into the fleet is also discussed.

Bowers, F. M.

1978-01-01

176

Comparing polyaluminum chloride and ferric chloride for antimony removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimony has been one of the contaminants required to be regulated, however, only limited information has been collected to date regarding antimony removal by polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride (FC). Accordingly, the possible use of coagulation by PACl or FC for antimony removal was investigated. Jar tests were used to determine the effects of solution pH, coagulant dosage, and

Meea Kang; Tasuku Kamei; Yasumoto Magara

2003-01-01

177

Dilute Solution Properties of Poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) in Aqueous Sodium Chloride Solutions  

E-print Network

Dilute Solution Properties of Poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) in Aqueous Sodium Chloride fractions in sodium chloride solutions by viscosity, size-exclusionchromatography, and light(dimethyldial1ylammonium chloride) (PDMDAAC)were prepared by preparative size-exclusion chromatography

Dubin, Paul D.

178

Lithium As Plasma Facing Component for Magnetic Fusion Research  

SciTech Connect

The use of lithium in magnetic fusion confinement experiments started in the 1990's in order to improve tokamak plasma performance as a low-recycling plasma-facing component (PFC). Lithium is the lightest alkali metal and it is highly chemically reactive with relevant ion species in fusion plasmas including hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, carbon, and oxygen. Because of the reactive properties, lithium can provide strong pumping for those ions. It was indeed a spectacular success in TFTR where a very small amount (~ 0.02 gram) of lithium coating of the PFCs resulted in the fusion power output to improve by nearly a factor of two. The plasma confinement also improved by a factor of two. This success was attributed to the reduced recycling of cold gas surrounding the fusion plasma due to highly reactive lithium on the wall. The plasma confinement and performance improvements have since been confirmed in a large number of fusion devices with various magnetic configurations including CDX-U/LTX (US), CPD (Japan), HT-7 (China), EAST (China), FTU (Italy), NSTX (US), T-10, T-11M (Russia), TJ-II (Spain), and RFX (Italy). Additionally, lithium was shown to broaden the plasma pressure profile in NSTX, which is advantageous in achieving high performance H-mode operation for tokamak reactors. It is also noted that even with significant applications (up to 1,000 grams in NSTX) of lithium on PFCs, very little contamination (< 0.1%) of lithium fraction in main fusion plasma core was observed even during high confinement modes. The lithium therefore appears to be a highly desirable material to be used as a plasma PFC material from the magnetic fusion plasma performance and operational point of view. An exciting development in recent years is the growing realization of lithium as a potential solution to solve the exceptionally challenging need to handle the fusion reactor divertor heat flux, which could reach 60 MW/m2 . By placing the liquid lithium (LL) surface in the path of the main divertor heat flux (divertor strike point), the lithium is evaporated from the surface. The evaporated lithium is quickly ionized by the plasma and the ionized lithium ions can provide a strongly radiative layer of plasma ("radiative mantle"), thus could significantly reduce the heat flux to the divertor strike point surfaces, thus protecting the divertor surface. The protective effects of LL have been observed in many experiments and test stands. As a possible reactor divertor candidate, a closed LL divertor system is described. Finally, it is noted that the lithium applications as a PFC can be quite flexible and broad. The lithium application should be quite compatible with various divertor configurations, and it can be also applied to protecting the presently envisioned tungsten based solid PFC surfaces such as the ones for ITER. Lithium based PFCs therefore have the exciting prospect of providing a cost effective flexible means to improve the fusion reactor performance, while providing a practical solution to the highly challenging divertor heat handling issue confronting the steadystate magnetic fusion reactors.

Masayuki Ono

2012-09-10

179

Molecular Structure of Picryl chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Picryl chloride is ranked as one of the 100 most commonly found explosive and shock sensitive materials. It is made by reacting 2,4,6 trinitrophenol with thionyl chloride. This highly reactive compound is known to be hazardous and toxic, and to cause liver injury in mice. It is often used as a sensitization agent in mice when their cells undergo hypersensitivity studies.

2002-09-20

180

Solubility of some alkali and alkaline earth chlorides in water at moderate temperatures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Solubilities for the binary systems, salt-H2O, of the chlorides of lithium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium from near 0??C to the saturated boiling point are reported. The experimental data and coefficients of an equation for a smoothed curve describing each system are listed in the tables. The data are improvements on those previously reported in the literature, having a precision on the average of ??0.09%.

Clynne, M.A.; Potter, R.W., II

1979-01-01

181

Reversibility of anodic lithium in rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries.  

PubMed

Non-aqueous lithium-air batteries represent the next-generation energy storage devices with very high theoretical capacity. The benefit of lithium-air batteries is based on the assumption that the anodic lithium is completely reversible during the discharge-charge process. Here we report our investigation on the reversibility of the anodic lithium inside of an operating lithium-air battery using spatially and temporally resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction and three-dimensional micro-tomography technique. A combined electrochemical process is found, consisting of a partial recovery of lithium metal during the charging cycle and a constant accumulation of lithium hydroxide under both charging and discharging conditions. A lithium hydroxide layer forms on the anode separating the lithium metal from the separator. However, numerous microscopic 'tunnels' are also found within the hydroxide layer that provide a pathway to connect the metallic lithium with the electrolyte, enabling sustained ion-transport and battery operation until the total consumption of lithium. PMID:23929396

Shui, Jiang-Lan; Okasinski, John S; Kenesei, Peter; Dobbs, Howard A; Zhao, Dan; Almer, Jonathan D; Liu, Di-Jia

2013-01-01

182

A review of lithium deposition in lithium-ion and lithium metal secondary batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major aspects related to lithium deposition in lithium-ion and lithium metal secondary batteries are reviewed. For lithium-ion batteries with carbonaceous anode, lithium deposition may occur under harsh charging conditions such as overcharging or charging at low temperatures. The major technical solutions include: (1) applying electrochemical models to predict the critical conditions for deposition initiation; (2) preventions by improved battery design and material modification; (3) applying adequate charging protocols to inhibit lithium deposition. For lithium metal secondary batteries, the lithium deposition is the inherent reaction during charging. The major technical solutions include: (1) the use of mechanistic models to elucidate and control dendrite initiation and growth; (2) engineering surface morphology of the lithium deposition to avoid dendrite formation via adjusting the composition and concentration of the electrolyte; (3) controlling battery working conditions. From a survey of the literature, the areas that require further study are proposed; e.g., refining the lithium deposition criteria, developing an effective AC self pre-heating method for low-temperature charging of lithium-ion batteries, and clarifying the role the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) plays in determining the deposition morphology; to facilitate a refined control of the lithium deposition.

Li, Zhe; Huang, Jun; Yann Liaw, Bor; Metzler, Viktor; Zhang, Jianbo

2014-05-01

183

Can Injected Lithium Granules Trigger ELMs?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coating plasma facing components (PFCs) with lithium has eliminated ELMs in NSTX H-mode plasmas. Improved ELM-free confinement, however, leads to accumulation of high-Z impurities and uncontrolled radiation losses. Further, injecting solid deuterium pellets in other devices is known to trigger ELMs at frequencies approximating the injection frequency. Hence, one can pose the question:''can lithium granules (i.e. small pellets) injected at high frequency also trigger ELMs in fusion devices?'' Such a scheme might lead to the replacement of large amplitude Type-1 ELMs with small amplitude, high frequency (grassy) ELMs. These smaller ELMs would then reduce the power flux to PFCs (as compared to large ELMs) while perhaps simultaneously purging the core of accumulated impurities. Such a technology, moreover, would not require cryogenics. The physics of this concept will be explored.

Mansfield, D. K.; Roquemore, A. L.; Kugel, H.; Baylor, L. R.; Maingi, R.; Parks, P.

2010-11-01

184

Lithium Ion Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

1997-01-01

185

Radiators  

SciTech Connect

A heat-exchange radiator is connected to a fluid flow circuit by a connector which provides one member of an interengageable spigot and socket pair for push-fit, fluid-tight, engagement between the connector and the radiator, with latching formations at least one of which is resilient. Preferably the connector carries the spigot which tapers and engages with a socket of corresponding shape, the spigot carrying an O-ring seal and either latching fingers or a resilient latching circlip.

Webster, D. M.

1985-07-30

186

Recent liquid lithium limiter experiments in CDX-U  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experiments in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) provide a first-ever test of large area liquid lithium surfaces as a tokamak first wall to gain engineering experience with a liquid metal first wall and to investigate whether very low recycling plasma regimes can be accessed with lithium walls. The CDX-U is a compact (R = 34 cm, a = 22 cm, Btoroidal = 2 kG, IP = 100 kA, Te(0)~ 100 eV, ne(0) ~ 5 × 1019 m-3) spherical torus at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. A toroidal liquid lithium pool limiter with an area of 2000 cm2 (half the total plasma limiting surface) has been installed in CDX-U. Tokamak discharges which used the liquid lithium pool limiter required a fourfold lower loop voltage to sustain the plasma current, and a factor of 5-8 increase in gas fuelling to achieve a comparable density, indicating that recycling is strongly reduced. Modelling of the discharges demonstrated that the lithium limited discharges are consistent with Zeffective < 1.2 (compared with 2.4 for the pre-lithium discharges), a broadened current channel and a 25% increase in the core electron temperature. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that edge oxygen and carbon radiation are strongly reduced.

Majeski, R.; Jardin, S.; Kaita, R.; Gray, T.; Marfuta, P.; Spaleta, J.; Timberlake, J.; Zakharov, L.; Antar, G.; Doerner, R.; Luckhardt, S.; Seraydarian, R.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Maingi, R.; Finkenthal, M.; Stutman, D.; Rodgers, D.; Angelini, S.

2005-06-01

187

Micro-and nanoscale domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate  

E-print Network

Micro- and nanoscale domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate Vladimir Ya. Shur investigation of the domain evolution in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate during backswitched electric sources based on quasi-phase matching.11 Lithium niobate LiNbO3 (LN) and lithium tantalate LiTaO3 (LT

Byer, Robert L.

188

Lithium ion irradiation effects on epitaxial silicon detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diodes manufactured on a thin and highly doped epitaxial silicon layer grown on a Czochralski silicon substrate have been irradiated by high energy lithium ions in order to investigate the effects of high bulk damage levels. This information is useful for possible developments of pixel detectors in future very high luminosity colliders because these new devices present superior radiation hardness

Andrea Candelori; Andreas Schramm; Dario Bisello; Devis Contarato; Eckhart Fretwurst; Gunnar Lindström; Riccardo Rando; Jeff Wyss

2004-01-01

189

Pyroelectric field assisted ion migration induced by ultraviolet laser irradiation and its impact on ferroelectric domain inversion in lithium niobate crystals  

SciTech Connect

The impact of UV laser irradiation on the distribution of lithium ions in ferroelectric lithium niobate single crystals has been numerically modelled. Strongly absorbed UV radiation at wavelengths of 244–305 nm produces steep temperature gradients which cause lithium ions to migrate and result in a local variation of the lithium concentration. In addition to the diffusion, here the pyroelectric effect is also taken into account which predicts a complex distribution of lithium concentration along the c-axis of the crystal: two separated lithium deficient regions on the surface and in depth. The modelling on the local lithium concentration and the subsequent variation of the coercive field are used to explain experimental results on the domain inversion of such UV treated lithium niobate crystals.

Ying, C. Y. J.; Mailis, S. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)] [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Daniell, G. J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Steigerwald, H.; Soergel, E. [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Wegelerstrasse 8, 53115 Bonn (Germany)] [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Wegelerstrasse 8, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

2013-08-28

190

Lithium battery management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the

Thomas J

2012-01-01

191

Balanced Lithium Ion Battery,.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A battery system uses passive nonlinear electronic devices, such as zener diodes, respectively connected in parallel to each of the serially connected battery cells, such as lithium ion battery cells, connected in a string, to maintain all of the cells at...

A. H. Zimmerman

2004-01-01

192

RED Facts: Lithium Hypochlorite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium hypochlorite is an algicide, disinfectant, fungicide and food contact surface sanitizer. Its primary pesticidal use is to control algae, bacteria and mildew in swimming pool water systems, hot tubs and spas; approximately 2,000,000 pounds of the a...

1993-01-01

193

Lithium iodate, intracavity upconversion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes an internal CW parametric upconverter which uses a lithium iodate crystal and a CW argon laser. The upconversion reported demonstrates a noise equivalent power (NEP) of 5 x 10 to the -14th W/Hz to the 1/2th at 3.39-micron wavelength. Noise properties of the upconverter are outlined.

See, Y. C.; Falk, J.

1980-01-01

194

Rechargeable Lithium Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of materials electrochemistry represents a fusion of solid-state chemistry and electrochemistry. The commercial success of the world's first rechargeable lithium battery, introduced recently by Sony, is a triumph of materials electrochemistry. By developing radically new anodes, cathodes and electrolytes, a cell has been produced which can store three times the energy per unit weight and volume compared with conventional

Peter G. Bruce

1996-01-01

195

Thin-film lithium and lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research over the last decade at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has led to the development of solid-state thin-film lithium and lithium-ion batteries. The batteries, which are less than 15 ?m thick, have important applications in a variety of consumer and medical products, and they are useful research tools in characterizing the properties of lithium intercalation compounds in thin-film form. The

J. B. Bates; N. J. Dudney; B. Neudecker; A. Ueda; C. D. Evans

2000-01-01

196

77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final...outbound international mailing of lithium batteries and devices containing lithium batteries. This prohibition also extends to the...

2012-05-14

197

Chronic Lithium Treatment Robustly Protects Neurons in the Central Nervous System against Excitotoxicity by Inhibiting N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor-Mediated Calcium Influx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of manic depressive illness. The precise mechanisms underlying its clinical efficacy remain unknown. We found that long-term exposure to lithium chloride dramatically protects cultured rat cerebellar, cerebral cortical, and hippocampal neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, which involves apoptosis mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. This neuroprotection is longlasting, occurs at therapeutically relevant

Shigeyuki Nonaka; Christopher J. Hough; De-Maw Chuang

1998-01-01

198

Laser microstructuring and annealing processes for lithium manganese oxide cathodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is expected that cathodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIB) composed out of nano-composite materials lead to an increase in power density of the LIB due to large electrochemically active surface areas but cathodes made of lithium manganese oxides (Li-Mn-O) suffer from structural instabilities due to their sensitivity to the average manganese oxidation state. Therefore, thin films in the Li-Mn-O system were synthesized by non-reactive radiofrequency magnetron sputtering of a spinel lithium manganese oxide target. For the enhancement of the power density and cycle stability, large area direct laser patterning using UV-laser radiation with a wavelength of 248 nm was performed. Subsequent laser annealing processes were investigated in a second step in order to set up a spinel-like phase using 940 nm laser radiation at a temperature of 680 °C. The interaction processes between UV-laser radiation and the material was investigated using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The changes in phase, structure and grain shape of the thin films due to the annealing process were recorded using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The structured cathodes were cycled using standard electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode. Different surface structures were investigated and a significant increase in cycling stability was found. Surface chemistry of an as-deposited as well as an electrochemically cycled thin film was investigated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Pröll, J.; Kohler, R.; Torge, M.; Ulrich, S.; Ziebert, C.; Bruns, M.; Seifert, H. J.; Pfleging, W.

2011-09-01

199

Will advanced lithium-alloy anodes have a chance in lithium-ion batteries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high packing density of lithium is a significant advantage of lithium insertion into metallic matrices that can be achieved in lithium alloys compared with lithium intercalation into carbonaceous materials. Moreover, the operating voltage of lithium-alloy anodes may be chosen well-above the potential of metallic lithium and the solvent co-intercalation has not been observed at lithium-alloy electrodes. On the other

J. O. Besenhard; J. Yang; M. Winter

1997-01-01

200

CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING  

SciTech Connect

Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

2007-11-30

201

Decreased global methylation in patients with bipolar disorder who respond to lithium.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and alterations in DNA methylation, are all associated with the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). We therefore studied the relationship between oxidative stress and DNA methylation in patients with BD with an excellent response to lithium treatment, their affected and unaffected relatives and healthy controls. Transformed lymphoblasts were cultured in the presence or absence of lithium chloride (0.75 mM). DNA and proteins were extracted from the cells to determine levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 5-methylcytosine (5-mc), mitochondrial complex I and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Methylation was decreased in BD subjects and their relatives compared to controls and remained so after lithium treatment in BD subjects but not in their relatives. 8-OHdG levels and complex I activity did not differ between groups before and after lithium treatment. Finally, relatives of patients showed increased GPx activity before and after lithium treatment, which negatively correlated with 5-mc levels. Changes in global methylation may be specific for BD and lithium may be involved in glutathione regulation. The present study supports the importance of DNA methylation to the pathophysiology of BD and the therapeutic potential of antioxidants in this illness. PMID:24345589

Huzayyin, Aya A; Andreazza, Ana C; Turecki, Gustavo; Cruceanu, Cristiana; Rouleau, Guy A; Alda, Martin; Young, L Trevor

2014-04-01

202

Effects of repeated lithium administration on the subcellular distribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine in rat brain.  

PubMed Central

1 The content and distribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) between subcellular fractions from rat whole brain (excluding cerebellum) were examined following repeated lithium administration. 2 Lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg body wt. s.c.) administered twice daily for 3 days produced no change in the 5-HT content of primary subcellular fractions (P1-nuclear; P2-crude synaptosomal; SNT-soluble) measured on the 4th day. 3 Similarly, repeated lithium treatment alone did not appear to produce increases in the 5-HT content of either cytoplasmic (S) or vesicular (M2) fractions derived from hypo-osmotically disrupted synaptosomes (P2) when compared to control rats receiving NaCl only. 4 One hour after monoamine oxidase inhibition with tranylcypromine, there was a further selective 25% increase in 5-HT accumulation in the lithium-treated rats over control values in the soluble cytoplasmic fraction (S) and in fractions containing occluded cytoplasm only. This increase did not occur in the synaptic vesicle fraction (M2). This corresponds to an increase in 5-HT turnover rate due to the lithium treatment of approx. 50%. 5 These findings lend additional support to the hypothesis that lithium treatment alters the intraneuronal storage or compartmentation of 5-HT between vesicles and cytoplasm. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7104517

Atterwill, C. K.; Tordoff, A. F.

1982-01-01

203

Multifunctional Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for non-venting thermal control for spacesuits was built by integrating two previously developed technologies, namely NASA's Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare's flexible version of the Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). This SEAR system was tested in relevant thermal vacuum conditions. These tests show that a 1 sq m radiator having about three times as much absorption media as in the test article would be required to support a 7 hour spacewalk. The serial flow arrangement of the LCAR of the flexible version proved to be inefficient for venting non-condensable gas (NCG). A different LCAR packaging arrangement was conceived wherein the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) housing would be made with a high-strength carbon fiber composite honeycomb, the cells of which would be filled with the chemical absorption media. This new packaging reduce the mass and volume impact of the SEAR on the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) compared to the flexible design. A 0.2 sq m panel with flight-like honeycomb geometry is being constructed and will be tested in thermal and thermal vacuum conditions. Design analyses forecast improved system performance and improved NCG control. A flight-like regeneration system also is also being built and tested. Design analyses for the structurally integrated prototype as well as the earlier test data show that SEAR is not only practical for spacesuits but also has useful applications in spacecraft thermal control.

Bue, Grant C.; Hodgson, Ed; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

2013-01-01

204

Lithium-ion conducting electrolyte salts for lithium batteries.  

PubMed

This paper presents an overview of the various types of lithium salts used to conduct Li(+) ions in electrolyte solutions for lithium rechargeable batteries. More emphasis is paid towards lithium salts and their ionic conductivity in conventional solutions, solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) formation towards carbonaceous anodes and the effect of anions on the aluminium current collector. The physicochemical and functional parameters relevant to electrochemical properties, that is, electrochemical stabilities, are also presented. The new types of lithium salts, such as the bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB), oxalyldifluoroborate (LiODFB) and fluoroalkylphosphate (LiFAP), are described in detail with their appropriate synthesis procedures, possible decomposition mechanism for SEI formation and prospect of using them in future generation lithium-ion batteries. Finally, the state-of-the-art of the system is given and some interesting strategies for the future developments are illustrated. PMID:22114046

Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Gnanaraj, Joe; Madhavi, Srinivasan; Liu, Hua-Kun

2011-12-16

205

Contamination of lithium heparin blood by K2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA): an experimental evaluation  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The contamination of serum or lithium heparin blood with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) salts may affect accuracy of some critical analytes and jeopardize patient safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lithium heparin sample contamination with different amounts of K2EDTA. Materials and methods: Fifteen volunteers were enrolled among the laboratory staff. Two lithium heparin tubes and one K2EDTA tube were collected from each subject. The lithium-heparin tubes of each subject were pooled and divided in 5 aliquots. The whole blood of K2EDTA tube was then added in scalar amount to autologous heparinised aliquots, to obtained different degrees of K2EDTA blood volume contamination (0%; 5%; 13%; 29%; 43%). The following clinical chemistry parameters were then measured in centrifuged aliquots: alanine aminotranspherase (ALT), bilirubin (total), calcium, chloride, creatinine, iron, lactate dehydrogenase (LD), lipase, magnesium, phosphate, potassium, sodium. Results: A significant variation starting from 5% K2EDTA contamination was observed for calcium, chloride, iron, LD, magnesium (all decreased) and potassium (increased). The variation of phosphate and sodium (both increased) was significant after 13% and 29% K2EDTA contamination, respectively. The values of ALT, bilirubin, creatinine and lipase remained unchanged up to 43% K2EDTA contamination. When variations were compared with desirable quality specifications, the bias was significant for calcium, chloride, LD, magnesium and potassium (from 5% K2EDTA contamination), sodium, phosphate and iron (from 29% K2EDTA contamination). Conclusions: The concentration of calcium, magnesium, potassium, chloride and LD appears to be dramatically biased by even modest K2EDTA contamination (i.e., 5%). The values of iron, phosphate, and sodium are still reliable up to 29% K2EDTA contamination, whereas ALT, bilirubin, creatinine and lipase appear overall less vulnerable towards K2EDTA contamination. PMID:25351354

Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Brocco, Giorgio; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Lippi, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

206

Highly reversible carbon–nano-silicon composite anodes for lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance carbon–Si composite anode for lithium rechargeable batteries was developed. Si powder was coated with amorphous carbon by pyrolyzing polyvinyl chloride and chlorinated polyethylene at 900°C for 2h. The electrochemical performance of the carbon–Si composite anode depended on the Si particle size and the carbon content of the composite. A carbon–nano-size Si (average size 50nm) composite with 48wt.% carbon

Qin Si; K. Hanai; N. Imanishi; M. Kubo; A. Hirano; Y. Takeda; O. Yamamoto

2009-01-01

207

Application of quality function deployment to the design of a lithium battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is the tool we have selected to aid in the design, development and subsequent commercial manufacture of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride 'D' cell for use in weapons applications. QFD is a structured methodology used to help assure that customer needs and expectations will be satisfied throughout the product life cycle. In this paper, we will describe our application of QFD, some of the lessons learned, and what we expect to be the final product of this QFD exercise.

Halbleib, L.; Wormington, P.; Cieslak, W.; Street, H.

208

Lithium Research Status and PlansLithium Research Status and Plans Charles H. Skinner, PPPL  

E-print Network

Lithium Research Status and PlansLithium Research Status and Plans Charles H. Skinner, PPPL Robert February 3-5, 2010 #12;NSTX PAC-27 ­ Lithium Research Status and Plans 2/15February 3-5, 2010 NSTX lithium research is an integral part of a program to develop lithium as a PFC concept for magnetic fusion NSTX w

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

209

Solid lithium-ion electrolyte  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

1998-01-01

210

Progress in secondary lithium batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lithium/molybdenum trisulfide system is discussed. This system has a higher potential energy density than that of lithium/titanium disulfide. Possible energy densities and performance values for cells, projected from preliminary data obtained on small cells, are summarized. The electrode structure is emphasized as an important factor in the decreasing of capacity upon cycling.

Holleck, G. L.

1982-01-01

211

Advanced lithium ion battery charger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lithium ion battery charger has been developed for four and eight cell batteries or multiples thereof. This charger has the advantage over those using commercial lithium ion charging chips in that the individual cells are allowed to be taper charged at their upper charging voltage rather than be cutoff when all cells of the string have reached the upper

V. L. Teofilo; L. V. Merritt; R. P. Hollandsworth

1997-01-01

212

Solid lithium-ion electrolyte  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

1998-02-10

213

[Determination of lithium in the oil field water by flame atomic absorption spectrometry].  

PubMed

Flame atomic absorption spectrometry was applied to the determination of micro amount of lithium in the oil field water of certain area. In order to determine which method is more appropriate for the determination of lithium content in the oil field water, standard curve method and standard addition method were compared. The effects of dilution, coexistent ions, and deionizers on the determination were studied. For the determination of lithium content in the same diluted oil field water samples, there exist obvious differences between the results obtained from standard addition method and standard curve method. Standard addition method gives results with a larger error, whereas standard curve method gives more accurate results. It is difficult to eliminate the interferences when the standard addition method is used. The standard curve method is found to be more suitable for the determination of micro amount of lithium in the oil field water for its accuracy, simplicity, and feasibility. When the standard curve method is used, both the determined lithium concentration and the recovery change with the dilution extent of the oil field water. In order to get an accurate result, the oil field water sample should be diluted to 1/200 or less. In this case, the recovery by standard addition method ranges from 94.3% to 96.9%. When sodium phosphate or sodium chloride is used as the deionizer, the recovery by standard addition method ranges from 94.6% to 98.6%, or from 94.2% to 96.3%. In the determination of lithium content in oil field water, there are larger experimental errors without the addition of any deionizer. When the concentration of coexistent ions is within an allowed range, the addition of sodium phosphate as a deionizer can eliminate the interferences of the coexistent ions with the determination of the lithium content. If sodium chloride is used as a deionizer, a more accurate result can be obtained when the sodium content in the samples is near the sodium content in the standard solutions. In general, under suitable experimental conditions, sodium chloride can be used as the deionizer for the determination of lithium content in the oil field water. PMID:19385254

Yang, Hong-Jun; Ye, Xiu-Shen; Li, Bing; Wu, Zhi-Jian; Li, Wu

2009-01-01

214

Evidence for intestinal chloride secretion.  

PubMed

Intestinal fluid secretion is pivotal in the creation of an ideal environment for effective enzymatic digestion, nutrient absorption and stool movement. Since fluid cannot be actively secreted into the gut, this process is dependent on an osmotic gradient, which is mainly created by chloride transport by the enterocyte. A pathological dysbalance between fluid secretion and absorption leads to obstruction or potentially fatal diarrhoea. This article reviews the widely accepted model of intestinal chloride secretion with an emphasis on the molecular players involved in this tightly regulated process. PMID:20233891

Murek, Michael; Kopic, Sascha; Geibel, John

2010-04-01

215

Improved analysis of picomole quantities of lithium, sodium, and potassium in biological fluids.  

PubMed

The analysis of picomolar lithium, sodium, and potassium by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry was studied using a Perkin-Elmer Zeeman 3030 spectrophotometer. With ordinary pyrolytically coated graphite tubes, a number of interference effects associated with the sample matrix were observed. In particular, the lithium and potassium absorbance signal was depressed by chloride, an effect shown to be dependent on the preatomization heating. When an in situ tantalum-coated atomization surface was used, matrix interferences observed in lithium and potassium analyses were abolished, and the linear range for the potassium assay was extended. Technical difficulties encountered during sodium analysis at the primary wavelength were effectively circumvented by analysis at a less-sensitive wavelength (303.3 nm), at which tantalum coating also prevented significant chloride interference. The improved microanalyses were employed to reevaluate the handling of lithium, sodium, and potassium along the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) of the anesthetized rat. The average tubular fluid-to-plasma concentration ratios for lithium [(TF/P)Li] and sodium [(TF/P)Na] were 1.13 +/- 0.08, n = 26, and 0.99 +/- 0.07 (n = 26), respectively. The tubular fluid-to-plasma ultrafiltrate concentration ratio for potassium [(TF/UF)K] was 1.09 +/- 0.05 (n = 13). Ratios did not change significantly with puncture site along the PCT for any of the ions. (TF/P)Li and (TF/UF)K were significantly greater than (TF/P)Na, indicating that lithium and potassium reabsorption do not directly parallel sodium reabsorption in the PCT. PMID:7943365

Shalmi, M; Kibble, J D; Day, J P; Christensen, P; Atherton, J C

1994-10-01

216

Seebeck Coefficient of Lithium and Lithium-Tin Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments into the viability of lithium as a first wall material in a fusion device have shown that it offers great benefits in reducing recycling of hydrogenic species at the wall, increasing energy confinement times, and gettering impurities. However, concerns have been raised about its practicality in regions of high heat fluxes, and one of the greatest is whether or not a lithium divertor concept can function at high steady state temperatures without significant evaporation of the lithium. Lithium-tin alloys might offer a solution by suppressing evaporation, but their performance in a TEMHD driven device such as the LIMIT device under development at UIUC is directly dependent on their thermoelectric properties, namely their unknown Seebeck coefficient. In support of the use of lithium-tin alloys in such a device, experiments are performed to recover the Seebeck coefficient of several different compositions of lithium-tin alloys. Experiments previously performed at the University of Illinois of the Seebeck coefficient of lithium [1] were confirmed and expanded upon by this study. Values of ranging from 12 +/-1 uV/K at 82C to 28 +/-1 uV/K at 240C were obtained.[4pt] [1] V. Surla et al. Journal of Nuclear Materials 415 (2011) 18-22.

Kirsch, L.; Fiflis, P.; Andruczyk, D.; Curreli, D.; Ruzic, D. N.

2012-10-01

217

Lithium niobate explosion monitor  

DOEpatents

Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

1990-01-09

218

Lithium niobate explosion monitor  

DOEpatents

Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

Bundy, Charles H. (Clearwater, FL); Graham, Robert A. (Los Lunas, NM); Kuehn, Stephen F. (Albuquerque, NM); Precit, Richard R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rogers, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01

219

Chloride thresholds in marine concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports results from an ongoing study of the performance of fly ash concrete in marine exposure. Reinforced concrete specimens exposed to tidal conditions were retrieved at ages ranging from 1 to 4 years. Steel reinforcement mass losses are compared with chloride contents at the location of the bar for concrete specimens of various strength grades and with a

Michael Thomas

1996-01-01

220

Lithium anode for lithium-air secondary batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium ion conducting solid lithium phosphorous nitride (LiPON) has been sputtered on the water-stable NASICON-type lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte Li1+x+yAlxTi2?xP3?ySiyO12 (LATP). The stability and the interface resistance of the Li–Al\\/LiPON\\/LATP\\/LiPON\\/Li–Al cell have been examined. It is shown that the LiPON film protects LATP from reacting with the Li–Al alloy. The impedance of the Li–Al\\/LiPON\\/LATP\\/LiPON\\/Li–Al cell has been measured

Nobuyuki Imanishi; Satoshi Hasegawa; Tao Zhang; Atushi Hirano; Yasuo Takeda; Osamu Yamamoto

2008-01-01

221

Chemical lithium extraction from manganese oxides for lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical lithium extraction has been carried out on the following manganese oxides: the spinel-type compounds LiMn2O4 and Li(4\\/3)Mn(5\\/3)O4, and the rocksalt-related compound Li2MnO3. Lithium can be partially removed chemically from these compounds without destroying the host framework. Some compounds obtained by this method have been tested as cathodic materials in rechargeable lithium cells. Electrochemical results and X-ray diffraction patterns of

F. Lubin; A. Lecerf; M. Broussely; J. Labat

1991-01-01

222

21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.  

...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt...Ammonium chloride is crystallized from the solution. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981),...

2014-04-01

223

29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...following hazards are to be addressed: Cancer; central nervous system effects; liver... DANGER VINYL CHLORIDE MAY CAUSE CANCER AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (ii... DANGER VINYL CHLORIDE MAY CAUSE CANCER WEAR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION AND...

2012-07-01

224

29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.  

...following hazards are to be addressed: Cancer; central nervous system effects; liver... DANGER VINYL CHLORIDE MAY CAUSE CANCER AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (ii... DANGER VINYL CHLORIDE MAY CAUSE CANCER WEAR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION AND...

2014-07-01

225

29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...following hazards are to be addressed: Cancer; central nervous system effects; liver... DANGER VINYL CHLORIDE MAY CAUSE CANCER AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (ii... DANGER VINYL CHLORIDE MAY CAUSE CANCER WEAR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION AND...

2013-07-01

226

21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron...Reg. No. 10025-77-1) is readily formed when ferric chloride is exposed to moisture...Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this...

2013-04-01

227

21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron...Reg. No. 10025-77-1) is readily formed when ferric chloride is exposed to moisture...Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this...

2012-04-01

228

21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron...Reg. No. 10025-77-1) is readily formed when ferric chloride is exposed to moisture...Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this...

2011-04-01

229

A lithium superionic conductor.  

PubMed

Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10(-2) S cm(-1)) only at 50-80 °C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li(10)GeP(2)S(12) that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window). PMID:21804556

Kamaya, Noriaki; Homma, Kenji; Yamakawa, Yuichiro; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kato, Yuki; Hama, Shigenori; Kawamoto, Koji; Mitsui, Akio

2011-09-01

230

New treatment option: 223Ra chloride, the first approved unsealed ?-emitting radiopharmaceutical.  

PubMed

A 66-year-old man with prostate cancer presented with intractable pain associated with multifocal bone metastases. After receiving 180 µCi (1.35 µCi/kg) of (223)Ra chloride, radiation survey measured 0.2 mR/h at 1 m, and the patient was discharged to home. He will return monthly for the next 5 months for repeat (223)Ra chloride administrations. (223)Ra chloride is the first Food and Drug Administration-approved unsealed ?-emitting radiopharmaceutical. PMID:23867617

Colletti, Patrick M

2013-09-01

231

Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride  

DOEpatents

Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

Spormann, Alfred M. (Stanford, CA); Muller, Jochen A. (Baltimore, MD); Rosner, Bettina M. (Berlin, DE); Von Abendroth, Gregory (Nannhein, DE); Meshulam-Simon, Galit (Los Altos, CA); McCarty, Perry L (Stanford, CA)

2011-11-22

232

21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13 . 6H2 0, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1)...

2010-04-01

233

21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.  

...from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13. 6H2 0, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1)...

2014-04-01

234

Vinyl Chloride Loss during Laboratory Holding Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because vinyl chloride is a potent human carcinogen, it is important that analytical results from groundwater samples accurately reflect levels of exposure to groundwater users. This study investigated the current allowable holding time of 14 days to determine if vinyl chloride is lost from samples during this time. Samples containing an initial concentration of 2 ?g\\/liter of vinyl chloride showed

Richard Soule; Daniel Symonik; David Jones; Doug Turgeon; Betsy Gerbec

1996-01-01

235

Occlusion and ion exchange in the molten (lithium chloride+potassium chloride+alkaline-earth chloride) salt+zeolite 4A system with alkaline-earth chlorides of calcium and strontium and in the molten (lithium chloride+potassium chloride+actinide chloride) salt+zeolite 4A system with the actinide chloride of uranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between molten salts of the type LiCl-KCl-MeCl\\u000a n\\u000a (Me=Ca, Sr, U; \\u000a $$x_{MeCl_n } $$\\u000a = to 0.45; and x\\u000a KCl\\/x\\u000a LiCl=0.69) and zeolite 4A have been studied at 823 K. The main interactions between these salts and zeolite are molten salt occlusion\\u000a to form salt-loaded zeolite and ion exchange between the molten salt and salt-loaded zeolite. An irreversible

Dusan Lexa

2003-01-01

236

Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

A negative electrode (12) for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell (10) with an intermetallic host structure containing two or more elements selected from the metal elements and silicon, capable of accommodating lithium within its crystallographic host structure such that when the host structure is lithiated it transforms to a lithiated zinc-blende-type structure. Both active elements (alloying with lithium) and inactive elements (non-alloying with lithium) are disclosed. Electrochemical cells and batteries as well as methods of making the negative electrode are disclosed.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kepler, Keith D. (Mountain View, CA); Vaughey, John T. (Elmhurst, IL)

2003-01-01

237

A Lithium Superionic Sulfide Cathode for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries  

SciTech Connect

This work presents a facile synthesis approach for core-shell structured Li2S nanoparticles, which have Li2S as the core and Li3PS4 as the shell. This material functions as lithium superionic sulfide (LSS) cathode for long-lasting, energy-efficient lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The LSS has an ionic conductivity of 10-7 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 6 orders of magnitude higher than that of bulk Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high lithium-ion conductivity of LSS imparts an excellent cycling performance to all-solid Li-S batteries, which also promises safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

Lin, Zhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Zengcai [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

238

Structural, thermal and electrochemical cell characteristics of poly(vinyl chloride)-based polymer electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study is made of a polymer electrolyte system composed of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as a host polymer, lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF 4) and lithium triflate (LiCF 3SO 3) as salts and a mixture of ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate as plasticizers. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveales that the salts and plasticizers disrupt the crystalline nature of PVC-based polymer electrolytes and converts them into an amorphous phase. Differential scanning calorimetry studies suggest that the plasticized samples have lower values of the glass tranisition temperature Tg, and thermogravimetric studies show that the thermal stability of the polymer electrolytes decreases with addition of plasticizers. The plasticized PVC electrolyte is used in the fabrication of electrochemical cells. The open-circuit voltage, discharge time for the plateau region, etc. are evaluated.

Ramesh, S.; Arof, A. K.

239

Effect of Lithium PFCs on impurity ion content in LTX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) investigates Li coatings as the main plasma-facing component (PFC) which are expected to reduce ion impurity content in the plasmas. High densities of impurity ions, such as C, O, Fe, and even Li, may cool the plasmas by line radiation. Presently, solid lithium is used in LTX, but soon liquid Li will be tested as a PFC. To survey the ion impurity contents in LTX plasmas, an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer has recently been installed, capable of distinguishing wavelengths in the range 40-400 å. These EUV spectra are beneficial for impurity diagnostics since a multitude of low- to high-Z ions emit strong line radiation in this interval. The EUV spectrometer will study how the Li coatings affect the impurity content in LTX.

Hare, Jack; Boyle, Dennis; Kaita, Robert; Majeski, Richard; Clementson, Joel; Beiersdorfer, Peter

2012-10-01

240

Terahertz Generation and Optical Properties of Lithium Ternary Chalcogenide Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the generation of THz radiation in lithium ternary compounds LiInSe2, LiGaSe2, LiInS2, LiGaS2 and characterized these materials by THz time-domain spectroscopy. Using 800 nm femtosecond excitation pulse, all crystals produce THz radiation due to an optical rectification corresponding to the nonlinear optical coefficient d 33. We have measured refractive indices along the x-axis and the z-axis for all crystals in the range 150-700 ?m and fitted them by using Sellmeier equation. With respect to the obtained results, velocity-matching between the incident laser pulse and the generated THz wave cannot be achieved at 800 nm, but for shorter wavelengths. Hence, an enhanced THz generation in Lithium ternary compounds may be observed by using a laser emitting below 800 nm.

Takeya, Kei; Takemoto, Yoshiaki; Kawayama, Iwao; Murakami, Hironaru; Matsukawa, Takeshi; Yoshimura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke; Tonouchi, Masayoshi

2011-04-01

241

Cyanoethylated Compounds as Additives in Lithium/Lithium Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

1998-05-08

242

Prismatic cell lithium-ion battery using lithium manganese oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have demonstrated the ability to fulfill the energy storage needs of many new technologies. The most significant drawbacks of currently available technologies, such as LiCoO 2 based Li-ion cells, is their high cost and significant environmental hazards. Li-ion cells which use a lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) spinel) based cathode material should be much less costly and safer

G. M. Ehrlich; R. M. Hellen; T. B. Reddy

1997-01-01

243

Cyanoethylated compounds as additives in lithium/lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01

244

Lithium System Operation Dan Lev and David Stein  

E-print Network

Lithium System Operation Dan Lev and David Stein March 1, 2011 (or Lithium tank for dummies) 1 #12 for Ordering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 9 Lithium Handling 52 9.1 Glove Box for Ordering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 9.2 Lithium Cleaning

245

77 FR 68069 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION...and secondary lithium cells or lithium batteries internationally, or to and from an APO...that prohibited the mailing of lithium batteries and cells internationally and when...

2012-11-15

246

Electromagnetically Restrained Lithium Blanket APEX Interim Report November, 1999  

E-print Network

Electromagnetically Restrained Lithium Blanket APEX Interim Report November, 1999 6-1 CHAPTER 6: ELECTROMAGNETICALLY RESTRAINED LITHIUM BLANKET Contributors Robert Woolley #12;Electromagnetically Restrained Lithium Blanket APEX Interim Report November, 1999 6-2 6. ELECTROMAGNETICALLY RESTRAINED LITHIUM BLANKET 6

California at Los Angeles, University of

247

Case report on lithium intoxication with normal lithium levels  

PubMed Central

Summary An 18-year old female was admitted to a psychiatric hospital with an initial episode of mania. Treated with routine dosages of lithium bicarbonate, her symptoms resolved after two weeks; she was discharged on a dosage of 250mg lithium bid. Five days after discharge she was taken to the emergency department of a general hospital with loss of appetite and disturbed consciousness. The general hospital physicians were unable to diagnose the problem so she was transferred back to the psychiatric hospital. At that time she had a lithium blood level of 0.57 mmol/L (i.e., at the lower end of the therapeutic range) but was, nevertheless, clearly experiencing lithium intoxication with anuria, trembling extremities, blurred speech, muscle rigidity and hyperactive tendon reflexes. Treated with intravenous mannitol, her acute symptoms resolved quickly. The case highlights the need to monitor clinical symptoms of intoxication in all patients taking lithium, regardless of their blood level, and to inform patients, family members, and general physicians about the symptoms and management of lithium intoxication. PMID:25092957

PENG, Jing

2014-01-01

248

Histological Changes in the Retina Provoked by Lithium Treatment in a Nocturnal Rodent (Lagostomus maximus maximus).  

PubMed

Daily morphological variations have been previously described in the viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus) retina. The aim of this work was to determine the effects of lithium administration on the histology of retinas from this nocturnal rodent since lithium is a drug that has been shown to affect different parameters of circadian rhythms. Adult male viscachas were divided into 2 groups, injected daily with lithium chloride or vehicle for 35 days, and sacrificed at 08:00, 16:00, and 24:00 h for light and electron microscopy studies. The following morphometric parameters were analyzed: the thickness of the photoreceptor layer, the rod outer and inner segments, and the outer nuclear layer. The control group displayed a true daily cycle of photoreceptor renewal similar to that previously reported by us for (untreated) viscachas in their normal habitat. In all lithium-treated groups, we did not observe histological changes in the thickness measurement of the retinal layers. In these groups, the retinas presented ultrastructural characteristics similar to those observed in control animals sacrificed at 24:00 h. In conclusion, chronic lithium administration abolished the daily histological rhythm in the viscacha retina, probably via inhibition of the phagocytosis process in pigment epithelial cells. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24803103

Calderón, Claudia; Filippa, Verónica; Fogal, Teresa; Piezzi, Ramón; Pelzer, Lilian; Mohamed, Fabian

2014-01-01

249

Fluid consumption in lithium-treated rats: roles of stimulus novelty and context novelty.  

PubMed

In 5 experiments thirsty rats received an injection of lithium chloride or of saline, and their consumption of fluid was monitored at 5-min intervals for 30 min. The novelty of the fluid and the novelty of the test context was varied. In Experiment 1 a novel fluid (a sucrose solution) was offered in a novel context; in Experiment 2 the fluid was novel and the context was familiar (the home cage); in Experiment 3 the fluid was familiar and the context was novel; and in Experiment 4 both fluid and context were familiar. Lithium influenced fluid consumption in those designs that included at least one novel feature (Experiments 1, 2, and 3, but not in Experiment 4). Consumption was initially enhanced (with respect to the controls) when the context was novel, but was suppressed when the fluid was novel. In Experiment 5, the flavor was over-ingested after lithium treatment when it was presented in a short (5 min) test conducted in a novel place, but was rejected in a subsequent consumption in the home cages. It is argued that the effect of lithium depends on two factors: enhanced attention to salient cues that modifies the exploratory responses evoked by a novel context; rapid conditioning of an aversion when the fluid consumed is novel. Implications for the use of fluid consumption as an index of lithium-induced nausea are considered. PMID:22835651

Rodríguez, Marcial; García, Zoé; Cobo, Pablo; Hall, Geoffrey

2012-10-01

250

The Spectrum of Gold Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectrum of gold chloride vapor excited by streaming active nitrogen was photographed. It was found to consist of 43 bands comprising, for each isotope of AuCl, two intermingled systems in the green region. All the bands are shaded toward the red. No other bands were found between lambdalambda7000-2000. The band heads of each system were measured, and equations are

W. F. Ferguson

1928-01-01

251

Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 ?? 1010 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park. ?? 1985.

Norton, D.R.; Friedman, I.

1985-01-01

252

Liquid Lithium Limiter Effects on Tokamak Plasmas and Plasma-Liquid Surface Interactions  

SciTech Connect

We present results from the first experiments with a large area liquid lithium limiter in a magnetic fusion device, and its effect on improving plasma performance by reducing particle recycling. Using large area liquid metal surfaces in any major fusion device is unlikely before a test on a smaller scale. This has motivated its demonstration in the CDX-U spherical torus with a unique, fully toroidal lithium limiter. The highest current discharges were obtained with a liquid lithium limiter. There was a reduction in recycling, as indicated by a significant decrease in the deuterium-alpha emission and oxygen radiation. How these results might extrapolate to reactors is suggested in recycling/retention experiments with liquid lithium surfaces under high-flux deuterium and helium plasma bombardment in PISCES-B. Data on deuterium atoms retained in liquid lithium indicate retention of all incident ions until full volumetric conversion to lithium deuteride. The PISCES-B results also show a material loss mechanism that lowers the maximum operating temperature compared to that for the liquid surface equilibrium vapor pressure. This may restrict the lithium temperature in reactors.

R. Kaita; R. Majeski; R. Doerner; G. Antar; M. Baldwin; R. Conn; P. Efthimion; M. Finkenthal; D. Hoffman; B. Jones; S. Krashenninikov; H. Kugel; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; J. Menard; T. Munsat; D. Stutman; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; V. Soukhanovskii; D. Whyte; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov

2002-10-15

253

Dendrite preventing separator for secondary lithium batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dendrites are prevented from shorting a secondary lithium battery by use of a first porous separator, such as porous polypropylene, adjacent to the lithium anode that is unreactive with lithium and a second porous fluoropolymer separator between the cathode and the first separator, such as polytetrafluoroethylene, that is reactive with lithium. As the tip of a lithium dendrite contacts the second separator, an exothermic reaction occurs locally between the lithium dendrite and the fluoropolymer separator. This results in the prevention of the dendrite propagation to the cathode.

Shen, David H. (inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (inventor); Halpert, Gerald (inventor)

1993-01-01

254

Dendrite preventing separator for secondary lithium batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dendrites are prevented from shorting a secondary lithium battery by use of a first porous separator such as porous polypropylene adjacent the lithium anode that is unreactive with lithium and a second porous fluoropolymer separator between the cathode and the first separator such as polytetrafluoroethylene that is reactive with lithium. As the tip of a lithium dendrite contacts the second separator, an exothermic reaction occurs locally between the lithium dendrite and the fluoropolymer separator. This results in the prevention of the dendrite propagation to the cathode.

Shen, David H. (inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (inventor); Halpert, Gerald (inventor)

1995-01-01

255

Secondary lithium batteries for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Secondary lithium cells which use a LiAsF6-2-Me-THF electrolyte and a TiS2 intercalatable cathode exhibit encouraging cycle life at ambient temperature. Electrochemical and surface analytical studies indicate that the electrolyte is unstable in the presence of metallic lithium, leading to the formation of a lithium passivating film composed of lithium arsenic oxyfluorides and lithium fluorsilicates. The lithium cyclability remains as the most important problem to solve. Different electrolyte solvents, such as sulfolane, exhibit promising characteristics but lead to new compatibility problems with the other cell component materials.

Carter, B.; Khanna, S. K.; Yen, S. P. S.; Shen, D.; Somoano, R. B.

1981-01-01

256

Development of Lithium Deposition Techniques for TFTR  

SciTech Connect

The ability to increase the quantity of lithium deposition into TFTR beyond that of the Pellet Injector while minimizing perturbations to the plasma provides interesting experimental and operational options. Two additional lithium deposition tools were developed for possible application during the 1996 Experimental Schedule: a solid lithium target probe for real-time deposition, and a lithium effusion oven for deposition between discharges. The lithium effusion oven was operated in TFTR to deposit lithium on the Inner Limiter in the absence of plasma. This resulted in the third highest power TFTR discharge.

Gorman, J.; Johnson, D.; Kugel, H.W.; Labik, G.; Lemunyan, G.; et al

1997-10-01

257

Development of lithium deposition techniques for TFTR  

SciTech Connect

The ability to increase the quantity of lithium deposition into TFTR beyond that of the Pellet Injector while minimizing perturbations to the plasma provides interesting experimental and operational options. Two additional lithium deposition tools were developed for possible application during the 1996 Experimental Schedule: a solid lithium target probe for real-time deposition, and a lithium effusion oven for deposition between discharges. The lithium effusion oven was operated in TFTR to deposit lithium on the Inner Limiter in the absence of plasma. This resulted in the third highest power TFTR discharge.

Kugel, H.W.; Gorman, J.; Johnson, D.; Labik, G.; Lemunyan, G.; Mansfield, D.; Timberlake, J.; Vocaturo, M.

1997-10-01

258

Lithium depletion and the rotational history of exoplanet host stars  

E-print Network

Israelian et al. (2004) reported that exoplanet host stars are lithium depleted compared to solar-type stars without detected massive planets, a result recently confirmed by Gonzalez (2008). We investigate whether enhanced lithium depletion in exoplanet host stars may result from their rotational history. We have developed rotational evolution models for slow and fast solar-type rotators from the pre-main sequence (PMS) to the age of the Sun and compare them to the distribution of rotational periods observed for solar-type stars between 1 Myr and 5 Gyr. We show that slow rotators develop a high degree of differential rotation between the radiative core and the convective envelope, while fast rotators evolve with little core-envelope decoupling. We suggest that strong differential rotation at the base of the convective envelope is responsible for enhanced lithium depletion in slow rotators. We conclude that lithium-depleted exoplanet host stars were slow rotators on the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) and argue that slow rotation results from a long lasting star-disk interaction during the PMS. Altogether, this suggests that long-lived disks (> 5 Myr) may be a necessary condition for massive planet formation/migration.

Jerome Bouvier

2008-08-28

259

Anodic behavior of lithium in aqueous lithium hydroxide solutions. [Lithium--water battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium--water battery is the prototype of a large class of primary galvanic cells which use lithium anodes, various water-based electrolytes containing dissolved oxidizing agents, and inert, suitably catalized cathodes. Water is the cathode material, and is reduced on an iron screen current collector. The purpose of this work was to determine the mass transfer dependence of the anodic half-cell

J. F. Cooper; P. K. Hosmer; R. V. Homsy

1976-01-01

260

Lithium Ion Solvation: Amine and Unsaturated Hydrocarbon Solvates of Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS)  

E-print Network

Lithium Ion Solvation: Amine and Unsaturated Hydrocarbon Solvates of Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide, and 13C NMR spectroscopic studies of 6Li-15N labeled lithium hexamethyldisilazide ([6Li,15N]- Li ligand structure and lithium amide aggregation state is a complex and sensitive function of amine alkyl

Collum, David B.

261

SOLID STATE NMR STUDY SUPPORTING THE LITHIUM VACANCY DEFECT MODEL IN CONGRUENT LITHIUM  

E-print Network

@ Pergamon SOLID STATE NMR STUDY SUPPORTING THE LITHIUM VACANCY DEFECT MODEL IN CONGRUENT LITHIUM performed on powdered and single crystal lithium niobate of defectivecongruent composition (48.4%LirO;51.6% NbrOr) using a magnetic field strength of 7.05 Tesla with the aim to distinguish between a lithium

Bluemel, Janet

262

Repression of a lithium pump as a consequence of lithium ingestion by manic-depressive subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium pump in human erythrocyte membranes, which is responsible for extrusion of lithium against a concentration gradient, has been found to be reversibly repressed during periods of lithium carbonate administration. The pump activity of patients prior to lithium therapy is not different from controls. The onset of repression may require several days to several weeks and occurs at specific

Herbert L. Meltzer; Suham Kassir; David L. Dunner; Ronald R. Fieve

1977-01-01

263

Observation of a cascaded process in intracavity terahertz optical parametric oscillators based on lithium niobate.  

PubMed

Cascaded difference frequency generation has been observed in intracavity optical parametric oscillators based on bulk lithium niobate and producing nanosecond pulses of terahertz radiation. Two idler waves are generated, namely: the primary idler wave associated with the parametric down conversion process itself; and a secondary idler wave, due to difference frequency generation. Experimental investigations of the frequency, temporal evolution, propagation direction, intensity, phase matching and oscillation threshold of the generated down-converted waves are reported. The overall generation efficiency for the terahertz radiation is enhanced, thereby overcoming the Manley-Rowe limit. Advantages of the present approach over schemes based on periodically poled lithium niobate are identified. PMID:23938637

Thomson, C L; Dunn, M H

2013-07-29

264

Highly Accurate Molecular Constants for Carbon Monoxide, Hydrogen-Fluoride Hydrogen-Chloride Hydroxyl, Sodium-Hydride Magnesium-Hydride and Oxygen: Rotational Transition Frequencies Measured with Tunable Far Infrared Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using tunable far infrared (FIR) radiation, accurate rotational transition frequencies have been measured for several stable and transient diatomic molecules. The tunable FIR radiation is generated by nonlinear mixing of radiation from two CO(,2) lasers in a metal-insulator-metal diode. The FIR difference-frequency is radiated from the diode's antenna: a typical FIR power level is 10('-7) Watts. The combination of lines from a waveguide CO(,2) laser, with its larger tuning range, and CO(,2) isotope lasers provides nearly complete coverage of the FIR region (300 to 6000 GHz). The spectrometer utilizing this radiation source is described. CO, HF, and HCl transitions were measured throughout the FIR region and revised molecular constants derived. These measurements provide easily obtained, highly accurate frequency standards for the FIR region. Rotational and fine-structure transitions between the lower rotational levels of the hydroxyl radical in its X('2)(PI) state have been measured to an accuracy of 100-200 kHz. These measurements both confirm and improve upon the best previous estimates, which were obtained by extrapolation of laser magnetic resonance data. Collisional broadening to two of these OH transitions was measured for collisions with oxygen and nitrogen. Rotational spectra in the v = 0, 1, 2, and 3 levels of the X('1)(SIGMA) state of sodium hydride were observed and a revised set of Dunham coefficients determined. These constants are typically an order of magnitude more accurate than the best values previously available. Pure rotational spectra of MgH and MgD in the X('2)(SIGMA) state were measured. The MgH measurements and derived molecular constants provide accurate frequencies for an efficient search for this molecule in the interstellar medium. Five FIR transitions of the oxygen molecule in its ground electronic and vibrational state were also measured. This is the first measurement of these lines outside of an external magnetic field and yields new values for the molecular parameters. The lineshape of one of these transitions is analyzed at various pressures and a pressure self-broadening parameter of 2.32(48) MHz/Torr is obtained. The first experimental observation of sub-Doppler lineshapes in tunable FIR spectroscopy was accomplished using a FIR-infrared double resonance scheme.

Zink, Lyndon Robert

265

Time-resolved energy transfer from single chloride terminated nanocrystals to graphene  

E-print Network

We examine the time-resolved resonance energy transfer of excitons from single n-butyl amine-bound, chloride-terminated nanocrystals to two-dimensional graphene through time-correlated single photon counting. The radiative biexponential lifetime kinetics and blinking statistics of the individual surface-modified nanocrystal elucidate the non-radiative decay channels. Blinking modification as well as a 4 times reduction in spontaneous emission were observed with the short chloride and n-butylamine ligands, probing the energy transfer pathways for the development of graphene-nanocrystal nanophotonic devices.

Ajayi, O A; Cotlet, M; Petrone, N; Gu, T; Wolcott, A; Gesuele, F; Hone, J; Owen, J S; Wong, C W

2014-01-01

266

Plasma Performance Improvements with Liquid Lithium Limiters in CDX-U  

SciTech Connect

The use of flowing liquid lithium as a first wall for a reactor has potentially attractive physics and engineering features. The Current Drive experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has begun experiments with a fully toroidal liquid lithium limiter. CDX-U is a compact [R = 34 cm, a = 22 cm, Btoroidal = 2 kG, IP =100 kA, T(subscript)e(0) {approx} 100 eV, n(subscript)e(0) {approx} 5 x 10{sup 19} m-3] short-pulse (<25 msec) spherical tokamak with extensive diagnostics. The limiter, which consists of a shallow circular stainless steel tray of radius 34 cm and width 10 cm, can be filled with lithium to a depth of a few millimeters, and forms the lower limiting surface for the discharge. Heating elements beneath the tray are used to liquefy the lithium prior to the experiment. The total area of the tray is approximately 2000 cm{sup 2}. The tokamak edge plasma, when operated in contact with the lithium-filled tray, shows evidence of reduced impurities and recycling. The reduction in re cycling and impurities is largest when the lithium is liquefied by heating to 250 degrees Celsius. Discharges which are limited by the liquid lithium tray show evidence of performance enhancement. Radiated power is reduced and there is spectroscopic evidence for increases in the core electron temperature. Furthermore, the use of a liquid lithium limiter reduces the need for conditioning discharges prior to high current operation. The future development path for liquid lithium limiter systems in CDX-U is also discussed.

R. Majeski; M. Boaz; D. Hoffman; B. Jones; R. Kaita; H. Kugel; T. Munsat; J. Spaleta; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Timberlake; L. Zakharov; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R.W. Conn; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; R. Maingi; and M. Ulrickson

2002-07-12

267

Michael Thackery on Lithium-air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Michael Thackery, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

Michael Thackery

2009-09-14

268

Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

Khalil Amine

2009-09-14

269

Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

An electrochemical cell is described comprising a lithium anode, a cathode and an electrolyte having a conductivity, and reciprocal ohms per cm, of at least 3.5 in, comprising a lithium salt, propylene carbonate and 1,2-dimethoxypropane.

Bakos, V.W.; Steklenski, D.J.

1989-02-14

270

Recent advances in lithium ion technology  

SciTech Connect

Lithium ion technology is based on the use of lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells (1) and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems (2) it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these cells have the high energy density, high voltage and fight weight of metallic lithium systems plus a very long cycle life, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium.

Levy, S.C.

1995-01-01

271

An XAFS Study of Niobium chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride  

SciTech Connect

Niobium chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Although anhydrous Nb2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic melt than in the acidic melt, the EXAFS data shows that the coordination shell around the niobium does not change in the different ionic liquids. Both the acidic and basic melts show a coordination of five chlorides in the first shell. This indicates that in this series of ionic liquids, the Nb2Cl10 breaks up into two NbCl5 entities in both the acidic and the basic melts.

D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

2011-12-31

272

Conductive lithium storage electrode  

DOEpatents

A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Incheon, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Mountain View, CA); Andersson, Anna M. (Vasteras, SE)

2012-04-03

273

Rechargeable lithium battery technology - A survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology of the rechargeable lithium battery is discussed with special attention given to the types of rechargeable lithium cells and to their expected performance and advantages. Consideration is also given to the organic-electrolyte and polymeric-electrolyte cells and to molten salt lithium cells, as well as to technical issues, such as the cycle life, charge control, rate capability, cell size, and safety. The role of the rechargeable lithium cell in future NASA applications is discussed.

Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

274

Synthesis and lithium intercalation properties of nanocrystalline lithium iron oxides  

SciTech Connect

Lithium iron oxides Li{sub x}Fe{sub y}O{sub z} were synthesized by oxidizing Fe{sup 2+} with lithium peroxide in the presence of lithium hydroxide in aqueous solutions followed by firing the precursors at 200 {le} T {le} 800 C. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, wet-chemical analyses, and surface-area measurements. The Li/Fe ratio in the samples depends on the concentrations and volumes of the reactants used in the synthesis. Samples fired at a lower temperature of 200 C with a nanocrystalline microstructure and optimum Li/Fe ratio exhibit a capacity of about 140 mAh/g in the range 1.5--4.3 V with excellent cyclability. On the other hand, samples fired at higher temperatures T {ge} 400 C with well-defined crystalline phases exhibit much lower capacity (< 50 mAh/g).

Kim, J.; Manthiram, A.

1999-12-01

275

Protective Role of Lithium in Ameliorating the Aluminium-induced Oxidative Stress and Histological Changes in Rat Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to investigate the effects of lithium (Li) supplementation on aluminium (Al) induced changes in\\u000a antioxidant defence system and histoarchitecture of cerebrum and cerebellum in rats. Al was administered in the form of aluminium\\u000a chloride (100 mg\\/kg b.wt.\\/day, orally) and Li was given in the form of Li carbonate through diet (1.1 g\\/kg diet, daily) for\\u000a a period

Punita Bhalla; D. K. Dhawan

2009-01-01

276

Magnetism in lithium-oxygen discharge product.  

PubMed

Nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium-oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium-oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium-oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules. PMID:23670967

Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S; Greeley, Jeffrey; Ferguson, Glen A; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A; Amine, Kahlil

2013-07-01

277

Heterogeneous lithium niobate photonics on silicon substrates  

E-print Network

Heterogeneous lithium niobate photonics on silicon substrates Payam Rabiei,1,* Jichi Ma,1 Saeed-confined lithium niobate photonic devices and circuits on silicon substrates is reported based on wafer bonding high- performance lithium niobate microring optical resonators and Mach- Zehnder optical modulators

Fathpour, Sasan

278

Investigation on lithium-polymer electrolyte batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium-polymer batteries using vanadium oxide-based composite electrodes and operating at moderate temperatures (˜90°C) have been investigated. The work was developed within the advanced lithium-polymer batteries for electric vehicles (ALPE) project, an Italian integrated project, devoted to the realization of lithium-polymer batteries for electric vehicle applications.

Appetecchi, G. B.; Alessandrini, F.; Carewska, M.; Caruso, T.; Prosini, P. P.; Scaccia, S.; Passerini, S.

279

Low-chlorides mud limits disposal costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low chloride potassium\\/polymer mud has been used to drill water sensitive shales. The fluid contained 3,000 ppm K\\/sup +\\/, and only 300 ppm or less chlorides. The pH was kept below 10.5. The system consisted of an organic potassium source and a high molecular weight polymer. Upon completion, the pit contained only 278 ppm chlorides. Disposal costs were greatly

1986-01-01

280

Metal chloride cathode for a battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of fabricating a rechargeable battery is disclosed which includes a positive electrode which contains a chloride of a selected metal when the electrode is in its active state. The improvement comprises fabricating the positive electrode by: providing a porous matrix composed of a metal; providing a solution of the chloride of the selected metal; and impregnating the matrix with the chloride from the solution.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Bankston, C. Perry (inventor)

1991-01-01

281

The Primordial Lithium Problem  

E-print Network

Big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) theory, together with the precise WMAP cosmic baryon density, makes tight predictions for the abundances of the lightest elements. Deuterium and 4He measurements agree well with expectations, but 7Li observations lie a factor 3-4 below the BBN+WMAP prediction. This 4-5\\sigma\\ mismatch constitutes the cosmic "lithium problem," with disparate solutions possible. (1) Astrophysical systematics in the observations could exist but are increasingly constrained. (2) Nuclear physics experiments provide a wealth of well-measured cross-section data, but 7Be destruction could be enhanced by unknown or poorly-measured resonances, such as 7Be + 3He -> 10C^* -> p + 9B. (3) Physics beyond the Standard Model can alter the 7Li abundance, though D and 4He must remain unperturbed; we discuss such scenarios, highlighting decaying Supersymmetric particles and time-varying fundamental constants. Present and planned experiments could reveal which (if any) of these is the solution to the problem.

Brian D. Fields

2012-03-15

282

Fatigue crack propagation in aluminum-lithium alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal mechanisms which govern the fatigue crack propagation resistance of aluminum-lithium alloys are investigated, with emphasis on their behavior in controlled gaseous and aqueous environments. Extensive data describe the growth kinetics of fatigue cracks in ingot metallurgy Al-Li alloys 2090, 2091, 8090, and 8091 and in powder metallurgy alloys exposed to moist air. Results are compared with data for traditional aluminum alloys 2024, 2124, 2618, 7075, and 7150. Crack growth is found to be dominated by shielding from tortuous crack paths and resultant asperity wedging. Beneficial shielding is minimized for small cracks, for high stress ratios, and for certain loading spectra. While water vapor and aqueous chloride environments enhance crack propagation, Al-Li-Cu alloys behave similarly to 2000-series aluminum alloys. Cracking in water vapor is controlled by hydrogen embrittlement, with surface films having little influence on cyclic plasticity.

Rao, K. T. V.; Ritchie, R. O.; Piascik, R. S.; Gangloff, R. P.

1989-01-01

283

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries  

DOEpatents

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

2004-01-13

284

Nanostructured lithium nickel manganese oxides for lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured lithium nickel manganese oxides were investigated as advanced positive electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries designated to power plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and all-electric vehicles. The investigation included material characterization and electrochemical testing. In cell tests, the Li{sub 1.375}Ni{sub 0.25}Mn{sub 0.75}O{sub 2.4375} composition achieved high capacity (210 mAh g¹) at an elevated rate (230 mA g¹), which makes this material

Haixia Deng; Ilias Belharouak; Russel E. Cook; Huiming Wu; Yang-Kook Sun; Khalil Amine

2010-01-01

285

Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar  

SciTech Connect

In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature). The measurements are modelled on Fick's law modified by a term for chloride binding. Inclusion of chloride binding significantly improves the profile shape of the modelled ingress profiles. The presence of fine aggregate and formation of interfacial transition zones at paste-aggregate boundaries does not significantly affect diffusion rates.

Jensen, O.M.; Hansen, P.F.; Coats, A.M.; Glasser, F.P.

1999-09-01

286

Fabrication Of Metal Chloride Cathodes By Sintering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transition-metal chloride cathodes for use in high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries prepared by sintering transition-metal powders mixed with sodium chloride. Need for difficult and dangerous chlorination process eliminated. Proportions of transition metal and sodium chloride in mixture adjusted to suit specific requirements. Cathodes integral to sodium/metal-chloride batteries, which have advantages over sodium/sulfur batteries including energy densities, increased safety, reduced material and thermal-management problems, and ease of operation and assembly. Being evaluated for supplying electrical power during peak demand and electric vehicles.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Di Stefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

1992-01-01

287

Enrofloxacin hydro­chloride dihydrate  

PubMed Central

The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H23FN3O3 +·Cl?·2H2O [systematic name: 4-(3-carb­oxy-1-cyclo­propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-di­hydro­quin­o­lin-7-yl)-1-ethyl­piperazin-1-ium chloride dihydrate], consists of two independent monocations of the protonated enrofloxacin, two chloride anions and four water mol­ecules. In the cations, the piperazinium rings adopt chair conformations and the dihedral angles between the cyclo­propyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring system are 56.55?(2) and 51.11?(2)°. An intra­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bond is observed in each cation. In the crystal, the components are connected via O—H?Cl, N—H?Cl and O—H?O hydrogen bonds, and a ?–? inter­action between the benzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.6726?(13)?Å], resulting in a three-dimensional array. PMID:24826167

Miranda-Calderón, Jorge E.; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Sumano, Héctor

2014-01-01

288

Strengthened lithium for x-ray blast windows  

SciTech Connect

Lithium's high x-ray transparency makes it an attractive material for windows intended to protect soft x-ray diagnostics in high energy density experiments. Pure lithium is soft and weak, but lithium mixed with lithium hydride powder becomes harder and stronger, in principle without any additional x-ray absorption. A comparison with the standard material for x-ray windows, beryllium, suggests that lithium or lithium strengthened by lithium hydride may well be an excellent option for such windows.

Pereira, N. R. [Ecopulse Inc., P.O. Box 528, Springfield, Virginia 22150 (United States); Imam, M. A. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2008-05-15

289

Composite electrodes for lithium batteries.  

SciTech Connect

The stability of composite positive and negative electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries is discussed. Positive electrodes with spinel-type structures that are derived from orthorhombic-LiMnO{sub 2} and layered-MnO{sub 2} are significantly more stable than standard spinel Li[Mn{sub 2}]O{sub 4} electrodes when cycled electrochemically over both the 4-V and 3-V plateaus in lithium cells. Transmission electron microscope data of cycled electrodes have indicated that a composite domain structure accounts for this greater electrochemical stability. The performance of composite Cu{sub x}Sn materials as alternative negative electrodes to amorphous SnO{sub x} electrodes for lithium-ion batteries is discussed in terms of the importance of the concentration of the electrochemically inactive copper component in the electrode.

Hackney, S. A.; Johnson, C. S.; Kahaian, A. J.; Kepler, K. D.; Shao-Horn, Y.; Thackeray, M. M.; Vaughey, J. T.

1999-02-03

290

Lithium ion rechargeable systems studies  

SciTech Connect

Lithium ion systems, although relatively new, have attracted much interest worldwide. Their high energy density, long cycle life and relative safety, compared with metallic lithium rechargeable systems, make them prime candidates for powering portable electronic equipment. Although lithium ion cells are presently used in a few consumer devices, e.g., portable phones, camcorders, and laptop computers, there is room for considerable improvement in their performance. Specific areas that need to be addressed include: (1) carbon anode--increase reversible capacity, and minimize passivation; (2) cathode--extend cycle life, improve rate capability, and increase capacity. There are several programs ongoing at Sandia National Laboratories which are investigating means of achieving the stated objectives in these specific areas. This paper will review these programs.

Levy, S.C.; Lasasse, R.R.; Cygan, R.T.; Voigt, J.A.

1995-02-01

291

Lithium-6 from Solar Flares  

E-print Network

By introducing a hitherto ignored Li-6 producing process, due to accelerated He-3 reactions with He-4, we show that accelerated particle interactions in solar flares produce much more Li-6 than Li-7. By normalizing our calculations to gamma-ray data we demonstrate that the Li-6 produced in solar flares, combined with photospheric Li-7, can account for the recently determined solar wind lithium isotopic ratio, obtained from measurements in lunar soil, provided that the bulk of the flare produced lithium is evacuated by the solar wind. Further research in this area could provide unique information on a variety of problems, including solar atmospheric transport and mixing, solar convection and the lithium depletion issue, and solar wind and solar particle acceleration.

R. Ramaty; V. Tatischeff; J. P. Thibaud; B. Kozlovsky; N. Mandzhavidze

2000-03-23

292

Potentiometric titration of chloride in plant tissue extracts using the chloride ion electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of the chloride specific ion electrode to determine chloride in plants was evaluted. Direct potentiometric determination of chloride by the electrode resulted in unreproducible and extremely high chloride values. However, use of this electrode to indicate the end point in titration of the tissue?extract mixture with AgNO3 gave results nearly identical to those obtained by the Mohr procedure. The

R. L. LaCroix; D. R. Keeney; L. M. Walsh

1970-01-01

293

Preconditioning with acute and chronic lithium administration reduces ischemia/reperfusion injury mediated by cyclooxygenase not nitric oxide synthase pathway in isolated rat heart.  

PubMed

Lithium is widely used for the management of neuropsychiatric symptoms in bipolar disorders. A variety of hypotheses have been invoked to explain the mechanism of action of lithium. To determine if lithium exerts direct cardiac protection, in the present study perfused rat heart model was used. The mechanism of lithium-mediated cardioprotection was explored by combined use of lithium and nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) or indomethacin (a non-selective cyclooxygenase pathway inhibitor). Rat isolated hearts were used for Langendorff perfusion. Hearts were either non-preconditioned or preconditioned with acute lithium (3 mM) or chronic lithium (600 mg/l in tap water for 4 weeks, 0.265 +/- 0.023 mM in serum) before 30 min global ischemia followed by 90 min reperfusion. Within each of these protocols, hearts were divided into two groups; one group was exposed to L-NAME (0.1 mM) and another group was exposed to indomethacin (10 microM). Infarct size was measured by the triphenyltetrazolium chloride method. Left ventricular function was assessed by left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), heart rate and coronary flow (CF). In our experiment acute and/or chronic administration of lithium before prolonged ischemia offered significant myoprotective effects in terms of infarct size reduction and improved cardiac function against ischemia/reperfusion injury. The effects of lithium pretreatment were prevented by the administration of indomethacin but not L-NAME. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that preconditioning with acute and/or chronic lithium administration improves recovery of the ventricular function and reduces infarct size via cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway in isolated rat heart. PMID:18789320

Faghihi, Mahdieh; Mirershadi, Fatemeh; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Bazargan, Maryam

2008-11-12

294

3-D lithium ion microbattery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lithium-ion battery has emerged as a common power source for portable consumer electronics since its debut two decades ago. Due to the low atomic weight and high electrochemical activity of lithium chemistry, lithium-ion battery has a higher energy density as compared to other battery systems, such as Ni-Cd, Ni-MH, and lead-acid batteries. As a result, use of lithium-ion batteries enables the size of batteries to be effectively reduced without compromising capacity. More importantly, as battery size is reduced, it enhances the applications of portable electronics, increasing the convenience of use. The 3-D battery architecture described in the dissertation is believed to be a new paradigm for future batteries. The architecture features coupled 3-D electrodes to provide better charge/discharge kinetics and a higher charge capacity per footprint area. The overarching objective of this dissertation is to implement the 3-D architecture using the lithium-ion chemistry. The 3-D lithium-ion batteries are designed to provide high areal energy density without compromising power density. The dissertation is comprised of four interrelated sections. First, a simulation was conducted to identify key battery parameters and to define an ideal three-dimensional cell structure. The second part of the research involved identifying fabrication routes to build the 3-D electrode, which was the key design element in the 3-D paradigm. The third part of the dissertation was to correlate the electrode performance with its geometric features. In particular, the influence of aspect ratio was investigated. Lastly, an electrolyte/separator was designed and fabricated based on the existing 3-D electrode configuration. This enabled 3-D battery to be assembled.

Yeh, Yuting

295

Spatial diagnostics of the laser induced lithium fluoride plasma  

SciTech Connect

We present spatial characteristics of the lithium fluoride plasma generated by the fundamental and second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser. The plume emission has been recorded spatially using five spectrometers covering the spectral region from 200 nm to 720 nm. The electron density is measured from the Stark broadened line profile of the line at 610.37 nm, whereas the plasma temperature has been determined using the Boltzmann plot method including all the observed spectral lines of lithium. Both the plasma parameters; electron density and plasma temperature decrease with the increase of the distance from the target surface. The thermal conduction towards the target, the radiative cooling of the plasma, and the conversion of thermal energy into kinetic energy are the main mechanisms responsible for the spatially decrease of the plasma parameters.

Baig, M. A.; Qamar, Aisha; Fareed, M. A.; Anwar-ul-Haq, M.; Ali, Raheel [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan)

2012-06-15

296

Lithium beam-driven target experiments at 10[sup 15] W/g on PBFA II at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

A lithium beam is focused to an intensity 1--2 TW/cm[sup 2]. The beam divergencies have been measured as low as 23 mrad. This lithium beam has the specific power deposition of [similar to]10 W/g, the beam-driven target experiments have achieved radiation temperature of 58 eV.(AIP) [copyright][ital American] [ital Institute] [ital of] [ital Physics] 1994

Mehlhorn, T.A.; Bailey, J.E.; Chandler, G.A.; Coats, R.S.; Cook, D.L.; Derzon, M.S.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Dukart, R.J.; Gerber, R.; Haill, T.A.; Johnson, D.J.; Leeper, R.J.; Lockner, T.R.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Mendel, C.W.; Mix, L.P.; Moats, A.R.; Renk, T.J.; Rochau, G.E.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Ruiz, C.L.; Tisone, G.C.; Olson, R.E.; Wenger, D.F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque New Mexico (United States))

1994-10-05

297

Effect of lithium on plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon in normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats: role of glucagon in the hyperglycaemic response.  

PubMed Central

1. Lithium salts, used in the treatment of affective disorders, may have adverse effects on glucose tolerance in man, and suppress glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in rats. 2. To study the interaction of these effects with pre-existing diabetes mellitus, plasma glucose and insulin responses to lithium chloride were measured in male Wistar rats made diabetic with intraperitoneal streptozotocin, and in normal controls. 3. In both normal and diabetic anaesthetized rats, intravenous lithium (4 mEq kg-1) caused a rise in plasma glucose. In absolute terms, the rise was greater in diabetic (5.2 mmol l-1) than in normal rats (2.3 mmol l-1). 4. Plasma insulin concentrations were reduced by lithium in normal rats, but the low insulin concentrations measured in the diabetic rats were not significantly changed. 5. After intravenous glucose (0.5 g kg-1), lithium-treated diabetic rats showed a second rise in plasma glucose at 60-90 min without any insulin response, while normal rats showed typically reduced insulin responses and initial glucose disappearance rates. 6. Intravenous glucose reduced plasma glucagon concentrations to a greater extent in normal than in diabetic rats, but lithium induced an equal rise in plasma glucagon in both groups, with a time-course similar to that of the hyperglycaemic effect. 7. The hyperglycaemic action of lithium is greater in the hypoinsulinaemic diabetic rats and appears to involve a stimulation of glucagon secretion in both normal and diabetic animals. PMID:8019763

Hermida, O. G.; Fontela, T.; Ghiglione, M.; Uttenthal, L. O.

1994-01-01

298

Lithium synthesis in microquasar accretion.  

PubMed

We study the synthesis of lithium isotopes in the hot tori formed around stellar mass black holes by accretion of the companion star. We find that sizable amounts of both stable isotopes 6Li and 7Li can be produced, the exact figures varying with the characteristics of the torus and reaching as much as 10(-2) M? for each isotope. This mass output is enough to contaminate the entire Galaxy at a level comparable with the original, pregalactic amount of lithium and to overcome other sources such as cosmic-ray spallation or stellar nucleosynthesis. PMID:23030150

Iocco, Fabio; Pato, Miguel

2012-07-13

299

US Army lithium cell applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The how, why and where the Army is applying lithium batteries are addressed. The Army is committing its efforts to the utilization of lithium batteries in new equipment that will be going into the field possibly from FY-80 and thereafter. The Army's philosophy is to guide their users and the equipment designers, to use battery packs are opposed to singel cells. After a detailed description of the battery types that are being considered, a discussion is presented in which questions and comments are exchanged among the Workshop participants.

Legath, A. J.

1978-01-01

300

Chloride Analysis of RFSA Second Campaign Dissolver Solution  

SciTech Connect

The dissolver solution from the second RFSA campaign was analyzed for chloride using the recently-developed turbidimetric method. Prior to chloride removal in head end, the solution contained 1625 ppm chloride. After chloride removal with Hg(I) and prior to feeding to solvent extraction, the solution contained only 75 ppm chloride. This report discusses those analysis results.

Holcomb, H.P.

2001-05-17

301

Recovery and recycling of lithium value from spent lithium titanate (Li2TiO3) pebbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first generation fusion reactors the fusion of deuterium (D) and tritium (T) is considered to produce energy to meet the future energy demand. Deuterium is available in nature whereas, tritium is not. Lithium-6 (Li6) isotope has the ability to produce tritium in the n, ? nuclear reaction with neutrons. Thus lithium-based ceramics enriched by Li6 isotope are considered for the tritium generation for its use in future fusion reactors. Lithium titanate is one such Li-based ceramic material being considered for its some attractive properties viz., high thermal and chemical stability, high thermal conductivity, and low tritium solubility. It is reported in the literature, that the burn up of these pebbles in the fusion reactor will be limited to only 15-17 atomic percentage. At the end of life, the pebbles will contain more than 45% unused Li6 isotope. Due to the high cost of enriched Li6 and the waste disposal considerations, it is necessary to recover the unused Li from the spent lithium titanate pebbles. Till date, only the feasibilities of different processes are reported, but no process details are available. Experiments were carried out for the recovery of Li from simulated Li2TiO3 pebbles and to reuse of lithium in lithium titanate pebble fabrication. The details of the experiments and results are discussed in this paper. Simulated lithium titanate (Li2TiO3) pebbles. The objective of the study is to develop a process which can be used to recover lithium value form the spent Li2TiO3 pebbles from future fusion reactor. The Li2TiO3 pebbles used in the study were synthesized and fabricated by the solid state reaction process developed by Mandal et al. described in details somewhere else [1,2]. Spherical Li2TiO3 pebbles of size 1.0 mm were used and the properties of the Li2TiO3 pebbles used in the study are shown in Table 1. Hydrochloric acid (HCl), of 99.8% purity, purchased from Merck and Loba Chemicals, Mumbai, India. To leach lithium from Li2TiO3 Hydrochloric acid was used. The reasons to use hydrochloric acid are discussed below. Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) analytical grade, procured form Merck Chemicals, Mumbai, India. To precipitate lithium as lithium carbonate from lithium hydroxide solution sodium carbonate was used. Distilled water. Distilled was used in the experiments, primarily to dilute hydrochloric acid to the desired molar solution. Leaching agent. Concentration of the leaching agent. Temperature. Speed of agitation. Solid to liquid ratio, and Particle Size. In the experimental work spherical Li2TiO3 pebbles of size 1.0 was used as mentioned above. To study the effect of particle size on the recovery of lithium from fine Li2TiO3 particles of size range 100-200 ?m were used. These fines were obtained by pulverizing 1.0 mm Li2TiO3 pebbles in a planetary ball mill and classified standard sieves.It is reported that both HNO3 and HCl give relatively more recovery of lithium compared to H2SO4[11-13]. Though the handling of HCl is difficulties due to the chloride corrosion, it is preferred to HNO3 because the deposal of nitrate waste which will generate due to the latter's use viz. sodium nitrate is a problem as per the norms of pollution control standard [11,12].The leaching of Li2TiO3 pebbles were carried out in a 1000 ml three necked and flat bottom glass reactor. The flux was fitted with a reflux condenser to reduce the loss of solution by evaporation and a thermometer. The solid was suspended in the solution by stirring the solution using a magnetic stirrer. The flux was kept on a hot plate with a temperature controller to heat the slurry at constant temperature. The temperature of the solution was controlled within ±3 °C and the temperature of the slurry was noted at an interval of 5 min and the average temperature of each run is determined by time average of the noted readings.A known of volume of HCl solution with known concentration was added to the flux. After the desired stirring speed and reaction temperature were attained, the solid sample of 5 g was added to the solution in reactor. 5 ml solu

Mandal, D.

2013-09-01

302

Effect of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition on electrical and optical properties of lithium borate glasses  

SciTech Connect

The electrical and optical property of lithium borate glasses was investigated. It is observed that conductivity decreases while density and refractive index increases with the addition of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Radiation length of glasses was determined and it is observed that radiation length decreases with the addition of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

Gedam, R. S.; Ramteke, D. D. [Department of Applied physics, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur-440 010 (India)

2012-06-05

303

Lithium Battery Session. Secondary Batteries. Secondary Lithium Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

General: In previous works, it was found that lithium is not generally stable in aprotic solvents but does react with such solvents as PC = (propylene carbonate) and DMF = (dimethyl formamide). It has also been found that the trace water present in these ...

M. Salomon

1974-01-01

304

Secondary lithium battery including a lithium molybdate cathode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-aqueous battery is described including a lithium anode, an electrolyte and a cathode, characterized in that the cathode comprises Li\\/sub x\\/MoâOâ wherein x is an integer ranging from 0.3 to 2.

Tarascon

1987-01-01

305

Secondary lithium battery including a lithium molybdate cathode  

SciTech Connect

A non-aqueous battery is described including a lithium anode, an electrolyte and a cathode, characterized in that the cathode comprises Li/sub x/Mo/sub 2/O/sub 4/ wherein x is an integer ranging from 0.3 to 2.

Tarascon, J.M.

1987-12-01

306

Solid solution lithium alloy cermet anodes  

DOEpatents

A metal-ceramic composite ("cermet") has been produced by a chemical reaction between a lithium compound and another metal. The cermet has advantageous physical properties, high surface area relative to lithium metal or its alloys, and is easily formed into a desired shape. An example is the formation of a lithium-magnesium nitride cermet by reaction of lithium nitride with magnesium. The reaction results in magnesium nitride grains coated with a layer of lithium. The nitride is inert when used in a battery. It supports the metal in a high surface area form, while stabilizing the electrode with respect to dendrite formation. By using an excess of magnesium metal in the reaction process, a cermet of magnesium nitride is produced, coated with a lithium-magnesium alloy of any desired composition. This alloy inhibits dendrite formation by causing lithium deposited on its surface to diffuse under a chemical potential into the bulk of the alloy.

Richardson, Thomas J.

2013-07-09

307

Liquid Lithium Experiments in CDX-U  

SciTech Connect

The initial results of experiments involving the use of liquid lithium as a plasma facing component in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) are reported. Studies of the interaction of a steady-state plasma with liquid lithium in the Plasma Interaction with Surface and Components Experimental Simulator (PISCES-B) are also summarized. In CDX-U a solid or liquid lithium covered rail limiter was introduced as the primary limiting surface for spherical torus discharges. Deuterium recycling was observed to be reduced, but so far not eliminated, for glow discharge-cleaned lithium surfaces. Some lithium influx was observed during tokamak operation. The PISCES-B results indicate that the rates of plasma erosion of lithium can exceed predictions by an order of magnitude at elevated temperatures. Plans to extend the CDX-U experiments to large area liquid lithium toroidal belt limiters are also described.

R. Majeski; R. Doerner; R. Kaita; G. Antar; J. Timberlake; et al

2000-11-15

308

Effects of Magnetic Fields on Lithium Evolution in F and G Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the effects of magnetic fields on lithium depletion and to explain the characteristics of lithium evolution in F- and G-type stars in open clusters, we construct a stellar model that includes a Tayler-Spruit dynamo-type field. Through examining the features of extra-mixing caused by magnetic fields in stellar interiors and the relationship between lithium depletion and the input parameters (i.e., mass, metallicity, and the initial rotational condition), we find that the magnetic model produces extra-mixing processes different from other models. During pre-main sequence, the model exhibits very efficient extra-mixing, resulting in strong lithium depletion. As a star evolves, the efficiency of extra-mixing rapidly decreases and lithium depletion slows down at old ages. By setting up different initial rotating conditions, the model predicts dispersions of lithium abundance in both main sequence and pre-main sequence stages. The dispersion begins when a radiative core forms in the interior. The number sees a rapid growth afterward, reaching 0.1-0.5 dex at zero age main sequence in G and late-F stars. The increase of dispersion continues in the main sequence, which is slight in G and late-F stars while significant in mid-F stars. Finally, a comparison is carried out between the theoretical results and the observed data in four open clusters. Good agreements are obtained.

Li, T. D.; Bi, S. L.; Yang, W. M.; Liu, K.; Tian, Z. J.; Ge, Z. S.

2014-02-01

309

Enrichment of mushrooms: an interesting strategy for the acquisition of lithium.  

PubMed

The capability of Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom to accumulate lithium (Li) and the accessibility of this Li compared with lithium carbonate (Li(2)CO(3)), often used as psychiatric medicine, were investigated. Mushrooms were produced on a substrate-based on coffee husk, with different added concentrations of lithium chloride (LiCl). Biological efficiency (BE), the crude protein content, the concentration of Li and other elements present in mushrooms were determined. The sequential extraction and in vitro test were used to verify the accessibility and the degree of solubility of this element. Li concentration in mushrooms was directly influenced by increasing LiCl concentration in the substrate (P<0.05). The BE was not affected by different concentrations of LiCl. Li present in enriched mushrooms showed greater accessibility than in Li(2)CO(3). Therefore, P. ostreatus mushrooms, enriched with lithium can be an alternative source of Li, as well as being a food with high nutritional value. PMID:23107736

de Assunção, Laélia Soares; da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Vieira, Patrícia Aparecida Fontes; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

2012-09-15

310

Processing of mercurous chloride in reduced gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a joint experiment between the Northrop-Grumman Science and Technology Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville, Consortium for Materials Development in Space, single crystals of mercurous chloride were grown in the Space Experiment Facility (SEF) transparent furnace that was flown on Spacehab 4 in May 1996. Mercurous chloride is an acousto-optical material with an unusually low acoustic velocity

C. Watson; N. B. Singh; A. Thomas; A. E. Nelson; T. O. Rolin; J. Griffin; G. Haulenbeek; N. Daniel; J. Seaquist; C. Cacioppo; J. Weber; Maria I. Zugrav; R. J. Naumann

1996-01-01

311

STUDIES OF POINT DEFECTS IN SILVER CHLORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were made on excess point defects introduced into single ; crystals of silver chloride by pulsed elastic extension or by rapid cooling from ; high temperature. Point defects are created by plastic deformation much less ; efficiently in silver chloride than in other substances that have been studied. ; Interstitial silver ions so produced have a lifetime of the

Howard Layer; Lawrence Slifkin

1962-01-01

312

Tri-benzyl-ammonium chloride.  

PubMed

Single crystals of the title salt, C21H21NH(+)·Cl(-), were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving [(C6H5CH2)3NH]2[HPO4] and Sn(CH3)3Cl in ethanol. Both the cation and the anion are situated on a threefold rotation axis. The central N atom in the cation has a slightly distorted tetra-hedral environment, with angles ranging from 107.7 to 111.16?(10)°. In the crystal, the tri-benzyl-ammonium cations and chloride anions are linked through N-H?Cl and C-H?Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of infinite chains along [001]. The crystal studied was a merohedral twin. PMID:24860409

Diallo, Waly; Diop, Libasse; Plasseraud, Laurent; Cattey, Hélène

2014-05-01

313

Tri-benzyl-ammonium chloride  

PubMed Central

Single crystals of the title salt, C21H21NH+·Cl?, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving [(C6H5CH2)3NH]2[HPO4] and Sn(CH3)3Cl in ethanol. Both the cation and the anion are situated on a threefold rotation axis. The central N atom in the cation has a slightly distorted tetra­hedral environment, with angles ranging from 107.7 to 111.16?(10)°. In the crystal, the tri­benzyl­ammonium cations and chloride anions are linked through N—H?Cl and C—H?Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of infinite chains along [001]. The crystal studied was a merohedral twin. PMID:24860409

Diallo, Waly; Diop, Libasse; Plasseraud, Laurent; Cattey, Helene

2014-01-01

314

Sodium-metal chloride batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1992-01-01

315

Hydrocracking with molten zinc chloride catalyst containing 2-12% ferrous chloride  

DOEpatents

In a process for hydrocracking heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. by contacting the feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten zinc chloride catalyst and thereafter separating at least a major portion of the hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten zinc chloride catalyst, an improvement comprising: adjusting the FeCl.sub.2 content of the molten zinc chloride to from about 2 to about 12 mol percent based on the mixture of ferrous chloride and molten zinc chloride.

Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA); Bagshaw, Gary H. (Library, PA)

1981-01-01

316

LITHIUM--2001 46.1 By Joyce A. Ober  

E-print Network

LITHIUM--2001 46.1 LITHIUM By Joyce A. Ober Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Maria of lithium carbonate with production at its two lithium brine operations on the Salar de Atacama in the Andes Mountains and two lithium carbonate plants in Antofagasta. In the United States, production continued

317

LITHIUM--1997 46.1 By Joyce A. Ober  

E-print Network

LITHIUM--1997 46.1 LITHIUM By Joyce A. Ober After decades as the world's leading producer of lithium and its compounds, the United States was surpassed in 1997 when Chile became the world's largest lithium carbonate producer. Both lithium carbonate operations at the Salar de Atacama produced during

318

Electrochemical-thermal model of lithium polymer batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model has been developed to study heat transfer and thermal management of lithium-polymer batteries. Temperature dependent parameters including the diffusion coefficient of lithium ions, ionic conductivity of lithium ions, transference number of lithium ions, etc., have been added to a previously developed electrochemical model to more completely characterize the thermal behavior of the lithium-polymer system. In addition, experimental

Li Song; James W. Evans

2000-01-01

319

Chemical Distribution and Bonding of Lithium in Intercalated Graphite: Identification with Optimized Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Direct mapping of the lithium spatial distribution and the chemical state provides critical information on structure-correlated lithium transport in electrode materials for lithium batteries. Nevertheless, probing lithium, the lightest solid element in the periodic table, poses an extreme challenge with traditional X-ray or electron scattering techniques due to its weak scattering power and vulnerability to radiation damage. Here, we report nanoscale maps of the lithium spatial distribution in electrochemically lithiated graphite using electron energy loss spectroscopy in the transmission electron microscope under optimized experimental conditions. The electronic structure of the discharged graphite was obtained from the near-edge fine structure of the Li and C K-edges and ab initio calculations. A 2.7 eV chemical shift of the Li K-edge, along with changes in the density of states, reveals the ionic nature of the intercalated lithium with significant charge transfer to the graphene sheets. Direct mapping of lithium in graphite revealed nanoscale inhomogeneities (nonstoichiometric regions), which are correlated with local phase separation and structural disorder (i.e., lattice distortion and dislocations) as observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The surface solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer was also imaged and determined to have a thickness of 10-50 nm, covering both edge and basal planes with LiF as its primary inorganic component. The Li K-edge spectroscopy and mapping, combined with electron microscopy-based structural analysis provide a comprehensive view of the structure-correlated lithium intercalation in graphite and of the formation of the SEI layer.

Zhu, Y.; Wang, F.; Graetz, J.; Moreno, M.S.; Ma, C.; Wu, L.; Volkov, V.

2011-02-01

320

Chemical distribution and bonding of lithium in intercalated graphite: identification with optimized electron energy loss spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Direct mapping of the lithium spatial distribution and the chemical state provides critical information on structure-correlated lithium transport in electrode materials for lithium batteries. Nevertheless, probing lithium, the lightest solid element in the periodic table, poses an extreme challenge with traditional X-ray or electron scattering techniques due to its weak scattering power and vulnerability to radiation damage. Here, we report nanoscale maps of the lithium spatial distribution in electrochemically lithiated graphite using electron energy loss spectroscopy in the transmission electron microscope under optimized experimental conditions. The electronic structure of the discharged graphite was obtained from the near-edge fine structure of the Li and C K-edges and ab initio calculations. A 2.7 eV chemical shift of the Li K-edge, along with changes in the density of states, reveals the ionic nature of the intercalated lithium with significant charge transfer to the graphene sheets. Direct mapping of lithium in graphite revealed nanoscale inhomogeneities (nonstoichiometric regions), which are correlated with local phase separation and structural disorder (i.e., lattice distortion and dislocations) as observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The surface solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer was also imaged and determined to have a thickness of 10-50 nm, covering both edge and basal planes with LiF as its primary inorganic component. The Li K-edge spectroscopy and mapping, combined with electron microscopy-based structural analysis provide a comprehensive view of the structure-correlated lithium intercalation in graphite and of the formation of the SEI layer. PMID:21218844

Wang, Feng; Graetz, Jason; Moreno, M Sergio; Ma, Chao; Wu, Lijun; Volkov, Vyacheslav; Zhu, Yimei

2011-02-22

321

High power continuous-wave green light generation by quasiphase matching in Mg stoichiometric lithium tantalate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-pass second-harmonic generation of 7 W continuous wave of 542 nm radiation with 35.4% efficiency was achieved by quasiphase matching in periodically poled Mg-doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate at room temperature. The effects of laser beam quality and linewidth on the second-harmonic generation efficiency were investigated using a Yb-doped fiber laser.

Sergey V. Tovstonog; Sunao Kurimura; Kenji Kitamura

2007-01-01

322

Anode material for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell system. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plastized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Belharouak, Ilias (Bolingbrook, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

2008-06-24

323

Anode material for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Belharouak, Ilias (Bolingbrook, IL); Amine, Khalil (Oak Brook, IL)

2011-04-05

324

Anode material for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Belharouak, Ilias (Westmont, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

2012-01-31

325

Lithium in stars with exoplanets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our recent study of solar-type stars from the HARPS GTO sample provides highly accurate information with regard to Lithium abundances in stars with and without detected planets (Israelian et al. 2009). When the Li abundances of planet bearing stars are compared with the ``single'' stars, we find an excess of Li depletion in planet hosts with effective temperatures in the

Garik Israelian

2010-01-01

326

Advanced lithium ion battery charger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirements for state-of-charge and voltage control for lithium ion batteries are reviewed. Strategies for controlling the state-of-charge of the individual Li-ion cells that comprise a battery are described. The design and test results for several of these charge control strategies are presented

M. J. Isaacson; R. P. Hollandsworth; P. J. Giampaoli; F. A. Linkowsky; A. Salim; V. L. Teofilo

2000-01-01

327

Gelled Electrolytes For Lithium Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gelled polymer electrolyte consists of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), LiBF4, and propylene carbonate (PC). Thin films of electrolyte found to exhibit stable bulk conductivities of order of 10 to the negative 3rd power S/cm at room temperature. Used in thinfilm rechargeable lithium batteries having energy densities near 150 W h/kg.

Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Attia, Alan; Halpert, Gerald

1993-01-01

328

Tradeoff analysis with lithium cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characteristic data, primarily on high rate lithium sulfur dioxide design (basically in the D and DD cell configuration), both before and after much exposure to environmental conditions are discussed. The environmental as opposed to signle cells. Discussion was generated among the Workshop participants and comments and questions are reported. Graphical representations of the test data are presented.

Bennett, C.

1978-01-01

329

Lithium equation-of-state  

SciTech Connect

In 1977, Dave Young published an equation-of-state (EOS) for lithium. This EOS was used by Lew Glenn in his AFTON calculations of the HYLIFE inertial-fusion-reactor hydrodynamics. In this paper, I summarize Young's development of the EOS and demonstrate a computer program (MATHSY) that plots isotherms, isentropes and constant energy lines on a P-V diagram.

Blink, J.A.

1983-09-01

330

Development of encapsulated lithium hydride thermal energy storage for space power systems  

SciTech Connect

Inclusion of thermal energy storage in a pulsed space power supply will reduce the mass of the heat rejection system. In this mode, waste heat generated during the brief high-power burst operation is placed in the thermal store; later, the heat in the store is dissipated to space via the radiator over the much longer nonoperational period of the orbit. Thus, the radiator required is of significantly smaller capacity. Scoping analysis indicates that use of lithium hydride as the thermal storage medium results in system mass reduction benefits for burst periods as long as 800 s. A candidate design for the thermal energy storage component utilizes lithium hydride encapsulated in either 304L stainless steel or molybdenum in a packed-bed configuration with a lithium or sodium-potassium (NaK) heat transport fluid. Key issues associated with the system design include phase-change induced stresses in the shell, lithium hydride and shell compatibility, lithium hydride dissociation and hydrogen loss from the system, void presence and movement associated with the melt-freeze process, and heat transfer limitations on obtaining the desired energy storage density. 58 refs., 40 figs., 11 tabs.

Morris, D.G.; Foote, J.P.; Olszewski, M.

1987-12-01

331

Chloride regulatory mechanisms and their influence on neuronal excitability.  

E-print Network

??The chloride concentration in neurons is in general established by the precise functional expression of the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter one (NKCC1) and the potassium-chloride cotransporter two… (more)

Rinke, Ilka

2010-01-01

332

The effect of sodium chloride on the dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate gels  

SciTech Connect

The use of cement based materials will be widespread in the long-term management of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom. One of the applications could be the Nirex reference vault backfill (NRVB) as an engineered barrier within a deep geological repository. NRVB confers alkaline conditions, which would provide a robust chemical barrier through the control of the solubility of some key radionuclides, enhanced sorption and minimised corrosion of steel containers. An understanding of the dissolution of C-S-H gels in cement under the appropriate conditions (e.g., saline groundwaters) is necessary to demonstrate the expected evolution of the chemistry over time and to provide sufficient cement to buffer the porewater conditions for the required time. A programme of experimental work has been undertaken to investigate C-S-H gel dissolution behaviour in sodium chloride solutions and the effect of calcium/silicon ratio (C/S), temperature and cation type on this behaviour. Reductions in calcium concentration and pH values were observed with samples equilibrated at 45 deg. C compared to those prepared at 25 deg. C. The effect of salt cation type on salt-concentration dependence of the dissolution of C-S-H gels was investigated by the addition of lithium or potassium chloride in place of sodium chloride for gels with a C/S of 1.0 and 1.8. With a C/S of 1.0, similar increases in dissolved calcium concentration with increasing ionic strength were recorded for the different salts. However, at a C/S of 1.8, anomalously high calcium concentrations were observed in the presence of lithium.

Hill, J. [UK Nirex Limited, Curie Avenue, Harwell, Didcot Oxfordshire, OX11 0RH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: joanne.hill@nirex.co.uk; Harris, A.W. [UK Nirex Limited, Curie Avenue, Harwell, Didcot Oxfordshire, OX11 0RH (United Kingdom); Manning, M. [Formerly AEA Technology, Building 220, Harwell, Didcot Oxfordshire, OX11 0RA (United Kingdom); Chambers, A. [Serco Assurance, Building 150, Harwell International Business Centre, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RA (United Kingdom); Swanton, S.W. [Serco Assurance, Building 150, Harwell International Business Centre, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RA (United Kingdom)

2006-07-01

333

Chloride penetration into concrete structures in the marine atmosphere zone – Relationship between deposition of chlorides on the wet candle and chlorides accumulated into concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between chlorides from marine aerosol and chlorides accumulated into concrete is discussed in this paper. The experimental programme comprised an environmental characterisation, with climatic and chloride deposition data, and a study of chloride penetration into concrete based on natural exposure of specimens in a marine atmosphere zone. Results show that salt concentration in marine aerosol strongly decreases in

G. R. Meira; C. Andrade; I. J. Padaratz; C. Alonso; J BORBAJR

2007-01-01

334

Thermal analysis of lithium-ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed three-dimensional thermal model has been developed to examine the thermal behaviour of a lithium-ion battery. This model precisely considers the layered-structure of the cell stacks, the case of a battery pack, and the gap between both elements to achieve a comprehensive analysis. Both location-dependent convection and radiation are adopted at boundaries to reflect different heat dissipation performances on all surfaces. Furthermore, a simplified thermal model is proposed according to the examination of various simplification strategies and validation from the detailed thermal model. Based on the examination, the calculation speed of the simplified model is comparable with that of a one-dimensional model with a maximum error less than 0.54 K. These models successfully describe asymmetric temperature distribution inside a battery, and they predict an anomaly of temperature distribution on the surface if a metal case is used. Based on the simulation results from the detailed thermal model, radiation could contribute 43-63% at most to the overall heat dissipation under natural convection. Forced convection is effective in depressing the maximum temperature, and the temperature uniformity does not necessarily decrease infinitely when the extent of forced convection is enhanced. The metal battery case serves as a heat spreader, and the contact layer provides extra thermal resistance and heat capacity for the system. These factors are important and should be considered seriously in the design of battery systems.

Chen, S. C.; Wan, C. C.; Wang, Y. Y.

335

Identification of electron and hole traps in lithium tetraborate (Li2B4O7) crystals: Oxygen vacancies and lithium vacancies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) are used to identify and characterize electrons trapped by oxygen vacancies and holes trapped by lithium vacancies in lithium tetraborate (Li2B4O7) crystals. Our study includes a crystal with the natural abundances of B10 and B11 and a crystal highly enriched with B10. The as-grown crystals contain isolated oxygen vacancies, lithium vacancies, and copper impurities, all in nonparamagnetic charge states. During an irradiation at 77 K with 60 kV x-rays, doubly ionized oxygen vacancies trap electrons while singly ionized lithium vacancies and monovalent copper impurities trap holes. The vacancies return to their preirradiation charge states when the temperature of the sample is increased to approximately 90 K. Hyperfine interactions with B10 and B11 nuclei, observed between 13 and 40 K in the radiation-induced EPR and ENDOR spectra, provide models for the two vacancy-related defects. The electron trapped by an oxygen vacancy is localized primarily on only one of the two neighboring boron ions while the hole stabilized by a lithium vacancy is localized on a neighboring oxygen ion with nearly equal interactions with the two boron ions adjacent to the oxygen ion.

Swinney, M. W.; McClory, J. W.; Petrosky, J. C.; Yang, Shan; Brant, A. T.; Adamiv, V. T.; Burak, Ya. V.; Dowben, P. A.; Halliburton, L. E.

2010-06-01

336

Chemical reduction method for industrial application of undoped polypyrrole electrodes in lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes a new method of chemical reduction of p-doped polypyrrole (Ppy) to make a graphite\\/Ppy lithium-ion battery. Several reducing agents are analysed (sodium hydrosulfite (Na2S2O4), sodium hydrogensulfite (Na2S2O5), hydroxymethanesulfinic acid monosodium salt (HOCH2SOONa), sodium borohydride (NaBH4), formamidinesulfinic acid (H2NCNHSO2H), stannous chloride (SnCl2) and hydrazine (N2H4)), obtaining the best results when reducing a Ppy electrode with sodium borohydride (NaBH4):

M. Bengoechea; I. Boyano; O. Miguel; I. Cantero; E. Ochoteco; J. Pomposo; H. Grande

2006-01-01

337

Methylene chloride poisoning in a cabinet worker.  

PubMed Central

More than a million workers are at risk for methylene chloride exposure. Aerosol sprays and paint stripping may also cause significant nonoccupational exposures. After methylene chloride inhalation, significant amounts of carbon monoxide are formed in vivo as a metabolic by-product. Poisoning predominantly affects the central nervous system and results from both carboxyhemoglobin formation and direct solvent-related narcosis. In this report, we describe a case of methylene chloride intoxication probably complicated by exogenous carbon monoxide exposure. The worker's presentation of intermittent headaches was consistent with both methylene chloride intoxication and carbon monoxide poisoning. The exposures and symptoms were corroborated by elevated carboxyhemoglobin saturations and a workplace inspection that documented significant exposures to both methylene chloride and carbon monoxide. When both carbon monoxide and methylene chloride are inhaled, additional carboxyhemoglobin formation is expected. Preventive efforts should include education, air monitoring, and periodic carboxyhemoglobin determinations. Methylene chloride should never be used in enclosed or poorly ventilated areas because of the well-documented dangers of loss of consciousness and death. Images Figure 1 PMID:10464079

Mahmud, M; Kales, S N

1999-01-01

338

Materials for Conoco zinc chloride hydrocracking process  

SciTech Connect

Use of zinc chloride to augment hydrogenation of coal and yield a high-octane gasoline product is the most significant feature of a coal liquefaction process being developed by Conoco Coal Development Company. The zinc chloride catalyst is regenerated in a fluidized sand bed, where the spent melt is mixed with air and hydrogen chloride at about 1000/sup 0/C. Recovery is completed at 370/sup 0/C in a condenser, where the zinc chloride is collected and the oxygen and sulfur are separated as H/sub 2/O and SO/sub 2/. The economic viability of the entire process is highly dependent on almost complete recovery of the zinc chloride. The severe environmental conditions of this recovery process cause unique materials problems. Although high-temperature oxidation and sulfidation are being studied in related programs, suitable materials to resist their combined effects along with those of chlorides have not yet been specifically addressed. Common engineering materials, such as the austenitic stainless steels and many nickel-base alloys, are unsuitable because of their inability to tolerate the elevated temperatures and sulfidation, respectively. The objectives of this task are to screen various metallic and ceramic materials for resistance to the zinc chloride recovery system environment and to determine the nature of the attack by exposing coupons to the simulated environment in the laboratory.

Baylor, V.B.; Keiser, J.R.; DeVan, J.H.

1980-01-01

339

Ab initio screening of lithium diffusion rates in transition metal oxide cathodes for lithium ion batteries  

E-print Network

A screening metric for diffusion limitations in lithium ion battery cathodes is derived using transition state theory and common materials properties. The metric relies on net activation barrier for lithium diffusion. ...

Moore, Charles J. (Charles Jacob)

2012-01-01

340

40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a...chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

2012-07-01

341

40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721.10031...Chemical Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical...The chemical substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN...

2011-07-01

342

40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. 721.10201...Chemical Substances § 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide (PMN...

2013-07-01

343

40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a...chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

2013-07-01

344

40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721.10031...Chemical Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical...The chemical substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN...

2012-07-01

345

40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721.10031...Chemical Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical...The chemical substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN...

2013-07-01

346

40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. 721.10201...Chemical Substances § 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide (PMN...

2012-07-01

347

Lithium Diisopropylamide: Oligomer Structures at Low Ligand Concentrations  

E-print Network

Lithium Diisopropylamide: Oligomer Structures at Low Ligand Concentrations Jennifer L. Rutherford-dimensional 6Li and 15N NMR spectroscopic studies of lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) solvated ligand concentrations are discussed. Introduction Spectroscopic studies of lithium amides at low ligand

Collum, David B.

348

40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721.10031...Chemical Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical...The chemical substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN...

2010-07-01

349

78 FR 19024 - Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum On Thursday...convene a forum titled, ``Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation.'' The forum will...into three topic areas: Lithium ion battery design, development, and use;...

2013-03-28

350

40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.  

...2014-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. 721.10201 Section...Substances § 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical substance...substance identified as cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide (PMN...

2014-07-01

351

Radiation-induced nickel deposits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low cost, photographic process uses surface coating of nickel hypophosphite sensitive to X-rays and electron radiation. Exposed coated surface can be amplified to produce permanent visible image of wide tonal gradation in grays. Coating may be sodium, ammonium, or lithium hypophosphite or sodium phosphite, with nickel supplied in developer.

Marsik, S. J.; Philipp, W. H.

1972-01-01

352

Diode laser heat treatment of lithium manganese oxide films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystallization of lithium manganese oxide thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on stainless steel substrates under 10 Pa argon pressure is demonstrated by a laser annealing technique. Laser annealing processes were developed as a function of annealing time and temperature with the objective to form an electrochemically active lithium manganese oxide cathode. It is demonstrated, that laser annealing with 940 nm diode laser radiation and an annealing time of 2000 s at 600 °C delivers appropriate parameters for formation of a crystalline spinel-like phase. Characteristic features of this phase could be detected via Raman spectroscopy, showing the characteristic main Raman band at 627 cm-1. Within cyclic voltammetric measurements, the two characteristic redox pairs for spinel lithium manganese oxide in the 4 V region could be detected, indicating that the film was well-crystallized and de-/intercalation processes were reversible. Raman post-analysis of a cycled cathode showed that the spinel-like structure was preserved within the cycling process but mechanical degradation effects such as film cracking were observed via scanning electron microscopy. Typical features for the formation of an additional surface reaction layer could be detected using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Pröll, J.; Kohler, R.; Mangang, A.; Ulrich, S.; Bruns, M.; Seifert, H. J.; Pfleging, W.

2012-04-01

353

Lithium borate cluster salts as novel redox shuttles for overcharge protection of lithium-ion cells.  

SciTech Connect

Redox shuttle is a promising mechanism for intrinsic overcharge protection in lithium-ion cells and batteries. Two lithium borate cluster salts are reported to function as both the main salt for a nonaqueous electrolyte and the redox shuttle for overcharge protection. Lithium borate cluster salts with a tunable redox potential are promising candidates for overcharge protection for most positive electrodes in state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells.

Chen, Z.; Liu, J.; Jansen, A. N.; Casteel, B.; Amine, K.; GirishKumar, G.; Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.

2010-01-01

354

Lithium ferrate and lithium cobaltate cathodes for molten carbonate fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research is to develop cathodes for the molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) having a performance approaching that of the lithiated nickel oxide cathode and a significantly greater life, particularly in pressurized MCFC's. To meet this objective, cathodes containing either doubly doped lithium ferrate or lithium cobaltate are being developed. In this project, the authors are optimizing the composition, microstructure, and loading density of the doubly doped lithium ferrate cathode and the lithium cobaltate cathodes.

Krumpelt, M.; Roche, M.; Bloom, I.; Indacochea, J. E.; Kucera, G.

1994-07-01

355

Deprotonative metallation of ferrocenes using mixed lithium-zinc and lithium-cadmium combinations  

E-print Network

1 Deprotonative metallation of ferrocenes using mixed lithium-zinc and lithium-cadmium combinations on the web Xth XXXXXXXXX 200X DOI: 10.1039/b000000x A mixed lithium-cadmium amide and a combination-butoxide in THF (tetrahydrofuran) at �75 �C. The lithium-cadmium base, which can be considered as (TMP)3CdLi,8

Boyer, Edmond

356

Molecular Dynamics Study of Lithium Diffusion in Lithium-Manganese Spinel Cathode Materials  

SciTech Connect

A series of molecular dynamics computer simulations of the self-diffusion of lithium in pure and several doped lithium-manganese spinel materials has been completed. The theoretical approach is part of an effort to understand the mechanisms and rates of lithium diffusion, and to evaluate the structural control of the cathode materials upon lithium intercalation (charge-discharge) process. The molecular dynamics approach employs a fully ionic forcefield that accounts for electrostatic, repulsive, and dispersion interactions among all ions.

Cygan, R.T.; Westrich, H.R.; Dought, D.H.

1998-01-01

357

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries  

DOEpatents

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Oakbrook, IL)

2008-12-23

358

Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes For Lithium Cells And Batteries  

DOEpatents

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

2004-01-20

359

Prismatic cell lithium-ion battery using lithium manganese oxide  

SciTech Connect

Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have demonstrated the ability to fulfill the energy storage needs of many new technologies. The most significant drawbacks of currently available technologies, such as LiCoO{sub 2} based Li-ion cells, is their high cost and significant environmental hazards. Li-ion cells which use a lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}) spinel based cathode material should be much less costly and safer than LiCoO{sub 2} based cells. Performance data from prismatic design cells which use a LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} based cathode material is presented and shown to meet many military performance criteria. The most significant drawback of this technology, at the present time, is the short cycle life.

Ehrlich, G.M.; Hellen, R.M.; Reddy, T.B. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

1997-12-01

360

Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride  

SciTech Connect

Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

Nemec, Thomas [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Marsik, Frantisek [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Palmer, Donald [ORNL

2005-01-01

361

Lithium: Sources, Production, Uses, and Recovery Outlook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The demand for lithium has increased significantly during the last decade as it has become key for the development of industrial products, especially batteries for electronic devices and electric vehicles. This article reviews sources, extraction and production, uses, and recovery and recycling, all of which are important aspects when evaluating lithium as a key resource. First, it describes the estimated reserves and lithium production from brine and pegmatites, including the material and energy requirements. Then, it continues with a description about the current uses of lithium focusing on its application in batteries and concludes with a description of the opportunities for recovery and recycling and the future demand forecast. The article concludes that the demand of lithium for electronic vehicles will increase from 30% to almost 60% by 2020. Thus, in the next years, the recovery and recycling of lithium from batteries is decisive to ensure the long-term viability of the metal.

Talens Peiró, Laura; Villalba Méndez, Gara; Ayres, Robert U.

2013-08-01

362

Improving electrolytes for lithium-ion and lithium oxygen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an ever increasing demand for fossil fuels. Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) can effectively reduce the production of greenhouse gases and lessen the need for fossil fuels. LIBs also have great potential in electric vehicle applications as an alternative to petroleum modes of transportation. Understanding the chemical reactions between the electrolyte and electrodes in LIBs is very crucial in developing batteries which can work over a wide temperature range and also give a wide potential window. The Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI), formed by the reduction of solvent molecules on the surface of electrodes, is an important component of LIBs. The SEI is very essential to the performance of LIBs. One electron reduction pathway products of solvent molecules was investigated using lithium-naphthalenide. Methylene ethylene carbonate, a high temperature additive has been synthesized and its performance has been tested at 60°C. Lithium-Oxygen batteries have an energy density ten times greater than that of LIBs. However, lithium-oxygen batteries have rechargability problems associated with them. The most common electrolyte used in this type of batteries is LiPF6 in carbonate or ether based solvents. LiPF6 inherently decreases electrolyte stability, since LiPF 6 can undergo thermal dissociation into PF5 and LiF. PF 5 being a strong Lewis acid, can react with electron rich species. The thermal decomposition reactions of LiPF6 based electrolytes are studied in detail with regard to LIBs. The comprehensive study has been conducted on the thermal degradation of several electrolyte systems in the presence of Li2O2.

Chalasani, Dinesh

363

Phenomics of Cardiac Chloride Channels  

PubMed Central

Forward genetic studies have identified several chloride (Cl?) channel genes, including CFTR, ClC-2, ClC-3, CLCA, Bestrophin, and Ano1, in the heart. Recent reverse genetic studies using gene targeting and transgenic techniques to delineate the functional role of cardiac Cl? channels have shown that Cl? channels may contribute to cardiac arrhythmogenesis, myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure, and cardioprotection against ischemia reperfusion. The study of physiological or pathophysiological phenotypes of cardiac Cl? channels, however, is complicated by the compensatory changes in the animals in response to the targeted genetic manipulation. Alternatively, tissue-specific conditional or inducible knockout or knockin animal models may be more valuable in the phenotypic studies of specific Cl? channels by limiting the effect of compensation on the phenotype. The integrated function of Cl? channels may involve multiprotein complexes of the Cl? channel subproteome. Similar phenotypes can be attained from alternative protein pathways within cellular networks, which are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The phenomics approach, which characterizes phenotypes as a whole phenome and systematically studies the molecular changes that give rise to particular phenotypes achieved by modifying the genotype under the scope of genome/proteome/phenome, may provide more complete understanding of the integrated function of each cardiac Cl? channel in the context of health and disease. PMID:23720326

Duan, Dayue Darrel

2014-01-01

364

Poly(acrylonitrile) encapsulated graphite as anode materials for lithium ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel surface modification approach for graphite anode of lithium ion batteries was developed in this study. Poly(acrylonitrile) was in situ encapsulated on the surface of natural graphite (N-graphite) particles via radiation-initiated polymerization. The graphite obtained shows a large improvement in electrochemical performance such as initial Coulombic efficiency and cycleability compared with the original N-graphite. The structural stability of graphite surface is enhanced due to the fact that encapsulated poly(acrylonitrile) can depress the co-intercalation of solvated lithium ion.

Guo, Kunkun; Pan, Qinmin; Fang, Shibi

365

Lithium extraction from orthorhombic lithium manganese oxide and the phase transformation to spinel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of rechargeable lithium batteries is limited by a concern regarding their safety. Current efforts are focused on rocking-chair'' cells which avoid the use of metallic lithium electrodes and are therefore potentially far safer than conventional lithium cells. Carbon is the anode material of choice for rocking-chair'' cells as it gives good reversibility, high capacity and low average voltage versus

R. J. Gummow; D. C. Liles; M. M. Thackeray

1993-01-01

366

Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries  

E-print Network

in aqueous cells. However, the choice of a suitable anode material for an aqueous lithium-ion battery is moreSynthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-ion batteries that use aqueous electrolytes offer safety and cost advantages when compared to today's commercial

Cui, Yi

367

Spectral emission measurements of lithium on the lithium tokamak experiment  

SciTech Connect

There has been a long-standing collaboration between ORNL and PPPL on edge and boundary layer physics. As part of this collaboration, ORNL has a large role in the instrumentation and interpretation of edge physics in the lithium tokamak experiment (LTX). In particular, a charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) diagnostic is being designed and undergoing staged testing on LTX. Here we present results of passively measured lithium emission at 5166.89 A in LTX in anticipation of active spectroscopy measurements, which will be enabled by the installation of a neutral beam in 2013. Preliminary measurements are made in transient LTX plasmas with plasma current, I{sub p} < 70 kA, ohmic heating power, P{sub oh}{approx} 0.3 MW and discharge lifetimes of 10-15 ms. Measurements are made with a short focal length spectrometer and optics similar to the CHERS diagnostics on NSTX [R. E. Bell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(2), 1273-1280 (1997)]. These preliminary measurements suggest that even without the neutral beam for active spectroscopy, there is sufficient passive lithium emission to allow for line-of-sight profile measurements of ion temperature, T{sub i}; toroidal velocity and v{sub t}. Results show peak T{sub i} = 70 eV and peak v{sub t} = 45 km/s were reached 10 ms into the discharge.

Gray, T. K.; Biewer, T. M.; Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Boyle, D. P.; Granstedt, E. M.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2012-10-15

368

Properties of lithium aluminate for application as an OSL dosimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several samples of undoped and carbon or copper doped lithium aluminate (LiAlO2) were prepared in an attempt to achieve a material, which can be applicable in optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry. All investigated samples are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation and show good reproducibility. The undoped and copper doped samples exhibit sensitivity several times higher than that of Al2O3:C, while sensitivity of the carbon doped samples is lower. The studied samples exhibit significant fading, but dynamics of signal loss is different for differently doped samples, what indicates a possibility of improving this characteristic by optimizing dopant composition.

Twardak, A.; Bilski, P.; Marczewska, B.; Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.; Gieszczyk, W.; Mrozik, A.; S?del, M.; Wróbel, D.

2014-11-01

369

Dielectric and pyroelectric properties of ultrathin, monocrystalline lithium tantalate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrathin, self-supporting lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) wafers have been fabricated out of a single crystal with a minimum thickness of about 0.4 ?m using ion-beam milling. The most decisive parameters (pyroelectric coefficient, relative permittivity, and dielectric loss factor) for their use in pyroelectric radiation detectors were studied in dependence on film thickness and temperature. The potential performance of pyroelectric materials was evaluated using appropriate figures of merit. In addition, the dielectric and pyroelectric properties of stoichiometric LiTaO3 were investigated and compared to congruent LiTaO3 bulk material conventionally used for pyroelectric detectors.

Schossig, Marco; Norkus, Volkmar; Gerlach, Gerald

2014-03-01

370

Polymer nanocomposites for lithium batteries applications.  

SciTech Connect

A series of polymer-clay nanocomposites have been synthesized, characterized, and electrochemically tested as possible candidates for polymer electrolytes in lithium ion cells. Only cations are mobile in these materials, rather than both cations and anions, leading to a higher conductivity. The nanocomposites are based on synthetic lithium hectorite (SLH) and different mass ratios of polyethylene oxide (PEO). Transparent films with excellent mechanical strength are obtained with conductivity that is comparable to more traditional polymer electrolytes made with added lithium salts.

Sandi, G.; Carrado, K. A.; Joachin, H.; Lu, W.; Prakash, J.; Illinois Inst. of Tech.

2003-06-01

371

Electrode materials and lithium battery systems  

DOEpatents

A material comprising a lithium titanate comprising a plurality of primary particles and secondary particles, wherein the average primary particle size is about 1 nm to about 500 nm and the average secondary particle size is about 1 .mu.m to about 4 .mu.m. In some embodiments the lithium titanate is carbon-coated. Also provided are methods of preparing lithium titanates, and devices using such materials.

Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Belharouak, Ilias (Westmont, IL); Liu, Jun (Naperville, IL)

2011-06-28

372

Variable attenuation of amphetamine effects by lithium.  

PubMed

In an open study of 8 subjects, approximately half showed some attenuation of CNS stimulant effects of amphetamine after pretreatment with lithium. Two showed specific blockade of euphoria, with persistence of some CNS stimulant effects. In 3 subjects lithium did not appear to affect the response to amphetamine. Lithium caused significant attenuation of the amphetamine-induced increase in systolic blood pressure for the group as a whole. PMID:443465

Angrist, B; Gershon, S

1979-06-01

373

Except for the noble gases, all the elements in the Periodic Table form chlorides, often in several oxidation states, and chlorides generally are among the  

E-print Network

Chlorides Except for the noble gases, all the elements in the Periodic Table form chlorides, often of the elements: for chlorides of transition metals, elevated temperatures are usually necessary in dry conditions Most chlorides are soluble in water. Mercury(I) chloride, Hg2Cl2, silver chloride, AgCl, lead chloride

Csonka, Gábor István

374

Dissolution mechanism of cellulose in N,N-dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride: revisiting through molecular interactions.  

PubMed

Understanding the interactions between solvent molecules and cellulose at a molecular level is still not fully achieved in cellulose/N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc)/LiCl system. In this paper, cellobiose was used as the model compound of cellulose to investigate the interactions in cellulose/DMAc/LiCl solution by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), (13)C, (35)Cl, and (7)Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and conductivity measurements. It was found that when cellulose is dissolved in DMAc/LiCl cosolvent system, the hydroxyl protons of cellulose form strong hydrogen bonds with the Cl(-), during which the intermolecular hydrogen bonding networks of cellulose is broken with simultaneous splitting of the Li(+)-Cl(-) ion pairs. Simultaneously, the Li(+) cations are further solvated by free DMAc molecules, which accompany the hydrogen-bonded Cl(-) to meet electric balance. Thereafter, the cellulose chains are dispersed in molecular level in the solvent system to form homogeneous solution. This work clarifies the interactions in the cellulose/DMAc/LiCl solution at molecular level and the dissolution mechanism of cellulose in DMAc/LiCl, which is important for understanding the principle for selecting and designing new cellulose solvent systems. PMID:25026263

Zhang, Chao; Liu, Ruigang; Xiang, Junfeng; Kang, Hongliang; Liu, Zhijing; Huang, Yong

2014-08-01

375

Development of novel neutron and gamma-ray scintillators: Cesium lithium yttrium chloride and cesium bromide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two promising inorganic scintillators, Cs2LiYCl 6 (CLYC) and CeBr3, important for both basic and applied nuclear science, have been developed in this work. CLYC is a dual neutron/gamma scintillator with excellent pulse-shape discrimination and good energy resolution. Whereas thermal neutron detection is accomplished using the 6Li(n,alpha) reaction, direct fast neutron spectroscopy was discovered to be due to the 35Cl(n,p) reaction. Thermal neutron measurements were carried out using a moderated PuBe source and thermal beams from the UMass Research Reactor neutron radiography port. A study of the fast neutron response in CLYC was performed at the UMass Lowell Van de Graaff using mono-energetic neutron beams between 0.8 and 2.5 MeV. Simulations of the fast/thermal neutron response and efficiency were performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX (v2.7.0). Experiments with CeBr3, a fast gamma-ray detector with high light output, focused on its excellent timing resolution (?100 ps for 1 cm x 1 cm detector). A pair of CeBr3 detectors were used for direct measurements of nanosecond and sub-nanosecond isomers in 152Sm and 177Hf, using the delayed coincidence technique, to demonstrate its usefulness in nuclear physics measurements. The position resolution of a positron emitting source placed between detectors was evaluated to assess the potential use of CeBr3 as a time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF PET) detector. Additional characterizations were performed for both CLYC and CeBr3, including energy resolution, timing resolution, efficiency, and pulse-shape analysis.

D'Olympia, Nathan W.

376

Mercerized linters cellulose: characterization and acetylation in N, N-dimethylacetamide\\/lithium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linters cellulose was subjected to different treatments (mercerization and ionized air) before acetylation with acetic anhydride, in homogeneous medium, using DMAc\\/LiCl as solvent system. Before derivatization, the treated fibres were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, alpha-cellulose content, Inverse Gas Chromatography and viscosimetry. It was shown that except a decrease in the dispersive surface energy, the treatments induced small

Beatriz A. P. Ass; Mohamed N. Belgacem; Elisabete Frollini

2006-01-01

377

Study of an aqueous lithium chloride desiccant system: air dehumidification and desiccant regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desiccant systems have been proposed as energy saving alternatives to vapor compression air conditioning for handling the latent load. Use of liquid desiccants offers several design and performance advantages over solid desiccants, especially when solar energy is used for regeneration. For liquid–gas contact, packed towers with low pressure drop provide good heat and mass transfer characteristics for compact designs. This

Nelson Fumo; D. Y. Goswami

2002-01-01

378

Paraelectric Resonance of the Lithium Ion in Potassium Chloride Under Hydrostatic Pressure.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paraelectric resonance (PER) in KCl: Li ^{+} (for both the ^6 Li^{+} and ^7Li^{+} isotopes) has been investigated under hydrostatic pressure (1 bar-2200 bars) for a wide range of microwave frequency (43-300 GHz) and electric field (0-140 kV/cm). Data were collected at a number of temperatures, from 2.2 K to 8.0 K. The measurement is done by fixing the microwave frequency and sweeping the E field. We have measured zero field field splittings (ZFSs) of all the allowed transitions in the ground state multiplet, and proposed an empirical expression for the change of each ZFS with pressure for each Li^{+ } isotope. Three tunneling parameters for each isotope have been obtained. All the tunneling parameters increase quadratically with pressure. The electric dipole moment decreases linearly with hydrostatic pressure at pressures below 2.1 kbars. The dipole moment decreases 19% over the pressure range of 1 to 2100 bars as a result of a reduction in the separation between adjacent potential wells. No critical pressure for the off-center to on-center transition is observed. The extensive data collected are interpreted in terms of the standard < 111> tunneling model. We have calculated the energy levels and transition matrix elements from the model to compare with the experimental observations. The remarkable agreement indicates that the tunneling model provides an excellent description of an off-center defect, and supports using the KCl: Li^{+} as a model tunneling system. At high pressures new absorption lines are found in the KCl: Li^{+} samples. These new lines cannot be explained within the standard tunneling model. We have proposed that the physical origin of these new lines is the existence of several new tunneling clusters in the KCl: Li^{+} system. The exact configurations of these new clusters, however, are still unknown. The glitch problem in the X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectrum has also been investigated. A simple glitch model has been developed based on the experimental observations. The model successfully predicts the formation of a glitch when a sample with a nonuniform thickness is used. Based on this model, some measures are outlined for minimizing the glitches in XAFS data.

Wang, Xun

379

Lithium-chloride-induced conditioned taste aversions in the Lewis and Fischer 344 rat strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditioned taste aversions (CTAs) are differentially induced by cocaine and morphine in the Lewis and Fisher 344 (LEW and F344, respectively) rat strains. Although the acquisition of LiCl-induced aversions has recently been reported to be comparable between the two strains, these aversions were induced by the oral consumption of LiCl, and the possibility exists that, given their different weights, that

Melissa M. Foynes; Anthony L. Riley

2004-01-01

380

Lithium/thionyl chloride batteries for the small intercontinental ballistic missile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Small ICBM (SICBM) requires two batteries for flight testing; while power for the instrumentation and range safety system (IRSS) is furnished by a five-function battery set, the guidance and control system is powered by a three-function airborne power supply (APS). The activated stand requirements of the IRSS are met by the use of LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte in all cells. The APS cells employ a slightly acidic electrolyte. The SICBM's IRSS battery has already completed a formal certification program, and is accordingly the first spaceflight-qualified reserve Li battery.

Chang, V. D. A.; Wilson, J. P.; Bruckner, J.; Inenaga, B.; Hall, J. C.

381

A description of the vapor phase in the lithium thionyl chloride battery  

E-print Network

~& n RTz where n is the number of kg of solvent, m the molality oi' the solution, vM and vx are the number of M and X ions in the molecular formula, respectively, BMX is the second virid coefficient and CMX is the third virial coefficient...~& n RTz where n is the number of kg of solvent, m the molality oi' the solution, vM and vx are the number of M and X ions in the molecular formula, respectively, BMX is the second virid coefficient and CMX is the third virial coefficient...

Morales, Rodolfo

2012-06-07

382

Ternary compound electrode for lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and of light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated in the temperature range of about 350.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell in which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell has a positive electrode which includes a ternary compound generally represented as Li-M-O, wherein M is a transition metal. Corrosion of the inventive cell is considerably reduced.

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Godshall, Ned A. (Stanford, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1982-01-01

383

Water- Lithium Bromide-?- Butyrolactone Absorption Refrigerating Machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This investigation was carried out in order to find corrosion inhibitors which would be effective in controlling the corrosion for the water-lithium bromide-?-butyrolactone (20 moles water/1 mole ?-butyrolactone) absorption refrigerating machine. The experiments were carried out on continuous boiling test, intermittent boiling test and galvanic corrosion test with the use of organic inhibitors and inorganic inhibitors in ?-butyrolactone aqueous solution of lithium bromide. The metals used in these corrosion tests were mainly SS 41 and copper. From these experimental results, the most suitable corrosion inhibitors for SS 41 and copper in ?-butyrolactone aqueous solution of lithium bromide Were recognized to be benzotriazole, tolyltriazole and lithium molybdate.

Iyoki, Shigeki; Uemura, Tadashi

384

Ternary compound electrode for lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and of light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated in the temperature range of about 350 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell in which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell has a positive electrode which includes a ternary compound generally represented as Li-M-O, wherein M is a transition metal. Corrosion of the inventive cell is considerably reduced.

Raistrick, I.D.; Godshall, N.A.; Huggins, R.A.

1980-07-30

385

29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with legible signs bearing the legend: Cancer-Suspect Agent Area Authorized Personnel...with legible signs bearing the legend: Cancer-Suspect Agent in This Area Protective... Contaminated With Vinyl Chloride Cancer-Suspect Agent (4) Containers...

2010-07-01

386

Reductive Dechlorination of the Vinyl Chloride Surrogate  

E-print Network

by the plastics industry to produce poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and copolymers. In 1995, the U.S. production of VC with PVC manufacturing. In addition, accumulation of VC, a known carcinogen (2), is sometimes observed

Semprini, Lewis

387

Qualitative Determination of Nitrate with Triphenylbenzylphosphonium Chloride.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses two procedures for the identification of nitrate, the standard test ("Brown Ring" test) and a new procedure using triphenylbenzylphosphonium chloride (TPBPC). Effectiveness of both procedures is compared, with the TPBPC test proving to be more sensitive and accurate. (JM)

Berry, Donna A.; Cole, Jerry J.

1984-01-01

388

21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...crystallizing out magnesium chloride hexahydrate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 177, which is incorporated by reference. Copies are available from the National Academy Press,...

2010-04-01

389

Lithium in stars with exoplanets  

E-print Network

We present a comparison of the lithium abundances of stars with and without planetary-mass companions. New lithium abundances are reported in 79 planet hosts and 38 stars from a comparison sample. When the Li abundances of planet host stars are compared with the 157 stars in the sample of field stars of Chen et al. (2001) we find that the Li abundance distribution is significantly different, and that there is a possible excess of Li depletion in planet host stars with effective temperatures in the range 5600--5850 K, whereas we find no significant differences in the temperature range 5850--6350 K. We have searched for statistically significant correlations between the Li abundance of parent stars and various parameters of the planetary companions. We do not find any strong correlation, although there are may be a hint of a possible gap in the Li distribution of massive planet host stars.

Garik Israelian; Nuno Santos; Michel Mayor; Rafael Rebolo

2003-10-14

390

Evaluation of lithium as a toxicant and the modifying effect of sodium  

SciTech Connect

Routine compliance tests conducted for a groundwater treatment facility at the Y-12 Plant on the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), TN, showed that the effluent was acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae. An evaluation of suspected contaminants revealed that increased toxicity coincided with increased concentrations of lithium. Lithium is a light, strong metal that is used in DOE operations, including fusion weapons and fission reactors. Little has been published about lithium toxicity. Toxicity tests were conducted with fathead minnows and C. dubia using lithium chloride and lithium tetraborate. Dilute mineral water (DMW) or the receiving stream water (East Fork Poplar Creek) was used as the dilution water in the toxicity evaluation. A concentration of 1 mg Li/L in DMW reduced the survival of both test species; 0.5 mg Li/L in DMW reduced C. dubia reproduction and minnow growth. Sodium appears to influence the toxicity of Li; the metal was six times more toxic in the low-sodium DMW than in stream water containing 30 mg Na/L. Tests with LiCl in combination with NaCl and NA{sub 2}SO{sub 4} demonstrated that the presence of sodium reduced the toxicity of Li to C. dubia. In laboratory tests with a snail (Elimia clavaeformis) common on the ORR, the feeding rate declined in 0.15 mg Li/L. Because Li has also been demonstrated to be toxic to several plant species, tests with LiCi were also conducted using buttercrunch lettuce (Lactuca saliva). The EC{sub 50} for seed growth after 8 d incubation was 37.5 mg Li/L. These findings are significant because of widespread industrial use and potential accumulation of Li in soils.

Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.; O`Reilly, S.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31

391

Ordered Magnesium-Lithium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging technologies increasingly depend on the production of ultra-lightweight materials. Magnesium-lithium (MgLi) alloys are the lightest metallic alloys, having densities near that of plastics, and are strong enough to be used in a variety of high- performance applications. Although considerable work has been done on the MgLi system, little is known regarding potential ordered phases. An analysis of the system

Richard Taylor; Stefano Curtarolo; Gus Hart

2009-01-01

392

Thermal decomposition of lithium peroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A study was made of the thermal decomposition of lithium peroxide under static conditions in the temperature range 270–320‡.2.The formation of solid Li2O2-Li2O solution is observed up to a degree of Li2O2 conversion of approximately 50%. The apparent activation energy for the decomposition of Li2O2 is 50 kcal\\/mole

A. B. Tsentsiper; Z. I. Kuznetsova

1965-01-01

393

Varying the Pre-discharge Lithium Wall Coatings to Alter the Characteristics of the ELM-free H-mode Pedestal in NSTX  

SciTech Connect

A previous experiment in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) showed pre-discharge lithium deposition gradually suppresed edge-localized modes (ELMs) and had nearly continuous relationships with reduced recycling and transport. In this paper, additional data filled gaps in the earlier experiment, and demonstrates that recycling, confinement, and pedestal structure continued to improve with additional lithium, even after ELMs were completely suppressed. New analysis shows that toroidal rotation and ion temperature also increased continuously with additional lithium. Besides its evolution with additional lithium, we also characterize the time evolution of the ELM-free H-mode pedestal as average density rose and impurities accumulated. We find that the pedestal structure, divertor heat flux and Dalpha profiles, and inferred recycling coefficient did not change significantly, at least until radiative losses become dominant. This suggests that the low-recycling properties of lithium were not significantly degraded over the duration of the discharge.

D.P. Boyle, J.M. Canik, R. Maing, P.B. Snyder, T.H. Osborne, and the NSTX Team

2012-06-28

394

The 5-(4-Ethynylophenoxy) isophthalic chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sulfone-ester polymers containing pendent ethynyl groups and a direct and multistep process for preparing them are disclosed. The multistep process involves the conversion of a pendent bromo group to the ethynyl group while the direct route involves reating hydroxy-terminated sulfone oligomer or polymers with a stoichiometric amount of 5-(4-ethynylphenoxy) isophthaloyl chloride. The 5-(4-ethynylphenoxy) isophthaloyl chloride and the process for preparing it are also disclosed.

Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B. J. (inventors)

1986-01-01

395

Reaction of Sulfur Chlorides with Metal ?-Diketonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal ß-diketonates react with sulfur dichloride to form sulfenyl chlorides irrespective of ß-substituent. Bulky phenyl and tert-butyl groups do not prevent formation of fully substituted complexes. The possibility of preparing sulfenyl chloride derivatives of rhodium, ruthenium, and vanadium ß-diketonates was demonstrated. A new procedure was suggested for preparing chlorosulfenyl-substituted ß-diketonates. Disulfur dichloride reacts with metal chelates with the substitution of

I. V. Svistunova; N. P. Shapkin; O. V. Nikolaeva

2005-01-01

396

Methyl chloride via oxhydrochlorination of methane  

SciTech Connect

Dow Corning is developing a route from methane to methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination (OHC) chemistry with joint support from the Gas Research Institute and the Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center. Dow Corning is the world`s largest producer of methyl chloride and uses it as an intermediate in the production of silicone materials. Other uses include production of higher hydrocarbons, methyl cellulose, quaternary ammonium salts and herbicides. The objective of this project is to demonstrate and develop a route to methyl chloride with reduced variable cost by using methane instead of methanol raw materials. Methyl chloride is currently produced from methanol, but U.S. demand is typically higher than available domestic supply, resulting in fluctuating prices. OHC technology utilizes domestic natural gas as a feedstock, which allows a lower-cost source of methyl chloride which is independent of methanol. In addition to other uses of methyl chloride, OHC could be a key step in a gas-to-liquid fuels process. These uses could divert significant methanol demand to methane. A stable and selective catalyst has been developed in the laboratory and evaluated in a purpose-built demonstration unit. Materials of construction issues have been resolved and the unit has been run under a range of conditions to evaluate catalyst performance and stability. Many technological advances have been made, especially in the areas of catalyst development, online FTIR analysis of the product stream, and recovery of methyl chloride product via an absorber/stripper system. Significant technological hurdles still remain including heat transfer, catalysts scaleup, orthogonality in modeling, and scaleable absorption data. Economics of the oxyhydrochlorination process have been evaluated an found to be unfavorable due to high capital and utility costs. Future efforts will focus on improved methane conversion at high methyl chloride selectivity.

Jarvis, R.F. Jr.

1997-12-31

397

Copper chloride cathode for a secondary battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Higher energy and power densities are achieved in a secondary battery based on molten sodium and a solid, ceramic separator such as a beta alumina and a molten catholyte such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a copper chloride cathode. The higher cell voltage of copper chloride provides higher energy densities and the higher power density results from increased conductivity resulting from formation of copper as discharge proceeds.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (inventor); Bankston, Clyde P. (inventor)

1990-01-01

398

Structure of complexes between aluminum chloride and other chlorides, 2: Alkali-(chloroaluminates). Gaseous complexes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural chemistry of complexes between aluminum chloride and other metal chlorides is important both for practice and theory. Condensed-phase as well as vapor-phase complexes are of interest. Structural information on such complexes is reviewed. The first emphasis is given to the molten state because of its practical importance. Aluminum chloride forms volatile complexes with other metal chlorides and these vapor-phase complexes are dealt with in the second part. Finally, the variations in molecular shape and geometrical parameters are summarized.

Hargittai, M.

1980-01-01

399

Abnormal passive chloride absorption in cystic fibrosis jejunum functionally opposes the classic chloride secretory defect  

PubMed Central

Due to genetic defects in apical membrane chloride channels, the cystic fibrosis (CF) intestine does not secrete chloride normally. Depressed chloride secretion leaves CF intestinal absorptive processes unopposed, which results in net fluid hyperabsorption, dehydration of intestinal contents, and a propensity to inspissated intestinal obstruction. This theory is based primarily on in vitro studies of jejunal mucosa. To determine if CF patients actually hyperabsorb fluid in vivo, we measured electrolyte and water absorption during steady-state perfusion of the jejunum. As expected, chloride secretion was abnormally low in CF, but surprisingly, there was no net hyperabsorption of sodium or water during perfusion of a balanced electrolyte solution. This suggested that fluid absorption processes are reduced in CF jejunum, and further studies revealed that this was due to a marked depression of passive chloride absorption. Although Na+-glucose cotransport was normal in the CF jejunum, absence of passive chloride absorption completely blocked glucose-stimulated net sodium absorption and reduced glucose-stimulated water absorption 66%. This chloride absorptive abnormality acts in physiological opposition to the classic chloride secretory defect in the CF intestine. By increasing the fluidity of intraluminal contents, absence of passive chloride absorption may reduce the incidence and severity of intestinal disease in patients with CF. PMID:12840066

Russo, Michael A.; Hogenauer, Christoph; Coates, Stephen W.; Santa Ana, Carol A.; Porter, Jack L.; Rosenblatt, Randall L.; Emmett, Michael; Fordtran, John S.

2003-01-01

400

Lithium ion storage between graphenes  

PubMed Central

In this article, we investigate the storage of lithium ions between two parallel graphene sheets using the continuous approximation and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential. The continuous approximation assumes that the carbon atoms can be replaced by a uniform distribution across the surface of the graphene sheets so that the total interaction potential can be approximated by performing surface integrations. The number of ion layers determines the major storage characteristics of the battery, and our results show three distinct ionic configurations, namely single, double, and triple ion forming layers between graphenes. The number densities of lithium ions between the two graphenes are estimated from existing semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations, and the graphene sheets giving rise to the triple ion layers admit the largest storage capacity at all temperatures, followed by a marginal decrease of storage capacity for the case of double ion layers. These two configurations exceed the maximum theoretical storage capacity of graphite. Further, on taking into account the charge-discharge property, the double ion layers are the most preferable choice for enhanced lithium storage. Although the single ion layer provides the least charge storage, it turns out to be the most stable configuration at all temperatures. One application of the present study is for the design of future high energy density alkali batteries using graphene sheets as anodes for which an analytical formulation might greatly facilitate rapid computational results. PMID:21711713

2011-01-01

401

Infrared study of the adsorption and reaction of methyl chloride and methyl iodide on silica-supported Pt catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The low-temperature adsorption of methyl chloride and methyl iodide on silica-supported Pt catalysts has been investigated by transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The IR data show that methyl chloride and methyl iodide dissociate at low temperatures (near 200 K) to form an adsorbed hydrocarbon fragment on the surface, identified as methyl groups. Methyl groups are characterized by a single infrared absorption band near 2965 cm{sup -1}. Methyl groups react with hydrogen to form gas-phase methane as the sample is warmed between 200 and 473 K. Reaction of approximately 10 Torr of methyl chloride at 473 K over a Pt/SiO{sub 2} catalyst shows that only 20% of the methyl chloride decomposes to form gas-phase methane and hydrogen chloride in the absence of hydrogen. However, in the presence of an equal amount of hydrogen, all of the methyl chloride is converted to methane and hydrogen chloride. In contrast to the quantitative conversion of methyl chloride, less than 10% of the initial 10 Torr of methyl iodide forms methane at 473 K and no hydrogen iodide forms in the presence or absence of hydrogen gas. Although the activation barrier for C-Cl bond dissociation in adsorbed methyl chloride is higher than the barrier for C-I bond dissociation in adsorbed methyl iodide, the lower energy barrier for removal of adsorbed chlorine compared to adsorbed iodine is the cause of the higher catalytic activity of Pt/SiO{sub 2} toward methyl chloride decomposition. In addition to the thermal decomposition of CH{sub 3}Cl, the authors have investigated the possibility of using solar radiation for the decomposition of CH{sub 3}Cl on Pt/SiO{sub 2}. The results for the photo-assisted decomposition of CH{sub 3}Cl adsorbed on Pt/SiO{sub 2} are presented and discussed. 39 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

McGee, K.C.; Driessen, M.D.; Grassian, V.H. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)] [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

1996-03-01

402

Vol. 132, No. 3 SECONDARY A1 ELECTRODE 601 zolium chloride and aluminum chloride at ambient tem-  

E-print Network

. Wilkes, Unpublished data. 7. K. M. Abraham and S. B. Brummer, in "Lithium Batteries," J.P. Gabano, Editor, p. 379, Academic Press, London (1983). 8. K. T. Ciemiecki and J. J. Auborn, in "Lithium Batteries

Economou, Demetre J.

403

RESEARCH ARTICLE Increasing chloride concentrations in Lake Constance  

E-print Network

for the year 2006, we estimated total chloride imports to the catchment at 101 kt year-1 . Road deicing salts Chloride Á Budget Á Road deicing salt Introduction Sodium chloride (NaCl) is used widely and in large streams, Trowbridge et al. (2010) showed that [90% of the chloride originated from road salt. Imported

Wehrli, Bernhard

404

High-power liquid-lithium target prototype for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.  

PubMed

A prototype of a compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT), which will possibly constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals, was built. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The liquid-lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated using a high-intensity proton beam (>10 kW), necessary for sufficient neutron flux. In off-line circulation tests, the liquid-lithium loop generated a stable lithium jet at high velocity, on a concave supporting wall; the concept will first be tested using a high-power electron beam impinging on the lithium jet. High intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5 MeV, 2-4 mA) will take place at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF) superconducting linear accelerator currently in construction at SNRC. Radiological risks due to the (7)Be produced in the reaction were studied and will be handled through a proper design, including a cold trap and appropriate shielding. A moderator/reflector assembly is planned according to a Monte Carlo simulation, to create a neutron spectrum and intensity maximally effective to the treatment and to reduce prompt gamma radiation dose risks. PMID:21459008

Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Bisyakoev, M; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Hazenshprung, N; Kijel, D; Nagler, A; Silverman, I

2011-12-01

405

In-situ vacuum deposition technique of lithium on neutron production target for BNCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purpose of avoiding the radiation blistering of the lithium target for neutron production in BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) device, trilaminar Li target, of which palladium thin layer was inserted between cupper substrate and Li layer, was newly designed. In-situ vacuum deposition and electrolytic coating techniques were applied to validate the method of fabrication of the Li/Pd/Cu target, and the layered structures of the synthesized target were characterized. In-situ vacuum re-deposition technique was also established for repairing and maintenance for lithium target damaged. Following conclusions were derived; (1) Uniform lithium layers with the thickness from 1.6 nm to a few hundreds nanometer were formed on Pd/Cu multilayer surface by in situ vacuum deposition technique using metallic lithium as a source material. (2) Re-deposition of lithium layer on Li surface can be achieved by in situ vacuum deposition technique. (3) Small amount of water and carbonate was observed on the top surface of Li. But the thickness of the adsorbed layer was less than monolayer, which will not affect the quality of the Li target. (4) The formation of Pd-Li alloy layer was observed at the Pd and Li interface. The alloy layer would contribute to the stability of the Li layer.

Ishiyama, S.; Baba, Y.; Fujii, R.; Nakamura, M.; Imahori, Y.

2012-10-01

406

Determination of lithium in mineral water samples by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method is shown for the determination of trace amounts of lithium by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) in natural mineral waters with various therapeutic effects originating in Poland. The method is an expansion of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry applications to the determination of a very light element. The direct determination of lithium by XRF is practically impossible due to the extremely low fluorescence yield and long-wavelength characteristic radiation of such a light element. The lithium is determined via iron after precipitation with stoichiometric potassium lithium periodatoferrate(III) complex. The solution obtained after dissolving the complex was pipetted onto Mylar foil for XRF analysis. As little as 1 ?g Li may be determined with this method. Accurate lithium determinations can be obtained using simple calibration samples requiring only pipetting Fe solution in the range 8.0-28.0 ?g onto the Mylar foil. The prepared samples are thin, which allows the errors resulting from self-absorption or matrix effects to be neglected. Our studies give essential information about the quality of the analyzed waters. PMID:21986084

Zawisza, Beata; Sitko, Rafa?

2011-10-01

407

Development of non-flammable lithium secondary battery with room-temperature ionic liquid electrolyte: Performance of electroplated Al film negative electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

The negative electrode performance of the electroplated Al film electrode in the LiCl saturated AlCl3–1-ethyl-3-methylimizadolium chloride (EMIC)+SOCl2 melt as the electrolyte for use in non-flammable lithium secondary batteries was evaluated. In the cyclic voltammogram of the electroplated Al film electrode in the melt, the oxidation and reduction waves corresponding to the electrochemical insertion\\/extraction reactions of the Li+ ion were observed

Koichi Ui; Keigo Yamamoto; Kohei Ishikawa; Takuto Minami; Ken Takeuchi; Masayuki Itagaki; Kunihiro Watanabe; Nobuyuki Koura

2008-01-01

408

Jeff Chamberlain on Lithium-air batteries  

SciTech Connect

Jeff Chamberlain, technology transfer expert at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

Chamberlain, Jeff

2009-01-01

409

Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

Thackeray, Michael

2009-01-01

410

Jeff Chamberlain on Lithium-air batteries  

ScienceCinema

Jeff Chamberlain, technology transfer expert at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

Chamberlain, Jeff

2013-04-19

411

Modeling of lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

After reviewing the basic modeling framework for simulating battery behavior, three examples relating to mass-transfer effects are presented. Side reactions at the lithium electrode can change the surface concentration of lithium ions, introducing error into measurements of the cell potential as a function of bulk electrolyte concentration (concentration-cell measurements). This error introduced by a continuous side reaction is carried over

John Newman; Karen E. Thomas; Hooman Hafezi; Dean R. Wheeler

2003-01-01

412

Review of properties of lithium metatitanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although lithium metatitanate was considered as a possible ceramic breeder material in early reviews (around 1980), most of the world effort focused on other ceramics. Within the last few years, with no clear consensus on the other ceramics, it was recognized that Li2TiO3 was an attractive alternative. This report summarizes the available property data for lithium metatitanate.

P. Gierszewski

1998-01-01

413

Lithium Augmentation in Reboxetine-Refractory Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial part of patients with major depressive episode do not respond to antidepressants. Lithium can presently be considered the best validated augmentation strategy for patients not responding to tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's), venlafaxine, and mirtazapine. We present a report of successful lithium aug- mentation in a patient not responding to the highly selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor

Yasser Khazaal; Emanuelle Frésard; Daniele Fabio

414

Recent developments in lithium ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium ion rechargeable batteries are used as the power supply of cellular phones and several other portable electrical devices at present, and demand appears to increase exponentially. The concern about energy sources in the near future, either for electric vehicles (EV) or for large-scale batteries for electricity power storage, has made lithium ion rechargeable battery development into a growth area

Masataka Wakihara

2001-01-01

415

Convective Stirring in Liquid Lithium (LTX)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LTX is a spherical tokamak with R=0.4 m, a=0.26 m, and elongation=1.5. LTX has a heated (300 -- 400 C) liner, designed to be coated with lithium. During experiments in 2010, oxidation of the lithium surface was observed when the liner was heated to 300 C, above the melting point of lithium (182 C). A pumping system is being installed to absorb and pump background gasses which react with lithium, similar to a getter pump, using liquid and solid lithium. Lithium will be loaded into a yttria crucible heated from below by a small, HeatWave model TB175 300W cartridge heater to produce convective currents in order to maintain a clean lithium surface and decrease the time for oxide formation. This system was tested in an argon glove box using a copper heat concentrator -- instead of the HeatWave vacuum-compatible unit. Infrared thermometry and thermocouples were used to monitor the surface temperature of the molten lithium, and convective flow patterns. A 200 FPS high speed camera was also employed to monitor flows, using the motion of residual oxide patches. Results from the measurements will be presented.

Cassin, Margaret; Kearns, Eugene; Majeski, Richard

2011-11-01

416

A consideration of lithium cell safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The safety characteristics of commercial lithium ion cells are examined in relation to their use as batteries for cellular phones. This report describes a theoretical approach to an understanding of cell safety, example results of safety tests that we performed on lithium ion cells, and also presents our views regarding cell safety.

Tobishima, Shin-ichi; Yamaki, Jun-ichi

417

Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries  

ScienceCinema

Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

Thackeray, Michael

2013-04-19

418

Development of liquid-lithium film jet-flow for the target of (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reactions for BNCT.  

PubMed

A feasibility study on liquid lithium target in the form of a flowing film was performed to evaluate its potential use as a neutron generation target of (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction in BNCT. The target is a windowless-type flowing film on a concave wall. Its configuration was adapted for a proton beam which is 30mm in diameter and with energy and current of up to 3MeV and 20mA, respectively. The flowing film of liquid lithium was 0.6mm in thickness, 50mm in width and 50mm in length. The shapes of the nozzle and concave back wall, which create a stable flowing film jet, were decided based on water experiments. A lithium hydrodynamic experiment was performed to observe the stability of liquid lithium flow behavior. The flowing film of liquid lithium was found to be feasible at temperatures below the liquid lithium boiling saturation of 342°C at the surface pressure of 1×10(-3)Pa. Using a proto-type liquid lithium-circulating loop for BNCT, the stability of the film flow was confirmed for velocities up to 30m/s at 220°C and 250°C in vacuum at a pressure lower than 10(-3) Pa. It is expected that for practical use, a flowing liquid lithium target of a windowless type can solve the problem of radiation damage and target cooling. PMID:24412425

Kobayashi, Tooru; Miura, Kuniaki; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Aritomi, Masanori

2014-06-01

419

Effect of mercuric chloride and methylmercury chloride exposure on tissue concentrations of six essential minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few data on the effects of mercury exposure on tissue concentrations of essential minerals. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to mercuric chloride and methylmercury chloride administered via the drinking water. Subsequently, the kidneys, spleen, liver, and brain were analyzed for mercury, calcium, copper, magnesium, manganese, iron, and zinc by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Significant differences from controls were found

J. D. Bogden; F. W. Kemp; R. A. Troiano; B. S. Jortner; C. Timpone; D. Giuliani

1980-01-01

420

A preliminary deposit model for lithium brines  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to update existing mineral deposit models and to develop new ones. The global transition away from hydrocarbons toward energy alternatives increases demand for many scarce metals. Among these is lithium, a key component of lithium-ion batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Lithium brine deposits account for about three-fourths of the world’s lithium production. Updating an earlier deposit model, we emphasize geologic information that might directly or indirectly help in exploration for lithium brine deposits, or for assessing regions for mineral resource potential. Special attention is given to the best-known deposit in the world—Clayton Valley, Nevada, and to the giant Salar de Atacama, Chile.

Bradley, Dwight; Munk, LeeAnn; Jochens, Hillary; Hynek, Scott; Labay, Keith

2013-01-01

421

A safe lithium mimetic for bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

Lithium is the most effective mood stabilizer for the treatment of bipolar disorder, but it is toxic at only twice the therapeutic dosage and has many undesirable side effects. It is likely that a small molecule could be found with lithium-like efficacy but without toxicity through target-based drug discovery; however, therapeutic target of lithium remains equivocal. Inositol monophosphatase is a possible target but no bioavailable inhibitors exist. Here we report that the antioxidant ebselen inhibits inositol monophosphatase and induces lithium-like effects on mouse behaviour, which are reversed with inositol, consistent with a mechanism involving inhibition of inositol recycling. Ebselen is part of the National Institutes of Health Clinical Collection, a chemical library of bioavailable drugs considered clinically safe but without proven use. Therefore, ebselen represents a lithium mimetic with the potential both to validate inositol monophosphatase inhibition as a treatment for bipolar disorder and to serve as a treatment itself. PMID:23299882

Singh, Nisha; Halliday, Amy C; Thomas, Justyn M; Kuznetsova, Olga V; Baldwin, Rhiannon; Woon, Esther C Y; Aley, Parvinder K; Antoniadou, Ivi; Sharp, Trevor; Vasudevan, Sridhar R; Churchill, Grant C

2013-01-01

422

Lithium-free scintillation glasses for fast-neutron detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we present observed characteristics of new lithium-free scintillation glasses which have been developed to make time-resolved measurements of the 14-MeV neutron flux from deuterium plasmas. These measurements will yield information on the burnup of tritons in today's deuterium plasmas and are needed to better predict the confinement and slowdown of alpha particles in future D-T burning plasmas. The new glasses were formulated to have good detection efficiency for 14-MeV neutrons, and yet be insensitive to 2.5-MeV and lower-energy neutrons. The glass response to alpha, gamma, and neutron radiation is shown. The intrinsic neutron detection efficiency of the scintillation glass is seen to increase significantly as a function of neutron energy, providing the necessary discrimination against low-energy neutrons. We discuss the reactions which determine the glass neutron response and suggest that this response is dominated at higher neutron energies by gamma rays created by neutrons inelastically scattering from oxygen present in the glass. For high-energy neutron detection in the presence of excessive background gamma radiation, we discuss a new coincidence configuration of lithium-free scintillation glass with NE213 liquid scintillator.

Smith, J. R.; Fisher, R. K.; Leffler, J. S.

1987-10-01

423

Study of chloridizing volatilization roasting of cinnabar as a basis for a process to obtain mercuric and mercurous chlorides  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of the chloridizing volatilization reaction of concentrated cinnabar ore from Almadén, Spain in\\u000a an air atmosphere in order to obtain mercuric and mercurous chlorides in a single step. The chloridizing agents used were\\u000a ferric or aluminum chloride 6-hydrates. These chlorides decompose to HC1 at temperatures lower than required to break down\\u000a cinnabar. According to the

A. Roca; M. Cruells; C. Núñez

1990-01-01

424

Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O-H-O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

Anderson, A. B.

1984-01-01

425

Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O...H...O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

Anderson, A.B.

1984-10-17

426

A micropuncture study of the renal handling of lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although clearance studies in man and experimental animals indicate that filtered lithium is reabsorbed primarily in the proximal tubule, it is unclear whether lithium is also reabsorbed in distal portions of the nephron. Micropuncture studies were, therefore, performed to determine the nephron sites involved in lithium transport during free flow. A method was established to estimate the concentration of lithium

John P. Hayslett; Michael Kashgarian

1979-01-01

427

Intense Lithium Streams in Tokamaks 1 Leonid E. Zakharov,  

E-print Network

Intense Lithium Streams in Tokamaks 1 Leonid E. Zakharov, Princeton University, Princeton Plasma. Temperature of the streams. 2. Lithium jets. 3. Injection into vacuum chamber. 4. Propulsion inside the vacuum chamber. 5. Stability of the lithium streams. 6. Expulsion of the lithium. 7. Summary. PRINCETON PLASMA

Zakharov, Leonid E.

428

LITHIUM--2000 47.1 By Joyce A. Ober  

E-print Network

LITHIUM--2000 47.1 LITHIUM By Joyce A. Ober Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Maria, international data coordinator. Introduction Chile was, once again, the world's leading producer of lithium carbonate with production at its two lithium operations on the Salar de Atacama in the Andes Mountains

429

Lithium Lorentz Force Accelerator Thruster (LiLFA)  

E-print Network

Lithium Lorentz Force Accelerator Thruster (LiLFA) Adam Coulon Princeton University Electric #12;LiLFA Thruster · Lithium vapor ionizes in the electric field · A current evolves in the plasma and Control System Position Sensing Detector #12;Lithium Reservoir Argon Flow Copper Water Flow Piston/Lithium

Petta, Jason

430

Lithium Reagents DOI: 10.1002/anie.200603038  

E-print Network

Lithium Reagents DOI: 10.1002/anie.200603038 Lithium Diisopropylamide: Solution Kinetics Keywords: kinetics · lithium diisopropylamide · metalation · solvent effects · synthesis design D. B: lithium diiso- propylamide (LDA). LDA has played a profound role in organic synthesis, serving as the base

Collum, David B.

431

LITHIUM--1999 46.1 By Joyce A. Ober  

E-print Network

LITHIUM--1999 46.1 LITHIUM By Joyce A. Ober Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Maria, international data coordinator. Chile strengthened its position as the leading producer of lithium carbonate in the world with increased capacity at one of its two lithium operations on the Salar de Atacama, although

432

LITHIUM--1998 46.1 By Joyce A. Ober  

E-print Network

LITHIUM--1998 46.1 LITHIUM By Joyce A. Ober Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Maria, international data coordinator. With the closure of the last spodumene mine and lithium carbonate plant in North Carolina early in 1998, the shift in dominance of lithium production from the United States to South

433

LITHIUM--2003 45.1 By Joyce A. Ober  

E-print Network

LITHIUM--2003 45.1 LITHIUM By Joyce A. Ober Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Hoa P, international data coordinator. Chile has been the world's leading producer of lithium carbonate since 1997, the first year that it surpassed U.S. production. Production in Chile was from two lithium brine operations

434

76 FR 55799 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION...limits for the outbound mailing of lithium batteries to international, or APO, FPO or DPO...equipment with lithium metal or lithium-ion batteries that were to be effective October...

2011-09-09

435

Carbon materials for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent development of lithium rechargeable batteries results from the use of carbon materials as lithium reservoir at the negative electrode. Reversible intercalation, or insertion, of lithium into the carbon host lattice avoids the problem of lithium dendrite formation and provides large improvement in terms of cycleability and safety. This paper reviews the main achievements on performance and understanding of

S. Flandrois; B. Simon

1999-01-01

436

Aluminum phthalocyanine chloride as a hole injection enhancer in organic light-emitting diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with aluminum phthalocyanine chloride (AlPcCl) as an anode buffer layer were investigated. The basic structure of OLED is indium-tin oxide (ITO)/N,N'-di(naphth-2-yl)-N,N'-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3)/lithium fluoride (LiF)/aluminum (Al). AlPcCl inserted at the ITO/NPB interface as an anode buffer layer can enhance hole injection, and thus current density, luminance as well as efficiency. Based on the energy level and Richardson-Schottky (R-S) thermionic emission theory, the enhanced performance can be explained. Additionally, the effect of the deposition rate of AlPcCl on the device performance was also examined. The results show that the optimal deposition rate of AlPcCl is 0.05 nm/s.

Deng, Zhenbo; Lü, Zhaoyue; Chen, Yanli; Yin, Yuehong; Zou, Ye; Xiao, Jing; Wang, Yongsheng

2013-11-01

437

Electrochemical chloride extraction: efficiency and side effects  

SciTech Connect

Some specimens of reinforced concrete cast with an alkali-resistant aggregate, previously maintained in a solution of NaCl, were subjected to an electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE). The chloride profiles before and after treatment were determined. Likewise, alkali ions profiles before and after treatment were determined. After treatment, some specimens were stored in a controlled atmosphere (60 deg. C and 100% RH) in order to accelerate the alkali-silica reaction, if any. Results of chloride content after treatment show that about 40% of the initial chloride is removed within 7 weeks. About one-half of the chloride close to steel was removed, but at the same time, significant amounts of alkali ions were observed around the steel. Microstructural observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that after treatment, new cementitious phases containing higher concentrations of sodium, aluminum and potassium were formed. Moreover, alkali-silica gel was observed in the specimens stored at 60 deg. C and 100% RH. It may be possible that the ECE accumulates locally high amounts of alkali ions that stimulate the alkali-silica reaction even though the concrete contained nominally inert siliceous aggregates. The specimen expansions were not recorded, but no cracks were observed.

Orellan, J.C.; Escadeillas, G.; Arliguie, G

2004-02-01

438

Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense ??-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

2014-12-01

439

Lithium and potassium heat pipes for thermionic converters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototypic heat pipe system for an out-of-core thermionic reactor has been built and tested. The emitter of the concentric thermionic converter consists of the condenser of a tungsten heat pipe utilizing a lithium working fluid. The evaporator section of the emitter heat pipe is radiation heated to simulate the thermal input from the nuclear reactor. The emitter heat pipe thermal transport is matched to the thermionic converter input requirement. The collector heat pipe of niobium, 1%-zirconium alloy uses potassium as the working fluid. The thermionic collector is coupled to the heat pipe by a tapered conical joint designed to minimize the temperature drop. The area ratio of the evaporator to condenser is 16:1, which increases the radiation area. The composite wick structure consists of seven arteries and cylindrical wraps. The collector heat flux matches the design requirements of the thermionic converter.

Miskolczy, G.; Kroeger, E.

1978-01-01

440

40 CFR 461.50 - Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory. 461.50 Section 461...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lithium Subcategory § 461.50 Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory. This subpart...

2011-07-01

441

40 CFR 461.50 - Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory. 461.50 Section 461...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lithium Subcategory § 461.50 Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory. This subpart...

2012-07-01

442

40 CFR 461.50 - Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory. 461.50 Section 461...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lithium Subcategory § 461.50 Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory. This subpart...

2010-07-01

443

40 CFR 461.50 - Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory. 461.50 Section 461...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lithium Subcategory § 461.50 Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory. This subpart...

2013-07-01

444

Lithium extraction from orthorhombic lithium manganese oxide and the phase transformation to spinel  

SciTech Connect

Development of rechargeable lithium batteries is limited by a concern regarding their safety. Current efforts are focused on rocking-chair'' cells which avoid the use of metallic lithium electrodes and are therefore potentially far safer than conventional lithium cells. Carbon is the anode material of choice for rocking-chair'' cells as it gives good reversibility, high capacity and low average voltage versus lithium, resulting in high energy density cells. Carbon anodes must be coupled with lithium-rich or discharged cathodes. When the cell is first charged, lithium is transferred from the lithium-rich cathode to the carbon anode. However, not all the lithium can be recovered from the anode on the subsequent discharge; surplus cathode capacity is therefore required in the initial cathode to counteract this loss. Lithium transition-metal oxides are being developed as cathode materials for rocking-chair'' batteries. Lithium manganese oxides, which are cheap and non-toxic, are favored over the lithium-cobalt-oxide, LiCoO[sub 2], and lithium-nickel-oxide, LiNiO[sub 2].Here, orthorhombic LiMnO[sub 2] products, synthesized by the reaction of [gamma]-MnO[sub 2] and LiOH in argon at 600--620 C using carbon as a reducing agent, have been evaluated as electrode materials in lithium cells. Products that contained a minor proportion of a lithiated spinel phase showed greater electrochemical activity than pure LiMnO[sub 2]. On delithiation, LiMnO[sub 2] transforms irreversibly to a spinel-type structure. A mechanism for the orthorhombic Li[sub x]MnO[sub 2]-spinel phase transformation is proposed.

Gummow, R.J.; Liles, D.C.; Thackeray, M.M. (CSIR, Pretoria (South Africa). Div. of Materials Science and Technology)

1993-12-01

445

A lithium oxygen secondary battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some recent work on a lithium-oxygen secondary battery is reported in which stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes were used for the effective separation of respective half-cell reactions. The electroactive material consisted of alloys possessing the general composition Li(x)FeSi2 immersed in a ternary molten salt comprising LiF, LiCl, and Li2O. The manufacture of the cell is described, and discharge-current voltage curves for partially charged cells are shown and discussed. A galvanostatic IR free-changing curve and an IR-free charge-discharge curve are also shown.

Semkow, Krystyna W.; Sammells, Anthony F.

1987-08-01

446

A new rechargeable lithium battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new, secondary lithium cell employing an Mo6S8 cathode has been developed to the protoype stage in an 'AA' format. These cells can deliver about 2 W h of energy and are capable of high rate discharge up to about the 2 C rate. Cycle life testing of these cells has shown promising life characteristics, but a considerable dependence of cycle life on both charge and discharge rate is noted. Some preliminary testing has been done in series-connected batteries, pointing to areas where improvements can be made.

Stiles, J. A. R.

1989-05-01

447

Preparation of Proton Exchange Membranes and Lithium Batteries from Melamine-containing Ormosils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our laboratory has recently reported a series of rodcoil polymers for lithium batteries that display dimensionally stable films with good ionic conductivity. The rod segments consist of rigid linear and branched polyimides and the coil segments are polyethylene oxides (PEO). It has been proposed that good mechanical and transport properties are due to phase separation between the rod and coil segments. It was also observed that increased branching and molecular weight lead to increased conductivity. The following study was undertaken to assess the effects of phase separation in polyalkylene oxides connected by melamine linkages. Melamine was chosen as the linking unit because it provides a branching site, cation binding sites to help ionic transport between polymer chains, and the opportunity for self assembly through hydrogen bonding. Polymers were made by the reaction of cyanuric chloride with a series of amine-terminated alkylene oxides. A linear polymer was first made, followed by reaction of the third site on cyanuric chloride with varying ratios of monofunctional Jeffamine and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane. The lithium trifluoromethane sulfonamide-doped polymers are then crosslinked through a sol-gel process to form free-standing films. Initial results have shown mechanically strong films with lithium conductivities on the order of 2 x 10(exp -5) S/cm at ambient temperature. In a separate study, organically modified silanes (Ormosils) that contain sulfonic acid derivatized melamines have been incorporated into proton exchange membranes. The membranes are made by reaction of the primary amine groups of various ratios of melamine derivative and difunctional Jeffamine (MW = 2000) with the epoxide group of (3-Glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane. The films were then cross-linked through a sol-gel process. Resulting sulfuric acid doped films are strong, flexible, and have proton conductivities on the order of 2 x l0(exp -2) S/cm (120 C, 25% relative humidity). Our best results have been observed when films contain 60% PEO and 40% sulfonated melamine.

Tigelaar, Dean M.; Kinder, James D.; Meador, Mary Ann; Waldecker, James; Bennett, William R.

2004-01-01

448

J. Am. Chem. SOC.1991, 113,9575-9585 9575 Mixed Aggregation of Lithium Enolates and Lithium Halides  

E-print Network

J. Am. Chem. SOC.1991, 113,9575-9585 9575 Mixed Aggregation of Lithium Enolates and Lithium Halides with Lithium 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidide(LiTMP) Patricia L. Hall, James H. Gilchrist, Aidan T. Harrison]-lithiumdi-tert-butylamide and conformationally locked [6Li]-lithium2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylpiperidide shed further light

Collum, David B.

449

Intermetallic insertion anodes for lithium batteries.  

SciTech Connect

Binary intermetallic compounds containing lithium, or lithium alloys, such as Li{sub x}Al, Li{sub x}Si and Li{sub x}Sn have been investigated in detail in the past as negative electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. It is generally acknowledged that the major limitation of these systems is the large volumetric expansion that occurs when lithium reacts with the host metal. Such large increases in volume limit the practical use of lithium-tin electrodes in electrochemical cells. It is generally recognized that metal oxide electrodes, MO{sub y}, in lithium-ion cells operate during charge and discharge by means of a reversible lithium insertion/extraction process, and that the cells offer excellent cycling behavior when the crystallographic changes to the unit cell parameters and unit cell volume of the Li{sub x}MO{sub y} electrode are kept to a minimum. An excellent example of such an electrode is the spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}, which maintains its cubic symmetry without any significant change to the lattice parameter (and hence unit cell volume) during lithium insertion to the rock-salt composition Li{sub 7}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}. This spinel electrode is an example of a ternary Li{sub x}MO{sub y} system in which a binary MO{sub y} framework provides a stable host structure for lithium. With this approach, the authors have turned their attention to exploring ternary intermetallic systems Li{sub x}MM{prime} in the hope of finding a system that is not subject to the high volumetric expansion that typifies many binary systems. In this paper, the authors present recent data of their investigations of lithium-copper-tin and lithium-indium-antimonide electrodes in lithium cells. The data show that lithium can be inserted reversibly into selected intermetallic compounds with relatively small expansion of the lithiated intermetallic structures.

Thackeray, M. M.; Vaughey, J.; Johnson, C. S.; Kepler, K. D.

1999-11-12

450

Measuring Sodium Chloride Contents of Aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amount of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles measured in real time by analyzer that includes mass spectrometer. Analyzer used to determine mass distributions of active agents in therapeutic or diagnostic aerosols derived from saline solutions and in analyzing ocean spray. Aerosol particles composed of sodium chloride introduced into oven, where individually vaporized on hot wall. Vapor molecules thermally dissociated, and some of resulting sodium atoms ionized on wall. Ions leave oven in burst and analyzed by spectrometer, which is set to monitor sodium-ion intensity.

Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

1986-01-01

451

Continual Groundwater Monitoring with Inexpensive Chloride Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple chloride sensor technology, using an oxidized silver rod and reference electrode attached to a data logger, can be used as an inexpensive yet effective tool for the continuous measurement of chloride concentration in groundwater. The sensor is seen to be responsive at concentrations from less than 35 mg/l to 35,000 mg/l, with an error of less than 7% after the sensor is corrected for drift. When monitoring changes in groundwater salinity, the sensor has shown to be particularly useful when chloride concentrations are under 100 mg/l; at these lower salinities, conductivity probes become less responsive, whereas the chloride sensor is still able to register the smaller concentration changes. The sensor is particularly useful for continuous monitoring. Calibration and drift adjustment can be accomplished by simply taking a water sample in the beginning and at the end of the monitoring period. This allows the sensor to be adjusted for drift within the signal over the monitoring period. Occasional samples taken during the monitoring period provide control on the drift during the monitoring period. Chloride concentration from the control samples can be accurately and inexpensively calculated through titration methods, and do not need to be sent to an external laboratory for analysis. Tests have shown the sensor to be robust during long-term monitoring. When the sensor has been applied in unconfined aquifers, there has been virtually no observable difference in the responsiveness of the sensors. However, when the sensors are applied in reduced groundwater conditions, gradual fouling of the sensor surface has been seen to reduce the responsiveness of the sensor over time. Thus fouling can be an issue when applying the sensor in reduced conditions. The chloride sensors have shown to be very effective at measuring changes in chloride concentration in groundwater over short time spans. Therefore, the sensors would be particularly useful in monitoring changes in the saltwater - freshwater interface and seawater intrusion, as well as in groundwater tracer tests. In addition, the sensors could be easily applied in monitoring spills from waste disposal sites or well sites conducting hydraulic fracturing, where chloride would be one of the potential leachates to groundwater.

Thorn, P.; Mortensen, J.

2012-12-01

452

Solid Electrolyte for Advanced Lithium Batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium battery is a promising energy storage system due to its high energy density and high rate capability and its application ranges from micro to large scale megawatt batteries. The current technology is using liquid electrolyte that limits its application due to flammable nature of the electrolyte, particularly at high temperatures, and difficulty in fabrication and miniaturization of the device. We report a novel solid electrolyte with high lithium ion conductivity as a replacement for the current liquid electrolyte, particularly for electronic applications. The solid state lithium ion conductor is based on lithium germanium phosphorous sulfide compound. The compound is prepared by solid state reaction at 500 C. The crystallinity and phase purity of the sample is checked by XRD. We also measured ionic conductivity of the sample using both 4-probe and impedance techniques. High lithium ion conductivity at room temperature is observed. In this study we have investigated the dynamics of ion conduction, XRD, and Raman spectra of the super ion conductor. Electrochemical performance of the solid electrolyte in a lithium cell and its stability against high voltage cathodes and lithium anode will also be presented.

Nazri, Gholam-Abbas; Mandal, Balaji P.; Nazri, Maryam; Naik, Vaman; Vashinava, Prem; Naik, Ratna

2012-02-01

453

Quasielastic neutron scattering and diffusion in liquid lithium and lithium hydrogen melt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron quasielastic scattering experiments on liquid lithium (at 500 and 830 K) and a lithium-hydrogen melt (99 at.% Li7 and 1 at.% H at 830 K) have been performed. The characteristics of the diffusion mobility for lithium and hydrogen atoms have been extracted from the experimental results and analyzed with the use of phenomenological and theoretical models. The self-diffusion coefficient in liquid lithium obtained for both temperatures is in agreement with values in the literature. The mechanism of hydrogen diffusion mobility in liquid lithium is discussed. It has been concluded that the hydrogen in the liquid lithium exists and diffuses in the form of the hydride LiH.

Blagoveshchenskii, N. M.; Morozov, V. A.; Novikov, A. G.; Pashnev, M. A.; Savostin, V. V.; Shimkevich, A. L.; Sobolev, O. V.

2008-03-01

454

Novel polymer electrolyte from poly(carbonate-ether) and lithium tetrafluoroborate for lithium-oxygen battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel polymer electrolyte based on low-molecular weight poly(carbonate-ether) and lithium tetrafluoroborate has been prepared and used in lithium-oxygen battery for the first time, the electrolyte with approximate 17% of LiBF4 showed ionic conductivity of 1.57 mS cm-1. Infrared spectra analysis indicates that obvious interaction between the lithium ions and partial oxygen atoms in the host polymer exists, and the lithium salt and the host polymer have good miscibility. The lithium-oxygen battery from this polymer electrolyte shows similar cyclic stability to traditional liquid electrolyte observed by FT-IR, AFM and electrochemical measurements, which may provide a new choice for fabrication of all-solid-state high-capacity rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery with better safety.

Lu, Qi; Gao, Yonggang; Zhao, Qiang; Li, Ji; Wang, Xianhong; Wang, Fosong

2013-11-01

455

Initial NSTX Lithium Pellet Injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cartridge style Lithium Pellet Injector was installed on NSTX for midplane radial injection. Deuterium gas was used to propel a Li pellet-bearing cartridge down a barrel to a cartridge stop, and the pellet continued into the NSTX plasma at about 150 m/s. 16 lithium pellets, about 2 mg each were injected into LSN and DND, NBI-heated, H-mode plasmas, and into L-mode LSN Ohmic plasmas, and were observed with a Li I filtered Plasma-TV. Li pellets injected into NBI-heated LSN and DND plasmas appeared to ablate in the outer boundary. The pellets injected into OH plasmas exhibited good penetration to the HFS region. Lastly, a NBI preheat was added prior to pellet arrival, and the penetration depth was found to be very sensitive to the NBI turn-off time relative to pellet arrival. As this work progressed, Li luminosity started to be observed from the very initiation of discharges, due to depositions from preceding discharges. Initial modeling results will be presented.

Kugel, H. W.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; Biewer, T.; Gates, D.; Jardin, S.; Kaita, R.; Leblanc, B.; Paul, S.; Samtaney, R.; Skinner, C. H.; Raman, R.; Bush, C.; Maingi, R.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Nishino, N.; Lee, K. C.; Stutman, D.

2004-11-01

456

Uranium extraction from lithium and beryllium fluoride melts with bismuth-lithium alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium extraction from LiF-BeFâ melt containing 0.2 mole % UFâ with bismuth-lithium alloy at 600-655°C was studied. A linear dependence of the uranium distribution coefficient at 650°C on the lithium distribution coefficient with a slope ratio of approx. 3.0 was noted. At 600°C the D\\/sub U\\/ value reached 2 x 10² when the lithium concentration in the alloy was about

V. I. Silin; B. F. Myasoedov; I. A. Lebedev; S. A. Perevalov; G. N. Yakovlev

2009-01-01

457

Solubility of Lithium Polysulfides in a Block Copolymer Electrolyte for Lithium\\/Sulfur Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary challenges to commercialization of the high-energy-density lithium sulfur battery are dendrite growth of the lithium metal at the anode and capacity fade due to loss of active mass through dissolution at the cathode. Nanostructured solid polymer electrolytes offer one potential solution to reduce the amount of capacity fade seen in lithium metal\\/sulfur batteries by keeping the active material

Alexander Teran; Nitash Balsara

2011-01-01

458

Lithium abundances in exoplanet-hosts stars  

E-print Network

Exoplanet-host stars (EHS) are known to present surface chemical abundances different from those of stars without any detected planet (NEHS). EHS are, on the average, overmetallic compared to the Sun. The observations also show that, for cool stars, lithium is more depleted in EHS than in NEHS. The overmetallicity of EHS may be studied in the framework of two different scenarii. We have computed main sequence stellar models with various masses, metallicities and accretion rates. The results show different profiles for the lithium destruction according to the scenario. We compare these results to the spectroscopic observations of lithium.

M. Castro; S. Vauclair; O. Richard; N. C. Santos

2008-03-20

459

Improved Separators For Rechargeable Lithium Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved pairs of separators proposed for use in rechargeable lithium cells operating at ambient temperature. Block growth of lithium dendrites and help prevent short circuits. Each cell contains one separator made of microporous polypropylene placed next to anode, and one separator made of microporous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) next to cathode. Separators increase cycle lives of secondary lithium cells. Cells to which concept applicable those of Li/TiS(2), Li/NbSe(3), Li/CoO(2), Li/MoS(2), Li/VO(x), and Li/MnO(2) chemical systems. Advantageous in spacecraft, military, communications, automotive, and other applications in which high energy density and rechargeability needed.

Shen, David; Surampudi, Subbarao; Huang, Chen-Kuo; Halpert, Gerald

1994-01-01

460

Lithium electronic environments in rechargeable battery electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates the electronic environments of lithium in the electrodes of rechargeable batteries. The use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a novel approach, which when coupled with conventional electrochemical experiments, yield a thorough picture of the electrode interior. Relatively few EELS experiments have been preformed on lithium compounds owing to their reactivity. Experimental techniques were established to minimize sample contamination and control electron beam damage to studied compounds. Lithium hydroxide was found to be the most common product of beam damaged lithium alloys. Under an intense electron beam, halogen atoms desorbed by radiolysis in lithium halides. EELS spectra from a number of standard lithium compounds were obtained in order to identify the variety of spectra encountered in lithium rechargeable battery electrodes. Lithium alloys all displayed characteristically broad Li K-edge spectra, consistent with transitions to continuum states. Transitions to bound states were observed in the Li K and oxygen K-edge spectra of lithium oxides. Lithium halides were distinguished by their systematic chemical shift proportional to the anion electronegativity. Good agreement was found with measured lithium halide spectra and electron structure calculations using a self-consistant multiscattering code. The specific electrode environments of LiC6, LiCoO2, and Li-SnO were investigated. Contrary to published XPS predictions, lithium in intercalated graphite was determined to be in more metallic than ionic. We present the first experimental evidence of charge compensation by oxygen ions in deintercalated LiCoO2. Mossbauer studies on cycled Li-SnO reveal severely defective structures on an atomic scale. Metal hydride systems are presented in the appendices of this thesis. The mechanical alloying of immiscible Fe and Mg powders resulted in single-phase bcc alloys of less than 20 at% Mg. Kinetic studies on LaNi5-xSn x alloys proved that the mass transfer of hydrogen through these alloys was not hindered with increasing Sn substitutions for Ni. Collaborations with Energizer(c) found LanNi4.7Sn0.3 alloys to possess limited utility in rechargeable nickel-metal-hydride sealed-cell batteries.

Hightower, Adrian

461

21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...prepared from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with acrylonitrile, methyl...units derived from vinyldene chloride. (c) Optional adjuvant...desired properties may include sodium...

2011-04-01

462

21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...units derived from vinylidene chloride. The finished coating produced from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with methyl methacrylate...desired properties may include sodium...

2011-04-01

463

21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...prepared from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with acrylonitrile, methyl...units derived from vinyldene chloride. (c) Optional adjuvant...desired properties may include sodium...

2013-04-01

464

21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.  

...prepared from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with acrylonitrile, methyl...units derived from vinyldene chloride. (c) Optional adjuvant...desired properties may include sodium...

2014-04-01

465

21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...prepared from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with acrylonitrile, methyl...units derived from vinyldene chloride. (c) Optional adjuvant...desired properties may include sodium...

2010-04-01

466

21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...units derived from vinylidene chloride. The finished coating produced from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with methyl methacrylate...desired properties may include sodium...

2012-04-01

467

21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...units derived from vinylidene chloride. The finished coating produced from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with methyl methacrylate...desired properties may include sodium...

2010-04-01

468

21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...units derived from vinylidene chloride. The finished coating produced from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with methyl methacrylate...desired properties may include sodium...

2013-04-01

469

21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.  

...units derived from vinylidene chloride. The finished coating produced from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with methyl methacrylate...desired properties may include sodium...

2014-04-01

470

21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...prepared from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with acrylonitrile, methyl...units derived from vinyldene chloride. (c) Optional adjuvant...desired properties may include sodium...

2012-04-01

471

40 CFR 415.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production...

2012-07-01

472

The Lithium Flash - Thermal instabilities generated by lithium burning in RGB stars  

E-print Network

We present a scenario to explain the lithium-rich phase which occurs on the red giant branch at the so-called bump in the luminosity function. The high transport coefficients required to enhance the surface lithium abundance are obtained in the framework of rotation-induced mixing thanks to the impulse of the important nuclear energy released in a lithium burning shell. Under certain conditions a lithium flash is triggered off. The enhanced mass loss rate due to the temporary increase of the stellar luminosity naturally accounts for a dust shell formation.

A. Palacios; C. Charbonnel; M. Forestini

2001-06-25

473

Lithium lanthanum titanate as an electrolyte for novel lithium ion battery systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid electrolytes with high lithium conductivity may serve as useful components for enabling novel lithium ion battery system design. This work demonstrates the integration of lithium lanthanum titanate (Li0.29La0.57TiO3) into a battery system separating electrodes based on liquid electrolyte. Specifically, binder free electrodes based on graphite and LiCoO2 were tested against lithium metal in liquid electrolyte with an intermediate solid electrolyte. The system was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance.

Sun, Li; Sun, Ke; Dillon, Shen

2011-06-01

474

Investigations of diffusion processes in liquid lithium and lithium-hydrogen melt by quasielastic neutron scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quasielastic neutron scattering experiments on liquid lithium (at 500 K and 830 K) and lithium-hydrogen melt (99 at.% Li7 and 1 at.% H at 830 K) were performed with the DIN-2PI time-of-flight spectrometer (FLNP, JINR, Dubna). The characteristics of the diffusion mobility for particles comprising the liquids studied are extracted from the experimental results and analyzed with the help of the phenomenological and theoretical models. The self-diffusion coefficient in liquid lithium obtained for both temperatures is in the agreement with the one known in literature. The questions connected to hydrogen diffusion in the liquid lithium are discussed.

Blagoveshchenskii, N. M.; Loginov, N. I.; Morozov, V. A.; Novikov, A. G.; Pashnev, M. A.; Savostin, V. V.; Shimkevich, A. L.

2008-02-01

475