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1

Attenuation and cross-attenuation in taste aversion learning in the rat: Studies with ionizing radiation, lithium chloride and ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preexposure paradigm was utilized to evaluate the similarity of ionizing radiation, lithium chloride and ethanol as unconditioned stimuli for the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion. Three unpaired preexposures to lithium chloride (3.0 mEq\\/kg, IP) blocked the acquisition of a taste aversion when a novel sucrose solution was paired with either the injection of the same dose of lithium

B. M. Rabin; W. A. Hunt; J. Lee

1988-01-01

2

Attenuation and cross-attenuation in taste-aversion learning in the rat: Studies with ionizing radiation, lithium chloride, and ethanol. Scientific report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pre-exposure paradigm was utilized to evaluate the similarity of ionizing radiation, lithium chloride, and ethanol as unconditioned stimuli for the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion. Three unpaired pre-exposures to lithium chloride blocked the acquisition of a taste aversion when a novel sucrose solution was paired with either the injection of the same dose of lithium chloride or exposure

B. M. Rabin; W. A. Hunt; J. Lee

1989-01-01

3

Luminescence investigations of mixed lithium-cesium chloride using synchrotron radiation (in Ukrainian)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission characteristics of mixed lithium-cesium chloride compounds were studied using synchrotron radiation. In addition to the long-living (10^{-6} s) luminescence bands, attributed to the radiative decay of defect centers (2.5 eV) and self-trapped excitons (2.9 and 4.2 eV), a fast wide-band emission peaked at 4.4 eV with the decay constant of 2.0 0.1 ns is found to emerge at excitation by photons with the energy above 14.1 eV. This band is assigned to the impurity core-valence luminescence (CVL) caused by radiative recombination of valence electrons and 5pCs-core holes.

Mikhailik, V. B.

4

Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis  

E-print Network

Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis Lekha Gupta, 2008 Ortholithiations of a range of arenes mediated by lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in THF at -78 °C protocols with unpurified commercial samples of n-butyl- lithium to prepare LDA or commercially available

Collum, David B.

5

Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

Parry, J. M.

1978-01-01

6

Process for solar concentration of lithium chloride brine  

SciTech Connect

By evaporation employing solar energy, a brine having a lithium chloride concentration greater than that of a brine whose vapor pressure under ambient conditions is substantially equal to the partial pressure of moisture in the atmosphere above the brine is obtained. The process by which such result is accomplished involves the use of a pond system consisting of a series of shallow ponds of relatively large surface area to which a dilute lithium chloride brine is introduced. The flow of the brine through the pond system is controlled so that, at a point intermediate the points of introduction of the brine to and withdrawal of the brine from the pond system, the concentration of the brine is such that its vapor pressure under ambient conditions is substantially equal to the partial pressure of the moisture in the atmosphere immediately above the pond system. This more concentrated brine is then caused to flow through the remainder of the pond system at a rate such that the temperature thereof, as a result of exposure to solar energy, exceeds that of the atmosphere above the pond system whereby additional water is evaporated from the brine to further increase the lithium chloride concentration of the brine. The concentrated lithium chloride brine is recovered and may be used to generate impure lithium chloride monohydrate or further purified to provide relatively pure anhydrous lithium chloride or the monohydrate.

Boryta, D.A.; Brown, P.M.

1981-01-06

7

THE REACTION OF ALUMINIUM CHLORIDE WITH LITHIUM BOROHYDRIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of aluminum borohydride by the reaction between lithium ; borohydride and aluminum chloride seems to occur, ai least in pant, through the ; decomposition of very unstable, volatile intermediates. Attempts to isolate ; these intermediates in pure state were unsuccessful but by trapping intermediate ; fractions at low temperatures and destroying them with excess hydrogen chloride, ; it

W. M. Olson; R. T. Sanderson

1958-01-01

8

Thermoluminescence of ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride (10?30gcm?3) have been irradiated by X- and ?-rays at 77K, then progressively rewarmed to room temperature. During that phase, their thermoluminescence has been studied and it was found that, despite their dilution beyond the Avogadro number, the emitted light was specific of the original salts dissolved initially.

Louis Rey

2003-01-01

9

Optimization of the lithium/thionyl chloride battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1-D math model for the lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell is used in conjunction with a parameter estimation technique in order to estimate the electro-kinetic parameters of this electrochemical system. The electro-kinetic parameters include the anodic transfer coefficient and exchange current density of the lithium oxidation, alpha sub a,1 and i sub o,i,ref, the cathodic transfer coefficient and the effective exchange current density of the thionyl chloride reduction, alpha sub c,2 and a sup o i sub o,2,ref, and a morphology parameter, Xi. The parameter estimation is performed on simulated data first in order to gain confidence in the method. Data, reported in the literature, for a high rate discharge of an experimental lithium/thionyl chloride cell is used for an analysis.

White, Ralph E.

1989-01-01

10

On the existence of "L-threonine formate", "L-alanine lithium chloride" and "bis L-alanine lithium chloride" crystals.  

PubMed

We argue that the recently reported crystals "L-threonine formate" as well as "L-alanine lithium chloride" and "bis L-alanine lithium chloride" actually are the well-known crystals L-threonine and L-alanine, respectively. PMID:23384774

Petrosyan, A M; Ghazaryan, V V; Fleck, M

2013-03-15

11

Design of a safe cylindrical lithium/thionyl chloride cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cell design criteria were established which can result in a safe lithium/thionyl chloride cell. A cell vent, a low area internal anode cell, cell balance and composition of the cathode-electrolyte solution were found to be important factors in the design of a safe cell. In addition to routine testing, both undischarged and discharged cells were subjected to electrical abuse, environmental abuse and mechanical abuse without disassembly.

Johnson, D. H.

1983-01-01

12

High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented in viewgraph format are results and accomplishments on the development of lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar batteries. Results include the development of manufacturing capability for producing large quantities of uniform cathodes and bipolar plates; the development of assembly, sealing, and activation procedures for fabrication of battery modules containing up to 150 cells in bipolar configuration; and the successful demonstration of a 10.7 kW 150-cell module with constant power pulse discharge, 20 second pulse, and 10 percent duty cycle.

Russell, Philip G.; Goebel, F.

1994-01-01

13

Mixed Aggregates of 1-Methoxyallenyllithium with Lithium Chloride  

PubMed Central

A combined computational and 13C NMR study was used to investigate the formation of mixed aggregates of 1-methoxyallenyllithium and lithium chloride in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution. The observed and calculated chemical shifts, as well as the calculated free energies of mixed aggregate formation (MP2/6-31+G(d)), are consistent with the formation of a mixed dimer as the major species in solution. Free energies of mixed dimer, trimer, and tetramer formation were calculated by using the B3LYP and MP2 methods and the 6-31+G(d) basis set. The two methods generated different predictions of which mixed aggregates will be formed, with B3LYP/6-31+G(d) favoring mixed trimers and tetramers in THF solution, and MP2/6-31+G(d) favoring mixed dimers. Formation of the sterically unhindered mixed dimers is also consistent with the enhanced reactivity of these compounds in the presence of lithium chloride. The spectra are also consistent with some residual 1-methoxyallenyllithium tetramer, as well as small amounts of higher mixed aggregates. Although neither computational method is perfect, for this particular system, the calculated free energies derived using the MP2 method are in better agreement with experimental data than those derived using the B3LYP method.

Pratt, Lawrence M; Dixon, Darryl D; Tius, Marcus A

2014-01-01

14

Lithium chloride promotes host resistance against Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis  

PubMed Central

Purpose To explore the role of lithium chloride (LiCl) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) keratitis. Methods B6 mice were subconjunctivally injected with LiCl in contrast to appropriate control sodium chloride (NaCl), and then routinely infected with PA. Clinical score, slit-lamp photography, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and bacterial plate counts were used to determine the role of LiCl in PA keratitis. Messenger ribonucleic acid and protein levels of inflammatory cytokines in PA-challenged mouse corneas and in vitro cultured macrophages and neutrophils were measured with real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Apoptosis of the infiltrating inflammatory cells in the PA-infected murine corneas was assessed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5?-triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling staining and propidium iodide staining associated with flow cytometry. In cultured murine macrophages and neutrophils, cell apoptosis was determined with annexin V/propidium iodide double staining associated with flow cytometry and western blot analysis for cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Results Treatment with LiCl reduced the severity of corneal disease by reducing corneal inflammatory response and bacterial burden. Moreover, LiCl increased anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 levels, decreased proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? levels, and enhanced apoptosis of infiltrating macrophages and neutrophils in the PA-infected mouse corneas. In vitro studies further confirmed that LiCl elevated anti-inflammatory cytokine expression but reduced proinflammatory cytokine production, as well as promoted cell apoptosis in murine macrophages and neutrophils. Conclusions This study demonstrates a protective role of LiCl in PA keratitis. LiCl promotes host resistance against PA infection by suppressing inflammatory responses, enhancing inflammatory cell apoptosis, and promoting bacterial clearance. PMID:23878501

Chen, Kang; Wu, Yongjian; Zhu, Min; Deng, Qiuchan; Nie, Xinxin; Li, Meiyu; Wu, Minhao

2013-01-01

15

Inhibition of caudal fin regeneration in Corydoras aeneus by lithium chloride.  

PubMed

In the present study we examined the effects of lithium chloride on the Corydoras aeneus caudal fin regeneration. After caudal fin amputation, the fish were exposed 3h daily to 35 mM lithium chloride for 9 days. The effects of lithium chloride treatment were evaluated by analyzing the caudal fin structure at 3, 6 and 9 days after amputation. Comparison of normal and LiCl treated fish clearly shows that regeneration of amputated caudal fins was inhibited or delayed after lithium treatment. By the third day after amputation (dpa) either no epidermal cap or blastema ever formed or the epidermal cap had an abnormal morphology in lithium treated fish. By the 3 and 6 dpa no lepidotrichial matrix deposition was observed in the lithium treated fish compared to control fish. Unlike the control fish that completely regenerate their caudal fins after 9 dpa and have fully mineralized lepidotrichia, lithium treated fish have small blastema. In some treated fish, small amounts of new lepidotrichial matrix were observed at this time, in some fin rays. Ultrastructural observations have shown differences between control and lithium treated fish. Thus, in the lithium treated fish we observed expanded intercellular spaces between epidermal cells and many apoptotic cells. Results of this study suggest the use of this model in elucidating the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for regeneration of complex structures such as fish fins. PMID:23352777

Zarnescu, Otilia; Stavri, Simona; Moldovan, Lucia

2013-03-01

16

A mathematical model of a lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1-D mathematical model for the lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell was developed to investigate methods of improving its performance and safety. The model includes many of the components of a typical lithium/thionyl chloride cell such as the porous lithium chloride film which forms on the lithium anode surface. The governing equations are formulated from fundamental conservation laws using porous electrode theory and concentrated solution theory. The model is used to predict 1-D, time dependent profiles of concentration, porosity, current, and potential as well as cell temperature and voltage. When a certain discharge rate is required, the model can be used to determine the design criteria and operating variables which yield high cell capacities. Model predictions can be used to establish operational and design limits within which the thermal runaway problem, inherent in these cells, can be avoided.

Evans, T. I.; Nguyen, T. V.; White, R. E.

1987-01-01

17

Lithium chloride protects retinal neurocytes from nutrient deprivation by promoting DNA non-homologous end-joining  

SciTech Connect

Lithium chloride is a therapeutic agent for treatment of bipolar affective disorders. Increasing numbers of studies have indicated that lithium has neuroprotective effects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of lithium have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate whether lithium chloride produces neuroprotective function by improving DNA repair pathway in retinal neurocyte. In vitro, the primary cultured retinal neurocytes (85.7% are MAP-2 positive cells) were treated with lithium chloride, then cultured with serum-free media to simulate the nutrient deprived state resulting from ischemic insult. The neurite outgrowth of the cultured cells increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner when exposed to different levels of lithium chloride. Genomic DNA electrophoresis demonstrated greater DNA integrity of retinal neurocytes when treated with lithium chloride as compared to the control. Moreover, mRNA and protein levels of Ligase IV (involved in DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway) in retinal neurocytes increased with lithium chloride. The end joining activity assay was performed to determine the role of lithium on NHEJ in the presence of extract from retinal neurocytes. The rejoining levels in retinal neurocytes treated with lithium were significantly increased as compared to the control. Furthermore, XRCC4, the Ligase IV partner, and the transcriptional factor, CREB and CTCF, were up-regulated in retinal cells after treating with 1.0 mM lithium chloride. Therefore, our data suggest that lithium chloride protects the retinal neural cells from nutrient deprivation in vitro, which may be similar to the mechanism of cell death in glaucoma. The improvement in DNA repair pathway involving in Ligase IV might have an important role in lithium neuroprotection. This study provides new insights into the neural protective mechanisms of lithium chloride.

Zhuang Jing; Li Fan; Liu Xuan; Liu Zhiping; Lin Jianxian [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Ge Yihong [Department of Stomatology, the Southern Medical University (China); Kaminski, Joseph M. [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation, University of South Alabama (United States); Summers, James Bradley [Department of Radiology, University of South Alabama (United States); Wang Zhichong [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Ge Jian [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)], E-mail: gejian@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Yu Keming [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)], E-mail: yukeming@mail.sysu.edu.cn

2009-03-13

18

Lithium: Thionyl chloride battery state-of-the-art assessment  

SciTech Connect

Models of the performance of primary Li/SOCl{sub 2} cells can provide for realistic comparisons between technical information from different sources, and set standards that electronic circuit designers may refer to in the generation of high-quality products. Data from various investigators were used to derive mathematical- statistical relationships with physical design features (e.g. size and materials), operating parameters (e.g. current and temperature) and storage conditions (time and temperature). These efforts were substantially promoted by normalization procedures. For example, current loads were converted into current densities, or if appropriate, into current per unit cathode volume. Similarly, cell capacities were standardized with the maximum values observed at low current and also with respect to the cathode volume. Particular emphasis was placed on evaluations of voltage-delay, cell capacity and self-discharge, for which several equations were established. In spite of a considerable expenditure in time to find high-quality datasets, the reality is that all of the reviewed studies are flawed in one way or another. Specifically, all datasets are afflicted with sizable experimental errors and the precision of the regression equations is much lower than is deemed necessary for a universal model of the lithium thionyl chloride cell. Each of the equations has some definite truth content, but is generally incapable of bridging the gap between different studies. The basic failure to come up with a unifying model for Li/SOCl{sub 2} batteries leaves only one benefit of the present analysis, namely to provide guidance for future investigations. Several recommendations are made based on the insight gained during the search for good data in the relevant literature.

Eisenmann, E.T.

1996-03-01

19

Optimization of operation conditions for extracting lithium ions from calcium chloride-type oil field brine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Al(OH)3 was prepared to extract lithium ions from calcium chloride-type oil field brine. The influences of four factors, namely temperature, Al3+/Li+ molar ratio, OH-/Al3+ molar ratio, and contact time between Al(OH)3 and the brine, on the yield of lithium ions were investigated. It is found that their optimal values are 35C, 4.5, 2.6, and 6 h, respectively. In the course of the experiment, the apparent pH value was observed. The results reveal that the apparent pH value has no remarkable influence on the yield of lithium ions. Meanwhile, the effects of the concentrations of calcium ions and magnesium ions in the brine on lithium recovery were studied. The results indicate that calcium ions have minor negative influence on the yield of lithium ions under optimal conditions, and magnesium ions slightly influence the yield of lithium ions.

Yang, Hong-jun; Li, Qing-hai; Li, Bing; Guo, Feng-qin; Meng, Qing-fen; Li, Wu

2012-04-01

20

Reduction of the spent nuclear fuel of a VVER-1000 reactor by lithium in a lithium chloride melt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers at FGUP GNTs RF NIIAR performed a series of experiments on the lithium reduction of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of a VVER-1000 reactor to a metal in a lithium chloride melt. The depletion of the nuclear fuel taken before experiments is about 30000 (MW day)/t, and the cooling time is 5 years. The experiments are performed on 5.8-kg samples of a prepared SNF powder. Data are obtained on a decrease in the heat release, the specific activity of the processed powder, and the distribution of actinides and the main fission products between a salt phase and a reduced SNF powder.

Bychkov, A. V.; Ishunin, V. S.; Kormilitsyn, M. V.

2010-08-01

21

Combined Treatment of Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Cell Line DU145 with Chemotherapeutic Agents and Lithium Chloride: Effect on Growth Arrest and/or Apoptosis.  

PubMed

Hormone-independent prostate cancer cell lines are resistant to antineoplastic drugs, this study sought to determine the usefulness of lithium chloride as an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3? to increase the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin, etoposide or vinblastine antineoplastic drugs on DU145 cells. Combination effect was assessed by using low and IC(50) doses of drugs + lithium chloride. Subsequently, cell cycle analysis and p53 levels and its subcellular localization as a key regulator of cell cycle were assessed. Lithium chloride showed cytotoxic effect in a dose and time dependent manner (p<0.001). Both drugs doxorubicin and etoposide in combination with lithium chloride (LiCl) showed higher percent of cells in SubG1 compared to control (p<0.001). Combination of IC(50) dose of doxorubicin and lithium chloride led to S phase arrest (p<0.001, compared to control, lithium chloride or doxorubicin alone). Moreover, G2/M arrest was significantly increased when low dose of doxorubicin and vinblastine were combined with lithium chloride (p<0.001, compared to control and lithium chloride alone). DU145 cells were highly sensitive to vinblastine and no significant changes were observed when combined with lithium chloride. The IC(50) doses of all three drugs combined with lithium chloride demonstrated decreased cell percent in G1 phase compared to control or lithium chloride alone (p<0.001). Moreover, in the presence of lithium chloride there were increased levels of p53 in cytoplasm and nucleus (p<0.05). Our results suggest that combination of lithium chloride with chemotherapeutic agents may increases their cytotoxic effect on hormone non-responsive human prostate cancer cells. PMID:23408470

Hossein, Ghamartaj; Zavareh, Vajihe Azimian; Fard, Parissa Sahranavard

2012-04-01

22

Lithium cycling in a self-assembled copper chloride-polyether hybrid electrode.  

PubMed

Atomic-scale integration of polyether molecules and copper(II) chloride layers in a two-dimensional perovskite affords, to the best of our knowledge, the first example of extended Li(+) cycling in a metal chloride electrode. The hybrid can cycle over 200 times as a cathode in a lithium battery with an open-circuit voltage of 3.2 V. In contrast, CuCl2 alone or the precursors to the hybrid cannot be cycled in a lithium battery, demonstrating the importance of the layered, organic-inorganic architecture. This work shows that appropriate organic groups can enable Li(+) cycling in inexpensive, nontoxic, metal halide electrodes, which is promising for large-scale applications. PMID:24917248

Jaffe, Adam; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

2014-07-01

23

Investigation of an Aberrant Cell Voltage During the Filling of a Large Lithium Thionyl Chloride Cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigation of an aberrant cell voltage during the filling of a large lithium thionyl chloride cell summary is at: an aberrant voltage trace was noted during the review of cell filling data; incident was traced to an interruption during filling; experimentation suggested oxidizable sites within the carbon electrode were responsible for the drop in voltage; the voltage anomaly could be reproduced by interrupting the filling of similar cells; and anomalous voltage dip was not due to a short.

Thaller, Lawrence H.; Quinzio, Michael V.

1997-01-01

24

Evaluation of high-energy lithium thionyl chloride primary cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced commercial primary lithium cell (LiSoCl2) was evaluated in order to establish baseline data for improved lithium batteries for aerospace applications. The cell tested had nominal capacity of 6 Ah. Maximum energy density at low rates (less than C/30, where C is the cell capacity in amp-hrs and 30 corresponds to a 30 hr discharge time) was found to be near 300 Wh/kg. An equation which predicts the operating voltage of these cells as a function of current and state of charge is presented. Heat generation rates of these cells were determined as a function of current in a calorimeter. It was found that heat rates could be theoretically predicted with some degree of accuracy at currents less than 1 amp or the C/6 rate. No explosions were observed in the cells during the condition of overdischarge or reversal nor during high rate discharge. It was found, however, that the cells can vent when overdischarge currents are greater than C/30 and when discharge rates are greater than 1.5C.

Frank, H. A.

1980-01-01

25

Selective Reduction of Active Metal Chlorides from Molten LiCl-KCl using Lithium Drawdown  

SciTech Connect

In support of optimizing electrorefining technology for treating spent nuclear fuel, lithium drawdown has been investigated for separating actinides from molten salt electrolyte. Drawdown reaction selectivity is a major issue that needs to be investigated, since the goal is to remove actinides while leaving the fission products in the salt. A series of lithium drawdown tests with surrogate fission product chlorides was run to obtain selectivity data with non-radioactive salts, develop a predictive model, and draw conclusions about the viability of using this process with actinide-loadd salt. Results of tests with CsCl, LaCl3, CeCl3, and NdCl3 are reported here. An equilibrium model has been formulated and fit to the experimental data. Excellent fits to the data were achieved. Based on analysis and results obtained to date, it is concluded that clean separation between minor actinides and lanthanides will be difficult to achieve using lithium drawdown.

Michael F. Simpson; Daniel LaBrier; Michael Lineberry; Tae-Sic Yoo

2012-10-01

26

Solid-phase extraction of cobalt(II) from lithium chloride solutions using a poly(vinyl chloride)-based polymer inclusion membrane with Aliquat 336 as the carrier.  

PubMed

The extraction of cobalt(II) from solutions containing various concentrations of lithium chloride, hydrochloric acid, and mixtures of lithium chloride plus hydrochloric acid is reported using a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) containing 40% (w/w) Aliquat 336 as a carrier. The extraction from lithium chloride solutions and mixtures with hydrochloric acid is shown to be more effective than extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions alone. The solution concentrations giving the highest amounts of extraction are 7 mol L(-1) for lithium chloride and 8 mol L(-1) lithium chloride plus 1 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid for mixed solutions. Cobalt(II) is easily stripped from the membrane using deionized water. The cobalt(II) species extracted into the membrane are CoCl(4)(2-) for lithium chloride solutions and HCoCl(4)(-) for mixed solutions; these form ion-pairs with Aliquat 336. It is also shown that both lithium chloride and hydrochloric acid are extracted by the PIM and suppress the extraction of cobalt(II) by forming ion-pairs in the membrane (i.e. R(3)MeN(+)HCl(2)(-) for hydrochloric acid and R(3)MeN(+)LiCl(2)(-) for lithium chloride). PMID:21666365

Kagaya, Shigehiro; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

2011-01-01

27

Antiviral effect of diammonium glycyrrhizinate and lithium chloride on cell infection by pseudorabies herpesvirus.  

PubMed

Diammonium glycyrrhizin (DG), a salt from glycyrrhizinate (GL) that is a major active component of licorice root extract with various pharmacological activities was investigated for its inhibitory effect on pseudorabies virus (PrV) infection. In parallel, lithium chloride (LiCl), a chemical reagent with potential antiviral activity was compared with DG for their inhibitory ability against PrV infection in vitro. Virus plaque-reduction assays, PCR and RT-PCR analysis indicated that both drugs inhibited cell infection by PrV. Moreover, addition of the drugs resulted in fewer apoptotic cells during PrV infection. PMID:19879899

Sui, Xiuwen; Yin, Jiechao; Ren, Xiaofeng

2010-02-01

28

Performances of 250 Amp-hr lithium/thionyl chloride cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 250 Ah lithium thionyl chloride battery is being developed for a booster rocket engine. Extensive cell testing is running to evaluate functional and safety performances. Some results are presented. The lithium/thionyl chloride batteries were selected for their high energy density (low weight) as compared to other sources. The temperature of a lower weight item will be more sensitive to variations of internal and external heat fluxes than a heavier one. The use of high energy density L/TC batteries is subjected to stringent thermal environments to have benefit of energy density and to stay safe in any conditions. The battery thermal environment and discharge rate have to be adjusted to obtain the right temperature range at cell level, to have the maximum performances. Voltage and capacity are very sensitive to temperature. This temperature is the cell internal actual temperature during discharge. This temperature is directed by external thermal environment and by cell internal heat dissipation, i.e., cell actual voltage.

Goualard, Jacques

1991-01-01

29

Additive anticonvulsant effects of agmatine and lithium chloride on pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizure in mice: involvement of ??-adrenoceptor.  

PubMed

After 60 years, lithium is still the mainstay in the treatment of mood disorders and widely used in clinic. In addition to its mood stabilizer effects, lithium also shows some anticonvulsant properties. Similar to lithium, agmatine also plays a protective role in the CNS against seizures and has been reported to enhance the effect of different antiepileptic agents. Moreover, both agmatine and lithium have modulatory effects on ?(2)-adrenoceptors. So, we designed this study: 1) to investigate whether agmatine and lithium show an additive effect against clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole; 2) to assess whether this additive effect is mediated through the ?(2)-adrenoceptor or not. In our study, acute administration of a single effective dose of lithium chloride (30 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the seizure threshold. Pre-treatment with low and, per se, non-effective doses of agmatine (1 and 3mg/kg) potentiated a sub-effective dose of lithium (10mg/kg). Interestingly, the anticonvulsant effects of these effective combinations of lithium and agmatine were prevented by pre-treatment with low and non-effective doses of yohimbine [?(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist] (0.1 and 0.5mg/kg). On the other hand, clonidine [?(2)-adrenoceptor agonist] augmented the anticonvulsant effect of a sub-effective combination of lithium (5mg/kg i.p.) and agmatine (1mg/kg) at relatively low doses (0.1 and 0.25mg/kg). In summary, our findings demonstrate that agmatine and lithium chloride exhibit additive anticonvulsant properties which seem to be mediated through ?(2)-adrenoceptor. PMID:21651904

Bahremand, Arash; Ziai, Pouya; Payandemehr, Borna; Rahimian, Reza; Amouzegar, Afsaneh; Khezrian, Mina; Montaser-Kouhsari, Laleh; Meibodi, Maryam Aghaei; Ebrahimi, Ali; Ghasemi, Abbas; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

2011-09-01

30

Increased radiation resistance in lithium-counterdoped silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium-counterdoped n(+)p silicon solar cells are found to exhibit significantly increased radiation resistance to 1-MeV electron irradiation when compared to boron-doped n(+)p silicon solar cells. In addition to improved radiation resistance, considerable damage recovery by annealing is observed in the counterdoped cells at T less than or equal to 100 C. Deep level transient spectroscopy measurements are used to identify the defect whose removal results in the low-temperature aneal. It is suggested that the increased radiation resistance of the counterdoped cells is primarily due to interaction of the lithium with interstitial oxygen.

Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Mehta, S.

1984-01-01

31

Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery with Electrolyte Flow  

SciTech Connect

A two-dimensional model is developed to simulate discharge of a lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery. The model accounts for not only transport of species and charge, but also the electrode porosity variations and the electrolyte flow induced by the volume reduction caused by electrochemical reactions. Numerical simulations are performed using a finite volume method of computational fluid dynamics. The predicted discharge curves for various temperatures are compared to the experimental data with excellent agreement. Moreover, the simulation results. in conjunction with computer visualization and animation techniques, confirm that cell utilization in the temperature and current range of interest is limited by pore plugging or clogging of the front side of the cathode as a result of LiCl precipitation. The detailed two-dimensional flow simulation also shows that the electrolyte is replenished from the cell header predominantly through the separator into the front of the cathode during most parts of the discharge, especially for higher cell temperatures.

Gu, W.B.; Jungst, Rudolph G.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Wang, C.Y.; Weidner, John.

1999-06-11

32

Alkali Halide Opacity in Brown Dwarf and Cool Stellar Atmospheres: A Study of Lithium Chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent thermochemical equilibrium calculations have revealed the important role played by lithium chloride in the lithium chemistry of cool dwarf atmospheres (K. Lodders 1999, ApJ 519, 793). Indeed, LiCl appears to be the dominant Li-bearing gas over an extended domain of the (P,T) diagram, typically for temperatures below 1500 K. LiCl has a large dipole moment in its ground electronic state which can give rise to intense rovibrational line spectra. In addition, LiCl can make dipole transitions to several low-lying unbound excited states, causing dissociation of the molecule. For these reasons, LiCl may be a significant source of line and continuum opacity in brown dwarf and cool stellar atmospheres. In this work, we report calculations of complete lists of line oscillator strengths and photodissociation cross sections for the low-lying electronic states of LiCl. We have performed single- and double-excitation configuration interaction calculations using the ALCHEMY ab initio package (Mc Lean et al. 1991, MOTECC 91, Elsevier, Leiden) and obtained the potential curves and the corresponding dipole transition moment functions between the X 1? ^+ ground state and the B 1? ^+ and A 1? excited states. The resulting line oscillator strengths and molecular photodissociation cross sections have been included in the PHOENIX stellar atmosphere code (Hauschildt & Baron 1999, J. Comput. App. Math. 102, 41). The new models, calculated using spherical geometry for all gravities considered, also incorporate our latest database of nearly 670 million molecular lines, and updated equations of state (EOS). This work was supported in part by NSF grants AST-9720704 and AST-0086246, NASA grants NAG5-8425, NAG5-9222, and NAG5-10551 as well as NASA/JPL grant 961582.

Kirby, K.; Weck, P. F.; Schweitzer, A.; Stancil, P. C.; Hauschildt, P. H.

2003-12-01

33

Protective effects of lithium chloride treatment on repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.  

PubMed

Lithium is a renowned pharmacological treatment for mood disorders. Recent studies suggest that lithium chloride (LiCl) performs neuroprotective effects on cerebrovascular diseases. The present study is to investigate the protective effects of LiCl treatment on the hippocampus of mice with repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR). Mice were subjected to IR through repeated bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. LiCl (2mmol/kg) was administered daily postoperative until the mice were sacrificed. Swimming time was prolonged and error count increased in the model group through learning and memory tests. Pathological changes such as reduction in cell count and obvious pyknosis were seen in haematoxylin-eosin staining, and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining in hippocampal CA1 regions in the model group. The model animals exhibited more phospho-Akt Ser473 and phospho-GSK3? Ser9 than the sham group when measured by Western blot. LiCl treatment mitigated the prolonged swimming time and the increased error count compared with NaCl-treated group and improved the pathological changes. Meanwhile, LiCl further up-regulated phospho-Akt Ser473 and phospho-GSK3? Ser9 expression. The highest level of diversity was at 4weeks postoperative. Therefore, repeated IR can severely damage the hippocampus and decrease the learning and memory functions in mice. Changes in the Akt and GSK3? protein activity were involved in the IR process. LiCl treatment exerted a neuroprotective effect on learning and memory by potentiating the Akt/GSK3? cell-signaling pathway. PMID:25192664

Fan, Mingyue; Song, Chunfeng; Wang, Tianjun; Li, Ling; Dong, Yanhong; Jin, Wei; Lu, Peiyuan

2015-02-01

34

A Lithium Chloride-Extracted, Broad-Spectrum-Adhesive 42-Kilodalton Protein of Staphylococcus epidermidis Is Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify novel putative staphylococcal adhesins, lithium chloride extraction (an established method for selective surface molecule solubilization) was employed. N-terminal sequencing and functional assays identi- fied a 42-kDa fibronectin-binding protein from Staphylococcus epidermidis as ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCTase). However, OCTase was not recognizable extracellularly, and this fact together with the fact that LiCl induced DNA release and a decrease in viability

MUZAFFAR HUSSAIN; GEORG PETERS; GURSHARAN S. CHHATWAL; MATHIAS HERRMANN

1999-01-01

35

New Aptes Cross-linked Polymers from Poly(ethylene oxide)s and Cyanuric Chloride for Lithium Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new series of polymer electrolytes for use as membranes for lithium batteries are described. Electrolytes were made by polymerization between cyanuric chloride and diamino-terminated poly(ethylene oxide)s, followed by cross-linking via a sol-gel process. Thermal analysis and lithium conductivity of freestanding polymer films were studied. The effects of several variables on conductivity were investigated, such as length of backbone PEO chain, length of branching PEO chain, extent of branching, extent of cross-linking, salt content, and salt counterion. Polymer films with the highest percentage of PEO were found to be the most conductive, with a maximum lithium conductivity of 3.9 x 10(exp -5) S/cm at 25 C. Addition of plasticizer to the dry polymers increased conductivity by an order of magnitude.

Tigelaar, Dean M.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Kinder, James D.; Bennett, William R.

2005-01-01

36

Reentrant condensation of lysozyme: Implications for studying dynamics of lysozyme in aqueous solutions of lithium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have outlined the use of eutectic solution of lithium chloride in water to study microscopic dynamics of lysozyme in an aqueous solvent that is remarkably similar to pure water in many respects, yet allows experiments over a wide temperature range without the solvent crystallization. The eutectic point in (H2O)R(LiCl) system corresponds to R 7.3, and it is of interest to investigate whether less concentrated aqueous solutions of LiCl could be employed in low-temperature studies of a solvated protein. We have investigated a range of concentrations of lysozyme and LiCl in aqueous solutions to identify systems that do not show phase separation and avoid solvent crystallization on cooling down. Compared to the lysozyme concentration in solution, the concentration of LiCl in the aqueous solvent plays the major role in determining systems suitable for low-temperature studies. We have observed interesting and rich phase behavior reminiscent of reentrant condensation of proteins.

Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL] [ORNL; O'Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

37

Activation of Wnt Signaling Using Lithium Chloride: Inquiry-Based Undergraduate Laboratory Exercises  

PubMed Central

Abstract Zebrafish provide researchers and students alike with an excellent model of vertebrate nervous system development due to a high degree of conserved developmental mechanisms and transparent embryos that develop in synchrony. In these laboratory exercises, undergraduate students explore cell biological concepts while performing hypothesis-driven novel research utilizing methodologies such as immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy, image analysis, pharmacology, and basic statistics. In the first block of exercises, students perform anti-acetylated tubulin (anti-AT) immunofluorescence, identify spinal tracts and neuronal subtypes, and perform conventional and confocal microscopy. Building on knowledge acquired in the first block of exercises, during the second block, students subsequently perform pharmacological activation of Wnt signaling through lithium chloride treatments, and assess nervous system integrity through anti-AT immunofluorescence. Students perform various quantitative methods and apply statistics to determine outcomes of Wnt activation. In their final laboratory report, students contextualize their results with foundations of molecular mechanisms of nervous system development. In sum, these exercises offer undergraduate students a model of independent research at the graduate level. PMID:23098089

Ross, Andrew William

2012-01-01

38

Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin material candidates for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries in 1.5M LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte have been investigated using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4 PH, and 446), three Fe-Ni glass sealing alloys (Kovar, Alloy 52, and Niromet 426), a Ni-based alloy (Hastelloy B-2) and a zirconium-based alloy (Zircaloy), were compared to the reference materials Ni and 316L SS. All of the candidate materials showed some evidence of corrosion and, therefore, did not perform as well as the reference materials. The Hastelloy B-2 and Zircaloy are clearly unacceptable materials for this application. Of the remaining alternate materials, the 446 SS and Alloy 52 are the most promising candidates.

Bovard, Francine S.; Cieslak, Wendy R.

1987-09-01

39

Natrix -Scoring Sheet 1. 0.01 M Mg Chloride, 0.05 M MES pH 5.6, 2.0 M Lithium Sulfate  

E-print Network

Natrix - Scoring Sheet 1. 0.01 M Mg Chloride, 0.05 M MES pH 5.6, 2.0 M Lithium Sulfate 2. 0.01 M Mg Cacodylate pH 6.0, 1.0 M Lithium Sulfate 12. 0.01 M Mg Sulfate, 0.05 M Na Cacodylate pH 6.0, 1.8 M Lithium pH 6.5, 1.3 M Lithium Sulfate 19. 0.01 M Mg Sulfate, 0.05 M Na Cacodylate pH 6.5, 2.0 M Ammonium

Hill, Chris

40

Action Mechanisms of Lithium Chloride on Cell Infection by Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus  

PubMed Central

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a porcine coronavirus. Lithium chloride (LiCl) has been found to be effective against several DNA viruses, such as Herpes simplex virus and vaccinia virus. Recently, we and others have reported the inhibitory effect of LiCl on avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) infection, an RNA virus. In the current study, the action mechanism of LiCl on cell infection by TGEV was investigated. Plaque assays and 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenyl tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assays showed that the cell infection by TGEV was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, when LiCl was added to virus-infected cells; the cell infection was not affected when either cells or viruses were pretreated with the drug. The inhibition of TGEV infection in vitro by LiCl was observed at different virus doses and with different cell lines. The inhibitory effect of LiCl against TGEV infection and transcription was confirmed by RT-PCR and real-time PCR targeting viral S and 3CL-protease genes. The time-of-addition effect of the drug on TGEV infection indicated that LiCl acted on the initial and late stage of TGEV infection. The production of virus was not detected at 36 h post-infection due to the drug treatment. Moreover, immunofluorescence (IF) and flow cytometry analyses based on staining of Annexin V and propidium iodide staining of nuclei indicated that early and late cell apoptosis induced by TGEV was inhibited efficiently. The ability of LiCl to inhibit apoptosis was investigated by IF analysis of caspase-3 expression. Our data indicate that LiCl inhibits TGEV infection by exerting an anti-apoptotic effect. The inhibitory effect of LiCl was also observed with porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus. Together with other reports concerning the inhibitory effect of lithium salts on IBV in cell culture, our results indicate that LiCl may be a potent agent against porcine and avian coronaviruses. PMID:21573100

Ren, Xiaofeng; Meng, Fandan; Yin, Jiechao; Li, Guangxing; Li, Xunliang; Wang, Chao; Herrler, Georg

2011-01-01

41

Effect of lithium chloride on spectral, optical, thermal and mechanical behaviour of bis thiourea zinc acetate crystals.  

PubMed

Single crystals of pure bis thiourea zinc acetate (BTZA) and lithium chloride (LiCl) doped BTZA have been synthesized and grown successfully from aqueous solutions by slow evaporation technique. The single crystals thus grown were characterized by different techniques such as single crystal XRD, AAS, FT-IR, UV-Vis, TG/DTA and SHG test. The single crystal XRD study proved that the dopant has not changed the structure of the parent crystal. The AAS study confirmed the presence of lithium in the doped crystal. The FTIR study ascertained the metal coordination of lithium chloride doped BTZA through thiourea. The optical behavior of the doped crystal has been examined by UV spectral analysis. Thermal studies TGA & DTA of the doped crystal have been investigated and found that the doped crystal is thermally more stable than the pure crystal. The SHG test using Nd: YAG Laser confirmed the NLO activity of the pure and doped crystal. The obtained results are presented and discussed. PMID:22868378

Ruby Nirmala, L; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J

2012-11-01

42

Effect of lithium chloride on spectral, optical, thermal and mechanical behaviour of bis thiourea zinc acetate crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of pure bis thiourea zinc acetate (BTZA) and lithium chloride (LiCl) doped BTZA have been synthesized and grown successfully from aqueous solutions by slow evaporation technique. The single crystals thus grown were characterized by different techniques such as single crystal XRD, AAS, FT-IR, UV-Vis, TG/DTA and SHG test. The single crystal XRD study proved that the dopant has not changed the structure of the parent crystal. The AAS study confirmed the presence of lithium in the doped crystal. The FTIR study ascertained the metal coordination of lithium chloride doped BTZA through thiourea. The optical behavior of the doped crystal has been examined by UV spectral analysis. Thermal studies TGA & DTA of the doped crystal have been investigated and found that the doped crystal is thermally more stable than the pure crystal. The SHG test using Nd: YAG Laser confirmed the NLO activity of the pure and doped crystal. The obtained results are presented and discussed.

Ruby Nirmala, L.; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J.

2012-11-01

43

Protection against Klebsiella pneumoniae Using Lithium Chloride in an Intragastric Infection Model.  

PubMed

Intragastric Klebsiella pneumoniae infections of mice can cause liver abscesses, necrosis of liver tissues, and bacteremia. Lithium chloride, a widely prescribed drug for bipolar mood disorder, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Using an intragastric infection model, the effects of LiCl on K. pneumoniae infections were examined. Providing mice with drinking water containing LiCl immediately after infection protected them from K. pneumoniae-induced death and liver injuries, such as necrosis of liver tissues, as well as increasing blood levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, in a dose-dependent manner. LiCl administered as late as 24 h postinfection still provided protection. Monitoring of the LiCl concentrations in the sera of K. pneumoniae-infected mice showed that approximately 0.33 mM LiCl was the most effective dose for protecting mice against infections, which is lower than the clinically toxic dose of LiCl. Surveys of bacterial counts and cytokine expression levels in LiCl-treated mice revealed that both were effectively inhibited in blood and liver tissues. Using in vitro assays, we found that LiCl (5 ?M to 1 mM) did not directly interfere with the growth of K. pneumoniae but made K. pneumoniae cells lose the mucoid phenotype and become more susceptible to macrophage killing. Furthermore, low doses of LiCl also partially enhanced the bactericidal activity of macrophages. Taken together, these data suggest that LiCl is an alternative therapeutic agent for K. pneumoniae-induced liver infections. PMID:25534739

Tsao, Nina; Kuo, Chih-Feng; Chiu, Ching-Chen; Lin, Wei-Chen; Huang, Wan-Hui; Chen, Li-Yang

2015-03-01

44

Phospho-acetylation of histone H3 in the amygdala after acute lithium chloride  

PubMed Central

Acute injection of a high dose of lithium chloride (LiCl) increases c-Fos expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We investigated if LiCl-induced c-Fos expression in the CeA is correlated with histone acetylation and phospho-acetylation. Chromatin modifications such as acetylation and phosphorylation are necessary for optimal gene expression, and gene expression may be increased by inhibiting the activity of histone deacetylases. LiCl (0.15 M, 12 ml/kg, i.p.) highly increased the levels of acetylation and phospho-acetylation of histone H3 in the CeA. The time course of these increases closely corresponded to and preceded the time course of c-Fos induction. Moreover, LiCl-induced c-Fos was co-localized with phospho-acetylated histone H3 in a majority of c-Fos-positive cells in the CeA. Systemic administration of a histone deacetylase inhibitor, sodium butyrate (NaB; 0.3 M, 0.4 g/kg, i.p.), significantly increased the levels of LiCl-induced c-Fos and phospho-acetylated histone H3 in the CeA. NaB also enhanced conditioned taste aversion learning induced by pairing saccharin consumption with LiCl injection, by making the conditioned taste aversion more resistant to extinction. These results suggest that LiCl-induced c-Fos expression may be regulated by modification of histone H3, especially phospho-acetylation, in the CeA. Furthermore, the level of phospho-acetylation of histone H3, c-Fos induction, and amygdalar-dependent taste aversion learning is constrained by endogenous histone deacetylase activity. PMID:20346924

Kwon, Bumsup; Houpt, Thomas A.

2010-01-01

45

Factors Affecting the Plasticity of Sodium Chloride, Lithium Fluoride, and Magnesium Oxide Single Crystals. 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of the relative magnitude of the effects of various factors on the ductility of single crystals of sodium chloride (NaCl), lithium fluoride (LiF), and magnesium oxide (MgO). Specimen treatments included water-polishing, varying cleavage rate, annealing, quenching, X-irradiation, surface coating, aging, and combinations of some of these treatments. The mechanical behavior of the crystals was studied in flexure and in compression, the latter study being performed at both constant strain rate and constant load. Etch-pit studies were carried out to provide some pertinent information on the results of pretreatment on the dislocation concentration and distribution in the vicinity of the surface. The load deformation curves for these ionic single crystals show an initial region of very low slope which proved to be due to anelastic deformation. The extent of initial anelastic deformation is modified by specimen pretreatment in a way that suggests that this deformation is the result of expansion of cleaved-in dislocation loops, which can contract on the removal of the stress. The effects of the various pretreatments on the load and deflection at fracture are in accord with the prediction one might make with regard to their effect on the nucleation of fatal surface cracks. For NaCl, increases in ductility are always accompanied by increases in strength. The creep constants for NaCl are a function of treatments which affect the bulk structure but are not a function of treatments which only affect the surface.

Stearns, Carl A.; Pack, Ann E.; Lad, Robert A.

1959-01-01

46

Growth, spectroscopic, dielectric and nonlinear optical studies of semi organic nonlinear optical crystal--L-alanine lithium chloride.  

PubMed

A new and efficient semi organic nonlinear optical crystal (NLO) from the amino acid family L-alanine lithium chloride (LAL) has been grown by slow evaporation technique from aqueous solution. The functional groups were identified from NMR spectral studies. Mass spectral analysis shows the molecular ion mass. Dielectric studies has been done for the grown crystal and relative SHG efficiency is measured by Kurtz and Perry method and found to about 0.43 times that of standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals. The compound crystallized in non-centrosymmetric space group Pna21. The results have been discussed in detail. PMID:22074890

Hanumantharao, Redrothu; Kalainathan, S

2012-02-01

47

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2012, estimated world lithium consumption was about 28 kt (31,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, an 8 percent increase from that of 2011. Estimated U.S. consumption was about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, the same as that of 2011. The United States was thought to rank fourth in consumption of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Rockwood Lithium Inc., produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

Jaskula, B.W.

2013-01-01

48

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2009, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1.2 kt (1,300 st) of contained lithium, a 40-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium, and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2009, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 18.7 kt (20,600 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds.

Jaskula, B.W.

2010-01-01

49

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2010, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1 kt (1,100 st) of contained lithium, a 23-percent decrease from 2009. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium. It remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2010, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 21 kt (22,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 12-percent increase from 2009.

Jaskula, B.W.

2011-01-01

50

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2011, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 25 kt (25,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 10-percent increase from 2010. U.S. consumption was estimated to have been about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, a 100-percent increase from 2010. The United States was estimated to be the fourth-ranked consumer of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

Jaskula, B.W.

2012-01-01

51

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2005, lithium consumption in the United States was at 2.5 kt of contained lithium, nearly 32% more than the estimate for 2004. World consumption was 14.1 kt of lithium contained in minerals and compounds in 2003. Exports from the US increased slightly compared with 2004. Due to strong demand for lithium compounds in 2005, both lithium carbonate plants in Chile were operating at or near capacity.

Ober, J.A.

2006-01-01

52

Agmatine enhances the anticonvulsant effect of lithium chloride on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice: Involvement of L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway.  

PubMed

After nearly 60years, lithium is still the mainstay in the treatment of mood disorders. In addition to its antimanic and antidepressant effects, lithium also has anticonvulsant properties. Similar to lithium, agmatine plays a protective role in the central nervous system against seizures and has been reported to enhance the effect of different antiepileptic agents. Moreover, both agmatine and lithium have modulatory effects on the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway. This study was designed to investigate: (1) whether agmatine and lithium exert a synergistic effect against clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole and (2) whether or not this synergistic effect is mediated through inhibition of the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway. In our study, acute administration of a single potent dose of lithium chloride (30mg/kg ip) increased seizure threshold, whereas pretreatment with a low and independently noneffective dose of agmatine (3mg/kg) potentiated a subeffective dose of lithium (10mg/kg). N(G)-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, nonspecific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) at 1 and 5mg/kg and 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, preferential neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) at 15 and 30mg/kg augmented the anticonvulsant effect of the noneffective combination of lithium (10mg/kg ip) and agmatine (1mg/kg), whereas several doses (20 and 40mg/kg) of aminoguanidine (inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) failed to alter the seizure threshold of the same combination. Furthermore, pretreatment with independently noneffective doses (30 and 60mg/kg) of L-arginine (substrate for nitric oxide synthase) inhibited the potentiating effect of agmatine (3mg/kg) on lithium (10mg/kg). Our findings demonstrate that agmatine and lithium chloride have synergistic anticonvulsant properties that may be mediated through the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway. In addition, the role of constitutive nitric oxide synthase versus inducible nitric oxide synthase is prominent in this phenomenon. PMID:20493779

Bahremand, Arash; Ziai, Pouya; Khodadad, Tina Kabiri; Payandemehr, Borna; Rahimian, Reza; Ghasemi, Abbas; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Hedayat, Tina; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

2010-07-01

53

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lithium industry can be divided into two sectors: ore concentrate producers and chemical producers. Ore concentrate producers mine lithium minerals. They beneficiate the ores to produce material for use in ceramics and glass manufacturing.

Ober, J.

1998-01-01

54

Lithium chloride suppresses LPS-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in macrophages through phosphorylation of GSK-3?.  

PubMed

Abnormal degradation of matrix components due to dysregulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in macrophages has been linked to progression of acute cerebral ischemia and atherosclerosis. We report that lithium chloride (LiCl) or CHIR99021, inhibitors of Wnt signaling pathway, enhance phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and suppress lipopolysaccharide-mediated upregulation of MMP-9 expression in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Suppression of MMP-9 expression by LiCl or CHIR99021 did not result after inhibition of kinases involved in NF?B or AP-1 family proteins, but from changes in the activity of histone deacetylases. Beneficial effects on atherosclerosis or cerebral ischemia in animal studies caused by LiCl may be in part explained by the suppression of MMP-9 gene expression. PMID:25053111

Kim, Sooho; Bong, Naeun; Kim, Ok Soo; Jin, JunYup; Kim, Dong-Eog; Lee, Dong Kun

2015-02-01

55

Molecular Structure of Thionyl chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thionyl chloride is a slightly yellowish liquid with an intense odor and low viscosity. It reacts with lithium to produce lithium chloride and is a good solvent for most organic compounds. Other uses of thionyl chloride include as an intermediate for the production of pharmaceutically active ingredients, as an electrolyte in lithium batteries, and in crop protection.

2002-10-01

56

Dendritic cells from the elderly display an intrinsic defect in the production of IL-10 in response to lithium chloride.  

PubMed

Chronic, low grade inflammation is a characteristic of old age. Innate immune system cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) from the elderly display a pro-inflammatory phenotype associated with increased reactivity to self. Lithium is a well-established anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of bipolar disorders. It has also been reported to reduce inflammation in DCs. Here, we investigated whether Lithium is effective in reducing the inflammatory responses in DCs from the elderly. The effect of Lithium Chloride (LiCl) was compared on the response of TLR4 agonist, LPS and TLR2 agonist, PAM3CSK4 stimulated aged and young DCs. LiCl enhanced the production of IL-10 in LPS stimulated young DCs. However, it did not affect TNF-? and IL-6 production. In contrast, in aged DCs, LiCl reduced the secretion of TNF-? and IL-6 in LPS stimulated DCs but did not increase IL-10. LiCl had no significant effect on PAM3CSK4 responses in aged and young DCs. LiCl treated DCs also displayed differences at the level of CD4 T cell priming and polarization. LPS-stimulated young DCs reduced IFN-? secretion and biased the Th cell response towards Th2/Treg while LiCl treated aged DCs only reduced IFN-? secretion but did not bias the response towards Th2/Treg. In summary, our data suggests that LiCl reduces inflammation in aged and young DCs via different mechanisms. Furthermore, the effect of LiCl is different on LPS and PAM3CSK4 responses. PMID:23988651

Agrawal, Sudhanshu; Gollapudi, Sastry; Gupta, Sudhir; Agrawal, Anshu

2013-11-01

57

Neurite outgrowth and differentiation of rat cortex progenitor cells are sensitive to lithium chloride at non-cytotoxic exposures.  

PubMed

Neuron-specific in vitro screening strategies have the potential to accelerate the evaluation of chemicals for neurotoxicity. We examined neurite outgrowth as a measure of neuronal response with a commercially available rat cortex progenitor cell model, where cells were exposed to a chemical during a period of cell differentiation. In control cultures, the fraction of beta-III-tubulin positive neurons and their neurite length increased significantly with time, indicating differentiation of the progenitor cells. Expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, an astrocyte marker, also increased significantly with time. By seeding progenitor cells at varying densities, we demonstrated that neurite length was influenced by cell-cell spacing. After ten days, cultures seeded at densities of 1000 cells/mm(2) or lower had significantly shorter neurites than cultures seeded at densities of 1250 cells/mm(2) or higher. Progenitor cells were exposed to lithium, a neuroactive chemical with diverse modes of action. Cultures exposed to 30 mmol/L or 10 mmol/L lithium chloride (LiCl) had significantly lower metabolic activity than control cultures, as reported by adenosine triphosphate content, and no neurons were observed after ten days of exposure. Cultures exposed to 3 mmol/L, 1 mmol/L, or 0.3 mmol/L LiCl, which encompass lithium's therapeutic range, had metabolic activity similar to control cultures. These cultures exhibited concentration-dependent decreases in neurite outgrowth after ten days of LiCl exposure. Neurite outgrowth results were relatively robust, regardless of the evaluation methodology. This work demonstrates that measurement of neurite outgrowth in differentiating progenitor cell cultures can be a sensitive endpoint for neuronal response under non-cytotoxic exposure conditions. PMID:22771960

Jeerage, Kavita M; Oreskovic, Tammy L; Hume, Stephanie L

2012-10-01

58

Estradiol and Lithium Chloride Specifically Alter NMDA Receptor Subunit NR1 mRNA and Excitotoxicity in Primary Cultures  

PubMed Central

Glutamate facilitates calcium influx via NMDAR, and excess calcium influx increases excitotoxicity a pathological characteristic of neurological diseases. Both 17?-estradiol (E2) and lithium influence NMDAR expression/signaling and excitotoxicity. This led us to hypothesize that combined E2 and lithium will alter NMDAR expression and excitotoxicity. We tested this hypothesis using primary cell cultures from the cortex and hippocampus of C57BL/6J fetal mice pretreated with E2, lithium chloride (LiCl) and combined E2/LiCl for 12, 24 or 48 h. We examined cultures for brain cell type and changes in cell type caused by experimental procedures using glia and neuron gene specific primers. These cultures expressed increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mRNA with low neurofilament-heavy chain (NF-H) mRNA expression. Subsequent analysis of cortical cell cultures indicated that combined E2/LiCl decreased NR1 mRNA expression after a 12 and 48 h treatment period. Combined E2/LiCl also reduced NR1 mRNA expression in hippocampal cultures but only after a 48 h treatment period. LiCl-treated hippocampal cultures also reduced NR1 mRNA expression after a 24 and 48 h treatment. We next examined the response of 48 h pretreated cultures to a toxic level of glutamate. Excitotoxicity was measured using fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide (FDA/PI) cell viability assay. Results from FDA/PI assay revealed that LiCl pretreatment increased viability for cortical cultures while E2 and combined E2/LiCl reduced viability. All pretreatments for hippocampal cultures failed to increase viability. Our results showed combined E2/LiCl reduced NR1 mRNA and prevented protection against glutamate excitotoxicity in glial primary cultures. PMID:19285052

Valds, James J.; Weeks, Ophelia I.

2009-01-01

59

Radiation and phase change of lithium fluoride in an annulus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one-dimensional thermal model is developed to evaluate the effect of radiation on the phase change of lithium-fluoride (LiF) in an annular canister under gravitational and microgravitational conditions. Specified heat flux at the outer wall of the canister models focused solar flux; adiabatic and convective conditions are considered for the inner wall. A two-band radiation model is used for the combined-mode heat transfer within the canister, and LiF optical properties relate metal surface properties in vacuum to those in LiF. For axial gravitational conditions, the liquid LiF remains in contact with the two bounding walls, whereas a void gap is used at the outer wall to model possible microgravitational conditions. For the adiabatic cases, exact integrals are obtained for the time required for complete melting of the LiF. Melting was found to occur primarily from the outer wall in the 1-g model, whereas it occurred primarily from the inner wall in the mu-g model. For the convective cases, partially melted steady-state conditions and fully melted conditions are determined to depend on the source flux level, with radiation extending the melting times.

Lund, Kurt O.

1993-01-01

60

Radiation hardness of the storage phosphor europium doped potassium chloride for radiation therapy dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: An important property of a reusable dosimeter is its radiation hardness, that is, its ability to retain its dosimetric merits after irradiation. The radiation hardness of europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu{sup 2+}), a storage phosphor material recently proposed for radiation therapy dosimetry, is examined in this study. Methods: Pellet-style KCl:Eu{sup 2+} dosimeters, 6 mm in diameter, and 1 mm thick, were fabricated in-house for this study. The pellets were exposed by a 6 MV photon beam or in a high dose rate {sup 137}Cs irradiator. Macroscopic properties, such as radiation sensitivity, dose response linearity, and signal stability, were studied with a laboratory photostimulated luminescence (PSL) readout system. Since phosphor performance is related to the state of the storage centers and the activator, Eu{sup 2+}, in the host lattice, spectroscopic and temporal measurements were carried out in order to explore radiation-induced changes at the microscopic level. Results: KCl:Eu{sup 2+} dosimeters retained approximately 90% of their initial signal strength after a 5000 Gy dose history. Dose response was initially supralinear over the dose range of 100-700 cGy but became linear after 60 Gy. Linearity did not change significantly in the 0-5000 Gy dose history spanned in this study. Annealing high dose history chips resulted in a return of supralinearity and a recovery of sensitivity. There were no significant changes in the PSL stimulation spectra, PSL emission spectra, photoluminescence spectra, or luminescence lifetime, indicating that the PSL signal process remains intact after irradiation but at a reduced efficiency due to reparable radiation-induced perturbations in the crystal lattice. Conclusions: Systematic studies of KCl:Eu{sup 2+} material are important for understanding how the material can be optimized for radiation therapy dosimetry purposes. The data presented here indicate that KCl:Eu{sup 2+} exhibits strong radiation hardness and lends support for further investigations of this novel material.

Driewer, Joseph P.; Chen, Haijian; Osvet, Andres; Low, Daniel A.; Li, H. Harold [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 and Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, E4431 Lafferre Hall, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstrasse 7, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

2011-08-15

61

Radiation hardness of the storage phosphor europium doped potassium chloride for radiation therapy dosimetry  

PubMed Central

Purpose: An important property of a reusable dosimeter is its radiation hardness, that is, its ability to retain its dosimetric merits after irradiation. The radiation hardness of europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu2+), a storage phosphor material recently proposed for radiation therapy dosimetry, is examined in this study. Methods: Pellet-style KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters, 6 mm in diameter, and 1 mm thick, were fabricated in-house for this study. The pellets were exposed by a 6 MV photon beam or in a high dose rate 137Cs irradiator. Macroscopic properties, such as radiation sensitivity, dose response linearity, and signal stability, were studied with a laboratory photostimulated luminescence (PSL) readout system. Since phosphor performance is related to the state of the storage centers and the activator, Eu2+, in the host lattice, spectroscopic and temporal measurements were carried out in order to explore radiation-induced changes at the microscopic level. Results: KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters retained approximately 90% of their initial signal strength after a 5000 Gy dose history. Dose response was initially supralinear over the dose range of 100700 cGy but became linear after 60 Gy. Linearity did not change significantly in the 05000 Gy dose history spanned in this study. Annealing high dose history chips resulted in a return of supralinearity and a recovery of sensitivity. There were no significant changes in the PSL stimulation spectra, PSL emission spectra, photoluminescence spectra, or luminescence lifetime, indicating that the PSL signal process remains intact after irradiation but at a reduced efficiency due to reparable radiation-induced perturbations in the crystal lattice. Conclusions: Systematic studies of KCl:Eu2+ material are important for understanding how the material can be optimized for radiation therapy dosimetry purposes. The data presented here indicate that KCl:Eu2+ exhibits strong radiation hardness and lends support for further investigations of this novel material. PMID:21928642

Driewer, Joseph P.; Chen, Haijian; Osvet, Andres; Low, Daniel A.; Li, H. Harold

2011-01-01

62

Dose-dependent protective effect of lithium chloride on retinal ganglion cells is interrelated with an upregulated intraretinal BDNF after optic nerve transection in adult rats.  

PubMed

Neuroprotection of lithium for axotomized retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is attributed to upregulated intraretinal Bcl-2. As lithium also upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) which can rescue axotomized RGCs, it is hypothesized that lithium could protect RGCs through BDNF. This study investigated this hypothesis and a possible relationship between the dose and protection of lithium. All adult experimental rats received daily intraperitoneal injections of lithium chloride (LiCl) at 30, 60 or 85 mg/kgbw until they were euthanized 2, 7 or 14 days after left intraorbital optic nerve (ON) transection. Our results revealed that RGC densities promoted and declined with increased dose of LiCl and the highest RGC densities were always in the 60 mg/kgbw LiCl group at both 7 and 14 day points. Similar promotion and decline in the mRNA and protein levels of intraretinal BDNF were also found at the 14 day point, while such BDNF levels increased in the 30 mg/kgbw LiCl group but peaked in the 60 and 85 mg/kgbw LiCl groups at the 7 day point. These findings suggested that lithium can delay the death of axotomized RGCs in a dose-dependent manner within a certain period after ON injury and such beneficial effect is interrelated with an upregulated level of intraretinal BDNF. PMID:25100168

Wu, Ming-Mei; Zhu, Ting-Ting; Wang, Peng; Kuang, Fang; Hao, Ding-Jun; You, Si-Wei; Li, Yao-Yu

2014-01-01

63

Dose-Dependent Protective Effect of Lithium Chloride on Retinal Ganglion Cells Is Interrelated with an Upregulated Intraretinal BDNF after Optic Nerve Transection in Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

Neuroprotection of lithium for axotomized retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is attributed to upregulated intraretinal Bcl-2. As lithium also upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) which can rescue axotomized RGCs, it is hypothesized that lithium could protect RGCs through BDNF. This study investigated this hypothesis and a possible relationship between the dose and protection of lithium. All adult experimental rats received daily intraperitoneal injections of lithium chloride (LiCl) at 30, 60 or 85 mg/kgbw until they were euthanized 2, 7 or 14 days after left intraorbital optic nerve (ON) transection. Our results revealed that RGC densities promoted and declined with increased dose of LiCl and the highest RGC densities were always in the 60 mg/kgbw LiCl group at both 7 and 14 day points. Similar promotion and decline in the mRNA and protein levels of intraretinal BDNF were also found at the 14 day point, while such BDNF levels increased in the 30 mg/kgbw LiCl group but peaked in the 60 and 85 mg/kgbw LiCl groups at the 7 day point. These findings suggested that lithium can delay the death of axotomized RGCs in a dose-dependent manner within a certain period after ON injury and such beneficial effect is interrelated with an upregulated level of intraretinal BDNF. PMID:25100168

Wu, Ming-Mei; Zhu, Ting-Ting; Wang, Peng; Kuang, Fang; Hao, Ding-Jun; You, Si-Wei; Li, Yao-Yu

2014-01-01

64

A preliminary study for fiber spinning of mixed solutions of polyrotaxane and cellulose in a dimethylacetamide\\/lithium chloride (DMAc\\/LiCl) solvent system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyrotaxane fiber and polyrotaxane\\/cellulose blend fibers were prepared by wet-spinning of the polyrotaxane or polyrotaxane\\/cellulose blend solution dissolved in the new solvent system, i.e. dimethylacetamide\\/lithium chloride (DMAc\\/LiCl), into methanol and a subsequent annealing. In the resultant polyrotaxane\\/cellulose fiber, some undissolved rodlike cellulose microcrystals were oriented along with the fiber axis, resulting in formation of nanocomposite-like structure. From tensile measurements, it

Jun Araki; Toshiyuki Kataoka; Naoya Katsuyama; Akira Teramoto; Kohzo Ito; Koji Abe

2006-01-01

65

Influence of gamma-radiation on the optical properties of modified polyvinyle chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical absorption spectra of polyvinyle chloride, PVC, doped with Cd and Pb is presented. The effect of ? radiation doses in range of 2?200 Mrad on the fundamental absorption edge ?g was determined. On the basis of quantitative analysis of obtained data, the calculated absorption coefficient, ?, the absorption index, K, and the optical energy gap Eopt, were found to be radiation and dopant dependent. The results are discussed on the basis of the radiation induced degradiation of PVC.

Madi, N. K.; Taleb, W. M. Abou; Rehim, N. Abdel; Kassem, M. E.

1994-06-01

66

Equilibria and speciation in the solvent extraction of lithium chloride by nonamethyl-14-crown-4 ether in 1-octanol  

SciTech Connect

The equilibria and speciation in the solvent extraction of LiCl by nonamethyl-14-crown-4 ether in 1-octanol have been determined by use of ion chromatography (IC) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analyses, equilibrium modeling with the program SXLSQI, and {sup 7}Li NMR measurements. SXLSQI modeling of the extraction data indicates the formation of a 1:1 metal:crown complex in the organic phase. The complex apparently exists as an ion-pair Li(crown)Cl, which partially dissociates to the complex cation Li(crown){sup +} and free chloride anion Cl{sup -}. Extraction of LiCl by 1-octanol to give the organic-phase ion-pair LiCl and its dissociated ions Li{sup +} and Cl{sup -} must be included in the data analysis. {sup 7}Li NMR measurements verify the existence of free and crown-complexed lithium species in 1-octanol, and the measurements quantitatively agree with results from the SXLSQI model. 41 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Sun, Y.; Chen, Z.; Cavenaugh, K.L.; Sachleben, R.A.; Moyer, B.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-05-30

67

Effects of heavy particle irradiation and diet on amphetamine- and lithium chloride-induced taste avoidance learning in rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rats were maintained on diets containing either 2% blueberry or strawberry extract or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to 1.5 Gy of 56Fe particles in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Three days following irradiation, the rats were tested for the effects of irradiation on the acquisition of an amphetamine- or lithium chloride-induced (LiCl) conditioned taste avoidance (CTA). The rats maintained on the control diet failed to show the acquisition of a CTA following injection of amphetamine. In contrast, the rats maintained on antioxidant diets (strawberry or blueberry extract) continued to show the development of an amphetamine-induced CTA following exposure to 56Fe particles. Neither irradiation nor diet had an effect on the acquisition of a LiCl-induced CTA. The results are interpreted as indicating that oxidative stress following exposure to 56Fe particles may be responsible for the disruption of the dopamine-mediated amphetamine-induced CTA in rats fed control diets; and that a reduction in oxidative stress produced by the antioxidant diets functions to reinstate the dopamine-mediated CTA. The failure of either irradiation or diet to influence LiCl-induced responding suggests that oxidative stress may not be involved in CTA learning following injection of LiCl.

Rabin, Bernard M.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Szprengiel, Aleksandra; Joseph, James A.

2002-01-01

68

Lithium chloride stimulates PLP and MBP expression in oligodendrocytes via Wnt/?-catenin and Akt/CREB pathways.  

PubMed

Deciphering the molecular pathways involved in myelin gene expression is a major point of interest to better understand re/myelination processes. In this study, we investigated the role of Lithium Chloride (LiCl), a drug largely used for the treatment of neurological disorders, on the two major central myelin gene expression (PLP and MBP) in mouse oligodendrocytes. We show that LiCl enhances the expression of both PLP and MBP, by increasing mRNA amount and promoter activities. We investigated whether Wnt/?-catenin and/or Akt/CREB pathways are modulated by LiCl to regulate myelin gene expression. We showed that ? -catenin is required both for PLP and MBP basal promoter activities and for LiCl-induced myelin gene stimulation. Furthermore, while CREB functionality does not influence PLP expression, MBP promoter activity depends on Akt/CREB activation. Finally, we show that LiCl can stimulate oligodendrocyte morphological maturation, and promote remyelination after lysolecithin-induced demyelination of organotypic cerebellar slice cultures. Our data provide mechanistic evidences that Akt/CREB together with ?-catenin participate in the transcriptional control of PLP and MBP exerted by LiCl. Therefore, the use of LiCl to balance between ?-catenin and CREB effectors could be considered as an efficient remyelinating strategy. PMID:25451297

Meffre, D; Massaad, C; Grenier, J

2015-01-22

69

Radiation damage in lithium-counterdoped n/p silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium counterdoped n+/p silicon solar cells were irradiated with 1 MV electrons and their post irradiation performance and low temperature annealing properties were compared to that of the 0.35 ohm cm control cells. Cells fabricated from float zone and Czochralski grown silicon were investigated. It was found that the float zone cells exhibited superior radiation resistance compared to the control cells, while no improvement was noted for the Czochralski grown cells. Room temperature and 60 C annealing studies were conducted. The annealing was found to be a combination of first and second order kinetics for short times. It was suggested that the principal annealing mechanism was migration of lithium to a radiation induced defect with subsequent neutralization of the defect by combination with lithium. The effects of base lithium gradient were investigated. It was found that cells with negative base lithium gradients exhibited poor radiation resistance and performance compared to those with positive or no lithium gradients; the latter being preferred for overall performance and radiation resistance.

Hermann, A. M.; Swartz, C. K.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Weinberg, I.

1980-01-01

70

RADIATION INJURIES IN THE PIG AND THEIR MODIFICATION BY AMINOETHYLISOTHIURONIUM CHLORIDE-HYDROCHLORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were performed to ascertain whether aminoethylisothiuronium ; chloride-hydrochloride (AET-HCl) provides protection against ionizing radiation ; in pigs; 300 pigs were used and x-ray doses of 500 to 1000 r. The LD ; for the 5- to 7-week-old animals was found to be 720 r following unilateral ; irradiation in the dorsoventral direction. Increase in weight was disturbed by ;

W. Braun; J. Staubesand; V. Wolf

1961-01-01

71

Differential Angiogenic Properties of Lithium Chloride In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Wnt/?-catenin signaling induced by the Norrin/Frizzled-4 pathway has been shown to improve capillary repair following oxygen induced retinopathy (OIR) in the mouse, a model for retinopathy of prematurity. Here we investigated if treatment with the monovalent cation lithium that has been shown to augment Wnt/?-catenin signaling in vitro and in vivo has similar effects. In cultured human microvascular endothelial cells, LiCl as well as SB 216763, another small molecule that activates Wnt/?-catenin signaling, induced proliferation, survival and migration, which are all common parameters for angiogenic properties in vitro. Moreover, treatment with both agents caused an increase in the levels of ?-catenin and their translocation to nuclei while quercetin, an inhibitor of Wnt/?-catenin signaling, completely blocked the effects of LiCl on proliferation. In mice with OIR, intraperitonal or intravitreal treatment with LiCl markedly increased the retinal levels of ?-catenin, but did not improve capillary repair. In contrast, repair was significantly improved following intravitreal treatment with Norrin. The effects of LiCl on HDMEC in vitro have minor relevance for OIR in vivo, and the influence of the Norrin/Frizzled-4 pathway on capillary repair in OIR is not reproducible upon enhancing Wnt/?-catenin signaling by LiCl treatment strongly indicating the presence of additional and essential mechanisms. PMID:24751879

Zeilbeck, Ludwig F.; Mller, Birgit; Knobloch, Verena; Tamm, Ernst R.; Ohlmann, Andreas

2014-01-01

72

Lithium chloride promotes the odontoblast differentiation of hair follicle neural crest cells by activating Wnt/?-catenin signaling.  

PubMed

The Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathway contributes to the maintenance of pluripotency and partial reprogramming of stem cells. Postnatal neural crest cells (NCCs) can differentiate into odontoblast-like cells due to their multi-potential property, but further endeavors need to be made to promote odontogenic differentiation of hair follicle neural crest cells (hfNCCs). This study investigated whether the Wnt pathway activator lithium chloride (LiCl) promotes odontoblast differentiation of hfNCCs. Change of proliferation, ?-catenin and pluripotency markers of hfNCCs were examined after treatment with LiCl. An in vitro odontoblast differentiation model of hfNCCs was built using dental cell conditioned media (DC-CM). The effects of LiCl on odontoblast differentiation of hfNCCs showed that proliferation and expression of ?-catenin in the cytosolic and nuclear compartments were increased in the LiCl-treated hfNCCs, and the pluripotency marks, Oct4, Klf4, Sox2 and Nanog, were more highly expressed in the LiCl-treated group than in the control group. The odontoblast markers such as DSP, DMP1 and Runx2, could be detected in hfNCCs induced by DC-CM, but in LiCl -treated group all three markers had stronger expression. Expression of ?-catenin in the nuclear of LiCl-treated hfNCCs induced by DC-CM was higher than in the other groups. The data indicate that the Wnt pathway activator LiCl can promote proliferation and odontoblast differentiation of hfNCCs, and chemical approaches are of benefit in obtaining more desirable seed cell types for cell-based therapies. PMID:25044369

Shan, Tengfei; Zhou, Cheng; Yang, Rong; Yan, Fei; Zhang, Ping; Fu, Yu; Jiang, Hongbing

2015-01-01

73

A comparison between taste avoidance and conditioned disgust reactions induced by ethanol and lithium chloride in preweanling rats  

PubMed Central

Adult rats display taste avoidance and disgust reactions when stimulated with gustatory stimuli previously paired with aversive agents such as lithium chloride (LiCl). By the second postnatal week of life, preweanling rats also display specific behaviors in response to a tastant conditioned stimulus (CS) that predicts LiCl-induced malaise. The present study compared conditioned disgust reactions induced by LiCl or ethanol (EtOH) in preweanling rats. In Experiment 1 we determined doses of ethanol and LiCl that exert similar levels of conditioned taste avoidance. After having equated drug dosage in terms of conditioned taste avoidance, 13-Day old rats were given a single pairing of a novel taste (saccharin) and either LiCl or ethanol (2.5 g/kg; Experiment 2). Saccharin intake and emission of disgust reactions were assessed 24 and 48 hours after training. Pups given paired presentations of saccharin and the aversive agents (ethanol or LiCl) consumed less saccharin during the first testing Day than controls. These pups also showed more aversive behavioral reactions to the gustatory CS than controls. Specifically, increased amounts of grooming, general activity, head shaking and wall climbing as well as reduced mouthing were observed in response to the CS. Conditioned aversive reactions but not taste avoidance were still evident on the second testing Day. In conclusion, a taste CS paired with post-absorptive effects of EtOH and LiCl elicited a similar pattern of conditioned rejection reactions in preweanling rats. These results suggest that similar mechanisms may be underlying CTAs induced by LiCl and a relatively high EtOH dose. PMID:20806327

Arias, Carlos; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Molina, Juan Carlos; Spear, Norman E.

2011-01-01

74

One-step synthesis of hematite nanospindles from choline chloride/urea deep eutectic solvent with highly powerful storage versus lithium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fe2O3 nanospindles assembled with nanoparticles as primary building blocks are directly synthesized by a versatile ionothermal strategy in the choline chloride/urea mixture-based deep eutectic solvent system. The proposed ionothermal protocol is attractive and environmental friendly because choline chloride and urea are both naturally biocompatible compounds. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the resultant Fe2O3 nanospindles show high capacity and good cycle stability (921.7mAhg-1 at a current density of 200mAg-1 up to 50 cycles), as well as the excellent rate capability. The good electrochemical performance can be attributed to the nanospindle structure with high sufficient interfacial contact area between the active material and electrolyte, the short diffusion distance of Li ions. The environmentally benign strategy proposed in this study is expected to offer an attractive technique for the ionothermal synthesis of electrochemical energy storage materials.

Xiong, Q. Q.; Tu, J. P.; Ge, X.; Wang, X. L.; Gu, C. D.

2015-01-01

75

1,4-Addition of Lithium Diisopropylamide to Unsaturated Esters: Role of Rate-Limiting Deaggregation, Autocatalysis, Lithium Chloride Catalysis and Other Mixed Aggregation Effects  

PubMed Central

Lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in tetrahydrofuran at ?78 C undergoes 1,4-addition to an unsaturated ester via a rate-limiting deaggregation of LDA dimer followed by a post-rate-limiting reaction with the substrate. Muted autocatalysis is traced to a lithium enolate-mediated deaggregation of the LDA dimer and the intervention of LDA-lithium enolate mixed aggregates displaying higher reactivities than LDA. Striking accelerations are elicited by <1.0 mol % LiCl. Rate and mechanistic studies reveal that the uncatalyzed and catalyzed pathways funnel through a common monosolvated-monomer-based intermediate. Four distinct classes of mixed aggregation effects are discussed. PMID:20961095

Ma, Yun; Hoepker, Alexander C.; Gupta, Lekha; Faggin, Marc F.; Collum, David B.

2010-01-01

76

Radiation grafting of hydrophilic monomers on to plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical-grade plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) sheets were surface modified using gamma-radiation grafting of a combination of hydrophilic monomers based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP). The modified surfaces were evaluated for their surface properties using contact angle measurements, phase-contrast photomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Surface energy calculations of the modified surfaces indicated that the surfaces became highly hydrophilic

V. Kalliyana Krishnan; A. Jayakrishnan; Joseph D. Francis

1990-01-01

77

Radiation grafting of hydrophilic monomers onto plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical grade poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) sheets were surface modified by grafting a combination of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) or NVP alone using gamma radiation in an effort to retard the migration of the plasticizer from the PVC matrix. Presence of cupric ions at a concentration of 0.005m was found to be optimal in not only preventing the

V. Kalliyana Krishnan; A. Jayakrishnan; J. D. Francis

1991-01-01

78

Study of interaction among silicon, lithium, oxygen and radiation-induced defects for radiation-hardened solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to improve reliability and the useful lifetime of solar cell arrays for space use, a program was undertaken to develop radiation-hardened lithium-doped silicon solar cells. These cells were shown to be significantly more resistant to degradation by ionized particles than the presently used n-p nonlithium-doped silicon solar cells. The results of various analyses performed to develop a more complete understanding of the physics of the interaction among lithium, silicon, oxygen, and radiation-induced defects are presented. A discussion is given of those portions of the previous model of radiation damage annealing which were found to be in error and those portions which were upheld by these extensive investigations.

Berman, P. A.

1973-01-01

79

The design and application of lithium drift silicon diodes as nuclear radiation detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of lithium-drifted silicon radiation detectors is described. Areas up to 8 cm2 and thicknesses up to 0.6 cm have been achieved. At - 20C, a resolution of 8 kev full width half maximum was obtained on 661 kev beta particles using a 1 cm2 detector 0.1 cm thick. The performance of the detectors is discussed in relation to

P. E. Gibbons; N. G. Blamires

1965-01-01

80

Even-parity resonances with synchrotron radiation from Laser Excited Lithium at 1s^22p State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correlated many-body dynamics is still one of the unsolved fundamental problems in physics. Such correlation effects can be most clearly studied in processes involving single atoms for their simplicity.Lithium, being the simplest open shell atom, has been under a lot of study. Most of the studies focused on ground state lithium. However, only odd parity resonances can be populated through single photon (synchrotron radiation) absorption from ground state lithium (1s^22s). Lithium atoms, after being laser excited to the 1s^22p state, allow the study of even parity resonances. We have measured some of the even parity resonances of lithium for resonant energies below 64 eV. A single-mode diode laser is used to excite lithium from 1s^22s ground state to 1s^22p (^2P3/2) state. Photoions resulting from the interaction between the excited lithium and synchrotron radiation were analyzed and collected by an ion time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer with a Z- stack channel plate detector. The Li^+ ion yield was recorded while scanning the undulator along with the monochromator. The energy scans have been analyzed regarding resonance energies and parameters of the Fano profiles. Our results for the observed resonances will be presented.

Huang, Ming-Tie; Wehlitz, Ralf

2010-03-01

81

Model-Independent Calculation of Radiative Neutron Capture on Lithium-7  

SciTech Connect

The radiative neutron capture on lithium-7 is calculated model independently using a low-energy halo effective field theory. The cross section is expressed in terms of scattering parameters directly related to the S-matrix elements. It depends on the poorly known p-wave effective range parameter r{sub 1}. This constitutes the largest uncertainty in traditional model calculations. It is explicitly demonstrated by comparing with potential model calculations. A single parameter fit describes the low-energy data extremely well and yields r{sub 1{approx_equal}}-1.47 fm{sup -1}.

Rupak, Gautam [Department of Physics and Astronomy and High Performance Computing Collaboratory, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 (United States); Higa, Renato [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Theory Group, University of Groningen, 9747AA Groningen (Netherlands)

2011-06-03

82

Administration of lithium and magnesium chloride inhibited tolerance to the anticonvulsant effect of morphine on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice.  

PubMed

Although morphine has an anticonvulsant effect in several animal models of seizures, its potential clinical application in epilepsy may be hindered by its adverse effects like opioid tolerance. The present study evaluated the development of tolerance to the anticonvulsant effect of morphine in a model of clonic seizures induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male Swiss mice. We also examined whether administration of either lithium chloride (LiCl) or magnesium chloride (MgCl(2)) was able to prevent the probable tolerance. Our data demonstrated that the anticonvulsant effect of a potent dose of morphine (1mg/kg) was abolished in chronic morphine-treated mice (mice administered the same dose of morphine intraperitoneally twice daily for 4 days). Four days of pretreatment with low and noneffective doses of MgCl(2) (2 and 5mg/kg) and LiCl (5mg/kg) inhibited the development of tolerance to the anticonvulsant effect of morphine (1mg/kg, ip). Moreover, a single acute injection of the aforementioned agents at the same doses reversed the expression of tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects of morphine (1mg/kg, ip). Chronic 17-day treatment with LiCl (600 mg/L in drinking water) also inhibited the development of tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects of 1mg/kg morphine. These results demonstrate that the anticonvulsant effect of morphine is subject to tolerance after repeated administration. Both development and expression of tolerance are inhibited by either LiCl or MgCl(2). As both LiCl and MgCl(2) can modulate the function of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, we discuss how NMDA receptor functioning might be involved in the effects of LiCl and MgCl(2) on the development of tolerance to the anticonvulsant effect of morphine. PMID:20920846

Ghasemi, Abbas; Saberi, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Moezi, Leila; Bahremand, Arash; Montaser-Kouhsari, Laleh; Ziai, Pouya; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

2010-12-01

83

Radiation damage and defect behavior in proton irradiated lithium-counterdoped n+p silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two lithium-counterdoped n+p silicon solar cells with different lithium concentrations were irradiated by 10-MeV protons. Cell performance was measured as a function of fluence, and it was found that the cell with the highest concentration of lithium had the highest radiation resistance. Deep level transient spectroscopy which showed two deep level defects that were lithium related. Relating the defect energy levels obtained from this study with those from earlier work using 1-MeV electron irradiation shows no correlation of the defect energy levels. There is one marked similarity: the absence of the boron-interstitial-oxygen-interstitial defect. This consistency strengthens the belief that lithium interacts with oxygen to prevent the formation of the boron interstitial-oxygen interstitial defect. The results indicate that, in general, addition of lithium in small amounts to the p-base of a boron doped silicon solar cell such that the base remains p-type, tends to increase the radiation resistance of the cell.

Stupica, John; Goradia, Chandra; Swartz, Clifford K.; Weinberg, Irving

1987-01-01

84

Dyed polyvinyl chloride films for use as high-dose routine dosimeters in radiation processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characteristics of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) films containing 0.11 wt% of malachite green oxalate or 6GX-setoglausine and about 100 ?m in thickness were studied for use as routine dosimeters in radiation processing. These films show basically color bleaching under irradiation with 60Co ?-rays in a dose range of 5-50 kGy. The sensitivity of the dosimeters and the linearity of dose-response curves are improved by adding 2.5% of chloral hydrate [CCl 3CH(OH) 2] and 0.15% hydroquinone [HOC 6H 4OH]. These additions extend the minimum dose limit to 1 kGy covering dosimetry requirements of the quality assurance in radiation processing of food and healthcare products. The dose responses of both dyed PVC films at irradiation temperatures from 20C to 35C are constant relative to those at 25C, and the temperature coefficients for irradiation temperatures from 35C to 55C were estimated to be (0.430.01)%/C. The dosimeter characteristics are stable within 1% at 25C before and 60 days after the end of irradiation.

Mai, Hoang Hoa; Duong, Nguyen Dinh; Kojima, Takuji

2004-04-01

85

Partial dissolution of ACQ-treated wood in lithium chloride/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone: separation of copper from potential lignocellulosic feedstocks.  

PubMed

A cellulose solvent system based on lithium chloride (LiCl) in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) was used to assess the merits of partial dissolutions of coarsely ground wood samples. Alkaline Copper Quaternary (ACQ)-treated pine wood was of particular interest for treatment given the potential to generate a copper-rich stream apart from solid and/or liquid lignocellulosic feedstocks. Treatment with NMP alone gave yields of soluble materials that were higher than typical extractives contents thereby suggesting a limited degree of wood dissolution. Inclusion of LiCl, which disrupts hydrogen bonding, gave lower wood residue recoveries (i.e., higher dissolution) with higher LiCl concentration. Lower wood residue recoveries coincided with lower Klason lignin and hemicellulose-derived sugar contents in the wood residues. After treatment with 8% LiCl in NMP, subsequent filtration afforded 34% of the ACQ-treated sapwood as a wood residue retaining only 2% of the original copper. Pouring the filtrate over an excess of water resulted in the recovery of 30% of the solids and 50% of the copper together as a copper-enriched lignocellulosic precipitate. Results demonstrate a solvent system showing potential as a means to separate heavy metals from preservative-treated wood and to recover lignocellulosic feedstocks that may be suitable for use in a biorefinery. PMID:22154004

Eberhardt, Thomas L; Lebow, Stan; Reed, Karen G

2012-02-01

86

Depopulation of Metastable Helium by Radiative Association with Hydrogen and Lithium Ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depopulation of metastable He(23S) by radiative association with hydrogen and lithium ions is investigated using a fully quantal approach. Rate coefficients for spontaneous and stimulated radiative association of the HeH+, HeD+, and LiHe+ molecular ions on the spin-triplet manifold are presented as functions of temperature considering the association to rotational-vibrational states of the lowest triplet electronic states a 3?+ and b 3?+ from the continuum states of the b 3?+ electronic state. Evaluation of the rate coefficients is based on highly accurate quantum calculations, taking into account all possible state-to-state transitions at thermal energies (for spontaneous association) or at higher background energies (stimulated association). As expected, calculations show that the rate coefficients for radiative association to the a state are several orders of magnitude larger than the one for the b state formation. A noticeable effect by blackbody background radiation on the radiative association is only obtained for the b ? b process. Aspects of the formation and abundance of the metastable HeH+(a 3?+) in astrophysical environments are briefly discussed.

Augustovi?ov, L.; Kraemer, W. P.; Soldn, P.

2014-02-01

87

Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler  

E-print Network

Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal February 2006 We report on the generation of broadband terahertz THz pulses using Cherenkov-type generation silicon prism. The achieved spectrum is broader compared to the normal Cherenkov-cut geometry. Due

88

Depopulation of metastable helium He(21S) by radiative association with hydrogen and lithium cations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depopulation of metastable He(21S) by radiative association with hydrogen and lithium ions resulting in the formation of the HeH+ and HeLi+ molecular ions is investigated. Energy dependent cross-sections for spontaneous and stimulated processes on the spin-singlet manifold are calculated using a fully quantal approach and considering the association to rotational-vibrational states of the lowest singlet electronic states X?+1, A?+1, and B?+1 from the continuum states of the B?+1 electronic state. Evaluation of the cross-sections is based on highly accurate quantum calculations taking into account all possible state-to-state transitions at thermal energies (for spontaneous association) or at higher background temperatures (stimulated association). The corresponding rate coefficients are then presented as functions of temperature. As expected calculations show that the rate coefficients for radiative association to the X and A states are several orders of magnitude larger than the one for the B state formation. On the other hand, stimulation of the radiative association by black-body background radiation has a noticeable effect only on the B?B process.

Augustovi?ov, Lucie; Kraemer, Wolfgang P.; Soldn, Pavel

2014-11-01

89

Dextran sodium sulfate inhibits the activities of both polymerase and reverse transcriptase: lithium chloride purification, a rapid and efficient technique to purify RNA  

PubMed Central

Background Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) is commonly used in mouse studies to induce a very reproducible colitis that effectively mimics the clinical and histological features of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, especially ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanisms of action of DSS remain poorly understood, and observations by our laboratory and other groups indicate that DSS contamination of colonic tissues from DSS-treated mice potently inhibits the quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) amplification of mRNA. Results A prior study used poly-A-mediated mRNA purification to remove DSS from RNA extracts, but we herein report a second efficient and cost-effective approach to counteract this inhibition, using lithium chloride precipitation to entirely remove DSS from RNAs. We also explored how DSS interferes with qRT-PCR process, and we report for the first time that DSS can alter the binding of reverse transcriptase to previously primed RNA and specifically inhibits the enzymatic activities of reverse transcriptase and Taq polymerase in vitro. This likely explains why DSS-treated colonic RNA is not suitable to qRT-PCR amplification without a previous purification step. Conclusion In summary, we provide a simple method to remove DSS from colonic RNAs, and we demonstrate for the first time that DSS can inhibit the activities of both polymerase and reverse transcriptase. In order to reliably analyze gene expression in the colonic mucosa of DSS-treated mice, the efficiency rate of qRT-PCR must be the same between all the different experimental groups, including the water-treated control group, suggesting that whatever the duration and the percentage of the DSS treatment, RNAs must be purified. PMID:24010775

2013-01-01

90

Generation of ultraviolet radiation with wide angular tolerance in cesium lithium borate crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tangential phase-matching has been realised in cesium lithium borate (CLBO) crystal for the first time for the generation of fourth harmonic (266 nm) of Nd:YAG and third harmonic (226.7 nm) of a dye laser radiation by second harmonic generation and sum-frequency mixing with the angular tolerance as large as 22 mrad and 21 mrad respectively, over one of the interacting beams. An energy conversion efficiency of 15% for fourth harmonic generation is obtained with a 5.5 mm thick crystal and with the average pump powers only 170 and 70 mW. A set of Sellmeier dispersion equations for the CLBO crystal have also been formulated.

Bhar, Gopal C.; Kumbhakar, Pathik; Chaudhary, Anil K.

2000-09-01

91

Conversion of broadband thermal radiation in lithium niobate crystals of various compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conversion of the broadband thermal radiation in stoichiometric ( R = 1) lithium niobate single crystals that are grown from melt with 58.6 mol % of LiO2, congruent ( R = Li/Nb = 0.946) melt with the K2O flux admixture (4.5 and 6.0 wt %), and congruent melt and in congruent single crystals doped with the Zn2+, Gd3+, and Er3+ cations is studied. It is demonstrated that the conversion efficiency of the stoichiometric crystal that is grown from the melt with 58.6 mol % of LiO2 is less than the conversion efficiency of congruent crystal. In addition, the stoichiometric and almost stoichiometric crystals and the doped congruent crystals exhibit the blue shift of the peak conversion intensity in comparison with a nominally pure congruent crystal. For the congruent crystals, the conversion intensities peak at 520 and 495 nm, respectively.

Syuy, A. V.; Litvinova, M. N.; Goncharova, P. S.; Sidorov, N. V.; Palatnikov, M. N.; Krishtop, V. V.; Likhtin, V. V.

2013-05-01

92

Electron spin resonance study of the radiation-induced chain oxidation of aromatic amines in poly(vinyl chloride)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantitative analysis of ESR spectra of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), ?-irradiated at 77 K, has been made by a computer subtraction. The ESR spectra of alkyl, allyl and polyenyl macroradicals were separated. These spectra were used for separation of the spectra of radicals trapped in solid solutions of N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-4,4'-diaminodifenylmethane (Am) and CBr 4 in PVC. It has been established that Am inhibites PVC chain dehydrochlorination, interacting with alkyl macroradicals and resulting in Am free radicals. The effects of radiation dose and annealing temperature on the generation and transformations of Am and other radicals were investigated, and the radiation-chemical yields of radicals were determined. It has been shown that Am radicals have high thermal stability and initiate chain oxidation of amine with a chain length of 100.

Kolninov, O. V.; Kolesnikova, V. V.; Milinchuk, V. K.

1999-05-01

93

Enzymological mechanism for the regulation of lanthanum chloride on flavonoid synthesis of soybean seedlings under enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation.  

PubMed

In order to probe into the enzymological mechanism for the regulation of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) on flavonoid synthesis in plants under enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, the effects of LaCl? (20 and 60 mg l(-1)) on the content of flavonoids as well as the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate?:?coenzyme A ligase (4CL), and chalcone synthase (CHS) in soybean seedlings under enhanced UV-B radiation (2.6 and 6.2 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) were investigated. Enhanced UV-B radiation (2.6 and 6.2 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) caused the increase in the content of flavonoids as well as the activities of PAL, C4H, 4CL, and CHS in soybean seedlings. The treatment of 20 mg l(-1) LaCl? also efficiently increased these indices, which promoted the flavonoid synthesis and provided protective effects for resisting enhanced UV-B radiation. On the contrary, the treatment of 60 mg l(-1) LaCl? decreased the content of flavonoids as well as the activities of C4H, 4CL, and CHS in soybean seedlings except increasing the activity of PAL, which were not beneficial to the flavonoid synthesis and provided negative effects for resisting enhanced UV-B radiation. In conclusion, enhanced UV-B radiation caused the increase in the flavonoid synthesis by promoting the activities of PAL, C4H, 4CL, and CHS in soybean seedlings. The treatment of LaCl? could change flavonoid synthesis in soybean seedlings under enhanced UV-B radiation by regulating the activities of PAL, C4H, 4CL, and CHS, which is an enzymological mechanism for the regulation of LaCl? on flavonoid synthesis in plants under enhanced UV-B radiation. PMID:24710726

Fan, Caixia; Hu, Huiqing; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

2014-07-01

94

Ionizing radiation from hydrogen recombination strongly suppresses the lithium scattering signature in the CMB  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested that secondary CMB anisotropies generated by neutral lithium could open a new observational window into the universe around the redshift z{approx}400, and permit a determination of the primordial lithium abundance. The effect is due to resonant scattering in the allowed Li i doublet (2s{sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-2p{sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2}), so its observability depends on the formation history of neutral lithium. Here we show that the ultraviolet photons produced during hydrogen recombination are sufficient to keep lithium in the Li ii ionization stage in the relevant redshift range and suppress the neutral fraction by {approx}3 orders of magnitude from previous calculations, making the lithium signature unobservable.

Switzer, Eric R.; Hirata, Christopher M. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2005-10-15

95

LITHIUM--2002 46.1 By Joyce A. Ober  

E-print Network

LITHIUM--2002 46.1 LITHIUM By Joyce A. Ober Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Maria agreement with SQM would be more economical than continuing to produce lithium carbonate from its own operation in Argentina that began production in 1997 (FMC Corp., 2001, p. 25). FMC produced lithium chloride

96

Lithium cell test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three lithium SO2 cells, two lithium CF cells, and a vinyl chloride cell, all with crimped seals, and all strictly experimental, were independently discharged on resistors. Three temperatures were used and several different storage temperatures. Discharge rate generally on the nominal discharges were 0.1 amp, 0.5 amp, and 1 amp. Tests results show that the crimp seals are inadequate, especially for the SO2 cells. Normal discharges present no hazards. All cells discharge to zero. The problem of lithium cell explosions, such as occurred during off-limits testing, is discussed.

Bragg, B. J.

1977-01-01

97

Oxidation by the salts of metals. VII. Plumbation and oxidative substitution of aromatic compounds in the lead tetraacetate-lithium chloride system in the presence of perfluorinated carboxylic acids  

SciTech Connect

The oxidation of benzene and substituted benzenes PhX with electron-donating (X = CH/sub 3/, OCH/sub 3/) and electron-withdrawing (X = Hlg, CF/sub 3/, NO/sub 2/) substituents in the Pb(OAc)/sub 4/-LiCl system was investigated in the presence of perfluorinated carboxylic acids R/sub f/COOH (R/sub f/ = CF/sub 3/, C/sub 6/F/sub 13/). The reaction leads to the plumbation, chlorination, and acyloxylation products. It was shown that the reactions take place through the formation of aryl derivatives of lead (IV) with the participation of mixed-ligand complexes of lead. The products from the plumbation of toluene (in C/sub 6/F/sub 13/COOH in the absence of lithium chloride) and benzotrifluoro (in the Ph(IV)-C/sub 6/F/sub 13/COOH-LiCl, 1:3:1 system) were isolated. In trifluoroacetic acid these intermediates undergo intramolecular redox decomposition with ligand transfer. The halogenobenzenes and benzotrifluoride are oxidized selectively in the CF/sub 3/COOH-Pb(IV)-LiCl system, giving the corresponding aryl chlorides with yields close to quantitative (80-90%).

Serguchev, Yu.A.; Davydova, V.G.; Makhon'kov, D.I.; Beletskaya, I.P.

1986-11-10

98

Lithium Dilution Cardiac Output Measurements Using a Peripheral Injection Site: Comparison with Central Injection Technique and Thermodilution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The lithium dilution technique for the measurement of cardiac output by the central injection of lithium chloride was introduced by Linton et al. in 1993. In the present report, we compare lithium dilution cardiac output measurement (LD) by the peripheral injection of lithium chloride (pLD) and by central venous injection (cLD), cardiac output determined by electromagnetic flowmetry (EM), and

Tadayoshi Kurita; Koji Morita; Shigeru Kato; Hiroyuki Kawasaki; Mutsuhito Kikura; Tomiei Kazama; Kazuyuki Ikeda

1999-01-01

99

Chronic lithium chloride administration to rats elevates glucose metabolism in wide areas of brain, while potentiating negative effects on metabolism of dopamine D 2 -like receptor stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale and objectivesThe regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc) can be imaged in vivo as a marker of brain functional activity. The effects of chronic lithium administration on baseline values of rCMRglc and values in response to administration of dopamine D2-like receptor agonists have not been examined in humans or rats. Knowing these effects may elucidate and localize the

Mireille Basselin; Lisa Chang; Stanley I. Rapoport

2006-01-01

100

Ultraviolet-B radiation enhancement in dielectric barrier discharge based xenon chloride exciplex source by air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single barrier dielectric barrier discharge tube of quartz with multi-strip Titanium-Gold (Ti-Au) coatings have been developed and utilized for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation production peaking at wavelength 308 nm. The observed radiation at this wavelength has been examined for the mixtures of the Xenon together with chlorine and air admixtures. The gas mixture composition, chlorine gas content, total gas pressure, and air pressure dependency of the UV intensity, has been analyzed. It is found that the larger concentration of Cl2 deteriorates the performance of the developed source and around 2% Cl2 in this source produced optimum results. Furthermore, an addition of air in the xenon and chlorine working gas environment leads to achieve same intensity of UV-B light but at lower working gas pressure where significant amount of gas is air.

Gulati, P.; Prakash, R.; Pal, U. N.; Kumar, M.; Vyas, V.

2014-07-01

101

Ultraviolet-B radiation enhancement in dielectric barrier discharge based xenon chloride exciplex source by air  

SciTech Connect

A single barrier dielectric barrier discharge tube of quartz with multi-strip Titanium-Gold (Ti-Au) coatings have been developed and utilized for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation production peaking at wavelength 308?nm. The observed radiation at this wavelength has been examined for the mixtures of the Xenon together with chlorine and air admixtures. The gas mixture composition, chlorine gas content, total gas pressure, and air pressure dependency of the UV intensity, has been analyzed. It is found that the larger concentration of Cl{sub 2} deteriorates the performance of the developed source and around 2% Cl{sub 2} in this source produced optimum results. Furthermore, an addition of air in the xenon and chlorine working gas environment leads to achieve same intensity of UV-B light but at lower working gas pressure where significant amount of gas is air.

Gulati, P., E-mail: pgulati1512@gmail.com [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-CEERI), Pilani, Rajasthan-333031 (India); Department of Physics, Banasthali University, P.O. Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan 304022 (India); Prakash, R.; Pal, U. N.; Kumar, M. [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-CEERI), Pilani, Rajasthan-333031 (India); Vyas, V. [Department of Physics, Banasthali University, P.O. Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan 304022 (India)

2014-07-07

102

Radiation grafting of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid and polyfunctional methacrylates onto poly(vinyl chloride)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma and electron-beam radiation induced graftcopolymerization of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) onto PVC-films has been investigated. Both swelling effect and oxygen retardation effect in air radiation phase were found to be nonsignificant below the dosages of 1.2 Mrad due to the protection of free radicals by the quick formed gel's network. The graft percentage was increased with the dose-rate and the total dosage, becoming slowly levelling over the doses of 2.4 Mrad. The grafting-rate is regarded to be proportional to the n-th power of the dose- rate, where the value of n being as 1.10 ?1.38 for gamma-irradiation and 1.27 ?1.42 for electron- beam irradiation. Electron-beam irradiation, being extremely high dose-rate, stimulates the grafting-rate, especially the grafting-rate of polyfunctional TEGDMA and TMPTMA because of the quick formation of three dimensional network formed by intra- and inter-crosslinking. Although the grafting results of both gamma and electron-beam irradiation are similar, the latter irradiation favors the mass graft-processing of PVC-films. The formation of the grafted stratum on the PVC-film surfaces was found to induce the positive effects of big improvement in tensile-strength, excellent resistant toughness against the erasure of the prints on the grafted PVC-film surfaces and strong adhesive character with several adhesive chemicals.

Wang, Ung-Ping

103

Flame retardancy of radiation cross-linked poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) used as an insulating material for wire and cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various formulations of radiation cross-linked poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) were prepared to improve the flame retardancy for wire and cable insulation applications. Limiting oxygen index (LOI) was used to characterize the flammability of the developed formulations. The effect of different plasticizers, dioctyl phthalate (DOP), di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) and tri-2-ethylhexyl trimellitate (TOTM) and different flame-retardant fillers, Sb2O3, zinc borate, Al(OH)3 and Mg(OH)2

A. A Basfar

2002-01-01

104

Effect of various combinations of flame-retardant fillers on flammability of radiation cross-linked poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various formulations of radiation cross-linked poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) were prepared to improve the flame retardancy for wire and cable insulation applications. Limiting oxygen index (LOI) was used to characterize the flammability of the developed formulations. The effect of different plasticizers, dioctyl phthalate (DOP), di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) and tri-2-ethylhexyl trimellitate (TOTM) and various combinations of different flame-retardant additives, namely Sb2O3, zinc

A. A Basfar

2003-01-01

105

Hydrothermal Transformation of Microporous Lithium Zinc Phosphates; A Kinetic Study using in situ Synchrotron Radiation Powder Diffraction.  

SciTech Connect

The solution mediated phase transformation of a lithium zinc phosphate has been investigated. The zeolite type ABW phase, LiZnPO{sub 4}. H{sub 2}O, suspended in an aqueous solution of LiNO{sub 3}, transforms to the more dense phase, (delta tau) LiZnPO{sub 4} (crystobalite type structure). In situ time resolved powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation, has been utilized to obtain isothermal crystallization curves in the temperature range 179 {degrees} C to 210 {degrees} C. A power law was used for the kinetic analysis, giving an apparent activation energy for the reaction, Ea = 93.1 kJ/mole. The order of the power law varies from 2. 80 to 4.41 in the observed temperature range. This indicates a continuous change in the mechanism of the nucleation.

Jensen, T.R. [University of Odense (Denmark); Norby, P. [SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Hanson, J.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1997-12-31

106

Radiation effects on poly(vinyl chloride). 2. Effect of plasticizers on the behaviour of PVC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different solid solutions of PVC in dibutyl phthalate, tritolyl phosphate, diallyl phthalate, and mixture of diallyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate were subjected to gamma radiation. The chemical, physical and physicomechanical properties of the irradiated samples were investigated. With respect to PVC plasticates in dibutyl phthalate, it was found that the crosslinking reaction is the predominant reaction at doses higher than 0.2 MGy. Furthermore, as the dibutyl phthalate content increases, the degree of crosslinking increases. When PVC was blended with tritolyl phosphate, the extent of change in the samples was reduced. Diallyl phthalate promotes the crosslinking reaction in PVC. It was found that the concentration of diallyl phthalate has no considerable effect on the extent of crosslinking in the range under investigation. PVC plasticates as mixtures of diallyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate show the same crosslinking percentage as the samples containing diallyl phthalate only (on the same weight basis). This shows that the internal viscosity of PVC has no effect on the conversion of diallyl phthalate.

Zahran, A. H.; Ezz Eldin, F. M.

107

The role of <100> edge dislocations in nucleating radiation-induced colloid particles in sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical program to investigate the role of dislocations in the nucleation of sodium colloids in irradiated rock salt has been outlined. As the first study in the investigation the interaction of radiation-produced defects with the <001> edge dislocation in rock salt, i.e., the edge dislocation in the principal slip system of NaCl, has been considered. The interaction potential between a symmetric defect and the <001> edge dislocation has been determined on the basis of anisotropic elasticity theory. The potential arises from the interaction between the long-range stress field of the dislocation and the displacements around the point defect. The corresponding flow lines, i.e., the lines along which the defects flow to the dislocation, have also been determined. In general, the flow lines are closed loops passing through the center of the dislocation. One of the novel features introduced by anisotropy is the possibility of open flow lines for certain elastic constant values. Along some of these open flow lines defects are attracted to the dislocation, whereas long others defects are repelled from the dislocation of common plane. 33 refs., 17 figs.

Teutonico, L.J.

1982-09-01

108

Chloride Test  

MedlinePLUS

... is an electrolyte. It is a negatively charged ion that works with other electrolytes, such as potassium , ... which is made up of sodium and chloride ions. Most of the chloride is absorbed by the ...

109

Refractive index changes in lithium niobate crystals by high-energy particle radiation  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation of lithium niobate crystals with 41 MeV {sup 3}He ions causes strong changes of the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indexes. We present a detailed study of this effect. Small fluence of irradiation already yields refractive index changes about 5x10{sup -4}; the highest values reach 3x10{sup -3}. These index modulations are stable up to 100 degree sign C and can be erased thermally, for which temperatures up to 500 degree sign C are required. A direct correlation between the refractive index changes and the produced lattice vacancies is found.

Peithmann, Konrad; Zamani-Meymian, Mohammad-Reza; Haaks, Matz; Maier, Karl; Andreas, Birk; Breunig, Ingo [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Wegelerstrasse 8, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

2006-10-15

110

Refractive index change in photoluminescent patterns based on color centers generated in lithium fluoride by EUV radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Periodic luminescent patterns based on active color centers have been efficiently created in Lithium Fluoride (LiF) crystals and films by Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) light and soft x-rays from a laser-plasma source by masking the incoming radiation. Strong visible photoluminescence at room temperature has been measured from colored geometric microstructures, produced with high spatial resolution on large areas in short exposure times. Accurate spectrophotometric measurements allow estimating a significant increase in the real part of the refractive index, locally induced by the formation of high concentrations of stable primary and aggregate electronic defects at the surface of the LiF irradiated crystal, in a very thin layer, whose depth has been evaluated around 50 nm. On the basis of a semi-classical dipole-electromagnetic field interaction model, the contribution of different kinds of point defects to the overall refractive index change has been quantified. Promising opportunities in the fabrication of passive and active devices for integrated optics, such as gratings and distributed lasers, are offered by the use of this kind of radiation.

Montereali, Rosa Maria; Bonfigli, Francesca; Faenov, Anatoly; Flora, Francesco; Marolo, Tiziana; Montecchi, Marco; Nichelatti, Enrico; Pikuz, Tatiana; Baldacchini, Giuseppe

2004-08-01

111

High-pressure x-ray diffraction study on lithium borohydride using a synchrotron radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium borohydride (LiBH4) was compressed up to 10 GPa using a diamond-anvil-cell to investigate its high-pressure structure. In-situ x-ray diffraction profiles indicated a pressure-induced transformation at 1.1 GPa, which was consistent with the previous experimental observation such as Raman scattering spectroscopy. The high-pressure phase was indexed on a tetragonal symmetry of P42/mmc, which was not corresponding some structural models proposed by previous calculation studies. An unknown substance (presumably another Li-B-H compound), which was contained in the starting material, also transformed into its high-pressure phase at 0.6 GPa without any relation to the transformation of LiBH4.

Nakano, S.; Nakayama, A.; Kikegawa, T.

2008-07-01

112

Pyrochemical reduction of uranium dioxide and plutonium dioxide by lithium metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium reduction process has been developed to apply a pyrochemical recycle process for oxide fuels. This process uses lithium metal as a reductant to convert oxides of actinide elements to metal. Lithium oxide generated in the reduction would be dissolved in a molten lithium chloride bath to enhance reduction. In this work, the solubility of Li2O in LiCl was

T. Usami; M. Kurata; T. Inoue; H. E Sims; S. A Beetham; J. A Jenkins

2002-01-01

113

Amplification of impurity-associated Auger-free luminescence in mixed rubidium-caesium chloride crystals under core-level excitation with undulator radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the results of experimental studies aimed at testing the amplification of impurity-associated Auger-free luminescence (275 nm band) in mixed rubidium-caesium chloride crystals under core-level excitation with undulator radiation. The emission features observed under the best collimation of the optical cavity, namely the enhancement of the peak intensity, the sharpening of the emission spectrum and the shortening of the luminescence decay, suggest a possibility of the light amplification due to inverted population between the valence and 5pCs-impurity core states. A further lasing performance with regard to possibilities for development of this technique is also briefly discussed.

Mikhailik, V. B.; Itoh, M.; Asaka, S.; Bokumoto, Y.; Murakami, J.; Kamada, M.

1999-11-01

114

RADIATION-INDUCED DEFECTS IN MANGANESE-DOPED LITHIUM TETRABORATE PHOSPHOR.  

PubMed

Lithium tetraborate doped with manganese synthesised by solid-state sintering technique exhibits a dosimetric peak at 280C. The high-temperature glow curve results in no fading for three months. The sensitivity of Li2B4O7:Mn is determined to be 0.9 times that of TLD-100. The infrared spectrum of this phosphor indicates the presence of bond vibrations corresponding to BO4 tetrahedral and BO3 triangles. The mechanism for thermoluminescence in this phosphor was proposed based on the thermoluminescence (TL) emission spectra, kinetic analysis of TL glow curves and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements on non-irradiated and gamma-irradiated phosphors. It was identified that oxygen vacancies and Boron oxygen hole centre (BOHC) are the electron and hole trap centres for TL in this phosphor. When the phosphor is heated, the electrons are released from the electron trap and recombine with the trapped holes. The excitation energy during the recombination is transferred to the nearby Mn(2+) ions, which emit light at 580 nm. PMID:24743763

Annalakshmi, O; Jose, M T; Madhusoodanan, U; Sridevi, J; Venkatraman, B; Amarendra, G; Mandal, A B

2014-04-17

115

Lithium reduces apoptosis and autophagy after neonatal hypoxiaischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium is used in the treatment of bipolar mood disorder. Reportedly, lithium can be neuroprotective in models of adult brain ischemia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of lithium in a model of neonatal hypoxicischemic brain injury. Nine-day-old male rats were subjected to unilateral hypoxiaischemia (HI) and 2 mmol\\/kg lithium chloride was injected i.p. immediately after

Q Li; H Li; K Roughton; X Wang; G Kroemer; K Blomgren; C Zhu

2010-01-01

116

Experiments on the GammaRadiation from Lithium and Fluorine Bombarded with Protons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recoil electrons ejected from a 2 mm carbon scatterer by the gamma-radiation from Li+H1 have been investigated and indicate three lines of energies 17, 14.5, and 11.5 and possibly a fourth line of energy 8.5 Mev. Pairs ejected from the same scatterer were also observed. Most of these may be attributed to the 17 Mev line. Recoil electrons ejected

E. R. Gaerttner; H. R. Crane

1937-01-01

117

Cesium Chloride  

MedlinePLUS

... effect on tumors. A few people have had life-threatening problems with heart rhythm, seizures, loss of consciousness, and electrolyte (blood chemistry) imbalances after taking cesium chloride. How is it ...

118

Calculation of spectroscopic constants and radiative parameters for the A 1?{/u +}- X 1?{/g +} and B 1? u - X 1?{/g +} electronic transitions of the lithium dimer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrational, rotational, and centrifugal spectroscopic constants; radiative parameters (the Einstein coefficients, oscillator strengths, and Franck-Condon factors); the wave numbers of rotational lines of electronic-vibrational-rotational transitions in the systems of bands A 1?{/u +}- X 1?{/g +} (0? v'?20,0? v??37, j'=20,40) and B 1? u - X 1?{/g +}(0? v'?10,0? v??25, j'=0,20,40,50); and the radiative lifetimes for the vibrational-rotational energy levels of excited states of the lithium dimer are calculated. Calculations are carried out on the basis of semiempirical potential curves constructed in this work. The calculated energy parameters and radiative lifetimes are compared to the experimental data and the theoretical values available in the literature.

Smirnov, A. D.

2012-10-01

119

High-rate lithium thionyl chloride cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-rate C cell with disc electrodes was developed to demonstrate current rates which are comparable to other primary systems. The tests performed established the limits of abuse beyond which the cell becomes hazardous. Tests include: impact, shock, and vibration tests; temperature cycling; and salt water immersion of fresh cells.

Goebel, F.

1982-01-01

120

Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal  

DOEpatents

A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01

121

Effect of additives on lithium cycling efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Lithium cycling efficiency was evaluated for LiAsF[sub 6]-ethylene carbonate/2-methyltetrahydrofuran mixed-solvent electrolyte (LiAsF[sub 6]-EC/2MeTHF) with several additives: tetraalkylammonium chlorides with a long n-alkyl chain and three methyl groups. The ammonium chlorides with n-alkyl group longer than n-C[sub 12]H[sub 25]- increased lithium cycling efficiency. Cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) produced the best improvement in lithium cycling efficiency. A figure of merit (FOM) of lithium for 0.01 M CTAC was 46, which was 1.5 times the FOM for the corresponding additive-free electrolyte. The LiAsF[sub 6]-EC/2MeTHF with CTAC showed an increase in FOM with stack pressure, but the effect was less than that for the additive-free LiAsF[sub 6]-EC/2MeTHF. Scanning electron microscope observation showed that the addition of CTAC decreased the needle-like lithium deposition and increased particulate lithium deposition. This deposition morphology may be the main cause of the increase in FOM. The additive had no effect on rate capability for cell cycling at 3 mA/cm[sup 2] discharge and 1 mA/cm[sup 2] charge.

Hirai, Toshiro; Yoshimatsu, Isamu; Yamaki, J. (NTT Interdisciplinary Research Labs., Ibaraki (Japan))

1994-09-01

122

Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production  

DOEpatents

A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

2014-03-25

123

Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

1993-10-12

124

Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

1993-01-01

125

Radiation effects on poly (vinyl chloride)I. gas evolution and physical properties of rigid PVC films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation-induced oxidative degradation of PVC films using 60CO-? radiation has been investigated at room temperature. Quantitative analyses of evolved gases and oxidative product during irradiation under vacuum conditions and in the presence of oxygen were determined. The G-values of evolved from PVC films irradiated under vacuum were: G( HCl) = 2.3, G( H2) = 0.18, G( CH4) = 0.001, G( CO2) = 0.007, and G( CO) = 0.01 while in the presence of oxygen at an initial pressure of 500 Torr, and the G-values were: G( HCl) = 3.0, G( H2) = 0.2, G( CH4) = 0.006, G( CO2) = 0.09, G( CO) = 0.1, and G( O2) = 1.5. The evolved gases and oxygen consumption were found to depend on oxygen pressure during irradiation of the PVC films. The intrinsic viscosity of rigid PVC was found to decrease at low doses and then gradually increase at higher ones. This may be due to the oxidative degradation occuring at low doses. On the other hand, crosslinking may be the predominant effect at higher doses. Mechanical properties of irradiated PVC films show that there is no significant change in the tensile strength until 0.6 MGy. Meanwhile, elongation percent increases with dose to reach a maximum at 0.1 MGy, and thereafter it sharply decreases at higher irradiation doses.

Zahran, A. H.; Hegazy, E. A.; Ezz Eldin, F. M.

126

Effect of chlorine, sodium chloride, trisodium phosphate, and ultraviolet radiation on the reduction of Yersinia enterocolitica and mesophilic aerobic bacteria from eggshell surface.  

PubMed

Eggshell sanitizing practices are necessary to improve microbiological safety of fresh hen eggs and their products. In this work, the effects of 100 mg/liter free chlorine (chl), 3% sodium chloride (NaCl), 1, 5, and 12% trisodium phosphate (TSP) in wash solutions, and UVR (ultraviolet radiation; 4.573 microW/cm2) were studied at different times on uninoculated and Yersinia enterocolitica-inoculated eggs. On uninoculated eggs, the best results were obtained with 100 mg/liter chlorine and UV exposure for >25 min, with reductions of 1.28 and 1.60 log cycles, respectively, compared to the average bacterial count (4.55 log CFU/egg) on the control (untreated eggs). On Y. enterocolitica-inoculated eggs, highest reductions of the average bacterial count (7.35 log CFU/egg) were obtained with 5 and 12% TSP and 100 mg/liter chl. The decrease obtained with 12% TSP (3.74-log reduction) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those obtained with the remaining treatments. Y. enterocolitica was more resistant to UVR than the eggshell natural mesophilic aerobic microflora, except when low inoculum (4.39 log CFU/egg) was assayed. Changes in eggshell microstructure were measured by the blue lake staining method. The presence of Yersinia and Salmonella in eggshell natural flora was also investigated. PMID:11601717

Favier, G L; Escudero, M E; de Guzman, A M

2001-10-01

127

Determination of lithium in rocks by distillation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the quantitative extraction and recovery of lithium from rocks is based on a high temperature volatilization procedure. The sample is sintered with a calcium carbonate-calcium chloride mixture at 1200?? C. for 30 minutes in a platinum ignition tube, and the volatilization product is collected in a plug of Pyrex glass wool in a connecting Pyrex tube. The distillate, which consists of the alkali chlorides with a maximum of 5 to 20 mg. of calcium oxide and traces of a few other elements, is removed from the apparatus by dissolving in dilute hydrochloric acid and subjected to standard analytiaal procedures. The sinter residues contained less than 0.0005% lithium oxide. Lithium oxide was recovered from synthetic samples with an average error of 1.1%.

Fletcher, M.H.

1949-01-01

128

1,4-Addition of Lithium Diisopropylamide to Unsaturated Esters: Role of Rate-Limiting Deaggregation, Autocatalysis,  

E-print Network

1,4-Addition of Lithium Diisopropylamide to Unsaturated Esters: Role of Rate-Limiting Deaggregation, Autocatalysis, Lithium Chloride Catalysis, and Other Mixed Aggregation Effects Yun Ma, Alexander C. Hoepker.edu Abstract: Lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in tetrahydrofuran at -78 °C undergoes 1,4-addition

Collum, David B.

129

Effect of lithium on norepinephrine metabolic pathways.  

PubMed

We investigated lithium-induced changes in norepinephrine (NE) catabolism. NE and its major metabolites 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl glycol (DHPG), ions such as lithium (Li(+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), and potassium (K(+)) were measured in rat plasma and cerebral cortex using an HPLC method with electrochemical detection for amines. The results obtained with a group of rats treated by lithium chloride (2 mmol/kg/IP) were compared with a control group receiving sodium chloride (2 mmol/kg/IP). Animals were killed at different times over a period of six hours in the morning following salt administration to minimize possible chronobiological effects. There are two pathways leading to MHPG formation: way A, without DHPG, and way B, with DHPG. In plasma and cerebral cortex of lithium treated rats, way A catabolism seems to be preferential. Lithium increases Mg(2+) and K(+) plasma levels. These results suggest that lithium may increase inactivation of NE and decrease NE available for adrenergic receptors. PMID:15936350

Sastre, E; Nicolay, A; Bruguerolle, B; Portugal, H

2005-07-01

130

Effect of UV and gamma radiation on Rn222 permeation through polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Application to the packaging of radium sources for the purpose of storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining of uranium and thorium, as well as the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy, have caused, during the 20th century, the production of waste with a varying concentration in long-lived radionucleides (particularly radium). This waste cannot be stored in traditional storage sites which will return to the public domain after 300 years, due to, on the one hand, the radium period (1620 years) and, on the other hand, the build-up of radon, its gaseous daughter. One solution, in order to optimize the packaging and storage of such products, could be to use successive barriers, made of polymer membranes, intended to limit radon emission. Laboratory tests have shown that polyvinyl chloride (PVC) greatly reduces radon emission from a radium source. However one should take into account the damage of the polymer in time, due to radioactive waste storage itself over long periods of time. Therefore, in order to check the durability of such barriers, PVC samples have been subjected to different accelerated ageing processes by exposure to ultra-violet (UV) radiations or gamma rays. We have determined the effect of such radiation of the samples using two approaches: demonstration of structural changes using analytical method (Infra-red with Fourier Transform or IRTF), study of variations in the radon permeation factor. In the first analysis, it seems that the UV irradiation, causes structural changes in the PVC as a function of the irradiation length of time. This leads first to an increase in the efficiency of the polymer as a "radon barrier", i.e. a reduction in its permeation factor (2.41 10 -12m 2s -1 for a non exposed membrane, against 3.30 10 -13m 2.s -1 for a membrane exposed during 284 hours, with an exposure rate of 62.5 W.m -2, thus a reduction by a factor 10 of the radon emission) then to a long-term weakness. The gamma irradiation (dose rate: 1.05 kGy.h -1, dose: 0.71 MGy) also causes a reduction in the permeation factor of PVC, but only by a factor 2.7.

Tomasella, E.; Labed, V.; Klein, D.; Rob, M. C.; Cetier, Ph.; Chambaudet, A.

1995-11-01

131

Lithium: Effect on [ 3 H]spiperone binding, ionic content, and amino acid levels in the brain of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

After prolonged treatment of rats with lithium (pellets, 0.21% lithium carbonate, or 0.5 mg\\/ml lithium chloride in drinking water) for three months, the level of lithium in plasma was 0.87 meq\\/liter; in several brain regions, between 1.061.39 eq\\/g wet weight. The content of sodium and potassium in the plasma was normal. The level of potassium in the brain regions tested

Miriam Banay-Schwartz; Isabel J. Wajda; Isaac Manigault; Terri DeGuzman; Abel Lajtha

1982-01-01

132

Solid state chemistry and non-steady state radiation enhanced diffusion (NSRED): Part I. Synthesis and characterization of some lithium-tin and lithium-silver-tin polar intermetallics. Part II. Titanium diffusion in ion-modified magnesium oxide surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I of this thesis centers on the investigation of the structural, electronic and physical properties of Li-Sn based novel polar intermetallic compounds. In spite of both scientific and technological interests, the understanding of structure-property relationships of polar intermetallics based on Li-Sn system have not been extensively studied. Our exploratory studies focus on the chemistry of the Li-richest binary phase, Li4.4Sn, as well as on the discovery of new ternary Li-rich phases. Careful phase analyses coupled with X-ray and neutron diffraction studies resulted in the reformulation of Li4.4Sn as Li17Sn4. Exploratory synthesis in the Li-rich side of the ternary Li-Ag-Sn system also led to the discovery of two novel ternary lithium silver stannides phases: Li32.54Ag 9.46Sn10 and Li17Ag3Sn6. The new ternary compounds represent examples of two new crystal structure-types. Li32.54Ag9.46Sn10 exhibits high Li content, and a structure with covalent Ag-Sn framework with significant Li/Ag defects indicating its potential as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. Li 17Ag3Sn6 represents the first example of a quasi-2-dimensional polar intermetallic of the Li-Ag-Sn system. Its high lithium content also suggests it is a viable candidate for Li-battery anode applications. Part II of this thesis focuses on the investigation of defect production upon inert and chemically reactive energetic ion irradiated single crystals of MgO (100). Ti diffusion in ion pre-irradiated (low-energy ion beams of Ar+, Cl+ and Cr+ of 7keV) MgO (100) surfaces was selected as a model system in this work. The annealing process followed ion-irradiation treatment. Diffusion was conducted in an inert atmosphere. In these conditions, non-steady state concentration defects were created and a new type of diffusion termed as Non-Steady State Radiation Enhanced Diffusion (NSRED) was developed. NSRED is obtained by using the following: ion irradiation in the keV range followed by annealing; the diffusion range overlaps heavily with the central region of the collision cascade; the diffusing species are evaporated on the pre-irradiated surfaces. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry was used to measure the diffusion coefficients versus ion irradiation conditions as well as their time dependence. A theoretical model was formulated to calculate the depth-dependent bulk diffusion coefficients and the following order was obtained: DTi/Cr/MgO > DTi/Ar/MgO > DTi/Cl/MgO (where D stands for the depth-dependent diffusion coefficient of samples bombarded with Cr, Ar and Cl, respectively). Monte-Carlo (TRIM) simulations, lattice deformation effects, electrical neutrality requirements as well as nature of vacancies were used to explain the observed trend. Additional kinetic studies and HRXRD experiments were performed to further explain the DTi/Ar/MgO > DTi/Cl/MgO trend. A modified Kapinos-Platonov model was used to include the chemical effect observed. Larger vacancies cluster are assumed to form after relaxation processes under Cl+ bombardment versus Ar+ bombardment. The model accounts for: (1) enhanced diffusion obtained due to the vacancy cluster dissociation during the annealing process, the so-called post-irradiation annealing effect; (2) enhanced diffusion obtained due to the chemical properties of the ions, the so-called chemical effect.

Lupu, Corina

133

The Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) satellite: radiation exposure in low-earth orbit and supporting laboratory studies of iron tetraphenylporphyrin chloride.  

PubMed

We report results from the exposure of the metalloporphyrin iron tetraphenylporphyrin chloride (FeTPPCl) to the outer space environment, measured in situ aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses nanosatellite. FeTPPCl was exposed for a period of 17 months (3700?h of direct solar exposure), which included broad-spectrum solar radiation (?122?nm to the near infrared). Motivated by the potential role of metalloporphyrins as molecular biomarkers, the exposure of thin-film samples of FeTPPCl to the space environment in low-Earth orbit was monitored in situ via ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy and reported telemetrically. The space data were complemented by laboratory exposure experiments that used a high-fidelity solar simulator covering the spectral range of the spaceflight measurements. We found that thin-film samples of FeTPPCl that were in contact with a humid headspace gas (0.8-2.3% relative humidity) were particularly susceptible to destruction upon irradiation, degrading up to 10 times faster than identical thin films in contact with dry headspace gases; this degradation may also be related to the presence of oxides of nitrogen in those cells. In the companion terrestrial experiments, simulated solar exposure of FeTPPCl films in contact with either Ar or CO2:O2:Ar (10:0.01:1000) headspace gas resulted in growth of a band in the films' infrared spectra at 1961?cm(-1). We concluded that the most likely carriers of this band are allene (C3H4) and chloropropadiene (C3H3Cl), putative molecular fragments of the destruction of the porphyrin ring. The thin films studied in space and in solar simulator-based experiments show qualitatively similar spectral evolution as a function of contacting gaseous species but display significant differences in the time dependence of those changes. The relevance of our findings to planetary science, biomarker research, and the photostability of organic materials in astrobiologically relevant environments is discussed. PMID:24512475

Cook, Amanda M; Mattioda, Andrew L; Ricco, Antonio J; Quinn, Richard C; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricca, Alessandra; Jones, Nykola C; Hoffmann, Sren V

2014-02-01

134

Performance of a Multifunctional Space Evaporator- Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR) is a nonventing thermal control subsystem that combines a Space Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) with a Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). The LCAR is a heat pump radiator that absorbs water vapor produced in the SWME. Because of the very low water vapor pressure at equilibrium with lithium chloride solution, the LCAR can absorb water vapor at a temperature considerably higher than the SWME, enabling heat rejection by thermal radiation from a relatively small area radiator. Prior SEAR prototypes used a flexible LCAR that was designed to be installed on the outer surface of a portable life support system (PLSS) backpack. This paper describes a SEAR subsystem that incorporates a very compact LCAR. The compact, multifunctional LCAR is built in the form of thin panels that can also serve as the PLSS structural shell. We designed and assembled a 2 sq ft prototype LCAR based on this design and measured its performance in thermal vacuum tests when supplied with water vapor by a SWME. These tests validated our models for SEAR performance and showed that there is enough area available on the PLSS backpack shell to enable heat rejection from the LCAR.

Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

2013-01-01

135

Performance of a Multifunctional Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR) is a nonventing thermal control subsystem that combines a Space Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) with a Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). The LCAR is a heat pump radiator that absorbs water vapor produced in the SWME. Because of the very low water vapor pressure at equilibrium with lithium chloride solution, the LCAR can absorb water vapor at a temperature considerably higher than the SWME, enabling heat rejection sufficient for most EVA activities by thermal radiation from a relatively small area radiator. Prior SEAR prototypes used a flexible LCAR that was designed to be installed on the outer surface of a portable life support system (PLSS) backpack. This paper describes a SEAR subsystem that incorporates a very compact LCAR. The compact, multifunctional LCAR is built in the form of thin panels that can also serve as the PLSS structural shell. We designed and assembled a 2 ft prototype LCAR based on this design and measured its performance in thermal vacuum tests when supplied with water vapor by a SWME. These tests validated our models for SEAR performance and showed that there is enough area available on the PLSS backpack shell to enable rejection of metabolic heat from the LCAR. We used results of these tests to assess future performance potential and suggest approaches for integrating the SEAR system with future space suits.

Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

2014-01-01

136

Extractive separation of alkaline-earth elements in the determination of lithium in brines  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of using D2EHDTPA and D2EHPA to separate lithium from alkaline-earth elements, with subsequent determination of the lithium in the aqueous phase by the flame-photometric method. Extractive purification makes it possible to lower by an order of magnitude, in comparison to the direct method, the limit of detection of lithium in calcium chloride brines, and also to determine lithium in strontium compounds. The relative standard deviations in the determination of lithium by the method which has been developed do not exceed 0.05.

Shatskaya, S.S.; Samoilov, Yu.M.

1987-07-20

137

Lithium Local Pseudopotential Using  

E-print Network

Lithium Local Pseudopotential Using DFT Sergio Orozco Student Advisor: Chen Huang Faculty Mentor Lithium LPS Test Lithium LPS #12;Density Functional Theory (DFT) Successful quantum mechanical approach (1979) #12;Building LPS for Lithium Create a LPS using NLPS density for Lithium Test LPS by comparing

Petta, Jason

138

BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Conversion of the frequency of laser radiation in lithium triborate LiB3O5 crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical and nonlinear optical properties of LiB3O5 single crystals grown from a molten solution were investigated. Experiments yielded the directions along which phase-matched generation of the second and third harmonics of garnet laser radiation was possible. The parameters of generation of the second harmonic of YAG laser radiation were determined at room temperature and at a temperature of noncritical phase matching. The experimental results were used to determine the mutual orientation of crystallographic and crystallophysical coordinate systems.

Dyakov, Vladimir A.; Dzhafarov, M. Kh; Lukashev, A. A.; Podshivalov, Alexey A.; Pryalkin, Vladimir I.

1991-03-01

139

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

140

Improvement of water vapor adsorption ability of natural mesoporous material by impregnating with chloride salts for development of a new desiccant filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is the development of a new adsorbent for the desiccant material which can be regenerated by the domestic\\u000a exhaust heat by using natural mesoporous material, Wakkanai siliceous shale. To improve this shales performance to adsorb\\/desorb\\u000a the water vapor, lithium chloride, calcium chloride or sodium chloride was supported into the mesopores by impregnating with\\u000a each chloride

Saya Nakabayashi; Katsunori Nagano; Makoto Nakamura; Junya Togawa; Asami Kurokawa

141

Chemical form effects on the surface ionization of lithium halides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface ionization of lithium halides, i.e. fluoride, chloride, bromide and iodide, was studied using a mass spectrometer. In the measurements of ionization using rhenium filaments, it was found that the ionization efficiencies depend on the chemical forms of the samples. To analyze the mechanism of ionization, direct ionization by dissociative ionization is introduced in the present work. The ionization

Tatsuya Suzuki; Hideki Iwabuchi; Kazuko Takahashi; Masao Nomura; Makoto Okamoto; Yasuhiko Fujii

1995-01-01

142

The stimulatory effect of chronic lithium treatment on basal thyrotropin secretion in rats: In vivo antagonism by methylparaben  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic treatment of rats with lithium chloride was examined in order to determine its effect on hypothalamic monoamine and metabolite content, basal thyrotropin (TSH) secretion and thyroid function. The hypothalamic concentrations of noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the lithium treated rats remained unaltered when compared to control levels. NA turnover

Abdullah Jaffer; Brian Harvey; Vivienne Ann Russell; Machteld Elizabeth Carstens; Anna Susanna de Villiers; Joshua Joachim Fransua Taljaard

1993-01-01

143

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1982-02-09

144

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1983-01-01

145

NSTX plasma response to lithium coated divertor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma-facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

NSTX Research Team; Kugel, H. W.; Bell, M. G.; Allain, J. P.; Bell, R. E.; Ding, S.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S. M.; Leblanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Maqueda, R.; Mansfield, D. K.; Mueller, D.; Nygren, R.; Paul, S. F.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A. L.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Schneider, H.; Skinner, C. H.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Taylor, C. N.; Timberlake, J. R.; Wampler, W. R.; Zakharov, L. E.; Zweben, S. J.

2011-08-01

146

Electrochemical lithium extraction from ?-lithium nitride  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report the electrochemical characterization of mixtures of ball-milled lithium nitride and iron metal. Several samples were prepared with different lithium nitride to iron molar ratios. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra showed the presence of iron metal in all the samples and ?-lithium nitride in the samples with higher Li3N\\/Fe ratio. No evidence of other phases was detected.

Pier Paolo Prosini; Francesco Cardellini

2002-01-01

147

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

148

Lithium Ion Production NDE  

E-print Network

, and Claus Daniel 12/9/13 EERE Quality Control Workshop #12;2 Presentation name Lithium Ion Electrode.L. Wood, "Non-destructive evaluation of slot-die-coated lithium secondary battery electrodes by in, and D.L. Wood, "Non-destructive evaluation of slot-die-coated lithium secondary battery electrodes by in

149

[Congenital chloride diarrhea].  

PubMed

Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare hereditary disease, with a prenatal onset, secondary to a deficit in the intestinal chloride transport. In the present study, we describe the clinical characteristics of three patients with congenital watery diarrhea, two of them females, aged between 9 and 14 months at the first visit. All patients presented perinatal antecedents of polyhydramnios and prematurity, watery stools since birth and growth failure. Metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia and hypochloremia were found. Stool ionogram with elevated doses of chloride, exceeding both sodium and potassium, confirmed the diagnosis of CCD. Substitute treatment with sodium and potassium chloride was started with good results. CCD should be considered as a differential diagnosis to congenital watery diarrhea, since early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are mandatory for the normal development of the child, avoiding severe complications such as neurological sequelae and even death. PMID:16127986

Contreras, Mnica; Rocca, Ana; Benedetti, Laura; Kakisu, Hisae; Delgado, Sabrina; Ruiz, Jos Antonio

2005-01-01

150

Purification of lithium salts by CSA continuous countercurrent ion exchange  

SciTech Connect

A Continuous Countercurrent Ion Exchange (CCIX) process was developed for extraction of low levels of sodium, potassium, iron, and nickel from strong solutions of lithium chloride and lithium hydroxide. This study was done on a two-inch diameter CSA, Inc. CCIX pilot unit. A standard 8% cross-linked cation exchange resin was used. The feed was either 2[und M] LiCl or 2[und M] LiOH. The trace levels of contaminants had a slightly higher affinity for the resin than lithium and extracted 90% or better. Residual lithium on the resin was scrubbed of with KOH to render a lithium loss of less than 1% in the waste. Contaminants were stripped from the resin with 3[und M] HCl. Zinc was one metal that was not extracted because it formed an anionic chloride complex. However zinc and certain other metals were extracted with high efficiency using strong-base type resin. Other resins are available for efficient extraction of many other metal contaminants, but the alkali metals, Na and K, were dependent on the CCIX common cation exchange system.

Higgins, I.R. (CSA, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

1986-12-01

151

Phosphates behaviours in conversion of FP chlorides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spent electrolyte of the pyroprocessing by metal electrorefining method should be considered for recycling after removal of fission products (FP) such as, alkali metals (AL), alkaline earth metals (ALE), and/or rare earth elements (REE), to reduce the volume of high-level radioactive waste. Among the various methods suggested for this purpose is precipitation by converting FP from chlorides to phosphates. Authors have been carrying out the theoretical analysis and experiment showing the behaviours of phosphate precipitates so as to estimate the feasibility of this method. From acquired results, it was found that AL except lithium and ALE are unlikely to form phosphate precipitates. However their conversion behaviours including REE were compatible with the theoretical analysis; in the case of LaPO 4 as one of the REE precipitates, submicron-size particles could be observed while that of Li 3PO 4 was larger; the precipitates were apt to grow larger at higher temperature; etc.

Amamoto, I.; Kofuji, H.; Myochin, M.; Takasaki, Y.; Terai, T.

2009-06-01

152

Chronic lithium downregulates cyclooxygenase-2 activity and prostaglandin E2 concentration in rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats treated with lithium chloride for 6 weeks have been reported to demonstrate reduced turnover of arachidonic acid (AA) in brain phospholipids, and decreases in mRNA and protein levels, and enzyme activity, of AA-selective cytosolic phospholipase A2(cPLA2). We now report that chronic lithium administration to rats significantly reduced the brain protein level and enzyme activity of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), without affecting

F Bosetti; J Rintala; R Seemann; T A Rosenberger; M A Contreras; S I Rapoport; M C Chang

2002-01-01

153

Slowing down DNA translocation through a nanopore in lithium chloride  

PubMed Central

The charge of a DNA molecule is a crucial parameter in many DNA detection and manipulation schemes such as gel electrophoresis and lab-on-a-chip applications. Here, we study the partial reduction of the DNA charge due to counterion binding by means of nanopore translocation experiments and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Surprisingly, we find that the translocation time of a DNA molecule through a solid-state nanopore strongly increases as the counterions decrease in size from K+ to Na+ to Li+, both for double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). MD simulations elucidate the microscopic origin of this effect: Li+ and Na+ bind DNA stronger than K+. These fundamental insights into the counterion binding to DNA also provide a practical method for achieving at least ten-fold enhanced resolution in nanopore applications. PMID:22229707

Kowalczyk, Stefan W.; Wells, David B.; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Dekker, Cees

2012-01-01

154

Molecular Structure of Barium Chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Barium Chloride was the byproduct of the discovery of radium by Madame Curie. When refining radium, the final separation resulted in barium chloride and radium chloride. Electrophoresis of barium chloride produces small-scale amounts of barium atom. This can be used for obtaining barium for commercial uses. Applications of barium chloride include stimulating the heart and other muscles for medicinal purposes, and also for softening water. Other uses of barium chloride include the manufacturing of barium salts, as pesticide, pigments, boiler detergent, in purifying sugar, as mordant in dyeing and printing textiles, and in the manufacture of caustic soda, polymers, and stabilizers.

2002-08-15

155

Chloride removal from vitrification offgas  

SciTech Connect

This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

Slaathaug, E.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-06-01

156

Lithium Lens for Ilc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium Lens is a key element of FERMILAB proton conversion system in use for many years. We are analyzing the ILC positron source equipped with a scaled version of Lithium lens. Usage of liquid Lithium allows efficient cooling of Lithium container and entrance/exit windows. For the temperature just ~80C higher, than the temperature of boiling water, the system for circulation of liquid Lithium is a compact and reliable. Overall efficiency of 1.5 secondary positrons per each initial electron passing the undulator is feasible with a compact Lithium lens. Axially symmetric motion of liquid Li does not perturb the field quality required for minimization of emittance of the secondary positrons/electrons polarized longitudinally.

Mikhailichenko, Alexander A.

2013-10-01

157

Lithium purification technique  

DOEpatents

A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

Keough, R.F.; Meadows, G.E.

1984-01-10

158

Lithium purification technique  

DOEpatents

A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

Keough, Robert F. (Richland, WA); Meadows, George E. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01

159

Lithium batteries: Future batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main characteristics and applications of lithium batteries are reviewed. Miniature batteries for quartz crystal watches have been developed and fabricated in Switzerland since 1970. High technology systems like lithium batteries are largely used for their low auto-discharge during storage and for their high energy density. Two kinds of lithium batteries can be distinguished concerning their place in the watch: integrated batteries; and batteries placed between motion parts and the bottom of the watchcase. Lithium batteries are also used in pocket calculators, electronic modules for integrated circuits, telephone, control systems, electronic games, bank cards, and heart stimulators.

Reiche, Harald

160

Lithium and hematopoiesis.  

PubMed Central

Some of lithium's effects on blood cell formation suggest that the element may be of value in treating hematologic disorders. Lithium enhances granulopoiesis and thereby induces neutrophilia. Two possible mechanisms of action are suggested: a direct action on the pluripotent stem cells, or an inhibition of the suppressor cells (thymus-dependent lymphocytes) that limit hematopoiesis. Lithium also inhibits erythropoiesis. Although most studies use concentrations at or above pharmacologic levels there is evidence that lithium plays a role in normal cell metabolism. PMID:6336655

Barr, R. D.; Galbraith, P. R.

1983-01-01

161

Chloride Channels of Intracellular Membranes  

PubMed Central

Proteins implicated as intracellular chloride channels include the intracellular ClC proteins, the bestrophins, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, the CLICs, and the recently described Golgi pH regulator. This paper examines current hypotheses regarding roles of intracellular chloride channels and reviews the evidence supporting a role in intracellular chloride transport for each of these proteins. PMID:20100480

Edwards, John C.; Kahl, Christina R.

2010-01-01

162

Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

163

Anodic dissolution of uranium mononitride in lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic melt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium-plutonium nitride is a candidate fuel for fast reactors, but its major drawback is ¹⁴C formation from natural nitrogen. One would probably have to use highly ¹⁵N-enriched nitrogen. A pyrochemical process with molten-salt electrorefining has been proposed as a means to increase the nuclear proliferation resistance of the fuel cycle. Molten-salt electrorefining could also be applied to nitride fuels to

Fumiaki Kobayashi; Toru Ogawa; Mitsuo Akabori; Yoshio Kato

1995-01-01

164

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide: A View of Lithium Ion Solvation  

E-print Network

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide: A View of Lithium Ion Solvation through a Glass-Bottom Boat BRETT L and reactivities, we were drawn to lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS; (Me3Si)2NLi) by its promi- nence principles of lithium ion coordination chemistry.2 Understanding how solvation influences organolithium

Collum, David B.

165

Lithium Irradiation Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The subject of tritium production in the Antiproton Source Collection lens was raised in the mid-1980s during the design phase of the pbar source. Interest in it has recurred during development of the proton lens and in recent investigations to determine the feasibility of liquid lithium collection lenses for the pbar source and a muon collider project. Calculations for tritium and beryllium 7 production on lithium suffer from a lack of information on medium and high energy cross section data. In addition, knowledge of the energy spectrum within the target vault is based upon calculations. Knowledge of the low energy spectrum, important for tritium production on lithium, is limited, if not non-existent. For Collider Run II, effort is to be applied to improve the performance of the solid lithium lens. Historically, examination of failed lithium lenses has not been pursued because they have been fairly radioactive and because they are thought to contain significant quantities of the radionuclides tritium and beryllium 7. The development of methods to examine failed lithium lenses may be desirable so that the specific causes of failure can be discovered. From such studies, design improvements can be incorporated with the goal of achieving lens performances goals related to Collider Run II. The purpose of the lithium irradiation experiment is to determine the production rates of radioisotopes tritium and beryllium 7 within the lithium lens in its operating in its operating environment.

Leveling, A.F.; /Fermilab

2000-08-22

166

Cathode material for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

2013-07-23

167

Chloride and Salinity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-07-15

168

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

2008-01-01

169

Radiation  

Cancer.gov

DCEG researchers carry out a broad-based research program designed to identify, understand, and quantify the risk of cancer in populations exposed to medical, occupational, or environmental radiation. They study ionizing radiation exposures (e.g., x-rays,

170

Determination of lithium isotopes at natural abundance levels by atomic absorption spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The relationships of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li hollow cathode lamp emissions are used to determine lithium isotopic composition in the natural abundance range of geologic materials. Absorption was found to have a nonlinear dependence upon total lithium concentration and isotopic composition. A method using nonlinear equations to describe the relationship of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li lamp radiation is proposed as a means of calculating isotopic composition that is independent of total lithium concentration.

Meier, A.L.

1982-01-01

171

Inequality of quenched and high temperature structure of lithium deficient LiMn 2O 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural characterization of the new low temperature polymorph of the lithium-deficient lithiummanganese spinel, synthesized and quenched from 1073K has been obtained by Rietveld structure refinements of X-ray powder diffraction data recorded using synchrotron radiation. A slight lithium ions deficiency causes formation of the tetragonal phase provided that the samples obtained at high temperature are rapidly quenched in the solid CO2.

P. Piszora

2005-01-01

172

Slowing down DNA Translocation through a Nanopore in Lithium Stefan W. Kowalczyk,,  

E-print Network

Slowing down DNA Translocation through a Nanopore in Lithium Chloride Stefan W. Kowalczyk,,§ David. Here, we study the partial reduction of the DNA charge due to counterion binding by means of nanopore that the translocation time of a DNA molecule through a solid-state nanopore strongly increases as the counterions

Dekker, Cees

173

[The combined use of electrosleep and intranasal lithium electrophoresis at the sanatorium stage of postinfarct rehabilitation].  

PubMed

Ninety postmyocardial infarction convalescents were treated by electrical sleep (impulse frequency 50-70 Hz) in combination with intranasal electrophoresis of 3% solution of lithium chloride to improve cardiocerebral relationships. The studies involved the clinical pattern, myocardial bioelectrical activity, exercise tolerance and cerebral hemodynamics. The results pointed to therapeutic benefit of the combination in sanatorium management of the patients. PMID:1653505

Mikhno, L E; Novikov, S A; Pavlenko, A S

1991-01-01

174

Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Measurements of Fluorine and Lithium under Proton Bombardment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectra of the gamma-radiation emitted by lithium and fluorine under proton bombardment have been investigated with a spectrometer which measures the total energy of electron pairs produced in a thin radiator exposed to the gamma-radiation. A long-suspected 14.8-Mev gamma-ray line from the 440-kev resonance in lithium has been clearly resolved from the well-known sharp line at 17.6 Mev. The

R. L. Walker; B. D. McDaniel

1948-01-01

175

Porcine proximal tubular cells (LLC-PK1) are able to tolerate high levels of lithium chloride in vitro: assessment of the influence of 1-20 mM LiCl on cell death and alterations in cell biology and biochemistry.  

PubMed

Lithium, a prophylactic drug for the treatment of bipolar disorder, is prescribed with caution due to its side effects, including renal damage. In this study porcine LLC-PK1 renal tubular cells were used to establish the direct toxicity of lithium on proximal cells and gain insights into the molecular mechanisms involved. In the presence of LiCl, cell proliferation exhibited insignificant decreases in a concentration-dependent manner, but once confluent, constant cell numbers were observed. Cell cycle studies indicated a small dose-dependent accumulation of cells in the G2/M stage after 24 h, as well as an increase in cells in the G0/G1 phase after treatment with 1-10 mM LiCl, but not at 20 mM LiCl. No evidence of apoptosis was observed based on cell morphology or DNA fragmentation studies, or evidence of protein expression changes for Bax, Bcl-2, and p53 proteins using immunocytochemistry. In addition caspases 3, 8 and 9 activity remained unaltered between control and lithium-treated cultures. To conclude, exposure to high concentrations of lithium did not result in overt toxic effects to LLC-PK1 renal cells, although LiCl did alter some aspects of cell behaviour, which could potentially influence function over time. PMID:19947924

Lucas, Kirsten C; Hart, David A; Becker, Rolf W

2010-02-01

176

Control of beryllium-7 in liquid lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation fields created by the production of ⁷Be in lithium of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility can be sufficiently high to prevent contact maintenance of system components. Preliminary experiments have shown that ⁷Be will adhere strongly to the FMIT piping and components and a good control method for ⁷Be must be developed. The initial experiments have been conducted

R. P. Anantatmula; W. F. Brehm; D. L. Baldwin; J. L. Bevan

1978-01-01

177

PROCEEDINGS O F THE IEEE, VOL.56, NO. 1, JANUARY196837 [`I J. J. Wysocki,"Lithium-doped radiation-resistant silicon solar  

E-print Network

for the direct measurement of outer space Infrared Heterodyne Detection Abstract-Heterodyne experiments have been performed m the middle infraredregionof the eleetromngwtic spectrum .sinp the C02 laser as a radiation. In aceordance with the tiwry, the minimmdetectable power obse~edis a factor of 2/q greaterthan the theoreticplly

Teich, Malvin C.

178

Lithium-methomyl induced seizures in rats: A new model of status epilepticus?  

SciTech Connect

Behavioral, electroencephalographic (EEG) and neuropathological effects of methomyl, a carbamate insecticide reversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity, were studied in naive or lithium chloride (24 h, 3 mEq/kg, s.c.) pretreated male Wistar rats. In naive animals, methomyl with equal potency produced motor limbic seizures and fatal status epilepticus. Thus, the CD50 values (50% convulsant dose) for these seizure endpoints were almost equal to the LD50 (50% lethal dose) of methomyl (13 mg/kg). Lithium pretreated rats were much more susceptible to convulsant, but not lethal effect of methomyl. CD50 values of methomyl for motor limbic seizures and status epilepticus were reduced by lithium pretreatment to 3.7 mg/kg (a 3.5-fold decrease) and 5.2 mg/kg (a 2.5-fold decrease), respectively. In contrast, lithium pretreatment resulted in only 1.3-fold decrease of LD50 value of methomyl (9.9 mg/kg). Moreover, lithium-methomyl treated animals developed a long-lasting status epilepticus, which was not associated with imminent lethality observed in methomyl-only treated rats. Scopolamine (10 mg/kg) or diazepam (10 mg/kg) protected all lithium-methomyl treated rats from convulsions and lethality. Cortical and hippocampal EEG recordings revealed typical epileptic discharges that were consistent with behavioral seizures observed in lithium-methomyl treated rats. In addition, convulsions induced by lithium-methomyl treatment were associated with widespread neurodegeneration of limbic structures. Our observations indicate that lithium pretreatment results in separation between convulsant and lethal effects of methomyl in rats. As such, seizures induced by lithium-methomyl administration may be an alternative to lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus, which is associated with high lethality.

Kaminski, Rafal M. [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland)]. E-mail: kaminskr@mail.nih.gov; Blaszczak, Piotr [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Dekundy, Andrzej [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Parada-Turska, Jolanta [Department of Rheumatology and Connective Tissue Diseases, Medical University, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-090 Lublin (Poland); Calderazzo, Lineu [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Laboratory of Experimental Neurology, Escola Paulista de Medicina, R. Botucatu 862, BR-04023 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Cavalheiro, Esper A. [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Laboratory of Experimental Neurology, Escola Paulista de Medicina, R. Botucatu 862, BR-04023 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Turski, Waldemar A. [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-090 Lublin (Poland)

2007-03-15

179

Lithium in NGC 752  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Echelle spectra recorded at the Li I 6707 A line are reported for 19 main sequence members of NGC 752, an open cluster about 2.5 times older than the Hyades. A sharp decline of the lithium abundance toward cooler temperatures is found which is more pronounced than in the Hyades, as expected. The initial cluster lithium abundance is estimated at roughly 1 x 10 to the -9th. No significant increase of the lithium fraction in the gas of the Galactic disk apparently has occurred in at least the last 1.7 Gyr. Four stars in a very narrow temperature range centered near 6600 K show a deficiency of atmospheric lithium which ranges up to a factor of more than 30 compared to slightly hotter or cooler stars.

Hobbs, L. M.; Pilachowski, Catherine

1986-01-01

180

Solid-state lithium battery  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

2014-11-04

181

Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium

John B

1994-01-01

182

NSTX plasma response to lithium coated divertor  

SciTech Connect

NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma-facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Z(eff) and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, < 0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kugel, H. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Bell, M. G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Allain, J. P. [Purdue University; Bell, R. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ding, S. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Plasma Physics, Hefei, China; Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Jaworski, M. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kallman, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kaye, S. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); LeBlanc, B. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Maingi, Rajesh [ORNL; Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Maqueda, R. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Mansfield, D.K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Mueller, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Nygren, R. E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Paul, S. F. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Raman, R [University of Washington, Seattle; Roquemore, A. L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia University; Schneider, H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Skinner, C. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Soukhanovskii, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Taylor, C. N. [Purdue University; Timberlake, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Wampler, W. R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Zakharov, L. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Zweben, S. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

2011-01-01

183

Atmospheric corrosion of lithium electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric corrosion of lithium during lithium-cell assembly and the dry storage of cells prior to electrolyte fill has been found to initiate lithium corrosion pits and to form corrosion products. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate lithium pitting and the white floccullent corrosion products. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Auger spectroscopy in combination with X-ray diffraction were used to characterize lithium surfaces. Lithium surfaces with corrosion products were found to be high in carbonate content indicating the presence of lithium carbonate. Lithium electrodes dry stored in unfilled batteries were found to contain high concentration of lithium flouride a possible corrosion product from gaseous materials from the carbon monofluoride cathode. Future investigations of the corrosion phenomena will emphasize the effect of the corrosion products on the electrolyte and ultimate battery performance. The need to protect lithium electrodes from atmospheric exposure is commonly recognized to minimize corrosion induced by reaction with water, oxygen, carbon dioxide or nitrogen (1). Manufacturing facilities customarily limit the relative humidity to less than two percent. Electrodes that have been manufactured for use in lithium cells are typically stored in dry-argon containers. In spite of these precautions, lithium has been found to corrode over a long time period due to residual gases or slow diffusion of the same into storage containers. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the nature of the lithium corrosion.

Johnson, C.J.

1981-10-01

184

Solubility of some alkali and alkaline earth chlorides in water at moderate temperatures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Solubilities for the binary systems, salt-H2O, of the chlorides of lithium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium from near 0??C to the saturated boiling point are reported. The experimental data and coefficients of an equation for a smoothed curve describing each system are listed in the tables. The data are improvements on those previously reported in the literature, having a precision on the average of ??0.09%.

Clynne, M.A.; Potter, R.W., II

1979-01-01

185

Chloride removal from ferrous substrates  

SciTech Connect

Chlorides will be summarized with respect to occurrence, electrolytic confinement of chlorides on pitted steel, action at the steel/paint interface, and removal. Processes which will be discussed for removal are (1) blast cleaning, (2) blast cleaning enhanced with electrode reversal and nocturnal humidity, (3) water spray and water jetting procedures.

Johnson, B. [KTA-Tator, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1998-12-31

186

Molecular Structure of Picryl chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Picryl chloride is ranked as one of the 100 most commonly found explosive and shock sensitive materials. It is made by reacting 2,4,6 trinitrophenol with thionyl chloride. This highly reactive compound is known to be hazardous and toxic, and to cause liver injury in mice. It is often used as a sensitization agent in mice when their cells undergo hypersensitivity studies.

2002-09-20

187

75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China Determination On the...revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to...Publication 4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation...

2010-06-15

188

75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States...concerning the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China...revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely...

2010-04-15

189

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2011-01-01

190

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2010-01-01

191

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

...Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2014-01-01

192

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2012-01-01

193

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2013-01-01

194

21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193...GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 582.6193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2010-04-01

195

Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lithium, which has the chemical symbol Li and an atomic number of 3, is the first metal in the periodic table. Lithium has many uses, the most prominent being in batteries for cell phones, laptops, and electric and hybrid vehicles. Worldwide sources of lithium are broken down by ore-deposit type as follows: closed-basin brines, 58%; pegmatites and related granites, 26%; lithium-enriched clays, 7%; oilfield brines, 3%; geothermal brines, 3%; and lithium-enriched zeolites, 3% (2013 statistics). There are over 39 million tons of lithium resources worldwide. Of this resource, the USGS estimates there to be approximately 13 million tons of current economically recoverable lithium reserves. To help predict where future lithium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where identified resources are concentrated in the Earths crust, and they use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered resources also exist.

Bradley, Dwight; Jaskula, Brian

2014-01-01

196

Lithium As Plasma Facing Component for Magnetic Fusion Research  

SciTech Connect

The use of lithium in magnetic fusion confinement experiments started in the 1990's in order to improve tokamak plasma performance as a low-recycling plasma-facing component (PFC). Lithium is the lightest alkali metal and it is highly chemically reactive with relevant ion species in fusion plasmas including hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, carbon, and oxygen. Because of the reactive properties, lithium can provide strong pumping for those ions. It was indeed a spectacular success in TFTR where a very small amount (~ 0.02 gram) of lithium coating of the PFCs resulted in the fusion power output to improve by nearly a factor of two. The plasma confinement also improved by a factor of two. This success was attributed to the reduced recycling of cold gas surrounding the fusion plasma due to highly reactive lithium on the wall. The plasma confinement and performance improvements have since been confirmed in a large number of fusion devices with various magnetic configurations including CDX-U/LTX (US), CPD (Japan), HT-7 (China), EAST (China), FTU (Italy), NSTX (US), T-10, T-11M (Russia), TJ-II (Spain), and RFX (Italy). Additionally, lithium was shown to broaden the plasma pressure profile in NSTX, which is advantageous in achieving high performance H-mode operation for tokamak reactors. It is also noted that even with significant applications (up to 1,000 grams in NSTX) of lithium on PFCs, very little contamination (< 0.1%) of lithium fraction in main fusion plasma core was observed even during high confinement modes. The lithium therefore appears to be a highly desirable material to be used as a plasma PFC material from the magnetic fusion plasma performance and operational point of view. An exciting development in recent years is the growing realization of lithium as a potential solution to solve the exceptionally challenging need to handle the fusion reactor divertor heat flux, which could reach 60 MW/m2 . By placing the liquid lithium (LL) surface in the path of the main divertor heat flux (divertor strike point), the lithium is evaporated from the surface. The evaporated lithium is quickly ionized by the plasma and the ionized lithium ions can provide a strongly radiative layer of plasma ("radiative mantle"), thus could significantly reduce the heat flux to the divertor strike point surfaces, thus protecting the divertor surface. The protective effects of LL have been observed in many experiments and test stands. As a possible reactor divertor candidate, a closed LL divertor system is described. Finally, it is noted that the lithium applications as a PFC can be quite flexible and broad. The lithium application should be quite compatible with various divertor configurations, and it can be also applied to protecting the presently envisioned tungsten based solid PFC surfaces such as the ones for ITER. Lithium based PFCs therefore have the exciting prospect of providing a cost effective flexible means to improve the fusion reactor performance, while providing a practical solution to the highly challenging divertor heat handling issue confronting the steadystate magnetic fusion reactors.

Masayuki Ono

2012-09-10

197

Spacesuit Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For decades advanced spacesuit developers have pursued a regenerable, robust non-venting system for heat rejection. Toward this end, this paper investigates linking together two previously developed technologies, namely NASA's Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare's lithium chloride Heat Pump Radiator (HPR). Heat from a liquid cooled garment is transported to SWME that provides cooling through evaporation. The SEAR is evacuated at the onset of operations and thereafter, the water vapor absorption rate of the HPR maintains a low pressure environment for the SWME to evaporate effectively. This water vapor captured by solid LiCl in the HPR with a high enthalpy of absorption, results in sufficient temperature lift to reject most of the heat to space by radiation. After the sortie, the HPR would be heated up in a regenerator to drive off and recover the absorbed evaporant. A one-fourth scale prototype was built and tested in vacuum conditions at a sink temperature of 250 K. The HPR was able to stably reject 60 W over a 7-hour period. A conceptual design of a full-scale radiator is proposed. Excess heat rejection above 240 W would be accomplished through venting of the evaporant. Loop closure rates were predicted for various exploration environment scenarios.

Bue, Grant C.; Hodgson, Ed; Izenso, Mike; Chan, Weibo; Cupples, Scott

2011-01-01

198

Beneficial synergistic effects of microdose lithium with pyrroloquinoline quinone in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complicated, neurodegenerative disorder involving multifactorial pathogeneses and still lacks effective clinical treatment. Recent studies show that lithium exerts disease-modifying effects against AD. However, the intolerant side effects at conventional effective dosage limit the clinical use of lithium in treating AD. To explore a novel AD treatment strategy with microdose lithium, we designed and synthesized a new chemical, tri-lithium pyrroloquinoline quinone (Li3PQQ), to study the synergistic effects of low-dose lithium and pyrroloquinoline quinone, a native compound with powerful antioxidation and mitochondrial amelioration. The results showed that Li3PQQ at a relative low dose (6 and 12mg/kg) exhibited more powerful effects in restoring the impairment of learning and memory, facilitating hippocampal long-term potentiation, and reducing cerebral amyloid deposition and phosphorylated tau level in APP/PS1 transgenic mice than that of lithium chloride at both low and high dose (5 and 100mg/kg). We further found that Li3PQQ inhibited the activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3 and increased the activity of ?-amyloid-binding alcohol dehydrogenase, which might underlie the beneficial effects of Li3PQQ on APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Our study demonstrated the efficacy of a novel AD therapeutic strategy targeting at multiple disease-causing mechanisms through the synergistic effects of microdose lithium and pyrroloquinoline quinone. PMID:25018109

Zhao, Lei; Gong, Neng; Liu, Meng; Pan, Xiaoli; Sang, Shaoming; Sun, Xiaojing; Yu, Zhe; Fang, Qi; Zhao, Na; Fei, Guoqiang; Jin, Lirong; Zhong, Chunjiu; Xu, Tianle

2014-12-01

199

Reversibility of anodic lithium in rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries.  

PubMed

Non-aqueous lithium-air batteries represent the next-generation energy storage devices with very high theoretical capacity. The benefit of lithium-air batteries is based on the assumption that the anodic lithium is completely reversible during the discharge-charge process. Here we report our investigation on the reversibility of the anodic lithium inside of an operating lithium-air battery using spatially and temporally resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction and three-dimensional micro-tomography technique. A combined electrochemical process is found, consisting of a partial recovery of lithium metal during the charging cycle and a constant accumulation of lithium hydroxide under both charging and discharging conditions. A lithium hydroxide layer forms on the anode separating the lithium metal from the separator. However, numerous microscopic 'tunnels' are also found within the hydroxide layer that provide a pathway to connect the metallic lithium with the electrolyte, enabling sustained ion-transport and battery operation until the total consumption of lithium. PMID:23929396

Shui, Jiang-Lan; Okasinski, John S; Kenesei, Peter; Dobbs, Howard A; Zhao, Dan; Almer, Jonathan D; Liu, Di-Jia

2013-01-01

200

Lithium enhances remyelination of peripheral nerves  

PubMed Central

Glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) inhibitors, especially the mood stabilizer lithium chloride, are also used as neuroprotective or anti-inflammatory agents. We studied the influence of LiCl on the remyelination of peripheral nerves. We showed that the treatment of adult mice with LiCl after facial nerve crush injury stimulated the expression of myelin genes, restored the myelin structure, and accelerated the recovery of whisker movements. LiCl treatment also promoted remyelination of the sciatic nerve after crush. We also demonstrated that peripheral myelin gene MPZ and PMP22 promoter activities, transcripts, and protein levels are stimulated by GSK3? inhibitors (LiCl and SB216763) in Schwann cells as well as in sciatic and facial nerves. LiCl exerts its action in Schwann cells by increasing the amount of ?-catenin and provoking its nuclear localization. We showed by ChIP experiments that LiCl treatment drives ?-catenin to bind to T-cell factor/lymphoid-enhancer factor response elements identified in myelin genes. Taken together, our findings open perspectives in the treatment of nerve demyelination by administering GSK3? inhibitors such as lithium. PMID:22355115

Makoukji, Joelle; Belle, Martin; Meffre, Delphine; Stassart, Ruth; Grenier, Julien; Shackleford, Ghjuvan'Ghjacumu; Fledrich, Robert; Fonte, Cosima; Branchu, Julien; Goulard, Marie; de Waele, Catherine; Charbonnier, Frdric; Sereda, Michael W.; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Schumacher, Michael; Bernard, Sophie; Massaad, Charbel

2012-01-01

201

Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries  

E-print Network

Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium** Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA Lithium cells that use organic electrolytes. The equilibrium reaction potential of lithium titanium phosphate

Cui, Yi

202

Phenomenological theory of a single domain wall in uniaxial trigonal ferroelectrics: Lithium niobate and lithium tantalate  

E-print Network

Phenomenological theory of a single domain wall in uniaxial trigonal ferroelectrics: Lithium niobate and lithium tantalate David A. Scrymgeour and Venkatraman Gopalan Department of Materials Science, lithium niobate and lithium tantalate. The contributions to the domain- wall energy from polarization

Gopalan, Venkatraman

203

Lithium Dinitramide as an Additive in Lithium Power Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium dinitramide, LiN(NO2)2 has shown promise as an additive to nonaqueous electrolytes in rechargeable and non-rechargeable lithium-ion-based electrochemical power cells. Such non-aqueous electrolytes consist of lithium salts dissolved in mixtures of organic ethers, esters, carbonates, or acetals. The benefits of adding lithium dinitramide (which is also a lithium salt) include lower irreversible loss of capacity on the first charge/discharge cycle, higher cycle life, lower self-discharge, greater flexibility in selection of electrolyte solvents, and greater charge capacity. The need for a suitable electrolyte additive arises as follows: The metallic lithium in the anode of a lithium-ion-based power cell is so highly reactive that in addition to the desired main electrochemical reaction, it engages in side reactions that cause formation of resistive films and dendrites, which degrade performance as quantified in terms of charge capacity, cycle life, shelf life, first-cycle irreversible capacity loss, specific power, and specific energy. The incidence of side reactions can be reduced through the formation of a solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) a thin film that prevents direct contact between the lithium anode material and the electrolyte. Ideally, an SEI should chemically protect the anode and the electrolyte from each other while exhibiting high conductivity for lithium ions and little or no conductivity for electrons. A suitable additive can act as an SEI promoter. Heretofore, most SEI promotion was thought to derive from organic molecules in electrolyte solutions. In contrast, lithium dinitramide is inorganic. Dinitramide compounds are known as oxidizers in rocket-fuel chemistry and until now, were not known as SEI promoters in battery chemistry. Although the exact reason for the improvement afforded by the addition of lithium dinitramide is not clear, it has been hypothesized that lithium dinitramide competes with other electrolyte constituents to react with lithium on the surface of the anode to form a beneficial SEI. Apparently, nitrides and oxides that result from reduction of lithium dinitramide on the anode produce a thin, robust SEI different from the SEIs formed from organic SEI promoters. The SEI formed from lithium dinitramide is more electronically insulating than is the film formed in the presence of an otherwise identical electrolyte that does not include lithium dinitramide. SEI promotion with lithium dinitramide is useful in batteries with metallic lithium and lithium alloy anodes.

Gorkovenko, Alexander A.

2007-01-01

204

Purification of lithium salts by CSA continuous countercurrent ion exchange. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A Continuous Countercurrent Ion Exchange (CCIX) process was developed for extraction of low levels of sodium, potassium, iron, and nickel from strong solutions of lithium chloride and lithium hydroxide. This study was done on a two-inch diameter CSA, Inc. CCIX pilot unit. A standard 8% cross-linked cation exchange resin was used. The feed was either 2{und M} LiCl or 2{und M} LiOH. The trace levels of contaminants had a slightly higher affinity for the resin than lithium and extracted 90% or better. Residual lithium on the resin was scrubbed of with KOH to render a lithium loss of less than 1% in the waste. Contaminants were stripped from the resin with 3{und M} HCl. Zinc was one metal that was not extracted because it formed an anionic chloride complex. However zinc and certain other metals were extracted with high efficiency using strong-base type resin. Other resins are available for efficient extraction of many other metal contaminants, but the alkali metals, Na and K, were dependent on the CCIX common cation exchange system.

Higgins, I.R. [CSA, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1986-12-01

205

Chemical form effects on the surface ionization of lithium halides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface ionization of lithium halides, i.e. fluoride, chloride, bromide and iodide, was studied using a mass spectrometer. In the measurements of ionization using rhenium filaments, it was found that the ionization efficiencies depend on the chemical forms of the samples. To analyze the mechanism of ionization, direct ionization by dissociative ionization is introduced in the present work. The ionization parameter [var epsilon] has been experimentally shown to be [var epsilon] = [phi]DI-W, where [phi]DI is the dissociative ionization energy, and W is the work function. In conclusion, a Saha-Langmuir-type equation is applicable to the surface ionization of lithium halides using the dissociative ionization energy term instead of the ionization potential of atoms.

Suzuki, Tatsuya; Iwabuchi, Hideki; Takahashi, Kazuko; Nomura, Masao; Okamoto, Makoto; Fujii, Yasuhiko

1995-07-01

206

[Undesirable skin reactions to lithium].  

PubMed

Lithium plays an important role in the treatment and prophylaxis of affective psychoses. Taking lithium-containing drugs by mouth can cause side effects on the skin, although severe side effects are rare. Acneiform dermatoses have been most frequently described. In addition, when taking lithium continuously, psoriasis can be triggered or worsened and the psoriasis tends to be resistant to treatment. Maculo papular eruptions, ulcers, keratosis pilaris like folliculitis, exfoliative dermatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis like eruption, and hair loss have been described. Possibly the blood level of lithium plays a decisive role in developing a dermatosis. If the skin side effect is mild, the dermatosis should be treated topically. If the dermatoses under lithium treatment are severe, a reduction in the lithium dosage should possibly be discussed with the psychiatrist. Only rarely does lithium have to be entirely discontinued. PMID:3157663

Albrecht, G

1985-02-01

207

Micro-and nanoscale domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate  

E-print Network

Micro- and nanoscale domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate Vladimir Ya. Shur investigation of the domain evolution in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate during backswitched electric sources based on quasi-phase matching.11 Lithium niobate LiNbO3 (LN) and lithium tantalate LiTaO3 (LT

Byer, Robert L.

208

77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...mailpieces containing lithium metal or lithium-ion cells or batteries and applies regardless...lithium content'' for secondary lithium-ion batteries when describing maximum quantity...pounds. 10.20.6 Secondary Lithium-ion (Rechargeable) Cells and Batteries...

2012-05-14

209

An XAFS study of nickel chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride  

SciTech Connect

Nickel chloride was studied with cyclic voltammetry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Acidic melts display metal stripping peaks which are not observed in the basic melt. EXAFS analysis shows that the nickel is tetrahedrally coordinated with chloride ions in the basic solution. In the acidic solution the nickel is coordinated by six chloride ions that are also associated with aluminum ions.

D Roeper; G Cheek; K Pandya; W OGrady

2011-12-31

210

Material Effectiveness for Radiation Shielding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Materials with a smaller mean atomic mass, such as lithium (Li) hydride and polyethylene, make the best radiation shields for astronauts. The materials have a higher density of nuclei and are better able to block incoming radiation. Also, they tend to produce fewer and less dangerous secondary particles after impact with incoming radiation.

2003-01-01

211

Effect of lithium salts addition on the ionic liquid based extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos.  

PubMed

In this study, an ionic liquids (ILs) based extraction approach has been successfully applied to the extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos, and the effect of lithium chloride was also investigated. The results indicated that the oil yields can be increased by the ILs, and the extraction time can be reduced significantly (from 4h to 2h), compared with the conventional water distillation. The addition of lithium chloride showed different effect according to the structures of ILs, and the oil yields may be related with the structure of cation, while the chemical compositions of essential oil may be related with the anion. The reduction of extraction time and remarkable higher efficiency (5.41-62.17% improved) by combination of lithium salt and proper ILs supports the suitability of the proposed approach. PMID:25459951

Li, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Sha-Sha; Jie-Xing; Qin, Xue-Mei

2014-11-19

212

Lithium battery management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the

Thomas J

2012-01-01

213

Lithium disulfide battery  

DOEpatents

A negative electrode limited secondary electrochemical cell having dense FeS.sub.2 positive electrode operating exclusively on the upper plateau, a Li alloy negative electrode and a suitable lithium-containing electrolyte. The electrolyte preferably is 25 mole percent LiCl, 38 mole percent LiBr and 37 mole percent KBr. The cell may be operated isothermally.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1988-01-01

214

Increase of glucocorticoids is not required for the acquisition, but hinders the extinction, of lithium-induced conditioned taste aversion.  

PubMed

Lithium chloride at doses sufficient to induce conditioned taste aversion (CTA) causes c-Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus and increases the plasma level of corticosterone with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study was conducted to define the role of glucocorticoid in the acquisition and extinction of lithium-induced CTA. In experiment 1, Sprague-Dawley rats received dexamethasone (2mg/kg) or RU486 (20mg/kg) immediately after 5% sucrose access, and then an intraperitoneal injection of isotonic lithium chloride (12ml/kg) was followed with 30min interval. Rats had either 1 or 7 days of recovery period before the daily sucrose drinking tests. In experiment 2, rats were conditioned with the sucrose-lithium pairing, and then received dexamethasone or vehicle at 30min before each drinking test. In experiment 3, adrenalectomized (ADX or ADX+B) rats were subjected to sucrose drinking tests after the sucrose-lithium pairing. Dexamethasone, but not RU486, pretreatment blunted the formation of lithium-induced CTA memory. Dexamethasone prior to each drinking test suppressed sucrose consumption and prolonged the extinction of lithium-induced CTA. Sucrose consumption was significantly suppressed not only in ADX+B rats but also in ADX rats during the first drinking session; however, a significant decrease was found only in ADX rats on the fourth drinking session. These results reveal that glucocorticoid is not a necessary component in the acquisition, but an important player in the extinction, of lithium-induced CTA, and suggest that a pulse increase of glucocorticoid may hinder the extinction memory formation of lithium-induced CTA. PMID:24582760

Kim, Kyu-Nam; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Kim, Young-Sang; Lee, Jong-Ho; Jahng, Jeong Won

2014-05-01

215

Chronic Lithium Treatment Robustly Protects Neurons in the Central Nervous System against Excitotoxicity by Inhibiting N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor-Mediated Calcium Influx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of manic depressive illness. The precise mechanisms underlying its clinical efficacy remain unknown. We found that long-term exposure to lithium chloride dramatically protects cultured rat cerebellar, cerebral cortical, and hippocampal neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, which involves apoptosis mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. This neuroprotection is longlasting, occurs at therapeutically relevant

Shigeyuki Nonaka; Christopher J. Hough; De-Maw Chuang

1998-01-01

216

75 FR 9147 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...descriptions for lithium metal batteries and lithium ion batteries were adopted into the UN Recommendations... Adopt shipping descriptions for lithium ion batteries including lithium ion polymer batteries (UN3480), lithium ion...

2010-03-01

217

Thin-film lithium and lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research over the last decade at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has led to the development of solid-state thin-film lithium and lithium-ion batteries. The batteries, which are less than 15 ?m thick, have important applications in a variety of consumer and medical products, and they are useful research tools in characterizing the properties of lithium intercalation compounds in thin-film form. The

J. B. Bates; N. J. Dudney; B. Neudecker; A. Ueda; C. D. Evans

2000-01-01

218

Multifunctional Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for non-venting thermal control for spacesuits was built by integrating two previously developed technologies, namely NASA's Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare's flexible version of the Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). This SEAR system was tested in relevant thermal vacuum conditions. These tests show that a 1 sq m radiator having about three times as much absorption media as in the test article would be required to support a 7 hour spacewalk. The serial flow arrangement of the LCAR of the flexible version proved to be inefficient for venting non-condensable gas (NCG). A different LCAR packaging arrangement was conceived wherein the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) housing would be made with a high-strength carbon fiber composite honeycomb, the cells of which would be filled with the chemical absorption media. This new packaging reduce the mass and volume impact of the SEAR on the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) compared to the flexible design. A 0.2 sq m panel with flight-like honeycomb geometry is being constructed and will be tested in thermal and thermal vacuum conditions. Design analyses forecast improved system performance and improved NCG control. A flight-like regeneration system also is also being built and tested. Design analyses for the structurally integrated prototype as well as the earlier test data show that SEAR is not only practical for spacesuits but also has useful applications in spacecraft thermal control.

Bue, Grant C.; Hodgson, Ed; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

2013-01-01

219

Experimental lithium system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m/sup 3/ lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion.

Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

1985-04-01

220

Rechargeable solid state lithium microbatteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rechargeable thin-film lithium battery that can be used as a miniature power supply for small devices has been developed. The battery consists of an amorphous vanadium pentoxide (aV2O5) cathode, an amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride (Lipon) electrolyte, and a lithium anode. A thin-film cover layer protects the battery from exposure to air and water vapor. The battery can deliver up

J. B. Bates; G. R. Gruzalski; C. F. Luck

1993-01-01

221

Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.  

PubMed

The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. PMID:22947185

Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

2012-10-30

222

Lithium depletion during heat treatment of aluminum-lithium alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The loss of lithium from the near surface region during heat treatment of two commercial aluminum-lithium alloys was studied using a nuclear reaction analysis technique. A finely collimated 2.5 MeV beam of3He ions was used to stimulate the7Li(3He,p)9Be reaction in samples of BAACo 8090 and 8091 alloys heat treated for 1, 4, and 16 hours at 500 C. The emitted protons were detected as a cross section of the sample was traversed through the beam, thereby determining the lithium content as a function of distance from the external surface. Suitable calibration and control samples were used to validate the technique. The lithium concentration data were fit with assumed concentration profiles calculated from diffusion equations and modified for the particular experimental configuration employed. Extensive lithium depletion was found in both alloys, and the concentration profiles were found to be accurately predicted by the diffusion calculations. For heat treatment in either wet or dry air, the depth of lithium loss was the same, and can be approximately given as x = 1.5 ?Dt. When heat treated in an argon atmosphere, the depth of lithium loss was reduced. The lithium loss appeared to be limited by the diffusive flux of lithium to the surface of the sample in wet and dry air, but was limited by other factors in argon. Porosity was observed in the lithium depleted region; this was ascribed to the accumulation of vacancies generated by the unequal fluxes of aluminum and lithium atoms.

Papazian, J. M.; Schulte, R. L.; Adler, P. N.

1986-04-01

223

Highly reversible carbonnano-silicon composite anodes for lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance carbonSi composite anode for lithium rechargeable batteries was developed. Si powder was coated with amorphous carbon by pyrolyzing polyvinyl chloride and chlorinated polyethylene at 900C for 2h. The electrochemical performance of the carbonSi composite anode depended on the Si particle size and the carbon content of the composite. A carbonnano-size Si (average size 50nm) composite with 48wt.% carbon

Qin Si; K. Hanai; N. Imanishi; M. Kubo; A. Hirano; Y. Takeda; O. Yamamoto

2009-01-01

224

Contamination of lithium heparin blood by K2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA): an experimental evaluation  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The contamination of serum or lithium heparin blood with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) salts may affect accuracy of some critical analytes and jeopardize patient safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lithium heparin sample contamination with different amounts of K2EDTA. Materials and methods: Fifteen volunteers were enrolled among the laboratory staff. Two lithium heparin tubes and one K2EDTA tube were collected from each subject. The lithium-heparin tubes of each subject were pooled and divided in 5 aliquots. The whole blood of K2EDTA tube was then added in scalar amount to autologous heparinised aliquots, to obtained different degrees of K2EDTA blood volume contamination (0%; 5%; 13%; 29%; 43%). The following clinical chemistry parameters were then measured in centrifuged aliquots: alanine aminotranspherase (ALT), bilirubin (total), calcium, chloride, creatinine, iron, lactate dehydrogenase (LD), lipase, magnesium, phosphate, potassium, sodium. Results: A significant variation starting from 5% K2EDTA contamination was observed for calcium, chloride, iron, LD, magnesium (all decreased) and potassium (increased). The variation of phosphate and sodium (both increased) was significant after 13% and 29% K2EDTA contamination, respectively. The values of ALT, bilirubin, creatinine and lipase remained unchanged up to 43% K2EDTA contamination. When variations were compared with desirable quality specifications, the bias was significant for calcium, chloride, LD, magnesium and potassium (from 5% K2EDTA contamination), sodium, phosphate and iron (from 29% K2EDTA contamination). Conclusions: The concentration of calcium, magnesium, potassium, chloride and LD appears to be dramatically biased by even modest K2EDTA contamination (i.e., 5%). The values of iron, phosphate, and sodium are still reliable up to 29% K2EDTA contamination, whereas ALT, bilirubin, creatinine and lipase appear overall less vulnerable towards K2EDTA contamination. PMID:25351354

Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Brocco, Giorgio; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Lippi, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

225

Effect of cannabinoids on lithium-induced vomiting in the Suncus murinus (house musk shrew)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RationaleMarijuana has been reported to interfere with nausea and vomiting in chemotherapy patients. The principal cannabinoids found in marijuana include the psychoactive compound ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the non-psychoactive compound cannabidiol (CBD). The experiments reported here evaluated the potential of THC and CBD to interfere with vomiting in the Suncus murinus (house musk shrew) produced by lithium chloride (LiCl), which is

Linda A. Parker; Magdalena Kwiatkowska; Page Burton; Raphael Mechoulam

2004-01-01

226

Lithium ion sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 10.9 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion source has been chosen as a source of 100mA lithium ion current for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) at LBNL. Research and development was carried out on lithium alumino-silicate ion sources prior to NDCX-II source fabrication. Space-charge-limited emission with the current density exceeding 1 mA/cm2 was measured with 0.64 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion sources at 1275 C. The beam current density is less for the first 10.9 cm diameter NDCX-II source, and it may be due to an issue of surface coverage. The lifetime of a thin coated (on a tungsten substrate) source is varied, roughly 40-50 h, when pulsed at 0.05 Hz and with pulse length of 6?s each, i.e., a duty factor of 310-7, at an operating temperature of 1250-1275 C. The 10.9 cm diameter source lifetime is likely the same as of a 0.64 cm source, but the lifetime of a source with a 2 mm diameter (without a tungsten substrate) is 10-15 h with a duty factor of 1 (DC extraction). The lifetime variation is dependent on the amount of deposition of ?-eucryptite mass, and the surface temperature. The amount of mass deposition does not significantly alter the current density. More ion source work is needed to improve the large source performance.

Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Grote, Dave P.; Kwan, Joe W.; Lidia, Steven M.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William L.

2014-01-01

227

Hydrolytic stability of terephthaloyl chloride and isophthaloyl chloride.  

PubMed

The phthaloyl chloride isomers, terephthaloyl chloride (TCl) and isophthaloyl chloride (ICl), are high production volume chemicals used in polymers to impartflame resistance, chemical resistance, and temperature stability and as water scavengers. In these studies, we determined the hydrolytic stability of TCl and ICl and their hydrolysis products in aqueous solutions. Hydrolysis rates for TCl and ICl were initially determined by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection in water buffered at pH 4.0, 7.0, and 9.0 and 0 degrees C for up to 30 min. Subsequent studies determined the products from TCl and ICl hydrolysis. The parent phthaloyl chlorides (TCl and ICl), their intermediate hydrolysis products (designated as the "half-acids"), and their stable hydrolysis products (terephthalic acid (TPA) and isophthalic acid (IPA)) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The half-lives (t(1/2)) of TCl and ICl ranged from an average of 1.2 to 2.2 min and from 2.2 to 4.9 min, respectively, at pH 4-9 and 0 degrees C. The observed first-order rate constants (k(obs)) ranged from an average of 530 to 1100 (x 10(5) s(-1)) for TCl and 240 to 520 (x 10(5) s(-1)) for ICl. Both phthaloyl chlorides formed their respective short-lived intermediates, in which one of the two carboxylic acid chloride functionalities reacts with water to form the carboxylic acid ("half-acid"). Subsequently, the half-acids underwent further hydrolysis so that greater than 90% of the initial phthaloyl chloride hydrolyzed in less than 60 min at 0 degrees C. The hydrolysis products TPA and IPA were hydrolytically stable, undergoing no further transformations after 20 min at pH 7 and 25 degrees C. This work demonstrated that TCl, ICl, and their respective half-acids will not be persistent in aqueous systems for a time sufficient to have a sustained toxicological effect on aquatic organisms (less than 1 h). Performing additional aquatic toxicity studies, biodegradation studies, and potentially mammalian studies on TCl and ICl are unnecessary since the existing information on TPA and IPA with the hydrolysis data presented here is sufficient to address questions on the fate and effects of these two substances in aqueous environments. PMID:17120561

Berti, William R; Wolstenholme, Barry W; Kozlowski, John J; Sobocinski, Raymond L; Freerksen, Robert W

2006-10-15

228

Lithium Research Status and PlansLithium Research Status and Plans Charles H. Skinner, PPPL  

E-print Network

Lithium Research Status and PlansLithium Research Status and Plans Charles H. Skinner, PPPL Robert February 3-5, 2010 #12;NSTX PAC-27 ­ Lithium Research Status and Plans 2/15February 3-5, 2010 NSTX lithium research is an integral part of a program to develop lithium as a PFC concept for magnetic fusion NSTX w

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

229

CHEMILUMINESCENT MONITOR FOR VINYL CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

A monitor for vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) in ambient air was constructed using commercially available components of a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a chemiluminescence ozone analyzer slightly modified to make it suitable for use as a GC detector. The specificity for VCM is...

230

MACROMINERALS - SODIUM, POTASSIUM AND CHLORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of minerals in the diet of horses is well recognized by horse owners and equine nutritionists alike. The type and quantity of minerals required are very diverse and essential minerals include the major or macrominerals and the trace or microminerals. This discussion will be restricted to three macrominerals, sodium, potassium, and chloride (Na+, K+, Cl-), that are essen-

L. J. McCutcheon

231

Improved analysis of picomole quantities of lithium, sodium, and potassium in biological fluids.  

PubMed

The analysis of picomolar lithium, sodium, and potassium by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry was studied using a Perkin-Elmer Zeeman 3030 spectrophotometer. With ordinary pyrolytically coated graphite tubes, a number of interference effects associated with the sample matrix were observed. In particular, the lithium and potassium absorbance signal was depressed by chloride, an effect shown to be dependent on the preatomization heating. When an in situ tantalum-coated atomization surface was used, matrix interferences observed in lithium and potassium analyses were abolished, and the linear range for the potassium assay was extended. Technical difficulties encountered during sodium analysis at the primary wavelength were effectively circumvented by analysis at a less-sensitive wavelength (303.3 nm), at which tantalum coating also prevented significant chloride interference. The improved microanalyses were employed to reevaluate the handling of lithium, sodium, and potassium along the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) of the anesthetized rat. The average tubular fluid-to-plasma concentration ratios for lithium [(TF/P)Li] and sodium [(TF/P)Na] were 1.13 +/- 0.08, n = 26, and 0.99 +/- 0.07 (n = 26), respectively. The tubular fluid-to-plasma ultrafiltrate concentration ratio for potassium [(TF/UF)K] was 1.09 +/- 0.05 (n = 13). Ratios did not change significantly with puncture site along the PCT for any of the ions. (TF/P)Li and (TF/UF)K were significantly greater than (TF/P)Na, indicating that lithium and potassium reabsorption do not directly parallel sodium reabsorption in the PCT. PMID:7943365

Shalmi, M; Kibble, J D; Day, J P; Christensen, P; Atherton, J C

1994-10-01

232

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from the extraction of spice, at a level not to exceed 30 parts per million; Provided, That, if residues of...

2010-04-01

233

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

...chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from the extraction of spice, at a level not to exceed 30 parts per million; Provided, That, if residues of...

2014-04-01

234

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from the extraction of spice, at a level not to exceed 30 parts per million; Provided, That, if residues of...

2012-04-01

235

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from the extraction of spice, at a level not to exceed 30 parts per million; Provided, That, if residues of...

2011-04-01

236

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from the extraction of spice, at a level not to exceed 30 parts per million; Provided, That, if residues of...

2013-04-01

237

21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2-ethyl-hexyl)-hexa-decyl-ammonium chloride. (b...Free Amine Value of Fatty Quaternary Ammonium Chlorides, 2d...entitled Colorimetric Determination of Residual Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (Arquad...

2011-04-01

238

21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2-ethyl-hexyl)-hexa-decyl-ammonium chloride. (b...Free Amine Value of Fatty Quaternary Ammonium Chlorides, 2d...entitled Colorimetric Determination of Residual Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (Arquad...

2010-04-01

239

21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2012-04-01

240

21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2011-04-01

241

21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2011-04-01

242

21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2010-04-01

243

21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2010-04-01

244

21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2012-04-01

245

21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2013-04-01

246

21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2011-04-01

247

21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.  

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2014-04-01

248

21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2012-04-01

249

Solid lithium-ion electrolyte  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

1998-01-01

250

Lithium polymer electrolyte rechargeable battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief critical review of the lithium polymer electrolyte battery technology is presented. This review specifically addresses some of the key performance characteristics which could yield a superior lithium polymer electrolyte battery technology. Directions for future R&D work are identified.

D. Fauteux; A. Massucco; M. McLin; M. Van Buren; J. Shi

1995-01-01

251

Solid lithium-ion electrolyte  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

1998-02-10

252

Environment assisted degradation mechanisms in aluminum-lithium alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Section 1 of this report records the progress achieved on NASA-LaRC Grant NAG-1-745 (Environment Assisted Degradation Mechanisms in Al-Li Alloys), and is based on research conducted during the period April 1 to November 30, 1987. A discussion of work proposed for the project's second year is included. Section 2 provides an overview of the need for research on the mechanisms of environmental-mechanical degradation of advanced aerospace alloys based on aluminum and lithium. This research is to provide NASA with the basis necessary to permit metallurgical optimization of alloy performance and engineering design with respect to damage tolerance, long term durability and reliability. Section 3 reports on damage localization mechanisms in aqueous chloride corrosion fatigue of aluminum-lithium alloys. Section 4 reports on progress made on measurements and mechanisms of localized aqueous corrosion in aluminum-lithium alloys. Section 5 provides a detailed technical proposal for research on environmental degradation of Al-Li alloys, and the effect of hydrogen in this.

Gangloff, Richard P.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Swanson, Robert E.

1988-01-01

253

Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride  

DOEpatents

Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

2014-02-11

254

Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride  

DOEpatents

Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

Spormann, Alfred M. (Stanford, CA); Muller, Jochen A. (Baltimore, MD); Rosner, Bettina M. (Berlin, DE); Von Abendroth, Gregory (Nannhein, DE); Meshulam-Simon, Galit (Los Altos, CA); McCarty, Perry L (Stanford, CA)

2011-11-22

255

The vibration spectrum of lithium fluoride and the evaluation of its specific heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThe records of the transmission percentages of infra-red radiation by thin plates of lithium fluoride enable the frequency\\u000a of the vibration of the lithium and fluorine nuclei against each other in opposite phases to be precisely determined. The\\u000a frequencies of the four inactive modes can be computed therefrom. Four other modes are active as overtones and their frequencies\\u000a can be

C. V. Raman

1962-01-01

256

Lithium/bromine cell systems  

SciTech Connect

Bromine is attractive as a cathode material because cells with a high energy density and high cell voltage are theoretically possible. The addition of small amounts of certain salts or organic compounds results in bromine solutions of sufficient conductivity for cathode applications. However, given these highly conductive bromine cathodes, lithium/bromine cells are limited in rate and practical available capacity by the high resistivity of the discharge product. The rate of resistance increase for the best bromine cells in this study is more than one order of magnitude greater than that observed for corresponding lithium/iodine cells. Lithium/bromine cells can function at pacemaker rates and they may be superior to cells used in early pacemakers. However, the authors have not found the lithium/bromine cells described to be superior to existing lithium/iodine cells available for cardiac pacemakers. 17 refs.

Howard, W.G.; Skarstad, P.M.; Hayes, T.G.; Owens, B.B.

1980-01-01

257

High-Capacity Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal control systems for space suits and spacecraft will need to meet critical requirements for water conservation and adaptability to highly variable thermal environments. This paper describes a Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) that has been designed to meet performance requirements for future life support systems. A SEAR system comprises a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR) for heat rejection coupled with a space water membrane evaporator (SWME) for heat acquisition. SEAR systems provide heat pumping to minimize radiator size, thermal storage to accommodate variable environmental conditions, and water absorption to minimize use of expendables. We have built and tested a flightlike, high-capacity LCAR, demonstrated its performance in thermal vacuum tests, and explored the feasibility of an ISS demonstration test of a SEAR system. The new LCAR design provides the same cooling capability as prior LCAR prototypes while enabling over 30% more heat absorbing capacity. Studies show that it should be feasible to demonstrate SEAR operation in flight by coupling with an existing EMU on the space station.

Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

2014-01-01

258

21 CFR 178.3290 - Chromic chloride complexes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 true Chromic chloride complexes. 178.3290 Section 178.3290 Food...Production Aids 178.3290 Chromic chloride complexes. Myristo chromic chloride complex and stearato chromic chloride...

2010-04-01

259

Lithium electric dipole polarizability  

SciTech Connect

The electric dipole polarizability of the lithium atom in the ground state is calculated including relativistic and quantum electrodynamics corrections. The obtained result {alpha}{sub E}=164.0740(5) a.u. is in good agreement with the less accurate experimental value of 164.19(1.08) a.u. The small uncertainty of about 3 parts per 10{sup 6} comes from the approximate treatment of quantum electrodynamics corrections. Our theoretical result can be considered as a benchmark for more general atomic structure methods and may serve as a reference value for the relative measurement of polarizabilities of the other alkali-metal atoms.

Puchalski, M.; KePdziera, D.; Pachucki, K. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, PL-60-780 Poznan (Poland); Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 7, PL-87-100 Torun (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

2011-11-15

260

Lithium niobate explosion monitor  

DOEpatents

Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

1990-01-09

261

Lithium niobate explosion monitor  

DOEpatents

Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

Bundy, Charles H. (Clearwater, FL); Graham, Robert A. (Los Lunas, NM); Kuehn, Stephen F. (Albuquerque, NM); Precit, Richard R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rogers, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01

262

Chemical lithium extraction from manganese oxides for lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical lithium extraction has been carried out on the following manganese oxides: the spinel-type compounds LiMn2O4 and Li(4\\/3)Mn(5\\/3)O4, and the rocksalt-related compound Li2MnO3. Lithium can be partially removed chemically from these compounds without destroying the host framework. Some compounds obtained by this method have been tested as cathodic materials in rechargeable lithium cells. Electrochemical results and X-ray diffraction patterns of

F. Lubin; A. Lecerf; M. Broussely; J. Labat

1991-01-01

263

Electrolytic properties of lithium chelatophosphates and application to lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing interest has been focused on the development of lithium salts with fluorine atoms and on their application to electric vehicles. We have investigated the electrolytic properties of lithium tris[3-fluoro-1,2-benzenediolato(2-)-O,O?]phosphate (3-FLTBP) and lithium tris[1,2-benzenediolato(2-)-O,O?]phosphate (LTBP) and the discharge characteristics of prototype Li\\/V2O5 cells containing ethylene carbonate (EC)-based chain carbonate or EC-based tetrahydrofuran (THF) binary solutions. The introduction of fluorine atoms

Noritoshi Nanbu; Koji Tsuchiya; Yukio Sasaki

2005-01-01

264

Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 ?? 1010 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park. ?? 1985.

Norton, D.R.; Friedman, I.

1985-01-01

265

Plasma Response to Lithium-Coated Plasma-Facing Components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment  

SciTech Connect

Experiments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have shown beneficial effects on the performance of divertor plasmas as a result of applying lithium coatings on the graphite and carbonfiber- composite plasma-facing components. These coatings have mostly been applied by a pair of lithium evaporators mounted at the top of the vacuum vessel which inject collimated streams of lithium vapor towards the lower divertor. In NBI-heated, deuterium H-mode plasmas run immediately after the application of lithium, performance modifications included decreases in the plasma density, particularly in the edge, and inductive flux consumption, and increases in the electron and ion temperatures and the energy confinement time. Reductions in the number and amplitude of ELMs were observed, including complete ELM suppression for periods up to 1.2 s, apparently as a result of altering the stability of the edge. However, in the plasmas where ELMs were suppressed, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities, although not of lithium itself which remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. The impurity buildup could be inhibited by repetitively triggering ELMs with the application of brief pulses of an n = 3 radial field perturbation. The reduction in the edge density by lithium also inhibited parasitic losses through the scrape-off layer of ICRF power coupled to the plasma, enabling the waves to heat electrons in the core of H-mode plasmas produced by NBI. Lithium has also been introduced by injecting a stream of chemically stabilized, fine lithium powder directly into the scrape-off layer of NBI-heated plasmas. The lithium was ionized in the SOL and appeared to flow along the magnetic field to the divertor plates. This method of coating produced similar effects to the evaporated lithium but at lower amounts.

M.G. Bell, H.W. Kugel, R. Kaita, L.E. Zakharov, H. Schneider, B.P. LeBlanc, D. Mansfield, R.E. Bell, R. Maingi, S. Ding, S.M. Kaye, S.F. Paul, S.P. Gerhardt, J.M. Canik, J.C. Hosea, G. Taylor and the NSTX Research Team

2009-08-20

266

Accidental benzalkonium chloride (zephiran) injection.  

PubMed

We report a case of an accidental injection of benzalkonium chloride (zephiran) instead of a local anesthetic agent during a tooth extraction. The sudden development of chin and neck swelling led to dyspnea and the patient lost consciousness. She was sent to an emergency clinic by her dentist immediately. After medical treatment for 20 days, the necrotic tissue was debrided and a gingival sulcoplasty was performed. Healing was uneventful. PMID:22014998

Kilic, Erdem; Er, Nilay; Alkan, Alper; Ferahbas, Ayten

2011-12-01

267

A lithium superionic conductor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10-2?S?cm-1) only at 50-80?C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li10GeP2S12 that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12?mS?cm-1 at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window).

Kamaya, Noriaki; Homma, Kenji; Yamakawa, Yuichiro; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kato, Yuki; Hama, Shigenori; Kawamoto, Koji; Mitsui, Akio

2011-09-01

268

Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

A negative electrode (12) for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell (10) with an intermetallic host structure containing two or more elements selected from the metal elements and silicon, capable of accommodating lithium within its crystallographic host structure such that when the host structure is lithiated it transforms to a lithiated zinc-blende-type structure. Both active elements (alloying with lithium) and inactive elements (non-alloying with lithium) are disclosed. Electrochemical cells and batteries as well as methods of making the negative electrode are disclosed.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kepler, Keith D. (Mountain View, CA); Vaughey, John T. (Elmhurst, IL)

2003-01-01

269

Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes  

DOEpatents

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tulsa, OK)

1996-01-01

270

Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes  

DOEpatents

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

1996-01-16

271

A Lithium Superionic Sulfide Cathode for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries  

SciTech Connect

This work presents a facile synthesis approach for core-shell structured Li2S nanoparticles, which have Li2S as the core and Li3PS4 as the shell. This material functions as lithium superionic sulfide (LSS) cathode for long-lasting, energy-efficient lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The LSS has an ionic conductivity of 10-7 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 6 orders of magnitude higher than that of bulk Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high lithium-ion conductivity of LSS imparts an excellent cycling performance to all-solid Li-S batteries, which also promises safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

Lin, Zhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Zengcai [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

272

Lithium System Operation Dan Lev and David Stein  

E-print Network

Lithium System Operation Dan Lev and David Stein March 1, 2011 (or Lithium tank for dummies) 1 #12 for Ordering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 9 Lithium Handling 52 9.1 Glove Box for Ordering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 9.2 Lithium Cleaning

273

77 FR 21714 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Assessment of Bulk-Packed, Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Cells in Transport Category Aircraft; April 2006...configurations of lithium batteries: 1. Lithium ion batteries (PI 965). 2. Lithium ion batteries packed with equipment (PI 966)....

2012-04-11

274

A stable thin-film lithium electrolyte: Lithium phosphorus oxynitride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical and optical properties of lithium phosphorus oxynitride (Lipon) thin films have been studied with an emphasis on the stability window vs. lithium metal and the behavior of the Li\\/Lipon interface. Impedance measurements made between -26 and 140 C show that Lipon exhibits a single, Li{sup +}-ion conducting phase with an average conductivity of 2.3 ({+-}0.7) 10⁻⁶ S\\/cm

Xiaohua Yu; J. B. Bates; G. E. Jr. Jellison; F. X. Hart

1997-01-01

275

Cyanoethylated compounds as additives in lithium/lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01

276

UNDERSTANDING DEGRADATION AND LITHIUM DIFFUSION IN LITHIUM ION BATTERY ELECTRODES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium-ion batteries with higher capacity and longer cycle life than that available today are required as secondary energy sources for a wide range of emerging applications. In particular, the cycling performance of several candidate materials for lithium-ion battery electrodes is insufficient because of the fast capacity fading and short cycle life, which is mainly a result of mechanical degradation.\\u000aThis

Juchuan Li

2012-01-01

277

Electrical properties of lithium-implanted layers on synthetic diamond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium implantation (40 and 50 keV; doses of 2 1016 and 4 1016 cm?2) has been performed in several synthetic and natural diamond crystals at room temperature (RT) and 850900 C (high temperature (HT) implantation). In contrast with the case of the RT implantation, the HT implantation did not result in radiation-induced surface graphitization. The samples implanted at

R. Job; M. Werner; A. Denisenko; A. Zaitsev; W. R. Fahrner

1996-01-01

278

Time-resolved energy transfer from single chloride-terminated nanocrystals to graphene  

SciTech Connect

We examine the time-resolved resonance energy transfer of excitons from single n-butyl amine-bound, chloride-terminated nanocrystals to two-dimensional graphene through time-correlated single photon counting. The radiative biexponential lifetime kinetics and blinking statistics of the individual surface-modified nanocrystal elucidate the non-radiative decay channels. Blinking modification as well as a 4 reduction in spontaneous emission were observed with the short chloride and n-butylamine ligands, probing the energy transfer pathways for the development of graphene-nanocrystal nanophotonic devices.

Ajayi, O. A., E-mail: oaa2114@columbia.edu, E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu; Wong, C. W., E-mail: oaa2114@columbia.edu, E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu [Optical Nanostructures Laboratory, Center for Integrated Science and Engineering, Solid-State Science and Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Anderson, N. C.; Wolcott, A.; Owen, J. S. [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Cotlet, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, New York 11973 (United States); Petrone, N.; Hone, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Gu, T.; Gesuele, F. [Optical Nanostructures Laboratory, Center for Integrated Science and Engineering, Solid-State Science and Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

2014-04-28

279

Time-resolved energy transfer from single chloride-terminated nanocrystals to graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the time-resolved resonance energy transfer of excitons from single n-butyl amine-bound, chloride-terminated nanocrystals to two-dimensional graphene through time-correlated single photon counting. The radiative biexponential lifetime kinetics and blinking statistics of the individual surface-modified nanocrystal elucidate the non-radiative decay channels. Blinking modification as well as a 4 reduction in spontaneous emission were observed with the short chloride and n-butylamine ligands, probing the energy transfer pathways for the development of graphene-nanocrystal nanophotonic devices.

Ajayi, O. A.; Anderson, N. C.; Cotlet, M.; Petrone, N.; Gu, T.; Wolcott, A.; Gesuele, F.; Hone, J.; Owen, J. S.; Wong, C. W.

2014-04-01

280

Liquid Lithium Limiter Effects on Tokamak Plasmas and Plasma-Liquid Surface Interactions  

SciTech Connect

We present results from the first experiments with a large area liquid lithium limiter in a magnetic fusion device, and its effect on improving plasma performance by reducing particle recycling. Using large area liquid metal surfaces in any major fusion device is unlikely before a test on a smaller scale. This has motivated its demonstration in the CDX-U spherical torus with a unique, fully toroidal lithium limiter. The highest current discharges were obtained with a liquid lithium limiter. There was a reduction in recycling, as indicated by a significant decrease in the deuterium-alpha emission and oxygen radiation. How these results might extrapolate to reactors is suggested in recycling/retention experiments with liquid lithium surfaces under high-flux deuterium and helium plasma bombardment in PISCES-B. Data on deuterium atoms retained in liquid lithium indicate retention of all incident ions until full volumetric conversion to lithium deuteride. The PISCES-B results also show a material loss mechanism that lowers the maximum operating temperature compared to that for the liquid surface equilibrium vapor pressure. This may restrict the lithium temperature in reactors.

R. Kaita; R. Majeski; R. Doerner; G. Antar; M. Baldwin; R. Conn; P. Efthimion; M. Finkenthal; D. Hoffman; B. Jones; S. Krashenninikov; H. Kugel; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; J. Menard; T. Munsat; D. Stutman; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; V. Soukhanovskii; D. Whyte; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov

2002-10-15

281

Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and

Summerfield, John

2013-01-01

282

Air breathing lithium power cells  

DOEpatents

A cell suitable for use in a battery according to one embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; a stabilized zirconia electrolyte for selective oxygen anion transport; a molten salt electrolyte; and a lithium-based anode. A cell suitable for use in a battery according to another embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; an electrolyte; a membrane selective to molecular oxygen; and a lithium-based anode.

Farmer, Joseph C.

2014-07-15

283

Secondary lithium batteries for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Secondary lithium cells which use a LiAsF6-2-Me-THF electrolyte and a TiS2 intercalatable cathode exhibit encouraging cycle life at ambient temperature. Electrochemical and surface analytical studies indicate that the electrolyte is unstable in the presence of metallic lithium, leading to the formation of a lithium passivating film composed of lithium arsenic oxyfluorides and lithium fluorsilicates. The lithium cyclability remains as the most important problem to solve. Different electrolyte solvents, such as sulfolane, exhibit promising characteristics but lead to new compatibility problems with the other cell component materials.

Carter, B.; Khanna, S. K.; Yen, S. P. S.; Shen, D.; Somoano, R. B.

1981-01-01

284

Development of Lithium Deposition Techniques for TFTR  

SciTech Connect

The ability to increase the quantity of lithium deposition into TFTR beyond that of the Pellet Injector while minimizing perturbations to the plasma provides interesting experimental and operational options. Two additional lithium deposition tools were developed for possible application during the 1996 Experimental Schedule: a solid lithium target probe for real-time deposition, and a lithium effusion oven for deposition between discharges. The lithium effusion oven was operated in TFTR to deposit lithium on the Inner Limiter in the absence of plasma. This resulted in the third highest power TFTR discharge.

Gorman, J.; Johnson, D.; Kugel, H.W.; Labik, G.; Lemunyan, G.; et al

1997-10-01

285

Development of lithium deposition techniques for TFTR  

SciTech Connect

The ability to increase the quantity of lithium deposition into TFTR beyond that of the Pellet Injector while minimizing perturbations to the plasma provides interesting experimental and operational options. Two additional lithium deposition tools were developed for possible application during the 1996 Experimental Schedule: a solid lithium target probe for real-time deposition, and a lithium effusion oven for deposition between discharges. The lithium effusion oven was operated in TFTR to deposit lithium on the Inner Limiter in the absence of plasma. This resulted in the third highest power TFTR discharge.

Kugel, H.W.; Gorman, J.; Johnson, D.; Labik, G.; Lemunyan, G.; Mansfield, D.; Timberlake, J.; Vocaturo, M.

1997-10-01

286

Dendrite preventing separator for secondary lithium batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dendrites are prevented from shorting a secondary lithium battery by use of a first porous separator, such as porous polypropylene, adjacent to the lithium anode that is unreactive with lithium and a second porous fluoropolymer separator between the cathode and the first separator, such as polytetrafluoroethylene, that is reactive with lithium. As the tip of a lithium dendrite contacts the second separator, an exothermic reaction occurs locally between the lithium dendrite and the fluoropolymer separator. This results in the prevention of the dendrite propagation to the cathode.

Shen, David H. (inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (inventor); Halpert, Gerald (inventor)

1993-01-01

287

[Lithium: only acceptable with careful monitoring].  

PubMed

In the Netherlands, lithium is the mood stabilizer of choice for patients with bipolar disorder. Long-term treatment with lithium can only be implemented safely with frequent and appropriate monitoring of serum lithium concentrations. Here we use 3 cases to illustrate that severe complications can arise when careful monitoring is not performed: a 47-year-old woman with symptoms of a lithium intoxication with therapeutic plasma levels; a 73-year-old woman with chronic lithium intoxication; and a 56-year-old woman with end-stage renal failure after many years of probable toxic lithium levels. PMID:24780573

Hoekstra, Rocco; van Alphen, Arjan M; Bosch, Tessa M

2014-01-01

288

Lithium peroxide primary element  

SciTech Connect

In a galvanic primary element of the system Li/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, the aqueous cathode depolarizer H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is fixated as a polyurethane gel. It can thereby be controlled and caused to react with the anode metal in accordance with the current drain requirements. This is accomplished using a ram to press the gel toward a conductor which covers the lithium anode, which may take the form of a metal grid and/or a gas diffusion electrode. The oxygen which forms in the working layer through catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide creates a gas bubble when the current is interrupted or the ram is stopped, thereby interrupting the further supply of hydrogen peroxide to the catalyst.

Winsel, A.

1982-05-04

289

Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition  

DOEpatents

A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

1981-10-08

290

Molecular Structure of Sodium chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium chloride, or simply (table) salt, is found in the mineral Halite (rock salt) but also in seawater, sweat, etc. It is used in industry and in our everyday life, for seasoning and perserving food or for winter road maintenance. Seawater contains a lot of salt, on average of 2.6% NaCl, or 26 million metric tons per cubic kilometer. In rock salt the NaCl content typically ranges between 95% and 99% NaCl, and mechanically evaporated salt and solar salt normally exceed 99% NaCl.

2002-08-15

291

Metal chloride cathode for a battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of fabricating a rechargeable battery is disclosed which includes a positive electrode which contains a chloride of a selected metal when the electrode is in its active state. The improvement comprises fabricating the positive electrode by: providing a porous matrix composed of a metal; providing a solution of the chloride of the selected metal; and impregnating the matrix with the chloride from the solution.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Bankston, C. Perry (inventor)

1991-01-01

292

Lithium Ion Solvation: Amine and Unsaturated Hydrocarbon Solvates of Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS)  

E-print Network

Lithium Ion Solvation: Amine and Unsaturated Hydrocarbon Solvates of Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide, and 13C NMR spectroscopic studies of 6Li-15N labeled lithium hexamethyldisilazide ([6Li,15N]- Li ligand structure and lithium amide aggregation state is a complex and sensitive function of amine alkyl

Collum, David B.

293

SOLID STATE NMR STUDY SUPPORTING THE LITHIUM VACANCY DEFECT MODEL IN CONGRUENT LITHIUM  

E-print Network

@ Pergamon SOLID STATE NMR STUDY SUPPORTING THE LITHIUM VACANCY DEFECT MODEL IN CONGRUENT LITHIUM performed on powdered and single crystal lithium niobate of defectivecongruent composition (48.4%LirO;51.6% NbrOr) using a magnetic field strength of 7.05 Tesla with the aim to distinguish between a lithium

Bluemel, Janet

294

75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject...

2010-04-20

295

Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Vinyl Chloride  

E-print Network

Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Vinyl Chloride AMENDED PATHOLOGY Triangle Park, NC 27709 Submitted by: Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Street Address: Mailing, 2011 #12; Experimental Pathology Laboratories

Baker, Chris I.

296

Production of chlorine from chloride salts  

DOEpatents

A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

Rohrmann, Charles A. (Kennewick, WA)

1981-01-01

297

A new lithium salt with dihydroxybenzene and lithium tetrafluoroborate for lithium battery electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new unsymmetrical lithium salt containing F-, C6H4O22- [dianion of 1,2-benzenediol], lithium difluoro(1,2-benzene-diolato(2-)-o,o?)borate (LDFBDB) is synthesized and characterized. Its thermal decomposition in nitrogen begins at 170 C. The cyclic voltammetry study shows that the LDFBDB solution in propylene carbonate (PC) is stable up to 3.7 V versus Li+/Li. It is soluble in common organic solvents. The ionic dissociation properties of LDFBDB are examined by conductivity measurements in PC, PC+ ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), PC + dimethyl ether (DME), PC + ethylene carbonate (EC) + EMC solutions. The conductivity values of the 0.564 mol dm-3 LDFBDB electrolyte in PC + DME solution is 3.90 mS cm-1. All these properties of the new lithium salt including the thermal characteristics, electrochemical stabilities, solubilities, ionic dissociation properties are studied and compared with those of its derivatives, lithium difluoro(3-fluoro-1,2-benzene-diolato(2-)-o,o?)borate (FLDFBDB), lithium [3-fluoro-1,2-benzenediolato(2-)-o,o? oxalato]borate (FLBDOB), and lithium bis(oxalate)borate (LBOB).

Xue, Zhao-Ming; Sun, Bin-Bin; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Chun-Hua

2011-10-01

298

Plasma Performance Improvements with Liquid Lithium Limiters in CDX-U  

SciTech Connect

The use of flowing liquid lithium as a first wall for a reactor has potentially attractive physics and engineering features. The Current Drive experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has begun experiments with a fully toroidal liquid lithium limiter. CDX-U is a compact [R = 34 cm, a = 22 cm, Btoroidal = 2 kG, IP =100 kA, T(subscript)e(0) {approx} 100 eV, n(subscript)e(0) {approx} 5 x 10{sup 19} m-3] short-pulse (<25 msec) spherical tokamak with extensive diagnostics. The limiter, which consists of a shallow circular stainless steel tray of radius 34 cm and width 10 cm, can be filled with lithium to a depth of a few millimeters, and forms the lower limiting surface for the discharge. Heating elements beneath the tray are used to liquefy the lithium prior to the experiment. The total area of the tray is approximately 2000 cm{sup 2}. The tokamak edge plasma, when operated in contact with the lithium-filled tray, shows evidence of reduced impurities and recycling. The reduction in re cycling and impurities is largest when the lithium is liquefied by heating to 250 degrees Celsius. Discharges which are limited by the liquid lithium tray show evidence of performance enhancement. Radiated power is reduced and there is spectroscopic evidence for increases in the core electron temperature. Furthermore, the use of a liquid lithium limiter reduces the need for conditioning discharges prior to high current operation. The future development path for liquid lithium limiter systems in CDX-U is also discussed.

R. Majeski; M. Boaz; D. Hoffman; B. Jones; R. Kaita; H. Kugel; T. Munsat; J. Spaleta; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Timberlake; L. Zakharov; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R.W. Conn; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; R. Maingi; and M. Ulrickson

2002-07-12

299

Enrofloxacin hydrochloride dihydrate  

PubMed Central

The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H23FN3O3 +Cl?2H2O [systematic name: 4-(3-carboxy-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinolin-7-yl)-1-ethylpiperazin-1-ium chloride dihydrate], consists of two independent monocations of the protonated enrofloxacin, two chloride anions and four water molecules. In the cations, the piperazinium rings adopt chair conformations and the dihedral angles between the cyclopropyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring system are 56.55?(2) and 51.11?(2). An intramolecular OH?O hydrogen bond is observed in each cation. In the crystal, the components are connected via OH?Cl, NH?Cl and OH?O hydrogen bonds, and a ?? interaction between the benzene rings [centroidcentroid distance = 3.6726?(13)?], resulting in a three-dimensional array. PMID:24826167

Miranda-Caldern, Jorge E.; Gutirrez, Lilia; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; Garca-Gutirrez, Ponciano; Sumano, Hctor

2014-01-01

300

Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method  

DOEpatents

A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

301

Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries  

ScienceCinema

Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

Khalil Amine

2010-01-08

302

Michael Thackery on Lithium-air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Michael Thackery, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

Michael Thackery

2009-09-14

303

Michael Thackery on Lithium-air Batteries  

ScienceCinema

Michael Thackery, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

Michael Thackery

2010-01-08

304

Recent advances in lithium ion technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium ion technology is based on the use of lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX(sub 2)) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems, it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these cells have the high energy density, high voltage and light weight of metallic lithium systems plus a very long cycle life, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium.

Levy, S. C.

305

Recent advances in lithium ion technology  

SciTech Connect

Lithium ion technology is based on the use of lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells (1) and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems (2) it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these cells have the high energy density, high voltage and fight weight of metallic lithium systems plus a very long cycle life, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium.

Levy, S.C.

1995-01-01

306

XAFS Studies of Ni Ta and Nb Chlorides in the Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl Imidazolium Chloride / Aluminum Chloride  

SciTech Connect

The structures of anhydrous nickel, niobium, and tantalum chlorides have been investigated in situ in acidic and basic ionic liquids (ILs) of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (EMIC)/AlCl{sub 3} with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The coordination of NiCl{sub 2} changes from tetrahedral in basic solution to octahedral in acidic solution. The NiCl{sub 2} is a strong Lewis acid in that it can induce the AlCl{sub 3} to share its chlorides in the highly acidic IL, forming a structure with six near Cl{sup -} ions and eight further distant Al ions which share the chloride ions surrounding the Ni{sup 2+}. When Nb{sub 2}Cl{sub 10}, a dimer, is added to the acidic or basic solution, the dimer breaks apart and forms two species. In the acid solution, two trigonal bipyramids are formed with five equal chloride distances, while in the basic solution, a square pyramid with four chlorides forming a square base and one shorter axial chloride bond. Ta{sub 2}Cl{sub 10} is also a dimer and divides into half in the acidic solution and forms two trigonal bipyramids. In the basic solution, the dimer breaks apart but the species formed is sufficiently acidic that it attracts two additional chloride ions and forms a seven coordinated tantalum species.

W OGrady; D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek

2011-12-31

307

Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

Lucht, Brett L

2014-12-12

308

Rechargeable lithium battery technology - A survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technology of the rechargeable lithium battery is discussed with special attention given to the types of rechargeable lithium cells and to their expected performance and advantages. Consideration is also given to the organic-electrolyte and polymeric-electrolyte cells and to molten salt lithium cells, as well as to technical issues, such as the cycle life, charge control, rate capability, cell size, and safety. The role of the rechargeable lithium cell in future NASA applications is discussed.

Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

1990-01-01

309

Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

2014-05-13

310

Conductive lithium storage electrode  

DOEpatents

A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z(A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).s- ub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Seoul, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Cambridge, MA); Andersson, Anna M. (Uppsala, SE)

2008-03-18

311

Conductive lithium storage electrode  

DOEpatents

A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Incheon, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Mountain View, CA); Andersson, Anna M. (Vasteras, SE)

2012-04-03

312

Investigation of Zeff and impurity behaviour in lithium coating experiments with full metallic first wall in HT-7 tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The control of the impurity level in magnetically confined plasmas is a critical issue for future fusion devices. All the graphite tiles have been replaced by molybdenum tiles as limiter materials in the 2011 spring campaign in order to further reduce the recycling and hydrogen content of the plasma. A lithium coating technique has been applied as an important wall conditioning method to the HT-7 tokamak. The effective ion charge Zeff and impurity behavior with full metallic first walls of high-Z materials and lower hydrogen recycling have been investigated in a series of lithium coating experiments in this paper. Plasma performance and impurity behavior without wall coatings are studied in the early stage of the campaign. Comparison of Zeff with different plasma-facing components has been made. A typical lithium coating experiment has been analyzed in order to understand the effect of lithium coating. The evolution of main impurity line radiation, Zeff and the H/(H + D) ratio is analyzed in detail as lithium coating is repeated, indicating that lithium coating is a very effective tool to control impurity level and reduce hydrogen recycling. Furthermore, a boronization is conducted at the end of this campaign in order to make comparison with lithium coating. Experimental results show that lithium coating has much more advantages in edge recycling control, though it does not reduce impurity level as effectively as boronization.

Chen, Yingjie; Wu, Zhenwei; Liu, Xiaoju; Wang, Dongsheng; Duan, Yanmin; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Ling; Huang, Juan; Sun, Zhen; Jie, Yinxian; Zhao, Junyu

2015-02-01

313

Lithium Reduces BACE1 Overexpression, Beta Amyloid Accumulation, and Spatial Learning Deficits in Mice with Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to both acute injury and long-term neurodegeneration, and is a major risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Beta amyloid (A?) peptide deposits in the brain are one of the pathological hallmarks of AD. A? levels increase after TBI in animal models and in patients with head trauma, and reducing A? levels after TBI has beneficial effects. Lithium is known to be neuroprotective in various models of neurodegenerative disease, and can reduce A? generation by modulating glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) activity. In this study we explored whether lithium would reduce A? load after TBI, and improve learning and memory in a mouse TBI model. Lithium chloride (1.5?mEq/kg, IP) was administered 15?min after TBI, and once daily thereafter for up to 3 weeks. At 3 days after injury, lithium attenuated TBI-induced A? load increases, amyloid precursor protein (APP) accumulation, and ?-APP-cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1) overexpression in the corpus callosum and hippocampus. Increased Tau protein phosphorylation in the thalamus was also attenuated after lithium treatment following TBI at the same time point. Notably, lithium treatment significantly improved spatial learning and memory in the Y-maze test conducted 10 days after TBI, and in the Morris water maze test performed 1720 days post-TBI, in association with increased hippocampal preservation. Thus post-insult treatment with lithium appears to alleviate the TBI-induced A? load and consequently improves spatial memory. Our findings suggest that lithium is a potentially useful agent for managing memory impairments after TBI or other head trauma. PMID:22583494

Yu, Fengshan; Zhang, Yumin

2012-01-01

314

Magnetism in lithium-oxygen discharge product.  

PubMed

Nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium-oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium-oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium-oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules. PMID:23670967

Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S; Greeley, Jeffrey; Ferguson, Glen A; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A; Amine, Kahlil

2013-07-01

315

Magnetism in LithiumOxygen Discharge Product  

SciTech Connect

Nonaqueous lithiumoxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithiumoxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithiumoxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

2013-05-13

316

Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

Kumar, Binod (Dayton, OH); Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G. (Fairborn, OH)

2000-01-01

317

Acute renal failure and lithium intoxication  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of acute renal failure is reported in a patient with severe lithium intoxication. Renal biopsy showed damage in the proximal tubules with less marked changes in the glomeruli and interlobular arteries.Lithium was withdrawn, and after treatment with peritoneal dialysis the patient regained normal renal function.The accumulation of lithium is known to lead to acute renal failure in the

S. Lavender; J. N. Brown; W. T. Berrill

1973-01-01

318

Heterogeneous lithium niobate photonics on silicon substrates  

E-print Network

Heterogeneous lithium niobate photonics on silicon substrates Payam Rabiei,1,* Jichi Ma,1 Saeed-confined lithium niobate photonic devices and circuits on silicon substrates is reported based on wafer bonding high- performance lithium niobate microring optical resonators and Mach- Zehnder optical modulators

Fathpour, Sasan

319

Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries  

SciTech Connect

An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

2014-12-30

320

Lithium-based polymer electrolyte electrochemical cell  

SciTech Connect

A primary or secondary electrochemical cell is described comprising: an anode containing lithium when in a charged state; a gelled electrolyte system comprising polyacrylonitrile (PAN), plasticizer including [gamma]-butyrolactone ([gamma]-BL) and a lithium electrolyte salt; and a cathode comprising a cathode active material selected from the group consisting of transition metal oxides and a lithium transition metal oxide intercalation compound.

Chua, D.L.; Hsiuping Lin.

1993-08-31

321

Chemical lithium extraction from manganese oxides for lithium rechargeable batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical lithium extraction has been carried out on the following manganese oxides: the spinel-type compounds LiMn2O4 and Li(4/3)Mn(5/3)O4, and the rocksalt-related compound Li2MnO3. Lithium can be partially removed chemically from these compounds without destroying the host framework. Some compounds obtained by this method have been tested as cathodic materials in rechargeable lithium cells. Electrochemical results and X-ray diffraction patterns of cycled cathodes are presented. Electrochemical insertion/extraction of Li(+) ions occurs with tetragonal/cubic distortion in the spinel framework, whereas Li(+) ions can move in compounds having the rocksalt structure, without significant modification of the X-ray patterns.

Lubin, F.; Lecerf, A.; Broussely, M.; Labat, J.

1991-03-01

322

Preconditioning with acute and chronic lithium administration reduces ischemia/reperfusion injury mediated by cyclooxygenase not nitric oxide synthase pathway in isolated rat heart.  

PubMed

Lithium is widely used for the management of neuropsychiatric symptoms in bipolar disorders. A variety of hypotheses have been invoked to explain the mechanism of action of lithium. To determine if lithium exerts direct cardiac protection, in the present study perfused rat heart model was used. The mechanism of lithium-mediated cardioprotection was explored by combined use of lithium and nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) or indomethacin (a non-selective cyclooxygenase pathway inhibitor). Rat isolated hearts were used for Langendorff perfusion. Hearts were either non-preconditioned or preconditioned with acute lithium (3 mM) or chronic lithium (600 mg/l in tap water for 4 weeks, 0.265 +/- 0.023 mM in serum) before 30 min global ischemia followed by 90 min reperfusion. Within each of these protocols, hearts were divided into two groups; one group was exposed to L-NAME (0.1 mM) and another group was exposed to indomethacin (10 microM). Infarct size was measured by the triphenyltetrazolium chloride method. Left ventricular function was assessed by left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), heart rate and coronary flow (CF). In our experiment acute and/or chronic administration of lithium before prolonged ischemia offered significant myoprotective effects in terms of infarct size reduction and improved cardiac function against ischemia/reperfusion injury. The effects of lithium pretreatment were prevented by the administration of indomethacin but not L-NAME. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that preconditioning with acute and/or chronic lithium administration improves recovery of the ventricular function and reduces infarct size via cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway in isolated rat heart. PMID:18789320

Faghihi, Mahdieh; Mirershadi, Fatemeh; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Bazargan, Maryam

2008-11-12

323

Lithium salts -- simple but magic.  

PubMed

For many decades pharmacological drugs based on lithium salts have been successfully used in psychiatry to treat bipolar disorder, and they remain the "gold standard" of pharmacological therapy of patients with this disease. At the same time, over recent years in experiments in vitro and in vivo a plethora of evidence has accumulated on a positive effect of lithium ions in other areas including their neuro-, cardio-, and nephroprotective properties, regulation of stem cells functions, regulation of inflammation, and others. Numerous studies have shown that the effect of lithium ions involves several mechanisms; however, one of its main targets in the implementation of most of the effects is glycogen synthase kinase 3?, a key enzyme in various pathological and protective signaling pathways in cells. However, one of the main limitations of the use of lithium salts in clinics is their narrow therapeutic window, and the risk of toxic side effects. This review presents the diversity of effects of lithium ions on the organism emphasizing their potential clinical applications with minimal undesirable side effects. In the end, we present a schematic "Lithiometer", comparing the range of Li(+) concentrations that might be used for the treatment of acute pathologies with possible toxic effects of Li(+). PMID:25365484

Plotnikov, E Y; Silachev, D N; Zorova, L D; Pevzner, I B; Jankauskas, S S; Zorov, S D; Babenko, V A; Skulachev, M V; Zorov, D B

2014-08-01

324

Lithium alters regional rat brain myo-inositol at 2 and 4 weeks: an ex-vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy study at 18.8 T.  

PubMed

Lithium has been the mainstay of treatment for bipolar disorder. Early studies suggest that lithium acts via inositol depletion. This study assesses the effect of 1, 2 and 4 weeks of lithium treatment on myo-inositol concentrations across several brain regions. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 2 weeks with an intraperitoneal injection of either 1 mmol/kg/day, twice daily lithium chloride (n=18) or placebo (2 ml/kg of saline) (n=18). The rats were separated into three groups: 1 week, 2 weeks and 4 weeks. Brains were dissected into prefrontal, temporal and occipital cortical areas, as well as hippocampus, and analyzed at 18.8 T. Myo-inositol was quantified using the Chenomx Profiler software. Lithium did not alter myo-inositol concentrations at 1 week. A significant reduction exists in myo-inositol concentrations in lithium-treated rats at 2 and 4 weeks, across all four brain regions. Studies suggest brain region-specific alterations in myo-inositol concentrations among bipolar patients. Our findings suggest that lithium-induced reduction of myo-inositol is more global. PMID:16951578

McGrath, Brent M; Greenshaw, Andrew J; McKay, Ryan; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Silverstone, Peter H

2006-08-21

325

Chloride/bicarbonate exchange in human erythrocytes.  

PubMed

1. The exchange of chloride and bicarbonate across the human erythrocyte membrane has been followed by measuring the changes in extracellular pH which occur when chloride-rich erythrocytes are added to chloride-free media containing varying concentrations of bicarbonate and carbonic anhydrase. 2. The dependence of the rate of chloride/bicarbonate exchange on the extracellular concentration of bicarbonate was consistent with the existence of a saturable membrane anion transporter exhibiting Michaelis--Menten kinetics. In a medium containing sodium gluconate buffered to pH 7.0 with imidazole--malate the Km for bicarbonate activation of transport was 0.39 (+/- 0.03) mM and the Vmax was 2033 (+/- 80 m-mole anions exchanged/3 X 10(13) cells. min, at 10 degrees C. 3. Chloride/bicarbonate exchange was temperature-dependent with an Arrhenius activation energy of 19.4 kcal/mole in the temperature range 2--10 degrees C. 4. Exchange of intracellular chloride for extracellular bicarbonate was inhibited by the presence of extracellular halides. Inhibition by chloride, bromide and fluoride was competitive and the affinity of the transport system decreased in the order HCO-3 greater than Cl- greater than Br- greater than F-. The kinetics of inhibition by iodide were complex, but inhibitory effects of low concentrations of iodide were less than those of chloride and bromide. PMID:633149

Lambert, A; Lowe, A G

1978-02-01

326

interdisciplinary Effects of cadmium chloride on mouse  

E-print Network

interdisciplinary Effects of cadmium chloride on mouse inner medullary collecting duct cells Eun August 2013 · Accepted: 17 August 2013 ABSTRACT Cadmium is a known renal toxin. The cytotoxic effect of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was evaluated on renal inner medullary collecting duct cells (mIMCD3). The 24 hr

Hammock, Bruce D.

327

Process for synthesis of beryllium chloride dietherate  

DOEpatents

A low temperature method of producing beryllium chloride dietherate through the addition of hydrogen chloride gas to a mixture of beryllium metal in ether in a reaction vessel is described. A reflux condenser provides an exit for hydrogen produced form the reaction. A distillation condenser later replaces the reflux condenser for purifying the resultant product.

Bergeron, Charles (Baton Rouge, LA); Bullard, John E. (Kendall Park, NJ); Morgan, Evan (Lynchburg, VA)

1991-01-01

328

Hydrocracking with molten zinc chloride catalyst containing 2-12% ferrous chloride  

DOEpatents

In a process for hydrocracking heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. by contacting the feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten zinc chloride catalyst and thereafter separating at least a major portion of the hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten zinc chloride catalyst, an improvement comprising: adjusting the FeCl.sub.2 content of the molten zinc chloride to from about 2 to about 12 mol percent based on the mixture of ferrous chloride and molten zinc chloride.

Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA); Bagshaw, Gary H. (Library, PA)

1981-01-01

329

The Primordial Lithium Problem  

E-print Network

Big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) theory, together with the precise WMAP cosmic baryon density, makes tight predictions for the abundances of the lightest elements. Deuterium and 4He measurements agree well with expectations, but 7Li observations lie a factor 3-4 below the BBN+WMAP prediction. This 4-5\\sigma\\ mismatch constitutes the cosmic "lithium problem," with disparate solutions possible. (1) Astrophysical systematics in the observations could exist but are increasingly constrained. (2) Nuclear physics experiments provide a wealth of well-measured cross-section data, but 7Be destruction could be enhanced by unknown or poorly-measured resonances, such as 7Be + 3He -> 10C^* -> p + 9B. (3) Physics beyond the Standard Model can alter the 7Li abundance, though D and 4He must remain unperturbed; we discuss such scenarios, highlighting decaying Supersymmetric particles and time-varying fundamental constants. Present and planned experiments could reveal which (if any) of these is the solution to the problem.

Brian D. Fields

2012-03-15

330

Specular lithium deposits from lithium hexafluoroarsenate/diethyl ether electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

A new class of aprotic organic electrolytes in which to cycle the lithium electrode has been developed. Blends of diethyl ether (DEE) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) incorporating LiAsF/sub 6/ have been found to afford Li electrode cycling efficiencies in excess of 98%. In addition, specular deposits of up to 10 C/cm/sup 2/ may be plated from these systems. The kinetic stability of these blended electrolytes toward Li is thought to be due to the formation of a protective lithium ethoxide film. 15 refs.

Koch, V.R.; Goldman, J.L.; Mattos, C.J.; Mulvaney, M.

1982-01-01

331

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries  

DOEpatents

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

2004-01-13

332

Citicoline and lithium rescue retinal ganglion cells following partial optic nerve crush in the rat.  

PubMed

Citicoline and lithium (Li(-)) have been shown to support retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and axon regeneration in vitro. Optic nerve crush (ONC) is a model of both brain axonal injury and certain aspects of the glaucomatous degeneration of RGC. We have used this model to quantify protection offered to RGC by these drugs and to determine whether their effects are mediated by enhanced expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. Adult rats (6-12 per group) were subjected to ONC accompanied by a contralateral sham operation. Animals were treated intraperitoneally with either vehicle, citicoline sodium (1g/kg daily for up to 7 days and 300 mg/kg daily afterwards), lithium chloride (30 mg/kg daily), or both drugs combined. Fluorogold was injected bilaterally into superior colliculi 1, 5 or 19 days after ONC. Labeled cells were counted under a fluorescence microscope 2 days after tracer injection. In a separate set of experiments the effects of treatments on expression of Bcl-2 in retinas were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. In vehicle-treated animals there was a progressive decrease of RGC density after crush. This decrease was attenuated in citicoline-treated animals 1 week and 3 weeks after the crush. In the lithium-treated group protection was even more pronounced. In animals treated with both drugs RGC protection was similar to that achieved by lithium alone. Bcl-2 immunoreactivity was seen predominantly in retinal ganglion cells. Its increase was recorded in the lithium and citicoline group as well as in animals treated with the combination of both drugs. Both citicoline and lithium protect RGC and their axons in vivo against delayed degeneration triggered by the ONC. Retinoprotective action of both drugs may involve an increase in Bcl-2 expression. PMID:16876158

Schuettauf, Frank; Rejdak, Robert; Thaler, Sebastian; Bolz, Sylvia; Lehaci, Cristiana; Mankowska, Anna; Zarnowski, Tomasz; Junemann, Anselm; Zagorski, Zbigniew; Zrenner, Eberhart; Grieb, Pawel

2006-11-01

333

Soft X-ray laser action using resonant photo-excitation of autoionising states of lithium-like ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed that certain combinations of doubly-excited levels of lithium-like ions can be used for photo-pumped soft X-ray laser schemes. Autoionisation of the lower laser level removes the constraint on the size of the pumped plasma that is imposed by radiation trapping in other photo-pumping schemes. The scheme is illustrated by considering the photo-pumping of lithium-like fluorine, where, with

J. G. Lunney

1985-01-01

334

49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...114 and 120) 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...

2014-10-01

335

21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 ...Preservatives 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be...

2010-04-01

336

Room temperature molten salt as medium for lithium battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the wide electrochemical window and high ionic conductivity, the 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (MeEtImCl) room temperature molten salt (RTMS) was investigated as the medium for lithium battery in the present work. The addition of C 6H 5SO 2Cl to the RTMS was shown to improve its chemical stability and the reversibility of the lithium electrode because of the removal of Al 2Cl 7- from the melt. Electrochemical reaction which occurred at the LiCoO 2 was studied and the carbon current collector was found to interact with the melt. Out of the various carbon materials studied, graphite was found to be the best material. A LiAl/LiCoO 2 battery using RTMS as the electrolyte was assembled for battery test. Satisfactory results were obtained in preliminary cycling, showing a cell voltage of 3.45 V with better than 90% coulombic efficiency and a discharging capacity of 112 mA h/g LiCoO 2 at current density of 1 mA/cm 2.

Fung, Y. S.; Zhou, R. Q.

337

Fiber optic chloride sensing: if corrosion's the problem, chloride sensing is the key  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of chloride-based deicing agents to help clear US highways of roadway hazards leads to associated chemical related problems. Fouling of local rivers and streams due to runoff of the water borne chlorides is significant and has contributed to local ordances are attempting to force state agencies to reduce, if not eliminate, the use of these chlorides. With respect to the corrosion aspects of chloride application, cracks that occur in the roadway/bridge pavement allow water to seep into the pavement carrying the chloride to the rebar with the resultant increase in corrosion. The costs of this corrosion are considerable and have led to the widespread use of chloride/water impermeable membranes on roadways and especially within bridges. Fiber optic sensor have repeatedly been shown to provide measurement capabilities of parameters within such reinforced concrete structures. Development of a fiber optic chloride sensors capable of being embedded within a roadway or bridge deck is reported.

Fuhr, Peter L.; MacCraith, Brian D.; Huston, Dryver R.; Guerrina, Mario; Nelson, Matthew

1997-09-01

338

Composite electrodes for lithium batteries.  

SciTech Connect

The stability of composite positive and negative electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries is discussed. Positive electrodes with spinel-type structures that are derived from orthorhombic-LiMnO{sub 2} and layered-MnO{sub 2} are significantly more stable than standard spinel Li[Mn{sub 2}]O{sub 4} electrodes when cycled electrochemically over both the 4-V and 3-V plateaus in lithium cells. Transmission electron microscope data of cycled electrodes have indicated that a composite domain structure accounts for this greater electrochemical stability. The performance of composite Cu{sub x}Sn materials as alternative negative electrodes to amorphous SnO{sub x} electrodes for lithium-ion batteries is discussed in terms of the importance of the concentration of the electrochemically inactive copper component in the electrode.

Hackney, S. A.; Johnson, C. S.; Kahaian, A. J.; Kepler, K. D.; Shao-Horn, Y.; Thackeray, M. M.; Vaughey, J. T.

1999-02-03

339

Nanomaterials for rechargeable lithium batteries.  

PubMed

Energy storage is more important today than at any time in human history. Future generations of rechargeable lithium batteries are required to power portable electronic devices (cellphones, laptop computers etc.), store electricity from renewable sources, and as a vital component in new hybrid electric vehicles. To achieve the increase in energy and power density essential to meet the future challenges of energy storage, new materials chemistry, and especially new nanomaterials chemistry, is essential. We must find ways of synthesizing new nanomaterials with new properties or combinations of properties, for use as electrodes and electrolytes in lithium batteries. Herein we review some of the recent scientific advances in nanomaterials, and especially in nanostructured materials, for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. PMID:18338357

Bruce, Peter G; Scrosati, Bruno; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

2008-01-01

340

Chloride penetration into concrete structures in the marine atmosphere zone Relationship between deposition of chlorides on the wet candle and chlorides accumulated into concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between chlorides from marine aerosol and chlorides accumulated into concrete is discussed in this paper. The experimental programme comprised an environmental characterisation, with climatic and chloride deposition data, and a study of chloride penetration into concrete based on natural exposure of specimens in a marine atmosphere zone. Results show that salt concentration in marine aerosol strongly decreases in

G. R. Meira; C. Andrade; I. J. Padaratz; C. Alonso; J BORBAJR

2007-01-01

341

Effect of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition on electrical and optical properties of lithium borate glasses  

SciTech Connect

The electrical and optical property of lithium borate glasses was investigated. It is observed that conductivity decreases while density and refractive index increases with the addition of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Radiation length of glasses was determined and it is observed that radiation length decreases with the addition of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

Gedam, R. S.; Ramteke, D. D. [Department of Applied physics, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur-440 010 (India)

2012-06-05

342

Separation of lithium ions by chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) forms an adduct with lithium dibenzoylmethane (DBM). The chelate is readily extractable by nonaqueous solvents, and this is the basis for the chromatographic separation of lithium from other alkali ions. A liquid chromatography column with 0.1 M DBM - 0.1 M TOPO in dodecane as the stationary phase was used. Lithium ions were retrained on the column while the remaining alkali metal ions were eluted with ammonium hydroxide. Lithium was eluted with 0.6 N hydrochloric acid. The structure of the extracted lithium species was determined by extraction equilibria studies and by the method of continuous variations.

Lee, D.A.

1983-11-12

343

Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin-film battery.

Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.

1995-06-01

344

Recovery and recycling of lithium value from spent lithium titanate (Li2TiO3) pebbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first generation fusion reactors the fusion of deuterium (D) and tritium (T) is considered to produce energy to meet the future energy demand. Deuterium is available in nature whereas, tritium is not. Lithium-6 (Li6) isotope has the ability to produce tritium in the n, ? nuclear reaction with neutrons. Thus lithium-based ceramics enriched by Li6 isotope are considered for the tritium generation for its use in future fusion reactors. Lithium titanate is one such Li-based ceramic material being considered for its some attractive properties viz., high thermal and chemical stability, high thermal conductivity, and low tritium solubility. It is reported in the literature, that the burn up of these pebbles in the fusion reactor will be limited to only 15-17 atomic percentage. At the end of life, the pebbles will contain more than 45% unused Li6 isotope. Due to the high cost of enriched Li6 and the waste disposal considerations, it is necessary to recover the unused Li from the spent lithium titanate pebbles. Till date, only the feasibilities of different processes are reported, but no process details are available. Experiments were carried out for the recovery of Li from simulated Li2TiO3 pebbles and to reuse of lithium in lithium titanate pebble fabrication. The details of the experiments and results are discussed in this paper. Simulated lithium titanate (Li2TiO3) pebbles. The objective of the study is to develop a process which can be used to recover lithium value form the spent Li2TiO3 pebbles from future fusion reactor. The Li2TiO3 pebbles used in the study were synthesized and fabricated by the solid state reaction process developed by Mandal et al. described in details somewhere else [1,2]. Spherical Li2TiO3 pebbles of size 1.0 mm were used and the properties of the Li2TiO3 pebbles used in the study are shown in Table 1. Hydrochloric acid (HCl), of 99.8% purity, purchased from Merck and Loba Chemicals, Mumbai, India. To leach lithium from Li2TiO3 Hydrochloric acid was used. The reasons to use hydrochloric acid are discussed below. Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) analytical grade, procured form Merck Chemicals, Mumbai, India. To precipitate lithium as lithium carbonate from lithium hydroxide solution sodium carbonate was used. Distilled water. Distilled was used in the experiments, primarily to dilute hydrochloric acid to the desired molar solution. Leaching agent. Concentration of the leaching agent. Temperature. Speed of agitation. Solid to liquid ratio, and Particle Size. In the experimental work spherical Li2TiO3 pebbles of size 1.0 was used as mentioned above. To study the effect of particle size on the recovery of lithium from fine Li2TiO3 particles of size range 100-200 ?m were used. These fines were obtained by pulverizing 1.0 mm Li2TiO3 pebbles in a planetary ball mill and classified standard sieves.It is reported that both HNO3 and HCl give relatively more recovery of lithium compared to H2SO4[11-13]. Though the handling of HCl is difficulties due to the chloride corrosion, it is preferred to HNO3 because the deposal of nitrate waste which will generate due to the latter's use viz. sodium nitrate is a problem as per the norms of pollution control standard [11,12].The leaching of Li2TiO3 pebbles were carried out in a 1000 ml three necked and flat bottom glass reactor. The flux was fitted with a reflux condenser to reduce the loss of solution by evaporation and a thermometer. The solid was suspended in the solution by stirring the solution using a magnetic stirrer. The flux was kept on a hot plate with a temperature controller to heat the slurry at constant temperature. The temperature of the solution was controlled within 3 C and the temperature of the slurry was noted at an interval of 5 min and the average temperature of each run is determined by time average of the noted readings.A known of volume of HCl solution with known concentration was added to the flux. After the desired stirring speed and reaction temperature were attained, the solid sample of 5 g was added to the solution in reactor. 5 ml solu

Mandal, D.

2013-09-01

345

The effect of sodium chloride on the dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate gels.  

PubMed

The use of cement based materials will be widespread in the long-term management of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom. One of the applications could be the Nirex reference vault backfill (NRVB) as an engineered barrier within a deep geological repository. NRVB confers alkaline conditions, which would provide a robust chemical barrier through the control of the solubility of some key radionuclides, enhanced sorption and minimised corrosion of steel containers. An understanding of the dissolution of C-S-H gels in cement under the appropriate conditions (e.g., saline groundwaters) is necessary to demonstrate the expected evolution of the chemistry over time and to provide sufficient cement to buffer the porewater conditions for the required time. A programme of experimental work has been undertaken to investigate C-S-H gel dissolution behaviour in sodium chloride solutions and the effect of calcium/silicon ratio (C/S), temperature and cation type on this behaviour. Reductions in calcium concentration and pH values were observed with samples equilibrated at 45 degrees C compared to those prepared at 25 degrees C. The effect of salt cation type on salt-concentration dependence of the dissolution of C-S-H gels was investigated by the addition of lithium or potassium chloride in place of sodium chloride for gels with a C/S of 1.0 and 1.8. With a C/S of 1.0, similar increases in dissolved calcium concentration with increasing ionic strength were recorded for the different salts. However, at a C/S of 1.8, anomalously high calcium concentrations were observed in the presence of lithium. PMID:16531035

Hill, J; Harris, A W; Manning, M; Chambers, A; Swanton, S W

2006-01-01

346

Lithium synthesis in microquasar accretion.  

PubMed

We study the synthesis of lithium isotopes in the hot tori formed around stellar mass black holes by accretion of the companion star. We find that sizable amounts of both stable isotopes 6Li and 7Li can be produced, the exact figures varying with the characteristics of the torus and reaching as much as 10(-2) M? for each isotope. This mass output is enough to contaminate the entire Galaxy at a level comparable with the original, pregalactic amount of lithium and to overcome other sources such as cosmic-ray spallation or stellar nucleosynthesis. PMID:23030150

Iocco, Fabio; Pato, Miguel

2012-07-13

347

Papain incorporated chitin dressings for wound debridement sterilized by gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wound debridement is essential for the removal of necrotic or nonviable tissue from the wound surface to create an environment conducive to healing. Nonsurgical enzymatic debridement is an attractive method due to its effectiveness and ease of use. Papain is a proteolytic enzyme derived from the fruit of Carica papaya and is capable of breaking down a variety of necrotic tissue substrates. The present study was focused on the use of gamma radiation for sterilization of papain dressing with wound debriding activity. Membranes with papain were prepared using 0.5% chitin in lithium chloride/dimethylacetamide solvent and sterilized by gamma radiation. Fluid absorption capacity of chitin-papain membranes without glycerol was 14.306.57% in 6 h. Incorporation of glycerol resulted in significant (p<0.001) increase in the absorption capacity. Moisture vapour transmission rate of the membranes was 4285.77455.61 g/m2/24 h at 24 h. Gamma irradiation at 25 kGy was found suitable for sterilization of the dressings. Infrared (IR) spectral scanning has shown that papain was stable on gamma irradiation at 25-35 kGy. The irradiated chitin-papain membranes were impermeable to different bacterial strains and also exhibited strong bactericidal action against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The fluid handling characteristics and the antimicrobial properties of chitin-papain membranes sterilized by gamma radiation were found suitable for use as wound dressing with debriding activity.

Singh, Durgeshwer; Singh, Rita

2012-11-01

348

Chemical Distribution and Bonding of Lithium in Intercalated Graphite: Identification with Optimized Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Direct mapping of the lithium spatial distribution and the chemical state provides critical information on structure-correlated lithium transport in electrode materials for lithium batteries. Nevertheless, probing lithium, the lightest solid element in the periodic table, poses an extreme challenge with traditional X-ray or electron scattering techniques due to its weak scattering power and vulnerability to radiation damage. Here, we report nanoscale maps of the lithium spatial distribution in electrochemically lithiated graphite using electron energy loss spectroscopy in the transmission electron microscope under optimized experimental conditions. The electronic structure of the discharged graphite was obtained from the near-edge fine structure of the Li and C K-edges and ab initio calculations. A 2.7 eV chemical shift of the Li K-edge, along with changes in the density of states, reveals the ionic nature of the intercalated lithium with significant charge transfer to the graphene sheets. Direct mapping of lithium in graphite revealed nanoscale inhomogeneities (nonstoichiometric regions), which are correlated with local phase separation and structural disorder (i.e., lattice distortion and dislocations) as observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The surface solid?electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer was also imaged and determined to have a thickness of 10?50 nm, covering both edge and basal planes with LiF as its primary inorganic component. The Li K-edge spectroscopy and mapping, combined with electron microscopy-based structural analysis provide a comprehensive view of the structure-correlated lithium intercalation in graphite and of the formation of the SEI layer.

Wang, Feng; Graetz, Jason; Moreno, M. Sergio; Ma, Chao; Wu, Lijun; Volkov, Vyacheslav; Zhu, Yimei

2011-01-01

349

Chemical Distribution and Bonding of Lithium in Intercalated Graphite: Identification with Optimized Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Direct mapping of the lithium spatial distribution and the chemical state provides critical information on structure-correlated lithium transport in electrode materials for lithium batteries. Nevertheless, probing lithium, the lightest solid element in the periodic table, poses an extreme challenge with traditional X-ray or electron scattering techniques due to its weak scattering power and vulnerability to radiation damage. Here, we report nanoscale maps of the lithium spatial distribution in electrochemically lithiated graphite using electron energy loss spectroscopy in the transmission electron microscope under optimized experimental conditions. The electronic structure of the discharged graphite was obtained from the near-edge fine structure of the Li and C K-edges and ab initio calculations. A 2.7 eV chemical shift of the Li K-edge, along with changes in the density of states, reveals the ionic nature of the intercalated lithium with significant charge transfer to the graphene sheets. Direct mapping of lithium in graphite revealed nanoscale inhomogeneities (nonstoichiometric regions), which are correlated with local phase separation and structural disorder (i.e., lattice distortion and dislocations) as observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The surface solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer was also imaged and determined to have a thickness of 10-50 nm, covering both edge and basal planes with LiF as its primary inorganic component. The Li K-edge spectroscopy and mapping, combined with electron microscopy-based structural analysis provide a comprehensive view of the structure-correlated lithium intercalation in graphite and of the formation of the SEI layer.

Zhu, Y.; Wang, F.; Graetz, J.; Moreno, M.S.; Ma, C.; Wu, L.; Volkov, V.

2011-02-01

350

Embedded chloride detectors for roadways and bridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problems associated with the application of chloride-based deicing agents to roadways and specifically bridges include chemical pollution and accelerated corrosion of strength members (especially rebar) within the structure. In many instances, local ordinances are attempting to force state agencies to reduce, if not eliminate, the use of these chlorides (typically at the cost of increased driving hazards). With respect to the corrosion aspects of chloride application, cracks that occur in the roadway/bridge pavement allow water to seep into the pavement carrying the chloride to the rebar with the resultant increase in corrosion. In response to this problem, particularly in high roadsalt usage areas, a chloride/water impermeable membrane is placed above the rebar matrix so if/when roadway cracking occurs, the roadsalts won't be able to damage the rebar. Such a membrane is costly -- and the question of its in-service performance is questionable. In a joint effort between the University of Vermont and the Vermont Agency of Transportation, we are developing fiber optic chloride detectors which are capable of being embedded into the rebar-concrete roadway under this membrane. The sensing mechanism relies on spectroscopic analysis of a chemical reaction of chloride and reagents (which have been coated onto the ends of fibers). Laboratory results of these detectors and a usable system configuration are presented.

Fuhr, Peter L.; Huston, Dryver R.; McPadden, Adam P.; Cauley, Robert F.

1996-04-01

351

Development of encapsulated lithium hydride thermal energy storage for space power systems  

SciTech Connect

Inclusion of thermal energy storage in a pulsed space power supply will reduce the mass of the heat rejection system. In this mode, waste heat generated during the brief high-power burst operation is placed in the thermal store; later, the heat in the store is dissipated to space via the radiator over the much longer nonoperational period of the orbit. Thus, the radiator required is of significantly smaller capacity. Scoping analysis indicates that use of lithium hydride as the thermal storage medium results in system mass reduction benefits for burst periods as long as 800 s. A candidate design for the thermal energy storage component utilizes lithium hydride encapsulated in either 304L stainless steel or molybdenum in a packed-bed configuration with a lithium or sodium-potassium (NaK) heat transport fluid. Key issues associated with the system design include phase-change induced stresses in the shell, lithium hydride and shell compatibility, lithium hydride dissociation and hydrogen loss from the system, void presence and movement associated with the melt-freeze process, and heat transfer limitations on obtaining the desired energy storage density. 58 refs., 40 figs., 11 tabs.

Morris, D.G.; Foote, J.P.; Olszewski, M.

1987-12-01

352

l-Tryptophan l-tryptophanium chloride.  

PubMed

l-Tryptophan l-tryptophanium chloride is a new salt with (A?A(+)) type dimeric cation. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system (space group P21, Z=2). The asymmetric unit contains one zwitterionic l-tryptophan molecule, one l-tryptophanium cation and one chloride anion. The dimeric cation is formed by a OH?O hydrogen bond with the O?O distance equal to 2.5556(18). The infrared and Raman spectra of the crystal are studied and compared with the spectra of l-tryptophanium chloride. PMID:25448973

Ghazaryan, V V; Fleck, M; Petrosyan, A M

2015-02-01

353

L-Tryptophan L-tryptophanium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L-Tryptophan L-tryptophanium chloride is a new salt with (A⋯A+) type dimeric cation. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system (space group P21, Z = 2). The asymmetric unit contains one zwitterionic L-tryptophan molecule, one L-tryptophanium cation and one chloride anion. The dimeric cation is formed by a Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond with the O⋯O distance equal to 2.5556(18) . The infrared and Raman spectra of the crystal are studied and compared with the spectra of L-tryptophanium chloride.

Ghazaryan, V. V.; Fleck, M.; Petrosyan, A. M.

2015-02-01

354

Lithium toxicity in a neonate.  

PubMed Central

Severe transplacental lithium toxicity in a neonate is described. There were gross functional lesions of the cardiovascular, renal, and neuromuscular systems with no structural abnormalities. At 1 year of age cardiovascular and renal function is normal, but there is developmental delay. PMID:6870337

Morrell, P; Sutherland, G R; Buamah, P K; Oo, M; Bain, H H

1983-01-01

355

Total energy of metallic lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures are presented for the accurate calculation of the total energy of a solid within the framework of the local-density approximation. The starting point is a self-consistent band calculation using a basis of localized orbitals. The method is applied to study the total energy of metallic lithium as a function of lattice spacing. Good results are obtained for the cohesive

J. Callaway; Xianwu Zou; D. Bagayoko

1983-01-01

356

Lithium-loaded liquid scintillators  

SciTech Connect

The invention is directed to a liquid scintillating composition containing (i) one or more non-polar organic solvents; (ii) (lithium-6)-containing nanoparticles having a size of up to 10 nm and surface-capped by hydrophobic molecules; and (iii) one or more fluorophores. The invention is also directed to a liquid scintillator containing the above composition.

Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Kesanli, Banu (Mersin, TR); Neal, John S. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-05-15

357

Anode material for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Belharouak, Ilias (Bolingbrook, IL); Amine, Khalil (Oak Brook, IL)

2011-04-05

358

Anode material for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Belharouak, Ilias (Westmont, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

2012-01-31

359

Gelled Electrolytes For Lithium Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gelled polymer electrolyte consists of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), LiBF4, and propylene carbonate (PC). Thin films of electrolyte found to exhibit stable bulk conductivities of order of 10 to the negative 3rd power S/cm at room temperature. Used in thinfilm rechargeable lithium batteries having energy densities near 150 W h/kg.

Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Attia, Alan; Halpert, Gerald

1993-01-01

360

Lithium Ephedrate-Mediated Addition of a Lithium Acetylide to a Ketone: Solution Structures and Relative Reactivities of Mixed  

E-print Network

Lithium Ephedrate-Mediated Addition of a Lithium Acetylide to a Ketone: Solution Structures-1301 ReceiVed April 30, 1997. ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed NoVember 26, 1997 Abstract: Addition of lithiumLi and 13C NMR spectroscopies reveal lithium cyclopropylacetylide in THF to be a dimer

Collum, David B.

361

Phenomics of Cardiac Chloride Channels  

PubMed Central

Forward genetic studies have identified several chloride (Cl?) channel genes, including CFTR, ClC-2, ClC-3, CLCA, Bestrophin, and Ano1, in the heart. Recent reverse genetic studies using gene targeting and transgenic techniques to delineate the functional role of cardiac Cl? channels have shown that Cl? channels may contribute to cardiac arrhythmogenesis, myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure, and cardioprotection against ischemia reperfusion. The study of physiological or pathophysiological phenotypes of cardiac Cl? channels, however, is complicated by the compensatory changes in the animals in response to the targeted genetic manipulation. Alternatively, tissue-specific conditional or inducible knockout or knockin animal models may be more valuable in the phenotypic studies of specific Cl? channels by limiting the effect of compensation on the phenotype. The integrated function of Cl? channels may involve multiprotein complexes of the Cl? channel subproteome. Similar phenotypes can be attained from alternative protein pathways within cellular networks, which are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The phenomics approach, which characterizes phenotypes as a whole phenome and systematically studies the molecular changes that give rise to particular phenotypes achieved by modifying the genotype under the scope of genome/proteome/phenome, may provide more complete understanding of the integrated function of each cardiac Cl? channel in the context of health and disease. PMID:23720326

Duan, Dayue Darrel

2014-01-01

362

Sulfate and chloride concentrations in Texas aquifers.  

PubMed

Median sulfate and chloride concentrations in groundwater were calculated for 244 Texas counties from measurements at 8236 water wells. The data were mapped and analyzed with a geographic information system (GIS). Concentration clusters for both solutes were highest in north-central, west, and south Texas. Thirty-four counties had median sulfate levels above the secondary standard of 250 mg/L, and 31 counties registered median chloride concentrations above 250 mg/L. County median concentrations ranged from < 1.5 to 1,953 mg/L for sulfate, and from 6 to 1,275 mg/L for chloride. Various factors contribute to high sulfate and chloride levels in Texas aquifers, including mineral constitutents of aquifers, seepage of saline water from nearby formations, coastal saltwater intrusion, irrigation return flow, and oil/gas production. Ten counties in central and northeast Texas lack data and warrant additional monitoring. PMID:11345739

Hudak, P F

2000-08-01

363

Qualitative Determination of Nitrate with Triphenylbenzylphosphonium Chloride.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses two procedures for the identification of nitrate, the standard test ("Brown Ring" test) and a new procedure using triphenylbenzylphosphonium chloride (TPBPC). Effectiveness of both procedures is compared, with the TPBPC test proving to be more sensitive and accurate. (JM)

Berry, Donna A.; Cole, Jerry J.

1984-01-01

364

The hidden hand of chloride in hypertension.  

PubMed

Among the environmental factors that affect blood pressure, dietary sodium chloride has been studied the most, and there is general consensus that increased sodium chloride intake increases blood pressure. There is accruing evidence that chloride may have a role in blood pressure regulation which may perhaps be even more important than that of Na(+). Though more than 85% of Na(+) is consumed as sodium chloride, there is evidence that Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations do not go necessarily hand in hand since they may originate from different sources. Hence, elucidating the role of Cl(-) as an independent player in blood pressure regulation will have clinical and public health implications in addition to advancing our understanding of electrolyte-mediated blood pressure regulation. In this review, we describe the evidence that support an independent role for Cl(-) on hypertension and cardiovascular health. PMID:25619794

McCallum, Linsay; Lip, Stefanie; Padmanabhan, Sandosh

2015-03-01

365

Lithium Diisopropylamide: Oligomer Structures at Low Ligand Concentrations  

E-print Network

Lithium Diisopropylamide: Oligomer Structures at Low Ligand Concentrations Jennifer L. Rutherford-dimensional 6Li and 15N NMR spectroscopic studies of lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) solvated ligand concentrations are discussed. Introduction Spectroscopic studies of lithium amides at low ligand

Collum, David B.

366

78 FR 19024 - Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum...will convene a forum titled, ``Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation.'' The forum...organized into three topic areas: Lithium ion battery design, development, and...

2013-03-28

367

40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721.10031 Section 721...Substances 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and...substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02-214; CAS...

2010-07-01

368

40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721.10031 Section 721...Substances 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and...substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02-214; CAS...

2013-07-01

369

40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.  

...2014-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721.10031 Section 721...Substances 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and...substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02-214; CAS...

2014-07-01

370

40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721.10031 Section 721...Substances 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and...substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02-214; CAS...

2012-07-01

371

40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721.10031 Section 721...Substances 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and...substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02-214; CAS...

2011-07-01

372

40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721...Chemical Substances 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a...chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

2013-07-01

373

40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721...Chemical Substances 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a...chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

2012-07-01

374

40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721...Chemical Substances 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a...chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

2014-07-01

375

40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. 721.10201...Chemical Substances 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide (PMN...

2012-07-01

376

40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. 721.10201...Chemical Substances 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide (PMN...

2014-07-01

377

40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. 721.10201...Chemical Substances 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide (PMN...

2013-07-01

378

Ab initio screening of lithium diffusion rates in transition metal oxide cathodes for lithium ion batteries  

E-print Network

A screening metric for diffusion limitations in lithium ion battery cathodes is derived using transition state theory and common materials properties. The metric relies on net activation barrier for lithium diffusion. ...

Moore, Charles J. (Charles Jacob)

2012-01-01

379

Thermal stability of lithiated vanadium oxide (LVO), gamma-lithium vanadium bronze (gamma-LiV2O5) and vanadium dioxide (VO2) thermal battery cathode materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal analysis of lithiated vanadium oxide (LVO) has shown that it has limited thermal stability, possibly accounting for the failure of some thermal batteries with LVO cathodes. Its minor component, gamma-LiV2O5, melts at temperatures which could be reached during thermal battery activation. The major component of LVO, VO2, is thermally stable on its own, but can react with lithium chloride-potassium chloride binary eutectic when heated for prolonged periods above 700 C, though VO2/binary eutectic mixtures should be sufficiently stable for use in thermal batteries.

Ritchie, A. G.; Bryce, J. C.

1992-08-01

380

An Introduction to Chemistry: Dissolving Sodium Chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens at the molecular level when a compound dissolves in water? This interactive animation explores how negative and positive ions in sodium chloride (table salt) collide with water molecules and become separated from each other to become a solution. The model does an effective job of depicting how the water molecules disrupt the attraction between the positive sodium ions and the negative chloride ions, and then become stabilized by attractions to the atoms in the water molecule.

Bishop, Mark

2011-05-02

381

Copper chloride cathode for a secondary battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Higher energy and power densities are achieved in a secondary battery based on molten sodium and a solid, ceramic separator such as a beta alumina and a molten catholyte such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a copper chloride cathode. The higher cell voltage of copper chloride provides higher energy densities and the higher power density results from increased conductivity resulting from formation of copper as discharge proceeds.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (inventor); Bankston, Clyde P. (inventor)

1990-01-01

382

Methyl chloride via oxhydrochlorination of methane  

SciTech Connect

Dow Corning is developing a route from methane to methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination (OHC) chemistry with joint support from the Gas Research Institute and the Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center. Dow Corning is the world`s largest producer of methyl chloride and uses it as an intermediate in the production of silicone materials. Other uses include production of higher hydrocarbons, methyl cellulose, quaternary ammonium salts and herbicides. The objective of this project is to demonstrate and develop a route to methyl chloride with reduced variable cost by using methane instead of methanol raw materials. Methyl chloride is currently produced from methanol, but U.S. demand is typically higher than available domestic supply, resulting in fluctuating prices. OHC technology utilizes domestic natural gas as a feedstock, which allows a lower-cost source of methyl chloride which is independent of methanol. In addition to other uses of methyl chloride, OHC could be a key step in a gas-to-liquid fuels process. These uses could divert significant methanol demand to methane. A stable and selective catalyst has been developed in the laboratory and evaluated in a purpose-built demonstration unit. Materials of construction issues have been resolved and the unit has been run under a range of conditions to evaluate catalyst performance and stability. Many technological advances have been made, especially in the areas of catalyst development, online FTIR analysis of the product stream, and recovery of methyl chloride product via an absorber/stripper system. Significant technological hurdles still remain including heat transfer, catalysts scaleup, orthogonality in modeling, and scaleable absorption data. Economics of the oxyhydrochlorination process have been evaluated an found to be unfavorable due to high capital and utility costs. Future efforts will focus on improved methane conversion at high methyl chloride selectivity.

Jarvis, R.F. Jr.

1997-12-31

383

Structure of complexes between aluminum chloride and other chlorides, 2: Alkali-(chloroaluminates). Gaseous complexes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural chemistry of complexes between aluminum chloride and other metal chlorides is important both for practice and theory. Condensed-phase as well as vapor-phase complexes are of interest. Structural information on such complexes is reviewed. The first emphasis is given to the molten state because of its practical importance. Aluminum chloride forms volatile complexes with other metal chlorides and these vapor-phase complexes are dealt with in the second part. Finally, the variations in molecular shape and geometrical parameters are summarized.

Hargittai, M.

1980-01-01

384

[The efficacy of dequalinium chloride/benzalkonium chloride as well as medicinal plants on the gingiva].  

PubMed

A comparative study involving 50 patients of both genders was conducted in order to determine the effect of dequalinium chloride/benzalconium chloride mouthrinse (Dequonal), and of a preparation of herbal essences (Parodontax) on gingival health. Each of the mouthrinses was used during four weeks by a group of 25 patients who were instructed to abstain from any other oral hygiene measure during this period. Approximal plaque index, sulcus bleeding index and saliva pH were significantly enhanced by both preparations. A slightly better effect shown by dequalinium chloride/benzalconium chloride was not significant. PMID:9272987

Gruber, I; Bork, T

1991-01-01

385

RESEARCH ARTICLE Increasing chloride concentrations in Lake Constance  

E-print Network

for the year 2006, we estimated total chloride imports to the catchment at 101 kt year-1 . Road deicing salts Chloride Á Budget Á Road deicing salt Introduction Sodium chloride (NaCl) is used widely and in large streams, Trowbridge et al. (2010) showed that [90% of the chloride originated from road salt. Imported

Wehrli, Bernhard

386

Direct extraction of negative lithium ions from a lithium plasma  

SciTech Connect

Negative lithium ions (Li{sup {minus}}) were directly extracted from a lithium plasma in a multiline cusp plasma container. A pair of permanent magnets mounted near the extractor electrode created the filter magnetic field that separated the extraction region plasma from the main discharge plasma. The plasma electrode facing the extraction region plasma was biased with respect to the other parts of the chamber wall, which acted as discharge anodes. The larger filter magnetic field resulted larger Li{sup {minus}} current. When the bias to the plasma electrode was several volts positive against the anode potential, extracted Li{sup {minus}} current took the maximum for a fixed strength of the filter field. These dependences of Li{sup {minus}} upon the filter magnetic field and the plasma electrode bias are similar to the ones of negative hydrogen ions.

Wada, M.; Tsuda, H. (Department of Electronics, Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan (JP)); Sasao, M. (Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, (Japan))

1990-01-01

387

Direct extraction of negative lithium ions from a lithium plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Negative lithium ions (Li-) were directly extracted from a lithium plasma in a multiline cusp plasma container. A pair of permanent magnets mounted near the extractor electrode created the filter magnetic field that separated the extraction region plasma from the main discharge plasma. The plasma electrode facing the extraction region plasma was biased with respect to the other parts of the chamber wall, which acted as discharge anodes. The larger filter magnetic field resulted larger Li- current. When the bias to the plasma electrode was several volts positive against the anode potential, extracted Li- current took the maximum for a fixed strength of the filter field. These dependences of Li- upon the filter magnetic field and the plasma electrode bias are similar to the ones of negative hydrogen ions.

Wada, Motoi; Tsuda, Hiroshi; Sasao, Mamiko

1990-01-01

388

Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes For Lithium Cells And Batteries  

DOEpatents

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

2004-01-20

389

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries  

DOEpatents

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Oakbrook, IL)

2008-12-23

390

A safe lithium mimetic for bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Lithium is the most effective mood stabilizer for the treatment of bipolar disorder, but it is toxic at only twice the therapeutic dosage and has many undesirable side effects. It is likely that a small molecule could be found with lithium-like efficacy but without toxicity through target-based drug discovery; however, lithiums therapeutic target remains equivocal. Inositol monophosphatase is a possible target but no bioavailable inhibitors exist. Here we report that the antioxidant ebselen inhibits inositol monophosphatase and induces lithium-like effects on mouse behaviour, which are reversed with inositol, consistent with a mechanism involving inhibition of inositol recycling. Ebselen is part of the National Institutes of Health Clinical Collection, a chemical library of bioavailable drugs considered clinically safe but without proven use. Therefore, ebselen represents a lithium mimetic with the potential both to validate inositol monophosphatase inhibition as a treatment for bipolar disorder and to serve as a treatment itself. PMID:23299882

Singh, Nisha; Halliday, Amy C.; Thomas, Justyn M.; Kuznetsova, Olga; Baldwin, Rhiannon; Woon, Esther C. Y.; Aley, Parvinder K.; Antoniadou, Ivi; Sharp, Trevor; Vasudevan, Sridhar R.; Churchill, Grant C.

2012-01-01

391

Lithium extraction from orthorhombic lithium manganese oxide and the phase transformation to spinel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of rechargeable lithium batteries is limited by a concern regarding their safety. Current efforts are focused on rocking-chair'' cells which avoid the use of metallic lithium electrodes and are therefore potentially far safer than conventional lithium cells. Carbon is the anode material of choice for rocking-chair'' cells as it gives good reversibility, high capacity and low average voltage versus

R. J. Gummow; D. C. Liles; M. M. Thackeray

1993-01-01

392

Real-time observation of lithium fibers growth inside a nanoscale lithium-ion battery  

E-print Network

to observe the real-time nucleation and growth of the lithium fibers inside a nanoscale Li-ion battery. Our needed for safe and high power Li-ion batteries. VC 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10Real-time observation of lithium fibers growth inside a nanoscale lithium-ion battery Hessam

Endres. William J.

393

Liquid electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of advances in electrolytes have occurred in the past 4 years, which have contributed to increased safety, wider temperature range of operation, better cycling and other enhancements to lithium-ion batteries. The changes to basic electrolyte solutions that have occurred to accomplish these advances are discussed in detail. The solvent components that have led to better low-temperature operation are also considered. Also, additives that have resulted in better structure of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) are presented as well as proposed methods of operation of these additives. Other additives that have lessened the flammability of the electrolyte when exposed to air and also caused lowering of the heat of reaction with the oxidized positive electrode are discussed. Finally, additives that act to open current-interrupter devices by releasing a gas under overcharge conditions and those that act to cycle between electrodes to alleviate overcharging are presented. As a class, these new electrolytes are often called "functional electrolytes". Possibilities for further progress in this most important area are presented. Another area of active work in the recent past has been the reemergence of ambient-temperature molten salt electrolytes applied to alkali metal and lithium-ion batteries. This revival of an older field is due to the discovery of new salt types that have a higher voltage window (particularly to positive potentials) and also have greatly increased hydrolytic stability compared to previous ionic liquids. While practical batteries have not yet emerged from these studies, the increase in the number of active researchers and publications in the area demonstrates the interest and potentialities of the field. Progress in the field is briefly reviewed. Finally, recent results on the mechanisms for capacity loss on shelf and cycling in lithium-ion cells are reviewed. Progress towards further market penetration by lithium-ion cells hinges on improved understanding of the failure mechanisms of the cells, so that crucial problems can be addressed.

Blomgren, George E.

394

Study of an aqueous lithium chloride desiccant system: air dehumidification and desiccant regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desiccant systems have been proposed as energy saving alternatives to vapor compression air conditioning for handling the latent load. Use of liquid desiccants offers several design and performance advantages over solid desiccants, especially when solar energy is used for regeneration. For liquidgas contact, packed towers with low pressure drop provide good heat and mass transfer characteristics for compact designs. This

Nelson Fumo; D. Y. Goswami

2002-01-01

395

Dissolution mechanism of cellulose in N,N-dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride: revisiting through molecular interactions.  

PubMed

Understanding the interactions between solvent molecules and cellulose at a molecular level is still not fully achieved in cellulose/N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc)/LiCl system. In this paper, cellobiose was used as the model compound of cellulose to investigate the interactions in cellulose/DMAc/LiCl solution by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), (13)C, (35)Cl, and (7)Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and conductivity measurements. It was found that when cellulose is dissolved in DMAc/LiCl cosolvent system, the hydroxyl protons of cellulose form strong hydrogen bonds with the Cl(-), during which the intermolecular hydrogen bonding networks of cellulose is broken with simultaneous splitting of the Li(+)-Cl(-) ion pairs. Simultaneously, the Li(+) cations are further solvated by free DMAc molecules, which accompany the hydrogen-bonded Cl(-) to meet electric balance. Thereafter, the cellulose chains are dispersed in molecular level in the solvent system to form homogeneous solution. This work clarifies the interactions in the cellulose/DMAc/LiCl solution at molecular level and the dissolution mechanism of cellulose in DMAc/LiCl, which is important for understanding the principle for selecting and designing new cellulose solvent systems. PMID:25026263

Zhang, Chao; Liu, Ruigang; Xiang, Junfeng; Kang, Hongliang; Liu, Zhijing; Huang, Yong

2014-08-01

396

Extraction by lithium chloride of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins from intact cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardii.  

PubMed

A procedure has been developed to isolate and analyse the cell-wall glycoproteins of Chlamydomonas reinhardii. Under appropriate conditions, cell-wall glycoproteins can be quantitatively extracted from intact cells by aqueous LiCl. Although proteins and glycoproteins, which are presumably not related to the cell wall, are coextracted with the cell-wall subunits, these components can be readily identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as demonstrated by comparative analysis of LiCl-extracts from wild-type cells and the cell-wall-deficient mutant CW-15. Apart from the high-molecular-weight cell-wall components, two glycoproteins with apparent molecular weights (Mrs) of 36000 and 66000 were found to be present in LiCl-extracts of wild-type cells but absent in LiCl-extracts from the cell-wall-less mutant. Pulse-labeling experiments with [(3)H]proline and [(35)S]methionine revealed that the LiCl-extracts contained - in addition to the well-known cell-wall subunits - proteins of lower molecular weight, which are also preferentially labeled with [(3)H]proline. Protein components with Mrs of 68000, 44000, 36000, 26000 and 22000 were found to be more strongly labeled with [(3)H]proline than with [(35)S]methionine, whereas protein components with Mrs of 57000 and 52000 were more prominent after labeling with [(35)S]methionine. The portion of cell-wall subunits within the total amount of proteins extracted by LiCl was calculated to be at least 10% on the basis of the amount of hydroxyproline. Self-assembly of cell walls could be demonstrated after dialysis against water of a mixture of crude LiCl-extract and purified, insoluble, inner wall layers. Cell-wall glycoproteins could be enriched by gel exclusion chromatography of crude LiCl-extracts on Sepharose CL-4B columns equilibrated with 1 mol l(-1) LiCl. PMID:24249608

Voigt, J

1985-06-01

397

A description of the vapor phase in the lithium thionyl chloride battery  

E-print Network

obtained i'rom the material and thermal models developed by Evans and White for this same battery system in order to make predictions about the internal cell pressure based on the most commonly used operational parameters. This effort is based... of this possible. TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION II. LITERATURE SURVEY Page A. Mechanistic Studies B. Previously Published Battery Models C. Thermodynamics of Electrolytes III. GENERAL CHARACTERISITCS OF THE LI/SOCLs BATTERY 6 10 11 18 IV. Ih...

Morales, Rodolfo

1988-01-01

398

Chloride and Lithium Transport in Large Arrays of Undisturbed Silt Loam and Sandy Loam Soil Columns  

E-print Network

et al., 1998; Forrer et al.,acid rain. Tracer concentrations in the outflow water increased almost as less reactive com- operated with two cropping cycles, including two applications of a plexes moving Research on quantifying the preferential flow paths columns at field capacity and with no crops present

Walter, M.Todd

399

Lithium ion batteries for medical devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium-ion batteries are being developed for nonimplantable and implantable medical devices. The high voltage, energy density and unique characteristics of this battery system are, in some cases, an enabling technology for the medical device. In other cases, the lithium-ion system provides additional convenience to the patients who use these devices. Especially for implantable medical devices, lithium-ion batteries must be designed

David M. Spillman; Esther S. Takeuchi

1999-01-01

400

Electrode materials and lithium battery systems  

DOEpatents

A material comprising a lithium titanate comprising a plurality of primary particles and secondary particles, wherein the average primary particle size is about 1 nm to about 500 nm and the average secondary particle size is about 1 .mu.m to about 4 .mu.m. In some embodiments the lithium titanate is carbon-coated. Also provided are methods of preparing lithium titanates, and devices using such materials.

Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Belharouak, Ilias (Westmont, IL); Liu, Jun (Naperville, IL)

2011-06-28

401

Lithium Niobate Devices in Switching and Multiplexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated-optics devices in lithium niobate have reached a significant maturity in recent years, and several complex devices have been demonstrated. In addition to performing modulation of light in fibre-optic transmission systems, lithium niobate devices currently offer the only components for photonic switching. Thus lithium niobate devices can be used as spatial, temporal and wavelength switches in high-speed and low-speed systems.

J. E. Midwinter; L. Thylen

1989-01-01

402

A metallic graphene layer adsorbed with lithium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We found, by density functional calculation, that lithium atoms can be bonded to a graphene layer alternately on both sides by distorting the relative positions of the carbon atoms in the honeycomb lattice. Compared to the recently synthesized graphane by hydrogenation in which each carbon is pulled out of the plane by hydrogen, the carbon is pushed off instead by the attached lithium. And, surprisingly, the counterintuitive structure is a conductor. This should give consequences to its application in lithium storage.

Yang, Chih-Kai

2009-04-01

403

Ionic conductivity, lithium insertion and extraction of lanthanum lithium titanate.  

SciTech Connect

The lithium ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability of perovskite La{sub 2/3-x}Li{sub 3x}TiO{sub 3} (LLTO) have been determined with AC impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling. Ionic conductivity of La{sub 0.55}Li{sub 0.35}TiO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.57}Li{sub 0.29}TiO{sub 3} pellets sintered from four different powders was measured in the temperature range from 30 to 110 C. Bulk conductivity was found to be closely related to the calcination temperature of the powders. Pellets from 1100 C-calcined powders had higher bulk conductivity than from 1200 C-calcined powders. The grain-boundary conductivity was mainly determined by the sample composition. The activation energies were 0.14-0.18 eV for bulk conduction and 0.41-0.43 eV for grain-boundary conduction. Lithium was intercalated into LLTO below about 1.8 V vs. Li. With addition of acetylene black, about 0.48 Li was reversibly inserted into and extracted out of La{sub 0.55}Li{sub 0.35}TiO{sub 3}. A phase transition is proposed to take place during the lithium insertion.

Chen, C. H.; Amine, K.; Chemical Engineering

2001-09-01

404

Varying the Pre-discharge Lithium Wall Coatings to Alter the Characteristics of the ELM-free H-mode Pedestal in NSTX  

SciTech Connect

A previous experiment in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) showed pre-discharge lithium deposition gradually suppresed edge-localized modes (ELMs) and had nearly continuous relationships with reduced recycling and transport. In this paper, additional data filled gaps in the earlier experiment, and demonstrates that recycling, confinement, and pedestal structure continued to improve with additional lithium, even after ELMs were completely suppressed. New analysis shows that toroidal rotation and ion temperature also increased continuously with additional lithium. Besides its evolution with additional lithium, we also characterize the time evolution of the ELM-free H-mode pedestal as average density rose and impurities accumulated. We find that the pedestal structure, divertor heat flux and Dalpha profiles, and inferred recycling coefficient did not change significantly, at least until radiative losses become dominant. This suggests that the low-recycling properties of lithium were not significantly degraded over the duration of the discharge.

D.P. Boyle, J.M. Canik, R. Maing, P.B. Snyder, T.H. Osborne, and the NSTX Team

2012-06-28

405

Lithium-sulfur hexafluoride magnetohydrodynamic power system  

SciTech Connect

A method is described to operate a two-phase flow magnetohydrodynamic electric power generation system with liquid lithium and gaseous sulfur-hexafluoride flowing through a diverging channel, with side electrodes to remove the electric current generated in the flowing liquid lithium, across the applied magnetic field that is perpendicular to both the flow velocity and electrodes. Sulfur-hexafluoride is dispersed in the form of small bubbles and reacts with liquid lithium that forms a continuous phase to conduct the current between the electrodes so as to produce a near isothermal two-phase flow mixture and provides for an expansion of lithium across the magnetic field in the generator.

Dobran, F.

1987-02-24

406

Ternary compound electrode for lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and of light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated in the temperature range of about 350.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell in which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell has a positive electrode which includes a ternary compound generally represented as Li-M-O, wherein M is a transition metal. Corrosion of the inventive cell is considerably reduced.

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Godshall, Ned A. (Stanford, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1982-01-01

407

Review of lithium-ion technology  

SciTech Connect

The first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds (GIC) as battery anodes was reported in a 1981 patent by Basu in which a molten salt cell was described having a negative electrode that consisted of lithium intercalated in graphite. A second patent by Basu, issued in 1983, described an ambient temperature rechargeable system which also utilized lithium intercalated in graphite as the anode. Work in this area progressed at a low level, however, until interest was sparked in 1990 when Sony Corporation announced a new ``lithium-ion`` rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode. These cells have the advantages of metallic lithium systems; i.e., high energy density, high voltage, and light weight, without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium. Materials other than carbon have been studied as intercalation anodes. Examples are Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, WO{sub 2} and TiS{sub 2}. Although these alternate anode materials are of interest academically and for specialty applications, they do not hold much promise for widespread general use due to their increased weight and lower cell voltage. Studies of cathode materials for lithium-ion systems have centered on the transition metal chalcogenides. A number of these materials are capable of reversibly intercalating lithium ions at a useful potential versus lithium. Both organic liquids and polymers are candidate electrolytes for this technology.

Levy, S.C.; Cieslak, W.R.

1993-12-31

408

Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

Xu, Wu; Wang, Jiulin; Ding, Fei; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

2014-02-28

409

Electrostatic Lithium Injection for Fusion Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most significant problems in fusion devices is controlling the recycling of hydrogen that is not used in the fusion process. A powerful getter of hydrogen, lithium, if injected into regions where it is needed, may getter hydrogen much more efficiently. Current lithium evaporation systems are inefficient in controlling where lithium deposits once injected, and a system that can control where it deposits would be invaluable. A solution may lie in a concept called electrospray, where charged lithium particles could be produced and controlled via electric and magnetic fields to target areas in need of getting impurities. While the electrospray concept has been used in other applications, the technique has yet to be applied to lithium injection. Preliminary research into the viability of an Electrostatic Lithium Injector (ELI) have shown that such a system may be capable of producing the lithium droplets and spray, and experiments are being performed to determine the optimal design. Modeling is also being done into using the ELI for repair of PFCs, and possibly even ELM control. Simulation has shown a lithium droplet can be made to follow an arbitrary path with application of a time varying voltage from 10 to -1700 V to the center stack of a tokamak. One run was able to calculate the voltage function required to make a lithium particle take a helical path.

Fiflis, Peter; Andruczyk, Daniel; Surla, Vijay; Ruzic, David

2011-11-01

410

Secondary lithium cells for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is concluded that secondary lithium batteries are suitable for planetary missions requiring high specific energy, long active shelf life, and limited cycle life. Titanium disulfide cathode material meet all the requirements for rechargeable lithium cell, including high intrinsic reversibility and realizable specific energy. Secondary lithium technology is still evolving, although low capacity cells have been demonstrated and greater than 700 cycle life was achieved. Work is in progress to improve the cycle life and safety of the electrolytes, alternate lithium anode, and the separators.

Surampudi, S.; Shen, D. H.; Huang, C.-K.; Narayanan, S. R.; Attia, A.; Halpert, G.

1992-01-01

411

Lithium: How it might Protect the Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Wayne Drevets discusses ways in which lithium may affect bipolar disorder. It affects multiple neurotransmitter systems and may protect brain structures that are atrophied in bipolar disorder.

2009-04-14

412

Lithium-Air Cell Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium-air (Li-air) primary batteries have a theoretical specific capacity of 11,400 Wh/kg, the highest of any common metal-air system. NASA is developing Li-air technology for a Mobile Oxygen Concentrator for Spacecraft Emergencies, an application which requires an extremely lightweight primary battery that can discharge over 24 hours continuously. Several vendors were funded through the NASA SBIR program to develop Li-air technology to fulfill the requirements of this application. New catalysts and carbon cathode structures were developed to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction and increase surface area to improve cell performance. Techniques to stabilize the lithium metal anode surface were explored. Experimental results for prototype laboratory cells are given. Projections are made for the performance of hypothetical cells constructed from the materials that were developed.

Reid, Concha M.; Dobley, Arthur; Seymour, Frasier W.

2014-01-01

413

Observation And Modeling Of Inner Divertor Re-attachment In Discharges With Lithium Coatings in NSTX  

SciTech Connect

In the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), modifications to the inner divertor plasma regimes are observed in high triangularity, H-mode, NBI heated discharges due to lithium coatings evaporated on the plasma facing components. In particular, the drop in the recombination rate, the reduced neutral pressure and the reduced electron density (inferred from Stark broadening measurements of high?n deuterium Balmer lines) suggested that the inner divertor, which is usually detached in discharges without lithium, re-attached. Experimental results are compared to simulations obtained with a 1D partially ionized plasma transport model integrated in the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium radiation transport code CRETIN to understand how the reduced recycling affects the divertor parameters in NSTX discharges with lithium coatings.

Filippo Scotti, V.A. Soukhanovskii, M.L. Adams, H.A. Scott, H. W. Kugel, R. Kaita, A.L. Roquemore

2011-01-04

414

N ?-nitro- l-arginine methyl ester attenuates lithium-induced c-Fos, but not conditioned taste aversion, in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium chloride (LiCl) at doses sufficient to induce conditioned taste aversion (CTA) causes c-Fos expression in the relevant brain regions and activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It has been suggested that nitric oxide (NO) in the central nervous system may play a role not only in the activation of HPA axis but also in CTA learning, and that LiCl may

Jeong Won Jahng; Jong-Ho Lee; Joo Young Lee; Gun Tae Kim; Thomas A. Houpt; Dong Goo Kim

2004-01-01

415

Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries  

DOEpatents

A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

2014-08-05

416

Plasma response to lithium-coated plasma-facing components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment  

SciTech Connect

Experiments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment ( NSTX) have shown beneficial effects on the performance of divertor plasmas as a result of applying lithium coatings on the graphite and carbon-fiber-composite plasma-facing components. These coatings have mostly been applied by a pair of lithium evaporators mounted at the top of the vacuum vessel which inject collimated streams of lithium vapor toward the lower divertor. In neutral beam injection (NBI)-heated deuterium H-mode plasmas run immediately after the application of lithium, performance modifications included decreases in the plasma density, particularly in the edge, and inductive flux consumption, and increases in the electron and ion temperatures and the energy confinement time. Reductions in the number and amplitude of edge-localized modes (ELMs) were observed, including complete ELM suppression for periods of up to 1.2 s, apparently as a result of altering the stability of the edge. However, in the plasmas where ELMs were suppressed, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Z(eff) and the radiated power as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities, although not of lithium itself which remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. The impurity buildup could be inhibited by repetitively triggering ELMs with the application of brief pulses of an n = 3 radial field perturbation. The reduction in the edge density by lithium also inhibited parasitic losses through the scrape-off-layer of ICRF power coupled to the plasma, enabling the waves to heat electrons in the core of H-mode plasmas produced by NBI. Lithium has also been introduced by injecting a stream of chemically stabilized, fine lithium powder directly into the scrape-off-layer of NBI-heated plasmas. The lithium was ionized in the SOL and appeared to flow along the magnetic field to the divertor plates. This method of coating produced similar effects to the evaporated lithium but at lower amounts.

Bell, M. G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kugel, H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Zakharov, L. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Schneider, H [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); LaBlanc, B. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Mansfield, D.K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Bell, R. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Ding, S. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Plasma Physics, Hefei, China; Kaye, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Paul, S.F. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Gerhardt, S.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Canik, John [ORNL; Hosea, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Taylor, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

2009-01-01

417

Plasma response to lithium-coated plasma-facing components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have shown beneficial effects on the performance of divertor plasmas as a result of applying lithium coatings on the graphite and carbon-fiber-composite plasma-facing components. These coatings have mostly been applied by a pair of lithium evaporators mounted at the top of the vacuum vessel which inject collimated streams of lithium vapor toward the lower divertor. In neutral beam injection (NBI)-heated deuterium H-mode plasmas run immediately after the application of lithium, performance modifications included decreases in the plasma density, particularly in the edge, and inductive flux consumption, and increases in the electron and ion temperatures and the energy confinement time. Reductions in the number and amplitude of edge-localized modes (ELMs) were observed, including complete ELM suppression for periods of up to 1.2 s, apparently as a result of altering the stability of the edge. However, in the plasmas where ELMs were suppressed, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities, although not of lithium itself which remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. The impurity buildup could be inhibited by repetitively triggering ELMs with the application of brief pulses of an n = 3 radial field perturbation. The reduction in the edge density by lithium also inhibited parasitic losses through the scrape-off-layer of ICRF power coupled to the plasma, enabling the waves to heat electrons in the core of H-mode plasmas produced by NBI. Lithium has also been introduced by injecting a stream of chemically stabilized, fine lithium powder directly into the scrape-off-layer of NBI-heated plasmas. The lithium was ionized in the SOL and appeared to flow along the magnetic field to the divertor plates. This method of coating produced similar effects to the evaporated lithium but at lower amounts.

Bell, M. G.; Kugel, H. W.; Kaita, R.; Zakharov, L. E.; Schneider, H.; Le Blanc, B. P.; Mansfield, D.; Bell, R. E.; Maingi, R.; Ding, S.; Kaye, S. M.; Paul, S. F.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Canik, J. M.; Hosea, J. C.; Taylor, G.; NSTX Research Team

2009-12-01

418

Iron, copper, and nickel behavior in buffered, neutral aluminum chloride:1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride molten salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron, copper, and nickel electrodes were examined as possible metal\\/metal(II) chloride cathodes for the room temperature sodium\\/metal chloride battery in a molten salt composed of sodium chloride (NaCl), aluminum chloride (AlCl), and 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (MEIC). The iron electrode was investigated in basic, neutral-like, and acidic MEIC:AlCl melts. The solubility and the kinetics of the reduction of Fe(II) was a function

Stephen Pye; J. Winnick; P. A. Kohl

1997-01-01

419

Lithium ion storage between graphenes  

PubMed Central

In this article, we investigate the storage of lithium ions between two parallel graphene sheets using the continuous approximation and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential. The continuous approximation assumes that the carbon atoms can be replaced by a uniform distribution across the surface of the graphene sheets so that the total interaction potential can be approximated by performing surface integrations. The number of ion layers determines the major storage characteristics of the battery, and our results show three distinct ionic configurations, namely single, double, and triple ion forming layers between graphenes. The number densities of lithium ions between the two graphenes are estimated from existing semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations, and the graphene sheets giving rise to the triple ion layers admit the largest storage capacity at all temperatures, followed by a marginal decrease of storage capacity for the case of double ion layers. These two configurations exceed the maximum theoretical storage capacity of graphite. Further, on taking into account the charge-discharge property, the double ion layers are the most preferable choice for enhanced lithium storage. Although the single ion layer provides the least charge storage, it turns out to be the most stable configuration at all temperatures. One application of the present study is for the design of future high energy density alkali batteries using graphene sheets as anodes for which an analytical formulation might greatly facilitate rapid computational results. PMID:21711713

2011-01-01

420

Uranium nitride chloride UNCl: 30 K-class ferromagnet with layered structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uranium nitride chloride (UNCl) has an unique tetragonal crystal structure, in which the U/N/U trilayer is sandwiched by the chlorine (Cl) double layers. This structure is homologous to Hf(Zr)NCl, for which high- TC superconductivity ( T=25.5 K) has been recently discovered to result from the lithium (Li) intercalation. Recent specific heat measurements on this compound have revealed the existence of a lambda-type phase transition around 32 K. In the present study, this anomaly was confirmed to be correspondent for a ferromagnetic transition in the uranium ions having a localized 4f 2(U 4+) character: Its saturation moment ( ?B(sat)) attains a value of ?1.56 ?B at 2 K. Among varieties of actinide (An) compounds, UNCl and related systems, AnNX (X=halogens (Cl, Br, I)) may represent a novel class of layer mixed compounds with intriguing magnetic, electronic and chemical-bonding properties.

Nakamura, Akio; Akabori, Mitsuo; Ogawa, Toru; Huntelaar, M.

2005-04-01

421

Aluminum phthalocyanine chloride as a hole injection enhancer in organic light-emitting diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with aluminum phthalocyanine chloride (AlPcCl) as an anode buffer layer were investigated. The basic structure of OLED is indium-tin oxide (ITO)/N,N'-di(naphth-2-yl)-N,N'-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3)/lithium fluoride (LiF)/aluminum (Al). AlPcCl inserted at the ITO/NPB interface as an anode buffer layer can enhance hole injection, and thus current density, luminance as well as efficiency. Based on the energy level and Richardson-Schottky (R-S) thermionic emission theory, the enhanced performance can be explained. Additionally, the effect of the deposition rate of AlPcCl on the device performance was also examined. The results show that the optimal deposition rate of AlPcCl is 0.05 nm/s.

Deng, Zhenbo; L, Zhaoyue; Chen, Yanli; Yin, Yuehong; Zou, Ye; Xiao, Jing; Wang, Yongsheng

2013-11-01

422

Lithium plating in a commercial lithium-ion battery - A low-temperature aging study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of metallic lithium on the negative graphite electrode in a lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery, also known as lithium plating, leads to severe performance degradation and may also affect the cell safety. This study is focused on the nondestructive characterization of the aging behavior during long-term cycling at plating conditions, i.e. low temperature and high charge rate. A commercial graphite/LiFePO4 Li-ion battery is investigated in order to elucidate the aging effects of lithium plating for real-world purposes. It is shown that lithium plating can be observed as a loss of cyclable lithium which affects the capacity balance of the electrodes. In this way, lithium plating counteracts its own occurrence during prolonged cycling. The capacity losses due to lithium plating are therefore decreasing at higher cycle numbers and the capacity retention curve exhibits an inflection point. It is further shown that the observed capacity fade is partly reversible. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) reveals a significant increase of the ohmic cell resistance due to electrolyte consumption during surface film formation on the plated lithium. Additional cell opening provides important quantitative information regarding the thickness of the lithium layer and the corresponding mass of the plated lithium.

Petzl, Mathias; Kasper, Michael; Danzer, Michael A.

2015-02-01

423

Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense ??-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247Scm-1) at 150C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285mAhg-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750mWhg-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785mWhg-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680mWhg-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

2014-12-01

424

Development of liquid-lithium film jet-flow for the target of (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reactions for BNCT.  

PubMed

A feasibility study on liquid lithium target in the form of a flowing film was performed to evaluate its potential use as a neutron generation target of (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction in BNCT. The target is a windowless-type flowing film on a concave wall. Its configuration was adapted for a proton beam which is 30mm in diameter and with energy and current of up to 3MeV and 20mA, respectively. The flowing film of liquid lithium was 0.6mm in thickness, 50mm in width and 50mm in length. The shapes of the nozzle and concave back wall, which create a stable flowing film jet, were decided based on water experiments. A lithium hydrodynamic experiment was performed to observe the stability of liquid lithium flow behavior. The flowing film of liquid lithium was found to be feasible at temperatures below the liquid lithium boiling saturation of 342C at the surface pressure of 110(-3)Pa. Using a proto-type liquid lithium-circulating loop for BNCT, the stability of the film flow was confirmed for velocities up to 30m/s at 220C and 250C in vacuum at a pressure lower than 10(-3) Pa. It is expected that for practical use, a flowing liquid lithium target of a windowless type can solve the problem of radiation damage and target cooling. PMID:24412425

Kobayashi, Tooru; Miura, Kuniaki; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Aritomi, Masanori

2014-06-01

425

THE INFLUENCE OF $gamma$RADIATION AND NEUTRONS ON LACQUER COATINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was made of the influence of gamma radiation and of ; neutrons on protective coatings of various filmforming materials, such as ; chlorinated rubber, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl butyral, copolymer ; of vinyl chloride and isobutyl ether or polyvinyl alcohol, alkyd resin, phenol-; formaldehyde resin and polymerized linseed oil. The radiation time was 3 mo ; (2,160 hr)

Z. Jedlinski; Z. Hippe; T. Uminski

1960-01-01

426

An automatic molecular dispenser of chloride.  

PubMed

The combined activity of the 1.1.1-cryptand and of a dicopper(II) bistren cryptate complex including chloride makes the Cl(-) ion be continuously and slowly delivered to the solution, without any external intervention. The 1.1.1-cryptand slowly releases OH(-) ions, according to a defined kinetics, and each OH(-) ion displaces a Cl(-) ion from the cryptate. Chloride displacement induces a sharp colour change from bright yellow to aquamarine and can be conveniently monitored spectrophotometrically, even in diluted solutions. The 1.1.1-cryptand is the motor of a molecular dispenser (the dicopper(II) cryptate) delivering chloride ion automatically, from the inside of the solution. PMID:23364889

Alibrandi, Giuseppe; Amendola, Valeria; Bergamaschi, Greta; Dollenz, Riccardo; Fabbrizzi, Luigi; Licchelli, Maurizio; Lo Vecchio, Carmelo

2013-03-11

427

[Treatment of tonsillitis with dequalinium chloride].  

PubMed

44 children with acute tonsillitis were treated without the usual penicillin therapy. 22 children received lozenges containing Dequalinium chloride, 22 children received void lozenges under conditions of a double blind study. The results show that the treatment with Dequalinium chloride did not influence conditions caused by haemolytic streptococci -- verified by bacteriological examinations of pharyngeal smears -- inspite of its efficiency in vitro. Also general symptoms like fever, leukocytosis and rapid erythrocyte sedimentation rate were not influenced by Pequalinium chloride. Local symptoms like sore throat, tonsillar redness and exsudation were influenced beneficially. It can therefore be assumed that in cases of acute tonsillitis penicillin therapy is not necessary except in cases of streptococci infections. These should be excluded by pharyngeal smear. The medium of Liebermeister and Braveny is a very simple indicator to differentiate between tonsillitis caused by streptococci and tonsillitis of other origin. PMID:856702

Krmer, W

1977-04-28

428

Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews and presents attributes of emerging polymer-ceramic composite electrolytes for lithium rechargeable batteries. The electrochemical data of a diverse range of composite electrolytes reveal that the incorporation of a ceramic component in a polymer matrix leads to enhanced conductivity, increased lithium transport number, and improved electrode-electrolyte interfacial stability. The conductivity enhancement depends upon the weight fraction of the

Binod Kumar; Lawrence G. Scanlon

2000-01-01

429

Lithium in maintenance therapy for bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium has been used for the medical treatment of bipolar disorder for over 50 years. The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence base supporting the use of lithium in the maintenance phase of treatment of bipolar disorder and the limitations which reduce the clinical effectiveness of this medication. A selective review of the relevant literature was carried

Allan H. Young; James I. Newham

2006-01-01

430

Anode for rechargeable ambient temperature lithium cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ambient room temperature, high density, rechargeable lithium battery includes a Li(x)Mg2Si negative anode which intercalates lithium to form a single crystalline phase when x is up to 1.0 and an amorphous phase when x is from 1 to 2.0. The electrode has good reversibility and mechanical strength after cycling.

Huang, Chen-Kuo (inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (inventor); Attia, Alan I. (inventor); Halpert, Gerald (inventor)

1994-01-01

431

Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries  

ScienceCinema

Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

Thackeray, Michael

2013-04-19

432

Advances in lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The editors state in their introduction that this book is intended for lithium-ion scientists and engineers but they hope it may be of interest to scientists from other fields. Their main aim was to provide a snapshot of the state of the Lithium-ion art and in this they have largely succeeded. The book is comprised of a collection of very

John B. Kerr; John B

2003-01-01

433

Design evaluation of high reliability lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within one year, a lithium battery design can be qualified for device use through the application of accelerated discharge testing, calorimetry measurements, real time tests and other supplemental testing. Materials and corrosion testing verify that the battery components remain functional during expected battery life. By combining these various methods, a high reliability lithium battery can be manufactured for applications which

R. C. Buchman; W. D. Helgeson; N. S. Istephanous

1985-01-01

434

Chronic progressive renal lesions induced by lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic progressive renal lesions induced by lithium. New Zealand white rabbits, eight fed lithium (Li) (50 to 250 mmole LiCl\\/kg food) and seven controls (C) had sequential open renal biopsies at zero, one, three, six, and 12 months. A distinctive histological lesion, consisting of cytoplasmic vacuolation and accumulation of glycogen in cells lining distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts, was

Rowan G Walker; Margot Escott; Ian Birchall; John P Dowling; Priscilla Kincaid-Smith

1986-01-01

435

Lithium-free scintillation glasses for fast-neutron detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we present observed characteristics of new lithium-free scintillation glasses which have been developed to make time-resolved measurements of the 14-MeV neutron flux from deuterium plasmas. These measurements will yield information on the burnup of tritons in today's deuterium plasmas and are needed to better predict the confinement and slowdown of alpha particles in future D-T burning plasmas. The new glasses were formulated to have good detection efficiency for 14-MeV neutrons, and yet be insensitive to 2.5-MeV and lower-energy neutrons. The glass response to alpha, gamma, and neutron radiation is shown. The intrinsic neutron detection efficiency of the scintillation glass is seen to increase significantly as a function of neutron energy, providing the necessary discrimination against low-energy neutrons. We discuss the reactions which determine the glass neutron response and suggest that this response is dominated at higher neutron energies by gamma rays created by neutrons inelastically scattering from oxygen present in the glass. For high-energy neutron detection in the presence of excessive background gamma radiation, we discuss a new coincidence configuration of lithium-free scintillation glass with NE213 liquid scintillator.

Smith, J. R.; Fisher, R. K.; Leffler, J. S.

1987-10-01

436

Benzotriazolate cage complexes of tin(II) and lithium: halide-influenced serendipitous assembly.  

PubMed

The one-pot reactions of the tin(II) halides SnX(2) (X = F, Cl, Br, I) with lithium hexamethyldisilazide, [Li(hmds)], and benzotriazole, (bta)H, produce contrasting outcomes. Tin(II) fluoride does not react with [Li(hmds)] and (bta)H, the outcome being the formation of insoluble [Li(bta)](?). Tin(II) chloride and tin(II) bromide react with [Li(hmds)] and (bta)H in toluene to produce the hexadecametallic tin(II)-lithium cages [(hmds)(8)Sn(8)(bta)(12)Li(8)X(4)](n toluene) [X = Cl, 3(8 toluene); X = Br, 4(3 toluene)]. The reaction of tin(II) iodide with [Li(hmds)] and (bta)H in thf solvent produces the ion-separated species [{(thf)(2)Li(bta)}(3){Li(thf)}](2)[SnI(4)](thf), [5](2)[SnI(4)](thf), the structure of which contains a cyclic trimeric unit of lithium benzotriazolate and a rare example of the tetraiodostannate(II) dianion. PMID:21695328

Sulway, Scott A; Layfield, Richard A; Bodensteiner, Michael; Scheuermayer, Sabine; Scheer, Manfred; Zabel, Manfred

2011-08-01

437

Cesium chloride-induced torsades de pointes  

PubMed Central

The chloride salt of cesium, a group 1A element, is gaining popularity as an alternative treatment of advanced cancers. Cesium chloride has primarily been used in cardiovascular research for arrhythmogenesis in animals because of its potassium-blocking effects. The present report describes a 45-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer who experienced repeated episodes of torsades de pointes polymorphic ventricular tachycardia after several months of oral cesium therapy. There was a clear temporal relationship between cesium ingestion and the arrhythmia, which later resolved following discontinuation of cesium therapy. Serial cesium plasma and whole blood levels were measured over the ensuing six months and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. PMID:19746253

Wiens, Matthew; Gordon, Wendy; Baulcomb, Daisy; Mattman, Andre; Mock, Tom; Brown, Robert

2009-01-01

438

Measuring Sodium Chloride Contents of Aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amount of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles measured in real time by analyzer that includes mass spectrometer. Analyzer used to determine mass distributions of active agents in therapeutic or diagnostic aerosols derived from saline solutions and in analyzing ocean spray. Aerosol particles composed of sodium chloride introduced into oven, where individually vaporized on hot wall. Vapor molecules thermally dissociated, and some of resulting sodium atoms ionized on wall. Ions leave oven in burst and analyzed by spectrometer, which is set to monitor sodium-ion intensity.

Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

1986-01-01

439

Alkyl Chlorides as Hydrogen Bond Acceptors  

SciTech Connect

To gain an understanding of the role of an alkyl chloride as a hydrogen bond acceptor, geometries and interaction energies were calculated at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory for complexes between ethyl chloride and representative hydrogen donor groups. The results establish that these donors, which include hydrogen cyanide, methanol, nitrobenzene, pyrrole, acetamide, and N-methylurea, form X-H {hor_ellipsis} Cl hydrogen bonds (X = C, N, O) of weak to moderate strength, with {Delta}E values ranging from -2.8 to -5.3 kcal/mol.

Nadas, Janos I [ORNL; Vukovic, Sinisa [ORNL; Hay, Benjamin [ORNL

2012-01-01

440

Preparation of Proton Exchange Membranes and Lithium Batteries from Melamine-containing Ormosils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our laboratory has recently reported a series of rodcoil polymers for lithium batteries that display dimensionally stable films with good ionic conductivity. The rod segments consist of rigid linear and branched polyimides and the coil segments are polyethylene oxides (PEO). It has been proposed that good mechanical and transport properties are due to phase separation between the rod and coil segments. It was also observed that increased branching and molecular weight lead to increased conductivity. The following study was undertaken to assess the effects of phase separation in polyalkylene oxides connected by melamine linkages. Melamine was chosen as the linking unit because it provides a branching site, cation binding sites to help ionic transport between polymer chains, and the opportunity for self assembly through hydrogen bonding. Polymers were made by the reaction of cyanuric chloride with a series of amine-terminated alkylene oxides. A linear polymer was first made, followed by reaction of the third site on cyanuric chloride with varying ratios of monofunctional Jeffamine and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane. The lithium trifluoromethane sulfonamide-doped polymers are then crosslinked through a sol-gel process to form free-standing films. Initial results have shown mechanically strong films with lithium conductivities on the order of 2 x 10(exp -5) S/cm at ambient temperature. In a separate study, organically modified silanes (Ormosils) that contain sulfonic acid derivatized melamines have been incorporated into proton exchange membranes. The membranes are made by reaction of the primary amine groups of various ratios of melamine derivative and difunctional Jeffamine (MW = 2000) with the epoxide group of (3-Glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane. The films were then cross-linked through a sol-gel process. Resulting sulfuric acid doped films are strong, flexible, and have proton conductivities on the order of 2 x l0(exp -2) S/cm (120 C, 25% relative humidity). Our best results have been observed when films contain 60% PEO and 40% sulfonated melamine.

Tigelaar, Dean M.; Kinder, James D.; Meador, Mary Ann; Waldecker, James; Bennett, William R.

2004-01-01

441

A lithium deposition system for tokamak devices*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of a lithium deposition system using commercially available components is discussed. This system is intended to provide a fresh lithium wall coating between discharges in a tokamak. For this purpose, a film 100-200 thick is sufficient to ensure that the plasma interacts solely with the lithium. A test system consisting of a lithium evaporator and a deposition monitor has been designed and constructed to investigate deposition rates and coverage. A Thermionics 3kW e-gun is used to rapidly evaporate small amounts of solid lithium. An Inficon XTM/2 quartz deposition monitor then measures deposition rate at varying distances, positions and angles relative to the e-gun crucible. Initial results from the test system will be presented. *Supported by US DOE contract #DE-AC02-76CH-03073

Graziul, Christopher; Majeski, Richard; Kaita, Robert; Hoffman, Daniel; Timberlake, John; Card, David

2002-11-01

442

A preliminary deposit model for lithium brines  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to update existing mineral deposit models and to develop new ones. The global transition away from hydrocarbons toward energy alternatives increases demand for many scarce metals. Among these is lithium, a key component of lithium-ion batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Lithium brine deposits account for about three-fourths of the worlds lithium production. Updating an earlier deposit model, we emphasize geologic information that might directly or indirectly help in exploration for lithium brine deposits, or for assessing regions for mineral resource potential. Special attention is given to the best-known deposit in the worldClayton Valley, Nevada, and to the giant Salar de Atacama, Chile.

Bradley, Dwight; Munk, LeeAnn; Jochens, Hillary; Hynek, Scott; Labay, Keith

2013-01-01

443

Lithium superionic conduction in lithium borohydride accompanied by structural transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical conductivity of lithium borohydride (LiBH4) measured by the ac complex impedance method jumped by three orders of magnitude due to structural transition from orthorhombic to hexagonal at approximately 390K. The hexagonal phase exhibited a high electrical conductivity of the order of 10-3Scm-1. Furthermore, the conductivity calculated from the Nernst-Einstein equation using the correlation time obtained from Li7 nuclear magnetic resonance was in good agreement with the measured electrical conductivity. It was concluded that the electrical conductivity in the hexagonal phase is due to the Li superionic conduction.

Matsuo, Motoaki; Nakamori, Yuko; Orimo, Shin-ichi; Maekawa, Hideki; Takamura, Hitoshi

2007-11-01

444

Ionic conductivity, lithium insertion and extraction of lanthanum lithium titanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability of perovskite La2\\/3?xLi3xTiO3 (LLTO) have been determined with AC impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling. Ionic conductivity of La0.55Li0.35TiO3 and La0.57Li0.29TiO3 pellets sintered from four different powders was measured in the temperature range from 30 to 110 C. Bulk conductivity was found to be closely related to the calcination temperature of the

C. H. Chen; K. Amine

2001-01-01

445

Lithium Reagents DOI: 10.1002/anie.200603038  

E-print Network

Lithium Reagents DOI: 10.1002/anie.200603038 Lithium Diisopropylamide: Solution Kinetics Keywords: kinetics · lithium diisopropylamide · metalation · solvent effects · synthesis design D. B: lithium diiso- propylamide (LDA). LDA has played a profound role in organic synthesis, serving as the base

Collum, David B.

446

NSTX Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) Design Status and Plans  

E-print Network

NSTX Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) Design Status and Plans Office of Science H. W. Kugel, PPPL Design Status and Plans (Kugel) 2July 28, 2008 Motivation for NSTX Lithium Research · NSTX research with solid lithium is aimed initially towards using liquid lithium to control density, edge collisionality

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

447

Intense Lithium Streams in Tokamaks 1 Leonid E. Zakharov,  

E-print Network

Intense Lithium Streams in Tokamaks 1 Leonid E. Zakharov, Princeton University, Princeton Plasma. Temperature of the streams. 2. Lithium jets. 3. Injection into vacuum chamber. 4. Propulsion inside the vacuum chamber. 5. Stability of the lithium streams. 6. Expulsion of the lithium. 7. Summary. PRINCETON PLASMA

Zakharov, Leonid E.

448

77 FR 68069 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...or damage. 135.63 Secondary Lithium-ion (Rechargeable) Cells and Batteries Small consumer-type lithium-ion cells and batteries like those used to power...contain a maximum of only four lithium-ion cells or two lithium-ion batteries....

2012-11-15

449

76 FR 53056 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...equipment with lithium metal or lithium-ion batteries in accordance with Packing Instruction...the mail. 135.63 Secondary Lithium-ion (Rechargeable) Cells and Batteries. Small consumer-type lithium-ion cells and batteries like those used...

2011-08-25

450

Fetal, neonatal and developmental outcomes of lithium-exposed pregnancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionMany women with a bipolar disorder are of reproductive age and will need to continue lithium treatment during pregnancy. The teratogenic and perinatal effects of lithium are known, but not the long-term effects of lithium on neurodevelopment of the children. This study investigates growth, neurological, cognitive and behavioral development of children exposed to lithium in utero.

N. Margreth van der Lugt; Josephine S. van de Maat; Inge L. van Kamp; Elise A. M. Knoppert-van der Klein; Jacqueline G. F. M. Hovens; Frans J. Walther

451

Carbon materials for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent development of lithium rechargeable batteries results from the use of carbon materials as lithium reservoir at the negative electrode. Reversible intercalation, or insertion, of lithium into the carbon host lattice avoids the problem of lithium dendrite formation and provides large improvement in terms of cycleability and safety. This paper reviews the main achievements on performance and understanding of

S. Flandrois; B. Simon

1999-01-01

452

Block Copolymer-Templated Nanocomposite Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries  

E-print Network

Block Copolymer-Templated Nanocomposite Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries S. C. Mui-organizing, nanocomposite electrode SONE system was developed as a model lithium alloy-based anode for rechargeable lithium of rechargeable lithium batteries, the search for high capacity anodes that avoid the safety concerns associated

Sadoway, Donald Robert

453

A micropuncture study of the renal handling of lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although clearance studies in man and experimental animals indicate that filtered lithium is reabsorbed primarily in the proximal tubule, it is unclear whether lithium is also reabsorbed in distal portions of the nephron. Micropuncture studies were, therefore, performed to determine the nephron sites involved in lithium transport during free flow. A method was established to estimate the concentration of lithium

John P. Hayslett; Michael Kashgarian

1979-01-01

454

40 CFR 415.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Chloride Production Subcategory 415.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production...

2011-07-01

455

40 CFR 415.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Chloride Production Subcategory 415.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production...

2010-07-01

456

40 CFR 415.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory.  

... Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Chloride Production Subcategory 415.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production...

2014-07-01

457

40 CFR 415.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Chloride Production Subcategory 415.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production...

2013-07-01

458

40 CFR 415.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Chloride Production Subcategory 415.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production...

2012-07-01

459

40 CFR 415.240 - Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Chloride Production Subcategory 415.240 Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory....

2010-07-01

460

Tunable mid-infrared generation in cesium lithium borate crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generation of tunable mid-infrared radiation has been done in a cesium lithium borate (CsLiB 6O 10, CLBO) crystal for the first time employing type-I noncollinear difference frequency mixing of Q-switched Nd:YAG (or its second harmonic) and the tunable dye-laser radiation (0.605-0.725 ?m). In the process a quantum conversion efficiency of 5.5% has been realized for the generation of 1.85 ?m in only a 5 mm long crystal when the used peak power density of the pump dye-laser (0.675 ?m) beam is as low as 12.7 MW/cm 2.

Chatterjee, U.; Kumbhakar, P.; Chaudhary, A. K.; Bhar, G. C.

2001-02-01

461

40 CFR 461.50 - Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory. 461.50 Section 461...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lithium Subcategory 461.50 Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory. This subpart...

2013-07-01

462

40 CFR 461.50 - Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory. 461.50 Section 461...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lithium Subcategory 461.50 Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory. This subpart...

2010-07-01

463

40 CFR 461.50 - Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory.  

... Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory. 461.50 Section 461...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lithium Subcategory 461.50 Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory. This subpart...

2014-07-01

464

40 CFR 461.50 - Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory. 461.50 Section 461...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lithium Subcategory 461.50 Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory. This subpart...

2011-07-01

465

40 CFR 461.50 - Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory. 461.50 Section 461...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lithium Subcategory 461.50 Applicability; description of the lithium subcategory. This subpart...

2012-07-01

466

[Twenty-five years of lithium augmentation].  

PubMed

Twenty-five years ago the research group of the Canadian psychiatrist de Montigny reported treating antidepressant-refractory depressive patients successfully by adding lithium to their antidepressant. The report, published in 1981 as an open-label uncontrolled observation of only eight patients, falls short of today's methodological standards, but the treatment method, subsequently known as lithium augmentation, nonetheless was to change profoundly the pharmacological strategies for depressive disorders. The story of its development is remarkable, starting with a strictly theoretical idea conceived by Montigny and his colleagues after animal experiments in the 1970s had revealed that pretreatment with an antidepressant over several weeks led to sensitization of central nervous serotonin receptors. The team postulated that the proserotonergic characteristics of lithium, which had been systematically used as a psychotropic drug since 1949, could thus be used specifically to stimulate these receptors. Lithium augmentation demonstrated its effectiveness in the 1980s and 1990s, first in open-label and later in randomized and placebo-controlled studies. In the late 1990s studies aimed at optimizing its clinical application indicated that lithium augmentation must be administered for at least 2 weeks, with lithium serum levels within the range established for prophylactic treatment and assuming patient response, and that the combination of lithium and antidepressant must be continued as a maintenance therapy for 6 to 12 months. Research has yet to clarify how lithium augmentation actually works. Current results show that in addition to the idea postulated by Montigny, lithium could also have an activating effect on the cortisol axis. Thanks to the sound body of evidence which has accrued in the meantime, lithium augmentation is recommended in most guidelines and treatment algorithms as a main strategy for patients who do not respond to antidepressant monotherapy. PMID:17458527

Bschor, T; Lewitzka, U; Pfennig, A; Bauer, M

2007-11-01

467

TNF-? expression in neutrophils and its regulation by glycogen synthase kinase-3: a potentiating role for lithium.  

PubMed

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is associated with several cellular systems, including immune response. Lithium, a widely used pharmacological treatment for bipolar disorder, is a GSK-3 inhibitor. GSK-3? is the predominant isoform in human neutrophils. In this study, we examined the effect of GSK-3 inhibition on the production of TNF-? by neutrophils. In the murine air pouch model of inflammation, lithium chloride (LiCl) amplified TNF-? release. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human neutrophils, GSK-3 inhibitors mimicked the effect of LiCl, each potentiating TNF-? release after 4 h, in a concentration-dependent fashion, by up to a 3-fold increase (ED50 of 1 mM for lithium). LiCl had no significant effect on cell viability. A positive association was revealed between GSK-3 inhibition and prolonged activation of the p38/MNK1/eIF4E pathway of mRNA translation. Using lysine and arginine labeled with stable heavy isotopes followed by quantitative mass spectrometry, we determined that GSK-3 inhibition markedly increases (by more than 3-fold) de novo TNF-? protein synthesis. Our findings shed light on a novel mechanism of control of TNF-? expression in neutrophils with GSK-3 regulating mRNA translation and raise the possibility that lithium could be having a hitherto unforeseen effect on inflammatory diseases. PMID:24803542

Giambelluca, Miriam S; Bertheau-Mailhot, Genevive; Laflamme, Cynthia; Rollet-Labelle, Emmanuelle; Servant, Marc J; Pouliot, Marc

2014-08-01

468

Reduced palatability in lithium- and activity-based, but not in amphetamine-based, taste aversion learning.  

PubMed

Conditioned taste aversions (CTA) based on lithium chloride (Experiment 1), amphetamine (Experiment 2), and wheel running (Experiment 3) were examined using the analysis of the microstructure of licking to measure the palatability of the taste serving as the conditioned stimulus (CS). Pairing saccharin with amphetamine reduced saccharin intake without reducing the size of licking clusters, initial lick rate, or the distribution of inter-lick intervals (ILIs) within a cluster. By contrast, pairing saccharin with lithium or wheel-running reduced saccharin intake as well as lick cluster size, initial lick rate, and the distribution of ILIs within a cluster. As lick cluster size, initial lick rate, and ILI distribution can be used as indices of stimulus palatability, the current results indicate that taste aversions based on either lithium or activity reduced the palatability of the CS. This suggests that aversions based on both lithium and wheel running involve conditioned nausea to the CS taste. The absence of similar changes in licking microstructure with amphetamine-based CTA is consistent with other evidence indicating this does not involve nausea. PMID:18823162

Dwyer, Dominic M; Boakes, Robert A; Hayward, Andrew J

2008-10-01

469

Lithium extraction from orthorhombic lithium manganese oxide and the phase transformation to spinel  

SciTech Connect

Development of rechargeable lithium batteries is limited by a concern regarding their safety. Current efforts are focused on rocking-chair'' cells which avoid the use of metallic lithium electrodes and are therefore potentially far safer than conventional lithium cells. Carbon is the anode material of choice for rocking-chair'' cells as it gives good reversibility, high capacity and low average voltage versus lithium, resulting in high energy density cells. Carbon anodes must be coupled with lithium-rich or discharged cathodes. When the cell is first charged, lithium is transferred from the lithium-rich cathode to the carbon anode. However, not all the lithium can be recovered from the anode on the subsequent discharge; surplus cathode capacity is therefore required in the initial cathode to counteract this loss. Lithium transition-metal oxides are being developed as cathode materials for rocking-chair'' batteries. Lithium manganese oxides, which are cheap and non-toxic, are favored over the lithium-cobalt-oxide, LiCoO[sub 2], and lithium-nickel-oxide, LiNiO[sub 2].Here, orthorhombic LiMnO[sub 2] products, synthesized by the reaction of [gamma]-MnO[sub 2] and LiOH in argon at 600--620 C using carbon as a reducing agent, have been evaluated as electrode materials in lithium cells. Products that contained a minor proportion of a lithiated spinel phase showed greater electrochemical activity than pure LiMnO[sub 2]. On delithiation, LiMnO[sub 2] transforms irreversibly to a spinel-type structure. A mechanism for the orthorhombic Li[sub x]MnO[sub 2]-spinel phase transformation is proposed.

Gummow, R.J.; Liles, D.C.; Thackeray, M.M. (CSIR, Pretoria (South Africa). Div. of Materials Science and Technology)

1993-12-01

470

J. Am. Chem. SOC.1991, 113,9575-9585 9575 Mixed Aggregation of Lithium Enolates and Lithium Halides  

E-print Network

J. Am. Chem. SOC.1991, 113,9575-9585 9575 Mixed Aggregation of Lithium Enolates and Lithium Halides with Lithium 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidide(LiTMP) Patricia L. Hall, James H. Gilchrist, Aidan T. Harrison]-lithiumdi-tert-butylamide and conformationally locked [6Li]-lithium2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylpiperidide shed further light

Collum, David B.

471

A study of aluminum-lithium alloys: Strength profile in 2090 aluminum-lithium-copper-magnesium-zirconium alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum-containing lithium alloys are undergoing intensive development as replacements for conventional aluminum alloys 2024 and 7075 in aircraft structural applications. Lithium is a very reactive metal so that an elevated temperature heat treatments can cause lithium diffusion to the surface and reaction with the atmosphere. Solid state diffusion of lithium within the 2090 alloy and subsequent surface oxidation during solution

Soepriyanto

1991-01-01

472

Solution structures of chiral lithium amides with internal sulfide coordination: sulfide versus ether coordination in chiral lithium amides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of chiral lithium amides with chelating sulfide groups has been investigated by NMR spectroscopy. These chiral lithium amides have previously been found to mediate higher enantioselectivity in the asymmetric addition of alkyllithium reagents to aldehydes than the corresponding lithium amides containing ether groups. The chiral lithium amido sulfide chelates form homodimers in both diethyl ether and tetrahydrofuran. In

Richard Sott; Johan Granander; Peter Dinr; Gran Hilmersson

2004-01-01

473

One-pot solvothermal synthesis of graphene-supported TiO2 (B) nanosheets with enhanced lithium storage properties.  

PubMed

A facile process was developed for the synthesis of graphene-supported TiO2 (B) nanosheets (GTBN) composite based on the hydrothermal treatment titanium (III) chloride and graphene oxide in an ethylene glycol. The morphology and microstructure of the composites were examined by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The obtained GTBN show a high thermal stability and the phase transformation of TiO2 (B) to anatase can be prevented by graphene after pyrolysis of GTBN at 350C for 2h. Furthermore, GTBN exhibited high rate performance and stability of lithium ion batteries, due to the enhanced conductivity of the electrode and accommodation to volume/strain changes during lithium insertion-extraction. PMID:23972503

Zhang, Zhe; Chu, Qingxin; Li, Huiyan; Hao, Jinhui; Yang, Wenshu; Lu, Baoping; Ke, Xi; Li, Jing; Tang, Jilin

2013-11-01

474

A stable thin-film lithium electrolyte: Lithium phosphorus oxynitride  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical and optical properties of lithium phosphorus oxynitride (Lipon) thin films have been studied with an emphasis on the stability window vs. lithium metal and the behavior of the Li/Lipon interface. Impedance measurements made between {minus}26 and 140 C show that Lipon exhibits a single, Li{sup +}-ion conducting phase with an average conductivity of 2.3 ({+-}0.7) {times} 10{sup {minus}6} S/cm at 25 C and an average activation energy of E{sub a} = 0.55 {+-} 0.02 eV. No detectable reaction or degradation was evident at the Li/Lipon interface, and linear sweep voltammetry measurements on three-electrode cells indicated that Lipon is stable from 0 to about 5.5 V with respect to a Li{sup +}/Li reference. The complex refractive index of Lipon was measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Optical bandgaps of 3.45 and 3.75 eV were obtained from the ellipsometry data and from optical absorption measurements, respectively.

Yu, X.; Bates, J.B.; Jellison, G.E. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.; Hart, F.X. [Univ. of the South, Sewanee, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics

1997-02-01

475

A lithium oxygen secondary battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some recent work on a lithium-oxygen secondary battery is reported in which stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes were used for the effective separation of respective half-cell reactions. The electroactive material consisted of alloys possessing the general composition Li(x)FeSi2 immersed in a ternary molten salt comprising LiF, LiCl, and Li2O. The manufacture of the cell is described, and discharge-current voltage curves for partially charged cells are shown and discussed. A galvanostatic IR free-changing curve and an IR-free charge-discharge curve are also shown.

Semkow, Krystyna W.; Sammells, Anthony F.

1987-01-01

476

Optical storage in lithium niobate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Holographic storage and retrieval using photorefractive media (electro-optic ferroelectric materials), particularly iron-doped lithium niobate with its enhanced sensitivity, are discussed. Refractive index changes induced by exposure to light render the materials useful for read-write memories and read-write memory simulation. Resolution, dark storage time, write and erase times, reversibility, and noise levels of the materials are examined. The laser source, deflection system, hololens, page composer, and detector array of the holographic memory system are described. High SNR and two orders of magnitude improvement in speed are reported over earlier experimental prototypes, but the system is still too slow to meet practical needs.

Alphonse, G. A.

1976-01-01

477

Intermetallic insertion anodes for lithium batteries.  

SciTech Connect

Binary intermetallic compounds containing lithium, or lithium alloys, such as Li{sub x}Al, Li{sub x}Si and Li{sub x}Sn have been investigated in detail in the past as negative electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. It is generally acknowledged that the major limitation of these systems is the large volumetric expansion that occurs when lithium reacts with the host metal. Such large increases in volume limit the practical use of lithium-tin electrodes in electrochemical cells. It is generally recognized that metal oxide electrodes, MO{sub y}, in lithium-ion cells operate during charge and discharge by means of a reversible lithium insertion/extraction process, and that the cells offer excellent cycling behavior when the crystallographic changes to the unit cell parameters and unit cell volume of the Li{sub x}MO{sub y} electrode are kept to a minimum. An excellent example of such an electrode is the spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}, which maintains its cubic symmetry without any significant change to the lattice parameter (and hence unit cell volume) during lithium insertion to the rock-salt composition Li{sub 7}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}. This spinel electrode is an example of a ternary Li{sub x}MO{sub y} system in which a binary MO{sub y} framework provides a stable host structure for lithium. With this approach, the authors have turned their attention to exploring ternary intermetallic systems Li{sub x}MM{prime} in the hope of finding a system that is not subject to the high volumetric expansion that typifies many binary systems. In this paper, the authors present recent data of their investigations of lithium-copper-tin and lithium-indium-antimonide electrodes in lithium cells. The data show that lithium can be inserted reversibly into selected intermetallic compounds with relatively small expansion of the lithiated intermetallic structures.

Thackeray, M. M.; Vaughey, J.; Johnson, C. S.; Kepler, K. D.

1999-11-12

478

Methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination of methane. Quarterly technical progress report No. 16, July 1995--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

Continuous progress is being made toward the contract objectives in our attempt to produce {open_quotes}Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane.{close_quotes} Specifically, gains have been achieved in Task 1.0 Catalyst Development and Separation Unit Operation Development and Task 4.0 PDU Startup. Catalyst development continued forward to examine the copper, lanthanum, and lithium loadings as well as support surface area in four factor, two level, fully crossed design experiments carried out at five temperatures between 290{degrees}C and 310{degrees}C. Eight of the sixteen runs have been completed. Evaluation of these runs as a three factor, two level, fully crossed experiment has yielded some useful information. The choice of the Cu/La/Li metals system has been confirmed, and the high Cu, low La, low Li system hasn`t proven itself to be the most active at this point. Chemical feeds were brought on-line to the PDU. Small amounts of methyl chloride were made before the system was shut down due to equipment failure. Glass-lined equipment was found to be failing due to chemical etching. Replacement equipment with other materials of construction have been ordered. In addition, the FTIR windows clouded soon after chemical feeds were started. This materials problem is also being investigated.

NONE

1996-03-01

479

KINETICS STUDY OF CHLORIDE IN RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

The kinetics of chloride were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats following the oral administration of Na36Cl. The half-life for (36)Cl(-1) absorption from plasma was 19.2 hr corresponding to a rate constant of 0.0361 hr, while the half-life for (36)Cl(-1) elimination from plasma was ...

480

Electrorefining of aluminium scrap from chloride melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of aluminium of primary quality from scrap by electrorefining may become an option of strategic importance. Two important requirements are: (i) substantial energy savings compared to electrowinning, and (ii) easy recycling of alloying elements and molten electrolyte without ecological hazards. The use of molten chloride instead of fluoride electrolytes is preferred as emissions are low, purification of contaminated

V. Schwarz; H. Wendt

1995-01-01