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1

Lithium thionyl chloride battery  

SciTech Connect

The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

1982-10-19

2

Relationship between Vomiting and Taste Aversion Learning in the Ferret: Studies with lonizing Radiation, Lithium Chloride, and Amphetamine. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relationship between emesis and taste aversion learning was studied in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) following exposure to ionizing radiation (50-200 cGy) or injection of lithium chloride (1.5-3.0 mEq/kg, ip). When 10% sucrose or 0.1% saccharin was ...

B. M. Rabin W. A. Hunt

1992-01-01

3

Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

LiAlCl4 in SO2Cl2 was used as the electrolyte in a battery with a lithium metal anode and a carbon cathode. A preliminary conductivity value for LiAlCl4 (2.5M) in SO2Cl2 at 25C was found to be 5 plus or minus 2 X 10 to the -3 power Ohm/cm. A simple four p...

L. Nanis V. K. Kapur M. Huang M. A. Gencer

1975-01-01

4

Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

Frank, H. A.

1981-01-01

5

Fast ionic lithium conduction in solid lithium nitride chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium nitride chloride (Li N Cl ) crystallizes in a defect anti-fluorite structure with 10% of the lithium sites being vacant. Its electrical conductivity and thermodynamic stability have been investigated in the temperature range from 25 to 400°C. Lithium ions are the predominant charge carriers, yielding a conductivity temperature product of sigma T = 7.456 x 10⁴ exp(-0.49 eV\\/kT) ..cap

P HARTWIG; W. Weppner; W. Wichelhaus

1979-01-01

6

Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

Parry, J. M.

1978-01-01

7

Water structure in concentrated lithium chloride solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radial pair distribution functions gHH(r) and gOH(r) (to a good approximation) of 1 and 10 m solutions of lithium chloride in water have been obtained from neutron diffraction. It turns out that the intermolecular water structure in a solution of 10 m is affected considerably by the presence of ionsthe number of hydrogen bonds is about 70% lower than

R. H. Tromp; G. W. Neilson; A. K. Soper

1992-01-01

8

Capacity loss and faradaic efficiency of lithium thionyl chloride cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In lithium/thionyl chloride (Li/TC) cells, a lithium limited design was thought to be safer than a cathode limited design because the amount of lithium left in discharged cells would be minimal. However, lithium corrosion reduces the capacity faster than ...

S. Hoier C. Schlaikjer A. Johnson S. Riley

1996-01-01

9

Preparation and physical properties of lithium phosphide-lithium chloride, a solid electrolyte for solid state lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid electrolytes with high ionic conductivity and thermodynamic stability are required for high energy density lithium batteries. In this work we prepared a series of composite electrolytes made of lithium phosphide and lithium chloride which are thermodynamically stable in contact with a lithium electrode and which have ionic conductivity significantly higher than other known lithium ion conductors. These composites were

G. A. Nazri; R. A. Conell; C. Julien

1996-01-01

10

Open cycle lithium chloride cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lithium chloride open cycle absorption chiller has been designed, built and tested. Solution reconcentration takes place in a small counter current packed column supplied with solar heated air. Removal of noncondensable gases that enter the chiller dissolved in the strong solution and the make-up refrigerant streams is accomplished by a liquid-jet ejector and a small vacuum pump. Cooling capacities approaching 1.4 tons and COP levels of 0.58 have been achieved at non-optimum operating conditions. Test results from preliminary system operation suggest that mass transfer processes in both the packed column reconcentrator and the absorber are controlled by concentration gradients in the lithium chloride solution. Liquid phase controlled mass transfer dictates an operating strategy different from the previously assumed gas phase controlled process to obtain maximum rates of evaporation in the packed column. Determination of optimal operating conditions leading to decreased electrical power consumption and improved cooling capacity and coefficient of performance will require further analysis and testing.

Lenz, T. G.; Loef, G. O. G.; Iyer, R.; Wenger, J.

1983-05-01

11

Lithium/sulfuryl chloride electrochemical cell  

SciTech Connect

The development of a practical sulfuryl chloride-based lithium/oxyhalide cell has been delayed by anode-corrosion and cathode-polarization problems. The anode-stability problem can be significantly alleviated by the use of a reverse-polarity cell design, the substitution of Li2B10Cl10 for LiAlCl4 as the electrolyte salt, and the addition of a suitable cosolvent (SO2 or SOCl2). Under ambient-temperature storage and discharge conditions, anode passivation is completely absent with hermetically sealed Li/SO2Cl2 cells of this type. Cathode polarization can be reduced by a supported-platinum material. This material also results in substantially increased discharge capacities, although the overall reaction stoichiometry is unaffected by the catalyst. Finally, SO2Cl2 thermal decomposition measurements indicate that, as the temperature of the SO2Cl2 in a hermetic cell is increased from 25 to 80 C, the pressure differential across the cell case rises to about 3.5 atm. As the temperature is decreased, the pressure differential decreases to an equilibrium value, indicating a thermally stable, reversible system. 20 references.

Klinedinst, K.A.

1984-03-01

12

Optimization of the lithium/thionyl chloride battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1-D math model for the lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell is used in conjunction with a parameter estimation technique in order to estimate the electro-kinetic parameters of this electrochemical system. The electro-kinetic parameters include the anodic transfer coefficient and exchange current density of the lithium oxidation, alpha sub a,1 and i sub o,i,ref, the cathodic transfer coefficient and the effective exchange current density of the thionyl chloride reduction, alpha sub c,2 and a sup o i sub o,2,ref, and a morphology parameter, Xi. The parameter estimation is performed on simulated data first in order to gain confidence in the method. Data, reported in the literature, for a high rate discharge of an experimental lithium/thionyl chloride cell is used for an analysis.

White, Ralph E.

1989-01-01

13

Preparation of metallic lithium by the reaction of metallic potassium with lithium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of metallic potassium with lithium chloride was studied for the effects of time, temperature, and concentration on the yield and purity of metallic lithium. For temperatures above 750°C the yields were in the range of 51 to 68% with purities of 84 to 96 wt %. Essentially all of the impurity was unreacted potassium which should be easily

J. C. Crews; W. Jr. Davis

1952-01-01

14

DETERMINATION OF LITHIUM AND SODIUM CHLORIDES BY POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATION FOLLOWING 2ETHYL1HEXANOL SEPARATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium and lithium chlorides are titrated potentiometrically with silver ; nitrate following two extractions of the lithium chloride with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. ; Using glass and silver- silver chloride electrodes, the detection of the end ; point is enhanced in the organic medium. For 17 determinations, an average of ; 99.99% was obtained for lithium, with a standard deviation of 0.16%, and

G. R. Waterbury; E. H. Van Kooten; Bruno Morosin

1958-01-01

15

Low temperature safety of lithium-thionyl chloride cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of lithium thionyl chloride cells for low-temperature applications is presently restricted because of their unsafe behavior. An attempt is made in the present investigation to identify the safe/unsafe low temperature operating conditions and to understand the low temperature cell chemistry responsible for the unsafe behavior. Cells subjected to extended reversal at low rate and -40 C were found to explode upon warm-up. Lithium was found to deposit on the carbon cathodes during reversal. Warming up to room temperature may be accelerating the lithium corrosion in the electrolyte. This may be one of the reasons for the cell thermal runaway.

Subbarao, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Shen, D. H.; Dawson, S.; Halpert, G.

16

Low temperature safety of lithium-thionyl chloride cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of lithium thionyl chloride cells for low-temperature applications is presently restricted because of their unsafe behavior. An attempt is made in the present investigation to identify the safe/unsafe low temperature operating conditions and to understand the low temperature cell chemistry responsible for the unsafe behavior. Cells subjected to extended reversal at low rate and -40 C were found to explode upon warm-up. Lithium was found to deposit on the carbon cathodes during reversal. Warming up to room temperature may be accelerating the lithium corrosion in the electrolyte. This may be one of the reasons for the cell thermal runaway.

Subbarao, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Shen, D. H.; Dawson, S.; Halpert, G.

1988-01-01

17

Capacity loss and faradaic efficiency of lithium thionyl chloride cells  

SciTech Connect

In lithium/thionyl chloride (Li/TC) cells, a lithium limited design was thought to be safer than a cathode limited design because the amount of lithium left in discharged cells would be minimal. However, lithium corrosion reduces the capacity faster than does cathode degradation during storage. The optimization of the ratio of lithium to carbon was studied, considering storage time and temperature. The efficiency of converting chemical energy into electrical energy has been studied for the case of D cells with surface area from 45 to 345 cm{sup 2}, under constant and various pulsed loads. Microcalorimetric monitoring of the heat output during discharge allowed the direct measurement of faradaic efficiency, and showed that self discharge is far more pervasive that previously acknowledged. Typical faradaic efficiencies for constant load varied from 30% at low current density to 90% at moderate and 75 % at high current density. Pulsed current further depresses these efficiencies, except at very low average current density.

Hoier, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schlaikjer, C.; Johnson, A.; Riley, S. [Battery Engineering, Inc., Boston, MA (United States)

1996-05-01

18

Determination of the heat capacities of Lithium/BCX (bromide chloride in thionyl chloride) batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat capacities of twelve different Lithium/BCX (BrCl in thionyl chloride) batteries in sizes AA, C, D, and DD were determined. Procedures and measurement results are reported. The procedure allowed simple, reproducible, and precise determinations of heat capacities of industrially important Lithium/BCX cells, without interfering with performance of the cells. Use of aluminum standards allowed the accuracy of the measurements to be maintained. The measured heat capacities were within 5 percent of calculated heat capacity values.

Kubow, Stephen A.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

1989-01-01

19

Lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Primary lithium cells which use LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte exhibit high energy density and long life. Currently these cells pose a safety problem since they have been found to vent or explode. This paper summarizes experiments to resolve the safety problem of Li-SOCl2 cells by thermal modeling and identification of possibly hazardous intermediates formed during discharge of these cells. A thermal model and mechanism for the reduction of SOCl2 are presented, as well as a discussion of their application to Li-SOCl2 cell safety.

Carter, B.; Williams, R.; Tsay, F.; Rodriguez, A.; Frank, H.

1982-01-01

20

Mathematical Model of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model of a spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery has been developed ~d used for parameter estimation and design studies. The model formulation is based on the fimdarnental Consemation laws using porous electrode theory and concentrated solution theory. The model is used to estimate the difision coefficient and the kinetic parameters for the reactions at the anode and the cathode as a function of temperature. These parameters are obtained by fitting the simulated capacity and average cell voltage to experimental data over a wide range of temperatures (-55 to 49"C) and discharge loads (10 to 250 ohms). The experiments were performed on D-sized, cathode-limited, spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride cells. The model is also used to study the effkct of cathode thickness on the cell capacity as a finction of temperature, and it was found that the optimum thickness for the cathode- limited design is temperature and load dependent.

Jain, M.; Jungst, R.G.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Weidner, J.W.

1998-11-24

21

Optimization of the lithium/thionyl chloride battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The progress which has been made in modeling the lithium/thionyl chloride cell over the past year and proposed research for the coming year are discussed. A one-dimensional mathematical model for a lithium/thionyl chloride cell has been developed and used to investigate methods of improving cell performance. During the course of the work a problem was detected with the banded solver being used. It was replaced with one more reliable. Future work may take one of two directions. The one-dimensional model could be augmented to include additional features and to investigate in more detail the cell temperature behavior, or a simplified two-dimensional model for the spirally wound design of this battery could be developed to investigate the heat flow within the cell.

White, Ralph E.

1987-01-01

22

Aggregation of cellulose in lithium chloride\\/ N, N-dimethylacetamide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardwood kraft pulps can be completely dissolved in lithium chloride\\/N,N-dimethylacetamide (LiCl\\/DMAc). The cellulose and hemicellulose components can be separated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The molecular weight distribution that corresponds to cellulose is extended up to the high molecular weight region and the weight average molecular weight (Mw) relative to pullulan of this distribution is high. Light scattering (LS) measurements

E. Sjholm; K. Gustafsson; B. Eriksson; W. Brown; A. Colmsj

2000-01-01

23

Active lithium chloride cell for spacecraft power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An active thionyl chloride high rate battery is under development for spacecraft operations. It is a 540kC (150 Ah) battery capable of pulses up to 75A. This paper describes the design and initial test data on a 'state-of-the-art' cell that has been selected to be the baseline for the prototype cell for that battery. Initial data indicate that the specification can be met with fresh cells. Data for stored cells and additional environmental test data are in the process of being developed.

Fleischmann, C. W.; Horning, R. J.

1988-01-01

24

Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (active lithium\\/thionyl chloride) batteries. [Active lithium\\/thionyl chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

(ALTC = active lithium\\/thionyl chloride.) We have investigated the corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin materials in 1.5M LiAlCl\\/SOCl electrolyte using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4 PH, and

F. S. Bovard; W. R. Cieslak

1987-01-01

25

Studies leading to the development of high-rate lithium-sulfuryl chloride battery technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall aim of the program is an examination of the viability of an active electrolyte lithium-sulfuryl chloride battery system. The specific objectives are: quantify the stability of lithium in sulfuryl-chloride based electrolyte. Develop means to stabilize in the lithium anode in sulfuryl chloride based electrolyte to meet Army storage requirements. Establish the performance limits of Li/SO2Cl2 cells with respect to cathode and electrolyte composition.

Hall, J. C.; Koch, M.

1982-10-01

26

Calorimetry of 25 Ah lithium/thionyl chloride cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat flow measurements of 25-Ah lithium thionyl chloride cells provided a method to calculate an effective thermal potential, E(TP) of 3.907 V. The calculation is useful to determine specific heat generation of this cell chemistry and design. The E(TP) value includes heat generation by electrochemical cell reactions, competitive chemical reactions, and resistance heating at the tabs, connectors, and leads. Heat flow was measured while applying electrical loads to the cell in an isothermal calorimeter set at 0, 20, and 60 C.

Johnson, C. J.; Dawson, S.

1991-01-01

27

High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented in viewgraph format are results and accomplishments on the development of lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar batteries. Results include the development of manufacturing capability for producing large quantities of uniform cathodes and bipolar plates; the development of assembly, sealing, and activation procedures for fabrication of battery modules containing up to 150 cells in bipolar configuration; and the successful demonstration of a 10.7 kW 150-cell module with constant power pulse discharge, 20 second pulse, and 10 percent duty cycle.

Russell, Philip G.; Goebel, F.

1994-01-01

28

Additive to improve voltage regulation in a lithium-copper chloride rechargeable cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an electrochemical power cell employing lithium as an anode, lithium tetrachloroaluminate as an electrolyte, sulfur dioxide as a solvent, and high surface carbon black containing cupric chloride as a cathode, the improvement comprising adding a lithium halide to the cathode.

O. K. Chang; J. C. Hall; J. Phillips; L. F. Silvester

1989-01-01

29

Hydrodynamic simulation of a lithium chloride salt system.  

SciTech Connect

A fused lithium chloride salt system's constitutive properties were evaluated and compared to a number of fluid properties, and water was shown to be an excellent simulant of lithium chloride salt. With a simple flow model, the principal scaling term was shown to be a function of the kinematic viscosity. A water mock-up of the molten salt was also shown to be within a {+-}3% error in the scaling analysis. This made it possible to consider developing water scaled tests of the molten salt system. Accurate flow velocity and pressure measurements were acquired by developing a directional velocity probe. The device was constructed and calibrated with a repeatable accuracy of {+-}15%. This was verified by a detailed evaluation of the probe. Extensive flow measurements of the engineering scale mockup were conducted, and the results were carefully compared to radial flow patterns of a straight blade stirrer. The flow measurements demonstrated an anti-symmetric nature of the stirring, and many additional effects were also identified. The basket design was shown to prevent fluid penetration into the fuel baskets when external stirring was the flow mechanism.

Eberle, C. S.; Herrmann, S. D.; Knighton, G. C.

1999-02-12

30

High-rate lithium thionyl-chloride battery development  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a lithium thionyl-chloride cell for use in a high rate battery application to provide power for a missile computer and stage separation detonators. The battery pack contains 20 high surface area ``DD`` cells wired in a series-parallel configuration to supply a nominal 28 volts with a continuous draw of 20 amperes. The load profile also requires six squib firing pulses of one second duration at a 20 ampere peak. Performance and safety of the cells were optimized in a ``D`` cell configuration before progressing to the longer ``DD` cell. Active surface area in the ``D`` cell is 735 cm{sup 2}, and 1650 cm{sup 2} in the ``DD`` cell. The design includes 1.5M LiAlCl{sub 4}/SOCl{sub 2} electrolyte, a cathode blend of Shawinigan Acetylene Black and Cabot Black Pearls 2000 carbons, Scimat ETFE separator, and photoetched current collectors.

Cieslak, W.R.; Weigand, D.E.

1993-12-31

31

Development of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for Centaur  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary cells and batteries have received considerable attention over the last several years because of their high theoretical specific energy and energy density. The objective was to develop a 300 wh/kg cell capable of safe operation at C/2 rate and active storage life for 5 to 10 years. This technology would replace other primary cell technologies in NASA applications mainly the silver zinc (AgZn) batteries presently in use. The LiSOCl2 system exceeds the capabilities of the AgZn in terms of specific energy of 300 wh/kg (compared with 100 wh/kg for AgZn), active storage life of 10 to 20 times the 3 to 6 months active storage and has a significantly lower projected cost.

Halpert, Gerald; Frank, Harvey; Lutwack, Ralph

1987-01-01

32

Self-discharge rate of lithium thionyl-chloride cells  

SciTech Connect

Our low-rate lithium/thionyl-chloride ``D`` cell is required to provide power continuously for up to 10 years. The cell was designed at Sandia National Laboratories and manufactured at Eagle-Picher Industries, Joplin, Missouri. We have conducted accelerated aging studies at elevated temperatures to predict long-term performance of cells fabricated in 1992. Cells using 1.0M LiAlCl{sub 4} electrolyte follow Arrhenius kinetics with an activation energy of 14.6 Kcal/mol. This results in an annual capacity loss to self-discharge of 0.13 Ah at 25 C. Cells using a 1.0M LiAlCl{sub 4}{sm_bullet}SO{sub 2} electrolyte do not follow Arrhenius behavior. The performance of aged cells from an earlier fabrication lot is variable.

Cieslak, W.R.

1993-12-31

33

Development of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for Centaur  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary cells and batteries have received considerable attention over the last several years because of their high theoretical specific energy and energy density. The objective was to develop a 300 wh/kg cell capable of safe operation at C/2 rate and active storage life for 5 to 10 years. This technology would replace other primary cell technologies in NASA applications mainly the silver zinc (AgZn) batteries presently in use. The LiSOCl2 system exceeds the capabilities of the AgZn in terms of specific energy of 300 wh/kg (compared with 100 wh/kg for AgZn), active storage life of 10 to 20 times the 3 to 6 months active storage and has a significantly lower projected cost.

Halpert, Gerald; Frank, Harvey; Lutwack, Ralph

1988-01-01

34

The faradaic efficiency of the lithium-thionyl chloride battery  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of converting chemical energy into electrical energy has been studied for the case of D-size, low and medium rate lithium-thionyl chloride (Li/TC) cells, under DC and various pulsed loads. Microcalorimetric monitoring of the heat output during discharge allowed the direct measurement of the faradaic efficiency, and showed that self-discharge is far more pervasive than previously acknowledged by researchers and battery manufacturers. Evaluations of the cell dynamics prove that current load and temperature fluctuations combine to disrupt the lithium passivation and to greatly enhance self-discharge. Typical faradaic efficiencies for DC range from abut 30% at low current density to 90% at moderate and 75% at high current density. Pulsed current further depresses these efficiency levels, except at very low average current densities. The decreased faradaic efficiency of Li/TC batteries in certain pulse situations needs to be studied further to define the range of applications for which it can be successfully used.

Hoier, S.N.; Eisenmann, E.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Battery Research Dept.

1996-04-01

35

A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

Shah, Pinakin M.

1993-01-01

36

A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

Shah, Pinakin M.

1993-03-01

37

Studies leading to the development of high-rate lithium sulfury chloride battery technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall aim of the program is an examination of the viability of an active electrolyte lithium/sulfuryl chloride battery system. The specific objectives are to quantify the stability of lithium in sulfuryl chloride solutions; explore the means to improve the stability of lithium; and establish the limits of performance of carbon/teflon cathodes in sulfuryl chloride electrolytes. During this quarter we measured the rates of corrosion of lithium in sulfuryl chloride in cells and sealed capsules by microcalorimetry; estimated by complex plane impedance measurements; followed the growth of the film on cell storage, its disruption on polarization and its healing following polarization; established the baseline cathode performance; and measured the conductivity and density of SO2Cl2-LiAlCl4 electrolysis at ambient and high temperature.

Marikar, F.

1982-03-01

38

Acute and chronic effects of lithium chloride on physiological and psychological measures in normals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the acute experiment six healthy volunteers were given orally two doses of lithium chloride, 16 and 32 mmol, and placebo sodium chloride 32 mmol in a double-blind standardized procedure, with a 1-week interval between treatments. Compared to sodium, lithium produced a decrease in subjective well-being, decrease of skin conductance fluctuations, and increase in plasma calcium concentrations. Dose-related effects were

I. G. Karniol; J. Dalton; M. H. Lader

1978-01-01

39

Reduction of the spent nuclear fuel of a VVER-1000 reactor by lithium in a lithium chloride melt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers at FGUP GNTs RF NIIAR performed a series of experiments on the lithium reduction of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF)\\u000a of a VVER-1000 reactor to a metal in a lithium chloride melt. The depletion of the nuclear fuel taken before experiments is\\u000a about 30000 (MW day)\\/t, and the cooling time is 5 years. The experiments are performed on 5.8-kg

A. V. Bychkov; V. S. Ishunin; M. V. Kormilitsyn

2010-01-01

40

Safety considerations of lithium-thionyl chloride cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of spirally wound lithium-thionyl chloride (Li-SOCl2) cells is currently limited because of their hazardous behavior. Safety hazards have ranged from mild venting of toxic materials to violent explosions and fires. These incidents may be related to both user- and manufacturer-induced causes. Many explanations have been offered to explain the unsafe behavior of the cells under operating and abuse conditions. Explanations fall into two categories: (1) thermal mechanisms, and (2) chemical mechanisms. However, it is quite difficult to separate the two. Both may be responsible for cell venting or explosion. Some safety problems encountered with these cells also may be due to design deficiencies and ineffective quality control during cell fabrication. A well-coordinated basic and applied research program is needed to develop safe Li-SOCl2 cells. Recommendations include: (1) learnig more about Li-SOL2 cell chemistry; (2) modeling cell and battery behavior; (3) optimizing cell design for safety and performance, (4) implementing quality control procedures; and (5) educating users.

Subbarao, Surampudi; Halpert, Gerald; Stein, Irving

1986-01-01

41

Safety considerations of lithium-thionyl chloride cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of spirally wound lithium-thionyl chloride (Li-SOCl2) cells is currently limited because of their hazardous behavior. Safety hazards have ranged from mild venting of toxic materials to violent explosions and fires. These incidents may be related to both user- and manufacturer-induced causes. Many explanations have been offered to explain the unsafe behavior of the cells under operating and abuse conditions. Explanations fall into two categories: (1) thermal mechanisms, and (2) chemical mechanisms. However, it is quite difficult to separate the two. Both may be responsible for cell venting or explosion. Some safety problems encountered with these cells also may be due to design deficiencies and ineffective quality control during cell fabrication. A well-coordinated basic and applied research program is needed to develop safe Li-SOCl2 cells. Recommendations include: (1) learnig more about Li-SOL2 cell chemistry; (2) modeling cell and battery behavior; (3) optimizing cell design for safety and performance, (4) implementing quality control procedures; and (5) educating users.

Subbarao, Surampudi; Halpert, Gerald; Stein, Irving

1986-06-01

42

A mathematical model of a lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1-D mathematical model for the lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell was developed to investigate methods of improving its performance and safety. The model includes many of the components of a typical lithium/thionyl chloride cell such as the porous lithium chloride film which forms on the lithium anode surface. The governing equations are formulated from fundamental conservation laws using porous electrode theory and concentrated solution theory. The model is used to predict 1-D, time dependent profiles of concentration, porosity, current, and potential as well as cell temperature and voltage. When a certain discharge rate is required, the model can be used to determine the design criteria and operating variables which yield high cell capacities. Model predictions can be used to establish operational and design limits within which the thermal runaway problem, inherent in these cells, can be avoided.

Evans, T. I.; Nguyen, T. V.; White, R. E.

1987-01-01

43

Studies leading to the development of high-rate lithium-sulfuryl chloride battery technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Batteries built with an inorganic catholyte (e.g., thionyl chloride and sulfuryl chloride) are of interest for military applications on the basis of their high demonstrated energy density and high discharge rate capability when compared with organic electrolyte lithium cells. By far the greatest attention has been given to the lithium-thionyl chloride (Li/SOCl2) system; cells and batteries have been demonstrated with energy densities in excess of 600Wh/kg (1). Less attention has been given to the development of lithium-sulfuryl chloride batteries possibly because of a somewhat lower theoretical energy density (1700 and 1500 Wh/kg for Li/SOCl2 and Li/SO2Cl2 respectively).

Hall, J. C.; Kock, M.; Marikar, F.

1982-12-01

44

Lithium chloride protects retinal neurocytes from nutrient deprivation by promoting DNA non-homologous end-joining  

SciTech Connect

Lithium chloride is a therapeutic agent for treatment of bipolar affective disorders. Increasing numbers of studies have indicated that lithium has neuroprotective effects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of lithium have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate whether lithium chloride produces neuroprotective function by improving DNA repair pathway in retinal neurocyte. In vitro, the primary cultured retinal neurocytes (85.7% are MAP-2 positive cells) were treated with lithium chloride, then cultured with serum-free media to simulate the nutrient deprived state resulting from ischemic insult. The neurite outgrowth of the cultured cells increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner when exposed to different levels of lithium chloride. Genomic DNA electrophoresis demonstrated greater DNA integrity of retinal neurocytes when treated with lithium chloride as compared to the control. Moreover, mRNA and protein levels of Ligase IV (involved in DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway) in retinal neurocytes increased with lithium chloride. The end joining activity assay was performed to determine the role of lithium on NHEJ in the presence of extract from retinal neurocytes. The rejoining levels in retinal neurocytes treated with lithium were significantly increased as compared to the control. Furthermore, XRCC4, the Ligase IV partner, and the transcriptional factor, CREB and CTCF, were up-regulated in retinal cells after treating with 1.0 mM lithium chloride. Therefore, our data suggest that lithium chloride protects the retinal neural cells from nutrient deprivation in vitro, which may be similar to the mechanism of cell death in glaucoma. The improvement in DNA repair pathway involving in Ligase IV might have an important role in lithium neuroprotection. This study provides new insights into the neural protective mechanisms of lithium chloride.

Zhuang Jing; Li Fan; Liu Xuan; Liu Zhiping; Lin Jianxian [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Ge Yihong [Department of Stomatology, the Southern Medical University (China); Kaminski, Joseph M. [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation, University of South Alabama (United States); Summers, James Bradley [Department of Radiology, University of South Alabama (United States); Wang Zhichong [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Ge Jian [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)], E-mail: gejian@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Yu Keming [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)], E-mail: yukeming@mail.sysu.edu.cn

2009-03-13

45

Differential sensitivity of fungi to lithium chloride in culture media.  

PubMed

Forty species of fungi, representing a range of ecological and taxonomic groups, were tested for their ability to grow on agar media amended with lithium chloride (LiCl) at 1.5, 3 and 6 g l(-1). Species of Trichoderma varied considerably in their sensitivity to LiCl; at one week on 6 g l(-1) LiCl medium, the growth of seven species of Trichoderma was considerably inhibited; however, by three weeks at this level, four of the species tested were able to attain > or =30% of control growth. Of the seven species tested, an isolate of T. viride was the most sensitive to LiCl in agar. Eleven other imperfect fungi also showed a range of ability to grow on agar amended with LiCl, from total inhibition to complete lack of inhibition. Six ascomycete fungi were greatly inhibited by LiCl at all levels; however, an isolate of Chaetomium globosum was highly tolerant of LiCl. Seven basidiomycete wood-decay fungi were quite sensitive to LiCl in agar, showing total to nearly total inhibition even at the lowest level; however, after three weeks, an isolate of Postia placenta was nearly uninhibited except at 6 g l(-1). Five ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete fungi were totally inhibited by all levels of LiCl; however, one ectomycorrhizal imperfect fungus (Cenococcum graniforme) was able to grow at 3 g l(-1) and was uninhibited at 1.5 g l(-1). Four zygomycete fungus isolates were nearly unaffected in their growth by all levels of LiCl. PMID:18495451

Richter, Dana L; Robinson, Sara C; Beardslee, Maria P; Habarth, Maureen L

2008-06-01

46

Lithium: Thionyl chloride battery state-of-the-art assessment  

SciTech Connect

Models of the performance of primary Li/SOCl{sub 2} cells can provide for realistic comparisons between technical information from different sources, and set standards that electronic circuit designers may refer to in the generation of high-quality products. Data from various investigators were used to derive mathematical- statistical relationships with physical design features (e.g. size and materials), operating parameters (e.g. current and temperature) and storage conditions (time and temperature). These efforts were substantially promoted by normalization procedures. For example, current loads were converted into current densities, or if appropriate, into current per unit cathode volume. Similarly, cell capacities were standardized with the maximum values observed at low current and also with respect to the cathode volume. Particular emphasis was placed on evaluations of voltage-delay, cell capacity and self-discharge, for which several equations were established. In spite of a considerable expenditure in time to find high-quality datasets, the reality is that all of the reviewed studies are flawed in one way or another. Specifically, all datasets are afflicted with sizable experimental errors and the precision of the regression equations is much lower than is deemed necessary for a universal model of the lithium thionyl chloride cell. Each of the equations has some definite truth content, but is generally incapable of bridging the gap between different studies. The basic failure to come up with a unifying model for Li/SOCl{sub 2} batteries leaves only one benefit of the present analysis, namely to provide guidance for future investigations. Several recommendations are made based on the insight gained during the search for good data in the relevant literature.

Eisenmann, E.T.

1996-03-01

47

Studies leading to the development of high-rate lithium sulfuryl chloride battery technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall aim of the program is an examination of the viability of an active electrolyte lithium sulfuryl chloride battery system. The specific objectives are: (1) quantify the stability of lithium in sulfuryl chloride solution; (2) explore means to stabilize lithium in sulfuryl chloride; (3) establish the limits of performance of carbon/teflon cathodes. During the second quarter we: continued characterization of anode stability with respect to cell design and electrolyte composition, determined the voltage delay after storage as a function of electrolyte composition, and characterized the performance at room temperatures of cells with and without performance additives. We found that positive grounding or floating of both electrodes with respect to the case enhance anode stability, the bromine performance additive increases anode stability, the bromine performance additive decrease voltage delay, and the bromine performance additive is superior to the chlorine performance additive in terms of delivered capacity.

Hall, J. C.; Koch, M.

1982-09-01

48

The Painlike Effect of Gallamine and Naloxone Differs From Sickness Induced by Lithium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rats, the conditioned place and taste aversions produced by 31.8 mg\\/kg lithium chloride were compared with those produced by 10 mg\\/kg gallamine in Experiment 1 and 20 mg\\/kg or 2.5 mg\\/kg naloxone in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. Lithium produced stronger taste aversions than gallamine or the two doses of naloxone, but gallamine and naloxone each produced stronger place

Bow Tong Lett

1985-01-01

49

The effect of lithium chloride on the biooxidation of aqueous methanol\\/acetone mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium chloride, more specifically the lithium cation, has been implicated in interference in biological systems. In the case of Escherichia coli, interference involves the Na+(Li+)\\/H+ antiporter transport system. The study reported here concerns the effects of LiCl on a mixed enrichment culture that is able to biodegrade both methanol and acetone under aerobic conditions. The results obtained using unsteady state

M. O'Brien; G. Hamer

2001-01-01

50

Expression of c-fos in brain subcortical structures in response to nauseant lithium chloride and osmotic pressure in rats.  

PubMed

Immunohistochemistry was used to map c-fos expression in rats to investigate the neural substrates that mediate the emetic action of lithium chloride and the effect of osmotic pressure. Solutions of 3% lithium chloride or 4.14% saline, isotonic to each other, as well as 0.65% lithium chloride or 0.9% saline, also isotonic to each other, were administered intraperitoneally (3 ml/kg) in rats. Both lithium chloride and osmotic pressure enhanced c-fos expression in the nuclei of the solitary tract, the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus, and in the amygdala. This suggests that these brain structures might be the sites where the autonomic, neuroendocrine and behavioral responses elicited by lithium chloride and osmotic pressure are integrated. PMID:8233031

Gu, Y; Gonzalez, M F; Chin, D Y; Deutsch, J A

1993-07-01

51

Reduction of the spent nuclear fuel of a VVER-1000 reactor by lithium in a lithium chloride melt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers at FGUP GNTs RF NIIAR performed a series of experiments on the lithium reduction of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of a VVER-1000 reactor to a metal in a lithium chloride melt. The depletion of the nuclear fuel taken before experiments is about 30000 (MW day)/t, and the cooling time is 5 years. The experiments are performed on 5.8-kg samples of a prepared SNF powder. Data are obtained on a decrease in the heat release, the specific activity of the processed powder, and the distribution of actinides and the main fission products between a salt phase and a reduced SNF powder.

Bychkov, A. V.; Ishunin, V. S.; Kormilitsyn, M. V.

2010-08-01

52

Lithium chloride ionic association in dilute aqueous solution: a constrained molecular dynamics study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constrained molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the lithium chloride ionic associations in dilute aqueous solutions over a wide temperature range. Solvent mediated potentials of mean force have been carefully calculated at different thermodynamic conditions. Two intermediate states of ionic association can be well identified with an energy barrier from the oscillatory free energy profile. Clear pictures for

Zhigang Zhang; Zhenhao Duan

2004-01-01

53

Fault tree analysis of prismatic lithium thionyl chloride (Li\\/SOCl2) battery cells - phase 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses and presents the initial key findings of a fault tree analysis, which was conducted in phase 1 of a project to address the reliability of prismatic lithium thionyl chloride (Li\\/SOCl2) battery cells. These types of battery cells are typically used in a large range of battery products, from OEM applications to military applications (Levy and Bro, 1987;

John S. Bowers; Donald B. Hardy

2006-01-01

54

C-fos expression in the rat brain following lithium chloride induced-illness  

PubMed Central

The present study examined c-Fos expression in selected brain areas consequent to administration of lithium chloride, the typical illness-inducing agent used in laboratory studies of conditioned taste aversion. The results replicated previous findings of significant c-Fos expression in the parabrachial nucleus, the central nucleus of the amygdala and the basolateral amygdala. New findings indicate significant lithium-induced c-Fos in the gustatory region of the thalamus and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis but not in the insular cortex. The results are discussed with respect to the neural substrates of conditioned taste aversion.

St. Andre, Justin; Albanos, Katie; Reilly, Steve

2007-01-01

55

Zero-gravity growth of a sodium chloride-lithium fluoride eutectic mixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous and discontinuous lithium fluoride fibers embedded in a sodium chloride matrix were produced in space and on Earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convective current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and Earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of lithium fluoride fibers along the growth direction.

Yue, A. S.; Yeh, C. W.; Yue, B. K.

1982-01-01

56

Effect of Lithium Chloride on Proliferation and Bone Differentiation of Rat Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective(s) It is believed that the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation and proliferation are the results of activation of wnt signaling pathway. On the other hand, lithium chloride is reported to be able to activate this pathway. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lithium on in vitro proliferation and bone differentiation of marrow-derived MSC. Materials

Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad; Mahmood Talkhabi; Bahman Zeynali

2008-01-01

57

Evaluation of high-energy lithium thionyl chloride primary cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced commercial primary lithium cell (LiSoCl2) was evaluated in order to establish baseline data for improved lithium batteries for aerospace applications. The cell tested had nominal capacity of 6 Ah. Maximum energy density at low rates (less than C/30, where C is the cell capacity in amp-hrs and 30 corresponds to a 30 hr discharge time) was found to be near 300 Wh/kg. An equation which predicts the operating voltage of these cells as a function of current and state of charge is presented. Heat generation rates of these cells were determined as a function of current in a calorimeter. It was found that heat rates could be theoretically predicted with some degree of accuracy at currents less than 1 amp or the C/6 rate. No explosions were observed in the cells during the condition of overdischarge or reversal nor during high rate discharge. It was found, however, that the cells can vent when overdischarge currents are greater than C/30 and when discharge rates are greater than 1.5C.

Frank, H. A.

1980-01-01

58

Growth, Structural And Optical Studies On Bis L-alanine Lithium Chloride (BLALC) Single Crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bis L-alanine Lithium Chloride (BLALC) single crystals were grown successfully by solution method with slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Crystals of size 15 x 9 x 4 mm3 have been obtained in 28 days. The grown crystals were colourless and transparent. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) study showed that BLALC belongs to orthorhombic system with a non-centro-symmetric space group

A. S. J. Lucia Rose; P. Selvarajan; S. Perumal

2011-01-01

59

Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (Active Lithium\\/Thionyl Chloride) batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin material candidates for ALTC (Active Lithium\\/Thionyl Chloride) batteries in 1.5M LiAlCl4\\/SOCl2 electrolyte have been investigated using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4

Francine S. Bovard; Wendy R. Cieslak

1987-01-01

60

Dehumidification of Air by Aqueous Lithium Chloride in a Packed Column  

Microsoft Academic Search

A packed bed absorber-stripper system has been designed to dehumidify moist air by contact with aqueous solutions of lithium chloride. The packing material used in the study is 1.6 cm (5\\/8 inch) polypropylene Flexi rings, which have a surface to volume ratio of 342 m\\/m (104 ft\\/ft). The absorber is capable of handling air face velocities from 3362.4 to 6746.4

Tsair-Wang Chung; Tushar K. Ghosh; Anthony L. Hines

1993-01-01

61

Investigation of an Aberrant Cell Voltage During the Filling of a Large Lithium Thionyl Chloride Cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigation of an aberrant cell voltage during the filling of a large lithium thionyl chloride cell summary is at: an aberrant voltage trace was noted during the review of cell filling data; incident was traced to an interruption during filling; experimentation suggested oxidizable sites within the carbon electrode were responsible for the drop in voltage; the voltage anomaly could be reproduced by interrupting the filling of similar cells; and anomalous voltage dip was not due to a short.

Thaller, Lawrence H.; Quinzio, Michael V.

1997-01-01

62

Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for missile applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative performance study has been conducted for silver-zinc, thionyl chloride, and thermal batteries designed for such missile applications as ICBM guidance system power supplies. Attention is given to each of the three candidates' conformity to requirements concerning mechanical configuration, electrochemical design, electrolyte reservoir, external case, and gas generator. The silver-zinc and Li-SOCl2 candidates employ similar cell configurations and yield comparable performance. The thermal battery is found to be incapable of meeting battery case temperature-related requirements.

Planchat, J. P.; Descroix, J. P.; Sarre, G.

63

Two Electron Oxidation of Cobalt Phthalocyanines by Thionyl Chloride: Implications for Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cyclic voltammetry, DPV and electronic spectroscopy are used to study the reaction between thionyl chloride and cobalt phthalocyanine. SOCl2 reacts with (Co(I)Tn Pc(2-)) and Co(II)Tn Pc(2-) to give two-electron oxidized species. Implications for Li/SOCl2 ...

A. B. Lever P. A. Bernstein

1989-01-01

64

Investigation of high-rate lithium-thionyl chloride cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical analysis of a commercially produced high-rate D-size lithium-thionyl cell was carried out, as a function of rate of discharge (1 ohm and 5 ohms), depth of discharge, and temperature (25 C and -40 C), using specially developed methods for identifying suspected minor cell products or impurities which may effect cell performance. These methods include a product-retrieval system which involves solvent extraction to enhance the recovery of suspected semivolatile minor chemicals, and methods of quantitative GC analysis of volatile and semivolatile products. The nonvolatile products were analyzed by wet chemical methods. The results of the analyses indicate that the predominant discharge reaction in this cell is 4Li + 2SOCl2 going to 4LiCl + S + SO2, with SO2 formation decreasing towards the end of cell life (7 to 12 Ah). The rate of discharge had no effect on the product distribution. Upon discharge of the high-rate cell at -40 C, one cell exploded, and all others exhibited overheating and rapid internal pressure rise when allowed to warm up to room temperature.

Hayes, Catherine A.; Gust, Steven; Farrington, Michael D.; Lockwood, Judith A.; Donaldson, George J.

65

Development of a 300 Amp-hr high rate lithium thionyl chloride cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a high-rate lithium thionyl chloride cylindrical cell with parallel plate electrodes is discussed. The development was divided into three phases: phase 1, a 150 Amp/hour low rate (1 mA/sq cm) design; phase 2, a 25 Amp/hour high rate (5 mA/sq cm) design; and phase 3, a 300 Amp/hour high rate (5 mA/sq cm) design. The basic design is the same for all three cells. The electrodes are perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder. Multiple electrodes are bussed up the side of the cylinder, 180 deg apart allowing excellent anode and cathode utilization. It is a lithium limited design with excess electrolyte. The cathode is Shawinigan or Gulf Acetylene black with no catalyst. The electrolyte is 1.8 Molar lithium tetrachloroaluminate (LiAlCl4) in thionyl chloride. All cell cases are 304L Stainless Steel with a BS&B burst disc.

Boyle, Gerard H.

1991-05-01

66

Development of a 300 Amp-hr high rate lithium thionyl chloride cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a high-rate lithium thionyl chloride cylindrical cell with parallel plate electrodes is discussed. The development was divided into three phases: phase 1, a 150 Amp/hour low rate (1 mA/sq cm) design; phase 2, a 25 Amp/hour high rate (5 mA/sq cm) design; and phase 3, a 300 Amp/hour high rate (5 mA/sq cm) design. The basic design is the same for all three cells. The electrodes are perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder. Multiple electrodes are bussed up the side of the cylinder, 180 deg apart allowing excellent anode and cathode utilization. It is a lithium limited design with excess electrolyte. The cathode is Shawinigan or Gulf Acetylene black with no catalyst. The electrolyte is 1.8 Molar lithium tetrachloroaluminate (LiAlCl4) in thionyl chloride. All cell cases are 304L Stainless Steel with a BS&B burst disc.

Boyle, Gerard H.

1991-01-01

67

Lithium-Doped Radiation-Resistant Silicon Solar Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photovoltaic measurements indicate that lithium in the n-type region of floating-zone silicon p-on-n solar cells interacts with radiation damage induced by 1 MeV electrons or 16.8MeV protons. The centers formed by this interaction do not degrade the minority-carrier lifetime; therefore, these cells are potentially the most radiation-resistant ones available. The interaction involves the motion of lithium; thus, the cell temperature

J. J. Wysocki

1996-01-01

68

The effect of lithium chloride on the biooxidation of aqueous methanol/acetone mixtures.  

PubMed

Lithium chloride, more specifically the lithium cation, has been implicated in interference in biological systems. In the case of Escherichia coli, interference involves the Na+(Li+)/H+ antiporter transport system. The study reported here concerns the effects of LiCl on a mixed enrichment culture that is able to biodegrade both methanol and acetone under aerobic conditions. The results obtained using unsteady state continuous flow culture techniques demonstrate a significant disruptive effect of LiCl on culture performance. In addition, a reduction in the substrate-based biomass yield coefficient, which is a clear advantage as far as biotreatment process performance is concerned, also occurs. The ultimate fate of the LiCl was not determined. PMID:11549029

O'Brien, M; Hamer, G

2001-08-01

69

Cellulose esterification with fatty acids and acetic anhydride in lithium chloride\\/ N,N -dimethylacetamide medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homogeneous esterification of cellulose with saturated fatty acids (n-octanoic to n-octadecanoic) was accomplished with acetic anhydride co-reactant in lithium chloride\\/N,N-dimethylacetamide (LiCl\\/DMAc) medium. Cellulose mixed triesters (CMT) were obtained after 5 h at 130C with an average of\\u000a 2.2 acetyl groups and 0.8 fatty substituents per anhydroglucose unit. A mixed acetic-fatty anhydride, formed in situ, accounts for the grafting of the

C. Vaca-Garcia; S. Thiebaud; M. E. Borredon; G. Gozzelino

1998-01-01

70

Performance of (CoPC)n catalyst in active lithium-thionyl chloride cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study was conducted with anode limited D size cells to characterize the performance of an active lithium-thionyl chloride (Li/SOCl2) system using the polymeric cobalt phthalocyanine, (CoPC)n, catalyst in carbon cathodes. The author describes the results of this experiment with respect to initial voltage delays, operating voltages, and capacities. The effectiveness of the preconditioning methods evolved to alleviate passivation effects on storage are also discussed. The results clearly demonstrated the superior high rate capability of cells with the catalyst. The catalyst did not adversely impact the performance of cells after active storage for up to 6 months, while retaining its beneficial influences.

Shah, Pinakin M.

1990-01-01

71

Open cycle lithium chloride cooling system. Final report, March 1, 1982-May 28, 1983  

SciTech Connect

A lithium chloride open cycle absorption chiller has been designed, built and tested. Solution reconcentration takes place in a small counter-current packed column supplied with solar heated air. Removal of non-condensable gases that enter the chiller dissolved in the strong solution and the make-up refrigerant streams is accomplished by a liquid-jet ejector and a small vacuum pump. Cooling capacities approaching 1.4 tons and COP levels of 0.58 have been achieved at non-optimum operating conditions. Test results from preliminary system operation suggest that mass transfer processes in both the packed column reconcentrator and the absorber are controlled by concentration gradients in the lithium chloride solution. Liquid phase controlled mass transfer dictates an operating strategy different from the previously assumed gas phase controlled process to obtain maximum rates of evaporation in the packed column. Determination of optimal operating conditions leading to decreased electrical power consumption and improved cooling capacity and coefficient of performance will require further analysis and testing.

Lenz, T. G.; Loef, G. O.G.; Iyer, R.; Wenger, J.

1983-05-01

72

Performances of 250 Amp-hr lithium/thionyl chloride cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 250 Ah lithium thionyl chloride battery is being developed for a booster rocket engine. Extensive cell testing is running to evaluate functional and safety performances. Some results are presented. The lithium/thionyl chloride batteries were selected for their high energy density (low weight) as compared to other sources. The temperature of a lower weight item will be more sensitive to variations of internal and external heat fluxes than a heavier one. The use of high energy density L/TC batteries is subjected to stringent thermal environments to have benefit of energy density and to stay safe in any conditions. The battery thermal environment and discharge rate have to be adjusted to obtain the right temperature range at cell level, to have the maximum performances. Voltage and capacity are very sensitive to temperature. This temperature is the cell internal actual temperature during discharge. This temperature is directed by external thermal environment and by cell internal heat dissipation, i.e., cell actual voltage.

Goualard, Jacques

1991-01-01

73

Differential Effects of Lithium Chloride on In Vitro Growth of Clavibacter michiganense subsp. nebraskense Depending upon Inoculum Source.  

PubMed

The bacterium Clavibacter michiganense subsp. nebraskense (Corynebacterium michiganense subsp. nebraskense) was grown in broth cultures and inoculated into corn plants. The plating efficiency of cells from broth cultures was essentially the same on nutrient broth-yeast extract and the semiselective medium for this bacterium, CNS. However, when cells were isolated from Goss bacterial wilt- and blight-infected corn, very few were recovered on CNS compared with the amount recovered on nutrient broth-yeast extract agar. When lithium chloride was omitted from the CNS, recoveries from infected corn were nearly the same as on nutrient broth-yeast extract agar. No other ingredient of CNS was inhibitory, nor did substitution of other salts for lithium chloride cause equal inhibition. The amount of inhibition was proportional to lithium chloride concentration. The inhibition by lithium chloride occurred with several strains of the bacterium isolated from one corn cultivar and with one of the strains recovered from three different cultivars of infected corn. PMID:16347153

Smidt, M L; Vidaver, A K

1986-09-01

74

Flavor aversion learning induced by lithium chloride in reptiles but not in amphibians.  

PubMed

Flavor aversion learning occurs when digestive illness follows ingestion of a novel food. Such learning has been shown to exist in mammals and birds. In this experiment, we looked for flavor aversion learning in amphibians (Bufo paracnemis, Pachytriton breviceps) and reptiles (Basiliscus vitattus, B. basiliscus, Eumeces schneideri, Mabuya multifasciata). After intake of the novel food, the animals received i.p. injection of either lithium chloride (LiCl), an effective illness inducer, or a saline solution. A week later, the LiCl injection had not affected the food intake of the amphibians whereas in the lizards it had produced a strong aversion to the flavor of the novel food. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that specific mental capacities emerged with reptiles. PMID:15182921

Paradis, Sbastien; Cabanac, Michel

2004-07-30

75

Growth, Structural And Optical Studies On Bis L-alanine Lithium Chloride (BLALC) Single Crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bis L-alanine Lithium Chloride (BLALC) single crystals were grown successfully by solution method with slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Crystals of size 15 x 9 x 4 mm3 have been obtained in 28 days. The grown crystals were colourless and transparent. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) study showed that BLALC belongs to orthorhombic system with a non-centro-symmetric space group P212121. The crystallinity of BLALC crystal was confirmed by the powder X-ray diffraction study and diffraction peaks were indexed. The functional groups of the grown crystals have been identified by FTIR studies. UV-visible transmittance spectrum was recorded to study the optical transparency of BLALC crystal. The nonlinear optical (NLO) property of the grown crystal was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique.

Rose, A. S. J. Lucia; Selvarajan, P.; Perumal, S.

2011-10-01

76

Semiconductor detectors produced by lithium diffusion simulated by thermal radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for preparation of semiconductors (SD) with thin (10-20 micrometer) dead layers is described. Unlike the traditional technology, lithium diffusion by means of pulses of thermal radiation in the presence of a temperature gradient in the specimen is used to reduce the depth of the pn junction. The proposed method provides semiconductor detectors with parameters that bring the energy

M. G. Gornov; Yu. B. Gurov; Z. T. Kim; C. Y. Kim; B. P. Osipenko; J. Jurkowski

1988-01-01

77

Alkali Halide Opacity in Brown Dwarf and Cool Stellar Atmospheres: A Study of Lithium Chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent thermochemical equilibrium calculations have revealed the important role played by lithium chloride in the lithium chemistry of cool dwarf atmospheres (K. Lodders 1999, ApJ 519, 793). Indeed, LiCl appears to be the dominant Li-bearing gas over an extended domain of the (P,T) diagram, typically for temperatures below 1500 K. LiCl has a large dipole moment in its ground electronic state which can give rise to intense rovibrational line spectra. In addition, LiCl can make dipole transitions to several low-lying unbound excited states, causing dissociation of the molecule. For these reasons, LiCl may be a significant source of line and continuum opacity in brown dwarf and cool stellar atmospheres. In this work, we report calculations of complete lists of line oscillator strengths and photodissociation cross sections for the low-lying electronic states of LiCl. We have performed single- and double-excitation configuration interaction calculations using the ALCHEMY ab initio package (Mc Lean et al. 1991, MOTECC 91, Elsevier, Leiden) and obtained the potential curves and the corresponding dipole transition moment functions between the X 1? ^+ ground state and the B 1? ^+ and A 1? excited states. The resulting line oscillator strengths and molecular photodissociation cross sections have been included in the PHOENIX stellar atmosphere code (Hauschildt & Baron 1999, J. Comput. App. Math. 102, 41). The new models, calculated using spherical geometry for all gravities considered, also incorporate our latest database of nearly 670 million molecular lines, and updated equations of state (EOS). This work was supported in part by NSF grants AST-9720704 and AST-0086246, NASA grants NAG5-8425, NAG5-9222, and NAG5-10551 as well as NASA/JPL grant 961582.

Kirby, K.; Weck, P. F.; Schweitzer, A.; Stancil, P. C.; Hauschildt, P. H.

2003-12-01

78

A Lithium Chloride-Extracted, Broad-Spectrum-Adhesive 42-Kilodalton Protein of Staphylococcus epidermidis Is Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify novel putative staphylococcal adhesins, lithium chloride extraction (an established method for selective surface molecule solubilization) was employed. N-terminal sequencing and functional assays identi- fied a 42-kDa fibronectin-binding protein from Staphylococcus epidermidis as ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCTase). However, OCTase was not recognizable extracellularly, and this fact together with the fact that LiCl induced DNA release and a decrease in viability

MUZAFFAR HUSSAIN; GEORG PETERS; GURSHARAN S. CHHATWAL; MATHIAS HERRMANN

1999-01-01

79

Growth, spectral and crystallization perfection studies of semi organic non linear optical crystal - L-alanine lithium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of L-alanine lithium chloride single crystals were successfully grown using slow evaporation solution growth technique at constant temperature (303K). The formation of the new crystal has been confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR studies. The crystalline perfection was analyzed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) rocking curve measurements. The powder second harmonic generation (SHG) has been confirmed by Nd: YAG laser. The results have been discussed in detail.

Redrothu, Hanumantharao; Kalainathan, S.; Bhagavannarayana, G.

2012-06-01

80

New Aptes Cross-linked Polymers from Poly(ethylene oxide)s and Cyanuric Chloride for Lithium Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new series of polymer electrolytes for use as membranes for lithium batteries are described. Electrolytes were made by polymerization between cyanuric chloride and diamino-terminated poly(ethylene oxide)s, followed by cross-linking via a sol-gel process. Thermal analysis and lithium conductivity of freestanding polymer films were studied. The effects of several variables on conductivity were investigated, such as length of backbone PEO chain, length of branching PEO chain, extent of branching, extent of cross-linking, salt content, and salt counterion. Polymer films with the highest percentage of PEO were found to be the most conductive, with a maximum lithium conductivity of 3.9 x 10(exp -5) S/cm at 25 C. Addition of plasticizer to the dry polymers increased conductivity by an order of magnitude.

Tigelaar, Dean M.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Kinder, James D.; Bennett, William R.

2005-01-01

81

Observations on ADP Aggregation of Lithium Chloride Incubated Platelets in a Variety of Mammalian Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In citrated platelet-rich plasma of eight mammalian species lithium produces species-dependent effects on ADP aggregation ranging from stimulation to inhibition. Raising the extracellular calcium concentration enhanced aggregation of both lithium-stimulated and lithium-inhibited platelets, indicating that the extracellular calcium concentration has no direct relation to the effect of lithium on platelet function. Lithium did not induce changes in total intracellular platelet

Leon Imandt; Dorien Tyhuis; Hans Wessels; Clemens Haanen

1980-01-01

82

Activation of Wnt Signaling Using Lithium Chloride: Inquiry-Based Undergraduate Laboratory Exercises  

PubMed Central

Abstract Zebrafish provide researchers and students alike with an excellent model of vertebrate nervous system development due to a high degree of conserved developmental mechanisms and transparent embryos that develop in synchrony. In these laboratory exercises, undergraduate students explore cell biological concepts while performing hypothesis-driven novel research utilizing methodologies such as immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy, image analysis, pharmacology, and basic statistics. In the first block of exercises, students perform anti-acetylated tubulin (anti-AT) immunofluorescence, identify spinal tracts and neuronal subtypes, and perform conventional and confocal microscopy. Building on knowledge acquired in the first block of exercises, during the second block, students subsequently perform pharmacological activation of Wnt signaling through lithium chloride treatments, and assess nervous system integrity through anti-AT immunofluorescence. Students perform various quantitative methods and apply statistics to determine outcomes of Wnt activation. In their final laboratory report, students contextualize their results with foundations of molecular mechanisms of nervous system development. In sum, these exercises offer undergraduate students a model of independent research at the graduate level.

Ross, Andrew William

2012-01-01

83

Reentrant condensation of lysozyme: Implications for studying dynamics of lysozyme in aqueous solutions of lithium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have outlined the use of eutectic solution of lithium chloride in water to study microscopic dynamics of lysozyme in an aqueous solvent that is remarkably similar to pure water in many respects, yet allows experiments over a wide temperature range without the solvent crystallization. The eutectic point in (H2O)R(LiCl) system corresponds to R 7.3, and it is of interest to investigate whether less concentrated aqueous solutions of LiCl could be employed in low-temperature studies of a solvated protein. We have investigated a range of concentrations of lysozyme and LiCl in aqueous solutions to identify systems that do not show phase separation and avoid solvent crystallization on cooling down. Compared to the lysozyme concentration in solution, the concentration of LiCl in the aqueous solvent plays the major role in determining systems suitable for low-temperature studies. We have observed interesting and rich phase behavior reminiscent of reentrant condensation of proteins.

Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL] [ORNL; O'Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

84

Lithium-thionyl chloride battery. Final report, 1 October 1978-30 November 1980  

SciTech Connect

The main objective is to develop, fabricate, test, and deliver safe high rate lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for various U.S. Army applications such as manpack ratios and GLLD Laser Designators. We have devoted our efforts in the following major areas: (1) Optimization of the spirally wound D cell for high rate applications, (2) Development of a 3 inch diameter flat cylindrical cell for the GLLD laser designator application, and (3) Investigation of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2. The rate capability of the spirally wound D cell previously developed by us has been optimized for both the manpack radio (BA5590) battery and GLLD laser designator battery application in this program. A flat cylindrical cell has also been developed for the GLLD laser designator application. It is 3 inches in diameter and 0.9 inch in height with extremely low internal cell impedance that minimizes cell heating and polarization on the GLLD load. Typical cell capacity was found to be 18.0-19.0 Ahr with a few cells delivering up to about 21.0 Ahr on the GLLD test load. Study of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2 using electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques has also been carried out in this program which may be directly relevant to the intrinsic safety of the system.

Wong, D.; Bowden, W.; Hamilton, N.; Cubbison, D.; Dey, A.N.

1981-04-01

85

Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin material candidates for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries in 1.5M LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte have been investigated using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4 PH, and 446), three Fe-Ni glass sealing alloys (Kovar, Alloy 52, and Niromet 426), a Ni-based alloy (Hastelloy B-2) and a zirconium-based alloy (Zircaloy), were compared to the reference materials Ni and 316L SS. All of the candidate materials showed some evidence of corrosion and, therefore, did not perform as well as the reference materials. The Hastelloy B-2 and Zircaloy are clearly unacceptable materials for this application. Of the remaining alternate materials, the 446 SS and Alloy 52 are the most promising candidates.

Bovard, Francine S.; Cieslak, Wendy R.

1987-09-01

86

Electrochemical behavior of Al and the alloy Al-Mg-Hg-Zn in aqueous and methanol solutions of lithium chloride  

SciTech Connect

The present work was conducted to compare the electrochemical behavior of Al and the alloy Al-Mg-Hg-Zn in aqueous and methanol solutions of LiCl from the standpoint of their possible use as chemical current sources. All the measurements were performed at 25/sup 0/C. The reference electrode was a saturated silver chloride electrode. The electrode potentials are cited relative to the normal hydrogen electrode. The high negative potential of the alloy in methanol chloride-containing media, the negligible shift of electric potential under an anodic load, as well as the decrease in the negative difference effect in comparison with pure aluminum and the decrease in its significance with increasing concentration of the electrolyte salt -- lithium chloride -- indicate the substantial advantages of this alloy as an anode material in comparison with aluminum.

Gontmakher, N.M.; Bartenev, V.V.; Berkman, E.A.; Gershanova, I.M.; Grigor'ev, V.P.; Kravchenko, V.M.; Nechaeva, O.N.; Petrova, G.M.

1984-08-01

87

Lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide synthesized using alkali chloride flux: morphology and performance as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries.  

PubMed

Li(Ni(0.8)Co(0.1)Mn(0.1))O(2) (NCM811) was synthesized using alkali chlorides as a flux and the performance as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries was examined. Primary particles of the powder were segregated and grown separately in the presence of liquid state fluxes, which induced each particle to be composed of one primary particle with well-developed facet planes, not the shape of agglomerates as appears with commercial NCMs. The new NCM showed far less gas emission during high temperature storage at charged states, and higher volumetric capacity thanks to its high bulk density. The material is expected to provide optimal performances for pouch type lithium ion batteries, which require high volumetric capacity and are vulnerable to deformation caused by gas generation from the electrode materials. PMID:22497580

Kim, Yongseon

2012-05-01

88

Regioselective Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiation of 1-Chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzene: Role of Autocatalysis, Lithium Chloride Catalysis, and Reversibility  

PubMed Central

Ortholithiation of 1-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzene with lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in tetrahydrofuran at ?78 C displays characteristics of reactions in which aggregation events are rate limiting. Metalation with lithium chloride-free LDA involves a rate-limiting deaggregation via dimer-based transition structures. The post-rate-limiting proton transfers are suggested to involve highly solvated triple ions. Autocatalysis by the resulting aryllithiums or catalysis by traces (<100 ppm) of LiCl divert the reaction through di- and trisolvated monomer-based pathways for metalation at the two and six positions, respectively. The regiochemistry is dictated by a combination of kinetically controlled metalations overlayed by an equilibration involving diisopropylamine that is shown to occur by the microscopic reverse of the monomer-based metalations.

Hoepker, Alexander C.; Gupta, Lekha; Ma, Yun; Faggin, Marc F.; Collum, David B.

2011-01-01

89

Effect of Lithium chloride on the Endocrine Pancreas of Domestic Pigeon (Columba livia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though there are numerous antis - psychotic drugs, currently Lithium salts are therapeutically used for the treatment of many depressive illnesses in psychiatry. Lithium acts through the hypothalamic pathway, but it also produces side effects on the peripheral endocrine glands. Our knowledge is still limited regarding the latter aspect, so mechanism of lithium action through the extra - hypothalamic pathway

Subho Ghosh

90

Effect of lithium chloride on spectral, optical, thermal and mechanical behaviour of bis thiourea zinc acetate crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of pure bis thiourea zinc acetate (BTZA) and lithium chloride (LiCl) doped BTZA have been synthesized and grown successfully from aqueous solutions by slow evaporation technique. The single crystals thus grown were characterized by different techniques such as single crystal XRD, AAS, FT-IR, UV-Vis, TG/DTA and SHG test. The single crystal XRD study proved that the dopant has not changed the structure of the parent crystal. The AAS study confirmed the presence of lithium in the doped crystal. The FTIR study ascertained the metal coordination of lithium chloride doped BTZA through thiourea. The optical behavior of the doped crystal has been examined by UV spectral analysis. Thermal studies TGA & DTA of the doped crystal have been investigated and found that the doped crystal is thermally more stable than the pure crystal. The SHG test using Nd: YAG Laser confirmed the NLO activity of the pure and doped crystal. The obtained results are presented and discussed.

Ruby Nirmala, L.; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J.

2012-11-01

91

Factors Affecting the Plasticity of Sodium Chloride, Lithium Fluoride, and Magnesium Oxide Single Crystals. 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of the relative magnitude of the effects of various factors on the ductility of single crystals of sodium chloride (NaCl), lithium fluoride (LiF), and magnesium oxide (MgO). Specimen treatments included water-polishing, varying cleavage rate, annealing, quenching, X-irradiation, surface coating, aging, and combinations of some of these treatments. The mechanical behavior of the crystals was studied in flexure and in compression, the latter study being performed at both constant strain rate and constant load. Etch-pit studies were carried out to provide some pertinent information on the results of pretreatment on the dislocation concentration and distribution in the vicinity of the surface. The load deformation curves for these ionic single crystals show an initial region of very low slope which proved to be due to anelastic deformation. The extent of initial anelastic deformation is modified by specimen pretreatment in a way that suggests that this deformation is the result of expansion of cleaved-in dislocation loops, which can contract on the removal of the stress. The effects of the various pretreatments on the load and deflection at fracture are in accord with the prediction one might make with regard to their effect on the nucleation of fatal surface cracks. For NaCl, increases in ductility are always accompanied by increases in strength. The creep constants for NaCl are a function of treatments which affect the bulk structure but are not a function of treatments which only affect the surface.

Stearns, Carl A.; Pack, Ann E.; Lad, Robert A.

1959-01-01

92

Adolescent rats are protected from the conditioned aversive properties of cocaine and lithium chloride  

PubMed Central

In humans, most drug use is initiated during adolescence and adolescent users are more likely to become drug-dependent than adult users. Repeated, high levels of use are required for the transition from use to addiction. Individual levels of drug use are thought to result from a balance between the pleasant or rewarding and the unpleasant or aversive properties of the drug. Repeated high levels of drug use are required for the transition from drug use to dependence. We hypothesized that diminished aversive effects of drugs of abuse during adolescence might be one reason for higher rates of use and addiction during this phase. We therefore tested adolescent and adult CD rats in single-dose cocaine conditioned taste aversion (CTA) at a range of doses (1040 mg/kg), and examined whether various behavioral markers of addiction vulnerability were correlated to outcome in cocaine CTA. We found that adolescents are indeed less susceptible to cocaine CTA. In fact, age was the predominant predictor of CTA outcome, predominating over measures of novelty-seeking, anxiety, and stress hormone levels, which are all known to be related to drug intake in other models. Furthermore, we found that adolescent rats are also less susceptible to conditioned taste aversion to a low dose of a non-addictive substance, lithium chloride. These results suggest that one explanation for elevated drug use and addiction among adolescents is reduced aversive or use-limiting effects of the drugs. This contributes to our understanding of why adolescence is a particularly vulnerable period for development of drug abuse.

Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L.; Morris, Richard W.; Kuhn, Cynthia M.

2013-01-01

93

Radiation Chemical Studies of Protein Reactions: Effect of Alkaline-Earth Metals on the Breaking of Secondary Bonding in Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation protective effect of the breaking of secondary bonding in protein was examined with alkaline-earth metals such as magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, strontium nitrate, and barium chloride, and alkaline metals and heavy metals such as lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potasium nitrate, ferrous chloride, ferric sulfate, nickel sulfate, aluminum nitrate, and zinc sulfate. An empirical equation for the viscosity change

Mizuho Nisizawa

1973-01-01

94

Effects of lithium chloride on the gene expression profiles in Drosophila heads  

PubMed Central

To gain insight into the basic neurobiological processes regulated by lithiuman effective drug for bipolar disorderwe used Affymetrix Genome Arrays to examine lithium-induced changes in genome-wide gene expression profiles of head mRNA from the genetic model organism Drosophila melanogaster. First, to identify the individual genes whose transcript levels are most significantly altered by lithium, we analyzed the microarray data with stringent criteria (fold change > 2; p <0.001) and evaluated the results by RT-PCR. This analysis identified 12 genes that encode proteins with various biological functions, including an enzyme responsible for amino acid metabolism and a putative amino acid transporter. Second, to uncover the biological pathways involved in lithiums action in the nervous system, we used less stringent criteria (fold change >1.2; FDR <0.05) and assigned the identified 66 lithium-responsive genes to biological pathways using DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery). The gene ontology categories most significantly affected by lithium were amino acid metabolic processes. Taken together, these data suggest that amino acid metabolism is important for lithiums actions in the nervous system, and lay a foundation for future functional studies of lithium-responsive neurobiological processes using the versatile molecular and genetic tools that are available in Drosophila.

Kasuya, Junko; Kaas, Garrett; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

2009-01-01

95

Threshold conditions for damage to potassium chloride single crystals exposed to CW CO2 laser radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criteria are derived for damage to laser output windows for potassium chloride due to the thermal effect of laser radiation. A definition for damage criterion based on solution to an unsteady problem of thermal elasticity is proposed. The damage characteristics for single potassium chloride crystals by continuous focused laser radiation are investigated experimentally. Damage begins at the forward surface of

A. A. Blistanov; N. M. Voloshinskaya; Y. P. Glotov; K. Z. Bugaidullina; I. A. Zabolotskikh; V. N. Koterov; O. M. Kugayenko; V. V. Sumerin; V. A. Ulyanov; N. V. Cheburkin

1986-01-01

96

Combination of imatinib mesylate with lithium chloride and medroxyprogesterone acetate is highly active in Ishikawa endometrial carcinoma in vitro  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of the study was to investigate whether lithium chloride and medroxyprogesterone acetate can potentiate the cytotoxicity of imatinib mesylate in human endometrial cancer in vitro and the effect of midkine in these therapies. Methods Imatinib mesylate (50 M), lithium chloride (100 M), medroxyprogesterone acetate (200 M) and their combination were applied to monolayer and three dimensional cultures of human Ishikawa endometrial cancer for 72 hours. The cell proliferation index, apoptotic index, caspase-3 and midkine levels, cell cycle distributions in monolayer cultures and cell ultrastructure in spheroid cultures were evaluated. Results were statistically analyzed using the Student's t-test. Results All drug applications inhibited cell proliferation (p<0.05), however the combination were the effective groups for 72 hours (p<0.05). Interestingly, although the loss of efficiency was seen higly seen every 24 hours at single applications, the inhibition rates of the combination groups were almost same for 72 hours. In concordance with these results, the apoptotic index, caspase-3 levels (p<0.05), cell morphology and ultrastructure damages were much higher in the combination groups. Imatinib mesylate induced S-phase arrest, however other groups induced G0+G1-phase arrest at 24 hours and all groups induced G0+G1 arrest at 72 hours (p<0.05). Imatinib mesylate and imatinib mesylate with medroxyprogesterone acetate induced highest decrease in midkine levels, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusion The present study showed that the combination of imatinib mesylate with lithium chloride and medroxyprogesterone acetate is highly active in Ishikawa endometrial carcinoma in vitro and the inhibition of midkine involved in their mechanism of action against endometrium defense.

Erguven, Mine; Ermis, Ezgi; Sencan, Mine; Yazihan, Nuray

2011-01-01

97

Method of recycling lithium borate to lithium borohydride through diborane  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention provides a method for the recycling of lithium borate to lithium borohydride which can be reacted with water to generate hydrogen for utilization as a fuel. The lithium borate by-product of the hydrogen generation reaction is reacted with hydrogen chloride and water to produce boric acid and lithium chloride. The boric acid and lithium chloride are converted to

Filby; Evan E

1976-01-01

98

Growth, spectroscopic, dielectric and nonlinear optical studies of semi organic nonlinear optical crystal - L-Alanine lithium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new and efficient semi organic nonlinear optical crystal (NLO) from the amino acid family L-alanine lithium chloride (LAL) has been grown by slow evaporation technique from aqueous solution. The functional groups were identified from NMR spectral studies. Mass spectral analysis shows the molecular ion mass. Dielectric studies has been done for the grown crystal and relative SHG efficiency is measured by Kurtz and Perry method and found to about 0.43 times that of standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals. The compound crystallized in non-centrosymmetric space group Pna21. The results have been discussed in detail.

Hanumantharao, Redrothu; Kalainathan, S.

2012-02-01

99

Coefficients of heat and mass transfer in a packed bed suitable for solar regeneration of aqueous lithium chloride solutions  

SciTech Connect

Reconcentration of a lithium chloride solution in an open-cycle absorption chiller can be accomplished by passing solar heated air through a packed column to which the dilute solution is supplied. Following a theoretical study of heat transfer and water vapor transfer rates in the column, experimental measurement of those rates was made. Heat transfer and mass transfer coefficients are correlated with rates of air and liquid flow, and with temperatures of air and liquid supply. Performance data are presented and commercial design and operating requirements are suggested.

Lof, G.O.G.; Lenz, T.G.; Rao, S.

1984-11-01

100

Lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States consumes over one-half of the world's lithium and provides about 70 percent of the market economy world's supply of lithium. The report contains data on domestic and worldwide lithium production, consumption, and reserves to monitor and analyze supply-demand relationships. In addition, it presents comprehensive data on lithium including industry structure, uses, resources, technology, byproducts and coproducts, strategic

1979-01-01

101

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2005, lithium consumption in the United States was at 2.5 kt of contained lithium, nearly 32% more than the estimate for 2004. World consumption was 14.1 kt of lithium contained in minerals and compounds in 2003. Exports from the US increased slightly compared with 2004. Due to strong demand for lithium compounds in 2005, both lithium carbonate plants in Chile were operating at or near capacity.

Ober, J. A.

2006-01-01

102

Pairings of a Drug or Place Conditioned Stimulus With Lithium Chloride Produce Conditioned Sickness, Not Antisickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In different experiments, pairings of a drug (pentobarbital or morphine) or place as the conditioned stimulus (CS) with lithium-induced sickness as the unconditioned stimulus (US) were given to rats to produce Pavlovian conditioning. Control rats received unpaired exposures. In the test, each rat was exposed to the CS, injected with lithium, and then offered food. If such pairings produce conditioning

Bow Tong Lett

1992-01-01

103

Slow dynamics of water molecules in an aqueous solution of lithium chloride probed by neutron spin-echo.  

PubMed

Aqueous solutions of lithium chloride are uniquely similar to pure water in the parameters such as glass transition temperature, Tg, yet they could be supercooled without freezing down to below 200 K even in the bulk state. This provides advantageous opportunity to study low-temperature dynamics of water molecules in water-like environment in the bulk rather than nano-confined state. Using high-resolution neutron spin-echo data, we argue that the critical temperature, Tc, which is also common between lithium chloride aqueous solutions and pure water, is associated with the split of a secondary relaxation from the main structural relaxation on cooling down. Our results do not allow distinguishing between a well-defined separate secondary relaxation process and the "excess wing" scenario, in which the temperature dependence of the secondary relaxation follows the main relaxation. Importantly, however, in either of these scenarios the secondary relaxation is associated with density-density fluctuations, measurable in a neutron scattering experiment. Neutron scattering could be the only experimental technique with the capability of providing information on the spatial characteristics of the secondary relaxation through the dependence of the signal on the scattering momentum transfer. We propose a simple method for such analysis. PMID:23689686

Mamontov, E; Ohl, M

2013-07-14

104

Rapid toxin-induced gustatory conditioning in rats: separate and combined effects of systemic injection or intraoral infusion of lithium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experiment examined the individual and combined effects of systemic injection and oral ingestion of lithium chloride (LiCl) on both within and across session shifts in palatability. Male rats fitted with intraoral cannulae received two conditioning days in which they were injected with either LiCl or sodium chloride (NaCl) and were then presented with brief intraoral infusions of a

Shelley Cross-Mellor; Sharon N. D. A. Clarke; Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp

2004-01-01

105

EPR of radiation defects in lithium-oxyfluoride glass ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied oxyfluoride composites based on lithium silicate glasses with yttrium fluorides and rare-earth dopants. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been used to obtain information about radiation induced defects in these materials. Spectra have been measured before and after X-ray irradiation at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature. Fluoride crystallites within samples were created by means of thermal treatment at specific temperatures. EPR spectra of radiation induced defects in oxyfluoride glass ceramics, in which crystallites have not been yet created, show no explicit hfs interaction of fluorine nuclei. However, in glass ceramics, which already contains fluoride crystallites, the hfs characteristic to fluorine nuclei appears in the EPR spectra. EPR hyperfine structure could be explained within a model of an F-type centre in YF3 crystalline phase.

Fedotovs, A.; Rogulis, U.; Sarakovskis, A.; Dimitrocenko, L.

2010-11-01

106

Lithium  

MedlinePLUS

Lithium is also sometimes used to treat depression, schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. If you become pregnant while taking lithium, call ...

107

Lithium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States consumes over one-half of the world's lithium and provides about 70 percent of the market economy world's supply of lithium. The report contains data on domestic and worldwide lithium production, consumption, and reserves to monitor and ...

R. H. Singleton

1979-01-01

108

Involvement of nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in the anticonvulsant effects of lithium chloride on PTZ-induced seizure in mice.  

PubMed

Lithium is still the mainstay in the treatment of affective disorders as a mood stabilizer. Lithium also shows some anticonvulsant properties. While the underlying mechanisms of action of lithium are not yet exactly understood, we used a model of clonic seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male NMRI mice to investigate whether the anticonvulsant effect of lithium is mediated via NO-cGMP pathway. Injection of a single effective dose of lithium chloride (25 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) increased significantly the seizure threshold (P<0.01). The anticonvulsant properties of the effective dose of lithium were prevented by pre-treatment with the per se non-effective doses of L-ARG [the substrate for nitric oxide synthase; NOS] (30 and 50 mg/kg) or sildenafil [a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor] (10 and 20 mg/kg). L-NAME [a non-specific NOS inhibitor] (5, 15 and 30 mg/kg), 7-NI [a specific neural NOS inhibitor] (30 and 60 mg/kg) or MB [a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor] (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) augmented the anticonvulsant effect of a sub-effective dose of lithium (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Whereas several doses of aminoguanidine [an inducible NOS inhibitor] (20, 50 and 100 mg/kg) failed to alter the anticonvulsant effect of lithium. Our findings demonstrated that nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway could be involved in the anticonvulsant properties of the lithium chloride. In addition, the role of constitutive NOS versus inducible NOS is prominent in this phenomenon. PMID:20304610

Bahremand, Arash; Nasrabady, Sara Ebrahimi; Ziai, Pouya; Rahimian, Reza; Hedayat, Tina; Payandemehr, Borna; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

2010-05-01

109

Radiation damage and defect behavior in ion-implanted, lithium counterdoped silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boron doped silicon n+p solar cells were counterdoped with lithium by ion implantation and the resuitant n+p cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons. The function of fluence and a Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) was studied to correlate defect behavior with cell performance. It was found that the lithium counterdoped cells exhibited significantly increased radiation resistance when compared to boron doped control cells. It is concluded that the annealing behavior is controlled by dissociation and recombination of defects. The DLTS studies show that counterdoping with lithium eliminates at least three deep level defects and results in three new defects. It is speculated that the increased radiation resistance of the counterdoped cells is due primarily to the interaction of lithium with oxygen, single vacanies and divacancies and that the lithium-oxygen interaction is the most effective in contributing to the increased radiation resistance.

Weinberg, I.; Mehta, S.; Swartz, C. K.

1984-01-01

110

Radiation damage and defect behavior in ion-implanted, lithium counterdoped silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boron doped silicon n+p solar cells were counterdoped with lithium by ion implanation and the resultant n+p cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons. The function of fluence and a Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) was studied to correlate defect behavior with cell performance. It was found that the lithium counterdoped cells exhibited significantly increased radiation resistance when compared to boron doped control cells. It is concluded that the annealing behavior is controlled by dissociation and recombination of defects. The DLTS studies show that counterdoping with lithium eliminates at least three deep level defects and results in three new defects. It is speculated that the increased radiation resistance of the counterdoped cells is due primarily to the interaction of lithium with oxygen, single vacancies and divacancies and that the lithium-oxygen interaction is the most effective in contributing to the increased radiation resistance.

Weinberg, I.; Mehta, S.; Swartz, C. K.

1984-01-01

111

Radiation and phase change of lithium fluoride in an annulus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one-dimensional thermal model is developed to evaluate the effect of radiation on the phase change of lithium-fluoride (LiF) in an annular canister under gravitational and microgravitational conditions. Specified heat flux at the outer wall of the canister models focused solar flux; adiabatic and convective conditions are considered for the inner wall. A two-band radiation model is used for the combined-mode heat transfer within the canister, and LiF optical properties relate metal surface properties in vacuum to those in LiF. For axial gravitational conditions, the liquid LiF remains in contact with the two bounding walls, whereas a void gap is used at the outer wall to model possible microgravitational conditions. For the adiabatic cases, exact integrals are obtained for the time required for complete melting of the LiF. Melting was found to occur primarily from the outer wall in the 1-g model, whereas it occurred primarily from the inner wall in the mu-g model. For the convective cases, partially melted steady-state conditions and fully melted conditions are determined to depend on the source flux level, with radiation extending the melting times.

Lund, Kurt O.

1993-01-01

112

Water dynamics in a lithium chloride aqueous solution probed by Brillouin neutron and x-ray scattering.  

PubMed

We studied the collective excitations in an aqueous solution of lithium chloride over the temperature range of 270-205 K using neutron and x-ray Brillouin scattering. Both neutron and x-ray experiments revealed the presence of low- and high-frequency excitations, similar to the low- and high-frequency excitations in pure water. These two excitations were detectable through the entire temperature range of the experiment, at all probed values of the scattering momentum transfer (0.2 (-1) < Q < 1.8 (-1)). A wider temperature range was investigated using elastic intensity neutron and x-ray scans. Clear evidence of the crossover in the dynamics of the water molecules in the solution was observed in the single-particle relaxational dynamics on the eV (nanosecond) time scale, but not in the collective dynamics on the meV (picosecond) time scale. PMID:22277241

Mamontov, E; De Francesco, A; Formisano, F; Laloni, A; Sani, L; Leu, B M; Said, A H; Kolesnikov, A I

2012-02-15

113

Biphasic dose-dependent effect of lithium chloride on survival of human hormone-dependent breast cancer cells (MCF-7).  

PubMed

Lithium, the first element of Group I in the periodic system, is used to treat bipolar psychiatric disorders. Lithium chloride (LiCl) is a selective inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?), a serine/threonine kinase that regulates many cellular processes, in addition to its role in the regulation of glycogen synthase. GSK-3? is emerged as a promising drug target for various neurological diseases, type-2 diabetes, cancer, and inflammation. Several works have demonstrated that lithium can either inhibit or stimulate growth of normal and cancer cells. Hence, the present study is focused to analyze the underlying mechanisms that dictate the biphasic oncogenic properties of LiCl. In the current study, we have investigated the dose-dependent effects of LiCl on human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) by assessing the consequences on cytotoxicity and protein expressions of signaling molecules crucial for the maintenance of cell survival. The results showed breast cancer cells respond in a diverse manner to LiCl, i.e., at lower concentrations (1, 5, and 10mM), LiCl induces cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through regulation of GSK-3?, caspase-2, Bax, and cleaved caspase-7 and by activating anti-apoptotic proteins (Akt, ?-catenin, Bcl-2, and cyclin D1). In contrast, at high concentrations (50 and 100mM), it induces apoptosis by reversing these effects. Moreover, LiCl also alters the sodium and potassium levels thereby altering the membrane potential of MCF-7 cells. Thus it is inferred that LiCl exerts a dose-dependent biphasic effect on breast cancer cells (MCF-7) by altering the apoptotic/anti-apoptotic balance. PMID:23054864

Suganthi, Muralidharan; Sangeetha, Gopalakrishnan; Gayathri, Govindaraj; Ravi Sankar, Bhaskaran

2012-12-01

114

Dendritic cells from the elderly display an intrinsic defect in the production of IL-10 in response to lithium chloride.  

PubMed

Chronic, low grade inflammation is a characteristic of old age. Innate immune system cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) from the elderly display a pro-inflammatory phenotype associated with increased reactivity to self. Lithium is a well-established anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of bipolar disorders. It has also been reported to reduce inflammation in DCs. Here, we investigated whether Lithium is effective in reducing the inflammatory responses in DCs from the elderly. The effect of Lithium Chloride (LiCl) was compared on the response of TLR4 agonist, LPS and TLR2 agonist, PAM3CSK4 stimulated aged and young DCs. LiCl enhanced the production of IL-10 in LPS stimulated young DCs. However, it did not affect TNF-? and IL-6 production. In contrast, in aged DCs, LiCl reduced the secretion of TNF-? and IL-6 in LPS stimulated DCs but did not increase IL-10. LiCl had no significant effect on PAM3CSK4 responses in aged and young DCs. LiCl treated DCs also displayed differences at the level of CD4 T cell priming and polarization. LPS-stimulated young DCs reduced IFN-? secretion and biased the Th cell response towards Th2/Treg while LiCl treated aged DCs only reduced IFN-? secretion but did not bias the response towards Th2/Treg. In summary, our data suggests that LiCl reduces inflammation in aged and young DCs via different mechanisms. Furthermore, the effect of LiCl is different on LPS and PAM3CSK4 responses. PMID:23988651

Agrawal, Sudhanshu; Gollapudi, Sastry; Gupta, Sudhir; Agrawal, Anshu

2013-11-01

115

Radiative transitions from Rydberg states of lithium atoms in a blackbody radiation environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiative widths induced by blackbody radiation (BBR) were investigated for Rydberg states with principal quantum number up to n = 1000 in S-, P- and D-series of the neutral lithium atom at temperatures T = 100-3000 K. The rates of BBR-induced decays and excitations were compared with the rates of spontaneous decays. Simple analytical approximations are proposed for accurate estimations of the ratio of thermally induced decay (excitation) rates to spontaneous decay rates in wide ranges of states and temperatures.

Glukhov, I. L.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.

2012-05-01

116

Molecular Structure of Thionyl chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thionyl chloride is a slightly yellowish liquid with an intense odor and low viscosity. It reacts with lithium to produce lithium chloride and is a good solvent for most organic compounds. Other uses of thionyl chloride include as an intermediate for the production of pharmaceutically active ingredients, as an electrolyte in lithium batteries, and in crop protection.

2002-10-01

117

Radiation hardness of the storage phosphor europium doped potassium chloride for radiation therapy dosimetry  

PubMed Central

Purpose: An important property of a reusable dosimeter is its radiation hardness, that is, its ability to retain its dosimetric merits after irradiation. The radiation hardness of europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu2+), a storage phosphor material recently proposed for radiation therapy dosimetry, is examined in this study. Methods: Pellet-style KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters, 6 mm in diameter, and 1 mm thick, were fabricated in-house for this study. The pellets were exposed by a 6 MV photon beam or in a high dose rate 137Cs irradiator. Macroscopic properties, such as radiation sensitivity, dose response linearity, and signal stability, were studied with a laboratory photostimulated luminescence (PSL) readout system. Since phosphor performance is related to the state of the storage centers and the activator, Eu2+, in the host lattice, spectroscopic and temporal measurements were carried out in order to explore radiation-induced changes at the microscopic level. Results: KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters retained approximately 90% of their initial signal strength after a 5000 Gy dose history. Dose response was initially supralinear over the dose range of 100700 cGy but became linear after 60 Gy. Linearity did not change significantly in the 05000 Gy dose history spanned in this study. Annealing high dose history chips resulted in a return of supralinearity and a recovery of sensitivity. There were no significant changes in the PSL stimulation spectra, PSL emission spectra, photoluminescence spectra, or luminescence lifetime, indicating that the PSL signal process remains intact after irradiation but at a reduced efficiency due to reparable radiation-induced perturbations in the crystal lattice. Conclusions: Systematic studies of KCl:Eu2+ material are important for understanding how the material can be optimized for radiation therapy dosimetry purposes. The data presented here indicate that KCl:Eu2+ exhibits strong radiation hardness and lends support for further investigations of this novel material.

Driewer, Joseph P.; Chen, Haijian; Osvet, Andres; Low, Daniel A.; Li, H. Harold

2011-01-01

118

Radiation hardness of the storage phosphor europium doped potassium chloride for radiation therapy dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: An important property of a reusable dosimeter is its radiation hardness, that is, its ability to retain its dosimetric merits after irradiation. The radiation hardness of europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu{sup 2+}), a storage phosphor material recently proposed for radiation therapy dosimetry, is examined in this study. Methods: Pellet-style KCl:Eu{sup 2+} dosimeters, 6 mm in diameter, and 1 mm thick, were fabricated in-house for this study. The pellets were exposed by a 6 MV photon beam or in a high dose rate {sup 137}Cs irradiator. Macroscopic properties, such as radiation sensitivity, dose response linearity, and signal stability, were studied with a laboratory photostimulated luminescence (PSL) readout system. Since phosphor performance is related to the state of the storage centers and the activator, Eu{sup 2+}, in the host lattice, spectroscopic and temporal measurements were carried out in order to explore radiation-induced changes at the microscopic level. Results: KCl:Eu{sup 2+} dosimeters retained approximately 90% of their initial signal strength after a 5000 Gy dose history. Dose response was initially supralinear over the dose range of 100-700 cGy but became linear after 60 Gy. Linearity did not change significantly in the 0-5000 Gy dose history spanned in this study. Annealing high dose history chips resulted in a return of supralinearity and a recovery of sensitivity. There were no significant changes in the PSL stimulation spectra, PSL emission spectra, photoluminescence spectra, or luminescence lifetime, indicating that the PSL signal process remains intact after irradiation but at a reduced efficiency due to reparable radiation-induced perturbations in the crystal lattice. Conclusions: Systematic studies of KCl:Eu{sup 2+} material are important for understanding how the material can be optimized for radiation therapy dosimetry purposes. The data presented here indicate that KCl:Eu{sup 2+} exhibits strong radiation hardness and lends support for further investigations of this novel material.

Driewer, Joseph P.; Chen, Haijian; Osvet, Andres; Low, Daniel A.; Li, H. Harold [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 and Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, E4431 Lafferre Hall, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstrasse 7, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

2011-08-15

119

Radiation-induced network formation in polyvinyl chloride-polyfunctional monomer systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some aspects of the radiation polymerization of allylic polyfunctional monomers in mixtures with polyvinyl chloride have been investigated. The process proceeds through a stepwise formation of the network polymerizate from the polyfunctional monomer, reaction between the polymerizate and polyvinyl chloride and further crosslinking of polyvinyl chloride through reaction with residual allylic double bonds. The initiating radical for the first stage is a low-molecular weight radiolytic product of polyvinyl chloride (apparently, the chloro-radical). At higher initial monomer content the structure formed changes from that of a crosslinked copolymer to that of an interpenetrating network, during irradiation. In the presence of aliphatic plasticizer, the crosslinking density increases in irradiated compositions of polyvinyl chloride and polyfunctional monomers.

Dakin, V. I.

1996-09-01

120

Comparison of lithium chloride-phenylethanol-moxalactam and modified Vogel Johnson agars for detection of Listeria spp. in retail-level meats, poultry, and seafood.  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of Modified Vogel Johnson agar and lithium chloride-phenylethanol-moxalactam agar for detection of Listeria spp. in foods was compared by using the media to analyze retail-level meat, poultry, and seafood both by direct plating and in conjunction with a three-tube most-probable-number enrichment. The most-probable-number protocol detected Listeria species, including Listeria monocytogenes, in a substantial portion of the fresh meat and seafood samples. In most instances the Listeria levels were less than 2 CFU/g, which precluded detection by direct plating. Modified Vogel Johnson agar performed as well as did lithium chloride-phenylethanol-moxalactam agar and was considerably easier to use because of its ability to differentiate Listeria spp. from other microorganisms.

Buchanan, R L; Stahl, H G; Bencivengo, M M; Del Corral, F

1989-01-01

121

Production of lithium fluoride for thermoluminescent radiation detectors  

SciTech Connect

The authors examine thermostimulated luminescence for lithium fluoride single crystals in relation to the method of producing the initial raw material and the features of the preliminary treatment. They conclude that only especially pure lithium fluoride made via the hydrofluoride, which is then decomposed, can be used without additional treatment to make single crystal thermoluminescent dosimeters having low intensities for lowtemperature peaks.

Mironenko, S.N.; Ikrami, D.D.; Nepomnyashchikh, A.I.; Paramzin, A.S.; Rakhimov, M.E.

1985-08-01

122

Production of lithium fluoride for thermoluminescent radiation detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine thermostimulated luminescence for lithium fluoride single crystals in relation to the method of producing the initial raw material and the features of the preliminary treatment. They conclude that only especially pure lithium fluoride made via the hydrofluoride, which is then decomposed, can be used without additional treatment to make single crystal thermoluminescent dosimeters having low intensities for

S. N. Mironenko; D. D. Ikrami; A. I. Nepomnyashchikh; A. S. Paramzin; M. E. Rakhimov

1985-01-01

123

Radiation damage in lithium-counterdoped n/p silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium counterdoped n+/p silicon solar cells were irradiated with 1 MV electrons and their post irradiation performance and low temperature annealing properties were compared to that of the 0.35 ohm cm control cells. Cells fabricated from float zone and Czochralski grown silicon were investigated. It was found that the float zone cells exhibited superior radiation resistance compared to the control cells, while no improvement was noted for the Czochralski grown cells. Room temperature and 60 C annealing studies were conducted. The annealing was found to be a combination of first and second order kinetics for short times. It was suggested that the principal annealing mechanism was migration of lithium to a radiation induced defect with subsequent neutralization of the defect by combination with lithium. The effects of base lithium gradient were investigated. It was found that cells with negative base lithium gradients exhibited poor radiation resistance and performance compared to those with positive or no lithium gradients; the latter being preferred for overall performance and radiation resistance.

Hermann, A. M.; Swartz, C. K.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Weinberg, I.

1980-01-01

124

Radiation damage and defect behavior in proton irradiated lithium-counterdoped n+p silicon solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two lithium-counterdoped n+p silicon solar cells with different lithium concentrations were irradiated by 10-MeV protons. Cell performance was measured as a function of fluence, and it was found that the cell with the highest concentration of lithium had the highest radiation resistance. Deep level transient spectroscopy which showed two deep level defects that were lithium related. Relating the defect energy

John Stupica; Chandra Goradia; Clifford K. Swartz; Irving Weinberg

1987-01-01

125

The 250AH/90A active lithium-thionyl chloride cell for Centaur-G application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high rate active Li/SOCl2 cell was designed for use in a 28 volt, 250 amp-hour space battery system. The lithium battery is being considered as a replacement of its heavier silver-zinc counterpart on board the Centaur-G booster rocket which is used to launch payloads from the Space Shuttle cargo bay into deep-space. Basically a feasibility study, this development effort is demonstrating the ability of the lithium cell to deliver up to 90 amps safely at power densities of approximately 25 watts per pound. Test data on 4 prototype units is showing an energy density of 85 watt-hours per pound and 9.0 watt-hours/cu in. The cells tested typically delivered 280 to 300 amp-hours under ambient temperature test conditions using alternating continuous loads of 90, 55, and 20 amperes throughout life. Data from four cells tested are presented to demonstrate the capability of Li/SOCl2 technology for a C/3 discharge rate in active and hermetic cell units.

Zolla, A. E.; Tura, D. D.

1987-01-01

126

Hydrolytic processes and condensation reactions in the cellulose solvent system N, N-dimethylacetamide\\/lithium chloride. Part 2: degradation of cellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain cellulose samples, especially those of higher molecular weight, are initially insoluble in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc, 1)\\/lithium chloride, which is a very common solvent system for cellulosic materials. According to a common protocol, heating or refluxing these samples in DMAc, or in DMAc containing dissolved LiCl, represents one of several so-called activation procedures, which are aimed at facilitating subsequent dissolution. In

Antje Potthast; Thomas Rosenau; Jrgen Sartori; Herbert Sixta; Paul Kosma

2003-01-01

127

Central infusion of glucagon-like peptide-1-(736) amide (GLP-1) receptor antagonist attenuates lithium chloride-induced c-Fos induction in rat brainstem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central infusion of glucagon-like peptide-1-(736) amide (GLP-1) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of lithium chloride (LiCl) produce similar patterns of c-Fos induction in the rat brain. These similarities led us to assess the hypothesis that neuronal activity caused by i.p. injection of LiCl involves activation of central GLP-1 pathways. We therefore determined if third-ventricular (i3vt) infusion of a GLP-1 receptor antagonist

Todd E. Thiele; Randy J. Seeley; David D Alessio; John Eng; Ilene L. Bernstein; Stephen C. Woods; Gertjan van Dijk

1998-01-01

128

Emergency and continuous-exposure guidance levels for selected airborne contaminants. Volume 7. Ammonia, hydrogen chloride, lithium bromide, and toluene. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report develops emergency exposure guidance levels (EEEGLs) and continuous exposure guidance levels (CEGLs) for compounds of interest to the Navy, namely, ammonia, hydrogen chloride, lithium bromide, toluene. This is part of a study to assess the quality of the air in the enclosed environment of a nuclear submarine. It also serves as the seventh volume in a series suggesting EEGLs, CEGLs, and SPEGLs recommended by COT.

Not Available

1987-01-01

129

Method of recycling lithium borate to lithium borohydride through methyl borate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention provides a method for the recycling of lithium borate to lithium borohydride which can be reacted with water to generate hydrogen for utilization as a fuel. The lithium borate by-product of the hydrogen generation reaction is reacted with hydrogen chloride and water to produce boric acid and lithium chloride. The boric acid and lithium chloride are converted to

Filby

1977-01-01

130

The effects of lithium counterdoping on radiation damage and annealing in n(+)p silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boron-doped silicon solar cells were counterdoped with lithium and the resultant n+p cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons. Lithium counterdoped cells exhibit significantly increased radiation resistance with considerable annealing occurring at 100? C; DLTS studies indicate that the annealing behavior is controlled by a single defect at Ev + 0.43 eV. It is concluded that the increased radiation resistance of the counterdoped cells is due primarily to the interaction of lithium with oxygen, single vacancies and divacancies. It is speculated that the lithium-oxygen interaction is the most effective in contributing to the increased radiation resistance.

Weinberg, I.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Mehta, S.; Swartz, C. K.

1984-01-01

131

Effects of heavy particle irradiation and diet on amphetamine- and lithium chloride-induced taste avoidance learning in rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rats were maintained on diets containing either 2% blueberry or strawberry extract or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to 1.5 Gy of 56Fe particles in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Three days following irradiation, the rats were tested for the effects of irradiation on the acquisition of an amphetamine- or lithium chloride-induced (LiCl) conditioned taste avoidance (CTA). The rats maintained on the control diet failed to show the acquisition of a CTA following injection of amphetamine. In contrast, the rats maintained on antioxidant diets (strawberry or blueberry extract) continued to show the development of an amphetamine-induced CTA following exposure to 56Fe particles. Neither irradiation nor diet had an effect on the acquisition of a LiCl-induced CTA. The results are interpreted as indicating that oxidative stress following exposure to 56Fe particles may be responsible for the disruption of the dopamine-mediated amphetamine-induced CTA in rats fed control diets; and that a reduction in oxidative stress produced by the antioxidant diets functions to reinstate the dopamine-mediated CTA. The failure of either irradiation or diet to influence LiCl-induced responding suggests that oxidative stress may not be involved in CTA learning following injection of LiCl.

Rabin, Bernard M.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Szprengiel, Aleksandra; Joseph, James A.

2002-01-01

132

A potentiodynamic study of aluminum-lithium alloys in an aqueous sodium chloride environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of the potentiodynamic curves for Al-Li alloys in 3.5 percent NaCl aqueous solution are explained and the electrochemical parameters of the potentiodynamic technique are correlated to observed pitting and intergranular cracking behavior. It is shown that the oxygen content of the sodium chloride electrolyte plays an important role in the electrochemical behavior of Al-Li alloys. The potentiodynamic behavior of the alloys is found to be insensitive to variation in compositional content and heat treatment, both of which affect the stress-corrosion behavior. Stringer oxide particle attack and random pitting are observed. It is shown that alternate-immersion exposure prior to potentiodynamic polarization may offer a means of assessing susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking.

Tsao, C.-H. T.; Pizzo, P. P.

1985-01-01

133

Tadiran High Energy Lithium Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The electrical and environmental performance of a primary lithium inorganic battery is described as well as its reliability and safety features. The cell consists of a lithium anode, a carbon cathode, and a solution of lithium aluminum chloride in thionyl...

1977-01-01

134

Radiation Grafting of Acrylonitrile onto Polyester Fiber as the Reinforcing Filler for Poly (Vinyl Chloride).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies have been carried out on radiation-induced grafting of acrylonitrile onto polyester fiber and on the properties of the grafted fiber in an attempt to increase the strength of polyester fiber reinforced soft poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) sheet by imp...

K. Kaji I. Ando

1985-01-01

135

Differential angiogenic properties of lithium chloride in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Wnt/?-catenin signaling induced by the Norrin/Frizzled-4 pathway has been shown to improve capillary repair following oxygen induced retinopathy (OIR) in the mouse, a model for retinopathy of prematurity. Here we investigated if treatment with the monovalent cation lithium that has been shown to augment Wnt/?-catenin signaling in vitro and in vivo has similar effects. In cultured human microvascular endothelial cells, LiCl as well as SB 216763, another small molecule that activates Wnt/?-catenin signaling, induced proliferation, survival and migration, which are all common parameters for angiogenic properties in vitro. Moreover, treatment with both agents caused an increase in the levels of ?-catenin and their translocation to nuclei while quercetin, an inhibitor of Wnt/?-catenin signaling, completely blocked the effects of LiCl on proliferation. In mice with OIR, intraperitonal or intravitreal treatment with LiCl markedly increased the retinal levels of ?-catenin, but did not improve capillary repair. In contrast, repair was significantly improved following intravitreal treatment with Norrin. The effects of LiCl on HDMEC in vitro have minor relevance for OIR in vivo, and the influence of the Norrin/Frizzled-4 pathway on capillary repair in OIR is not reproducible upon enhancing Wnt/?-catenin signaling by LiCl treatment strongly indicating the presence of additional and essential mechanisms. PMID:24751879

Zeilbeck, Ludwig F; Mller, Birgit; Knobloch, Verena; Tamm, Ernst R; Ohlmann, Andreas

2014-01-01

136

Differential Angiogenic Properties of Lithium Chloride In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Wnt/?-catenin signaling induced by the Norrin/Frizzled-4 pathway has been shown to improve capillary repair following oxygen induced retinopathy (OIR) in the mouse, a model for retinopathy of prematurity. Here we investigated if treatment with the monovalent cation lithium that has been shown to augment Wnt/?-catenin signaling in vitro and in vivo has similar effects. In cultured human microvascular endothelial cells, LiCl as well as SB 216763, another small molecule that activates Wnt/?-catenin signaling, induced proliferation, survival and migration, which are all common parameters for angiogenic properties in vitro. Moreover, treatment with both agents caused an increase in the levels of ?-catenin and their translocation to nuclei while quercetin, an inhibitor of Wnt/?-catenin signaling, completely blocked the effects of LiCl on proliferation. In mice with OIR, intraperitonal or intravitreal treatment with LiCl markedly increased the retinal levels of ?-catenin, but did not improve capillary repair. In contrast, repair was significantly improved following intravitreal treatment with Norrin. The effects of LiCl on HDMEC in vitro have minor relevance for OIR in vivo, and the influence of the Norrin/Frizzled-4 pathway on capillary repair in OIR is not reproducible upon enhancing Wnt/?-catenin signaling by LiCl treatment strongly indicating the presence of additional and essential mechanisms.

Zeilbeck, Ludwig F.; Muller, Birgit; Knobloch, Verena; Tamm, Ernst R.; Ohlmann, Andreas

2014-01-01

137

PRODUCTION OF LITHIUM HYDRIDE POWDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the production of lithium hydride powder is described. ; Lithium carbonate was converted into the chloride. From a saturated solution of ; the chloride lithium amalgam was produced by electrolysis. The lithium amalgam ; was then converted into the hydride by heating the amalgam in a hydrogen ; atmosphere. The apparatus used for the reaction of the

J. Novotny; M. Novotna

1959-01-01

138

Multifunctional Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A system for non-venting thermal control for spacesuits was built by integrating two previously developed technologies, namely NASA's Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare's flexible version of the Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR...

E. Hodgson, G. C. Bue, M. Izenson, W. Chen

2013-01-01

139

Neural Network Modeling of the Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery System  

SciTech Connect

Battery systems have traditionally relied on extensive build and test procedures for product realization. Analytical models have been developed to diminish this reliance, but have only been partially successful in consistently predicting the performance of battery systems. The complex set of interacting physical and chemical processes within battery systems has made the development of analytical models a significant challenge. Advanced simulation tools are needed to more accurately model battery systems which will reduce the time and cost required for product realization. Sandia has initiated an advanced model-based design strategy to battery systems, beginning with the performance of lithiumhhionyl chloride cells. As an alternative approach, we have begun development of cell performance modeling using non-phenomenological models for battery systems based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). ANNs are inductive models for simulating input/output mappings with certain advantages over phenomenological models, particularly for complex systems. Among these advantages is the ability to avoid making measurements of hard to determine physical parameters or having to understand cell processes sufficiently to write mathematical functions describing their behavior. For example, ANN models are also being studied for simulating complex physical processes within the Li/SOC12 cell, such as the time and temperature dependence of the anode interracial resistance. ANNs have been shown to provide a very robust and computationally efficient simulation tool for predicting voltage and capacity output for Li/SOC12 cells under a variety of operating conditions. The ANN modeling approach should be applicable to a wide variety of battery chemistries, including rechargeable systems.

Ingersoll, D.; Jungst, R.G.; O'Gorman, C.C.; Paez, T.L.

1998-10-29

140

Ab initio MRSDCI study on the low-lying electronic states of the lithium chloride molecule (LiCl).  

PubMed

Potential energy curves (PECs) for the low-lying states of the lithium chloride molecule (LiCl) have been calculated using the internally contracted multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) method with the aug-cc-PVnZ (AVnZ) and aug-cc-PCVnZ (ACVnZ) basis sets, where n = T, Q, and 5. First, we calculate PECs for 7 spin-orbit (SO)-free ?-S states, X(1)?(+), A(1)?(+), (3)?(+), (1)?, and (3)?, and then obtain PECs for 13 SO ? states, X0(+), A0(+), B0(+), 0(-)(I), 0(-)(II), 1(I), 1(II), 1(III), and 2, by diagonalizing the matrix of the electronic Hamiltonian plus the Breit-Pauli SO Hamiltonian. The MRSDCI calculations not including core orbital correlation through the single and double excitations are also performed with the AV5Z and ACV5Z basis sets. The Davidson corrections (Q0) are added to both the ?-S and ? state energies. Vibrational eigenstates for the obtained X(1)?(+) and X0(+) PECs are calculated by solving the time-independent Schro?dinger equation with the grid method. Thus, the effects of basis set, core orbital correlation, and the Davidson correction on the X(1)?(+) and X0(+) PECs of LiCl are investigated by comparing the spectroscopic constants calculated from the PECs with one another and with experiment. It is confirmed that to accurately predict the spectroscopic constants we need to include core-electron correlation in the CI expansion and use the basis sets designed to describe core-valence correlation, i.e., ACVnZ. The SO PECs presented in this paper will be of help in the future study of diatomic alkali halide dynamics. PMID:22897271

Kurosaki, Yuzuru; Yokoyama, Keiichi

2012-08-14

141

Contrasting Effects of Lithium Chloride and CB1 Receptor Blockade on Enduring Changes in the Valuation of Reward  

PubMed Central

When an organism responds for a reward, its learned behavior can be characterized as goal-directed or habitual based on whether or not it is susceptible to reward devaluation. Here, we evaluated whether instrumental responding for brain stimulation reward (BSR) can be devalued using a paradigm traditionally used for natural rewards. Rats were trained to lever press for BSR; afterward, BSR was paired with either lithium chloride (LiCl, 5?mg/kg, i.p.), a pro-emetic, or AM251, a CB1 receptor antagonist (3?mg/kg, i.p.) or the vehicle of these compounds. Pairings of BSR with these compounds and their vehicles were performed in a novel environment so that only unconditional effects of BSR would be affected by the pharmacological manipulations. Subsequently, in a probe test, all rats were returned in the drug-free state to the boxes where they had received training and instrumental responding was reassessed in the absence of BSR delivery. When compared to control, LiCl produced a significant decrease in the number of responses during the test session, whereas AM251 did not. These results show that instrumental responding for BSR is susceptible to devaluation, in accord with the proposal that this behavior is supported at least in part by associations between the response and the rewarding outcome. Further, they suggest that reward modulation observed in studies involving the use of CB1 receptor antagonists arises from changes in the organisms motivation rather than drug-induced changes in the intrinsic value of reward.

Hernandez, Giovanni; Bernstein, David; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey; Cheer, Joseph F.

2011-01-01

142

The neuroprotective action of the mood stabilizing drugs lithium chloride and sodium valproate is mediated through the up-regulation of the homeodomain protein Six1  

SciTech Connect

The mood stabilizing agents lithium chloride (LiCl) and sodium valproate (VPA) have recently gained interest as potential neuroprotective therapeutics. However, exploitation of these therapeutic applications is hindered by both a lack of molecular understanding of the mode of action, and a number of sub-optimal properties, including a relatively small therapeutic window and variable patient response. Human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were exposed to 1 mM lithium chloride or 1 mM sodium valproate for 6 h or 72 h, and transcriptomes measured by Affymetrix U133A/B microarray. Statistically significant gene expression changes were identified using SAM software, with selected changes confirmed at transcript (TaqMan) and protein (Western blotting) levels. Finally, anti-apoptotic action was measured by an in vitro fluorescent assay. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to therapeutically relevant concentrations of either lithium chloride or sodium valproate elicited 936 statistically significant changes in gene expression. Amongst these changes we observed a large (maximal 31.3-fold) increase in the expression of the homeodomain protein Six1, and have characterized the time- and dose-dependent up-regulation of this gene in response to both drugs. In addition, we demonstrate that, like LiCl or VPA treatment, Six1 over-expression protects SH-SY5Y cells from staurosporine-induced apoptosis via the blockade of caspsase-3 activation, whereas removal of Six1 protein via siRNA antagonises the ability of LiCl and VPA to protect SH-SY5Y cells from STS-induced apoptosis. These results provide a novel mechanistic rationale underlying the neuroprotective mechanism of LiCl and VPA, suggesting exciting possibilities for the development of novel therapeutic agents against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinsonism.

Plant, Kathryn E.; Anderson, Elizabeth [Centre for Toxicology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Simecek, Nicole [Safety Assessment, GlaxoSmithKline, Welwyn, AL6 9AR (United Kingdom); Brown, Richard; Forster, Sam; Spinks, Jenny [Centre for Toxicology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Toms, Nick [Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, EX1 2LU (United Kingdom); Gibson, G. Gordon [Centre for Toxicology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Lyon, Jon [Safety Assessment, GlaxoSmithKline, Welwyn, AL6 9AR (United Kingdom); Plant, Nick [Centre for Toxicology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: N.Plant@Surrey.ac.uk

2009-02-15

143

Fortuitous formation of [(LiCl) 6{(Me 2NCH 2C 8H 5N) 3P} 2]: an amine-ligated hexameric lithium chloride aggregate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deprotonation of gramine with nBuLi and subsequent reaction with PCl3 yielded [(LiCl)6{(Me2NCH2C8H5N)3P}2] (2). Compound 2 was characterized by NMR (1H, 13C, 31P) spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and X-ray crystallography. The molecular structure of 2 reveals a novel hexameric lithium chloride aggregate ligated on each of two hexagonal faces by three dimethylamino groups from the intended product, tris{(3-dimethylamino-methyl)indolyl}phosphine. Crystal data for 23CH2Cl2:

Mark R. Mason; Floyd A. Beckford; Kristin Kirschbaum; Bradford J. Gorecki

2005-01-01

144

Generation of visible and mid-infrared radiation in periodically poled nearly stoichiometric lithium tantalate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodically poled, nearly-stoichiometric lithium tantalate has used to generate visible radiation (by second-harmonic generation using Nd:YAG laser) and mid-infrared radiation (by difference-frequency generation using a Nd:YAG laser and a tunable telecommunications-band laser). Phase-matching conditions have been measured for both interactions at temperatures between 25 degrees Centigrade and 131 degrees centigrade. The absolute conversion efficiency for SHG has been measured and

Douglas J. Bamford; David J. Cook; Scott J. Sharpe; Aaron Van Pelt

2005-01-01

145

Study of interaction among silicon, lithium, oxygen and radiation-induced defects for radiation-hardened solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to improve reliability and the useful lifetime of solar cell arrays for space use, a program was undertaken to develop radiation-hardened lithium-doped silicon solar cells. These cells were shown to be significantly more resistant to degradation by ionized particles than the presently used n-p nonlithium-doped silicon solar cells. The results of various analyses performed to develop a more complete understanding of the physics of the interaction among lithium, silicon, oxygen, and radiation-induced defects are presented. A discussion is given of those portions of the previous model of radiation damage annealing which were found to be in error and those portions which were upheld by these extensive investigations.

Berman, P. A.

1973-01-01

146

Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conductance of battery electrolyte should be large to avoid internal resistive losses during current passage. Since the maximum current which may be drawn from a cell is resistance limited, the conductivity of electrolyte becomes an important paramete...

L. Nanis V. K. Kapur M. A. Gencer

1977-01-01

147

The effect of passivating films involving the lithium anode in thionyl chloride, bromine trifluoride, molten nitrates and molten perchlorates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of lithium metal anodes in oxidizing solvents requires the formation of a stable passivating film at the anode surface. For battery applications, the ideal film would be an excellent ion conductor with all of the charge being transported by the metal ion. The passivating film for lithium anodes consists mainly of LiCl in SOCl2, LiF or LiBrF4 in

Melvin H. Miles

1997-01-01

148

Non-radiative inelastic processes in lithium-helium ion-atom collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: The aims are to estimate efficiencies of non-radiative inelastic processes in lithium-helium ion-atom collisions and to compare them to those for radiative processes. Methods: Non-radiative inelastic cross-sections and rate coefficients for different lithium-helium ion-atom collisions are estimated by means of the recently proposed branching probability current method, which is based on the accurate ab initio adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer potentials that have been recently calculated for the low-lying 1,3?+ and 1,3? states of the LiHe+ ion. Results: It is shown that at low temperatures the radiative depopulation in Li+ + He and Li + He+ collisions dominates over the non-radiative processes, while in Li+ + He(2s 3S) collisions the non-radiative processes dominate over the radiative association at temperatures above 3000 K, which can be expected to have some influence on depopulations of metastable He in high temperature astrophysical environments.

Belyaev, Andrey K.; Augustovi?ov, Lucie; Soldn, Pavel; Kraemer, Wolfgang P.

2014-05-01

149

Radiation-induced grafting of vinyl benzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride onto nylon-6 fabric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vinyl benzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (VBTAC) was grafted onto nylon-6 fabric in the presence of 2- hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA) by the simultaneous irradiation method in the presence of air with 60Co ?-radiations. An increase in grafting was observed with increasing dose. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed the grafting of VBTAC. Morphological changes after grafting were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern showed changes in crystallinity on grafting. The initial studies carried out with grafted nylon fabric showed behavioural changes in the burning properties.

Kolhe, Shailesh M.; Kumar, Ashok

2007-05-01

150

Process for recovering lithium from a brine  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

There is disclosed herein a process for recovering lithium from an impure natural or industrial brine, the process comprising adjusting the pH of a feed brine containing lithium to a value of no less than 11.3 and separating the waste solids and a solution containing lithium values. The solution may be further concentrated and treated to obtain lithium carbonate and a lithium chloride solution suitable for obtaining electrolytic grade lithium chloride.

2014-02-04

151

Radiation effects on microcrystalline cellulose in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid.  

PubMed

The radiation processing of cellulose in ionic liquids (ILs) demands a comprehensive knowledge of radiation effects on cellulose in ILs. Herein, gamma radiation-induced degradation kinetics of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) was studied by viscometry. The intrinsic viscosity of MCC in [Bmim]Cl decreased slightly with increasing dose; while chemical structure and crystalline state of cellulose has no obvious change up to 300 kGy. The radiation degradation rate constant (k) of MCC in [Bmim]Cl was 2.6010(-7)/kGy, lower than that of solid cellulose, but higher than that in N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) solvent. Furthermore, k value decreased to 1.1210(-7)/kGy in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/[Bmim]Cl system due to the free radicals scavenging of DMSO. The radicals generated during irradiation play main role in the radiation degradation of MCC in [Bmim]Cl. This work provides a new way to control the average molecular weight of cellulose by radiation-induced degradation of cellulose in ILs. PMID:22944426

Hao, Yan; Peng, Jing; Ao, Yinyong; Li, Jiuqiang; Zhai, Maolin

2012-11-01

152

Polymer-based triphenyl tetrazolium chloride films for ultraviolet radiation monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation monitoring films were prepared from solutions of polymers (polyvinyl, alcohol, PVA, or polyvinyl butyral, PVB), containing triphenyl tetrazolium chloride dye (TTC). These films have a pronounced response to the main UV radiation spectral regions [UV-A (400-320 nm), UV-B (320-280 nm), and UV-C (280-180 nm)] showing different sensitivities. PVA/TTC film has its maximum sensitivity in the UV-A region, while PVB/TTC film has its maximum sensitivity in the UV-C region. Both films have almost the same sensitivity in the UV-B region. The radiation-induced colour change is analysed spectrophotometrically at the maximum of the visible absorption band peaking at 492 nm wavelength. The measurement uncertainty of estimating ultraviolet radiation energy incident per unit area on the films is found to be about 3.5% (1 ?). The study of the effect of radiance exposure, incident wavelength, and storage conditions have been carried out to characterise the use of these films for actinometric monitoring artificial ultraviolet radiation sources which are used for medical and industrial applications.

Ebraheem, S.; Abdel-Fattah, A. A.; Said, F. I.; Ali, Z. I.

2000-02-01

153

Laser-produced lithium plasma as a narrow-band extended ultraviolet radiation source for photoelectron spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Extended ultraviolet (EUV) emission characteristics of a laser-produced lithium plasma are determined with regard to the requirements of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The main features of interest are spectral distribution, photon flux, bandwidth, source size, and emission duration. Laser-produced lithium plasmas are characterized as emitters of intense narrow-band EUV radiation. It can be estimated that the lithium Lyman-alpha line emission in combination with an ellipsoidal silicon/molybdenum multilayer mirror is a suitable EUV source for an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy microscope with a 50-meV energy resolution and a 10-mum lateral resolution. PMID:18268711

Schriever, G; Mager, S; Naweed, A; Engel, A; Bergmann, K; Lebert, R

1998-03-01

154

ASSESSMENT OF LITHIUM USING THE IEHR EVALUATIVE PROCESS FOR ASSESSING HUMAN DEVELOPMENTAL AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF AGENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This document presents an evaluation of the reproductive and developmental effects of lithium and reviews toxicologic information on several specific lithium salts: ithium carbonate, lithium chloride, lithium citrate, and lithium hypochlorite. ithium (Li), an alkali metal, is a n...

155

Rapid toxin-induced gustatory conditioning in rats: separate and combined effects of systemic injection or intraoral infusion of lithium chloride.  

PubMed

The present experiment examined the individual and combined effects of systemic injection and oral ingestion of lithium chloride (LiCl) on both within and across session shifts in palatability. Male rats fitted with intraoral cannulae received two conditioning days in which they were injected with either LiCl or sodium chloride (NaCl) and were then presented with brief intraoral infusions of a sucrose plus LiCl or NaCl solution. The individual taste reactivity responses during the intraoral infusions were videotaped and later analyzed for response frequency. Forty-eight hours after the second conditioning day the same sucrose plus salt solution was presented again in the absence of any injection. The present results demonstrate that systemic injections of LiCl result in profound within session and across session decreases in ingestive responding accompanied by increased active and passive aversive responses. Animals receiving LiCl by injection as well as ingestion demonstrated an exaggerated response. Rats which received LiCl only through intraoral infusions produced the same pattern of decreased ingestive responding to the sucrose plus salt flavored tastant on each test trial suggesting little or no across session conditioning effects. A two process model by which animals may regulate toxicosis is discussed. PMID:15313030

Cross-Mellor, Shelley; Clarke, Sharon N D A; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

2004-10-01

156

Inactivation of Kupffer Cells by Gadolinium Chloride Protects Murine Liver From Radiation-Induced Apoptosis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether the inhibition of Kupffer cells before radiotherapy (RT) would protect hepatocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis. Materials and Methods: A single 30-Gy fraction was administered to the upper abdomen of Sprague-Dawley rats. The Kupffer cell inhibitor gadolinium chloride (GdCl3; 10 mg/kg body weight) was intravenously injected 24 h before RT. The rats were divided into four groups: group 1, sham RT plus saline (control group); group 2, sham RT plus GdCl3; group 3, RT plus saline; and group 4, RT plus GdCl3. Liver tissue was collected for measurement of apoptotic cytokine expression and evaluation of radiation-induced liver toxicity by analysis of liver enzyme activities, hepatocyte micronucleus formation, apoptosis, and histologic staining. Results: The expression of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was significantly attenuated in group 4 compared with group 3 at 2, 6, 24, and 48 h after injection (p <0.05). At early points after RT, the rats in group 4 exhibited significantly lower levels of liver enzyme activity, apoptotic response, and hepatocyte micronucleus formation compared with those in group 3. Conclusion: Selective inactivation of Kupffer cells with GdCl3 reduced radiation-induced cytokine production and protected the liver against acute radiation-induced damage.

Du Shisuo; Qiang Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zeng Zhaochong, E-mail: zeng.zhaochong@zs-hospital.sh.c [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ke Aiwu; Ji Yuan [Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhang Zhengyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zeng Haiying [Department of Pathology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Liu Zhongshan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

2010-03-15

157

In vitro and in vivo effect of chloropromazine, imipramine and lithium chloride on monoamine oxidase activity in rat brain mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloropromazine (CPZ) and imipramine at a concentration of 110-3 M inhibit rat brain mitochondrial monoamine oxidase activity in vitro by 70 and 55% respectively, while lithium, even at a concentration of 0.05 M, inhibits the activity of this enzyme very negligibly (4%). In vivo, these drugs at a dose level of 56 mg CPZ, 76 mg Jimipramine and 76 mg

Maitreyi Nag; Namita Nandi

1987-01-01

158

Lithium Battery with Inorganic Electrolyte.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental cells containing lithium/tetracarbon monofluoride with phosphorus oxychloride; thionyl chloride-phosphorus oxychloride; or thionyl chloride as the solvent have exhibited much greater coulombic capacities than can be explained by the cathodic ...

J. J. Auborn K. French A. Heller S. Lieberman

1973-01-01

159

Radiation damage and defect behavior in proton irradiated lithium-counterdoped n+p silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two lithium-counterdoped n+p silicon solar cells with different lithium concentrations were irradiated by 10-MeV protons. Cell performance was measured as a function of fluence, and it was found that the cell with the highest concentration of lithium had the highest radiation resistance. Deep level transient spectroscopy which showed two deep level defects that were lithium related. Relating the defect energy levels obtained from this study with those from earlier work using 1-MeV electron irradiation shows no correlation of the defect energy levels. There is one marked similarity: the absence of the boron-interstitial-oxygen-interstitial defect. This consistency strengthens the belief that lithium interacts with oxygen to prevent the formation of the boron interstitial-oxygen interstitial defect. The results indicate that, in general, addition of lithium in small amounts to the p-base of a boron doped silicon solar cell such that the base remains p-type, tends to increase the radiation resistance of the cell.

Stupica, John; Goradia, Chandra; Swartz, Clifford K.; Weinberg, Irving

1987-01-01

160

Radiation-Induced Graft Polymerization of Butadiene Gas onto Poly(Vinyl Chloride) in a Fluidized-Bed Reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radiation-induced graft polymerization of butadiene onto the powder of poly(vinyl chloride) has been studied in a fluidized bed. The apparent activation energy for the graft polymerization is 3.0 kcal/mol. The rate of grafting increases as the 0.6 power o...

H. Omichi K. Yoshida K. Araki K. Suzuki M. Gotoda

1976-01-01

161

Electrochemical behavior of Al and the alloy Al-Mg-Hg-Zn in aqueous and methanol solutions of lithium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work was conducted to compare the electrochemical behavior of Al and the alloy Al-Mg-Hg-Zn in aqueous and methanol solutions of LiCl from the standpoint of their possible use as chemical current sources. All the measurements were performed at 25°C. The reference electrode was a saturated silver chloride electrode. The electrode potentials are cited relative to the normal hydrogen

N. M. Gontmakher; V. V. Bartenev; E. A. Berkman; I. M. Gershanova; V. P. Grigorev; V. M. Kravchenko; O. N. Nechaeva; G. M. Petrova

1984-01-01

162

The effects of lithium counterdoping on radiation damage and annealing in n(+)p silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boron-doped silicon n(+)p solar cells were counterdoped with lithium by ion implantation and the resultant n(+)p cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons. Performance parameters were determined as a function of fluence and a deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) study was conducted. The lithium counterdoped cells exhibited significantly increased radiation resistance when compared to boron doped control cells. Isochronal annealing studies of cell performance indicate that significant annealing occurs at 100 C. Isochronal annealing of the deep level defects showed a correlation between a single defect at E sub v + 0.43 eV and the annealing behavior of short circuit current in the counterdoped cells. The annealing behavior was controlled by dissociation and recombination of this defect. The DLTS studies showed that counterdoping with lithium eliminated three deep level defects and resulted in three new defects. The increased radiation resistance of the counterdoped cells is due to the interaction of lithium with oxygen, single vacancies and divacancies. The lithium-oxygen interaction is the most effective in contributing to the increased radiation resistance.

Weinberg, I.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Mehta, S.; Swartz, C. K.

1984-01-01

163

Dyed polyvinyl chloride films for use as high-dose routine dosimeters in radiation processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characteristics of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) films containing 0.11 wt% of malachite green oxalate or 6GX-setoglausine and about 100 ?m in thickness were studied for use as routine dosimeters in radiation processing. These films show basically color bleaching under irradiation with 60Co ?-rays in a dose range of 5-50 kGy. The sensitivity of the dosimeters and the linearity of dose-response curves are improved by adding 2.5% of chloral hydrate [CCl 3CH(OH) 2] and 0.15% hydroquinone [HOC 6H 4OH]. These additions extend the minimum dose limit to 1 kGy covering dosimetry requirements of the quality assurance in radiation processing of food and healthcare products. The dose responses of both dyed PVC films at irradiation temperatures from 20C to 35C are constant relative to those at 25C, and the temperature coefficients for irradiation temperatures from 35C to 55C were estimated to be (0.430.01)%/C. The dosimeter characteristics are stable within 1% at 25C before and 60 days after the end of irradiation.

Mai, Hoang Hoa; Duong, Nguyen Dinh; Kojima, Takuji

2004-04-01

164

Effects of lithium chloride injections on rank-related fighting, maternal aggression and locust-killing responses in naive and experienced 'TO' strain mice.  

PubMed

Three experiments investigated lithium chloride's (LiCl) effects on three forms of aggression in male 'TO' strain mice. Models of aggression investigated, included attack by preisolated males on male conspecifics (rank-related or intermale fighting), attack by lactating females on male intruders (maternal aggression) and the locust-killing response (a form of predatory aggression?) In the first study, injections of naive male mice with 0.2 and 0.4 mEq of LiCl resulted in marked declines in rank-related fighting. The effects of this treatment on locust killing could not be assessed, as this activity was already at a low incidennce in controls. In a second experiment, LiCl injection had little influence on the locust-killing response in selected, experienced male killer mice. As in Experiment 1, rank-related fighting was suppressed by this treatment. The third experiment revealed that LiCl injections did not influence either maternal aggression or locust killing in naive females and predatory aggression in experienced-killer females. These results provide further support for the contention that these three behaviors have very different physiological bases. The data suggests that one should be cautious when extrapolating between different models of aggression even within the same species. PMID:573898

Brain, P F; Al-Maliki, S

1979-05-01

165

Lithium Chloride Suppresses Colorectal Cancer Cell Survival and Proliferation through ROS/GSK-3?/NF-?B Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?), a serine/threonine protein kinase, has been regarded as a potential therapeutic target for multiple human cancers. In addition, oxidative stress is closely related to all aspects of cancer. We sought to determine the biological function of lithium, one kind of GSK-3? inhibitors, in the process of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in colorectal cancer. In this study, we analyzed the cell apoptosis and proliferation by cell viability, EdU, and flow cytometry assays through administration of LiCl. We used polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting to establish the effect of GSK-3? inhibition on the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathway. Results showed administration of LiCl increased apoptosis and the level of ROS in colorectal cancer cells. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms could be mediated by the reduction of NF-?B expression and NF-?B-mediated transcription. Taken together, our results demonstrated that therapeutic targeting of ROS/GSK-3?/NF-?B pathways may be an effective way for colorectal cancer intervention, although further preclinical and clinical testing are desirable.

Li, Huili; Huang, Kun; Liu, Xinghua; Liu, Jinlin; Lu, Xiaoming; Tao, Kaixiong; Wang, Guobin; Wang, Jiliang

2014-01-01

166

Investigation of lithium thionyl chloride battery safety hazards. Quarterly technical progress report 1 Jan-31 Mar 82  

SciTech Connect

Scanning electron and optical microscopic investigation of an overdischarged cathode from a cathode limited Li/SOCl2 cell reveal a three-dimensional reticulated lithium dendrite structure. Individual dendrites do not grow and longer than about 50 microns or any thicker than about 4 microns in diameter before branching at random angles. E.S.R. spectra of 50% and 100% overdischarged anode limited cells reveal a third chemical species carrying an unpaired electron which is distinct from the two radical species observed during discharge. No significant difference is observed between the Raman spectra of 100% discharged electrolyte and 50% cathode limited overdischarged electrolyte. The same holds true for infrared spectra. The Raman spectra of 90% anode limited overdischarged electrolyte shows most of the peaks occuring at 100% discharge in addition to 687, 727, 819, and 854 per cm. The infrared spectrum of the same solution shows most the the features occuring at 100% discharge in addition to the reduction of 981 cm-1 and growth of peaks at 1397,1085,1070 (shoulder) 661 and 602 cm-1. Peaks at 1070 and 661 always occur weakly in discharged electrolyte spectra and are quite strong in the spectrum of Li/sub 2/S0/sub 4/ saturated electrolyte.

McDonald, R.C.

1982-03-31

167

Investigation of lithium thionyl chloride battery safety hazards. Quarterly technical progress report 29 Sep-31 Dec 81  

SciTech Connect

Glass Li/SOCl2 cells have been designed and built which will be used to discharge and overdischarge flat electrodes in sufficient but not excess electrolyte. The cells will be used for generation of electrolyte samples for chemical spectroscopy and overdischarged cathodes for morphological studies. A metal cell has been designed and built for overdischarge of flat electrodes. E.S.R., Raman, FTIR, and UV/VIS fluorescence spectra have been taken of electrolyte at various stages of discharge and overdischarge. Two chemical species detectable with ESR are generated on discharge. The first resonance found also in electrolyte solutions saturated with sulfur, develops uniformly through discharge. The second as yet unidentified species becomes evident towards the second half of discharge increasing species becomes evident towards the second half of discharge increasing in concentration faster than sulfur. Following removal from the cell, the second species disappears as visible fluorescence increases in intensity the sulfur related peak remains. Raman and FTIR spectra show a profusion of emission and absorption peaks respectively. Analysis of this data is still in process. Preliminary optical studies of overdischarged cathode studies in cathode limited cells show that lithium dendrites do grow on the surface of carbon.

McDonald, R.C.

1981-12-31

168

Gamma radiation-induced grafting of acrylamide and dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride onto starch.  

PubMed

Corn starch graft copolymers were prepared from acrylamide/dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride binary monomers (AM/DMDAAC) by a simultaneous radiation grafting method, and were characterized by FTIR and (1)H NMR techniques, weight measurement and titration method. The copolymers with high grafting ratio and high grafting efficiency of binary monomers were achieved at absorbed doses of 2 kGy and 3 kGy using a 6:9.8:4.2 (w/w/w) ratio of starch/AM/DMDAAC, but their cationic degrees were low. Grafting ratio, grafting efficiency and cationic degree of the copolymers increased with increasing AM content in comonomer mixtures and then decreased at 3kGy using a 6:14 ratio of starch:total comonomers, but their cationic degrees generally decreased with increasing AM content. The grafting ratio, the grafting efficiency and the cationic degree of the copolymers increased, but the grafting efficiency of DMDAAC decreased with varying starch/(AM+DMDAAC) ratio from 6:3 to 6:18 at 3 kGy by using a fixed 7:3 ratio of AM:DMDAAC. PMID:23218310

Lv, Xiaohua; Song, Weiqiang; Ti, Yongzhou; Qu, Lingbo; Zhao, Zhiwei; Zheng, Hongjuan

2013-01-30

169

Conversion of broadband thermal radiation in lithium niobate crystals of various compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conversion of the broadband thermal radiation in stoichiometric ( R = 1) lithium niobate single crystals that are grown from melt with 58.6 mol % of LiO2, congruent ( R = Li/Nb = 0.946) melt with the K2O flux admixture (4.5 and 6.0 wt %), and congruent melt and in congruent single crystals doped with the Zn2+, Gd3+, and Er3+ cations is studied. It is demonstrated that the conversion efficiency of the stoichiometric crystal that is grown from the melt with 58.6 mol % of LiO2 is less than the conversion efficiency of congruent crystal. In addition, the stoichiometric and almost stoichiometric crystals and the doped congruent crystals exhibit the blue shift of the peak conversion intensity in comparison with a nominally pure congruent crystal. For the congruent crystals, the conversion intensities peak at 520 and 495 nm, respectively.

Syuy, A. V.; Litvinova, M. N.; Goncharova, P. S.; Sidorov, N. V.; Palatnikov, M. N.; Krishtop, V. V.; Likhtin, V. V.

2013-05-01

170

Electrolytic method for the production of lithium using a lithium-amalgam electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for recovering lithium from its molten amalgam by electrolysis in an electrolytic cell containing as a molten electrolyte a fused-salt consisting of a mixture of two or more alkali metal halides, preferably selected from lithium iodide, lithium chloride, potassium iodide and potassium chloride. A particularly suitable molten electrolyte is a fused-salt consisting of a mixture of

J. F. Cooper; O. H. Krikorian; R. V. Homsy

1979-01-01

171

Electrolytic method for the production of lithium using a lithium--amalgam electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for recovering lithium from its molten amalgam by electrolysis of the amalgam in an electrolytic cell containing as a molten electrolyte a fused salt consisting essentially of a mixture of two or more alkali metal halides, preferably alkali metal halides selected from lithium iodide, lithium chloride, potassium iodide, and potassium chloride. A particularly suitable molten electrolyte

J. F. Cooper; O. H. Krikorian; R. V. Homsy

1978-01-01

172

Electrolytic method for the production of lithium using a lithium-amalgam electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for recovering lithium from its molten amalgam by electrolysis of the amalgam in an electrolytic cell containing as a molten electrolyte a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of two or more alkali metal halides, preferably alkali metal halides selected from lithium iodide, lithium chloride, potassium iodide and potassium chloride. A particularly suitable molten electrolyte is a fused-salt

John F. Cooper; Oscar H. Krikorian; Robert V. Homsy

1979-01-01

173

Differential effects of the selective orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 and lithium chloride on the behavioural satiety sequence in rats.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that acute systemic administration of the selective orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 significantly reduces food intake in rats. Although this anorectic action of orexin-1 receptor blockade is associated with an acceleration in the transition from eating to resting, it is widely recognised that the behavioural indices of satiety are not dissimilar to those of illness. In this context, Experiment 1 confirmed a significant anorectic effect of 90 (but not 60) mg/kg lithium chloride (LiCl) in male rats presented with palatable mash in the home-cage environment. Experiment 2 employed a continuous monitoring technique to contrast the effects of LiCl (90 mg/kg) and SB-334867 (10 and 30 mg/kg) on food intake and behaviour during a 1-h test with palatable mash. SB-334867 dose-dependently inhibited food intake, with the higher dose producing a comparable degree of appetite suppression (approximately 40%) to that seen with LiCl. Despite equivalent anorectic action, the two compounds produced very different effects on behaviour. LiCl reduced active behaviours (locomotion, rearing, grooming and sniffing), slowed the rate of eating and disrupted the behavioural satiety sequence (BSS). In contrast, SB-334867 (30 mg/kg) decreased the duration of feeding and grooming, and modestly accelerated the transition between eating and resting. Furthermore, whereas LiCl failed to alter posttreatment bodyweight gain, SB-334867 (30 mg/kg) produced a significant weight loss in the 24-h period immediately following injection. Overall, the divergent profiles obtained with equianorectic doses of LiCl and SB-334867 provide convincing evidence for the behavioural selectivity of SB-334867-induced anorexia. PMID:15059692

Ishii, Y; Blundell, J E; Halford, J C G; Upton, N; Porter, R; Johns, A; Rodgers, R J

2004-03-01

174

Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride Towards Technetium-99 Extraction  

SciTech Connect

A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning process, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, low nitric acid concentration in the aqueous phase of a UREX based process will co-extract U(VI) and Tc(VII) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Technetium (Tc-99) is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radiotoxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t1/2 = 2.13 105 years), and as such, it is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flow sheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for ultimate disposal. Furthermore, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macrocompounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, and resorcinarenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO4- by benzyltributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligands matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e., diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed.

Jared Horkley; Audrey Roman; Keri Campbell; Ana Nunez; Amparo Espartero

2013-02-01

175

Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride towards Technetium-99 Extraction - 13016  

SciTech Connect

A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning processes, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, the UREX process has been developed in the United States to co-extract hexavalent uranium (U) and hepta-valent technetium (Tc) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Tc-99 is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radio-toxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t{sub 1/2} = 2.13 x 10{sup 5} years), and as such, is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste-form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flowsheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for ultimate disposal. In addition, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste-forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macro-compounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, quaternary ammonium salts, and resorcin-arenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} by benzyl tributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand's matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e. diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using an external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed. (authors)

Paviet-Hartmann, Patricia; Horkley, Jared; Campbell, Keri [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Street, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Street, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Roman, Audrey [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Harry Reid Center, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Box 4009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States)] [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Harry Reid Center, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Box 4009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States); Nunez, Ana; Espartero, Amparo [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 40, 28040- Madrid (Spain)] [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 40, 28040- Madrid (Spain)

2013-07-01

176

Synthesis of high-molecular-weight polymer of methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate by radiation-induced polymerization at high pressure. [Gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

Polymer of the methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and its copolymer with acrylamide are used as cationic flocculants for the treatment of waste water containing organic suspensions. As reported, radiation-induced polymerization is one of the most convenient methods because of its temperature independence of initiation and extremely large G-value. In general, a flocculant with higher molecular weight has larger flocculation effects. The high-molecular-weight products were prepared in high monomer concentration and a low dose rate. This paper concerns the polymerization and copolymerization of methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate at high pressure, up to 7000 kg/cm/sup 2/, providing high-molecular-weight cationic flocculants.

Ishigaki, I.; Okada, T.; Sasuga, T.; Takehisa, M.; Machi, S.

1981-02-01

177

Features of radiation gas discharge with liquid electrolyte cathode by using aqueous solutions of sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimentally investigated the spectral characteristics of the gas discharge between the liquid electrolyte cathode (aqueous solution of sodium chloride) and a metal anode at high currents (up to 20 A). Found splitting yellow doublet of sodium and the factors affecting the splitting.

Tazmeev, Kh K.; Arslanov, I. M.; Tazmeev, G. Kh

2013-12-01

178

Enzymological mechanism for the regulation of lanthanum chloride on flavonoid synthesis of soybean seedlings under enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation.  

PubMed

In order to probe into the enzymological mechanism for the regulation of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) on flavonoid synthesis in plants under enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, the effects of LaCl3 (20 and 60mg l(-1)) on the content of flavonoids as well as the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate?:?coenzyme A ligase (4CL), and chalcone synthase (CHS) in soybean seedlings under enhanced UV-B radiation (2.6 and 6.2kJ m(-2) day(-1)) were investigated. Enhanced UV-B radiation (2.6 and 6.2kJ m(-2) day(-1)) caused the increase in the content of flavonoids as well as the activities of PAL, C4H, 4CL, and CHS in soybean seedlings. The treatment of 20mg l(-1) LaCl3 also efficiently increased these indices, which promoted the flavonoid synthesis and provided protective effects for resisting enhanced UV-B radiation. On the contrary, the treatment of 60mg l(-1) LaCl3 decreased the content of flavonoids as well as the activities of C4H, 4CL, and CHS in soybean seedlings except increasing the activity of PAL, which were not beneficial to the flavonoid synthesis and provided negative effects for resisting enhanced UV-B radiation. In conclusion, enhanced UV-B radiation caused the increase in the flavonoid synthesis by promoting the activities of PAL, C4H, 4CL, and CHS in soybean seedlings. The treatment of LaCl3 could change flavonoid synthesis in soybean seedlings under enhanced UV-B radiation by regulating the activities of PAL, C4H, 4CL, and CHS, which is an enzymological mechanism for the regulation of LaCl3 on flavonoid synthesis in plants under enhanced UV-B radiation. PMID:24710726

Fan, Caixia; Hu, Huiqing; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

2014-07-01

179

Lithium-Inorganic Electrolyte Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years there has been considerable research and development on ambient temperature, high energy density lithium cells. A particularly promising system is based on thionyl chloride, SOCl2. In this case, SOCl2 serves both as solvent and depolarizer...

J. R. Driscoll G. L. Holleck D. E. Toland S. B. Brummer

1976-01-01

180

Sealed lithium inorganic electrolyte cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrolyte studies were continued using the standard size D cell as a test vehicle in an effort to establish the influence of various impurities on the passivation of lithium anodes. Impurities usually found in raw thionyl chloride, such as Cl2 and SO2, have been purposely added to the electrolyte to enhance any effect they might have on the lithium passivation.

N. Marincic; A. Lombardi

1975-01-01

181

Lithium reduction of americium dioxide to generate americium metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium reduction process has been developed for application to a pyrochemical recycle process for oxide fuels. This process uses lithium metal as a reductant to convert oxides of actinide elements to metal. Lithium oxide generated as a product of the reduction would be dissolved in a molten lithium chloride bath to enhance reduction. In this work, the reduction of

T. Usami; T. Kato; M. Kurata; T. Inoue; H. E. Sims; S. A. Beetham; J. A. Jenkins

2002-01-01

182

Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used

Coops; Melvin S

1992-01-01

183

Engineering experimental program on the effects of near-space radiation on lithium doped solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an experimental evaluation of the real-time degradation characteristics of lithium-diffused silicon solar cells are reported. A strontium-90 radioisotope was used for simulation of a typical earth-orbital electron environment. The experiment was performed in an ion pump vacuum chamber with samples maintained at -50, +20, +50, and +80 C. Samples were illuminated during the 6-month exposure run with solar cell 1-5 characteristics measured periodically in situ. This 6-month exposure corresponded to a 1 MeV equivalent fluence of approximately 10 to the 14th power electrons/sq cm. Several types of lithium cells were irradiatied and compared directly with conventional N/P cells. The best lithium cells compared favorably with N/P cells, particularly at the higher test temperatures. With a slight improvement of initial performance characteristics, lithium cells appear feasible for 5 to 10 year missions at synchronous altitude. Based on the reported results and those of other irradiation experiments, lithium cells would appear to be superior to N/P cells in proton-dominated earth-orbital environments. Another important conclusion of the effort was that illuminated/loaded cells degrade more rapidly than do dark/unloaded cells. The irradiation experiment provided data of high quality with a high degree of confidence because of the experimental and statistical analysis techniques utilized.

1971-01-01

184

Lithium cell test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three lithium SO2 cells, two lithium CF cells, and a vinyl chloride cell, all with crimped seals, and all strictly experimental, were independently discharged on resistors. Three temperatures were used and several different storage temperatures. Discharge rate generally on the nominal discharges were 0.1 amp, 0.5 amp, and 1 amp. Tests results show that the crimp seals are inadequate, especially for the SO2 cells. Normal discharges present no hazards. All cells discharge to zero. The problem of lithium cell explosions, such as occurred during off-limits testing, is discussed.

Bragg, B. J.

1977-01-01

185

Calcium/Thionyl Chloride Battery Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This final report documents the development efforts conducted by the Lithium Batteries Group of the Couples Department of Eagle-Picher Industries. The objective of the project was to develop calcium-thionyl chloride cell technology. The original project w...

T. Counts

1985-01-01

186

Device for Growing and Thermal Treatment of Silver Chloride Sheets as Detectors of Ionizing Radiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A short review on technology of preparing AgCl crystals as detectors of ionizing radiation is given. The device, constructed for growing and thermal treatment of these crystals is described. Since sensitivity of crystals as detectors is strongly influence...

F. Bradna V. Bradnova F. Yukl

1983-01-01

187

The radiation crosslinking of poly(vinyl chloride) with trimethylolpropanetrimethacrylate. III. Effect of diundecyl phthalate: chemical kinetics of a three-component system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation chemistry of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) blended with trimethylolpropanetrimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and diundecyl phthalate (DUP) has been examined. This three-component mixture contains a base resin (PVC), a crosslinking sensitizer (TMPTMA), and a physical modifier (DUP). These are the basic components in any radiation-curable coating. The kinetics and mechanism of the crosslinking reactions were studied with reference to the dependence on

T. N. Bowmer; W. I. Vroom; M. Y. Hellman

1983-01-01

188

Preparation of lithium stannide mixtures in organic solvents. A alternate source of lithium in organolithium chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium stannides were prepared from lithium naphthalenide and tin (II) chloride or tin (0) powder in THF solvent at room temperature under dry argon atmosphere. They were characterized with elemental analysis, XRD, and solid 6,7Li NMR. Stabilities and reactivities of lithium stannides prepared from different conditions were tested and showed they were stable for a limited time at low temperatures.

Reuben D. Rieke; Jun-sik Lee; Young-Sik Kye; Gerard S. Harbison

2004-01-01

189

Broadband low-density radiation source utilising argon, krypton, and xenon chlorides  

SciTech Connect

The parameters of a broadband excimer radiation source emitting in the 175-310-nm range and excited by a dc glow discharge in an Ar-Kr-Xe-Cl{sub 2} mixture are studied. The emission spectrum of the discharge consists of the ArCl, KrCl, XeCl, and Cl{sub 2} molecular emission bands. The optimal partial pressure of argon in the mixture is 1.3 kPa, those of krypton and xenon are 0.24 kPa each, and the partial chlorine pressure is in the 0.15-0.30-kPa range. The UV-VUV radiation power emitted from the entire side surface of the discharge tube amounts to 4-6 W for an efficiency of 15%-25%. The radiation source is of interest for applications in photometry, microelectronics, photochemistry, and medicine. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

Shuaibov, Aleksandr K; Dashchenko, Arkadii I; Shevera, Igor V [Uzhgorod National University, Uzhgorod (Ukraine)

2002-03-31

190

Lithium counterdoped silicon solar cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The resistance to radiation damage of an n(+)p boron doped silicon solar cell is improved by lithium counterdoping. Even though lithium is an n-dopant in silicon, the lithium is introduced in small enough quantities so that the cell base remains p-type. The lithium is introduced into the solar cell wafer by implantation of lithium ions whose energy is about 50 keV. After this lithium implantation, the wafer is annealed in a nitrogen atmosphere at 375 C for two hours.

Weinberg, I. (inventor); Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (inventor)

1986-01-01

191

Chronic lithium chloride administration to rats elevates glucose metabolism in wide areas of brain, while potentiating negative effects on metabolism of dopamine D 2 -like receptor stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale and objectivesThe regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc) can be imaged in vivo as a marker of brain functional activity. The effects of chronic lithium administration on baseline values of rCMRglc and values in response to administration of dopamine D2-like receptor agonists have not been examined in humans or rats. Knowing these effects may elucidate and localize the

Mireille Basselin; Lisa Chang; Stanley I. Rapoport

2006-01-01

192

Radiation-generated prismatic loops around gas bubbles in alumnium-lithium alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prismatic dislocation loops were observed to emanate from a gas bubble in neutron-irradiated aluminum-lithium alloy during electron irradiation at 200C in a 200 kV electron microscope. The loops aligned in the ?110? directions were analysed to be vacancy loops on ?111? plane with a\\/2 ?110? Burgers vector. In a 1000 kV electron microscope, the prismatic punching were observed to occur

K. Shiraishi; A. Hishinuma; Y. Katano

1974-01-01

193

Radiation Damage Calculations for the FUBR and BEATRIX Irradiations of Lithium Compounds in EBR-II and FFTF  

SciTech Connect

The Fusion Breeder Reactor (FUBR) and Breeder Exchange Matrix (BEATRIX) experiments were cooperative efforts by members of the International Energy Agency to investigate the irradiation behavior of solid breeder materials for tritium production to support future fusion reactors. Lithium ceramic materials including Li{sub 2}O, LiAlO{sub 2}, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} with varying {sup 6}Li enrichments from 0 to 95% were irradiated in a series of experiments in the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR II) and in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) over a period of about 10 years from 1982 to 1992. These experiments were characterized in terms of the nominal fast neutron fluences and measured {sup 6}Li burnup factors, as determined by either mass spectrometry or helium measurements. Radiation damage in these compounds is caused by both the {sup 6}Li-burnup reaction and by all other possible neutron reactions with the atoms in the compound materials. In this report, displacements per atom (dpa) values have been calculated for each type of material in each of the various irradiations that were conducted. Values up to 11% {sup 6}Li-burnup and 130 dpa are predicted for the longest irradiations. The dpa cross sections were calculated for each compound using the SPECOMP computer code. Details of the dpa calculations are presented in the report. Total dpa factors were determined with the SPECTER computer code by averaging the dpa cross sections over the measured or calculated neutron flux spectra for each series of irradiations. Using these new calculations, previously measured radiation damage effects in these lithium compounds can be compared or correlated with other irradiation data on the basis of the dpa factor as well as {sup 6}Li-burnup.

LR Greenwood

1999-06-17

194

Synthesis of cationic flocculant by radiation-induced copolymerization of methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate with acrylamide in aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation-induced copolymerization of the methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEM-MC) with acrylamide (AAm) was used to prepare a cationic polymer flocculant. The polymerization rate increased with increasing dose rate, polymerization temperature, monomer concentration, and mole fraction of AAm in the monomer mixture. The molecular weight of the copolymer was also found to increase with monomer concentration and mole

Toshimi Okada; Isao Ishigaki; Takeshi Suwa; Sueo Machi

1979-01-01

195

Radiation effects on poly(vinyl chloride). 2. Effect of plasticizers on the behaviour of PVC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different solid solutions of PVC in dibutyl phthalate, tritolyl phosphate, diallyl phthalate, and mixture of diallyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate were subjected to gamma radiation. The chemical, physical and physicomechanical properties of the irradiated samples were investigated. With respect to PVC plasticates in dibutyl phthalate, it was found that the crosslinking reaction is the predominant reaction at doses higher than 0.2 MGy. Furthermore, as the dibutyl phthalate content increases, the degree of crosslinking increases. When PVC was blended with tritolyl phosphate, the extent of change in the samples was reduced. Diallyl phthalate promotes the crosslinking reaction in PVC. It was found that the concentration of diallyl phthalate has no considerable effect on the extent of crosslinking in the range under investigation. PVC plasticates as mixtures of diallyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate show the same crosslinking percentage as the samples containing diallyl phthalate only (on the same weight basis). This shows that the internal viscosity of PVC has no effect on the conversion of diallyl phthalate.

Zahran, A. H.; Ezz Eldin, F. M.

196

Estimates of power deposited via cesium/barium beta and gamma radiation captured in components of a Hanford cesium chloride capsule and by components of overpacked capsules placed in an interim dry storage facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The deposition of power in Hanford cesium chloride capsules and in the components of design concepts for overpacking and interim storage were determined as requested. The power deposition results from the selective capture of gamma and beta radiation comi...

V. E. Roetman

1996-01-01

197

Research and development of lithium batteries in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic research work on lithium cells in China was initiated in 1965, and a variety of primary cells has been developed and introduced to the market. Lithium-iodine (1978), lithium-thionyl chloride (1977), lithium-sulfur dioxide (1979) and lithium-manganese dioxide (1980) cells, and lithium thermal batteries (1982) have been successfully manufactured and have found wide application. In this paper, the development and the state-of-the-art of various lithium battery systems in China are presented and the present applications and future markets are discussed.

Bi, Dao-zhi

198

Lithium chloride inhibits TGF-?1-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation via PI3K/Akt pathway in cultured fibroblasts from Tenon's capsule of the human eye.  

PubMed

Excess scarring of the conjunctiva after glaucoma filtration surgery is a major cause of failure. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? is critically involved in post-operative scarring. Lithium inhibits TGF-?-induced gene protein expression in corneal fibroblasts and inhibits TGF-?-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition. Here, we investigated the effects of LiCl on TGF-?1-mediated signaling pathways and on myofibroblast transdifferentiation of human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts (HTFs). LiCl treatment reduced expression of TGF-?1-induced ?-SMA expression in HTFs. LiCl also decreased Akt phosphorylation induced by TGF-?1. TGF-?1-induced ?-SMA expression was significantly decreased by LY294002 and Akt siRNA indicating that these changes are mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway. Thus, LiCl induces the suppression of transdifferentiation stimulated by TGF-?1 by the regulation of PI3K/Akt signaling in HTFs. PMID:24563318

Chung, Eun Jee; Sohn, Yong Ho; Kwon, So Hyun; Jung, Sun-Ah; Lee, Joon H

2014-06-01

199

Lithium-induced impairment of urine acidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium-induced impairment of urine acidifcation. The purpose of this study was to clarify the means by which lithium induced a disorder of urine acidification. Rats infused with hydrochloric acid (1 mEq\\/kg) developed acute metabolic acidosis (blood pH = 7.32; bicarbonate, 18 mEq\\/liter) with a urine pH of approximately 5.85. The addition of lithium chloride (4 mEq\\/kg i.p.) caused an increase

Janet M Roscoe; Marc B Goldstein; Mitchell L Halperin; Douglas R Wilson; Bobby J Stinebaugh

1976-01-01

200

Pyrochemical reduction of uranium dioxide and plutonium dioxide by lithium metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium reduction process has been developed to apply a pyrochemical recycle process for oxide fuels. This process uses lithium metal as a reductant to convert oxides of actinide elements to metal. Lithium oxide generated in the reduction would be dissolved in a molten lithium chloride bath to enhance reduction. In this work, the solubility of Li2O in LiCl was

T. Usami; M. Kurata; T. Inoue; H. E Sims; S. A Beetham; J. A Jenkins

2002-01-01

201

Generation of broadly-tunable mid-infrared radiation in periodically-poled lithium niobate waveguides  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate a tuning range of more than 150 reciprocal centimeters for the generation of tunable mid-infrared radiation centered at wavelengths of 3.3 microns and 4.3 microns by guided-wave difference frequency generation.

Douglas J. Bamford; David J. Cook

2003-01-01

202

Radiation Hardness and Charge Collection Efficiency of Lithium Irradiated Thin Silicon Diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to their low depletion voltage, even after high particle fluences, improved tracking precision and momentum resolution, and reduced material budget, thin substrates are one of the possible choices to provide radiation hard detectors for future high energy physics experiments. In the framework of the CERN RD50 Collaboration, we have developed PIN diode detectors on membranes obtained by locally thinning

Maurizio Boscardin; Mara Bruzzi; Andrea Candelori; G.-F. DallaBetta; Ettore Focardi; Volodymyr Khomenkov; Claudio Piemonte; Sabina Ronchin; Carlo Tosi; Nicola Zorzi

2005-01-01

203

Radiation grafting of methyl methacrylate onto polyethylene separators for lithium secondary batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-porous polyethylene separator was modified by radiation grafting of methyl methacrylate in order to improve its affinity with a liquid electrolyte. The degree of grafting (DOG) increased with the monomer concentration and grafting time. The morphological change of the modified separator was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The degree of crystallinity upon grafting was reduced due to the formation of an amorphous PMMA layer. The electrolyte uptake and the ionic conductivity of the separator increased with an increase in the DOG. The ionic conductivity reached 2.0 mS/cm for the grafted polyethylene separator with 127 wt% DOG.

Gwon, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hak; Sohn, Joon-Yong; An, Sung-Jun; Ihm, Young-Eon; Nho, Young-Chang

2008-08-01

204

Lithium and its recovery from low-grade nevada clays. Bulletin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processes were investigated for recovering a marketable lithium product from the montmorillonite-type clays of the McDermitt caldera. Limestone-gypsum roasting and selective chlorination proved most successful for extracting lithium from the clays; 80-pct Li recovery was achieved using either technique. With both processes, lithium silicate in the clay was converted to a water-soluble compound - either lithium sulfate or lithium chloride.

L. Crocker; R. H. Lien

1987-01-01

205

Lithium toxicity  

MedlinePLUS

... easily interfere with lithium in your body and cause it to build up. Acute on chronic toxicity occurs when you take lithium every day for bipolar disorder, but one day you take an extra amount ( ...

206

Chloride Test  

MedlinePLUS

... Formal name: Chloride Related tests: Sodium , Potassium , Bicarbonate , Electrolytes , Comprehensive Metabolic Panel , Basic Metabolic Panel , Blood Gases ... if there is a problem with your body's electrolyte balance or acid-base balance and to monitor ...

207

Cesium Chloride  

MedlinePLUS

... with heart rhythm, seizures, loss of consciousness, and electrolyte (blood chemistry) imbalances after taking cesium chloride. How ... with heart rhythm, seizures, loss of consciousness, and electrolyte imbalances. Cesium appears to take the place of ...

208

Impairment of lithium chloride-induced conditioned gaping responses (anticipatory nausea) following immune system stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) occurs in both LPS tolerant and LPS non-tolerant rats.  

PubMed

Anticipatory nausea is a classically conditioned response to a context that has been previously paired with toxin-induced nausea and/or vomiting. When injected with a nausea-inducing drug, such as lithium chloride (LiCl), rats will show a distinctive conditioned gaping response that has been suggested to be an index of nausea. Previous studies have found that immune system activation with an endotoxin, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), attenuates LiCl-induced conditioned gaping in rats. The present study examined the acquisition of LiCl-induced conditioned gaping in rats that were either LPS tolerant or LPS non-tolerant, as little is known about the effects of endotoxin tolerance on learning and memory. Male Long-Evan rats were given four systemic injections of LPS (200 ?g/kg) or isotonic saline (NaCl) to induce LPS tolerance, indexed with 24 h changes in body weight following treatment. The animals were then given 4 acquisition trials in a LiCl-induced conditioned gaping paradigm. On conditioning days animals were treated with LPS (200 ?g/kg) or saline followed 90 min later by injection of LiCl (127 mg/kg) or saline and then placed in a distinctive context for 30 min and their behavior video-recorded. On a drug free test day all animals were again placed in the distinctive context for 10 min and behavior was video-recorded. Gaping responses were scored for all acquisition days and the test day. Spleen and body weights were also obtained for all rats at the end of the experiment. Gaping responses were attenuated in rats treated with LPS in both the LPS tolerant and LPS non-tolerant groups. There were significant negative correlations between spleen weight as well as spleen/body weight ratios, and levels of conditioned gaping responses in LiCl treated rats, but not control rats. These results show that LPS interferes with learning/memory in the anticipatory nausea paradigm in rats that are both LPS tolerant and LPS non-tolerant. PMID:23064080

Chan, Melissa Y T; Cross-Mellor, Shelley K; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

2013-01-01

209

Radiation-chemical reaction of 2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride in liquid and solid state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In pulse radiolysis of 2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) at around 360 nm fast formation of intermediate tetrazolium radical was observed under both oxidizing and reducing conditions. In the latter case bimolecular formation of formazan, absorbing at around 480 nm, was observed. This reaction is accompanied by combination to the diformazan dimer, absorbing over the spectral range 500-550 nm. A polyvinyl-alcohol-based TTC film was produced and tested for dosimetry purposes: it gave a measurable response in the 1-100 kGy dose range by evaluating the 50 ?m thick TTC films at the absorption maximum of 493 nm.

Kovcs, A.; Wojnrovits, L.; McLaughlin, W. L.; Eid, S. E. Ebrahim; Miller, A.

1996-03-01

210

Synthesis and characterization of hexanuclear molybdenum chloride sulfide cluster compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new preparative route to the mixed chloride sulfide cluster species, (MoS\\/sub x\\/Cl\\/sub 8-x\\/)\\/sup (4-x)+\\/ with x approx. = 4, was explored. Reaction of molybdenum(II) chloride and lithium sulfide in an aluminum trichloride medium afforded such mixed chloride sulfide clusters. Products of the reaction below, where x = 8 or 12, were difficult to characterize. The products were very insoluble,

Spink

1986-01-01

211

An investigation of the early detection of radiation induced apoptosis by 99mTc-Annexin V and 201thallium-chloride in a lung cancer cell line.  

PubMed

This study aims to investigate the efficacy of in vitro Thallium-201 Chloride (Tl-201) and in vitro and in vivo Tc-99m HYNIC-coupled Annexin V (TAV) in the early detection of radiation induced apoptosis, a proxy indicator of radiation therapy (RT) efficacy. In vitro Tl-201 and TAV accumulation and efflux in non-small cell lung cancer were measured post irradiation at 5 different gamma ray doses. The replication rates (RR) of the cell lines were also measured. The same non-small cell lung cancer line was inoculated into the left femur. In vivo non-invasive Tl-201 and TAV tracer biodistribution studies were performed. Cell RR decrease with increased radiation dose was observed 48 hours after irradiation. Apoptotic cell number was found to have increased in response to 9 Gy and 12 Gy radiation dose. Tl-201 accumulation in the 9 Gy and 12 Gy irradiation groups was found to be higher than the lower irradiation groups. Quick Tl-201 efflux was observed in the 9 Gy and 12 Gy irradiated cells. At 48 hours after irradiation with 9 Gy and 12 Gy, Annexin V accumulation was found to be higher than in the control and 3-6 Gy groups. In vivo mouse model confirmed the increased TAV uptake in implanted tumors for relatively high 9 Gy irradiation as compared to non-irradiated controls. TAV may prove to be an effective radiotracer for early assessment of radiation therapy efficacy, via apoptosis, in human lung cancers. PMID:22739005

Khoda, Mahbub e; Utsunomiya, Keita; Ha-Kawa, Sangkil; Kanno, Shohei; Kono, Yumiko; Sawada, Satoshi

2012-01-01

212

Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal  

DOEpatents

A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01

213

Ionic transport in passivation layered on the lithium electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processes of ionic transport in passivating layers on the surface of the lithium electrode in solutions based on thionyl chloride, propylene carbonate and gamma -butyrolactone have been studied by means of pulse electrochemical methods. The data obtained are quantitatively described by a model which takes into account transport of both the intrinsic mobile lithium ions of the passivating layer and lithium ions injected into the passivating layer from the electrode or from the electrolyte solution under anodic or cathodic current directions, respectively. The values of mobility and concentration of mobile lithium ions in passivating layers formed on lithium in various solutions under open-circuit conditions have been determined.

Nimon, Eugeny S.; Churikov, Alexei V.; Shirokov, Alexander V.; Lvov, Arlen L.; Chuvashkin, Anatoly N.

1993-04-01

214

Hydrothermal Transformation of Microporous Lithium Zinc Phosphates; A Kinetic Study using in situ Synchrotron Radiation Powder Diffraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The solution mediated phase transformation of a lithium zinc phosphate has been investigated. The zeolite type ABW phase, LiZnPO(sub 4). H(sub 2)O, suspended in an aqueous solution of LiNO(sub 3), transforms to the more dense phase, (delta tau) LiZnPO(sub...

T. R. Jensen P. Norby J. C. Hanson

1997-01-01

215

High Efficiency Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Cell.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The polarization characteristics and the specific cathode capacity of Teflon bonded carbon electrodes in the Li/SOCl2 system have been evaluated. Doping of electrocatalysts such as cobalt and iron phthalocyanine complexes improved both cell voltage and ce...

N. Doddapaneni

1982-01-01

216

High Efficiency Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Cell.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the third quarter, cathode optimization with respect to specified variables was completed. Performance evaluation of optimized cathodes at 32 F and 75 F showed both catalyst B and C (FePc) and (CoPc)(n) minimized the electrode overpotential. Plots ...

N. Doddapaneni

1982-01-01

217

Lithium-Silver Chloride Secondary Battery Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aluminum cases for housing the Li - AgCl-nonaqueous electrolyte cell system were prepared using an improved seal assembly technique. No leaks greater than 10 to the- 9th power CC/sec were found. Propylene carbonate electrolyte conductivity may be increase...

J. E. Chilton W. J. Conner R. W. Holsinger

1964-01-01

218

Lithium Ion Aqueous Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium ion aqueous cells were investigated using lithium intercalating compounds as anodes and cathodes. The aqueous electrolyte consisted of 4 to 5 molar solutions of either lithium perchlorate or lithium nitrate which contained lithium hydroxide in mil...

E. J. Plichta W. K. Behl

1995-01-01

219

Etudes des Ions Lithiumoides pour l'Amplification de Rayonnement au Dessous de 100 Angstroms. Experience au Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (Study of Lithium-Like Ions for Amplifying Radiation Below 100 Angstroms. Experiment at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The generation of x ray laser radiation is studied through experiments carried out with ions of lithium-like electronic structure. The work with C-14+ ions is done using carbon fiber targets covered with an NaCl film. The focusing setup is described. The ...

A. Klisnick G. Jamelot A. Carillon P. Jaegle M. H. Key

1988-01-01

220

Solid state tetrachloroaluminate storage battery having a transition metal chloride cathode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In accordance with this invention, it has been found that highly efficient, lightweight, thermally activated power sources can be fabricated by utilizing a transition metal chloride such as cupric chloride, ferric chloride, or molybdenum chloride as the cathode; and a lithium metal or lithium-aluminum or lithium-silicon alloy as the anode in combination with an alkali metal tetrachloroaluminate solid electrolyte. The power source may comprise a single cell or a stack of individual cells. A typical cell is a three layered pellet composed of a lithium alloy anode, a separating alkali metal tetrachloroaluminate solid electrolyte sandwiched between the anode and a cathode which, in turn, is composed of a mixture of the transition metal chloride and graphite. The cell is totally inert until raised to its operating temperature by any conventional heating means.

Vaughn, R. L.

1983-12-01

221

A comparison of TLD Dosimeters: lithium fluoride:magnesium, titanium and lithium fluoride:magnesium, copper, phosphate, for measurement of radiation therapy doses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TLDs (ThermoLuminescent Dosimeters) are small pieces of crystalline material used in radiation therapy to verify the radiation dose cancer patients receive. University of Virginia Radiation Oncology clinic TLD results must be fully trustworthy so physicians can confidently monitor and determine a patient's treatment. A systematic investigation of major factors affecting TLD response and accuracy was carried out. The factors investigated were dose response, energy response, and fading response for two types of TLDs. The supralinear dose response of LiF:Mg,Ti and slightly sublinear dose response of LiF:Mg,Cu,P is documented. In energy response, LiF:Mg,Ti over-responds 46% at 33 keV while LiF:Mg,Cu,P under-responds by 10--20% in the kilovoltage region. Fading of LiF:Mg,Ti was measured at 9% in 63 days while the output of LiF:Mg,Cu,P enhanced by 8% 23 days after irradiation. Overall accuracy at the 95% CL is 2.18% for LiF:Mg,Ti and 4.09% for LiF:Mg,Cu,P. Confidence in UVa Radiation Oncology TLD measurements was enhanced with the use of improved procedures. The improvements include reading LiF:Mg,Cu,P with a neutral density filter in the TLD reader, labeling of TLDs with identifying numbers, and use of a circular annealing tray for cooling. LiF:Mg,Cu,P releases about thirty-four times more light than LiF:Mg,Ti, and a neutral density filter prevents saturation of the TLD reader. Labeled TLDs are easier to work with, resolve mix-ups, and increase accuracy by allowing TLDs to be read always in the same orientation (although labeling slightly reduces the light output). TLDs all cool at the same rate on the circular tray, which maintains consistent TLD sensitivity between TLDs and multiple uses. The improved University of Virginia TLD procedure is documented.

Glennie, Gilbert Douglas

222

Modifications by lithium of behavioral responses to methamphetamine and tetrabenazine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different groups of mice were injected s.c. daily with lithium chloride in three doses (0.52, 1.58 and 4.72meq\\/kg) or with saline for a period of 3 weeks. Lithium administered acutely or chronically did not affect spontaneous locomotor activities. However, methamphetamine-induced hyper-locomotor activities were inhibited in the lithium groups as compared with those in the saline group, while the hyper-locomotor activities

Tatsuo Furukawa; Itsuko Ushizima; Nobufumi Ono

1975-01-01

223

Endonuclease IV Is the Main Base Excision Repair Enzyme Involved in DNA Damage Induced by UVA Radiation and Stannous Chloride  

PubMed Central

Stannous chloride (SnCl2) and UVA induce DNA lesions through ROS. The aim of this work was to study the toxicity induced by UVA preillumination, followed by SnCl2 treatment. E. coli BER mutants were used to identify genes which could play a role in DNA lesion repair generated by these agents. The survival assays showed (i) The nfo mutant was the most sensitive to SnCl2; (ii) lethal synergistic effect was observed after UVA pre-illumination, plus SnCl2 incubation, the nfo mutant being the most sensitive; (iii) wild type and nfo mutants, transformed with pBW21 plasmid (nfo+) had their survival increased following treatments. The alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis assays pointed that (i) UVA induced DNA breaks and fpg mutant was the most sensitive; (ii) SnCl2-induced DNA strand breaks were higher than those from UVA and nfo mutant had the slowest repair kinetics; (iii) UVA + SnCl2 promoted an increase in DNA breaks than SnCl2 and, again, nfo mutant displayed the slowest repair kinetics. In summary, Nfo protects E. coli cells against damage induced by SnCl2 and UVA + SnCl2.

Motta, Ellen S.; Souza-Santos, Paulo Thiago; Cassiano, Tuany R.; Dantas, Flavio J. S.; Caldeira-de-Araujo, Adriano; De Mattos, Jose Carlos P.

2010-01-01

224

Effect of Gamma Radiation on Stability of Silver-Silver Chloride and Mercury-Calomel Commercial Reference Electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical potential measurements of materials in radioactive waste environments will be important in determining if the materials have a propensity for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and pitting. Potential measurements require a reference electrode (RE), but the effect of ionizing radiation on the potential generated by the RE has been uncertain. Two common types of RE were evaluated under ⁶°Co gamma

M. J. Danielson

1995-01-01

225

Crystal Growth and Radiation-Induced Defects of Rare Earth Doped Lithium Yttrium Fluoride Laser Host Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scope of study. Single crystals of undoped and rare-earth doped lithium yttrium fluoride (YLF) crystals were grown using the Czochralski and vertical Bridgman techniques. This material has an incongruent melting point and as a consequence the growth material must contain excess LiF. Single crystals of undoped YLF were irradiated with 1.75 MeV electrons. This irradiation was found to create defects

David Wayne Hart

1991-01-01

226

Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

1993-01-01

227

Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

1993-10-12

228

Morphological and histochemical observations of hepatic peroxisomes and lysosomes of rats after treatment with methylmercuric chloride, hydrogen peroxide and gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

The ultrastructure of cytochemically identified hepatic peroxisomes and lysosomes was studied at days 2, 7 and 21 following treatment with hydrogen peroxide (HP), methylmercuric chloride (MMC) and gamma radiation (I). Morphological observations revealed severe cytoplasmic degradation at day 2 after HP treatment which persisted to a moderate extent at day 7; no signs of toxic effect were observed at day 21. Livers of MMC treated rats demonstrated disruption of peroxisomal, lysosomal and mitochondrial membranes and formation of different shapes and sizes of peroxisomes at day 2. Damage appeared to be mild at day 7 and no apparent damage persisted until day 21. Following the whole body irradiation of 750 R, granularity in hepatic peroxisomes, accumulation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, loss of mitochondril cristae and presence of polyribosomes and/or glycogen were observed at day 2. Seepage of hydrolytic enzymes from disrupted lysosomal membrane and persistence of polyribosomes or glycogen and dissolution of mitochondrial cristae were observed at day 7. Diffusion of reaction products from peroxisomes and apparent dissolution and peripheral movement of crystalline cores was observed at day 21 after irradiation.

Chowdhury, A.

1985-01-01

229

Synthesis of cationic flocculant by radiation-induced copolymerization of methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate with acrylamide in aqueous solution. II. Copolymerization at higher monomer concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation-induced copolymerization of methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate with acrylamide was studied to prepare a polymer flocculant that can be handled as a solid. The product obtained in the presence of 5 to 20% water was a solid and could be ground to a powder without drying. In order to obtain a water-soluble polymer at a higher concentration,

Isao Ishigaki; Hironobu Fukuzaki; Toshimi Okada; Toshio Okada; Jiro Okamoto; Sueo Machi

1981-01-01

230

Accumulation of radiation defects and products of radiolysis in lithium orthosilicate pebbles with silicon dioxide additions under action of high absorbed doses and high temperature in air and inert atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the technological problems of a fusion reactor is the change in composition and structure of ceramic breeders (Li4SiO4 or Li2TiO3 pebbles) during long-term operation. In this study changes in the composition and microstructure of Li4SiO4 pebbles with 2.5 wt% silicon dioxide additions, fabricated by a melt-spraying process, were investigated after fast electron irradiation (E = 5 MeV, dose rate up to 88 MGy h-1) with high absorbed dose from 1.3 to 10.6 GGy at high temperature (543-573 K) in air and argon atmosphere. Three types of pebbles with different diameters and grain sizes were investigated. Products of radiolysis were studied by means of FTIR and XRD. TSL and ESR spectroscopy were used to detect radiation defects. SEM was used to investigate structure of pebbles. Experiments showed that Li4SiO4 pebbles with a diameter of 500 ?m had similar radiation stability as pebbles with diameter <50 ?m which were annealed at 1173 K for 128 h in argon and air atmosphere. As well as determined that lithium orthosilicate pebbles with size 500 (1243 K 168 h) and <50 ?m (1173 K 128 h) have a higher radiation stability in air and argon atmosphere than pebbles with size <50 ?m (1073 K 1 h). Degree of decomposition ?10.56 of the lithium orthosilicate pebbles at an absorbed dose of 10.56 GGy in air atmosphere is 1.5% and 0.15% at irradiation in dry argon. It has been suggested that changes of radiation stability of lithium orthosilicate pebbles in air atmosphere comparing with irradiated pebbles in argon atmosphere is effect of chemical reaction of lithium orthosilicate surface with air containing - H2O and CO2 in irradiation process. As well as it has been suggested that silicon dioxide - lithium metasilicate admixtures do not affect formation mechanism of radiation defect and products of radiolysis in lithium orthosilicate pebbles.

Zarins, A.; Supe, A.; Kizane, G.; Knitter, R.; Baumane, L.

2012-10-01

231

Interfacial enhancement between lithium electrode and polymer electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protected lithium electrode was prepared by forming a protection layer on the surface of lithium metal. The protection layer was formed by ultraviolet (UV) radiation-curing of a mixture of crosslinking agent (1,6-hexanediol diacrylate), liquid electrolyte (ethylene carbonate (EC)\\/propylene carbonate (PC)\\/1M LiClO4), and photoinitiator (methyl benzoylformate). The interfacial properties of a symmetric lithium cell containing the protected lithium electrode was

Nam-Soon Choi; Yong Min Lee; Jung Hwa Park; Jung-Ki Park

2003-01-01

232

Poly Iron Chloride and Poly Aluminum Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structures, basic chemistry, preparation procedures, and applications of poly iron chloride (PIC) and poly aluminum chloride (PAC) are presented. PIC and PAC are unconventional inorganic polymers known to be extremely effective for treatment of water ...

L. K. Wang

1987-01-01

233

Effect of UV and gamma radiation on Rn222 permeation through polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Application to the packaging of radium sources for the purpose of storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining of uranium and thorium, as well as the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy, have caused, during the 20th century, the production of waste with a varying concentration in long-lived radionucleides (particularly radium). This waste cannot be stored in traditional storage sites which will return to the public domain after 300 years, due to, on the one hand, the radium period (1620 years) and, on the other hand, the build-up of radon, its gaseous daughter. One solution, in order to optimize the packaging and storage of such products, could be to use successive barriers, made of polymer membranes, intended to limit radon emission. Laboratory tests have shown that polyvinyl chloride (PVC) greatly reduces radon emission from a radium source. However one should take into account the damage of the polymer in time, due to radioactive waste storage itself over long periods of time. Therefore, in order to check the durability of such barriers, PVC samples have been subjected to different accelerated ageing processes by exposure to ultra-violet (UV) radiations or gamma rays. We have determined the effect of such radiation of the samples using two approaches: demonstration of structural changes using analytical method (Infra-red with Fourier Transform or IRTF), study of variations in the radon permeation factor. In the first analysis, it seems that the UV irradiation, causes structural changes in the PVC as a function of the irradiation length of time. This leads first to an increase in the efficiency of the polymer as a "radon barrier", i.e. a reduction in its permeation factor (2.41 10 -12m 2s -1 for a non exposed membrane, against 3.30 10 -13m 2.s -1 for a membrane exposed during 284 hours, with an exposure rate of 62.5 W.m -2, thus a reduction by a factor 10 of the radon emission) then to a long-term weakness. The gamma irradiation (dose rate: 1.05 kGy.h -1, dose: 0.71 MGy) also causes a reduction in the permeation factor of PVC, but only by a factor 2.7.

Tomasella, E.; Labed, V.; Klein, D.; Rob, M. C.; Cetier, Ph.; Chambaudet, A.

1995-11-01

234

Cell and defect behavior in lithium-counterdoped solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some n(+)/p cells in which lithium is introduced as a counterdopant, by ion-implantation, into the cell's boron-doped p-region were studied. To determine if the cells radiation resistance could be significantly improved by lithium counterdoping. Defect behavior was related to cell performance using deep level transient spectroscopy. Results indicate a significantly increased radiation resistance for the lithium counterdoped cells when compared to the boron doped 1 ohm-cm control cell. The increased radiation resistance of the lithium counterdoped cells is due to the complexing of lithium with divacancies and boron. It is speculated that complexing with oxygen and single vacancies also contributes to the increased radiation resistance. Counterdoping silicon with lithium results in a different set of defects.

Weinberg, I.; Mehta, S.; Swartz, C. K.

1984-01-01

235

Solid state chemistry and non-steady state radiation enhanced diffusion (NSRED): Part I. Synthesis and characterization of some lithium-tin and lithium-silver-tin polar intermetallics. Part II. Titanium diffusion in ion-modified magnesium oxide surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I of this thesis centers on the investigation of the structural, electronic and physical properties of Li-Sn based novel polar intermetallic compounds. In spite of both scientific and technological interests, the understanding of structure-property relationships of polar intermetallics based on Li-Sn system have not been extensively studied. Our exploratory studies focus on the chemistry of the Li-richest binary phase, Li4.4Sn, as well as on the discovery of new ternary Li-rich phases. Careful phase analyses coupled with X-ray and neutron diffraction studies resulted in the reformulation of Li4.4Sn as Li17Sn4. Exploratory synthesis in the Li-rich side of the ternary Li-Ag-Sn system also led to the discovery of two novel ternary lithium silver stannides phases: Li32.54Ag 9.46Sn10 and Li17Ag3Sn6. The new ternary compounds represent examples of two new crystal structure-types. Li32.54Ag9.46Sn10 exhibits high Li content, and a structure with covalent Ag-Sn framework with significant Li/Ag defects indicating its potential as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. Li 17Ag3Sn6 represents the first example of a quasi-2-dimensional polar intermetallic of the Li-Ag-Sn system. Its high lithium content also suggests it is a viable candidate for Li-battery anode applications. Part II of this thesis focuses on the investigation of defect production upon inert and chemically reactive energetic ion irradiated single crystals of MgO (100). Ti diffusion in ion pre-irradiated (low-energy ion beams of Ar+, Cl+ and Cr+ of 7keV) MgO (100) surfaces was selected as a model system in this work. The annealing process followed ion-irradiation treatment. Diffusion was conducted in an inert atmosphere. In these conditions, non-steady state concentration defects were created and a new type of diffusion termed as Non-Steady State Radiation Enhanced Diffusion (NSRED) was developed. NSRED is obtained by using the following: ion irradiation in the keV range followed by annealing; the diffusion range overlaps heavily with the central region of the collision cascade; the diffusing species are evaporated on the pre-irradiated surfaces. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry was used to measure the diffusion coefficients versus ion irradiation conditions as well as their time dependence. A theoretical model was formulated to calculate the depth-dependent bulk diffusion coefficients and the following order was obtained: DTi/Cr/MgO > DTi/Ar/MgO > DTi/Cl/MgO (where D stands for the depth-dependent diffusion coefficient of samples bombarded with Cr, Ar and Cl, respectively). Monte-Carlo (TRIM) simulations, lattice deformation effects, electrical neutrality requirements as well as nature of vacancies were used to explain the observed trend. Additional kinetic studies and HRXRD experiments were performed to further explain the DTi/Ar/MgO > DTi/Cl/MgO trend. A modified Kapinos-Platonov model was used to include the chemical effect observed. Larger vacancies cluster are assumed to form after relaxation processes under Cl+ bombardment versus Ar+ bombardment. The model accounts for: (1) enhanced diffusion obtained due to the vacancy cluster dissociation during the annealing process, the so-called post-irradiation annealing effect; (2) enhanced diffusion obtained due to the chemical properties of the ions, the so-called chemical effect.

Lupu, Corina

236

Performance of a Multifunctional Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR) is a nonventing thermal control subsystem that combines a Space Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) with a Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). The LCAR is a heat pump radiator that absorbs water vapor produced in the SWME. Because of the very low water vapor pressure at equilibrium with lithium chloride solution, the LCAR can absorb water vapor at a temperature considerably higher than the SWME, enabling heat rejection sufficient for most EVA activities by thermal radiation from a relatively small area radiator. Prior SEAR prototypes used a flexible LCAR that was designed to be installed on the outer surface of a portable life support system (PLSS) backpack. This paper describes a SEAR subsystem that incorporates a very compact LCAR. The compact, multifunctional LCAR is built in the form of thin panels that can also serve as the PLSS structural shell. We designed and assembled a 2 ft prototype LCAR based on this design and measured its performance in thermal vacuum tests when supplied with water vapor by a SWME. These tests validated our models for SEAR performance and showed that there is enough area available on the PLSS backpack shell to enable rejection of metabolic heat from the LCAR. We used results of these tests to assess future performance potential and suggest approaches for integrating the SEAR system with future space suits.

Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

2014-01-01

237

Performance of a Multifunctional Space Evaporator- Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR) is a nonventing thermal control subsystem that combines a Space Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) with a Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). The LCAR is a heat pump radiator that absorbs water vapor produced in the SWME. Because of the very low water vapor pressure at equilibrium with lithium chloride solution, the LCAR can absorb water vapor at a temperature considerably higher than the SWME, enabling heat rejection by thermal radiation from a relatively small area radiator. Prior SEAR prototypes used a flexible LCAR that was designed to be installed on the outer surface of a portable life support system (PLSS) backpack. This paper describes a SEAR subsystem that incorporates a very compact LCAR. The compact, multifunctional LCAR is built in the form of thin panels that can also serve as the PLSS structural shell. We designed and assembled a 2 sq ft prototype LCAR based on this design and measured its performance in thermal vacuum tests when supplied with water vapor by a SWME. These tests validated our models for SEAR performance and showed that there is enough area available on the PLSS backpack shell to enable heat rejection from the LCAR.

Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

2013-01-01

238

Europium- and lithium-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals that provide a linear emissive response with X-ray radiation exposure.  

PubMed

Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2-xO3; Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2-xO3; Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40-220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2-xO3; Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 ?m sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605-617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precision XRAD 225Cx small-animal image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. For both 80 and 225 kVp energies, this radiotransparent device recorded scintillation intensities that tracked linearly with total radiation exposure, highlighting its capability to provide alternately accurate dosimetry measurements for both diagnostic imaging (80 kVp) and radiation therapy treatment (225 kVp). PMID:24696056

Stanton, Ian N; Belley, Matthew D; Nguyen, Giao; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Yifan; Kirsch, David G; Yoshizumi, Terry T; Therien, Michael J

2014-04-24

239

Synthesis and characterization of hexanuclear molybdenum chloride sulfide cluster compounds  

SciTech Connect

A new preparative route to the mixed chloride sulfide cluster species, (Mo/sub 6/S/sub x/Cl/sub 8-x/)/sup (4-x)+/ with x approx. = 4, was explored. Reaction of molybdenum(II) chloride and lithium sulfide in an aluminum trichloride medium afforded such mixed chloride sulfide clusters. Products of the reaction below, where x = 8 or 12, were difficult to characterize. The products were very insoluble, Mo/sub 6/Cl/sub 12/ + 4Li/sub 2/S + xAlCl/sub 3/ ..-->.. products amorphous materials. Infrared spectroscopy and elemental analyses were used for characterizing these materials. 30 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

Spink, D.A.

1986-08-01

240

Oxidation of Transition Metals in Molten Lithium Chloride-Potassium Chloride Eutectic by Mercuric Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

MOST investigations of ionic melts have been concerned with the electrochemical1 or spectroscopic properties of the solution2; relatively little work has been carried out on specific chemical reactions in these media3,4. These systems provide obvious advantages over the more conventional liquid media normally used in the preparation of complexes. However, difficulties can occur in isolation of the product from the

M. Henderson; J. Lewis; D. J. Machin; A. Thompson

1966-01-01

241

Europium- and lithium-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals that provide a linear emissive response with X-ray radiation exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40-220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2-xO3 Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 +/- 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 ?m sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605-617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precision XRAD 225Cx small-animal image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. For both 80 and 225 kVp energies, this radiotransparent device recorded scintillation intensities that tracked linearly with total radiation exposure, highlighting its capability to provide alternately accurate dosimetry measurements for both diagnostic imaging (80 kVp) and radiation therapy treatment (225 kVp).Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40-220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2-xO3 Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 +/- 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 ?m sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605-617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precisi

Stanton, Ian N.; Belley, Matthew D.; Nguyen, Giao; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Yifan; Kirsch, David G.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.; Therien, Michael J.

2014-04-01

242

Auger and radiative deexcitation of the 1s2l3l-prime configurations of lithium-like neon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray energies, Auger and radiative decay rates, and fluorescence yields have been computed in intermediate coupling for the various states of the 1s2s3s, 1s2s3p, 1s2p3p, 1s2p3s, and 1s2p3d configurations of Ne-10(7+). The results supplement recent experimental work on these transitions.

Chen, M. H.

1977-01-01

243

Electrochemical Insertion of Lithium into GraphiteZinc Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal-based composites are currently under investigation as possible negative-electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. We present here a new composite material composed of zinc particles deposited mainly onto graphite surfaces. This Zn\\/graphite composite was prepared by reduction of zinc chloride ZnCl2 by a KC8 graphite intercalation compound in tetrahydrofuran. Electrochemical insertion of lithium occurs both in graphite and in zinc. A

A. Dailly; J. Ghanbaja; P. Willmann; D. Billaud

2004-01-01

244

Synthesis and psychotropic activity of new long-acting lithium compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of the psychotropic effects of lithium carbonate (DGAL-CO 3) and lithium hydroxybutyrate (DGAL-hydrox) products obtained using the method described is investigated in this study. EXPERIMENTAL (CHEMICAL) A chloride intercalation compound was synthesized by reacting LiCI with 2AI(OH) 3 and H20 to yield LiCI'2AI(OH)3\\

T. A. Zamoshchina; A. S. Saratikov; V. P. Isupov; L. E. Chupakhina

1993-01-01

245

Restoration of brain myo -inositol levels in rats increases latency to lithium-pilocarpine seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium pretreatment in rats potentiates the epileptogenic effects of pilocarpine and other cholinergic agonists. In order to determine if this effect of lithium could be reversed bymyo-inositol, rats were pretreated with intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections ofmyo-inositol, artificial CSF orl-chiro-inositol. Lithium chloride, 3 meq\\/kg was administered intraperitoneally 2024 h prior to the subcutaneous injection of pilocarpine 20 or 30 mg\\/kg. In both

O. Kofman; W. R. Sherman; V. Katz; R. H. Belmaker

1993-01-01

246

Modified lithium borohydrides for reversible hydrogen storage.  

PubMed

In an attempt to develop lithium borohydrides as reversible hydrogen storage materials with high hydrogen storage capacities, the feasibility of reducing the dehydrogenation temperature of the lithium borohydride and moderating rehydrogenation conditions was explored. The lithium borohydride was modified by ball milling with metal oxides and metal chlorides as additives. The modified lithium borohydrides released 9 wt % hydrogen starting from 473 K. The dehydrided modified lithium borohydrides absorbed 7-9 wt % hydrogen at 873 K and 7 MPa. The modification with additives reduced the dehydriding starting temperature from 673 to 473 K and moderated the rehydrogenation conditions from 923 K/15 MPa to 873 K/7 MPa. XRD and SEM analysis revealed the formation of an intermediate compound that might play a key role in changing the reaction path, resulting in the lower dehydriding temperature and reversibility. The reversible hydrogen storage capacity of the oxide-modified lithium borohydrides decreased gradually during hydriding/dehydriding cycling. One of the possible reasons for this effect might be the loss of boron during dehydrogenation, but this can be prevented by changing the dehydriding path using appropriate additives. The additives reduced the dehydriding temperature and improved the reversibility, but they also reduced the hydrogen storage capacity. The best compromise can be reached by selecting appropriate additives, optimizing the additive loading, and using new synthesis processes other than ball milling. PMID:16571023

Au, Ming; Jurgensen, Arthur

2006-04-01

247

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

248

Neutron Detection using Lithium Glass Scintillator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a neutron detector using a thin sheet of lithium-6 glass scintillator. Lithium-6 has a high capture cross-section for neutrons, giving high neutron detection efficiency. One of the difficulties of neutron detection is discriminating between neutron and gamma radiation. We have measured the gamma sensitivity of our detector to be one in 10,000. For nuclear non-proliferation applications, radioactive sources may be shielded. Unlike most neutron detectors, lithium glass detectors are more efficient at detecting neutrons if the source is shielded. We are testing different configurations to optimize the detector's neutron capture efficiency.

Wallace, Adam; Rees, Lawrence; Czirr, Bart

2011-10-01

249

Dehydration of Magnesium Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application discloses a method for dehydrating magnesium chloride hydrates or brines by complexing with amine hydrochlorides. Magnesium chloride hydrate or brine is reacted to an amine hydrochloride to form a complex which is then heated to fir...

H. Dolezal

1975-01-01

250

Chloride - urine test  

MedlinePLUS

The urine chloride test measures the amount of chloride in urine. ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested in the lab. If needed, the health care provider may ask you to collect your urine ...

251

Mercuric chloride poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different ... poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric chloride. This is for information only and not for ...

252

Safety considerations for fabricating lithium battery packs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium cell safety is a major issue with both manufacturers and end users. Most manufacturers have taken great strides to develop the safest cells possible while still maintaining performance characteristics. The combining of lithium cells for higher voltages, currents, and capacities requires the fabricator of lithium battery packs to be knowledgable about the specific electrochemical system being used. Relatively high rate, spirally wound (large surface area) sulfur oxychloride cells systems, such as Li/Thionyl or Sulfuryl chloride are considered. Prior to the start of a design of a battery pack, a review of the characterization studies for the cells should be conducted. The approach for fabricating a battery pack might vary with cell size.

Ciesla, J. J.

1986-09-01

253

Safety considerations for fabricating lithium battery packs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium cell safety is a major issue with both manufacturers and end users. Most manufacturers have taken great strides to develop the safest cells possible while still maintaining performance characteristics. The combining of lithium cells for higher voltages, currents, and capacities requires the fabricator of lithium battery packs to be knowledgable about the specific electrochemical system being used. Relatively high rate, spirally wound (large surface area) sulfur oxychloride cells systems, such as Li/Thionyl or Sulfuryl chloride are considered. Prior to the start of a design of a battery pack, a review of the characterization studies for the cells should be conducted. The approach for fabricating a battery pack might vary with cell size.

Ciesla, J. J.

1986-01-01

254

Minerals Yearbook: Lithium, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2006, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to be 2,500 metric tons (t) of contained lithium, the same as the estimate for 2005 and nearly 32% more than in 2004. The sources for these lithium compounds were a domestic lithium carbonate...

J. A. Ober

2006-01-01

255

Rechargeable lithium cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general object of this invention is to provide an improved rechargeable lithium cell. A more specific object of the invention is to provide a rechargeable lithium cell having an improved low temperature performance and rate capability. It has now been found that the aformentioned objects can be attained using lithium as the anode, a solution of a lithium salt

M. Salomon; E. J. Plichta

1984-01-01

256

Minerals Yearbook 1989: Lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States led the world in lithium mineral and compound production and consumption. Estimated consumption increased slightly, and world production also grew. Sales increased for domestic producers, who announced price increases for the third consecutive year. Because lithium is electrochemically reactive and has other unique properties, there are many commercial lithium products. Producers sold lithium as mineral concentrate, brine,

Ober

1989-01-01

257

Lithium-ion soft x-ray laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-stage optical-pumping scheme is considered for achieving laser action on the 199-A? lithium-ion resonance line. Incoherent radiation from a CO2 laser-produced plasma preferentially photoionizes the K shell of neutral lithium, producing highly energetic ions in the metastable 1s2s state. A detailed model of the system indicates that with an initial lithium vapor density ?1014 cm?3, an effective metastability of

S. A. Mani; H. A. Hyman; J. D. Daugherty

1976-01-01

258

Lithium Ion Conductive Electrolyte Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A solid electrolyte for the lithium family of batteries is proposed which has a high lithium ion conductivity. It comprises a solid solution of lithium sulfate and lithium hydroxide. 3 figures. (ERA citation 02:048856)

H. Ikeda S. Narukawa

1977-01-01

259

Consideration of lithium nitride halides as solid electrolytes in practical galvanic cell applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lithium nitride halides are fast, solid lithium ion conductors. Their potential use in practical battery type applications is discussed with emphasis on the kinetic, thermodynamic, and structural properties of lithium nitride chloride, Li 9N 2Cl 3. The general requirements of high decomposition voltage, absence of metallic dendrite formation during charge and discharge, low electronic transference number, and stability against reaction with lithium are fulfilled, in addition to fast ion transport and easy preparation and handling. The application of thin film solid electrolytes, e.g., in integrated circuits, is proposed.

Weppner, W.; Hartwig, P.; Rabenau, A.

260

Synthesis of cationic flocculant by radiation-induced copolymerization of methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate with acrylamide in aqueous solution. II. Copolymerization at higher monomer concentration  

SciTech Connect

The radiation-induced copolymerization of methyl chloride salt of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate with acrylamide was studied to prepare a polymer flocculant that can be handled as a solid. The product obtained in the presence of 5 to 20% water was a solid and could be ground to a powder without drying. In order to obtain a water-soluble polymer at a higher concentration, the effect of various additives on the copolymerization was investigated and found that alcohols bearing a hydrogen atom attached to the tertiary carbon atom effectively inhibit intermolecular crosslinking to give water-soluble polymer. It is suggested that the formation of water-insoluble polymer is predominantly attributable to the crosslinking of polymer chains rather than to the imidation of amide groups. Copolymerization in the presence of isopropyl alcohol as inhibitor of the crosslinking was also studied and compared with that reported previously, which was carried out at a lower monomer concentration without additives.

Ishigaki, I.; Fukuzaki, H.; Okada, T.; Okada, T.; Okamoto, J.; Machi, S.

1981-05-01

261

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1983-01-01

262

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1982-02-09

263

Emission analysis of expanding laser produced lithium plasma plume in presence of ambient gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic analysis of the emission from laser-produced plasma from bulk lithium (Li) block has been made. The observed changes in the emission from lithium neutral and ionic species have been explained by considering various atomic processes. We demonstrate that the excitation process in case of neutral lithium Li (I) is electron impact excitation whereas for singly ionized lithium Li (II), radiative recombination is the dominant mechanism. We also show that the ionized species are dominant in the LPP plume.

Joshi, H. C.; Prahlad, V.; Singh, R. K.; Kumar, Ajai

2009-09-01

264

First Measurements of Hollow Lithium States Produced by Triple Excitation of Laser-Excited Lithium Atoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hollow lithium atoms are usually formed(L. Kiernan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 72), 2359(1994). ^2Y. Azuma et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3770(1995). ^3L. Journel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 30(1996).-3 by simultaneous three electron excitations of lithium atoms in the ground state. Combining the use of a cw dye laser with the highly monochromatic beam of synchrotron radiation

Francois Wuilleumier; Denis Cubaynes; Segolene Diehl; Jean-Marc Bizau; Bruno Rouvellou; Loic Journel; Samir Al Moussalami; Nora Berrah; L. Voky; P. Faucher; A. Hibbert; T. J. Morgan; E. T. Kennedy; C. Blanchard; J. D. Bozek; A. S. Schlachter

1996-01-01

265

Outgassing from alpha particle irradiation of lithium hydride and lithium hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have experimentally studied the effects of ?-particle radiation on isotopically enriched lithium hydride (6LiH) and its corrosion product lithium hydroxide (6LiOH) to determine, in particular, the type and amount of gases evolved during irradiation. SRIM Monte Carlo simulations suggest that irradiating these materials with 2.2-MeV ?-particles will ionize atoms and form hydrogen vacancies in the target material, and that

Carol Haertling; Igor Usov; Yongqiang Wang

2011-01-01

266

Electrochemical lithium extraction from ?-lithium nitride  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report the electrochemical characterization of mixtures of ball-milled lithium nitride and iron metal. Several samples were prepared with different lithium nitride to iron molar ratios. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra showed the presence of iron metal in all the samples and ?-lithium nitride in the samples with higher Li3N\\/Fe ratio. No evidence of other phases was detected.

Pier Paolo Prosini; Francesco Cardellini

2002-01-01

267

Characterization Lithium Mineralized Pegmatite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium economic importance has increased in the last years. In Brazil its reserves, generally pegmatites bodies, are found in Itinga-Aracuai-MG. This study of characterization belongs to a global plan of lithium mineralized bodies research of 'Arqueana d...

E. F. S. Pereira O. Luz Ferreira R. Z. L. Cancado J. Mauricio Neto

1986-01-01

268

Navy Lithium Battery Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium batteries are electrochemical reactors that transform chemical energy into electrical energy on demand. Lithium metal batteries were first marketed in early 1970, primarily for military use. They have a very high gravimetric and volumetric energy ...

C. Batchelor J. Dow

2010-01-01

269

Lithium Combustion: A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This review deals with the chemical reactions, ignition, and combustion of lithium combustion in air and in the components of air, including oxygen, nitrogen, water, and carbon dioxide. It was found that lithium reacts vigorously with these substances. In...

R. A. Rhein

1990-01-01

270

Thionyl-chloride-induced lung injury and bronchiolitis obliterans  

SciTech Connect

Thionyl-chloride (TCl) is used in the manufacture of lithium batteries, producing SO2 and HCl fumes on contact with water. We report two cases of accidental TCl exposure resulting in lung injury that may vary from a relatively mild and reversible interstitial lung disease to a severe form of bronchiolitis obliterans causing, after a latent period, an acute/chronic respiratory failure as well as other complications (spontaneous pneumothorax and bronchopleural fistula), previously unreported in TCl fume inhalation.

Konichezky, S.; Schattner, A.; Ezri, T.; Bokenboim, P.; Geva, D. (Kaplan Hospital, Rehovot (Israel))

1993-09-01

271

Factors affecting the background sensitivity of thermoluminescent lithium flouride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of particle size on non-radiation induced signals (related to surface phenomena) and the thermoluminescence sensitivity of lithium flouride are reported. Procedures for reducing background signals are considered.

Driscoll, C. M. H.; McKinlay, A. F.

1980-09-01

272

Lithium nephrotoxicity revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium is widely used to treat bipolar disorder. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is the most common adverse effect of lithium and occurs in up to 40% of patients. Renal lithium toxicity is characterized by increased water and sodium diuresis, which can result in mild dehydration, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and renal tubular acidosis. The concentrating defect and natriuretic effect develop within

Bernard C. Rossier; Jean-Pierre Grnfeld

2009-01-01

273

LITHIUM BATTERY SPACE EXPERIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The In-Space Technology Experiments Program seleoted the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to conduct a Phase A study of the Lithium Battery Fxperirnent. The experiment will mark the first time a rechargeable lithium battery will be flown in space. The operation of the batlery irrvofves lithium deposition and dissolution processes. Micro gravity influences these processes significantly. The experiment will check the rate

Artur B. Chmlelewski; Subbarao Surampudl; Richard Bennett; Harvey Frank; Robert Mueller

274

Experimental lithium system experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Experimental Lithium System is a test loop built to support design and operation of the Fusion Test Facility. ELS has achieved over 15,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program has demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including an electromagnetic pump, lithium jet target, and vacuum system. Data on materials corrosion and behavior of lithium

J. M. Atwood; J. D. Berg; R. Kolowith; W. C. Miller

1983-01-01

275

Lithium composite anode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described of manufacturing a lithium composite anode for thermal batteries comprising the steps of: preparing a homogeneous lithium alloy; grinding the alloy into a powder; melting elemental lithium onto the surface of the powder to form a uniform heterogenous mixture; cooling the mixture to ambient to form an ingot; and configuring the ingot into an anode.

G. E. McManis; A. N. Fletcher; D. E. Bliss

1986-01-01

276

Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes for Lithium Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li(sub (2+2x)/(2+x))M'(sub 2x/(2+x))M(sub (2-2x)/(2+x))O(sub 2-delta), in which 0 < or = x < 1 and delta is less than 0....

C. S. Johnson K. Amine M. M. Thackeray S. H. Kang

2006-01-01

277

Phosphonium chloride for thermal storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of systems for storage of thermal energy is discussed. Application of phosphonium chloride for heat storage through reversible dissociation is described. Chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties of phosphonium chloride are analyzed and dangers in using phosphonium chloride are explained.

Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

1972-01-01

278

Carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of mice to 50, 250, or 1000 ppm of vinyl chloride (VC) in the air for 6 h\\/d, 5 d\\/wk, caused a high incidence of bronchioloalveolar adenoma, mammary gland tumors, and hemangiosarcoma. Mammary gland tumors occurred in the females and included ductular odenocarcinoma and squamous and anaplastic cell carcinomas with metastasis to the lung. Hemangiosarcoma occurred in the liver

C. C. Lee; J. C. Bhandari; J. M. Winston; W. B. House; R. L. Dixon; J. S. Woods

1978-01-01

279

Lithium use in batteries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

Goonan, Thomas G.

2012-01-01

280

Rechargeable lithium cell  

SciTech Connect

The general object of this invention is to provide an improved rechargeable lithium cell. A more specific object of the invention is to provide a rechargeable lithium cell having an improved low-temperature performance and rate capability. It has now been found that the aformentioned objects can be attained using lithium as the anode, a solution of a lithium salt such as LiF/sub 6/ or LiA1C/sup 14/ in a mixed organic solvent as the electrolyte and a lithium intercalating cathode.

Salomon, M.; Plichta, E.J.

1984-09-27

281

Silicon solar cells improved by lithium doping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of conference on characteristics of lithium-doped silicon solar cells and techniques required for fabrication indicate that output of cells has been improved to point where cells exhibit radiation resistance superior to those currently in use, and greater control and reproducibility of cell processing have been achieved.

Berman, P. A.

1970-01-01

282

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

283

Conversion of sodium chloride to hydrogen chloride in the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reaction route is suggested, based on experimental results, for the conversion of sodium chloride particles to gaseous hydrogen chloride in the atmosphere. The first step is the hydrolysis of nitrogen dioxide (NO) to form nitric acid (HNO) vapor. The second step is either adsorption on the relatively dry sodium chloride and the fourth is desorption of the hydrogen chloride,

R. C. Robbins; R. D. Cadle; D. L. Eckhardt

1959-01-01

284

[Congenital chloride diarrhea].  

PubMed

Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare hereditary disease, with a prenatal onset, secondary to a deficit in the intestinal chloride transport. In the present study, we describe the clinical characteristics of three patients with congenital watery diarrhea, two of them females, aged between 9 and 14 months at the first visit. All patients presented perinatal antecedents of polyhydramnios and prematurity, watery stools since birth and growth failure. Metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia and hypochloremia were found. Stool ionogram with elevated doses of chloride, exceeding both sodium and potassium, confirmed the diagnosis of CCD. Substitute treatment with sodium and potassium chloride was started with good results. CCD should be considered as a differential diagnosis to congenital watery diarrhea, since early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are mandatory for the normal development of the child, avoiding severe complications such as neurological sequelae and even death. PMID:16127986

Contreras, Mnica; Rocca, Ana; Benedetti, Laura; Kakisu, Hisae; Delgado, Sabrina; Ruiz, Jos Antonio

2005-01-01

285

Hydrogen chloride test set  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detector uses tertiary amine, which makes reaction fairly specific for relatively small highly polarized hydrogen chloride molecule. Reaction is monitored by any microbalance capable of measuring extremely small mass differences in real time.

Workman, G. L.

1976-01-01

286

Antidiabetic and vasoprotective activity of lithium: Role of glycogen synthase kinase-3  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Lithium is a drug of choice in maniac disorder. Lithium inhibits the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), an enzyme involved in the insulin signalling pathway. Elevated levels of GSK-3 were found in diabetic rats and humans. We aimed to determine the effect of lithium chloride in diabetes and associated vascular complications in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Type 2 diabetes was induced by high fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were divided into diabetic control and lithium chloride treatment groups. Lithium chloride was used as a GSK-3 inhibitor. The treatment was given for 4 weeks. Various biochemical parameters were measured before initiation and the end of treatment. Systolic blood pressure was measured by the non-invasive tail-cuff method, while various biochemical and tissue parameters were estimated for efficacy. Vasoreactivity was performed by taking the contractile response of H2O2 (10-6 M to 10-3M) and angiotensin II (1011 to 107 M) in rat thoracic aortas of different groups. Statistical comparisons between all groups were performed by using two tailed one-way ANOVA followed by the Dunnett test. P-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Treatment with lithium chloride significantly reduced the augmented systolic blood pressure, various biochemical parameters, and antioxidant parameters in diabetic-treated rats. Treatment also showed the decrease in augmented responses of H2O2 and angiotensin II in rat thoracic aortas of treated rats. Conclusions: We can conclude that lithium chloride treatment reduces the diabetic state as well as diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction.

Kanzariya, Nilesh R.; Patel, Rameshvar K.; Patel, Natvar J.

2011-01-01

287

40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section...dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator...vinyl chloride, and/or polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with...

2010-07-01

288

An Experimental Study of Lithium Isotope Partitioning Among Quartz, Muscovite, and Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary results from an experimental study suggest that lithium isotopes may serve as an indicator of magmatic hydrothermal processes in felsic environments, such as granitic pegmatites and porphyry-type ore deposits. The experiments were carried out with natural (pegmatitic) specimens of quartz and muscovite and with a chloride-bearing aqueous fluid at 400-500 C and 50-100 MPa. Lithium was introduced into the

S. J. Lynton; R. J. Walker; P. A. Candela

2002-01-01

289

Lithium Lens for Ilc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium Lens is a key element of FERMILAB proton conversion system in use for many years. We are analyzing the ILC positron source equipped with a scaled version of Lithium lens. Usage of liquid Lithium allows efficient cooling of Lithium container and entrance/exit windows. For the temperature just ~80C higher, than the temperature of boiling water, the system for circulation of liquid Lithium is a compact and reliable. Overall efficiency of 1.5 secondary positrons per each initial electron passing the undulator is feasible with a compact Lithium lens. Axially symmetric motion of liquid Li does not perturb the field quality required for minimization of emittance of the secondary positrons/electrons polarized longitudinally.

Mikhailichenko, Alexander A.

2013-10-01

290

An integrated model of the lithium/thionyl chloride battery  

SciTech Connect

The desire to reduce the time and cost of design engineering on new components or to validate existing designs in new applications is stimulating the development of modeling and simulation tools. The authors are applying a model-based design approach to low and moderate rate versions of the Li/SOCl{sub 2} D-size cell with success. Three types of models are being constructed and integrated to achieve maximum capability and flexibility in the final simulation tool. A phenomenology based electrochemical model links performance and the cell design, chemical processes, and material properties. An artificial neural network model improves computational efficiency and fills gaps in the simulation capability when fundamental cell parameters are too difficult to measure or the forms of the physical relationships are not understood. Finally, a PSpice-based model provides a simple way to test the cell under realistic electrical circuit conditions. Integration of these three parts allows a complete link to be made between fundamental battery design characteristics and the performance of the rest of the electrical subsystem.

Jungst, R.G.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Ingersoll, D.; O`Gorman, C.C.; Paez, T.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jain, M.; Weidner, J.W. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1998-06-08

291

Self-diffusion coefficient study of liquid lithium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little liquid lithium experimental self-diffusion coefficient were reported in the literature because of higher risk of radiation measurement method of diffusion coefficient. In the paper, the EAM potential is applied to calculate self-diffusion coefficient of liquid lithium with emphasis on a wide range of temperature, pressure, magnetic field, and gravity acceleration. The results show that the liquid lithium self-diffusion coefficient increases with temperature increasing and decreases with pressure increasing. Calculated self-diffusion coefficient is in good agreement with Murday's experiment results in atmosphere. We get the Arrhenius equation according to the simulation results. The increasing of pressure enlarges the liquid lithium activation energy and lowers the movement of atom in liquid lithium.

Wang, Z. H.; Ni, M. J.

2012-02-01

292

Lithium treatment at 52  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews briefly and comments in detail on selected events in the history of lithium treatment. The events include Cades discovery of lithiums antimanic action, the discovery and establishment of its prophylactic action, the ensuing debate, amelioration and prevention of side effects and risks, use during pregnancy, non-compliance, selection of patients, information and instruction, the question whether new and

Mogens Schou

2001-01-01

293

Lithium purification technique  

DOEpatents

A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

Keough, Robert F. (Richland, WA); Meadows, George E. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01

294

Lithium purification technique  

DOEpatents

A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

Keough, R.F.; Meadows, G.E.

1984-01-10

295

Lithium: underappreciated and underused?  

PubMed

Lithium is a remarkable drug with a fascinating history. Although less popular than other anticonvulsant and atypical antipsychotic mood-stabilizing drugs, lithium is beneficial in bipolar disorder and may be superior to other drugs for treatment-resistant depression and for reducing suicidal behaviors. Various studies have demonstrated that lithium has neuroprotective and neurotrophic cellular effects in the brain, suggesting it may be "brain healthy" for patients with mood disorders and useful for patients with other neurodegenerative disorders. In this article, I describe the history of lithium and review important aspects of its clinical use. PMID:17848039

Howland, Robert H

2007-08-01

296

Lithium battery hazard: old-fashioned planning implications of new technology.  

PubMed

Lithium battery technology has important military applications and will increasingly enter the civilian marketplace. In order to prevent explosive fragmentation under some circumstances of malfunction or misuse, lithium batteries are designed to vent externally in the event of malfunction. Depending on the chemistry and size of a venting lithium battery, the release of toxic gases such as sulfur dioxide or thionyl chloride may pose risks to exposed individuals, particularly in enclosed spaces. Chemical and thermal burns, laryngeal edema, pulmonary edema, and bronchiolitis obliterans are potential outcomes. A case report is presented which illustrates the hazards. The hazards are not from unpredictable outcomes, but from failure to plan for predictable outcomes. PMID:3379484

Ducatman, A M; Ducatman, B S; Barnes, J A

1988-04-01

297

Lithium and the antidiuretic hormone.  

PubMed Central

The effect of lithium on the urine concentrating response to antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and the excretion of ADH has been studied in rats and man. The maximum urine osmolarity following 18 h dehydration and Pitressin (5 u) was decreased in three out of four patients during lithium treatment compared to their response to the same test in the absence of lithium. In a fifth patient, tested only during lithium treatment, the urine remained hypotonic to plasma throughout this test. Lithium increased the excretion of ADH in non-polyuric patients from 9-22 mu/24 h in the absence of lithium to 36-202 mu/24 - during lithium treatment. In four patients with lithium-induced polyuria, a diuretic acting on the distal tubules, clorexolone, reduced the polyuria. Lithium increased urine volume and the excretion of ADH in four rats receiving lithium in their diet. The response to exogenous ADH was decreased during lithium administration.

MacNeil, S; Jennings, G; Eastwood, P R; Paschalis, C; Jenner, F A

1976-01-01

298

Radiation  

Cancer.gov

DCEG researchers carry out a broad-based research program designed to identify, understand, and quantify the risk of cancer in populations exposed to medical, occupational, or environmental radiation. They study ionizing radiation exposures (e.g., x-rays,

299

Scoping studies: behavior and control of lithium and lithium aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HEDL scoping studies examining the behavior of lithium and lithium aerosols have been conducted to determine and examine potential safety and environmental issues for postulated accident conditions associated with the use of lithium as a fusion reactor blanket and\\/or coolant. Liquid lithium reactions with air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and concretes have been characterized. The effectiveness of various powder extinguishing

Jeppson

1982-01-01

300

Lithium and amphetamine: Opposite effects on threshold of intracranial reinforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of lithium chloride on the behavior of rats aroused by electrical self-stimulation of the brain were compared to the effects of a known stimulant, d-amphetamine sulfate. The threshould of the reinforcing effect of this same electrical stimulation was determined by a classical psychophysical method. A threshold of reinforcement was defined by counting the postreinforcement pauses during concurrent fixed-ratio

Geraldine Pick Cassens; A. William Mills

1973-01-01

301

Chloride removal from vitrification offgas  

SciTech Connect

This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

Slaathaug, E.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-06-01

302

Molecular Structure of Barium Chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Barium Chloride was the byproduct of the discovery of radium by Madame Curie. When refining radium, the final separation resulted in barium chloride and radium chloride. Electrophoresis of barium chloride produces small-scale amounts of barium atom. This can be used for obtaining barium for commercial uses. Applications of barium chloride include stimulating the heart and other muscles for medicinal purposes, and also for softening water. Other uses of barium chloride include the manufacturing of barium salts, as pesticide, pigments, boiler detergent, in purifying sugar, as mordant in dyeing and printing textiles, and in the manufacture of caustic soda, polymers, and stabilizers.

2002-08-15

303

Magnetic resonance methods used to study the mobility of lithium ions and the formation of gamma radiolysis products in lithium silicates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present the results of research on the mobility of lithium ions and the formation of radiation induced paramagnetic centers in the gamma radiolysis of lithium ortho- and metasilicates; nuclear magnetic resonance of Li-7 and electroparamagnetic resonance were used in the studies.

I. S. Pronin; A. S. Nikiforov; A. A. Vashman

1986-01-01

304

Magnetic resonance methods used to study the mobility of lithium ions and the formation of gamma radiolysis products in lithium silicates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inorganic lithium compounds are among the promising materials for winning tritium in thermonuclear reactions [i-3], and it is therefore necessary to have information on both the physical and chemical properties of these compounds. We present in this paper the results of research on the mobility of lithium ions and the ~ormation of radiation-induced paramagnetic centers in the gamma radiolysis of

I. S. Pronin; A. A. Vashman; A. S. Nikiforov

1985-01-01

305

Modelling of lithium erosion and transport in FTU lithium experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ERO code has been used to simulate lithium erosion, transport and re-deposition from liquid lithium limiter experiments in FTU. Two different operational cases from LLL experiments with different plasma parameters and surface temperature are modelled. According to the effective lithium sputtering yields, for both cases the lithium erosion is mainly due to physical sputtering rather than evaporation. Furthermore, the modelled re-deposition fraction of evaporated lithium is much higher than that of sputtered lithium, which is due to the shorter ionisation mean free path of thermal lithium atoms. Therefore, the evaporation erosion effect can be neglected compared to physical sputtering when the surface temperature is below 450 C. According to the simulations, most of the lithium impurities exist in the form of Li+, and the main plasma contamination by lithium ions is low because most of eroded lithium particles are not transported into the core plasma and stay outside of the LCFS.

Ding, R.; Maddaluno, G.; Apicella, M. L.; Mazzitelli, G.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Kirschner, A.; Chen, J. L.; Li, J. G.; Luo, G.-N.

2013-07-01

306

Large lithium loop experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

An engineering design and operating experience of a large, isothermal, lithium-coolant test loop are presented. This liquid metal coolant loop is called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) and has operated safely and reliably for over 6500 hours through September 1981. The loop is used for full-scale testing of components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Main system parameters

R. Kolowith; T. J. Owen; J. D. Berg; J. M. Atwood

1981-01-01

307

LITHIUM AND RENAL FUNCTIONS  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Thirty patients of affective disorder who were on lithium for a year and thirty patients on antidepressant were studied in detail for renal functions. Our observation is that lithium therapy does not lead to any deterioration in kidney functions. The results are discussed.

Sethi, N.; Trivedi, J.K.; Sethi, B.B.

1987-01-01

308

Lithium battery thermal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal characteristics and thermal behavior of lithium batteries are important both for the batteries meeting operating life requirements and for safety considerations. Sandia National Laboratories has a broad-based program that includes analysis, engineering and model development. We have determined thermal properties of lithium batteries using a variety of calorimetric methods for many years. We developed the capability to model temperature

Daniel H Doughty; Paul C Butler; Rudolph G Jungst; E. Peter Roth

2002-01-01

309

Lithium rechargeable envelope cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prototype lithium manganese oxide rechargeable cells have been made in an envelope format, which is particularly suitable for scaling up to large batteries. Materials have been tested in laboratory cells. The synthesis of lithium manganese oxide has been investigated and cathode components for cells have been fabricated. Cycling results are reported.

Gilmour, A.; Giwa, C. O.; Lee, J. C.; Ritchie, A. G.

310

Lithium rechargeable envelope cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prototype lithium manganese oxide rechargeable cells have been made in an envelope format, which is particularly suitable for scaling up to large batteries. Materials have been tested in laboratory cells. The synthesis of lithium manganese oxide has been investigated and cathode components for cells have been fabricated. Cycling results are reported.

A. Gilmour; C. O. Giwa; J. C. Lee; A. G. Ritchie

1997-01-01

311

The New Lithium Clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until the early 1950s, no effective pharmacological treatment existed for bipolar affective disorder. By the early 1960s, specialty clinics were being set up to dispense lithium carbonate to bipolar patients. By the late 1980s, a new body of knowledge was influencing the perception of bipolar disorder and how the disease should be treated. The authors lithium clinic from 1974 has

Yamima Osher; Yuly Bersudsky; R. H. Belmaker

2010-01-01

312

Cathode material for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

2013-07-23

313

Study about lithium battery's characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make certain the lithium battery's terminal limited discharge voltage and internal resistance in different load, four 3.2 V\\/60Ah lithium batteries are put in series to form battery pack in tests. The lithium battery pack terminal voltage, current and overall internal resistance were recorded with the discharge time. By analyze datas from the tests with MATLAB, the lithium battery pack

Ding Zuowu; Wang Shulin; Zhao Weijun; Qu Min

2010-01-01

314

[Intoxication with lithium].  

PubMed

We report a case of a 75-year-old male patient who presented to the emergency room with arterial hypotension and impaired vigilance. The patient was on lithium therapy due to mood disorder. One month earlier medication with a betablocker, a loop-diuretic and an ACE-inhibitor had been started due to heart failure. Findings at admission included renal insufficiency, pneumonia and a slightly increased serum level of lithium. Three days later his Glasgow Coma Scale Score was 7, he showed gaze deviation, increased muscle tonus and cloni. The patient fully recovered after volume substitution and normalization of his renal function. Diagnosis of chronic intoxication with lithium was made due to the clinical picture and after exclusion of neurological pathologies. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of lithium is described and the risk factors leading to lithium intoxication and treatment of intoxication are discussed. PMID:19551652

Fiegler, K; Liechti, M E; Bodmer, M; Bruggisser, M

2009-06-24

315

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL) [Naperville, IL; Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL) [Naperville, IL; Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL) [Naperville, IL

2008-01-01

316

Ferrimagnetic copper chloride hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic properties of copper chloride hydroxide were studied by using a superconducting quantum interference device. The coercivity of this material was more than 10 000 Oe at 2 K, which is the highest observed in the copper compounds. The magnetic susceptibility as a function of temperature revealed ferrimagnetism in the sample.

S G Yang; T Li; B L Xu; Y W Du

2003-01-01

317

(Perfluoroalkylimino)selenyl Chlorides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Very few examples of compounds containing discrete nitrogen-selenium double bonds exist. The first of these was reported in 1967 and involved the preparation of ((arylsulfonyl)imino)-selenyl chlorides. Other examples such as TeF5N--SeCl2 and SF5N--SeCl2 d...

J. S. Thrasher C. S. Bauknight D. D. DesMarteau

1985-01-01

318

PHOTOOXIDATION OF ALLYL CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The photooxidation of allyl chloride was studied by irradiation either in 100-L Teflon bags or in a 22.7-cu m Teflon smog chamber in the presence of added NOx. In the absence of added hydrocarbons, the reaction involves a Cl atom chain, which leads to a highly reactive system. A ...

319

Photooxidation of Allyl Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The photooxidation of allyl chloride was studied by irradiation either in 100-L Teflon bags or in a 22.7-cu m Teflon smog chamber in the presence of added NOx. In the absence of added hydrocarbons, the reaction involves a Cl atom chain, which leads to a h...

E. O. Edney P. B. Shepson T. E. Kleindienst E. W. Corse

1986-01-01

320

Chloride ATPase Pumps in Epithelia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Five widely documented mechanisms for chloride transport across biological membranes are known: anion-coupled antiport, Na+ and H(+)-coupled symport, Cl? channels and an electrochemical coupling process. These transport processes for chloride are either secondarily active or\\u000a are driven by the electrochemical gradient for chloride. Until recently, the evidence in favour of a primary active transport\\u000a mechanism for chloride has been inconclusive

George A. Gerencser

321

Worker Exposure to Vinyl Chloride in Vinyl Chloride and Polyvinyl Chloride Production and Fabrication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In assessment of worker exposure to vinyl-chloride (75014) (VC) and polyvinyl-chloride (9002862) (PVC) was reported. Toxicological data were presented, including acute and chronic animal and human studies, as well as reported worker exposures. Common meth...

J. H. Jones

1977-01-01

322

Application of Quality Function Deployment to the design of a lithium battery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is the tool we have selected to aid in the design, development and subsequent commercial manufacture of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride ''D'' cell for use in weapons applications. QFD is a structured methodology used to help a...

L. Halbleib P. Wormington W. Cieslak H. Street

1992-01-01

323

Anode-limited cell reversal in lithium-sulfur oxyhalide cells  

SciTech Connect

In situ infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry were used to investigate the gas and liquid phases in lithium-sulfur oxyhalide cells driven into anode-limited reversal at 1-5 mA/sq cm. In the lithium-thionyl chloride system the species HCl, CS2, SO2, S2O, SCl2, and SO2Cl2 were identified in the gas phase and HCl, AlCl3OH(-), SO2, SO2Cl2, and SOCl(+) AlCl4(-) in the liquid phase. A species giving rise to three absorption bands at 1337, 1070, and 665/cm was observed in the liquid phase of that system during anode-limited reversal only, and in the lithium sulfuryl chloride system during normal discharge and during reversal this compound was tentatively identified as Li(SO2, SO2Cl2(+)AlCl4(-) and is analogous to the well-known complexes involving LiAlCl4, SO2, and SOCl2. The lithium-sulfuryl chloride cell behaved similarly to the thionyl chloride cell, specifically with respect to formation of SO2(-) and SOCl(+)-like species - the latter tentatively identified as SO2CL(+). Indirect evidence suggests that chlorine may accumulate in both systems at -20 C, but at 25 C its accumulation in the cells is prevented by its reaction with SO2 to form SO2Cl2. 18 references.

Attia, A.I.; Sarrazin, C.; Gabriel, K.A.

1984-11-01

324

Potential Lithium Requirements for Fusion Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A discussion of lithium requirements and supply suggests that the lithium usage anticipated by the developing fusion power industry may require lithium production well beyond current production growth rates. Present U.S. lithium resources appear sufficien...

J. N. Hartley B. F. Gore J. R. Young

1977-01-01

325

Thermal analysis of lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed three-dimensional thermal model has been developed to examine the thermal behaviour of a lithium-ion battery. This model precisely considers the layered-structure of the cell stacks, the case of a battery pack, and the gap between both elements to achieve a comprehensive analysis. Both location-dependent convection and radiation are adopted at boundaries to reflect different heat dissipation performances on

S. C. Chen; C. C. Wan; Y. Y. Wang

2005-01-01

326

Lithium attenuates peripheral neuropathy induced by paclitaxel in rats.  

PubMed

As a cancer chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel (Taxol ) causes dose-related peripheral neuropathy in human beings. The mechanisms underlying this toxicity are currently unknown, and there are no validated treatments for its prevention or control. To assess whether lithium as a pre-treatment and at subtherapeutic dose could prevent the peripheral neuropathy produced by it, rats were treated with paclitaxel (2?mg/kg i.p. every other day for a total of 16 times) and/or lithium chloride (300?mg/l) via water supply. General toxicity and body-weight were measured regularly during the experiment. To evaluate the sensory and motor neuropathy hot-plate, open-field test and nerve conduction velocity were used. In rats treated with only paclitaxel, there was behavioural, electrophysiological and histological evidence of a mixed sensorimotor neuropathy after 16 injections. Lithium robustly reduced the rate of mortality and general toxicity. Paclitaxel-induced sensorimotor neuropathy was significantly improved as indicated by changes in hotplate latency, total distance moved and a significant increase in sciatic, sural and tail sensory or motor nerve conduction velocity. The same results were observed in histopathological examinations; however, dorsal root ganglion neurons did not significantly change in the paclitaxel-treated groups. These results suggest that lithium, at subtherapeutic doses, can prevent both motor and sensory components of paclitaxel neuropathy in rats. Thus, lithium at these doses, as an inexpensive and relatively safe salt, may be useful clinically in preventing the neuropathy induced by paclitaxel treatment. PMID:21917116

Pourmohammadi, Nasir; Alimoradi, Houman; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Bakhtiarian, Azam; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

2012-03-01

327

Inhibitory effect of lithium on nucleotide hydrolysis and acetylcholinesterase activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain.  

PubMed

Lithium has been used as an effective antimanic drug in humans and it is well known for its effects on neuropsychiatric disorders and neuronal communication. ATP and adenosine are important signaling molecules, and most nerves release ATP as a fast co-transmitter together with classical neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo effects of lithium on acetylcholinesterase and ectonucleotidase activities in zebrafish brain. There was a significant inhibition of ADP hydrolysis after in vivo exposure to lithium at 5 and 10 mg/l (27.6% and 29% inhibition, respectively), whereas an inhibitory effect was observed for AMP hydrolysis only at 10 mg/l (30%). Lithium treatment in vivo also significantly decreased the acetylcholinesterase activity at 10 mg/l (21.9%). The mRNA transcript levels of the genes encoding for these enzymes were unchanged after exposure to 5 and 10 mg/l lithium chloride. In order to directly evaluate the action of lithium on enzyme activities, we tested the in vitro effect of lithium at concentrations ranging from 1 to 1000 ?M. There were no significant changes in zebrafish brain ectonucleotidase and acetylcholinesterase activities at all concentrations tested in vitro. Our findings show that lithium treatment can alter ectonucleotidase and acetylcholinesterase activities, which may regulate extracellular nucleotide, nucleoside, and acetylcholine levels. These data suggest that cholinergic and purinergic signaling may be targets of the pharmacological effects induced by this compound. PMID:21609761

Oliveira, Renata da Luz; Seibt, Kelly Juliana; Rico, Eduardo Pacheco; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise

2011-01-01

328

Effects of resonant pumping on the temporal and spatial evolution of a laser produced lithium plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial and temporal distribution of neutral and singly ionized lithium atoms has been investigated when slab targets are irradiated by ~1 mus pulses of both resonant and nonresonant radiation from a flashlamp pumped dye laser. The ion population is enhanced when the laser is tuned to resonance with the 2s-2p line of neutral lithium and there is evidence for

Paul Bowe; Jim Conway; Padraig Dunne; Thomas McCormack; Gerry O'Sullivan

1999-01-01

329

Chloride and Salinity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-07-15

330

Chloride channels as drug targets  

PubMed Central

Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (?-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery.

Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

2013-01-01

331

Lithium drifted germanium system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General characteristics of the lithium-drifted germanium photodiode-Dewar-preamplifier system and particular operating instructions for the device are given. Information is included on solving operational problems.

Fjarlie, E. J.

1969-01-01

332

APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF LITHIUM METAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods and apparatus for the production of high-purity lithium from ; lithium halides are described. The apparatus is provided for continuously ; contacting a molten lithium halide with molten barium, thereby forming lithium ; metal and a barium halide, establishing separate layers of these reaction ; products and unreacted barium and lithium halide, and continuously withdrawing ; lithium and barium

P. S. Baker; F. R. Duncan; H. B. Greene

1961-01-01

333

Radiation  

NASA Video Gallery

Outside the protective cocoon of Earth's atmosphere, the universe is full of harmful radiation. Astronauts who live and work in space are exposed not only to ultraviolet rays but also to space radi...

334

Lithium-methomyl induced seizures in rats: A new model of status epilepticus?  

SciTech Connect

Behavioral, electroencephalographic (EEG) and neuropathological effects of methomyl, a carbamate insecticide reversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity, were studied in naive or lithium chloride (24 h, 3 mEq/kg, s.c.) pretreated male Wistar rats. In naive animals, methomyl with equal potency produced motor limbic seizures and fatal status epilepticus. Thus, the CD50 values (50% convulsant dose) for these seizure endpoints were almost equal to the LD50 (50% lethal dose) of methomyl (13 mg/kg). Lithium pretreated rats were much more susceptible to convulsant, but not lethal effect of methomyl. CD50 values of methomyl for motor limbic seizures and status epilepticus were reduced by lithium pretreatment to 3.7 mg/kg (a 3.5-fold decrease) and 5.2 mg/kg (a 2.5-fold decrease), respectively. In contrast, lithium pretreatment resulted in only 1.3-fold decrease of LD50 value of methomyl (9.9 mg/kg). Moreover, lithium-methomyl treated animals developed a long-lasting status epilepticus, which was not associated with imminent lethality observed in methomyl-only treated rats. Scopolamine (10 mg/kg) or diazepam (10 mg/kg) protected all lithium-methomyl treated rats from convulsions and lethality. Cortical and hippocampal EEG recordings revealed typical epileptic discharges that were consistent with behavioral seizures observed in lithium-methomyl treated rats. In addition, convulsions induced by lithium-methomyl treatment were associated with widespread neurodegeneration of limbic structures. Our observations indicate that lithium pretreatment results in separation between convulsant and lethal effects of methomyl in rats. As such, seizures induced by lithium-methomyl administration may be an alternative to lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus, which is associated with high lethality.

Kaminski, Rafal M. [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland)]. E-mail: kaminskr@mail.nih.gov; Blaszczak, Piotr [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Dekundy, Andrzej [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Parada-Turska, Jolanta [Department of Rheumatology and Connective Tissue Diseases, Medical University, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-090 Lublin (Poland); Calderazzo, Lineu [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Laboratory of Experimental Neurology, Escola Paulista de Medicina, R. Botucatu 862, BR-04023 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Cavalheiro, Esper A. [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Laboratory of Experimental Neurology, Escola Paulista de Medicina, R. Botucatu 862, BR-04023 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Turski, Waldemar A. [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-090 Lublin (Poland)

2007-03-15

335

Lithium battery management system  

DOEpatents

Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

Dougherty, Thomas J. (Waukesha, WI)

2012-05-08

336

Radiators  

SciTech Connect

A heat-exchange radiator is connected to a fluid flow circuit by a connector which provides one member of an interengageable spigot and socket pair for push-fit, fluid-tight, engagement between the connector and the radiator, with latching formations at least one of which is resilient. Preferably the connector carries the spigot which tapers and engages with a socket of corresponding shape, the spigot carrying an O-ring seal and either latching fingers or a resilient latching circlip.

Webster, D. M.

1985-07-30

337

Aluminum-lithium for aerospace  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum-lithium alloys were developed primarily to reduce the weight of aircraft and aerospace structures. Lithium is the lightest metallic element, and each 1% of lithium added to aluminum reduces alloy density by about 3% and increases modulus by about 5%. Though lithium has a solubility limit of 4.2% in aluminum, the amount of lithium ranges between 1 and 3% in commercial alloys. Aluminum-lithium alloys are most often selected for aerospace components because of their low density, high strength, and high specific modulus. However, other applications now exploit their excellent fatigue resistance and cryogenic toughness.

Fielding, P.S.; Wolf, G.J. [Reynolds Metals Co., Richmond, VA (United States)

1996-10-01

338

Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium

John B

1994-01-01

339

Ion exchange in a zeolite-molten chloride system  

SciTech Connect

Electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel results in a secondary waste stream of radioactive fission products dissolved in chloride salt. Disposal plans include a waste form that can incorporate chloride forms featuring one or more zeolites consolidated with sintered glass. A candidate method for incorporating fission products in the zeolites is passing the contaminated salt over a zeolite column for ion exchange. To date, the molten chloride ion-exchange properties of four zeolites have been investigated for this process: zeolite A, IE95{reg_sign}, clinoptilolite, and mordenite. Of these, zeolite A has been the most promising. Treating zeolite 4A, the sodium form of zeolite A , with the solvent salt for the waste stream-lithium-potassium chloride of eutectic melting composition, is expected to provide a material with favorable ion-exchange properties for the treatment of the waste salt. The authors constructed a pilot-plant system for the ion-exchange column. Initial results indicate that there is a direct relationship between the two operating variable of interest, temperature, and initial sodium concentration. Also, the mass ratio has been about 3--5 to bring the sodium concentration of the effluent below 1 mol%.

Woodman, R.H.; Pereira, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

1997-07-01

340

Lithium battery thermal models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal characteristics and thermal behavior of lithium batteries are important both for the batteries meeting operating life requirements and for safety considerations. Sandia National Laboratories has a broad-based program that includes analysis, engineering and model development. We have determined thermal properties of lithium batteries using a variety of calorimetric methods for many years. We developed the capability to model temperature gradients and cooling rates of high-temperature primary lithium thermal batteries several years ago. Work is now under way to characterize the response of ambient-temperature rechargeable lithium-ion batteries to thermal abuse. Once the self-heating rates of lithium cells have been established over a range of temperatures, the thermal response can be estimated under a variety of conditions. We have extended this process to isolate the behavior of individual battery components and have begun to understand the chemical nature of the species responsible for heat evolution within the cells. This enhanced level of understanding will enable more accurate modeling of cell thermal behavior and will allow model-based design of safer, more abuse-tolerant lithium batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in the future. Progress toward this goal and key information still needed to reach it are discussed.

Doughty, Daniel H.; Butler, Paul C.; Jungst, Rudolph G.; Roth, E. Peter

341

Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride  

SciTech Connect

Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

2006-04-20

342

Atmospheric corrosion of lithium electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric corrosion of lithium during lithium-cell assembly and the dry storage of cells prior to electrolyte fill has been found to initiate lithium corrosion pits and to form corrosion products. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate lithium pitting and the white floccullent corrosion products. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Auger spectroscopy in combination with X-ray diffraction were used to characterize lithium surfaces. Lithium surfaces with corrosion products were found to be high in carbonate content indicating the presence of lithium carbonate. Lithium electrodes dry stored in unfilled batteries were found to contain high concentration of lithium flouride a possible corrosion product from gaseous materials from the carbon monofluoride cathode. Future investigations of the corrosion phenomena will emphasize the effect of the corrosion products on the electrolyte and ultimate battery performance. The need to protect lithium electrodes from atmospheric exposure is commonly recognized to minimize corrosion induced by reaction with water, oxygen, carbon dioxide or nitrogen (1). Manufacturing facilities customarily limit the relative humidity to less than two percent. Electrodes that have been manufactured for use in lithium cells are typically stored in dry-argon containers. In spite of these precautions, lithium has been found to corrode over a long time period due to residual gases or slow diffusion of the same into storage containers. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the nature of the lithium corrosion.

Johnson, C.J.

1981-10-01

343

Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lithium, which has the chemical symbol Li and an atomic number of 3, is the first metal in the periodic table. Lithium has many uses, the most prominent being in batteries for cell phones, laptops, and electric and hybrid vehicles. Worldwide sources of lithium are broken down by ore-deposit type as follows: closed-basin brines, 58%; pegmatites and related granites, 26%; lithium-enriched clays, 7%; oilfield brines, 3%; geothermal brines, 3%; and lithium-enriched zeolites, 3% (2013 statistics). There are over 39 million tons of lithium resources worldwide. Of this resource, the USGS estimates there to be approximately 13 million tons of current economically recoverable lithium reserves. To help predict where future lithium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where identified resources are concentrated in the Earths crust, and they use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered resources also exist.

Bradley, Dwight; Jaskula, Brian

2014-01-01

344

US Navy lithium cell applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications of lithium systems that are already in the fleet are discussed. The approach that the Navy is taking in the control of the introduction of lithium batteries into the fleet is also discussed.

Bowers, F. M.

1978-01-01

345

Microelectrode investigation of the lithium redox behavior in plasticized polymer electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lithium redox behavior in plasticized polymer electrolytes has been studied by microelectrode technique with the advantage in decreasing the iR effect of solution resistance. PAN (polyacrylonitrile)-, PVdF (poly(vinylidene fluoride))- and PVC (poly(vinyl chloride))-based plasticized electrolytes showed ionic conductivities ranging from 10 -4 to 10 -3 S/cm at ambient temperature. By applying high scan rate (-V/s), the aggravating effect of the electrolyte decomposition with freshly deposited lithium was suppressed, and the reliable kinetic parameters of the lithium deposition/dissolution and the diffusion coefficient of lithium ion were evaluated for PAN- and PVdF-based electrolytes. The obtained diffusion coefficient for the PAN-based electrolyte was 1.50 10 -6 cm 2/s at 21 C, indicating that the plasticized polymer electrolytes behaved as a pure organic solution of plasticizer.

Wang, Xian-Ming; Iyoda, Makoto; Nishina, Tatsuo; Uchida, Isamu

346

Optical Absorption, ESR and Termoluminescence (TL) in Copper-Doped Lithium Borate Glasses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Boron oxide plays a significant role in numerous glasses of high technological importance, such as nuclear wastes management, electronics, low density fibrous silica insulation used in space vehicles, and radiation dosimetry. Lithium borate glasses were p...

E. F. Chinaglia M. L. F. Nascimento M. Matsuoka S. Watanabe

1999-01-01

347

Magnesium-lead chloride batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation of lead chloride cathodes, and their discharge in magnesium-lead chloride batteries, is described. The lead chloride blended with graphite is pasted on grids of expanded copper, using urea formaldehyde solutions as the binder. One-, five-, and fifteen-cell batteries were discharged at temperatures between -40C and +45C, at low current drains. For five-cell batteries energy densities in the range

J. R. Coleman

1971-01-01

348

Lithium As Plasma Facing Component for Magnetic Fusion Research  

SciTech Connect

The use of lithium in magnetic fusion confinement experiments started in the 1990's in order to improve tokamak plasma performance as a low-recycling plasma-facing component (PFC). Lithium is the lightest alkali metal and it is highly chemically reactive with relevant ion species in fusion plasmas including hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, carbon, and oxygen. Because of the reactive properties, lithium can provide strong pumping for those ions. It was indeed a spectacular success in TFTR where a very small amount (~ 0.02 gram) of lithium coating of the PFCs resulted in the fusion power output to improve by nearly a factor of two. The plasma confinement also improved by a factor of two. This success was attributed to the reduced recycling of cold gas surrounding the fusion plasma due to highly reactive lithium on the wall. The plasma confinement and performance improvements have since been confirmed in a large number of fusion devices with various magnetic configurations including CDX-U/LTX (US), CPD (Japan), HT-7 (China), EAST (China), FTU (Italy), NSTX (US), T-10, T-11M (Russia), TJ-II (Spain), and RFX (Italy). Additionally, lithium was shown to broaden the plasma pressure profile in NSTX, which is advantageous in achieving high performance H-mode operation for tokamak reactors. It is also noted that even with significant applications (up to 1,000 grams in NSTX) of lithium on PFCs, very little contamination (< 0.1%) of lithium fraction in main fusion plasma core was observed even during high confinement modes. The lithium therefore appears to be a highly desirable material to be used as a plasma PFC material from the magnetic fusion plasma performance and operational point of view. An exciting development in recent years is the growing realization of lithium as a potential solution to solve the exceptionally challenging need to handle the fusion reactor divertor heat flux, which could reach 60 MW/m2 . By placing the liquid lithium (LL) surface in the path of the main divertor heat flux (divertor strike point), the lithium is evaporated from the surface. The evaporated lithium is quickly ionized by the plasma and the ionized lithium ions can provide a strongly radiative layer of plasma ("radiative mantle"), thus could significantly reduce the heat flux to the divertor strike point surfaces, thus protecting the divertor surface. The protective effects of LL have been observed in many experiments and test stands. As a possible reactor divertor candidate, a closed LL divertor system is described. Finally, it is noted that the lithium applications as a PFC can be quite flexible and broad. The lithium application should be quite compatible with various divertor configurations, and it can be also applied to protecting the presently envisioned tungsten based solid PFC surfaces such as the ones for ITER. Lithium based PFCs therefore have the exciting prospect of providing a cost effective flexible means to improve the fusion reactor performance, while providing a practical solution to the highly challenging divertor heat handling issue confronting the steadystate magnetic fusion reactors.

Masayuki Ono

2012-09-10

349

Spacesuit Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For decades advanced spacesuit developers have pursued a regenerable, robust non-venting system for heat rejection. Toward this end, this paper investigates linking together two previously developed technologies, namely NASA's Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare's lithium chloride Heat Pump Radiator (HPR). Heat from a liquid cooled garment is transported to SWME that provides cooling through evaporation. The SEAR is evacuated at the onset of operations and thereafter, the water vapor absorption rate of the HPR maintains a low pressure environment for the SWME to evaporate effectively. This water vapor captured by solid LiCl in the HPR with a high enthalpy of absorption, results in sufficient temperature lift to reject most of the heat to space by radiation. After the sortie, the HPR would be heated up in a regenerator to drive off and recover the absorbed evaporant. A one-fourth scale prototype was built and tested in vacuum conditions at a sink temperature of 250 K. The HPR was able to stably reject 60 W over a 7-hour period. A conceptual design of a full-scale radiator is proposed. Excess heat rejection above 240 W would be accomplished through venting of the evaporant. Loop closure rates were predicted for various exploration environment scenarios.

Bue, Grant C.; Hodgson, Ed; Izenso, Mike; Chan, Weibo; Cupples, Scott

2011-01-01

350

Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH 4) 1- xCl x is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 C for three days of NaBH 4-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH 4, forming Na(BH 4) 0.9Cl 0.1, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH 4 is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH 4) 0.43Cl 0.57. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH 4 into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements.

Ravnsbk, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

2011-07-01

351

Liquid lithium behavior and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were conducted on the compatibility of liquid lithium with various gas atmospheres and concretes. Fire extinguishing powders have been tested to determine their effectiveness in extinguishing well established lithium fires. Lithium quantities up 15 kg at temperatures up to 870°C were tested to relate to temperatures encountered in fusion reactor designs. (MOW)

Jeppson

1979-01-01

352

Liquid lithium blanket processing studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of tritium on yttrium from flowing molten lithium and the subsequent release of tritium from yttrium for regeneration of the metal sorbent were investigated to evaluate the feasibility of such a tritium-recovery process for a fusion reactor blanket of liquid lithium. In initial experiments with the forced convection loop, yttrium samples were contacted with lithium at 300 C.

J. B. Talbot; S. D. Clinton

1979-01-01

353

Reversibility of anodic lithium in rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries.  

PubMed

Non-aqueous lithium-air batteries represent the next-generation energy storage devices with very high theoretical capacity. The benefit of lithium-air batteries is based on the assumption that the anodic lithium is completely reversible during the discharge-charge process. Here we report our investigation on the reversibility of the anodic lithium inside of an operating lithium-air battery using spatially and temporally resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction and three-dimensional micro-tomography technique. A combined electrochemical process is found, consisting of a partial recovery of lithium metal during the charging cycle and a constant accumulation of lithium hydroxide under both charging and discharging conditions. A lithium hydroxide layer forms on the anode separating the lithium metal from the separator. However, numerous microscopic 'tunnels' are also found within the hydroxide layer that provide a pathway to connect the metallic lithium with the electrolyte, enabling sustained ion-transport and battery operation until the total consumption of lithium. PMID:23929396

Shui, Jiang-Lan; Okasinski, John S; Kenesei, Peter; Dobbs, Howard A; Zhao, Dan; Almer, Jonathan D; Liu, Di-Jia

2013-01-01

354

Solubility of some alkali and alkaline earth chlorides in water at moderate temperatures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Solubilities for the binary systems, salt-H2O, of the chlorides of lithium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium from near 0??C to the saturated boiling point are reported. The experimental data and coefficients of an equation for a smoothed curve describing each system are listed in the tables. The data are improvements on those previously reported in the literature, having a precision on the average of ??0.09%.

Clynne, M. A.; Potter, II, R. W.

1979-01-01

355

Uranium-involving electrode processes in chloride melts: An x-ray absorption spectroscopy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Products of anodic dissolution of uranium metal and the cathodic reduction of uranium(IV) ions in a molten eutectic mixture\\u000a of lithium and potassium chlorides are studied at 450?C using x-ray absorption spectroscopy. It is shown that UCl\\u000a 6\\u000a 3?\\u000a ions form in the melt as a result of the metals anodic dissolution, and the metal-ligand distance in the complex

V. A. Volkovich; I. B. Polovov; C. A. Sharrad; I. May; J. M. Charnock

2007-01-01

356

Overcharge Protection in Ambient Temperature Lithium and Lithium-Ion Cells: A Literature Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes a survey of the literature on in situ electrochemical methods to provide overcharge protection in ambient temperature lithium and lithium-ion cells. Among the various rechargeable lithium battery systems, only the lithium cells usin...

W. K. Behl

1998-01-01

357

High Rate Rechargeable Lithium Cells Employing Lithium Ion Conducting Solid Electrolytes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are presented on high temperature solid state cells employing 50:50 weight percent lithium germanium vanadium oxide-lithium iodide. The incorporation of lithium iodide in lithium germanium vanadium oxide resulted in higher pellet conductivities an...

E. J. Plichta W. K. Behl

1995-01-01

358

Material Effectiveness for Radiation Shielding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Materials with a smaller mean atomic mass, such as lithium (Li) hydride and polyethylene, make the best radiation shields for astronauts. The materials have a higher density of nuclei and are better able to block incoming radiation. Also, they tend to produce fewer and less dangerous secondary particles after impact with incoming radiation.

2003-01-01

359

Lithium Dinitramide as an Additive in Lithium Power Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium dinitramide, LiN(NO2)2 has shown promise as an additive to nonaqueous electrolytes in rechargeable and non-rechargeable lithium-ion-based electrochemical power cells. Such non-aqueous electrolytes consist of lithium salts dissolved in mixtures of organic ethers, esters, carbonates, or acetals. The benefits of adding lithium dinitramide (which is also a lithium salt) include lower irreversible loss of capacity on the first charge/discharge cycle, higher cycle life, lower self-discharge, greater flexibility in selection of electrolyte solvents, and greater charge capacity. The need for a suitable electrolyte additive arises as follows: The metallic lithium in the anode of a lithium-ion-based power cell is so highly reactive that in addition to the desired main electrochemical reaction, it engages in side reactions that cause formation of resistive films and dendrites, which degrade performance as quantified in terms of charge capacity, cycle life, shelf life, first-cycle irreversible capacity loss, specific power, and specific energy. The incidence of side reactions can be reduced through the formation of a solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) a thin film that prevents direct contact between the lithium anode material and the electrolyte. Ideally, an SEI should chemically protect the anode and the electrolyte from each other while exhibiting high conductivity for lithium ions and little or no conductivity for electrons. A suitable additive can act as an SEI promoter. Heretofore, most SEI promotion was thought to derive from organic molecules in electrolyte solutions. In contrast, lithium dinitramide is inorganic. Dinitramide compounds are known as oxidizers in rocket-fuel chemistry and until now, were not known as SEI promoters in battery chemistry. Although the exact reason for the improvement afforded by the addition of lithium dinitramide is not clear, it has been hypothesized that lithium dinitramide competes with other electrolyte constituents to react with lithium on the surface of the anode to form a beneficial SEI. Apparently, nitrides and oxides that result from reduction of lithium dinitramide on the anode produce a thin, robust SEI different from the SEIs formed from organic SEI promoters. The SEI formed from lithium dinitramide is more electronically insulating than is the film formed in the presence of an otherwise identical electrolyte that does not include lithium dinitramide. SEI promotion with lithium dinitramide is useful in batteries with metallic lithium and lithium alloy anodes.

Gorkovenko, Alexander A.

2007-01-01

360

Liquid Lithium Limiter Experiments in CDX-U  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade provide a first-ever test of large area liquid lithium surfaces as a tokamak first wall, to gain engineering experience with a liquid metal first wall, and to investigate whether very low recycling plasma regimes can be accessed with lithium walls. The CDX-U is a compact (R = 34 cm, a = 22 cm, B{sub toroidal} = 2 kG, I{sub P} = 100 kA, T{sub e}(0) = 100 eV, n{sub e}(0) {approx} 5 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) spherical torus at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. A toroidal liquid lithium tray limiter with an area of 2000 cm{sup 2} (half the total plasma limiting surface) has been installed in CDX-U. Tokamak discharges which used the liquid lithium limiter required a fourfold lower loop voltage to sustain the plasma current, and a factor of 5-8 increase in gas fueling to achieve a comparable density, indicating that recycling is strongly reduced. Modeling of the discharges demonstrated that the lithium-limited discharges are consistent with Z{sub effective} < 1.2 (compared to 2.4 for the pre-lithium discharges), a broadened current channel, and a 25% increase in the core electron temperature. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that edge oxygen and carbon radiation are strongly reduced.

R. Majeski; S. Jardin; R. Kaita; T. Gray; P. Marfuta; J. Spaleta; J. Timberlake; L. Zakharov; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Seraydarian; V. Soukhanovskii; R. Maingi; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; D. Rodgers

2004-10-28

361

Recent Liquid Lithium Limiter Experiments in CDX-U  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments in the Current Drive eXperiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) provide a first-ever test of large area liquid lithium surfaces as a tokamak first wall, to gain engineering experience with a liquid metal first wall, and to investigate whether very low recycling plasma regimes can be accessed with lithium walls. The CDX-U is a compact (R=34 cm, a=22 cm, B{sub toroidal} = 2 kG, I{sub P} =100 kA, T{sub e}(0) {approx} 100 eV, n{sub e}(0) {approx} 5 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) spherical torus at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. A toroidal liquid lithium pool limiter with an area of 2000 cm{sup 2} (half the total plasma limiting surface) has been installed in CDX-U. Tokamak discharges which used the liquid lithium pool limiter required a fourfold lower loop voltage to sustain the plasma current, and a factor of 5-8 increase in gas fueling to achieve a comparable density, indicating that recycling is strongly reduced. Modeling of the discharges demonstrated that the lithium limited discharges are consistent with Z{sub effective} < 1.2 (compared to 2.4 for the pre-lithium discharges), a broadened current channel, and a 25% increase in the core electron temperature. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that edge oxygen and carbon radiation are strongly reduced.

R. Majeski; S. Jardin; R. Kaita; T. Gray; P. Marfuta; J. Spaleta; J. Timberlake; L. Zakharov; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Seraydarian; V. Soukhanovskii; R. Maingi; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; D. Rodgers; S. Angelini

2005-05-03

362

Cell performance and defect behavior in proton-irradiated lithium-counterdoped n+p silicon solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium-counterdoped n+p silicon solar cells were irradiated by 10-MeV protons and their performance determined as a function of fluence. It was found that the cell with the highest lithium concentration exhibited the higher radiation resistance. DLTS studies of deep level defects were used to identify two lithium related defects. Defect energy levels otained after the present 10-MeV irradiations were found

I. Weinberg; C. Goradia; J. W. Stupica; C. K. Swartz

1986-01-01

363

Cell performance and defect behavior in proton-irradiated lithium-counterdoped n(+)p silicon solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium-counterdoped n(+)p silicon solar cells were irradiated by 10-MeV protons, and their performance was determined as a function of fluence. It was found that the cell with the highest lithium concentration exhibited the higher radiation resistance. Deep-level transient spectroscopy studies of deep-level defects were used to identify two lithium-related defects. Defect energy levels obtained after the present 10-MeV irradiations were

I. Weinberg; J. W. Stupica; C. K. Swartz; C. Goradia

1986-01-01

364

Molecular Structure of Picryl chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Picryl chloride is ranked as one of the 100 most commonly found explosive and shock sensitive materials. It is made by reacting 2,4,6 trinitrophenol with thionyl chloride. This highly reactive compound is known to be hazardous and toxic, and to cause liver injury in mice. It is often used as a sensitization agent in mice when their cells undergo hypersensitivity studies.

2002-09-20

365

Lithium tetraborate transducers.  

PubMed

Lithium tetraborate is a tetragonal material of considerable promise for frequency control and signal processing applications. It exhibits piezoelectric coupling values that fall between those of lithium niobate and quartz, but possesses orientations for which the temperature coefficient of frequency and delay time is zero for bulk and surface acoustic waves. The properties of two doubly rotated bulk wave resonator orientations having first- and second-order temperature coefficients equal to zero are discussed. These are suitable for shear and compressional wave transducers in applications where very low temperature sensitivity is required simultaneously with moderately strong piezocoupling coefficients. PMID:18267558

Ballato, A; Kosinski, J A; Lukaszek, T J

1991-01-01

366

Large lithium loop experience  

SciTech Connect

An engineering design and operating experience of a large, isothermal, lithium-coolant test loop are presented. This liquid metal coolant loop is called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) and has operated safely and reliably for over 6500 hours through September 1981. The loop is used for full-scale testing of components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Main system parameters include coolant temperatures to 430/sup 0/C and flow to 0.038 m/sup 3//s (600 gal/min). Performance of the main pump, vacuum system, and control system is discussed. Unique test capabilities of the ELS are also discussed.

Kolowith, R.; Owen, T.J.; Berg, J.D.; Atwood, J.M.

1981-10-01

367

Lithium Ion Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

1997-01-01

368

Pyroelectric field assisted ion migration induced by ultraviolet laser irradiation and its impact on ferroelectric domain inversion in lithium niobate crystals  

SciTech Connect

The impact of UV laser irradiation on the distribution of lithium ions in ferroelectric lithium niobate single crystals has been numerically modelled. Strongly absorbed UV radiation at wavelengths of 244305 nm produces steep temperature gradients which cause lithium ions to migrate and result in a local variation of the lithium concentration. In addition to the diffusion, here the pyroelectric effect is also taken into account which predicts a complex distribution of lithium concentration along the c-axis of the crystal: two separated lithium deficient regions on the surface and in depth. The modelling on the local lithium concentration and the subsequent variation of the coercive field are used to explain experimental results on the domain inversion of such UV treated lithium niobate crystals.

Ying, C. Y. J.; Mailis, S. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)] [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Daniell, G. J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Steigerwald, H.; Soergel, E. [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Wegelerstrasse 8, 53115 Bonn (Germany)] [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Wegelerstrasse 8, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

2013-08-28

369

Estimation of the Lyman-alpha line intensity in a lithium-based discharge-produced plasma source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) discharge-based lamps for EUV lithography need to generate extremely high power in the narrow spectrum band of 13.5+\\/-0.135 nm. A simplified time-dependent collisional-radiative model and radiative transfer solution were utilized to investigate the wavelength-integrated Lyman-alpha line light outputs in a hydrogen-like lithium ion. The study reveals in particular that a steady-state or magnetically confined lithium plasma radiates

Majid Masnavi; Mitsuo Nakajima; Eiki Hotta; Kazuhiko Horioka

2008-01-01

370

Benzalkonium chloride and glaucoma.  

PubMed

Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology. PMID:24205938

Rasmussen, Carol A; Kaufman, Paul L; Kiland, Julie A

2014-01-01

371

Investigation of Lithium Ion Storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA/GSFC is interested in flying lithium ion cells for geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) satellites. To determine the preferred solstice storage conditions for the lithium ion chemistry, we have been studying either a constant current storage with a maximum voltage clamp or storage with only a voltage clamp. The cells used for this study are two 4Ah SAFT cylindrical lithium ion cells, two 1.5Ah Wilson Great Batch lithium ion cells, and one 8Ah Lithium Technology lithium polymer cell. In each pair, one cell is clamped at 4V, and the other is trickle charged at C/500 with a 4.lV clamp. The Lithium Technology cell is only undergoing voltage clamped storage testing. After each storage period the cells are subjected to a capacity test (C/2 discharge, C/10 charge) and a charge retention test at room temperature. Results after 4 weeks and 8 weeks of storage testing will be presented here.

Lee, Leonine; Rao, Gopalkrishna M.

1999-01-01

372

The Lithium Wall Stellarator Experiment in TJ-II  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last years, lithium wall conditioning has been carried out in several fusion devices by different tech- niques, providing in many instances record values of plasma parameters and enhanced plasma reproducibility and opening the possibility of developing high radiative, low recycling liquid divertor concepts of high potential for future reactors. This concept has been termed the Li Tokamak Reactor.

Francisco L. Tabars; David Tafalla; Jose A. Ferreira; Maria A. Ochando; Francisco Medina; Enrique Ascasibar; Teresa Estrada; Candida Fuentes; Isabel Garca-Corts; Jose Guasp; Macarena Liniers; Ignacio Pastor; Maria A. Pedrosa

2010-01-01

373

Estimates of power deposited via cesium/barium beta and gamma radiation captured in components of a Hanford cesium chloride capsule and by components of overpacked capsules placed in an interim dry storage facility  

SciTech Connect

The deposition of power in Hanford cesium chloride capsules and in the components of design concepts for overpacking and interim storage were determined as requested (Randklev, 1996a). The power deposition results from the selective capture of gamma and beta radiation coming from the decay of the 137CS isotope in the CsCl contained in the capsules. The following three cases were analyzed: (a) a single CsCl capsule, (b) an overpack containing eight CsCl capsules, and (c) an infinite square array of such overpacks as placed in tubes of a interim dry storage facility. The power deposition was expressed as watts per gram for each of the respective physical design components in these three cases. Per the analyses request and guidance (Randklev 1996a), the primary analysis objective was to characterize, for each case, the power deposition across the radial cross-section at the expected axial position of maximum deposition. As requested, this primary part of the analysis work was done using choices for component dimension and material properties that would reasonably characterize the maximum deposition profile across the salt (CsCl) and the inner capsule barrier of the double walled metal capsule system used to construct the Hanford capsules. The secondary objective was to further evaluate the deposition behavior relative to the influence of axial position. The guidance (Randklev 1996a) also requested 1797 an analysis case that involved a lag-storage pit in a hot-cell, in which a cylindrical metal basket from a transportation cask would be used to position several capsules in the lag-storage pit. Although the basic model for the lag storage concept evaluation was essentially completed by the end of FY-96, the analysis was not run because of the need to prioritize and limit the work scope due to funding limitations for FY-97. The specific purpose for performing the subject set of analyses (Randklev 1996a) is to obtain power deposition values (i.e., per the decay of T37cs) that can then be used as input into an analysis of the heat transfer (i.e., component temperature) response (Randklev 1996d) for such cases. The overall objective is to support the TWRS program evaluations of capsule disposal options, which could be implemented if, and when the DOE changes their current designation as `by-product` material, to `waste` material. It was found that the Hanford reference literature concerning the capsules does contain a few reports on previous Monte Carlo code determinations of the power deposition values for assemblages involving the Hanford CsCl capsules. However, in one case (Campbell, 1981) the results are now believed to be seriously in error, and the other two reported analyses (Sasmor, et al, 1988; Midgett, 1995) involve capsule + other components in assemblages that differed significantly from the subject concepts addressed in this present analysis.

Roetman, V.E., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-12-23

374

A review of hazards associated with primary lithium and lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary lithium batteries contain hazardous materials such as lithium metal and flammable solvents, which can lead to exothermic activity and runaway reactions above a defined temperature. Lithium-ion batteries operating outside the safe envelope can also lead to formation of lithium metal and thermal runaway. Despite protection by battery safety mechanisms, fires originating from primary lithium and lithium-ion batteries are a

Diego Lisbona; Timothy Snee

375

Thermochemistry of Charge-Unsymmetrical Binary Fused Halide Systems. Ii. Mixtures of Magnesium Chloride with the Alkali Chlorides and with Silver Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The integral enthalpies of mixing of the liquid mixtures of magnesium chloride with the alkali chlorides and with silver chloride were determined calorimetrically. The magnesium chloride-silver chloride system is slightly endothermic, while the alkali chl...

O. J. Kleppa F. G. McCarty

1965-01-01

376

75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China Determination On the...revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to...Publication 4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation...

2010-06-15

377

75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States...concerning the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China...revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely...

2010-04-15

378

49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation...Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must be packaged in any of the following...

2013-10-01

379

21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2013-04-01

380

Potential lithium requirements for fusion power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion of lithium requirements and supply suggests that the lithium usage anticipated by the developing fusion power industry may require lithium production well beyond current production growth rates. Present U.S. lithium resources appear sufficient, however, and it is expected that the costs of increasing lithium production would be within acceptable costs for fusion power plants. Careful planning will be

J. N. Hartley; B. F. Gore; J. R. Young

1977-01-01

381

Lithium blocks cell cycle transitions in the first cell cycles of sea urchin embryos, an effect rescued by myo-inositol.  

PubMed

Lithium is a classical inhibitor of the phosphoinositide pathway and is teratogenic. We report the effects of lithium on the first cell cycles of sea urchin (Lytechinus pictus) embryos. Embryos cultured in 400 mM lithium chloride sea water showed marked delay to the cell cycle and a tendency to arrest prior to nuclear envelope breakdown, at metaphase and at cytokinesis. After removal of lithium, the block was reversed and embryos developed to form normal late blastulae. The lithium-induced block was also reversed by myo- but not epi-inositol, indicating that lithium was acting via the phosphoinositide pathway. Lithium microinjection before fertilization caused arrest prior to nuclear envelope breakdown at much lower concentrations (3-5 mM). Co-injection of myo-inositol prevented the block. Microinjection of 1-2 mM lithium led to block at the cleavage stage. This was also reversed by coinjection of myo-inositol. Embryos blocked by lithium microinjection proceeded rapidly into mitosis after photolysis of caged inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. These data demonstrate that a patent phosphoinositide signalling pathway is essential for the proper timing of cell cycle transitions and offer a possible explanation for lithium's teratogenic effects. PMID:9102297

Becchetti, A; Whitaker, M

1997-03-01

382

Lithium ion battery production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, new materials and chemistry for lithium ion batteries have been developed. There is a great emphasis on electrification in the transport sector replacing part of motor powered engines with battery powered applications. There are plans both to increase energy efficiency and to reduce the overall need for consumption of non-renewable liquid fuels. Even more significant applications are dependent on

Antti Vyrynen; Justin Salminen

383

Fluorescent lipophilic lithium ionophores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionophores which are at the same time selective and sensitive for lithium ion in the presence of physiologically relevant concentrations of sodium, potassium, and hydrogen ions have been the subject of much research for application to ion selective electrodes. We report here our recent work to design, synthesize, and test both neutral and anionic ionophores which respond selectively and reversibly

Margaret E. Langmuir; Richard Laura

1993-01-01

384

Lithium disulfide battery  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a negative electrode-limited secondary electrochemical cell having dense FeS/sub 2/ positive electrode operating exclusively on the upper plateau, a Li alloy negative electrode and a suitable lithium-containing electrolyte. The electrolyte preferably is 25 mole % LiCl, 38 mole % LiBr and 37 mole % KBr. The cell may be operated isothermally.

Kaun, T.D.

1986-05-29

385

Ruthenium doped lithium ferrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum solubility of ruthenium in lithium ferrite, xlim, in the temperature range 1000 to 1300C is related to the firing temperature T(C) by the empirical formula xlim = 1.1 10 -3( T-900). The ruthenium enters the octahedral (B) sites of the spinel structure as Ru 3+ ions in a low spin state.

Mills-Goodlet, R. P.; Nixon, D. E.; Pointon, A. J.

1980-01-01

386

Ruthenium doped lithium ferrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum solubility of ruthenium in lithium ferrite, xlim, in the temperature range 1000 to 1300C is related to the firing temperature T(C) by the empirical formula xlim = 1.1 10-3(T-900). The ruthenium enters the octahedral (B) sites of the spinel structure as Ru3+ ions in a low spin state.

R. P. Mills-Goodlet; D. E. Nixon; A. J. Pointon

1980-01-01

387

Lithium Lens Interlocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium lens in the antiproton source target vault is protected by an interlock system, which is located in relay racks R5 and R6 near the southwest corner of the Target Hall (building APO). The interlock system consists of crates of commercial signal conditioner and alarm modules built by Acromag, Inc and interlock Master Modules built by Fermilab: Twenty analog

J. Krider

1985-01-01

388

Lithium disulfide battery  

DOEpatents

A negative electrode limited secondary electrochemical cell having dense FeS.sub.2 positive electrode operating exclusively on the upper plateau, a Li alloy negative electrode and a suitable lithium-containing electrolyte. The electrolyte preferably is 25 mole percent LiCl, 38 mole percent LiBr and 37 mole percent KBr. The cell may be operated isothermally.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL) [New Lenox, IL

1988-01-01

389

Lithium - Inorganic Electrolyte Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An all-inorganic electrolyte, lithium primary battery operable over the temperature range -40 to +160 F is being evaluated. The desired energy density is 150 watt-hours per pound of total battery weight and the desired power density is 50 watts per pound.

G. L. Holleck J. R. Driscoll D. E. Toland

1975-01-01

390

RED Facts: Lithium Hypochlorite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium hypochlorite is an algicide, disinfectant, fungicide and food contact surface sanitizer. Its primary pesticidal use is to control algae, bacteria and mildew in swimming pool water systems, hot tubs and spas; approximately 2,000,000 pounds of the a...

1993-01-01

391

Improved electrolyte for use in an all inorganic rechargeable cell and lithium inorganic cell containing the improved electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved electrolyte is provided in a lithium\\/sulfur dioxide rechargeable cell, the electrolyte comprising a solution of a stable, highly conductive liquid electrolyte complex LiAlCl,-3SO and up to about 50% by weight of sulfuryl chloride as a cosolvent.

R. J. Mammone; M. Binder

1987-01-01

392

A study on polymer blend electrolyte based on PVC/PMMA with lithium salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new plasticised polymer electrolyte comprising the blend of poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) and poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) as host polymer is preferable to classical polymer for improving the ionic conductivity in the lithium rechargeable batteries. The nature of plasticizer and lithium salts have been found to influence the ionic conduction of the polymer-blended electrolytes. AC impedance analysis revealed the choice available in imparting ionic conductivity while differential thermogravimetry (DTG) and FTIR analysis have facilitated the effect of molecular interaction on host polymer matrix.

Stephan, A. Manuel; Thirunakaran, R.; Renganathan, N. G.; Sundaram, V.; Pitchumani, S.; Muniyandi, N.; Gangadharan, R.; Ramamoorthy, P.

393

Highly Accurate Molecular Constants for Carbon Monoxide, Hydrogen-Fluoride Hydrogen-Chloride Hydroxyl, Sodium-Hydride Magnesium-Hydride and Oxygen: Rotational Transition Frequencies Measured with Tunable Far Infrared Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using tunable far infrared (FIR) radiation, accurate rotational transition frequencies have been measured for several stable and transient diatomic molecules. The tunable FIR radiation is generated by nonlinear mixing of radiation from two CO(,2) lasers in a metal-insulator-metal diode. The FIR difference-frequency is radiated from the diode's antenna: a typical FIR power level is 10('-7) Watts. The combination of lines

Lyndon Robert Zink

1986-01-01

394

[Testicular toxicity of allyl chloride].  

PubMed

In this study, 124 mg/kg of allyl chloride (one-fifth of LD50) was administered to mice by a single subcutaneous injection and its effects on the male reproductive system were evaluated at 4 days, 9 days, 14 days, 22 days and 39 days after treatment. Allyl chloride decreased the weight of the testes, reduced the numbers of spermatid and sperm, and increased the frequency of the morphologically abnormal sperm without any sign of general influence. From these results, allyl chloride was confirmed to be a definite testicular toxicant in mice. Spermatid reduction was already apparent at 4 days after treatment. Therefore, it was found that allyl chloride affected the testis immediately after the injection. Sperm with an abnormal tail (most of them were sperm with a folded tail) increased at the cauda epididymis before the epididymal sperm reduction became apparent. Consequently, it seemed likely that, with its toxic effects on the testis, allyl chloride also affected sperm passing through the epididymis and disturbed their maturation. Spermatid/sperm reduction caused by allyl chloride did not recover and seemed to get worse until 39 days after treatment. The testicular damage caused by allyl chloride was irreversible during this observation period. PMID:9103701

Zhao, M

1997-03-01

395

Main Directions and Recent Test Modeling Results of Lithium Capillary-Pore Systems as Plasma Facing Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present the most promising principal solution of the divertor problem appears to be the use of liquid metals and primarily of lithium Capillary-Pore Systems (CPS) as of plasma facing materials. A solid CPS filled with liquid lithium will have a high resistance to surface and volume damage because of neutron radiation effects, melting, splashing and thermal stress-induced cracking in

V A Evtikhin; I E Lyublinski; A V Vertkov; E A Azizov; S V Mirnov; V B Lazarev; S M Sotnikov; V M Safronov; A S Prokhorov; V M Korzhavin

2004-01-01

396

Lithium beam-driven target experiments at 1015 W\\/g on PBFA II at Sandia National Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lithium beam is focused to an intensity 12 TW\\/cm2. The beam divergencies have been measured as low as 23 mrad. This lithium beam has the specific power deposition of ?10 W\\/g, the beam-driven target experiments have achieved radiation temperature of 58 eV.(AIP)

T. A. Mehlhorn; J. E. Bailey; G. A. Chandler; R. S. Coats; D. L. Cook; M. S. Derzon; M. P. Desjarlais; R. J. Dukart; R. Gerber; T. A. Haill; D. J. Johnson; R. J. Leeper; T. R. Lockner; M. G. Mazarakis; C. W. Mendel; L. P. Mix; A. R. Moats; T. J. Renk; G. E. Rochau; S. E. Rosenthal; C. L. Ruiz; G. C. Tisone; R. E. Olson; D. F. Wenger

1994-01-01

397

Lithium Versus Chlorpromazine in Acute Psychosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The response of patients with acute psychotic episodes to lithium predicted by clinical characteristics was studied. No relationship was found in the diagnosis of schizophrenic symptoms and a poor response to lithium was found. Lithium was concluded to be...

W. Braden

1981-01-01

398

77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10.20.5 Primary Lithium (Non-Rechargeable) Cells and Batteries [Revise...mailability of all primary lithium (non-rechargeable) cells and batteries: 1...20.6 Secondary Lithium-ion (Rechargeable) Cells and Batteries...

2012-05-14

399

Chronic Lithium Treatment Robustly Protects Neurons in the Central Nervous System against Excitotoxicity by Inhibiting N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor-Mediated Calcium Influx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of manic depressive illness. The precise mechanisms underlying its clinical efficacy remain unknown. We found that long-term exposure to lithium chloride dramatically protects cultured rat cerebellar, cerebral cortical, and hippocampal neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, which involves apoptosis mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. This neuroprotection is longlasting, occurs at therapeutically relevant

Shigeyuki Nonaka; Christopher J. Hough; De-Maw Chuang

1998-01-01

400

Symposium on High Power, Ambient Temperature Lithium Batteries, 180th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, Phoenix, AZ, Oct. 13-17, 1991, Proceedings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papers presented in these proceedings are on the state of the art in high-power lithium batteries, a design analysis of high-power Li-TiS2 battery, the performance and safety features of spiral wound lithium\\/thionyl chloride cells, the feasibility of a superhigh energy density battery of the Li\\/BrF3 electrochemical system, and an enhanced redox process of disulfide compounds and their application in high

W. D. K. Clark; G. Halpert

1992-01-01

401

Sputter deposition of lithium silicate - lithium phosphate amorphous electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

Thin films of an amorphous lithium-conducting electrolyte were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of ceramic targets containing Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} and Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The lithium content of the films was found to depend more strongly on the nature and composition of the targets than on many other sputtering parameters. For targets containing Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, most of the lithium was found to segregate away from the sputtered area of the target. Codeposition using two sputter sources achieves a high lithium content in a controlled and reproducible film growth. 10 refs., 4 figs.

Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Luck, C.F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Robertson, J.D. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (USA). Dept. of Chemistry)

1991-01-01

402

Multifunctional Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for non-venting thermal control for spacesuits was built by integrating two previously developed technologies, namely NASA's Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare's flexible version of the Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). This SEAR system was tested in relevant thermal vacuum conditions. These tests show that a 1 sq m radiator having about three times as much absorption media as in the test article would be required to support a 7 hour spacewalk. The serial flow arrangement of the LCAR of the flexible version proved to be inefficient for venting non-condensable gas (NCG). A different LCAR packaging arrangement was conceived wherein the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) housing would be made with a high-strength carbon fiber composite honeycomb, the cells of which would be filled with the chemical absorption media. This new packaging reduce the mass and volume impact of the SEAR on the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) compared to the flexible design. A 0.2 sq m panel with flight-like honeycomb geometry is being constructed and will be tested in thermal and thermal vacuum conditions. Design analyses forecast improved system performance and improved NCG control. A flight-like regeneration system also is also being built and tested. Design analyses for the structurally integrated prototype as well as the earlier test data show that SEAR is not only practical for spacesuits but also has useful applications in spacecraft thermal control.

Bue, Grant C.; Hodgson, Ed; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

2013-01-01

403

Laser microstructuring and annealing processes for lithium manganese oxide cathodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is expected that cathodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIB) composed out of nano-composite materials lead to an increase in power density of the LIB due to large electrochemically active surface areas but cathodes made of lithium manganese oxides (Li-Mn-O) suffer from structural instabilities due to their sensitivity to the average manganese oxidation state. Therefore, thin films in the Li-Mn-O system were synthesized by non-reactive radiofrequency magnetron sputtering of a spinel lithium manganese oxide target. For the enhancement of the power density and cycle stability, large area direct laser patterning using UV-laser radiation with a wavelength of 248 nm was performed. Subsequent laser annealing processes were investigated in a second step in order to set up a spinel-like phase using 940 nm laser radiation at a temperature of 680 C. The interaction processes between UV-laser radiation and the material was investigated using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The changes in phase, structure and grain shape of the thin films due to the annealing process were recorded using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The structured cathodes were cycled using standard electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode. Different surface structures were investigated and a significant increase in cycling stability was found. Surface chemistry of an as-deposited as well as an electrochemically cycled thin film was investigated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Prll, J.; Kohler, R.; Torge, M.; Ulrich, S.; Ziebert, C.; Bruns, M.; Seifert, H. J.; Pfleging, W.

2011-09-01

404

Experimental lithium system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m/sup 3/ lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion.

Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

1985-04-01

405

Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

Rawls, Rebecca

1980-01-01

406

Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries  

PubMed Central

Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

2012-01-01

407

Membranes in lithium ion batteries.  

PubMed

Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

2012-01-01

408

21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Calcium chloride. (a) Calcium chloride (CaCl2 ·2H2 O...10035-04-8) or anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2 , CAS...substitution reactions with other calcium and chloride salts...defined in § 170.3(n)(35) of this chapter;...

2010-01-01

409

21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Calcium chloride. (a) Calcium chloride (CaCl2 ·2H2 O...10035-04-8) or anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2 , CAS...substitution reactions with other calcium and chloride salts...defined in § 170.3(n)(35) of this chapter;...

2009-04-01

410

Lithium depletion during heat treatment of aluminum-lithium alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The loss of lithium from the near surface region during heat treatment of two commercial aluminum-lithium alloys was studied using a nuclear reaction analysis technique. A finely collimated 2.5 MeV beam of3He ions was used to stimulate the7Li(3He,p)9Be reaction in samples of BAACo 8090 and 8091 alloys heat treated for 1, 4, and 16 hours at 500 C. The emitted protons were detected as a cross section of the sample was traversed through the beam, thereby determining the lithium content as a function of distance from the external surface. Suitable calibration and control samples were used to validate the technique. The lithium concentration data were fit with assumed concentration profiles calculated from diffusion equations and modified for the particular experimental configuration employed. Extensive lithium depletion was found in both alloys, and the concentration profiles were found to be accurately predicted by the diffusion calculations. For heat treatment in either wet or dry air, the depth of lithium loss was the same, and can be approximately given as x = 1.5 ?Dt. When heat treated in an argon atmosphere, the depth of lithium loss was reduced. The lithium loss appeared to be limited by the diffusive flux of lithium to the surface of the sample in wet and dry air, but was limited by other factors in argon. Porosity was observed in the lithium depleted region; this was ascribed to the accumulation of vacancies generated by the unequal fluxes of aluminum and lithium atoms.

Papazian, J. M.; Schulte, R. L.; Adler, P. N.

1986-04-01

411

Lithium ion sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 10.9 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion source has been chosen as a source of 100mA lithium ion current for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) at LBNL. Research and development was carried out on lithium alumino-silicate ion sources prior to NDCX-II source fabrication. Space-charge-limited emission with the current density exceeding 1 mA/cm2 was measured with 0.64 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion sources at 1275 C. The beam current density is less for the first 10.9 cm diameter NDCX-II source, and it may be due to an issue of surface coverage. The lifetime of a thin coated (on a tungsten substrate) source is varied, roughly 40-50 h, when pulsed at 0.05 Hz and with pulse length of 6?s each, i.e., a duty factor of 310-7, at an operating temperature of 1250-1275 C. The 10.9 cm diameter source lifetime is likely the same as of a 0.64 cm source, but the lifetime of a source with a 2 mm diameter (without a tungsten substrate) is 10-15 h with a duty factor of 1 (DC extraction). The lifetime variation is dependent on the amount of deposition of ?-eucryptite mass, and the surface temperature. The amount of mass deposition does not significantly alter the current density. More ion source work is needed to improve the large source performance.

Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Grote, Dave P.; Kwan, Joe W.; Lidia, Steven M.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William L.

2014-01-01

412

Rechargeable lithium battery anodes: alternatives to metallic lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is concerned with alternatives to metallic lithium for use in rechargeable lithium batteries. Emphasis is placed on the use of various materials and combinations of materials in different types of electrodes rather than on the properties of the materials themselves. The review includes carbon based electrodes, alloys, conducting polymers and transition metal compounds. Special consideration is given to

D. Fauteux; R. Koksbang

1993-01-01

413

Lithium - Inorganic Electrolyte Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Final Report on ECOM Contract DAAB07-74-C-0030. It contains the results of work for the period September 1973-September 1977. This report summarizes our research and development effort on the Li/thionyl chloride battery system. The work on thi...

J. R. Driscoll S. B. Brummer P. Gudrais G. L. Holleck D. E. Toland

1978-01-01

414

CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING  

SciTech Connect

Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

2007-11-30

415

Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method for production of plutonium metal from plutonium oxide by metallic lithium reduction, with regeneration of lithium reactant. It comprises: reacting the plutonium oxide with metallic lithium; oxides and unreacted lithium; subliming the product lithium oxide and unreacted lithium from unreacted plutonium oxide with high heat and low pressure; recapturing the product lithium oxides; reacting the

Coops

1992-01-01

416

Effect of cannabinoids on lithium-induced vomiting in the Suncus murinus (house musk shrew)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RationaleMarijuana has been reported to interfere with nausea and vomiting in chemotherapy patients. The principal cannabinoids found in marijuana include the psychoactive compound ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the non-psychoactive compound cannabidiol (CBD). The experiments reported here evaluated the potential of THC and CBD to interfere with vomiting in the Suncus murinus (house musk shrew) produced by lithium chloride (LiCl), which is

Linda A. Parker; Magdalena Kwiatkowska; Page Burton; Raphael Mechoulam

2004-01-01

417

Application of quality function deployment to the design of a lithium battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is the tool we have selected to aid in the design, development and subsequent commercial manufacture of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride 'D' cell for use in weapons applications. QFD is a structured methodology used to help assure that customer needs and expectations will be satisfied throughout the product life cycle. In this paper, we will describe our application of QFD, some of the lessons learned, and what we expect to be the final product of this QFD exercise.

Halbleib, L.; Wormington, P.; Cieslak, W.; Street, H.

418

Lithium induces dose-related increases and decreases in activity levels in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of intraperitoneal lithium chloride on the activity levels of rats was measured by counting photocell interruptions in an open field. Treatment with 0.15 mEq\\/kg increased activity and 1.5 mEq\\/kg decreased activity. In a second experiment behavioral observations were added to the photocell counts of open field activity, and the increase observed with 0.15 mEq\\/kg LiCl in Experiment 1

P. Cappeliez; N. White

1981-01-01

419

A high performance silicon\\/carbon composite anode with carbon nanofiber for lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical performance of a composite of nano-Si powder and a pyrolytic carbon of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with carbon nanofiber (CNF) was examined as an anode for lithium-ion batteries. CNF was incorporated into the composite by two methods; direct mixing of CNF with the nano-Si powder coated with carbon produced by pyrolysis of PVC (referred to as Si\\/C\\/CNF-1) and mixing

Q. Si; K. Hanai; T. Ichikawa; A. Hirano; N. Imanishi; Y. Takeda; O. Yamamoto

2010-01-01

420

Microelectrode investigation of the lithium redox behavior in plasticized polymer electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium redox behavior in plasticized polymer electrolytes has been studied by microelectrode technique with the advantage in decreasing the iR effect of solution resistance. PAN (polyacrylonitrile)-, PVdF (poly(vinylidene fluoride))- and PVC (poly(vinyl chloride))-based plasticized electrolytes showed ionic conductivities ranging from 10?4 to 10?3 S\\/cm at ambient temperature. By applying high scan rate (-V\\/s), the aggravating effect of the electrolyte

Xian-Ming Wang; Makoto Iyoda; Tatsuo Nishina; Isamu Uchida

1997-01-01

421

THE INFLUENCE OF GAMMA RADIATION ON THE PROPERTIES OF SOME FILM FORMING POLYMERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of gamma radiation on the properties of coatings from ; polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl alcohol, acetate, and chloride, chlorinated ; polyvinyl chloride, polyvinylbutyral, methyl polymethacrylate, chlorinated ; rubber, cyclized rubber, polyurethan, silicone, and epoxy resins, as well as ; copolymers of styrene with acrylic acid. vinyl chloride and vinylidene, vinyl ; chloride and isobutyl ether of vinyl alcohol, vinyl

Z. Jedlinski; Z. Hippe; J. Zurakowska-Orszagh

1963-01-01

422

Serum lithium levels and side effects during administration of lithium carbonate and two slow release lithium preparations to human volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium carbonate, two slow release lithium preparations or placebo tablets were given to ten healthy volunteers for periods of eight days, and the lithium concentration in serum and subjective side effects were determined at various time intervals. A single blind randomized cross over design was used for the experiment. High peaks of the lithium concentration in serum occurred a few

Bengt Fyr; Ulla Pettersson; Gran Sedvall

1970-01-01

423

Lithium: poisonings and suicide prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns 81 cases of lithium poisoning and shows that deliberate intoxications are prevalent during the first 3 years of lithium treatment as well as in cases with a previous history of suicide attempt. Therapeutic intoxications could generally be avoided by education concerning hygiene and diet and careful monitoring in cases of intercurrent diseases.

F Montagnon; S Sad; J. P Lepine

2002-01-01

424

Low pressure boiling lithium experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of low pressure boiling lithium tests have been run to determine wall superheat. These tests were run primarily to identify the possibility of using boiling lithium as a first wall coolant in fusion devices. One of the major disadvantages of using liquid metals in a magnetically contained fusion machine is the large pump energy expended to force the

Wadkins

1984-01-01

425

Lithium-cupric sulfide cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium cells have become the primary power source for cardiac pacemakers due to their reliability and longevity at low current drain rates. A lithium-cupric sulfide cell was developed which makes maximum use of the shape of a pacemaker's battery compartment. The cell has a stable voltage throughout 90% of its lifetime. It then drops to a second stable voltage before

A. J. Cuesta; D. D. Bump

1980-01-01

426

Solid lithium-ion electrolyte  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

1998-02-10

427

Solid lithium-ion electrolyte  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

1998-01-01

428

Progress in secondary lithium batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lithium/molybdenum trisulfide system is discussed. This system has a higher potential energy density than that of lithium/titanium disulfide. Possible energy densities and performance values for cells, projected from preliminary data obtained on small cells, are summarized. The electrode structure is emphasized as an important factor in the decreasing of capacity upon cycling.

Holleck, G. L.

1982-01-01

429

The galactic evolution of lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of lithium in stars of different galactic populations such as young open clusters (a Per, Pleiades, Praesepe, Coma, Hyades), very young stellar associations (Taurus-Auriga, Chamaeleon, Ophiuchus clouds), intermediate and old open clusters (NGC 752, M 67, NGC 188), old disc stars and halo stars give us the observational framework from which the galactic evolution of lithium has to be

R. Rebolo

1989-01-01

430

Protective coating of lithium metal electrode for interfacial enhancement with gel polymer electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymer electrolyte based on semi-interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) structure for protection was formed on lithium electrode surface by the ultraviolet (UV) radiation-curing method. A curable mixed solution consists of linear polymer (Kynar 2801), a crosslinking agent (1,6-Hexanediol diacrylate), liquid electrolyte (ethylene carbonate (EC)\\/propylene carbonate (PC)\\/1 M LiClO4), and a photoinitiator (methyl benzoylformate). The lithium morphology deposited on the protected

Nam-Soon Choi; Yong Min Lee; Wanho Seol; Je An Lee; Jung-Ki Park

2004-01-01

431

Recent advances in lithium ion technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium ion technology is based on the use of lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX(sub 2)) and lithium spinel-type comp...

S. C. Levy

1995-01-01

432

Improved Carbon Anodes For Rechargeable Lithium Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon anodes for rechargeable lithium cells improved by choosing binder contents and fabrication conditions to achieve maximum porosity, uniform loading, and maximum reversible lithium capacity. Stacking electrodes under pressure during assembly of cells increases cyclability of lithium. Rechargeable, high-energy-density lithium cells containing improved carbon anodes find use in spacecraft, military, communications, automotive, and other demanding applications.

Huang, Chen-Kuo; Surampudi, Subbarao; Attia, Alan; Halpert, Gerald

1994-01-01

433

Lithium Cells Accept Hundreds Of Recharges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New mixed-solvent electrolyte increases number of times room-temperature lithium cell discharged and recharged. Conductivity 70 percent higher. Useful in such other room-temperature rechargeable lithium cells as lithium/niobium triselenide and lithium molybdenum disulfide systems.

Shen, David H.; Surampudi, Subbarao; Deligiannis, Fotios; Halpert, Gerald

1991-01-01

434

Lithium Treatment for Psychiatric Disorders  

PubMed Central

Although used around the world since 1949, lithium has come into extensive use in psychiatry in the United States only within the past decade. Before initiating treatment with this drug, physicians must be familiar with the diagnostic scheme of the major affective disorders, the indications and contraindications to lithium's use, and its principles of treatment, including evaluation before lithium therapy, criteria for monitoring blood levels and signs of impending toxicity. Despite earlier reports about the toxicity of lithium when it was promoted as a salt substitute, lithium is a safe drug. Its use not only has revolutionized the treatment of the major affective disorders, but has opened up new and broad avenues of research into the regulation of man's emotions.

Maletzky, Barry M.; Shore, James H.

1978-01-01

435

Improved analysis of picomole quantities of lithium, sodium, and potassium in biological fluids.  

PubMed

The analysis of picomolar lithium, sodium, and potassium by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry was studied using a Perkin-Elmer Zeeman 3030 spectrophotometer. With ordinary pyrolytically coated graphite tubes, a number of interference effects associated with the sample matrix were observed. In particular, the lithium and potassium absorbance signal was depressed by chloride, an effect shown to be dependent on the preatomization heating. When an in situ tantalum-coated atomization surface was used, matrix interferences observed in lithium and potassium analyses were abolished, and the linear range for the potassium assay was extended. Technical difficulties encountered during sodium analysis at the primary wavelength were effectively circumvented by analysis at a less-sensitive wavelength (303.3 nm), at which tantalum coating also prevented significant chloride interference. The improved microanalyses were employed to reevaluate the handling of lithium, sodium, and potassium along the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) of the anesthetized rat. The average tubular fluid-to-plasma concentration ratios for lithium [(TF/P)Li] and sodium [(TF/P)Na] were 1.13 +/- 0.08, n = 26, and 0.99 +/- 0.07 (n = 26), respectively. The tubular fluid-to-plasma ultrafiltrate concentration ratio for potassium [(TF/UF)K] was 1.09 +/- 0.05 (n = 13). Ratios did not change significantly with puncture site along the PCT for any of the ions. (TF/P)Li and (TF/UF)K were significantly greater than (TF/P)Na, indicating that lithium and potassium reabsorption do not directly parallel sodium reabsorption in the PCT. PMID:7943365

Shalmi, M; Kibble, J D; Day, J P; Christensen, P; Atherton, J C

1994-10-01

436

Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.  

PubMed

The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. PMID:22947185

Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

2012-10-30

437

Cell performance and defect behavior in proton-irradiated lithium-counterdoped n-italic\\/sup +\\/p-italic silicon solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium-counterdoped n-italic\\/sup +\\/p-italic silicon solar cells were irradiated by 10-MeV protons and their performance determined as a function of fluence. It was found that the cell with the highest lithium concentration exhibited the higher radiation resistance. DLTS studies of deep level defects were used to identify two lithium related defects. Defect energy levels otained after the present 10-MeV irradiations were

I. Weinberg; C. Goradia; J. W. Stupica; C. K. Swartz

1986-01-01

438

Seebeck Coefficient of Lithium and Lithium-Tin Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments into the viability of lithium as a first wall material in a fusion device have shown that it offers great benefits in reducing recycling of hydrogenic species at the wall, increasing energy confinement times, and gettering impurities. However, concerns have been raised about its practicality in regions of high heat fluxes, and one of the greatest is whether or not a lithium divertor concept can function at high steady state temperatures without significant evaporation of the lithium. Lithium-tin alloys might offer a solution by suppressing evaporation, but their performance in a TEMHD driven device such as the LIMIT device under development at UIUC is directly dependent on their thermoelectric properties, namely their unknown Seebeck coefficient. In support of the use of lithium-tin alloys in such a device, experiments are performed to recover the Seebeck coefficient of several different compositions of lithium-tin alloys. Experiments previously performed at the University of Illinois of the Seebeck coefficient of lithium [1] were confirmed and expanded upon by this study. Values of ranging from 12 +/-1 uV/K at 82C to 28 +/-1 uV/K at 240C were obtained.[4pt] [1] V. Surla et al. Journal of Nuclear Materials 415 (2011) 18-22.

Kirsch, L.; Fiflis, P.; Andruczyk, D.; Curreli, D.; Ruzic, D. N.

2012-10-01

439

Kinetics and doping effect in the addition of 2,4-dinitrophenylsulfenyl chloride and dithiocyanogen to olefins  

SciTech Connect

The rate of the doping addition in the reactions of 2,4-dinitrophenylsulfenyl chloride with cyclohexane and methylenecyclobutane and of dithiocyanogen with cyclohexene and substituted styrenes in the presence of lithium perchlorate is described by the normal salt effect equation. On the other hand, the rate of formation of the doping products may exceed or lag behind the increase in the total reaction rate. These results were interpreted in the framework of an ion-pair mechanism.

Skorobogatova, E.V.; Grudzinskaya, E.Yu.; Afanasev, P.S.; Kartashov, V.R.; Zefirov, N.S.; Caple, R.

1988-03-10

440

Extinguishment of Lithium-Ion and Lithium-Metal Battery Fires.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium-metal and lithium-ion batteries power many consumer electronic devices. There have been incidents in which lithium batteries have overheated, creating either a fire, an explosion, or both. Federal Aviation Administration tests have shown that when...

T. Maloney

2014-01-01

441

[Molecular mechanisms of biological effects of lithium].  

PubMed

Lithium has the inhibitory effect on many enzymes and multiple effects on some physiological processes. Lithium is also highly effective in the treatment of bipolar disorder, however, the mechanism of lithium action in the treatment of this psychiatric disorder is still unknown. A number of lithium-sensitive enzymes and putative important biomolecules have been proposed as potential targets of lithium action and these mechanisms are discussed in this review. PMID:12402788

Patocka, J; Klr, I; Struneck, A

2002-08-01

442

Halo Star Lithium Depletion  

SciTech Connect

The depletion of lithium during the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence phases of stellar evolution plays a crucial role in the comparison of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis with the abundances observed in halo stars. Previous work has indicated a wide range of possible depletion factors, ranging from minimal in standard (nonrotating) stellar models to as much as an order of magnitude in models that include rotational mixing. Recent progress in the study of the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars permits the construction of theoretical models capable of reproducing the angular momentum evolution of low-mass open cluster stars. The distribution of initial angular momenta can be inferred from stellar rotation data in young open clusters. In this paper we report on the application of these models to the study of lithium depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A range of initial angular momenta produces a range of lithium depletion factors on the main sequence. Using the distribution of initial conditions inferred from young open clusters leads to a well-defined halo lithium plateau with modest scatter and a small population of outliers. The mass-dependent angular momentum loss law inferred from open cluster studies produces a nearly flat plateau, unlike previous models that exhibited a downward curvature for hotter temperatures in the 7Li-Teff plane. The overall depletion factor for the plateau stars is sensitive primarily to the solar initial angular momentum used in the calibration for the mixing diffusion coefficients. Uncertainties remain in the treatment of the internal angular momentum transport in the models, and the potential impact of these uncertainties on our results is discussed. The 6Li/7Li depletion ratio is also examined. We find that the dispersion in the plateau and the 6Li/7Li depletion ratio scale with the absolute 7Li depletion in the plateau, and we use observational data to set bounds on the 7Li depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A maximum of 0.4 dex depletion is set by the observed dispersion and 6Li/7Li depletion ratio, and a minimum of 0.2 dex depletion is required by both the presence of highly overdepleted halo stars and consistency with the solar and open cluster 7Li data. The cosmological implications of these bounds on the primordial abundance of 7Li are discussed. (c) (c) 1999. The American Astronomical Society.

Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

1999-12-10

443

Lithium niobate explosion monitor  

DOEpatents

Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

1990-01-09

444

Lithium anode for lithium-air secondary batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium ion conducting solid lithium phosphorous nitride (LiPON) has been sputtered on the water-stable NASICON-type lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte Li1+x+yAlxTi2?xP3?ySiyO12 (LATP). The stability and the interface resistance of the LiAl\\/LiPON\\/LATP\\/LiPON\\/LiAl cell have been examined. It is shown that the LiPON film protects LATP from reacting with the LiAl alloy. The impedance of the LiAl\\/LiPON\\/LATP\\/LiPON\\/LiAl cell has been measured

Nobuyuki Imanishi; Satoshi Hasegawa; Tao Zhang; Atushi Hirano; Yasuo Takeda; Osamu Yamamoto

2008-01-01

445

Electrolytic properties of lithium chelatophosphates and application to lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing interest has been focused on the development of lithium salts with fluorine atoms and on their application to electric vehicles. We have investigated the electrolytic properties of lithium tris[3-fluoro-1,2-benzenediolato(2-)-O,O?]phosphate (3-FLTBP) and lithium tris[1,2-benzenediolato(2-)-O,O?]phosphate (LTBP) and the discharge characteristics of prototype Li\\/V2O5 cells containing ethylene carbonate (EC)-based chain carbonate or EC-based tetrahydrofuran (THF) binary solutions. The introduction of fluorine atoms

Noritoshi Nanbu; Koji Tsuchiya; Yukio Sasaki

2005-01-01

446

Chemical lithium extraction from manganese oxides for lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical lithium extraction has been carried out on the following manganese oxides: the spinel-type compounds LiMn2O4 and Li(4\\/3)Mn(5\\/3)O4, and the rocksalt-related compound Li2MnO3. Lithium can be partially removed chemically from these compounds without destroying the host framework. Some compounds obtained by this method have been tested as cathodic materials in rechargeable lithium cells. Electrochemical results and X-ray diffraction patterns of

F. Lubin; A. Lecerf; M. Broussely; J. Labat

1991-01-01

447

Compatibility of Steel and Aluminium with Calcium Chloride/Ammonia, Magnesium Chloride/Methylamine and Magnesium Chloride/Methylamine/Decane.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of pairs of substances such as calcium chloride/ammonia or magnesium chloride/methylamine for distant heating or heat storage requires compatibility between these substances and the structural materials of the reactor vessels, transport-containers...

H. K. Kohl

1978-01-01

448

High rate rechargeable lithium cells employing lithium ion conducting solid electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented on high temperature solid state cells employing 50:50 weight percent lithium germanium vanadium oxide-lithium iodide. The incorporation of lithium iodide in lithium germanium vanadium oxide resulted in higher pellet conductivities and improved the high rate performance of the solid state cells. The cells were comprised of a lithium-aluminum or lithium-silicon alloy as the anode and a CVD

Edward J. Plichta; Wishvender K. Behl

1995-01-01

449

Plasma Response to Lithium-Coated Plasma-Facing Components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment  

SciTech Connect

Experiments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have shown beneficial effects on the performance of divertor plasmas as a result of applying lithium coatings on the graphite and carbonfiber- composite plasma-facing components. These coatings have mostly been applied by a pair of lithium evaporators mounted at the top of the vacuum vessel which inject collimated streams of lithium vapor towards the lower divertor. In NBI-heated, deuterium H-mode plasmas run immediately after the application of lithium, performance modifications included decreases in the plasma density, particularly in the edge, and inductive flux consumption, and increases in the electron and ion temperatures and the energy confinement time. Reductions in the number and amplitude of ELMs were observed, including complete ELM suppression for periods up to 1.2 s, apparently as a result of altering the stability of the edge. However, in the plasmas where ELMs were suppressed, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities, although not of lithium itself which remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. The impurity buildup could be inhibited by repetitively triggering ELMs with the application of brief pulses of an n = 3 radial field perturbation. The reduction in the edge density by lithium also inhibited parasitic losses through the scrape-off layer of ICRF power coupled to the plasma, enabling the waves to heat electrons in the core of H-mode plasmas produced by NBI. Lithium has also been introduced by injecting a stream of chemically stabilized, fine lithium powder directly into the scrape-off layer of NBI-heated plasmas. The lithium was ionized in the SOL and appeared to flow along the magnetic field to the divertor plates. This method of coating produced similar effects to the evaporated lithium but at lower amounts.

M.G. Bell, H.W. Kugel, R. Kaita, L.E. Zakharov, H. Schneider, B.P. LeBlanc, D. Mansfield, R.E. Bell, R. Maingi, S. Ding, S.M. Kaye, S.F. Paul, S.P. Gerhardt, J.M. Canik, J.C. Hosea, G. Taylor and the NSTX Research Team

2009-08-20

450

Sodium Chloride Toxicity in Dogs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the research was to determine whether consistent, significant differences in response to life span dietary sodium chloride levels occur in dogs, and, if so, the influence of sex and genetics and exploration of the significance in the occu...

J. B. Youmans

1972-01-01

451

Chloride thresholds in marine concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports results from an ongoing study of the performance of fly ash concrete in marine exposure. Reinforced concrete specimens exposed to tidal conditions were retrieved at ages ranging from 1 to 4 years. Steel reinforcement mass losses are compared with chloride contents at the location of the bar for concrete specimens of various strength grades and with a

Michael Thomas

1996-01-01

452

Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

A negative electrode (12) for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell (10) with an intermetallic host structure containing two or more elements selected from the metal elements and silicon, capable of accommodating lithium within its crystallographic host structure such that when the host structure is lithiated it transforms to a lithiated zinc-blende-type structure. Both active elements (alloying with lithium) and inactive elements (non-alloying with lithium) are disclosed. Electrochemical cells and batteries as well as methods of making the negative electrode are disclosed.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kepler, Keith D. (Mountain View, CA); Vaughey, John T. (Elmhurst, IL)

2003-01-01

453

Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes  

DOEpatents

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

1996-01-16

454

Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes  

DOEpatents

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tulsa, OK)

1996-01-01

455

Lattice dynamics of dense lithium.  

PubMed

We report low-frequency high-resolution Raman spectroscopy and ab-initio calculations on dense lithium from 40 to 200GPa at low temperatures. Our experimental results reveal rich first-order Raman activity in the metallic and semiconducting phases of lithium. The computed Raman frequencies are in excellent agreement with the measurements. Free energy calculations provide a quantitative description and physical explanation of the experimental phase diagram only when vibrational effect are correctly treated. The study underlines the importance of zero-point energy in determining the phase stability of compressed lithium. PMID:22400938

Gorelli, F A; Elatresh, S F; Guillaume, C L; Marqus, M; Ackland, G J; Santoro, M; Bonev, S A; Gregoryanz, E

2012-02-01

456

21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered from the filtrate on...

2009-04-01

457

21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered from the filtrate on...

2010-01-01

458

Quantitative Studies of Chloride Permeability of Concrete.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies were undertaken to develop a quantitative determination of chloride ion permeability in concrete based upon measuring the chloride ion migration in the concrete. The intent was to modify AASHTO standard method T-277 to measure the amount of chlori...

J. Walsh M. Sock J. Lima S. Quintin J. Fera

1998-01-01

459

29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

2013-07-01

460

29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations...CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

2013-07-01

461

29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations...EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

2013-07-01

462

29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1152 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

2013-07-01

463

Impact of rotation and disc lifetime on pre-main sequence lithium depletion of solar-type stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We study the influence of rotation and disc lifetime on lithium depletion of pre-main sequence (PMS) solar-type stars. Methods: The impact of rotational mixing and of the hydrostatic effects of rotation on lithium abundances are investigated by computing non-rotating and rotating PMS models that include a comprehensive treatment of shellular rotation. The influence of the disc lifetime is then studied by comparing the lithium content of PMS rotating models experiencing different durations of the disc-locking phase between 3 and 9 Myr. Results: The surface lithium abundance at the end of the PMS is decreased when rotational effects are included. During the beginning of the lithium depletion phase, only hydrostatic effects of rotation are at work. This results in a decrease in the lithium depletion rate for rotating models compared to non-rotating ones. When the convective envelope recedes from the stellar centre, rotational mixing begins to play an important role due to differential rotation near the bottom of the convective envelope. This mixing results in a decrease in the surface lithium abundance with a limited contribution from hydrostatic effects of rotation, which favours lithium depletion during the second part of the PMS evolution. The impact of rotation on PMS lithium depletion is also found to be sensitive to the duration of the disc-locking phase. When the disc lifetime increases, the PMS lithium abundance of a solar-type star decreases owing to the higher efficiency of rotational mixing in the radiative zone. A relationship between the surface rotation and lithium abundance at the end of the PMS is then obtained: slow rotators on the zero-age main sequence are predicted to be more lithium-depleted than fast rotators due to the increase in the disc lifetime.

Eggenberger, P.; Haemmerl, L.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.

2012-03-01

464

Fluid consumption in lithium-treated rats: roles of stimulus novelty and context novelty.  

PubMed

In 5 experiments thirsty rats received an injection of lithium chloride or of saline, and their consumption of fluid was monitored at 5-min intervals for 30 min. The novelty of the fluid and the novelty of the test context was varied. In Experiment 1 a novel fluid (a sucrose solution) was offered in a novel context; in Experiment 2 the fluid was novel and the context was familiar (the home cage); in Experiment 3 the fluid was familiar and the context was novel; and in Experiment 4 both fluid and context were familiar. Lithium influenced fluid consumption in those designs that included at least one novel feature (Experiments 1, 2, and 3, but not in Experiment 4). Consumption was initially enhanced (with respect to the controls) when the context was novel, but was suppressed when the fluid was novel. In Experiment 5, the flavor was over-ingested after lithium treatment when it was presented in a short (5 min) test conducted in a novel place, but was rejected in a subsequent consumption in the home cages. It is argued that the effect of lithium depends on two factors: enhanced attention to salient cues that modifies the exploratory responses evoked by a novel context; rapid conditioning of an aversion when the fluid consumed is novel. Implications for the use of fluid consumption as an index of lithium-induced nausea are considered. PMID:22835651

Rodrguez, Marcial; Garca, Zo; Cobo, Pablo; Hall, Geoffrey

2012-10-01

465

Performance Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Cells for Mars Sample Return Athena Rover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In contrast to the primary batteries (lithium thionyl chloride) on the Sojourner Mars Rover and the upcoming 2001 Mars Rover, the Mars Sample Return (MSR) Athena Rover will utilize rechargeable lithium ion batteries, following the footsteps of MSP 2001 Lander. The MSR Athena Rover will contain a rechargeable lithium ion battery of 16 V and a total energy of 150 Wh. The mass and volume of the projected power system will be a maximum of 3 kg and 2 liters, respectively. Each battery consists of twelve cells (6-7 Ah), combined in three parallel strings of four cells (16 V) each, such that the capability of the Rover shall be maintained even in the event of one string failure. In addition to the usual requirements of high specific energy and energy density and long cycle life (100 cycles), the battery is required to operate at wide range of temperatures, especially at sub-zero temperatures down to -20 C. In this paper, we report various performance characterization tests carried out on lithium ion cells, fabricated by different manufacturers under a NASA/DoD lithium ion battery consortium.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Ewell, R.; Surampudi, S.; Marsh, R.

1999-01-01

466

Lithium insertion in manganese oxides: A model lithium ion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model lithium ion system, based on the manganese oxide, LixMn2O4, has been used to study the reversibility of the lithium insertion processes in both the approximate 3 V and 4 V versus LiLi+ voltages ranges. We have used the half-cell voltage responses for the Li1 ? xMn2O4 and Li1 + xMn2O4 electrodes to predict the voltage profile for the

Jerry Barker; Ren Koksbang; M. Yazid Sadi

1995-01-01

467

UNDERSTANDING DEGRADATION AND LITHIUM DIFFUSION IN LITHIUM ION BATTERY ELECTRODES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium-ion batteries with higher capacity and longer cycle life than that available today are required as secondary energy sources for a wide range of emerging applications. In particular, the cycling performance of several candidate materials for lithium-ion battery electrodes is insufficient because of the fast capacity fading and short cycle life, which is mainly a result of mechanical degradation.\\u000aThis

Juchuan Li

2012-01-01

468

NASA Advanced Radiator Technology Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A practical implementation of the two-phase working fluid of lithium and NaK has been developed experimentally for pumped loop radiator designs. The benefits of the high heat capacity and low mass of lithium have been integrated with the shutdown capability enabled by the low freezing temperature of NaK by mixing these liquid metals directly. The stable and reliable start up and shutdown of a lithium/NaK pumped loop has been demonstrated through the development of a novel lithium freeze-separation technique within the flowing header ducts. The results of a highly instrumented liquid metal test loop are presented in which both lithium fraction as well as loop gravitational effects were varied over a wide range of values. Diagnostics based on dual electric probes are presented in which the convective behavior of the lithium component is directly measured during loop operation. The uniform distribution of the lithium after a freeze separation is verified by neutron radiography. The operating regime for reliable freeze/thaw flow behavior is described in terms of correlations based on dimensional analysis.

Koester, J. Kent; Juhasz, Albert J.

1994-07-01

469

Method for the Abatement of Hydrogen Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and coll...

S. J. Winston T. R. Thomas

1977-01-01

470

Method for the Abatement of Hydrogen Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and coll...

S. J. Winston T. R. Thomas

1975-01-01

471

21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg...glycerol and has a saline taste at low concentration...

2009-04-01

472

21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg...glycerol and has a saline taste at low concentration...

2010-01-01

473

21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13 . 6H2 0, CAS Reg. No....

2010-01-01

474

21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food and...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12 ·6H2 O, CAS Reg. No....

2013-04-01

475

21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and...Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in...

2013-04-01

476

Liquid Lithium Limiter Effects on Tokamak Plasmas and Plasma-Liquid Surface Interactions  

SciTech Connect

We present results from the first experiments with a large area liquid lithium limiter in a magnetic fusion device, and its effect on improving plasma performance by reducing particle recycling. Using large area liquid metal surfaces in any major fusion device is unlikely before a test on a smaller scale. This has motivated its demonstration in the CDX-U spherical torus with a unique, fully toroidal lithium limiter. The highest current discharges were obtained with a liquid lithium limiter. There was a reduction in recycling, as indicated by a significant decrease in the deuterium-alpha emission and oxygen radiation. How these results might extrapolate to reactors is suggested in recycling/retention experiments with liquid lithium surfaces under high-flux deuterium and helium plasma bombardment in PISCES-B. Data on deuterium atoms retained in liquid lithium indicate retention of all incident ions until full volumetric conversion to lithium deuteride. The PISCES-B results also show a material loss mechanism that lowers the maximum operating temperature compared to that for the liquid surface equilibrium vapor pressure. This may restrict the lithium temperature in reactors.

R. Kaita; R. Majeski; R. Doerner; G. Antar; M. Baldwin; R. Conn; P. Efthimion; M. Finkenthal; D. Hoffman; B. Jones; S. Krashenninikov; H. Kugel; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; J. Menard; T. Munsat; D. Stutman; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; V. Soukhanovskii; D. Whyte; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov

2002-10-15

477

21 CFR 862.1170 - Chloride test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Chloride test system. (a) Identification. A chloride test system is a device intended to measure the level of chloride in plasma, serum, sweat, and urine. Chloride measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of electrolyte and metabolic...

2013-04-01

478