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Sample records for radiation lithium chloride

  1. Taste-aversion learning produced by combined treatment with subthreshold radiation and lithium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1987-01-01

    These experiments were designed to determine whether treatment with two subthreshold doses of radiation or lithium chloride, either alone or in combination, could lead to taste-aversion learning. The first experiment determined the threshold for a radiation-induced taste aversion at 15-20 rad and for lithium chloride at 0.30-0.45 mEq/kg. In the second experiment it was shown that exposing rats to two doses of 15 rad separated by up to 3 hr produced a taste aversion. Treatment with two injections of lithium chloride did produce a taste aversion when the two treatments were administered within 1 hr or each other. The results are discussed in terms of the implications of these findings for understanding the nature of the unconditional stimuli leading to the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion.

  2. Effects of antiemetics on the acquisition and recall of radiation- and lithium chloride-induced conditioned taste aversions

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.

    1983-04-01

    A series of experiments were run to evaluate the effect of antiemetics on the acquisition and recall of a conditioned taste aversion induced by exposure to ionizing radiation or by injection of lithium chloride. Groups of male rats were exposed to 100 rad gamma radiation or 3 mEq/kg lithium chloride following consumption of a 10% sucrose solution. They were then injected with saline or with one of three antiemetics (prochlorperazine, trimethobenzamide, or cyclizine) at dose levels that have been reported to be effective in attenuating a previously acquired lithium chloride-induced taste aversion. The pretreatments with antiemetics had no effect on the acquisition or recall of either the lithium chloride- or radiation-induced taste aversion. The data suggest that antiemetics do not disrupt lithium chloride-induced taste aversions as previously reported, nor do they effect radiation-induced taste aversion learning.

  3. Acquisition of lithium chloride- and radiation-induced taste aversions in hypophysectomized rats

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1983-03-01

    The effects of hypophysectomy on the acquisition of conditioned taste aversions following injection of lithium chloride and following exposure to ionizing radiation were studied using a two-bottle preference test. Hypophysectomy did not disrupt the acquisition of a taste aversion following either treatment. The results are interpreted as: (a) suggesting that pituitary/adrenal hormones do not mediate the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion following injections of lithium chloride or following exposure to ionizing radiation in a two-bottle preference test, and (b) consistent with other research suggesting that the involvement of pituitary/adrenal hormones in taste aversion learning may be related to the conflict induced by using a one-bottle test and not to the learning itself.

  4. Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis

    E-print Network

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis Lekha Gupta, 2008 Ortholithiations of a range of arenes mediated by lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in THF at -78 °C protocols with unpurified commercial samples of n-butyl- lithium to prepare LDA or commercially available

  5. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  6. Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parry, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

  7. Thermoluminescence of ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Louis

    2003-05-01

    Ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride (10 -30 g cm -3) have been irradiated by X- and ?-rays at 77 K, then progressively rewarmed to room temperature. During that phase, their thermoluminescence has been studied and it was found that, despite their dilution beyond the Avogadro number, the emitted light was specific of the original salts dissolved initially.

  8. Optimization of the lithium/thionyl chloride battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Ralph E.

    1989-01-01

    A 1-D math model for the lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell is used in conjunction with a parameter estimation technique in order to estimate the electro-kinetic parameters of this electrochemical system. The electro-kinetic parameters include the anodic transfer coefficient and exchange current density of the lithium oxidation, alpha sub a,1 and i sub o,i,ref, the cathodic transfer coefficient and the effective exchange current density of the thionyl chloride reduction, alpha sub c,2 and a sup o i sub o,2,ref, and a morphology parameter, Xi. The parameter estimation is performed on simulated data first in order to gain confidence in the method. Data, reported in the literature, for a high rate discharge of an experimental lithium/thionyl chloride cell is used for an analysis.

  9. Low temperature safety of lithium-thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Shen, D. H.; Dawson, S.; Halpert, G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of lithium thionyl chloride cells for low-temperature applications is presently restricted because of their unsafe behavior. An attempt is made in the present investigation to identify the safe/unsafe low temperature operating conditions and to understand the low temperature cell chemistry responsible for the unsafe behavior. Cells subjected to extended reversal at low rate and -40 C were found to explode upon warm-up. Lithium was found to deposit on the carbon cathodes during reversal. Warming up to room temperature may be accelerating the lithium corrosion in the electrolyte. This may be one of the reasons for the cell thermal runaway.

  10. Determination of the heat capacities of Lithium/BCX (bromide chloride in thionyl chloride) batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubow, Stephen A.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    1989-01-01

    Heat capacities of twelve different Lithium/BCX (BrCl in thionyl chloride) batteries in sizes AA, C, D, and DD were determined. Procedures and measurement results are reported. The procedure allowed simple, reproducible, and precise determinations of heat capacities of industrially important Lithium/BCX cells, without interfering with performance of the cells. Use of aluminum standards allowed the accuracy of the measurements to be maintained. The measured heat capacities were within 5 percent of calculated heat capacity values.

  11. Optimization of the lithium/thionyl chloride battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Ralph E.

    1987-01-01

    The progress which has been made in modeling the lithium/thionyl chloride cell over the past year and proposed research for the coming year are discussed. A one-dimensional mathematical model for a lithium/thionyl chloride cell has been developed and used to investigate methods of improving cell performance. During the course of the work a problem was detected with the banded solver being used. It was replaced with one more reliable. Future work may take one of two directions. The one-dimensional model could be augmented to include additional features and to investigate in more detail the cell temperature behavior, or a simplified two-dimensional model for the spirally wound design of this battery could be developed to investigate the heat flow within the cell.

  12. Active lithium chloride cell for spacecraft power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischmann, C. W.; Horning, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    An active thionyl chloride high rate battery is under development for spacecraft operations. It is a 540kC (150 Ah) battery capable of pulses up to 75A. This paper describes the design and initial test data on a 'state-of-the-art' cell that has been selected to be the baseline for the prototype cell for that battery. Initial data indicate that the specification can be met with fresh cells. Data for stored cells and additional environmental test data are in the process of being developed.

  13. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride on infection of cells by canine parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pei; Fu, Xinliang; Yan, Zhongshan; Fang, Bo; Huang, San; Fu, Cheng; Hong, Malin; Li, Shoujun

    2015-11-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 causes significant viral disease in dogs, with high morbidity, high infectivity, and high mortality. Lithium chloride is a potential antiviral drug for viruses. We determined the antiviral effect of Lithium Chloride on canine parvovirus type 2 in feline kidney cells. The viral DNA and proteins of canine parvovirus were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. Further investigation verified that viral entry into cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. These results indicated that lithium chloride could be a potential antiviral drug for curing dogs with canine parvovirus infection. The specific steps of canine parvovirus entry into cells that are affected by lithium chloride and its antiviral effect in vivo should be explored in future studies. PMID:26315688

  14. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip G.; Goebel, F.

    1994-01-01

    Presented in viewgraph format are results and accomplishments on the development of lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar batteries. Results include the development of manufacturing capability for producing large quantities of uniform cathodes and bipolar plates; the development of assembly, sealing, and activation procedures for fabrication of battery modules containing up to 150 cells in bipolar configuration; and the successful demonstration of a 10.7 kW 150-cell module with constant power pulse discharge, 20 second pulse, and 10 percent duty cycle.

  15. Calorimetry of 25 Ah lithium/thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. J.; Dawson, S.

    1991-01-01

    Heat flow measurements of 25-Ah lithium thionyl chloride cells provided a method to calculate an effective thermal potential, E(TP) of 3.907 V. The calculation is useful to determine specific heat generation of this cell chemistry and design. The E(TP) value includes heat generation by electrochemical cell reactions, competitive chemical reactions, and resistance heating at the tabs, connectors, and leads. Heat flow was measured while applying electrical loads to the cell in an isothermal calorimeter set at 0, 20, and 60 C.

  16. Hydrodynamic simulation of a lithium chloride salt system.

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, C. S.; Herrmann, S. D.; Knighton, G. C.

    1999-02-12

    A fused lithium chloride salt system's constitutive properties were evaluated and compared to a number of fluid properties, and water was shown to be an excellent simulant of lithium chloride salt. With a simple flow model, the principal scaling term was shown to be a function of the kinematic viscosity. A water mock-up of the molten salt was also shown to be within a {+-}3% error in the scaling analysis. This made it possible to consider developing water scaled tests of the molten salt system. Accurate flow velocity and pressure measurements were acquired by developing a directional velocity probe. The device was constructed and calibrated with a repeatable accuracy of {+-}15%. This was verified by a detailed evaluation of the probe. Extensive flow measurements of the engineering scale mockup were conducted, and the results were carefully compared to radial flow patterns of a straight blade stirrer. The flow measurements demonstrated an anti-symmetric nature of the stirring, and many additional effects were also identified. The basket design was shown to prevent fluid penetration into the fuel baskets when external stirring was the flow mechanism.

  17. Development of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for Centaur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Frank, Harvey; Lutwack, Ralph

    1988-01-01

    Lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary cells and batteries have received considerable attention over the last several years because of their high theoretical specific energy and energy density. The objective was to develop a 300 wh/kg cell capable of safe operation at C/2 rate and active storage life for 5 to 10 years. This technology would replace other primary cell technologies in NASA applications mainly the silver zinc (AgZn) batteries presently in use. The LiSOCl2 system exceeds the capabilities of the AgZn in terms of specific energy of 300 wh/kg (compared with 100 wh/kg for AgZn), active storage life of 10 to 20 times the 3 to 6 months active storage and has a significantly lower projected cost.

  18. Development of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for Centaur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Frank, Harvey; Lutwack, Ralph

    1987-01-01

    Lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary cells and batteries have received considerable attention over the last several years because of their high theoretical specific energy and energy density. The objective was to develop a 300 wh/kg cell capable of safe operation at C/2 rate and active storage life for 5 to 10 years. This technology would replace other primary cell technologies in NASA applications mainly the silver zinc (AgZn) batteries presently in use. The LiSOCl2 system exceeds the capabilities of the AgZn in terms of specific energy of 300 wh/kg (compared with 100 wh/kg for AgZn), active storage life of 10 to 20 times the 3 to 6 months active storage and has a significantly lower projected cost.

  19. Development of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for Centaur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Frank, Harvey; Lutwack, Ralph

    1987-09-01

    Lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary cells and batteries have received considerable attention over the last several years because of their high theoretical specific energy and energy density. The objective was to develop a 300 wh/kg cell capable of safe operation at C/2 rate and active storage life for 5 to 10 years. This technology would replace other primary cell technologies in NASA applications mainly the silver zinc (AgZn) batteries presently in use. The LiSOCl2 system exceeds the capabilities of the AgZn in terms of specific energy of 300 wh/kg (compared with 100 wh/kg for AgZn), active storage life of 10 to 20 times the 3 to 6 months active storage and has a significantly lower projected cost.

  20. High-rate lithium thionyl-chloride battery development

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, W.R.; Weigand, D.E.

    1993-12-31

    We have developed a lithium thionyl-chloride cell for use in a high rate battery application to provide power for a missile computer and stage separation detonators. The battery pack contains 20 high surface area ``DD`` cells wired in a series-parallel configuration to supply a nominal 28 volts with a continuous draw of 20 amperes. The load profile also requires six squib firing pulses of one second duration at a 20 ampere peak. Performance and safety of the cells were optimized in a ``D`` cell configuration before progressing to the longer ``DD` cell. Active surface area in the ``D`` cell is 735 cm{sup 2}, and 1650 cm{sup 2} in the ``DD`` cell. The design includes 1.5M LiAlCl{sub 4}/SOCl{sub 2} electrolyte, a cathode blend of Shawinigan Acetylene Black and Cabot Black Pearls 2000 carbons, Scimat ETFE separator, and photoetched current collectors.

  1. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Pinakin M.

    1993-01-01

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

  2. Safety considerations of lithium-thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, Surampudi; Halpert, Gerald; Stein, Irving

    1986-01-01

    The use of spirally wound lithium-thionyl chloride (Li-SOCl2) cells is currently limited because of their hazardous behavior. Safety hazards have ranged from mild venting of toxic materials to violent explosions and fires. These incidents may be related to both user- and manufacturer-induced causes. Many explanations have been offered to explain the unsafe behavior of the cells under operating and abuse conditions. Explanations fall into two categories: (1) thermal mechanisms, and (2) chemical mechanisms. However, it is quite difficult to separate the two. Both may be responsible for cell venting or explosion. Some safety problems encountered with these cells also may be due to design deficiencies and ineffective quality control during cell fabrication. A well-coordinated basic and applied research program is needed to develop safe Li-SOCl2 cells. Recommendations include: (1) learnig more about Li-SOL2 cell chemistry; (2) modeling cell and battery behavior; (3) optimizing cell design for safety and performance, (4) implementing quality control procedures; and (5) educating users.

  3. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride on feline calicivirus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongxia; Zhang, Xiaozhan; Liu, Chunguo; Liu, Dafei; Liu, Jiasen; Tian, Jin; Qu, Liandong

    2015-12-01

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a highly contagious pathogen that causes oral and upper respiratory tract disease in cats. Despite widespread vaccination, the prevalence of FCV remains high. Furthermore, a high gene mutation rate has led to the emergence of variants, and some infections are lethal. To date, there is no effective antiviral drug available for treating FCV infection. Here, we show that lithium chloride (LiCl) effectively suppresses the replication of FCV strain F9 in Crandell-Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cells. The antiviral activity of LiCl occurred primarily during the early stage of infection and in a dose-dependent manner. LiCl treatment also inhibited the cytopathic effect. LiCl treatment exhibited a strong inhibitory effect against a panel of other two reference strains and two recent FCV isolates from China. These results demonstrate that LiCl might be an effective anti-FCV drug for controlling FCV disease. Further studies are required to explore the antiviral activity of LiCl against FCV replication in vivo. PMID:26239340

  4. A mathematical model of a lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, T. I.; Nguyen, T. V.; White, R. E.

    1987-01-01

    A 1-D mathematical model for the lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell was developed to investigate methods of improving its performance and safety. The model includes many of the components of a typical lithium/thionyl chloride cell such as the porous lithium chloride film which forms on the lithium anode surface. The governing equations are formulated from fundamental conservation laws using porous electrode theory and concentrated solution theory. The model is used to predict 1-D, time dependent profiles of concentration, porosity, current, and potential as well as cell temperature and voltage. When a certain discharge rate is required, the model can be used to determine the design criteria and operating variables which yield high cell capacities. Model predictions can be used to establish operational and design limits within which the thermal runaway problem, inherent in these cells, can be avoided.

  5. Lithium chloride protects retinal neurocytes from nutrient deprivation by promoting DNA non-homologous end-joining

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang Jing; Li Fan; Liu Xuan; Liu Zhiping; Lin Jianxian; Ge Yihong; Kaminski, Joseph M.; Summers, James Bradley; Wang Zhichong; Ge Jian Yu Keming

    2009-03-13

    Lithium chloride is a therapeutic agent for treatment of bipolar affective disorders. Increasing numbers of studies have indicated that lithium has neuroprotective effects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of lithium have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate whether lithium chloride produces neuroprotective function by improving DNA repair pathway in retinal neurocyte. In vitro, the primary cultured retinal neurocytes (85.7% are MAP-2 positive cells) were treated with lithium chloride, then cultured with serum-free media to simulate the nutrient deprived state resulting from ischemic insult. The neurite outgrowth of the cultured cells increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner when exposed to different levels of lithium chloride. Genomic DNA electrophoresis demonstrated greater DNA integrity of retinal neurocytes when treated with lithium chloride as compared to the control. Moreover, mRNA and protein levels of Ligase IV (involved in DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway) in retinal neurocytes increased with lithium chloride. The end joining activity assay was performed to determine the role of lithium on NHEJ in the presence of extract from retinal neurocytes. The rejoining levels in retinal neurocytes treated with lithium were significantly increased as compared to the control. Furthermore, XRCC4, the Ligase IV partner, and the transcriptional factor, CREB and CTCF, were up-regulated in retinal cells after treating with 1.0 mM lithium chloride. Therefore, our data suggest that lithium chloride protects the retinal neural cells from nutrient deprivation in vitro, which may be similar to the mechanism of cell death in glaucoma. The improvement in DNA repair pathway involving in Ligase IV might have an important role in lithium neuroprotection. This study provides new insights into the neural protective mechanisms of lithium chloride.

  6. Reduction of the spent nuclear fuel of a VVER-1000 reactor by lithium in a lithium chloride melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkov, A. V.; Ishunin, V. S.; Kormilitsyn, M. V.

    2010-08-01

    Researchers at FGUP GNTs RF NIIAR performed a series of experiments on the lithium reduction of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of a VVER-1000 reactor to a metal in a lithium chloride melt. The depletion of the nuclear fuel taken before experiments is about 30000 (MW day)/t, and the cooling time is 5 years. The experiments are performed on 5.8-kg samples of a prepared SNF powder. Data are obtained on a decrease in the heat release, the specific activity of the processed powder, and the distribution of actinides and the main fission products between a salt phase and a reduced SNF powder.

  7. Zero-gravity growth of a sodium chloride-lithium fluoride eutectic mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.; Yeh, C. W.; Yue, B. K.

    1982-01-01

    Continuous and discontinuous lithium fluoride fibers embedded in a sodium chloride matrix were produced in space and on Earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convective current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and Earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of lithium fluoride fibers along the growth direction.

  8. In search of a phase response curve for lithium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Readey, M.A.; Groh, K.R.; Ehret, C.F.

    1987-01-01

    Male rats were free-run, and one day later were exposed to a single, punctate dose of 5 mM LiCl/kg body weight by injection at one of eight equally spaced times throughout the 24-h period. For each of the six days following injection, a separate phase response curve was derived from core-temperature chronograms. Unlike the classical response induced by chronobiotics such as dexamethasone, alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine, and theophylline, statistically significant phase shifts for lithium were observed only on the first day following injection. These induced phase changes were not permanent, but instead were transient. By the sixth day of free-run, all experimental rats had drifted to the control acrophase; i.e., by the end of the experiment, most of the treated rats again had phase and confidence arcs not significantly different from their controls. The confidence arcs of the acrophases of the individual animals on the subsequent days post injection reveal that in this experiment, lithium was transiently dyschronogenic rather than definitively chronobiotic. The results suggest that punctate rather than chronic administration of lithium, followed by strict orthochronal administration of traditional zeitgebers, would be an effective way of restoring circadian synchrony in an internally desynchronized system. 122 refs.

  9. Investigation of an Aberrant Cell Voltage During the Filling of a Large Lithium Thionyl Chloride Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Quinzio, Michael V.

    1997-01-01

    The investigation of an aberrant cell voltage during the filling of a large lithium thionyl chloride cell summary is at: an aberrant voltage trace was noted during the review of cell filling data; incident was traced to an interruption during filling; experimentation suggested oxidizable sites within the carbon electrode were responsible for the drop in voltage; the voltage anomaly could be reproduced by interrupting the filling of similar cells; and anomalous voltage dip was not due to a short.

  10. Selective Reduction of Active Metal Chlorides from Molten LiCl-KCl using Lithium Drawdown

    SciTech Connect

    Michael F. Simpson; Daniel LaBrier; Michael Lineberry; Tae-Sic Yoo

    2012-10-01

    In support of optimizing electrorefining technology for treating spent nuclear fuel, lithium drawdown has been investigated for separating actinides from molten salt electrolyte. Drawdown reaction selectivity is a major issue that needs to be investigated, since the goal is to remove actinides while leaving the fission products in the salt. A series of lithium drawdown tests with surrogate fission product chlorides was run to obtain selectivity data with non-radioactive salts, develop a predictive model, and draw conclusions about the viability of using this process with actinide-loadd salt. Results of tests with CsCl, LaCl3, CeCl3, and NdCl3 are reported here. An equilibrium model has been formulated and fit to the experimental data. Excellent fits to the data were achieved. Based on analysis and results obtained to date, it is concluded that clean separation between minor actinides and lanthanides will be difficult to achieve using lithium drawdown.

  11. Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for missile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planchat, J. P.; Descroix, J. P.; Sarre, G.

    A comparative performance study has been conducted for silver-zinc, thionyl chloride, and thermal batteries designed for such missile applications as ICBM guidance system power supplies. Attention is given to each of the three candidates' conformity to requirements concerning mechanical configuration, electrochemical design, electrolyte reservoir, external case, and gas generator. The silver-zinc and Li-SOCl2 candidates employ similar cell configurations and yield comparable performance. The thermal battery is found to be incapable of meeting battery case temperature-related requirements.

  12. Development of a 300 Amp-hr high rate lithium thionyl chloride cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Gerard H.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a high-rate lithium thionyl chloride cylindrical cell with parallel plate electrodes is discussed. The development was divided into three phases: phase 1, a 150 Amp/hour low rate (1 mA/sq cm) design; phase 2, a 25 Amp/hour high rate (5 mA/sq cm) design; and phase 3, a 300 Amp/hour high rate (5 mA/sq cm) design. The basic design is the same for all three cells. The electrodes are perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder. Multiple electrodes are bussed up the side of the cylinder, 180 deg apart allowing excellent anode and cathode utilization. It is a lithium limited design with excess electrolyte. The cathode is Shawinigan or Gulf Acetylene black with no catalyst. The electrolyte is 1.8 Molar lithium tetrachloroaluminate (LiAlCl4) in thionyl chloride. All cell cases are 304L Stainless Steel with a BS&B burst disc.

  13. Performance of (CoPC)n catalyst in active lithium-thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Pinakin M.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted with anode limited D size cells to characterize the performance of an active lithium-thionyl chloride (Li/SOCl2) system using the polymeric cobalt phthalocyanine, (CoPC)n, catalyst in carbon cathodes. The author describes the results of this experiment with respect to initial voltage delays, operating voltages, and capacities. The effectiveness of the preconditioning methods evolved to alleviate passivation effects on storage are also discussed. The results clearly demonstrated the superior high rate capability of cells with the catalyst. The catalyst did not adversely impact the performance of cells after active storage for up to 6 months, while retaining its beneficial influences.

  14. Open cycle lithium chloride cooling system. Final report, March 1, 1982-May 28, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, T. G.; Loef, G. O.G.; Iyer, R.; Wenger, J.

    1983-05-01

    A lithium chloride open cycle absorption chiller has been designed, built and tested. Solution reconcentration takes place in a small counter-current packed column supplied with solar heated air. Removal of non-condensable gases that enter the chiller dissolved in the strong solution and the make-up refrigerant streams is accomplished by a liquid-jet ejector and a small vacuum pump. Cooling capacities approaching 1.4 tons and COP levels of 0.58 have been achieved at non-optimum operating conditions. Test results from preliminary system operation suggest that mass transfer processes in both the packed column reconcentrator and the absorber are controlled by concentration gradients in the lithium chloride solution. Liquid phase controlled mass transfer dictates an operating strategy different from the previously assumed gas phase controlled process to obtain maximum rates of evaporation in the packed column. Determination of optimal operating conditions leading to decreased electrical power consumption and improved cooling capacity and coefficient of performance will require further analysis and testing.

  15. Performances of 250 Amp-hr lithium/thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goualard, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    A 250 Ah lithium thionyl chloride battery is being developed for a booster rocket engine. Extensive cell testing is running to evaluate functional and safety performances. Some results are presented. The lithium/thionyl chloride batteries were selected for their high energy density (low weight) as compared to other sources. The temperature of a lower weight item will be more sensitive to variations of internal and external heat fluxes than a heavier one. The use of high energy density L/TC batteries is subjected to stringent thermal environments to have benefit of energy density and to stay safe in any conditions. The battery thermal environment and discharge rate have to be adjusted to obtain the right temperature range at cell level, to have the maximum performances. Voltage and capacity are very sensitive to temperature. This temperature is the cell internal actual temperature during discharge. This temperature is directed by external thermal environment and by cell internal heat dissipation, i.e., cell actual voltage.

  16. Differential Effects of Sodium Butyrate and Lithium Chloride on Rhesus Monkey Trophoblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Priyadarsini; Thirkill, Twanda L.; Ji, Jennifer; Monte, Louise H.; Douglas, Gordon C.

    2015-01-01

    Trophoblast differentiation during early placental development is critical for successful pregnancy and aberrant differentiation causes preeclampsia and early pregnancy loss. During the first trimester, cytotrophoblasts are exposed to low oxygen tension (equivalent to~2%-3% O2) and differentiation proceeds along an extravillous pathway (giving rise to invasive extravillous cytotrophoblasts) and a villous pathway (giving rise to multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast). Interstitial extravillous cytotrophoblasts invade the decidua, while endovascular extravillous cytotrophoblasts are involved in re-modelling uterine spiral arteries. We tested the idea that sodium butyrate (an epigenetic modulator) induces trophoblast differentiation in early gestation rhesus monkey trophoblasts through activation of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. The results show that syncytiotrophoblast formation was increased by butyrate, accompanied by nuclear accumulation of ?-catenin, and increased expression of EnvV2 and galectin-1 (two factors thought to be involved in trophoblast fusion). Surprisingly, the expression of GCM1 and syncytin-2 was not affected by sodium butyrate. When trophoblasts were incubated with lithium chloride, a GSK3 inhibitor that mimics Wnt activation, nuclear accumulation of ?-catenin also occurred but differentiation into syncytiotrophoblast was not observed. Instead the cells differentiated to mononucleated spindle-shaped cells and showed molecular and behavioral characteristics of endovascular trophoblasts. Another highly specific inhibitor of GSK3, CHIR99021, failed to induce endovascular trophoblast characteristics. These observations suggest that activation of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway correlates with both trophoblast differentiation pathways, but that additional factors determine specific cell fate decisions. Other experiments suggested that the differential effects of sodium butyrate and lithium chloride might be explained by their effects on TNF? production. The results provide valuable tools to manipulate trophoblast differentiation in vitro and to better understand the differentiation pathways that occur during early gestation. PMID:26266541

  17. Method of pretreating carbon black powder to improve cathode performance and lithium sulfuryl chloride cell including the pretreated carbon black powder

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, M.; Walker, C.W. Jr; Petersen, E.R.; Wade, W.L. Jr; Gilman, S.

    1983-10-24

    Carbon black powder is pretreated with acetone or methanol prior to cathode fabrication to improve the cathode operating voltage and increase the cathode life of lithium sulfuryl chloride electrochemical cells.

  18. Alkali Halide Opacity in Brown Dwarf and Cool Stellar Atmospheres: A Study of Lithium Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, K.; Weck, P. F.; Schweitzer, A.; Stancil, P. C.; Hauschildt, P. H.

    2003-12-01

    Recent thermochemical equilibrium calculations have revealed the important role played by lithium chloride in the lithium chemistry of cool dwarf atmospheres (K. Lodders 1999, ApJ 519, 793). Indeed, LiCl appears to be the dominant Li-bearing gas over an extended domain of the (P,T) diagram, typically for temperatures below 1500 K. LiCl has a large dipole moment in its ground electronic state which can give rise to intense rovibrational line spectra. In addition, LiCl can make dipole transitions to several low-lying unbound excited states, causing dissociation of the molecule. For these reasons, LiCl may be a significant source of line and continuum opacity in brown dwarf and cool stellar atmospheres. In this work, we report calculations of complete lists of line oscillator strengths and photodissociation cross sections for the low-lying electronic states of LiCl. We have performed single- and double-excitation configuration interaction calculations using the ALCHEMY ab initio package (Mc Lean et al. 1991, MOTECC 91, Elsevier, Leiden) and obtained the potential curves and the corresponding dipole transition moment functions between the X 1? ^+ ground state and the B 1? ^+ and A 1? excited states. The resulting line oscillator strengths and molecular photodissociation cross sections have been included in the PHOENIX stellar atmosphere code (Hauschildt & Baron 1999, J. Comput. App. Math. 102, 41). The new models, calculated using spherical geometry for all gravities considered, also incorporate our latest database of nearly 670 million molecular lines, and updated equations of state (EOS). This work was supported in part by NSF grants AST-9720704 and AST-0086246, NASA grants NAG5-8425, NAG5-9222, and NAG5-10551 as well as NASA/JPL grant 961582.

  19. Mathematical modeling of a zinc/bromine flow cell and a lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, T.I.

    1988-01-01

    Three mathematical models are presented, one for the secondary zinc/bromine flow cell and two for the lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell. The objectives in this modeling work are to aid in understanding the physical phenomena affecting cell performance, determine methods of improving cell performance and safety, and reduce the experimental efforts needed to develop these electrochemical systems. The zinc/bromine cell model is the first such model to include a porous layer on the bromine electrode and to predict discharge behavior. The model is used to solve simultaneously the component material balances and the electroneutrality condition for the unknowns, species concentrations and the solution potential. Two models are presented for the lithium/thionyl chloride cell. The first model is a detailed one-dimensional model which is used to solve simultaneously the component material balances, Ohm's law relations, and current balance. The independent design criteria are identified from the model development. The second model presented here is a two-dimensional thermal model for the spirally would configuration of the lithium/thionyl chloride cell. This is the first model to address the effects of the spiral geometry on heat transfer in the cell.

  20. New Aptes Cross-linked Polymers from Poly(ethylene oxide)s and Cyanuric Chloride for Lithium Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigelaar, Dean M.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Kinder, James D.; Bennett, William R.

    2005-01-01

    A new series of polymer electrolytes for use as membranes for lithium batteries are described. Electrolytes were made by polymerization between cyanuric chloride and diamino-terminated poly(ethylene oxide)s, followed by cross-linking via a sol-gel process. Thermal analysis and lithium conductivity of freestanding polymer films were studied. The effects of several variables on conductivity were investigated, such as length of backbone PEO chain, length of branching PEO chain, extent of branching, extent of cross-linking, salt content, and salt counterion. Polymer films with the highest percentage of PEO were found to be the most conductive, with a maximum lithium conductivity of 3.9 x 10(exp -5) S/cm at 25 C. Addition of plasticizer to the dry polymers increased conductivity by an order of magnitude.

  1. Natrix -Scoring Sheet 1. 0.01 M Mg Chloride, 0.05 M MES pH 5.6, 2.0 M Lithium Sulfate

    E-print Network

    Hill, Chris

    Natrix - Scoring Sheet 1. 0.01 M Mg Chloride, 0.05 M MES pH 5.6, 2.0 M Lithium Sulfate 2. 0.01 M Mg.2 M K Chloride, 0.01 M Mg Sulfate, 0.05 M MES pH 5.6, 10% PEG 400 5. 0.2 M K Chloride, 0.01 M Mg Chloride, 0.05 M MES pH 5.6, 5% PEG 8000 6. 0.1 M Ammonium Sulfate, 0.01 M Mg Chloride, 0.05 M MES pH 5

  2. Towards a Lithium Radiative / Vapor-Box Divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston, Robert; Constantin, Marius; Jaworski, Michael; Myers, Rachel; Ono, Masayuki; Schwartz, Jacob; Scotti, Filippo; Qu, Zhaonan

    2014-10-01

    Recent research has indicated that the peak perpendicular heat flux on reactor divertor targets will be hundreds of MW/m2 in the absence of dissipation and/or spatial spreading. Thus we are attracted to both enhanced radiative cooling and continuous vapor shielding. Lithium particle lifetimes <=100 micro-sec enhance radiation efficiency at T < 10 eV, while lithium charge-exchange with neutral hydrogen may enhance radiative efficiency for T > 10 eV and n0/ni > 0.1. We are examining if the latter mechanism plays a role in the narrowing of the heat-flux footprint in lithiated NSTX discharges. In parallel we are investigating the possibility of immersing a reactor divertor leg in a channel of lithium vapor. If we approximate the vapor channel as in local equilibrium with lithium-wetted walls ranging from 300 oC at the entrance point to 950 oC 10m downstream in the parallel direction, we find that the vapor can both balance reactor levels of upstream plasma pressure and stop energetic ions and electrons with energies up to at least 25 keV, as might be produced in ELMs. Each 10 l/sec of lithium evaporated deep in the channel and recondensed in cooler regions spreads 100 MW over a much wider area than the original strike point. This work supported by US DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  3. Reentrant condensation of lysozyme: Implications for studying dynamics of lysozyme in aqueous solutions of lithium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Mamontov, Eugene; O'Neill, Hugh Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have outlined the use of eutectic solution of lithium chloride in water to study microscopic dynamics of lysozyme in an aqueous solvent that is remarkably similar to pure water in many respects, yet allows experiments over a wide temperature range without the solvent crystallization. The eutectic point in (H2O)R(LiCl) system corresponds to R 7.3, and it is of interest to investigate whether less concentrated aqueous solutions of LiCl could be employed in low-temperature studies of a solvated protein. We have investigated a range of concentrations of lysozyme and LiCl in aqueous solutions to identify systems that do not show phase separation and avoid solvent crystallization on cooling down. Compared to the lysozyme concentration in solution, the concentration of LiCl in the aqueous solvent plays the major role in determining systems suitable for low-temperature studies. We have observed interesting and rich phase behavior reminiscent of reentrant condensation of proteins.

  4. Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovard, Francine S.; Cieslak, Wendy R.

    1987-09-01

    The corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin material candidates for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries in 1.5M LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte have been investigated using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4 PH, and 446), three Fe-Ni glass sealing alloys (Kovar, Alloy 52, and Niromet 426), a Ni-based alloy (Hastelloy B-2) and a zirconium-based alloy (Zircaloy), were compared to the reference materials Ni and 316L SS. All of the candidate materials showed some evidence of corrosion and, therefore, did not perform as well as the reference materials. The Hastelloy B-2 and Zircaloy are clearly unacceptable materials for this application. Of the remaining alternate materials, the 446 SS and Alloy 52 are the most promising candidates.

  5. Lithium chloride antileukemic activity in acute promyelocytic leukemia is GSK-3 and MEK/ERK dependent.

    PubMed

    Zassadowski, F; Pokorna, K; Ferre, N; Guidez, F; Llopis, L; Chourbagi, O; Chopin, M; Poupon, J; Fenaux, P; Ann Padua, R; Pla, M; Chomienne, C; Cassinat, B

    2015-12-01

    We recently identified that the MEK/ERK1/2 pathway synergized with retinoic acid (RA) to restore both transcriptional activity and RA-induced differentiation in RA-resistant acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells. To target the MEK/ERK pathway, we identified glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) inhibitors including lithium chloride (LiCl) as activators of this pathway in APL cells. Using NB4 (RA-sensitive) and UF-1 (RA-resistant) APL cell lines, we observed that LiCl as well as synthetic GSK-3? inhibitors decreased proliferation, induced apoptosis and restored, in RA-resistant cells, the expression of RA target genes and the RA-induced differentiation. Inhibition of the MEK/ERK1/2 pathway abolished these effects. These results were corroborated in primary APL patient cells and translated in vivo using an APL preclinical mouse model in which LiCl given alone was as efficient as RA in increasing survival of leukemic mice compared with untreated mice. When LiCl was combined with RA, we observed a significant survival advantage compared with mice treated by RA alone. In this work, we demonstrate that LiCl, a well-tolerated agent in humans, has antileukemic activity in APL and that it has the potential to restore RA-induced transcriptional activation and differentiation in RA-resistant APL cells in an MEK/ERK-dependent manner. PMID:26108692

  6. Development of a moderate rate lithium/thionyl-chloride D'' cell

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, W.R.; Street, H.K.

    1990-01-01

    We have designed a lithium/thionyl chloride D'' cell for efficient performance at the moderate rate of {approximately}500 mA (6.25 {Omega} load). The SNL-MR-D cell has 345 cm{sup 2} of active electrode area, 1.0 M LiAlCl{sub 4} electrolyte that may have SO{sub 2} additive, and a cathode blended of Shawinigan Acetylene Black, Cabot Black Pearls 2000, and Teflon binder. The average performance of cells built in-house and discharged at 25{degree}C and 6.25 {Omega} has been 14.9 Ah (50 Wh). We have aged the cells at 30{degree}C and 50{degree}C, and measured complex impedance and microcalorimetry during the aging period. The cells have been discharged after the aging period at 25{degree}C and 0{degree}C. This preliminary study has allowed us to establish an initial cell design and estimate the rate of capacity loss on storage or long-term usage. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Pavlovian discrimination in rats using voluntary exposure to a lithium chloride procedure.

    PubMed

    Arriola, N; Alonso, G; Vázquez, G A; Rodríguez, G

    2015-07-01

    In a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure, the consumption of a flavor is followed by the administration of a toxin (e.g. lithium chloride, LiCl), resulting in the future avoidance of the flavor. CTA studies typically make use of forced-exposure paradigms where a volume of the toxin dependent upon the weight of the animal is injected. The use of forced paradigms can be problematic when extended training is required, such as in stimulus discrimination training involving similar flavors, since the animals can be exposed to a high amount of the toxin. In the present study we confirmed the viability of an alternative voluntary-exposure paradigm that more closely mimics natural conditions and is more considerate of the welfare of the animals as a useful tool for investigating discrimination training. In three experiments, rats received free access to either a flavor (sucrose in Experiments 1a and 1b, and saccharin in Experiment 2) or a compound of the flavor mixed with LiCl. The presence of LiCl in the compound induced post-consumption illness. Rats acquired an aversion to the flavor + LiCl compound, thus reducing both their consumption of, and exposure to, LiCl, and gradually increased their consumption of the flavor alone. The present paradigm is more similar to natural conditions than the forced-exposure paradigm as it allows the animals to experience a direct relationship between the amount of the flavor consumed and the magnitude of the illness induced by the toxin. PMID:25416606

  8. Topical Application of Lithium Chloride on the Pulp Induces Dentin Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ishimoto, Kazuya; Hayano, Satoru; Yanagita, Takeshi; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Itoh, Shinsuke; Ono, Mitsuaki; Kuboki, Takuo; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We herein describe a novel procedure for dentin regeneration that mimics the biological processes of tooth development in nature. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is an important regulator of the Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) expression. Our approach mimics the biological processes underlying tooth development in nature and focuses on the activation of canonical Wnt signaling to trigger the natural process of dentinogenesis. The coronal portion of the dentin and the underlying pulp was removed from the first molars. We applied lithium chloride (LiCl), an activator of canonical Wnt signaling, on the amputated pulp surface to achieve transdifferentiation toward odontoblasts from the surrounding pulpal cells. MicroCT and microscopic analyses demonstrated that the topical application of LiCl induced dentin repair, including the formation of a complete dentin bridge. LiCl-induced dentin is a tubular dentin in which the pulp cells are not embedded within the matrix, as in primary dentin. In contrast, a dentin bridge was not induced in the control group treated with pulp capping with material carriers alone, although osteodentin without tubular formation was induced at a comparatively deeper position from the pulp exposure site. We also evaluated the influence of LiCl on differentiation toward odontoblasts in vitro. In the mDP odontoblast cell line, LiCl activated the mRNA expression of Dspp, Axin2 and Kallikrein 4 (Klk4) and downregulated the Osteopontin (Osp) expression. These results provide a scientific basis for the biomimetic regeneration of dentin using LiCl as a new capping material to activate dentine regeneration. PMID:25812134

  9. Factors Affecting the Plasticity of Sodium Chloride, Lithium Fluoride, and Magnesium Oxide Single Crystals. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, Carl A.; Pack, Ann E.; Lad, Robert A.

    1959-01-01

    A study was made of the relative magnitude of the effects of various factors on the ductility of single crystals of sodium chloride (NaCl), lithium fluoride (LiF), and magnesium oxide (MgO). Specimen treatments included water-polishing, varying cleavage rate, annealing, quenching, X-irradiation, surface coating, aging, and combinations of some of these treatments. The mechanical behavior of the crystals was studied in flexure and in compression, the latter study being performed at both constant strain rate and constant load. Etch-pit studies were carried out to provide some pertinent information on the results of pretreatment on the dislocation concentration and distribution in the vicinity of the surface. The load deformation curves for these ionic single crystals show an initial region of very low slope which proved to be due to anelastic deformation. The extent of initial anelastic deformation is modified by specimen pretreatment in a way that suggests that this deformation is the result of expansion of cleaved-in dislocation loops, which can contract on the removal of the stress. The effects of the various pretreatments on the load and deflection at fracture are in accord with the prediction one might make with regard to their effect on the nucleation of fatal surface cracks. For NaCl, increases in ductility are always accompanied by increases in strength. The creep constants for NaCl are a function of treatments which affect the bulk structure but are not a function of treatments which only affect the surface.

  10. Lithium chloride attenuates root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement in rats

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YU; GAO, SHANG; JIANG, HUAN; LIN, PENG; BAO, XINGFU; ZHANG, ZHIMIN; HU, MIN

    2014-01-01

    Root resorption is a common side effect of orthodontic treatment. In the current study, lithium chloride (LiCl), a Wnt signaling activator, was examined to determine its effect on root resorption. In total, 10 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly allocated into the experimental group (EG) and control group (CG). Each group consisted of five subjects. By using closed nickel-titanium coil springs, a 50-g force was applied between the upper incisors and the maxillary right first molars in order to mimic orthodontic biomechanics in the EG and CG for 14 days. During the 14 days, the EG rats were gavage-fed 200 mg/kg LiCl every 48 h. Next, digital radiographs were captured using a micro-computational tomography scanner. The movement of the maxillary first molars and the root resorption area ratio were measured electronically on the digital radiographs. The outcomes were analyzed using ANOVA. Following 14 days of experimental force application, all rats had spaces of varying sizes between the first and second right maxillary molars. The average distance measured in the CG was slightly higher than in the EG, however, the difference was not found to be statistically significant (P=0.224). Root resorption craters were observed in the groups following the experiment. Rough cementum areas were observed on the mesial surface of the distobuccal and distopalatal roots. The mean root resorption area ratio of CG was significantly greater than EG (P<0.05). Results of the present study indicate that LiCl can attenuate orthodontically induce root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. The effect of LiCl on tooth movement is insignificant. PMID:24396427

  11. Lrp5-independent activation of Wnt signaling by lithium chloride increases bone formation

    E-print Network

    in these mice. SAMP6 mice have accelerated osteoporosis due to inadequate osteoblast renewal. Lithium lithium should determine whether it also improves bone mass in humans. anabolic osteoporosis therapy the Osteoporosis­Pseudoglioma syndrome (OPPG), an autosomal re- cessive disorder characterized by extremely low

  12. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1 kt (1,100 st) of contained lithium, a 23-percent decrease from 2009. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium. It remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2010, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 21 kt (22,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 12-percent increase from 2009.

  13. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, estimated world lithium consumption was about 28 kt (31,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, an 8 percent increase from that of 2011. Estimated U.S. consumption was about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, the same as that of 2011. The United States was thought to rank fourth in consumption of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Rockwood Lithium Inc., produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  14. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1.2 kt (1,300 st) of contained lithium, a 40-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium, and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2009, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 18.7 kt (20,600 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds.

  15. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 25 kt (25,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 10-percent increase from 2010. U.S. consumption was estimated to have been about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, a 100-percent increase from 2010. The United States was estimated to be the fourth-ranked consumer of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  16. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, lithium consumption in the United States was at 2.5 kt of contained lithium, nearly 32% more than the estimate for 2004. World consumption was 14.1 kt of lithium contained in minerals and compounds in 2003. Exports from the US increased slightly compared with 2004. Due to strong demand for lithium compounds in 2005, both lithium carbonate plants in Chile were operating at or near capacity.

  17. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.

    1998-01-01

    The lithium industry can be divided into two sectors: ore concentrate producers and chemical producers. Ore concentrate producers mine lithium minerals. They beneficiate the ores to produce material for use in ceramics and glass manufacturing.

  18. Radiation damage and defect behavior in ion-implanted, lithium counterdoped silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Mehta, S.; Swartz, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    Boron doped silicon n+p solar cells were counterdoped with lithium by ion implanation and the resultant n+p cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons. The function of fluence and a Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) was studied to correlate defect behavior with cell performance. It was found that the lithium counterdoped cells exhibited significantly increased radiation resistance when compared to boron doped control cells. It is concluded that the annealing behavior is controlled by dissociation and recombination of defects. The DLTS studies show that counterdoping with lithium eliminates at least three deep level defects and results in three new defects. It is speculated that the increased radiation resistance of the counterdoped cells is due primarily to the interaction of lithium with oxygen, single vacancies and divacancies and that the lithium-oxygen interaction is the most effective in contributing to the increased radiation resistance.

  19. Radiation and phase change of lithium fluoride in an annulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, Kurt O.

    1993-01-01

    A one-dimensional thermal model is developed to evaluate the effect of radiation on the phase change of lithium-fluoride (LiF) in an annular canister under gravitational and microgravitational conditions. Specified heat flux at the outer wall of the canister models focused solar flux; adiabatic and convective conditions are considered for the inner wall. A two-band radiation model is used for the combined-mode heat transfer within the canister, and LiF optical properties relate metal surface properties in vacuum to those in LiF. For axial gravitational conditions, the liquid LiF remains in contact with the two bounding walls, whereas a void gap is used at the outer wall to model possible microgravitational conditions. For the adiabatic cases, exact integrals are obtained for the time required for complete melting of the LiF. Melting was found to occur primarily from the outer wall in the 1-g model, whereas it occurred primarily from the inner wall in the mu-g model. For the convective cases, partially melted steady-state conditions and fully melted conditions are determined to depend on the source flux level, with radiation extending the melting times.

  20. The 250AH/90A active lithium-thionyl chloride cell for Centaur-G application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolla, A. E.; Tura, D. D.

    1987-09-01

    A high rate active Li/SOCl2 cell was designed for use in a 28 volt, 250 amp-hour space battery system. The lithium battery is being considered as a replacement of its heavier silver-zinc counterpart on board the Centaur-G booster rocket which is used to launch payloads from the Space Shuttle cargo bay into deep-space. Basically a feasibility study, this development effort is demonstrating the ability of the lithium cell to deliver up to 90 amps safely at power densities of approximately 25 watts per pound. Test data on 4 prototype units is showing an energy density of 85 watt-hours per pound and 9.0 watt-hours/cu in. The cells tested typically delivered 280 to 300 amp-hours under ambient temperature test conditions using alternating continuous loads of 90, 55, and 20 amperes throughout life. Data from four cells tested are presented to demonstrate the capability of Li/SOCl2 technology for a C/3 discharge rate in active and hermetic cell units.

  1. The 250AH/90A active lithium-thionyl chloride cell for Centaur-G application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolla, A. E.; Tura, D. D.

    1987-01-01

    A high rate active Li/SOCl2 cell was designed for use in a 28 volt, 250 amp-hour space battery system. The lithium battery is being considered as a replacement of its heavier silver-zinc counterpart on board the Centaur-G booster rocket which is used to launch payloads from the Space Shuttle cargo bay into deep-space. Basically a feasibility study, this development effort is demonstrating the ability of the lithium cell to deliver up to 90 amps safely at power densities of approximately 25 watts per pound. Test data on 4 prototype units is showing an energy density of 85 watt-hours per pound and 9.0 watt-hours/cu in. The cells tested typically delivered 280 to 300 amp-hours under ambient temperature test conditions using alternating continuous loads of 90, 55, and 20 amperes throughout life. Data from four cells tested are presented to demonstrate the capability of Li/SOCl2 technology for a C/3 discharge rate in active and hermetic cell units.

  2. Hydrochlorothiazide attenuates lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus independently of the sodium-chloride cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Sinke, Anne P; Kortenoeven, Marleen L A; de Groot, Theun; Baumgarten, Ruben; Devuyst, Olivier; Wetzels, Jack F M; Loffing, Johannes; Deen, Peter M T

    2014-03-01

    Lithium is the most common cause of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (Li-NDI). Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combined with amiloride is the mainstay treatment in Li-NDI. The paradoxical antidiuretic action of HCTZ in Li-NDI is generally attributed to increased sodium and water uptake in proximal tubules as a compensation for increased volume loss due to HCTZ inhibition of the Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC), but alternative actions for HCTZ have been suggested. Here, we investigated whether HCTZ exerted an NCC-independent effect in Li-NDI. In polarized mouse cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells, HCTZ treatment attenuated the Li-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel abundance. In these cells, amiloride reduces cellular Li influx through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). HCTZ also reduced Li influx, but to a lower extent. HCTZ increased AQP2 abundance on top of that of amiloride and did not affect the ENaC-mediated transcellular voltage. MpkCCD cells did not express NCC mRNA or protein. These data indicated that in mpkCCD cells, HCTZ attenuated lithium-induced downregulation of AQP2 independently of NCC and ENaC. Treatment of Li-NDI NCC knockout mice with HCTZ revealed a significantly reduced urine volume, unchanged urine osmolality, and increased cortical AQP2 abundance compared with Li-treated NCC knockout mice. HCTZ treatment further resulted in reduced blood Li levels, creatinine clearance, and alkalinized urinary pH. Our in vitro and in vivo data indicate that part of the antidiuretic effect of HCTZ in Li-NDI is NCC independent and may involve a tubuloglomerular feedback response-mediated reduction in glomerular filtration rate due to proximal tubular carbonic anhydrase inhibition. PMID:24352504

  3. Lithium Chloride Promotes Apoptosis in Human Leukemia NB4 Cells by Inhibiting Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Beta

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liu; Song, Hao; Zhong, Liang; Yang, Rong; Yang, Xiao-Qun; Jiang, Kai-Ling; Liu, Bei-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). With the application of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO), APL becomes one of best prognosis of leukemia. However, ATRA and ATO are not effective against all APLs. Therefore, a new strategy for APL treatment is necessary. Here, we investigated whether lithium chloride (LiCl), a drug used for the treatment of mental illness, could promote apoptosis in human leukemia NB4 cells. We observed that treatment with LiCl significantly accelerated apoptosis in NB4 cells and led to cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. Moreover, LiCl significantly increased the level of Ser9-phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3?(p-GSK-3?), and decreased the level of Akt1 protein in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, LiCl inhibition of c-Myc also enhanced cell death with a concomitant increase in ?-catnin. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that LiCl promoted apoptosis in NB4 cells through the Akt signaling pathway and that G2/M phase arrest was induced by increase of p-GSK-3?(S9). PMID:26516309

  4. Nano-web structures constructed with a cellulose acetate/lithium chloride/polyethylene oxide hybrid: modeling, fabrication and characterization.

    PubMed

    Broumand, Atefeh; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Mirzakhanlouei, Sasan; Davoodi, Driush; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali A

    2015-01-22

    Electrospun nano-web structures (ENWSs) were successfully fabricated from ionized binary solution of cellulose(Mn30)/polyethylene oxide(Mn200) (CA/PEO of 0.5-1.5). Final concentration of polymers was 12% (w/v) in the solution, and lithium chloride was used as ionizing agent. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to the optimize fabrication of ENWSs. Results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the solution properties and ENWSs morphology were strongly influenced by CA/PEO. An increase in PEO amount increased the viscosity which is a function of molecular weight, and as a result raised the entanglement of polymeric solution but decreased the surface tension that all support nanofibers fabrication. The size of nanofibers decreased with reducing PEO and LiCl concentration. Increasing the content of LiCl promoted the electrical conductivity (EC) value; however, junction zones were formed. The overall optimum region was found to be at combined level of 1.5% CA/PEO and 0.49% (w/v) LiCl. PMID:25439959

  5. Effects of heavy particle irradiation and diet on amphetamine- and lithium chloride-induced taste avoidance learning in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Bernard M.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Szprengiel, Aleksandra; Joseph, James A.

    2002-01-01

    Rats were maintained on diets containing either 2% blueberry or strawberry extract or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to 1.5 Gy of 56Fe particles in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Three days following irradiation, the rats were tested for the effects of irradiation on the acquisition of an amphetamine- or lithium chloride-induced (LiCl) conditioned taste avoidance (CTA). The rats maintained on the control diet failed to show the acquisition of a CTA following injection of amphetamine. In contrast, the rats maintained on antioxidant diets (strawberry or blueberry extract) continued to show the development of an amphetamine-induced CTA following exposure to 56Fe particles. Neither irradiation nor diet had an effect on the acquisition of a LiCl-induced CTA. The results are interpreted as indicating that oxidative stress following exposure to 56Fe particles may be responsible for the disruption of the dopamine-mediated amphetamine-induced CTA in rats fed control diets; and that a reduction in oxidative stress produced by the antioxidant diets functions to reinstate the dopamine-mediated CTA. The failure of either irradiation or diet to influence LiCl-induced responding suggests that oxidative stress may not be involved in CTA learning following injection of LiCl.

  6. A potentiodynamic study of aluminum-lithium alloys in an aqueous sodium chloride environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, C.-H. T.; Pizzo, P. P.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of the potentiodynamic curves for Al-Li alloys in 3.5 percent NaCl aqueous solution are explained and the electrochemical parameters of the potentiodynamic technique are correlated to observed pitting and intergranular cracking behavior. It is shown that the oxygen content of the sodium chloride electrolyte plays an important role in the electrochemical behavior of Al-Li alloys. The potentiodynamic behavior of the alloys is found to be insensitive to variation in compositional content and heat treatment, both of which affect the stress-corrosion behavior. Stringer oxide particle attack and random pitting are observed. It is shown that alternate-immersion exposure prior to potentiodynamic polarization may offer a means of assessing susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking.

  7. Impurity evaluation of fused lithium chloride salt for a pilot-scale oxide reduction.

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, C. S.; Herrmann, S. D.; King, R. W.; Engineering Division

    1999-12-01

    The inorganic and physical chemistry of reactants (e.g., impurities) produced during the reduction of spent light water reactor fuel in a hot cell has been analyzed. Two source terms were identified that influence the composition and quantity of these impurities in the salt matrix. One source comes from the reduction process, which occurs between the fuel and the Li/LiCl salt matrix, and the other from chemical reactions that occur between the hot cell atmosphere and the salt matrix. The spent-fuel-oxide chemistry and energy of formation for the reactants were evaluated. Most of the rare-earth-oxide reactions were not thermodynamically feasible with molten lithium, except when nitrogen was present during the reduction process. A model of the reaction at a vapor-liquid interface was developed and applied to the pilot-scale oxide reduction device design. A predominance diagram for the Li-O-N reactions was constructed to determine the possible reactions during operation of the device, and from these results, the mass accumulation was determined from hot cell conditions.

  8. Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler

    E-print Network

    Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal in magnesium oxide-doped lithium niobate MgO:LN . The efficiency of the output coupling process of THz a wide wavelength range with different properties. Lithium niobate is particularly well suited

  9. Neural Network Modeling of the Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery System

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, D.; Jungst, R.G.; O'Gorman, C.C.; Paez, T.L.

    1998-10-29

    Battery systems have traditionally relied on extensive build and test procedures for product realization. Analytical models have been developed to diminish this reliance, but have only been partially successful in consistently predicting the performance of battery systems. The complex set of interacting physical and chemical processes within battery systems has made the development of analytical models a significant challenge. Advanced simulation tools are needed to more accurately model battery systems which will reduce the time and cost required for product realization. Sandia has initiated an advanced model-based design strategy to battery systems, beginning with the performance of lithiumhhionyl chloride cells. As an alternative approach, we have begun development of cell performance modeling using non-phenomenological models for battery systems based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). ANNs are inductive models for simulating input/output mappings with certain advantages over phenomenological models, particularly for complex systems. Among these advantages is the ability to avoid making measurements of hard to determine physical parameters or having to understand cell processes sufficiently to write mathematical functions describing their behavior. For example, ANN models are also being studied for simulating complex physical processes within the Li/SOC12 cell, such as the time and temperature dependence of the anode interracial resistance. ANNs have been shown to provide a very robust and computationally efficient simulation tool for predicting voltage and capacity output for Li/SOC12 cells under a variety of operating conditions. The ANN modeling approach should be applicable to a wide variety of battery chemistries, including rechargeable systems.

  10. The neuroprotective action of the mood stabilizing drugs lithium chloride and sodium valproate is mediated through the up-regulation of the homeodomain protein Six1

    SciTech Connect

    Plant, Kathryn E.; Anderson, Elizabeth; Simecek, Nicole; Brown, Richard; Forster, Sam; Spinks, Jenny; Toms, Nick; Gibson, G. Gordon; Lyon, Jon; Plant, Nick

    2009-02-15

    The mood stabilizing agents lithium chloride (LiCl) and sodium valproate (VPA) have recently gained interest as potential neuroprotective therapeutics. However, exploitation of these therapeutic applications is hindered by both a lack of molecular understanding of the mode of action, and a number of sub-optimal properties, including a relatively small therapeutic window and variable patient response. Human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were exposed to 1 mM lithium chloride or 1 mM sodium valproate for 6 h or 72 h, and transcriptomes measured by Affymetrix U133A/B microarray. Statistically significant gene expression changes were identified using SAM software, with selected changes confirmed at transcript (TaqMan) and protein (Western blotting) levels. Finally, anti-apoptotic action was measured by an in vitro fluorescent assay. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to therapeutically relevant concentrations of either lithium chloride or sodium valproate elicited 936 statistically significant changes in gene expression. Amongst these changes we observed a large (maximal 31.3-fold) increase in the expression of the homeodomain protein Six1, and have characterized the time- and dose-dependent up-regulation of this gene in response to both drugs. In addition, we demonstrate that, like LiCl or VPA treatment, Six1 over-expression protects SH-SY5Y cells from staurosporine-induced apoptosis via the blockade of caspsase-3 activation, whereas removal of Six1 protein via siRNA antagonises the ability of LiCl and VPA to protect SH-SY5Y cells from STS-induced apoptosis. These results provide a novel mechanistic rationale underlying the neuroprotective mechanism of LiCl and VPA, suggesting exciting possibilities for the development of novel therapeutic agents against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinsonism.

  11. Manganese chloride treatment does not protect against acute radiation injury of skin or crypt cells

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, R.; Nishimura, Y.; Hiraoka, M.

    1995-09-01

    Metallothieonein (MT), the synthesis of which can be induced by metalloelement administration, is a known radical scavenger. This study investigated the possible protective effect of MT against acute radiation injury. Manganese chloride (10 mg of manganese/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to male C3H/He mice 24 h prior to irradiation. The paw of each mouse was irradiated locally, and the acute skin reaction was scored daily and averaged. Acute radiation injury of the small intestine was studied using an LD{sub 50/8} assay and a gut microcolony assay after abdominal irradiation. An LD{sub 50/8} value represents the radiation dose required to kill 50% of animals within 8 days. The number of microcolonies per tissue section was counted 3.5 days after irradiation. The level of MT in the liver, skin and intestine was determined by a modified {sup 203}Hg-binding assay. Acute skin reaction was not prevented by manganese pre-administration. The LD{sub 50/8} values of manganese-pretreated and control mice were 19.4 and 18.4 Gy, respectively. However, the difference was not significant. The number of microcolonies was not significantly different for these two groups in the dose range of 13-19 Gy. The level of MT in the skin and intestine was not increased by administration of manganese, although a sixfold increase was observed in the liver. In conclusion, manganese chloride treatment of mice 24 h prior to irradiation did not significantly protect skin and small intestine against acute radiation injury, because such a treatment did not result in increased levels of MT in the skin and small intestine. 20 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Inactivation of Kupffer Cells by Gadolinium Chloride Protects Murine Liver From Radiation-Induced Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Du Shisuo; Qiang Min; Zeng Zhaochong; Ke Aiwu; Ji Yuan; Zhang Zhengyu; Zeng Haiying; Liu Zhongshan

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To determine whether the inhibition of Kupffer cells before radiotherapy (RT) would protect hepatocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis. Materials and Methods: A single 30-Gy fraction was administered to the upper abdomen of Sprague-Dawley rats. The Kupffer cell inhibitor gadolinium chloride (GdCl3; 10 mg/kg body weight) was intravenously injected 24 h before RT. The rats were divided into four groups: group 1, sham RT plus saline (control group); group 2, sham RT plus GdCl3; group 3, RT plus saline; and group 4, RT plus GdCl3. Liver tissue was collected for measurement of apoptotic cytokine expression and evaluation of radiation-induced liver toxicity by analysis of liver enzyme activities, hepatocyte micronucleus formation, apoptosis, and histologic staining. Results: The expression of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was significantly attenuated in group 4 compared with group 3 at 2, 6, 24, and 48 h after injection (p <0.05). At early points after RT, the rats in group 4 exhibited significantly lower levels of liver enzyme activity, apoptotic response, and hepatocyte micronucleus formation compared with those in group 3. Conclusion: Selective inactivation of Kupffer cells with GdCl3 reduced radiation-induced cytokine production and protected the liver against acute radiation-induced damage.

  13. Lithium chloride therapy fails to improve motor function in a transgenic mouse model of Machado-Joseph disease.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Silva, Sara; Neves-Carvalho, Andreia; Soares-Cunha, Carina; Teixeira-Castro, Andreia; Oliveira, Pedro; Silva-Fernandes, Anabela; Maciel, Patrícia

    2014-12-01

    The accumulation of misfolded proteins in neurons, leading to the formation of cytoplasmic and nuclear aggregates, is a common theme in age-related neurodegenerative diseases, possibly due to disturbances of the proteostasis and insufficient activity of cellular protein clearance pathways. Lithium is a well-known autophagy inducer that exerts neuroprotective effects in different conditions and has been proposed as a promising therapeutic agent for several neurodegenerative diseases. We tested the efficacy of chronic lithium (10.4 mg/kg) treatment in a transgenic mouse model of Machado-Joseph disease, an inherited neurodegenerative disease, caused by an expansion of a polyglutamine tract within the protein ataxin-3. A battery of behavioral tests was used to assess disease progression. In spite of activating autophagy, as suggested by the increased levels of Beclin-1, Atg7, and LC3-II, and a reduction in the p62 protein levels, lithium administration showed no overall beneficial effects in this model concerning motor performance, showing a positive impact only in the reduction of tremors at 24 weeks of age. Our results do not support lithium chronic treatment as a promising strategy for the treatment of Machado-Joseph disease (MJD). PMID:25112410

  14. Comparisons of fixation of heat, radiation, and heat plus radiation damage by anisotonic sodium chloride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Raaphorst, G.P.; Azzam, E.I.

    1982-06-01

    Heat treatment at temperatures greater than 40 degrees C synergistically enhanced damage produced by ionizing radiation. Researchers experiments indicated that radiation damage in exponentially growing Chinese hamster cells could be fixed in a dose-dependent manner by postirradiation treatment with both hypertonic and hypotonic NaCl solutions. At a 1,000-rad dose level, survival could be depressed by a factor of about 260. For various treatments at either 42 or 45 degrees C, exposure after heating to anisotonic solutions did not result in the fixation of heat damage. When cells were heated at 45 degrees C for 5 minutes and irradiated with 500 rad before or after heating or given 500 rad without heating and then exposed to 0.05 M NaCl solutions for 120 minutes, survival was reduced by factors of 875, 667, and 12, respectively. For heat treatments at lower temperatures, such as 41.5 or 42 degrees C, less damage fixation for the combined treatments was observed. The data indicated that heat and radiation damage were different and damage from the combined treatments was not the same for low- and high-treatment temperatures.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF LITHIUM USING THE IEHR EVALUATIVE PROCESS FOR ASSESSING HUMAN DEVELOPMENTAL AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents an evaluation of the reproductive and developmental effects of lithium and reviews toxicologic information on several specific lithium salts: ithium carbonate, lithium chloride, lithium citrate, and lithium hypochlorite. ithium (Li), an alkali metal, is a n...

  16. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Coops, M.S.

    1992-06-02

    This patent describes a method for production of plutonium metal from plutonium oxide by metallic lithium reduction, with regeneration of lithium reactant. It comprises: reacting the plutonium oxide with metallic lithium; oxides and unreacted lithium; subliming the product lithium oxide and unreacted lithium from unreacted plutonium oxide with high heat and low pressure; recapturing the product lithium oxides; reacting the recaptured product lithium oxides with anhydrous hydrochloric acid to produce lithium chloride salt; and decomposing product lithium chloride salt by electrolysis to regenerate lithium metal.

  17. Modification of nylon-6 fibres by radiation-induced graft polymerisation of vinylbenzyl chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, T. M.; Nasef, Mohamed Mahmoud; Hashim, Kamaruddin

    2015-04-01

    Modification of nylon-6 fibres by radiation-induced graft copolymerisation (RIGP) of vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) using the preirradiation method was investigated. A number of grafting parameters such as type of solvent, total dose, monomer concentrations, reaction temperature and reaction time were studied to obtain desired degree of grafting (DG). The DG was found to be a function of reaction parameters and achieved a maximum value of 130 wt% at 20 vol% VBC concentration in methanol, 300 kGy dose, 30 °C temperature and 3 h reaction time. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to evaluate the chemical, morphological and structural changes that occurred in the grafted fibres, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was also applied to determine the thermal stability, whereas differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and universal mechanical tester were used to analyse respective thermal and mechanical properties of the grafted fibres. The results of these analyses provide strong evidence for successful grafting of VBC onto nylon-6, and the variation in the properties of the grafted fibres depends on DG.

  18. Radiation damage and defect behavior in proton irradiated lithium-counterdoped n+p silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stupica, John; Goradia, Chandra; Swartz, Clifford K.; Weinberg, Irving

    1987-01-01

    Two lithium-counterdoped n+p silicon solar cells with different lithium concentrations were irradiated by 10-MeV protons. Cell performance was measured as a function of fluence, and it was found that the cell with the highest concentration of lithium had the highest radiation resistance. Deep level transient spectroscopy which showed two deep level defects that were lithium related. Relating the defect energy levels obtained from this study with those from earlier work using 1-MeV electron irradiation shows no correlation of the defect energy levels. There is one marked similarity: the absence of the boron-interstitial-oxygen-interstitial defect. This consistency strengthens the belief that lithium interacts with oxygen to prevent the formation of the boron interstitial-oxygen interstitial defect. The results indicate that, in general, addition of lithium in small amounts to the p-base of a boron doped silicon solar cell such that the base remains p-type, tends to increase the radiation resistance of the cell.

  19. Impurity evaluation of fused lithium chloride salt for a pilot-scale spent-oxide-fuel reduction process

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, C.S.

    1999-12-01

    The inorganic and physical chemistry of reactants (e.g., impurities) produced during the reduction of spent light water reactor fuel in a hot cell has been analyzed. Two source terms were identified that influence the composition and quantity of these impurities in the salt matrix. One source comes from the reduction process, which occurs between the fuel and the Li/LiCl salt matrix, and the other from chemical reactions that occur between the hot cell atmosphere and the salt matrix. The spent-fuel-oxide chemistry and energy of formation for the reactants were not thermodynamically feasible with molten lithium, except when nitrogen was present during the reduction process. A model of the reaction at a vapor-liquid interface was developed and applied to the pilot-scale oxide reduction device design. A predominance diagram for the Li-O-N reactions was constructed to determine the possible reactions during operation of the device, and from these results, the mass accumulation was determined from hot cell conditions.

  20. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor NR2B subunit involved in depression-like behaviours in lithium chloride-pilocarpine chronic rat epilepsy model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei-Feng; Ding, Jing; Li, Xin; Fan, Fan; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common comorbidity in patients with epilepsy with unclear mechanisms. This study is to explore the role of glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunits in epilepsy-associated depression. Lithium chloride (Licl)-pilocarpine chronic rat epilepsy model was established and rats were divided into epilepsy with depression (EWD) and epilepsy without depression (EWND) subgroups based on forced swim test. Expression of NMDA receptor NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunits was measured by western blot and immunofluorescence methods. The immobility time (IMT) was significantly greater in Licl-pilocarpine model group than in Control group, which was also greater in EWD group than in EWND group. No differences of spontaneous recurrent seizure (SRS) counts over two weeks and latency were found between EWD and EWND groups. The number of NeuN positive cells was significantly less in Licl-pilocarpine model group than in Control group, but had no difference between EWD and EWND groups. The ratios of phosphorylated NR1 (p-NR1)/NR1 and p-NR2B/NR2B were significantly greater in the hippocampus in EWD group than in EWND group. Moreover, the expression of p-NR1 and p-NR2B in the CA1 subfield of hippocampus were both greater in Licl-pilocarpine model group than Control group. Selective blockage of NR2B subunit with ifenprodil could alleviate depression-like behaviours of Licl-pilocarpine rat epilepsy model. In conclusion, glutamate NMDA receptor NR2B subunit was involved in promoting depression-like behaviours in the Licl-pilocarpine chronic rat epilepsy model and might be a target for treating epilepsy-associated depression. PMID:26688426

  1. Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride towards Technetium-99 Extraction - 13016

    SciTech Connect

    Paviet-Hartmann, Patricia; Horkley, Jared; Campbell, Keri; Roman, Audrey; Nunez, Ana; Espartero, Amparo

    2013-07-01

    A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning processes, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, the UREX process has been developed in the United States to co-extract hexavalent uranium (U) and hepta-valent technetium (Tc) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Tc-99 is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radio-toxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t{sub 1/2} = 2.13 x 10{sup 5} years), and as such, is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste-form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flowsheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for ultimate disposal. In addition, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste-forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macro-compounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, quaternary ammonium salts, and resorcin-arenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} by benzyl tributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand's matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e. diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using an external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed. (authors)

  2. Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride Towards Technetium-99 Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Jared Horkley; Audrey Roman; Keri Campbell; Ana Nunez; Amparo Espartero

    2013-02-01

    A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning process, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, low nitric acid concentration in the aqueous phase of a UREX based process will co-extract U(VI) and Tc(VII) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Technetium (Tc-99) is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radiotoxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t1/2 = 2.13 × 105 years), and as such, it is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flow sheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for ultimate disposal. Furthermore, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macrocompounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, and resorcinarenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO4- by benzyltributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand’s matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e., diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed.

  3. Depopulation of metastable helium He(21S) by radiative association with hydrogen and lithium cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustovi?ová, Lucie; Kraemer, Wolfgang P.; Soldán, Pavel

    2014-11-01

    Depopulation of metastable He(21S) by radiative association with hydrogen and lithium ions resulting in the formation of the HeH+ and HeLi+ molecular ions is investigated. Energy dependent cross-sections for spontaneous and stimulated processes on the spin-singlet manifold are calculated using a fully quantal approach and considering the association to rotational-vibrational states of the lowest singlet electronic states X?+1, A?+1, and B?+1 from the continuum states of the B?+1 electronic state. Evaluation of the cross-sections is based on highly accurate quantum calculations taking into account all possible state-to-state transitions at thermal energies (for spontaneous association) or at higher background temperatures (stimulated association). The corresponding rate coefficients are then presented as functions of temperature. As expected calculations show that the rate coefficients for radiative association to the X and A states are several orders of magnitude larger than the one for the B state formation. On the other hand, stimulation of the radiative association by black-body background radiation has a noticeable effect only on the B?B process.

  4. Radiation damage to human erythrocytes. Relative contribution of hydroxyl and chloride radicals in N 2O-saturated buffers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krokosz, Anita; Komorowska, Magdalena A.; Szweda-Lewandowska, Zofia

    2008-06-01

    The erythrocyte suspensions in Na-phosphate buffered isotonic NaCl solution (PBS) or Na-phosphate isotonic buffer (PB) (hematocrit 1%) were irradiated with the dose of 400 Gy under N 2O. Erythrocytes were incubated in the medium in which the cells were irradiated or in fresh PBS. The level of damage to cells was estimated on the basis of the course of post-radiation hemolysis and hemoglobin (Hb) oxidation. The medium in which the cells were irradiated and incubated influenced the course of the post-radiation hemolysis and Hb oxidation as well as some other parameters. We discussed the contribution of hydroxyl and chloride radicals in the initiation of erythrocyte damage and oxygen modification of these processes.

  5. PROCEEDINGS O F THE IEEE, VOL.56, NO. 1, JANUARY196837 [`I J. J. Wysocki,"Lithium-doped radiation-resistant silicon solar

    E-print Network

    Teich, Malvin C.

    ,"Lithium-doped radiation-resistant silicon solar cells," IEEE Trans. Nuclear Science. vol.NS-13, pp. 168-173, December 1966. X-713-6548, November1965. 161 ~ , "Thermalannealing of radiation damagein solar cells," ['I R. L. Tech. J.,vol. 41, pp.1573-1588,September 1962. ["I R. L. Statler, "Radiation damage insilicon solar

  6. Ab initio study of radiation effects on the Li4Ti5O12 electrode used in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samin, Adib; Kurth, Michael; Cao, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are currently in wide use owing to their high energy density and enhanced capabilities. Li4Ti5O12 is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries because of its advantageous properties. Lithium-ion batteries could be exposed to radiation occurring in various conditions such as during outer space exploration and nuclear accidents. In this study, we apply density functional theory to explore the effect of radiation damage on this electrode and, ultimately, on the performance of the battery. It was found that radiation could affect the structural stability of the material. Furthermore, the electrode was shown to undergo a transition from insulator to metal, following the defects due to radiation. In addition, the effect of radiation on the intercalation potential was found to be highly dependent on the nature of the defect induced.

  7. Vinyl Chloride

    Cancer.gov

    Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas that burns easily. It does not occur naturally and must be produced industrially for its commercial uses. Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC); PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials. Vinyl chloride is also produced as a combustion product in tobacco smoke.

  8. Study of the response of a lithium yttrium borate scintillator based neutron rem counter by Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunil, C.; Tyagi, Mohit; Biju, K.; Shanbhag, A. A.; Bandyopadhyay, T.

    2015-12-01

    The scarcity and the high cost of 3He has spurred the use of various detectors for neutron monitoring. A new lithium yttrium borate scintillator developed in BARC has been studied for its use in a neutron rem counter. The scintillator is made of natural lithium and boron, and the yield of reaction products that will generate a signal in a real time detector has been studied by FLUKA Monte Carlo radiation transport code. A 2 cm lead introduced to enhance the gamma rejection shows no appreciable change in the shape of the fluence response or in the yield of reaction products. The fluence response when normalized at the average energy of an Am-Be neutron source shows promise of being used as rem counter.

  9. Ultraviolet-B radiation enhancement in dielectric barrier discharge based xenon chloride exciplex source by air

    SciTech Connect

    Gulati, P.; Prakash, R.; Pal, U. N.; Kumar, M.; Vyas, V.

    2014-07-07

    A single barrier dielectric barrier discharge tube of quartz with multi-strip Titanium-Gold (Ti-Au) coatings have been developed and utilized for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation production peaking at wavelength 308?nm. The observed radiation at this wavelength has been examined for the mixtures of the Xenon together with chlorine and air admixtures. The gas mixture composition, chlorine gas content, total gas pressure, and air pressure dependency of the UV intensity, has been analyzed. It is found that the larger concentration of Cl{sub 2} deteriorates the performance of the developed source and around 2% Cl{sub 2} in this source produced optimum results. Furthermore, an addition of air in the xenon and chlorine working gas environment leads to achieve same intensity of UV-B light but at lower working gas pressure where significant amount of gas is air.

  10. Engineering experimental program on the effects of near-space radiation on lithium doped solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The results of an experimental evaluation of the real-time degradation characteristics of lithium-diffused silicon solar cells are reported. A strontium-90 radioisotope was used for simulation of a typical earth-orbital electron environment. The experiment was performed in an ion pump vacuum chamber with samples maintained at -50, +20, +50, and +80 C. Samples were illuminated during the 6-month exposure run with solar cell 1-5 characteristics measured periodically in situ. This 6-month exposure corresponded to a 1 MeV equivalent fluence of approximately 10 to the 14th power electrons/sq cm. Several types of lithium cells were irradiatied and compared directly with conventional N/P cells. The best lithium cells compared favorably with N/P cells, particularly at the higher test temperatures. With a slight improvement of initial performance characteristics, lithium cells appear feasible for 5 to 10 year missions at synchronous altitude. Based on the reported results and those of other irradiation experiments, lithium cells would appear to be superior to N/P cells in proton-dominated earth-orbital environments. Another important conclusion of the effort was that illuminated/loaded cells degrade more rapidly than do dark/unloaded cells. The irradiation experiment provided data of high quality with a high degree of confidence because of the experimental and statistical analysis techniques utilized.

  11. Lithium chloride attenuates the abnormal osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells obtained from rats with steroid-related osteonecrosis by activating the ?-catenin pathway

    PubMed Central

    YU, ZEFENG; FAN, LIHONG; LI, JIA; GE, ZHAOGANG; DANG, XIAOQIAN; WANG, KUNZHENG

    2015-01-01

    Steroid-related osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) may be a disease that results from the abnormal osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). In the present study, we examined the possible use of lithium in an aim to reverse the abnormal osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of BMMSCs isolated from rats with steroid-related ONFH (termed ONFH-BMMSCs). BMMSCs obtained from steroid-related ONFH rat femurs were cultured with or without lithium chloride (LiCl). BMMSCs obtained from normal rat femurs were cultured as controls. LiCl significantly increased the expression of osteocalcin and Runx2 in the ONFH-BMMSCs during osteogenic induction. The mineralization of ONFH-BMMSCs following osteogenic induction was also enhanced. Furthermore, LiCl exerted anti-adipogenic effects on the ONFH-BMMSCs by inhibiting the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (Fabp4) during adipogenic induction, and decreasing lipid droplet formation at the end of adipogenic induction. These effects of LiCl on the ONFH-BMMSCs were associated with an increased expression of ?-catenin and a decreased expression of phosphorylated GSK-3? at Tyr-216, and these effects were abolished by treatment with quercetin, an antagonist of the ?-catenin pathway. The normal osteogenic/adipogenic activity of BMMSCs may be impaired in steroid-related ONFH. However, as demonstrated by our findings, LiCl reduces abnormal adipogenic activity and simultaneously increases the osteogenic differentiation of ONFH-BMMSCs by activating the ?-catenin pathway. PMID:26352537

  12. Lithium chloride attenuates the abnormal osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells obtained from rats with steroid-related osteonecrosis by activating the ?-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zefeng; Fan, Lihong; Li, Jia; Ge, Zhaogang; Dang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Kunzheng

    2015-11-01

    Steroid-related osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) may be a disease that results from the abnormal osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). In the present study, we examined the possible use of lithium in an aim to reverse the abnormal osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of BMMSCs isolated from rats with steroid-related ONFH (termed ONFH-BMMSCs). BMMSCs obtained from steroid?related ONFH rat femurs were cultured with or without lithium chloride (LiCl). BMMSCs obtained from normal rat femurs were cultured as controls. LiCl significantly increased the expression of osteocalcin and Runx2 in the ONFH-BMMSCs during osteogenic induction. The mineralization of ONFH-BMMSCs following osteogenic induction was also enhanced. Furthermore, LiCl exerted anti-adipogenic effects on the ONFH-BMMSCs by inhibiting the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (Fabp4) during adipogenic induction, and decreasing lipid droplet formation at the end of adipogenic induction. These effects of LiCl on the ONFH-BMMSCs were associated with an increased expression of ?-catenin and a decreased expression of phosphorylated GSK-3? at Tyr-216, and these effects were abolished by treatment with quercetin, an antagonist of the ?-catenin pathway. The normal osteogenic/adipogenic activity of BMMSCs may be impaired in steroid-related ONFH. However, as demonstrated by our findings, LiCl reduces abnormal adipogenic activity and simultaneously increases the osteogenic differentiation of ONFH-BMMSCs by activating the ?-catenin pathway. PMID:26352537

  13. Mechanism of Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiation of 1,4-Bis(trifluoromethyl)benzene under Nonequilibrium Conditions: Condition-Dependent Rate Limitation and Lithium Chloride-Catalyzed Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun; Hoepker, Alexander C; Algera, Russell F; Ma, Yun; Collum, David B

    2015-05-20

    Lithiation of 1,4-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzene with lithium diisopropylamide in tetrahydrofuran at -78 °C occurs under conditions at which the rates of aggregate exchanges are comparable to the rates of metalation. Under such nonequilibrium conditions, a substantial number of barriers compete to be rate limiting, making the reaction sensitive to trace impurities (LiCl), reactant concentrations, and isotopic substitution. Rate studies using the perdeuterated arene reveal odd effects of LiCl, including catalyzed rate acceleration at lower temperature and catalyzed rate inhibition at higher temperatures. The catalytic effects are accompanied by corresponding changes in the rate law. A kinetic model is presented that captures the critical features of the LiCl catalysis, focusing on the influence of LiCl-catalyzed re-aggregation of the fleeting monomer that can reside above, at, or below the equilibrium population without catalyst. PMID:25900574

  14. Radiation Damage Calculations for the FUBR and BEATRIX Irradiations of Lithium Compounds in EBR-II and FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    LR Greenwood

    1999-06-17

    The Fusion Breeder Reactor (FUBR) and Breeder Exchange Matrix (BEATRIX) experiments were cooperative efforts by members of the International Energy Agency to investigate the irradiation behavior of solid breeder materials for tritium production to support future fusion reactors. Lithium ceramic materials including Li{sub 2}O, LiAlO{sub 2}, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} with varying {sup 6}Li enrichments from 0 to 95% were irradiated in a series of experiments in the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR II) and in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) over a period of about 10 years from 1982 to 1992. These experiments were characterized in terms of the nominal fast neutron fluences and measured {sup 6}Li burnup factors, as determined by either mass spectrometry or helium measurements. Radiation damage in these compounds is caused by both the {sup 6}Li-burnup reaction and by all other possible neutron reactions with the atoms in the compound materials. In this report, displacements per atom (dpa) values have been calculated for each type of material in each of the various irradiations that were conducted. Values up to 11% {sup 6}Li-burnup and 130 dpa are predicted for the longest irradiations. The dpa cross sections were calculated for each compound using the SPECOMP computer code. Details of the dpa calculations are presented in the report. Total dpa factors were determined with the SPECTER computer code by averaging the dpa cross sections over the measured or calculated neutron flux spectra for each series of irradiations. Using these new calculations, previously measured radiation damage effects in these lithium compounds can be compared or correlated with other irradiation data on the basis of the dpa factor as well as {sup 6}Li-burnup.

  15. Research and development of lithium batteries in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Dao-zhi

    Basic research work on lithium cells in China was initiated in 1965, and a variety of primary cells has been developed and introduced to the market. Lithium-iodine (1978), lithium-thionyl chloride (1977), lithium-sulfur dioxide (1979) and lithium-manganese dioxide (1980) cells, and lithium thermal batteries (1982) have been successfully manufactured and have found wide application. In this paper, the development and the state-of-the-art of various lithium battery systems in China are presented and the present applications and future markets are discussed.

  16. Radiation synthesis and characteristic of IPN hydrogels composed of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and Kappa-Carrageenan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Ren; Yanqun, Zhang; Jiuqiang, Li; Hongfei, Ha

    2001-09-01

    A new system of IPN hydrogels composed of diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC) and natural macromolecule, Kappa-Carrageenan (KC) were prepared by ?-irradiation. Their gel fraction and swelling behavior were studied. Elemental analysis and gel strength measurement results showed that there was an amount of KC that remained in the gels and the gel strength was enhanced obviously.

  17. Refractive index changes in lithium niobate crystals by high-energy particle radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Peithmann, Konrad; Zamani-Meymian, Mohammad-Reza; Haaks, Matz; Maier, Karl; Andreas, Birk; Breunig, Ingo

    2006-10-15

    Irradiation of lithium niobate crystals with 41 MeV {sup 3}He ions causes strong changes of the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indexes. We present a detailed study of this effect. Small fluence of irradiation already yields refractive index changes about 5x10{sup -4}; the highest values reach 3x10{sup -3}. These index modulations are stable up to 100 degree sign C and can be erased thermally, for which temperatures up to 500 degree sign C are required. A direct correlation between the refractive index changes and the produced lattice vacancies is found.

  18. Radiation-induced defects in manganese-doped lithium tetraborate phosphor.

    PubMed

    Annalakshmi, O; Jose, M T; Madhusoodanan, U; Sridevi, J; Venkatraman, B; Amarendra, G; Mandal, A B

    2015-01-01

    Lithium tetraborate doped with manganese synthesised by solid-state sintering technique exhibits a dosimetric peak at 280°C. The high-temperature glow curve results in no fading for three months. The sensitivity of Li2B4O7:Mn is determined to be 0.9 times that of TLD-100. The infrared spectrum of this phosphor indicates the presence of bond vibrations corresponding to BO4 tetrahedral and BO3 triangles. The mechanism for thermoluminescence in this phosphor was proposed based on the thermoluminescence (TL) emission spectra, kinetic analysis of TL glow curves and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements on non-irradiated and gamma-irradiated phosphors. It was identified that oxygen vacancies and Boron oxygen hole centre (BOHC) are the electron and hole trap centres for TL in this phosphor. When the phosphor is heated, the electrons are released from the electron trap and recombine with the trapped holes. The excitation energy during the recombination is transferred to the nearby Mn(2+) ions, which emit light at 580 nm. PMID:24743763

  19. Hydrogen chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrogen chloride ; CASRN 7647 - 01 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  20. Ethyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 00 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  1. Mepiquat chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mepiquat chloride ; CASRN 24307 - 26 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  2. Allyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl chloride ; CASRN 107 - 05 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  3. Acetyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 36 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  4. Benzyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzyl chloride ; CASRN 100 - 44 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  5. Vinyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635R - 00 / 004 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF VINYL CHLORIDE ( CAS No . 75 - 01 - 4 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) May 2000 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S

  6. Methyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R01 / 003 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL CHLORIDE ( CAS No . 74 - 87 - 3 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2001 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.

  7. Solid state tetrachloroaluminate storage battery having a transition metal chloride cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughn, R. L.

    1983-12-01

    In accordance with this invention, it has been found that highly efficient, lightweight, thermally activated power sources can be fabricated by utilizing a transition metal chloride such as cupric chloride, ferric chloride, or molybdenum chloride as the cathode; and a lithium metal or lithium-aluminum or lithium-silicon alloy as the anode in combination with an alkali metal tetrachloroaluminate solid electrolyte. The power source may comprise a single cell or a stack of individual cells. A typical cell is a three layered pellet composed of a lithium alloy anode, a separating alkali metal tetrachloroaluminate solid electrolyte sandwiched between the anode and a cathode which, in turn, is composed of a mixture of the transition metal chloride and graphite. The cell is totally inert until raised to its operating temperature by any conventional heating means.

  8. Cadmium distribution and selected tissue histology in rats following administration of cadmium chloride and/or gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kundomal Y.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were injected IP with CdCl/sub 2/ or distilled water, and/or given a total-body irradiation. Three lethality studies, acute Cd, chronic Cd, and acute radiation, were performed to determine the sublethal doses for the co-insult study. Lethal doses (LD/sub 50/) were obtained by probit analysis. Cd concentrations were determined by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The analysis of variance was used to test the data. LD/sub 50(30)/ values obtained for respective male and female rats were: 5.99 and 7.13 mg/kg of body wt for acute Cd; 4.25 and 5.99 mg/kg of body wt for chronic Cd; and 733 and 729 R for acute radiation. On days 1, 7 and 21 post-irradiation, rats given Cd singly or in combination with radiation showed a high accumulation and retention of metal in the liver and kidney. Then followed in order of decreasing Cd concentrations were: spleen, intestine, stomach, heart, testis, lung, blood cells, brain, and muscle. High Cd concentrations in the liver and kidney persisted over a 21-day observation period; the concentrations in the other tissues decreased, some to control values. Radiation was not an antagonist on Cd concentrations or retentions in these tissues except the heart, in which radiation contributed to the clearance of Cd. Radiation did not act as a synergistic agent on Cd concentrations or retentions in any of the tissues analyzed. Radiation singly had no morphological or physiological effects on the parameters of this study. Based on the high Cd concentrations in these tissues, histological examinations of the liver and kidney sections were made. In the high co-insult groups slight abnormalities, such as pyknotic nuclei in the liver and cellular disorganization and larger lumens in the kidney were observed.

  9. Gamma radiation-induced changes on the structural and optical properties of aluminum phthalocyanine chloride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nahass, M. M.; Khalifa, B. A.; Soliman, I. M.

    2015-08-01

    Thin films of aluminum phthalocyanine chloride (AlPcCl) were prepared by thermal evaporation technique under high vacuum at room temperature. The prepared films were divided into two groups for study; the first was the as - deposited films, the second group was irradiated in gamma cell type 60Co source in air at room temperature with different absorbed doses (20-60 kGy). The surface morphology of ?-irradiated film was observed with a higher aggregation compared with as-deposited film with an average particles size of (10-28 nm). The optical parameters were obtained using spectrophotometric measurements of the transmittance and reflectance at normal incidence of light in wavelengths range of 200-2500 nm. The type of optical transition was found to be an indirect allowed transition, the band gaps decrease with increasing ?-irradiation doses. The calculated dispersion parameters of AlPcCl films decreased with increasing the ?-irradiation dose. The disagreement between the obtained values of ?? and ?L may be attributed to the lattice vibration and free carrier contribution.

  10. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries Using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Doeff, Marca M.; Chen, Guoying; Cabana, Jordi; Richardson, Thomas J.; Mehta, Apurva; Shirpour, Mona; Duncan, Hugues; Kim, Chunjoong; Kam, Kinson C.; Conry, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Intercalation compounds such as transition metal oxides or phosphates are the most commonly used electrode materials in Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. During insertion or removal of alkali metal ions, the redox states of transition metals in the compounds change and structural transformations such as phase transitions and/or lattice parameter increases or decreases occur. These behaviors in turn determine important characteristics of the batteries such as the potential profiles, rate capabilities, and cycle lives. The extremely bright and tunable x-rays produced by synchrotron radiation allow rapid acquisition of high-resolution data that provide information about these processes. Transformations in the bulk materials, such as phase transitions, can be directly observed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), while X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) gives information about the local electronic and geometric structures (e.g. changes in redox states and bond lengths). In situ experiments carried out on operating cells are particularly useful because they allow direct correlation between the electrochemical and structural properties of the materials. These experiments are time-consuming and can be challenging to design due to the reactivity and air-sensitivity of the alkali metal anodes used in the half-cell configurations, and/or the possibility of signal interference from other cell components and hardware. For these reasons, it is appropriate to carry out ex situ experiments (e.g. on electrodes harvested from partially charged or cycled cells) in some cases. Here, we present detailed protocols for the preparation of both ex situ and in situ samples for experiments involving synchrotron radiation and demonstrate how these experiments are done. PMID:24300777

  11. Characterization of electrode materials for lithium ion and sodium ion batteries using synchrotron radiation techniques.

    PubMed

    Doeff, Marca M; Chen, Guoying; Cabana, Jordi; Richardson, Thomas J; Mehta, Apurva; Shirpour, Mona; Duncan, Hugues; Kim, Chunjoong; Kam, Kinson C; Conry, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Intercalation compounds such as transition metal oxides or phosphates are the most commonly used electrode materials in Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. During insertion or removal of alkali metal ions, the redox states of transition metals in the compounds change and structural transformations such as phase transitions and/or lattice parameter increases or decreases occur. These behaviors in turn determine important characteristics of the batteries such as the potential profiles, rate capabilities, and cycle lives. The extremely bright and tunable x-rays produced by synchrotron radiation allow rapid acquisition of high-resolution data that provide information about these processes. Transformations in the bulk materials, such as phase transitions, can be directly observed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), while X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) gives information about the local electronic and geometric structures (e.g. changes in redox states and bond lengths). In situ experiments carried out on operating cells are particularly useful because they allow direct correlation between the electrochemical and structural properties of the materials. These experiments are time-consuming and can be challenging to design due to the reactivity and air-sensitivity of the alkali metal anodes used in the half-cell configurations, and/or the possibility of signal interference from other cell components and hardware. For these reasons, it is appropriate to carry out ex situ experiments (e.g. on electrodes harvested from partially charged or cycled cells) in some cases. Here, we present detailed protocols for the preparation of both ex situ and in situ samples for experiments involving synchrotron radiation and demonstrate how these experiments are done. PMID:24300777

  12. Lithium and its recovery from low-grade nevada clays. Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, L.; Lien, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Processes were investigated for recovering a marketable lithium product from the montmorillonite-type clays of the McDermitt caldera. Limestone-gypsum roasting and selective chlorination proved most successful for extracting lithium from the clays; 80-pct Li recovery was achieved using either technique. With both processes, lithium silicate in the clay was converted to a water-soluble compound - either lithium sulfate or lithium chloride. The lithium was then recovered as a carbonate by water leaching the calcine, concentrating the leach solution by evaporation, and precipitating the lithium with soda ash.

  13. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOEpatents

    Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  14. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tempe, AZ)

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  15. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  16. Chronic lithium treatment diminishes the female advantage in lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fengge; Li, Qinggang; Zhang, Fujian; Sun, Xuefeng; Cai, Guangyan; Zhang, Weiguang; Chen, Xiangmei

    2015-06-01

    Two studies have concluded that lithium exposure extends the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. However, the effect of lithium on another widely used model organism, Drosophila melanogaster, remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that chronic treatment with a low to moderate dose of lithium chloride does not extend lifespan in D. melanogaster and that the drug abolishes the female lifespan advantage in flies. PMID:25810251

  17. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  18. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  19. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  20. Development of a psoriasis-like syndrome following lithium therapy.

    PubMed

    Hanada, K; Tasaki, M; Hashimoto, I; Sone, M; Yamaguchi, T

    1987-12-01

    A correlation between lithium and psoriasis has been observed. In this paper, the case of a 17-yr-old girl is reported who developed psoriatic lesions after administration of lithium carbonate. Further-more, serum lithium levels in some psoriatic patients are disclosed, and induction of psoriasis by lithium in experimental animals is described. Serum lithium levels in 27 patients were significantly higher (p<0.025) than those of controls. Uninvolved parts of skin tissues obtained from three cases of psoriasis were transplanted to nude mice. After supplementing lithium as the chloride, these skin grafts developed the histologic change characteristic of psoriasis. However, the lithium compound by itself did not increase superoxide production of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in psoriasis. PMID:24254819

  1. 1,4-Addition of Lithium Diisopropylamide to Unsaturated Esters: Role of Rate-Limiting Deaggregation, Autocatalysis,

    E-print Network

    Collum, David B.

    1,4-Addition of Lithium Diisopropylamide to Unsaturated Esters: Role of Rate-Limiting Deaggregation, Autocatalysis, Lithium Chloride Catalysis, and Other Mixed Aggregation Effects Yun Ma, Alexander C. Hoepker.edu Abstract: Lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in tetrahydrofuran at -78 °C undergoes 1,4-addition

  2. Lithium nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Azab, Abed N; Shnaider, Alla; Osher, Yamima; Wang, Dana; Bersudsky, Yuly; Belmaker, R H

    2015-12-01

    Reports of toxic effects on the kidney of lithium treatment emerged very soon after lithium therapy was introduced. Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is usually self-limiting or not clinically dangerous. Some reports of irreversible chronic kidney disease and renal failure were difficult to attribute to lithium treatment since chronic kidney disease and renal failure exist in the population at large. In recent years, large-scale epidemiological studies have convincingly shown that lithium treatment elevates the risk of chronic kidney disease and renal failure. Most patients do not experience renal side effects. The most common side effect of polyuria only weakly predicts increasing creatinine or reduced kidney function. Among those patients who do experience decrease in creatinine clearance, some may require continuation of lithium treatment even as their creatinine increases. Other patients may be able to switch to a different mood stabilizer medication, but kidney function may continue to deteriorate even after lithium cessation. Most, but not all, evidence today recommends using a lower lithium plasma level target for long-term maintenance and thereby reducing risks of severe nephrotoxicity. PMID:26043842

  3. Determination of lithium in rocks by distillation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, M.H.

    1949-01-01

    A method for the quantitative extraction and recovery of lithium from rocks is based on a high temperature volatilization procedure. The sample is sintered with a calcium carbonate-calcium chloride mixture at 1200?? C. for 30 minutes in a platinum ignition tube, and the volatilization product is collected in a plug of Pyrex glass wool in a connecting Pyrex tube. The distillate, which consists of the alkali chlorides with a maximum of 5 to 20 mg. of calcium oxide and traces of a few other elements, is removed from the apparatus by dissolving in dilute hydrochloric acid and subjected to standard analytiaal procedures. The sinter residues contained less than 0.0005% lithium oxide. Lithium oxide was recovered from synthetic samples with an average error of 1.1%.

  4. Infrared radiation generated by quasi-phase-matched difference-frequency mixing in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide

    E-print Network

    Fejer, Martin M.

    Infrared radiation generated by quasi-phase-matched difference-frequency mixing in a periodically sources of infrared radiation in the wave- length range of 2-4 ,um are required for applications of achieving milliwatt power levels of mid-infrared radiation in a compact, room-tem- perature device

  5. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  6. Chloride - urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    The urine chloride test measures the amount of chloride in a certain volume of urine. ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested in the lab. If needed, the health care provider may ask you to collect your urine ...

  7. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different ... poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric chloride. This is for information only and not for ...

  8. Chloride in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... found in table salt or sea salt as sodium chloride. It is also found in many vegetables. Foods ... Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 2004.

  9. Accumulation of radiation defects and products of radiolysis in lithium orthosilicate pebbles with silicon dioxide additions under action of high absorbed doses and high temperature in air and inert atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarins, A.; Supe, A.; Kizane, G.; Knitter, R.; Baumane, L.

    2012-10-01

    One of the technological problems of a fusion reactor is the change in composition and structure of ceramic breeders (Li4SiO4 or Li2TiO3 pebbles) during long-term operation. In this study changes in the composition and microstructure of Li4SiO4 pebbles with 2.5 wt% silicon dioxide additions, fabricated by a melt-spraying process, were investigated after fast electron irradiation (E = 5 MeV, dose rate up to 88 MGy h-1) with high absorbed dose from 1.3 to 10.6 GGy at high temperature (543-573 K) in air and argon atmosphere. Three types of pebbles with different diameters and grain sizes were investigated. Products of radiolysis were studied by means of FTIR and XRD. TSL and ESR spectroscopy were used to detect radiation defects. SEM was used to investigate structure of pebbles. Experiments showed that Li4SiO4 pebbles with a diameter of 500 ?m had similar radiation stability as pebbles with diameter <50 ?m which were annealed at 1173 K for 128 h in argon and air atmosphere. As well as determined that lithium orthosilicate pebbles with size 500 (1243 K 168 h) and <50 ?m (1173 K 128 h) have a higher radiation stability in air and argon atmosphere than pebbles with size <50 ?m (1073 K 1 h). Degree of decomposition ?10.56 of the lithium orthosilicate pebbles at an absorbed dose of 10.56 GGy in air atmosphere is 1.5% and 0.15% at irradiation in dry argon. It has been suggested that changes of radiation stability of lithium orthosilicate pebbles in air atmosphere comparing with irradiated pebbles in argon atmosphere is effect of chemical reaction of lithium orthosilicate surface with air containing - H2O and CO2 in irradiation process. As well as it has been suggested that silicon dioxide - lithium metasilicate admixtures do not affect formation mechanism of radiation defect and products of radiolysis in lithium orthosilicate pebbles.

  10. Performance of a Multifunctional Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    The Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR) is a nonventing thermal control subsystem that combines a Space Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) with a Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). The LCAR is a heat pump radiator that absorbs water vapor produced in the SWME. Because of the very low water vapor pressure at equilibrium with lithium chloride solution, the LCAR can absorb water vapor at a temperature considerably higher than the SWME, enabling heat rejection sufficient for most EVA activities by thermal radiation from a relatively small area radiator. Prior SEAR prototypes used a flexible LCAR that was designed to be installed on the outer surface of a portable life support system (PLSS) backpack. This paper describes a SEAR subsystem that incorporates a very compact LCAR. The compact, multifunctional LCAR is built in the form of thin panels that can also serve as the PLSS structural shell. We designed and assembled a 2 ft² prototype LCAR based on this design and measured its performance in thermal vacuum tests when supplied with water vapor by a SWME. These tests validated our models for SEAR performance and showed that there is enough area available on the PLSS backpack shell to enable rejection of metabolic heat from the LCAR. We used results of these tests to assess future performance potential and suggest approaches for integrating the SEAR system with future space suits.

  11. Highly efficient nanojoule second harmonic generation of a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser radiation in a lithium niobate crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Gordienko, Vyacheslav M; Dyakov, Vladimir A; Mikheev, Pavel M; Syrtsov, Vladimir S

    2006-11-30

    Highly efficient ({approx}70%) second harmonic generation of tightly focused femtosecond radiation from a Cr:forsterite laser is obtained in a LiNbO{sub 3} crystal. The pulse energy amounts to 10 nJ, the spatial and spectral quality of second harmonic radiation being preserved. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  12. Attenuation of radiation- and drug-induced conditioned taste aversions following area postrema lesions in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1983-02-01

    The effects of lesions of the area postrema on the acquisition of radiation- and drug-induced (histamine and lithium chloride) conditioned taste aversions were investigated. The results indicated that area postrema lesions caused a significant attenuation of the aversion produced by pairing a novel sucrose solution with radiation (100 rad) or drug injection. Further, the area postrema lesions produced a similar level of attenuation of the taste aversion in all three treatment conditions. The results are discussed in terms of the implications of this finding for defining the mechanisms by which exposure to ionizing radiation can lead to the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion.

  13. Mass-Analyzed Threshold Ionization Study of Vinyl Chloride Cation in the First Excited Electronic State Using Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation in the 107-102.8 nm Range

    E-print Network

    Kim, Myung Soo

    State Using Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation in the 107-102.8 nm Range Mina Lee and Myung Soo Kim* National ultraviolet radiation source based on four-wave sum frequency mixing in Hg resulted in excellent sensitivity vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation generated by four-wave mixing in Kr or Hg.13-15 In a conventional two

  14. Europium- and lithium-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals that provide a linear emissive response with X-ray radiation exposure†

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Ian N.; Belley, Matthew D.; Nguyen, Giao; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Yifan; Kirsch, David G.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.

    2015-01-01

    Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2?xO3; Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2?xO3; Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40–220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2?xO3; Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 ± 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 ?m sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605–617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precision XRAD 225Cx small-animal image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. For both 80 and 225 kVp energies, this radio transparent device recorded scintillation intensities that tracked linearly with total radiation exposure, highlighting its capability to provide alternately accurate dosimetry measurements for both diagnostic imaging (80 kVp) and radiation therapy treatment (225 kVp). PMID:24696056

  15. Europium- and lithium-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals that provide a linear emissive response with X-ray radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Ian N; Belley, Matthew D; Nguyen, Giao; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Yifan; Kirsch, David G; Yoshizumi, Terry T; Therien, Michael J

    2014-05-21

    Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2-xO3; Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2-xO3; Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40-220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2-xO3; Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 ± 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 ?m sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605-617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precision XRAD 225Cx small-animal image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. For both 80 and 225 kVp energies, this radiotransparent device recorded scintillation intensities that tracked linearly with total radiation exposure, highlighting its capability to provide alternately accurate dosimetry measurements for both diagnostic imaging (80 kVp) and radiation therapy treatment (225 kVp). PMID:24696056

  16. Lithium Local Pseudopotential Using

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    Lithium Local Pseudopotential Using DFT Sergio Orozco Student Advisor: Chen Huang Faculty Mentor Lithium LPS Test Lithium LPS #12;Density Functional Theory (DFT) Successful quantum mechanical approach (1979) #12;Building LPS for Lithium Create a LPS using NLPS density for Lithium Test LPS by comparing

  17. Auger and radiative deexcitation of the 1s2l3l-prime configurations of lithium-like neon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M. H.

    1977-01-01

    X-ray energies, Auger and radiative decay rates, and fluorescence yields have been computed in intermediate coupling for the various states of the 1s2s3s, 1s2s3p, 1s2p3p, 1s2p3s, and 1s2p3d configurations of Ne-10(7+). The results supplement recent experimental work on these transitions.

  18. Phosphonium chloride for thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Development of systems for storage of thermal energy is discussed. Application of phosphonium chloride for heat storage through reversible dissociation is described. Chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties of phosphonium chloride are analyzed and dangers in using phosphonium chloride are explained.

  19. A putative amino acid transporter of the SLC6 family is up-regulated by lithium and is required for resistance to lithium toxicity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kasuya, Junko; Kaas, Garrett A.; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

    2009-01-01

    Lithium is an efficacious drug for the treatment of mood disorders, and its application is also considered a potential therapy for brain damage. However, the mechanisms underlying lithium’s therapeutic action and toxic effects in the nervous system remain largely elusive. Here we report on the use of a versatile genetic model, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, to discover novel molecular components involved in the lithium-responsive neurobiological process. We previously identified CG15088, which encodes a putative nutrient amino acid transporter of the solute carrier 6 (SLC6) family, as one of the genes most significantly up-regulated in response to lithium treatment. This gene was the only SLC6 gene induced by lithium, and was thus designated as Lithium-inducible SLC6 transporter or List. Either RNAi-mediated knockdown or complete deletion of List resulted in a remarkable increase in the susceptibility of adult flies to lithium’s toxic effects, whereas transgenic expression of wild-type List significantly suppressed the lithium hypersensitive phenotype of List-deficient flies. Other ions such as sodium, potassium and chloride did not induce List up-regulation, nor did they affect the viability of flies with suppressed List expression. These results indicate that lithium’s biochemical or physical properties, rather than general osmotic responses, are responsible for the lithium-induced up-regulation of List, as well as for the lithium-susceptible phenotype observed in List knockdown flies. Interestingly, flies became significantly more susceptible to lithium toxicity when List RNAi was specifically expressed in glia than when it was expressed in neurons or muscles, which is consistent with potential glial expression of List. These results show that the List transporter confers resistance to lithium toxicity, possibly as a consequence of its amino acid transporter activity in CNS glia. Our results have provided a new avenue of investigation toward a better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie lithium-responsive neurobiological process. PMID:19619614

  20. Sodium-phosphate cotransporter mediates reabsorption of lithium in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Uwai, Yuichi; Arima, Ryosuke; Takatsu, Chihiro; Furuta, Ryo; Kawasaki, Tatsuya; Nabekura, Tomohiro

    2014-09-01

    Lithium, used for the treatment of bipolar disorders, is reabsorbed via sodium-transport system in the proximal tubule. This step causes intra-/inter-individual difference of lithium disposition, and it has not been unclear which transporter contributes. In this study, we examined effect of foscarnet and parathyroid hormone (PTH), inactivators for sodium-phosphate cotransporter, and phlorizin, a typical inhibitor for sodium-glucose cotransporter, on the disposition of lithium in rats. Their intravenous administration stimulated urinary excretion of phosphate or glucose. After the intravenous injection of lithium chloride as a bolus, plasma concentration of lithium decreased time-dependently. The renal clearance of lithium was calculated to be 0.740 ml/min/kg in control rats, and this was 26.7% of creatinine clearance. Foscarnet and PTH significantly increased the renal clearance of lithium and its ratio to creatinine clearance, suggesting that they prevented the reabsorption of lithium. No effect of phlorizin on the renal handling of lithium was recognized. In control rats, the renal clearance of lithium showed a strong correlation with the renal excretion rate of phosphate, compared with creatinine clearance. These findings suggest that sodium-phosphate cotransporter reabsorbs lithium in the rat kidney. Furthermore, its contribution was estimated to be more than 65.9% in the lithium reabsorption. And, this study raised the possibility that therapeutic outcome of lithium is related with the functional expression of sodium-phosphate cotransporter in the kidney. PMID:24997387

  1. Safety considerations for fabricating lithium battery packs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciesla, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Lithium cell safety is a major issue with both manufacturers and end users. Most manufacturers have taken great strides to develop the safest cells possible while still maintaining performance characteristics. The combining of lithium cells for higher voltages, currents, and capacities requires the fabricator of lithium battery packs to be knowledgable about the specific electrochemical system being used. Relatively high rate, spirally wound (large surface area) sulfur oxychloride cells systems, such as Li/Thionyl or Sulfuryl chloride are considered. Prior to the start of a design of a battery pack, a review of the characterization studies for the cells should be conducted. The approach for fabricating a battery pack might vary with cell size.

  2. Lithium-6 foil neutron detector

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.A.

    1982-12-21

    A neutron detection apparatus is provided which includes a selected number of flat surfaces of lithium-6 foil, and which further includes a gas mixture in contact with each of the flat surfaces for selectively reacting to charged particles emitted by or radiated from the lithium foil. A container is provided to seal the lithium foil and the gas mixture in a volume from which water vapor and atmospheric gases are excluded, the container having one or more walls which are transmissive to neutrons. Monitoring equipment in contact with the gas mixture detects reactions taking place in the gas mixture, and, in response to such reactions, provides notice of the flux of neutrons passing through the volume of the detector.

  3. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  4. Neutron Detection using Lithium Glass Scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Adam; Rees, Lawrence; Czirr, Bart

    2011-10-01

    We have developed a neutron detector using a thin sheet of lithium-6 glass scintillator. Lithium-6 has a high capture cross-section for neutrons, giving high neutron detection efficiency. One of the difficulties of neutron detection is discriminating between neutron and gamma radiation. We have measured the gamma sensitivity of our detector to be one in 10,000. For nuclear non-proliferation applications, radioactive sources may be shielded. Unlike most neutron detectors, lithium glass detectors are more efficient at detecting neutrons if the source is shielded. We are testing different configurations to optimize the detector's neutron capture efficiency.

  5. Minerals Yearbook 1989: Lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The United States led the world in lithium mineral and compound production and consumption. Estimated consumption increased slightly, and world production also grew. Sales increased for domestic producers, who announced price increases for the third consecutive year. Because lithium is electrochemically reactive and has other unique properties, there are many commercial lithium products. Producers sold lithium as mineral concentrate, brine, compound, or metal, depending upon the end use. Most lithium compounds were consumed in the production of ceramics, glass, and primary aluminum.

  6. Acoustoelectric effects in reflection of leaky-wave-radiated bulk acoustic waves from piezoelectric crystal-conductive liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Rimeika, Romualdas; ?iplys, Daumantas; Jonkus, Vytautas; Shur, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The leaky surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagating along X-axis of Y-cut lithium tantalate crystal strongly radiates energy in the form of an obliquely propagating narrow bulk acoustic wave (BAW) beam. The reflection of this beam from the crystal-liquid interface has been investigated. The test liquids were solutions of potassium nitrate in distilled water and of lithium chloride in isopropyl alcohol with the conductivity varied by changing the solution concentration. The strong dependences of the reflected wave amplitude and phase on the liquid conductivity were observed and explained by the acoustoelectric interaction in the wave reflection region. The novel configuration of an acoustic sensor for liquid media featuring important advantages of separate measuring and sensing surfaces and rigid structure has been proposed. The application of leaky-SAW radiated bulk waves for identification of different brands of mineral water has been demonstrated. PMID:26391353

  7. Effects of bicarbonate on lithium transport in human red cells

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Lithium influx into human erythrocytes increased 12-fold, when chloride was replaced with bicarbonate in a 150 mM lithium medium (38 degrees C. pH 7.4). The increase was linearly related to both lithium- and bicarbonate concentration, and was completely eliminated by the amino reagent 4, 4'- diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS). DIDS binds to an integral membrane protein (mol wt approximately 10(5) dalton) involved in anion exchange. Inhibition of both anion exchange and of bicarbonate-stimulated lithium influx was linearly related to DIDS binding. 1.1 X 10(6) DIDS molecules per cell caused complete inhibition of both processes. Both Cl- and Li+ can apparently be transported by the anion transport mechanism. The results support our previous proposal that bicarbonate-induced lithium permeability is due to transport of lithium-carbonate ion pairs (LiCO-3). DIDS-sensitive lithium influx had a high activation energy (24 kcal/mol), compatible with transport by the anion exchange mechanism. We have examined how variations of passive lithium permeability, induced by bicarbonate, affect the sodium-driven lithium counter-transport in human erythrocytes. The ability of the counter-transport system to establish a lithium gradient across the membrane decrease linearly with bicarbonate concentration in the medium. The counter-transport system was unaffected by DIDS treatement. At a plasma bicarbonate concentration of 24 mM, two-thirds of the lithium influx is mediated by the bicarbonate-stimulated pathway, and the fraction will increase significantly in metabolic alkalosis. PMID:670928

  8. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    SciTech Connect

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

  9. Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride

    SciTech Connect

    Ravnsbaek, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

    2011-07-15

    The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH{sub 4}, forming Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.9}Cl{sub 0.1}, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH{sub 4} is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.43}Cl{sub 0.57}. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH{sub 4} into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements. - Graphical Abstract: Dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. Dissolution is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples. Sample compositions and dissolution mechanism are studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction data. Highlights: > Studies of dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other. > Solid state diffusion facilitated by mechanical and thermal treatments. > Dissolution is more efficiently induced by heating than by mechanical treatment. > Mechanism for dissolution studied by Rietveld refinement of in situ SR-PXD data.

  10. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  11. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  12. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  13. NSTX Plasma Response to Lithium Coated Divertor

    SciTech Connect

    H.W. Kugel, M.G. Bell, J.P. Allain, R.E. Bell, S. Ding, S.P. Gerhardt, M.A. Jaworski, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, R. Maingi, R. Majeski, R. Maqueda, D.K. Mansfield, D. Mueller, R. Nygren, S.F. Paul, R. Raman, A.L. Roquemore, S.A. Sabbagh, H. Schneider, C.H. Skinner, V.A. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor, J.R. Timberlak, W.R. Wampler, L.E. Zakharov, S.J. Zweben, and the NSTX Research Team

    2011-01-21

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  14. PHOTOOXIDATION OF ALLYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The photooxidation of allyl chloride was studied by irradiation either in 100-L Teflon bags or in a 22.7-cu m Teflon smog chamber in the presence of added NOx. In the absence of added hydrocarbons, the reaction involves a Cl atom chain, which leads to a highly reactive system. A ...

  15. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: POLYVINYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes data on air emissions from the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry. PVC is manufactured by 20 companies at 35 plants. Each plant uses one or more of four possible polymerization processes: (1) suspension polymerization, (2) emulsion polymerization, (3) bulk p...

  16. Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

  17. Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Batteries for the Mars Pathfinder Microrover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deligiannis, Frank; Frank, Harvey; Staniewicz, R. J.; Willson, John

    1996-01-01

    A discussion of the power requirements for the Mars Pathfinder Mission is given. Topics include: battery requirements; cell design; battery design; test descriptions and results. A summary of the results is also included.

  18. Monitoring personnel exposure to vinyl chloride, vinylidene chloride and methyl chloride in an industrial work environment.

    PubMed

    Severs, L W; Skory, L K

    1975-09-01

    Pittsburgh PCB 12 times 30 activated carbon is found to be the most suitable of the commerically available carbons tested for personnel sampling of vinyl chloride, vinylidene chloride, and methyl chloride. The carbon is desorbed with CS2 at dry ice temperature or with a thermal desorption technique. PMID:1180218

  19. Rechargeable lithium battery system

    SciTech Connect

    Slane, S.M.; Plichta, E.J.

    1991-01-08

    This patent describes a rechargeable lithium battery system that contains no metallic lithium. It comprises: a transition metal sulfide anode, a lithiated transition metal oxide cathode, and a solution of a lithium salt in an aprotic organic solvent as the electrolyte.

  20. Lithium use in batteries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Influence of composition of MgO-doped lithium niobate on phase-matching temperature for frequency doubling in the visible

    E-print Network

    Fejer, Martin M.

    Influence of composition of MgO-doped lithium niobate on phase-matching temperature for frequency) of 1064-nm radiation on Li/Nb and Li/Mg ratios in MgO-doped lithium niobate crystals was investigated phase-matched for SHG of 978:4-nm radiation to generate blue light. Lithium niobate is well known

  2. Lithium isotope geochemistry and origin of Canadian shield brines.

    PubMed

    Bottomley, D J; Chan, L H; Katz, A; Starinsky, A; Clark, I D

    2003-01-01

    Hypersaline calcium/chloride shield brines are ubiquitous in Canada and areas of northern Europe. The major questions relating to these fluids are the origin of the solutes and the concentration mechanism that led to their extreme salinity. Many chemical and isotopic tracers are used to solve these questions. For example, lithium isotope systematics have been used recently to support a marine origin for the Yellowknife shield brine (Northwest Territories). While having important chemical similarities to the Yellowknife brine, shield brines from the Sudbury/Elliot Lake (Ontario) and Thompson/Snow Lake (Manitoba) regions, which are the focus of this study, exhibit contrasting lithium behavior. Brine from the Sudbury Victor mine has lithium concentrations that closely follow the sea water lithium-bromine concentration trajectory, as well as delta6Li values of approximately -28/1000. This indicates that the lithium in this brine is predominantly marine in origin with a relatively minor component of crustal lithium leached from the host rocks. In contrast, the Thompson/Snow Lake brine has anomalously low lithium concentrations, indicating that it has largely been removed from solution by alteration minerals. Furthermore, brine and nonbrine mine waters at the Thompson mine have large delta6Li variations of approximately 30/1000, which primarily reflects mixing between deep brine with delta6Li of -35 +/- 2/1000 and near surface mine water that has derived higher delta6Li values through interactions with their host rocks. The contrary behavior of lithium in these two brines shows that, in systems where it has behaved conservatively, lithium isotopes can distinguish brines derived from marine sources. PMID:14649868

  3. Anodic dissolution of uranium mononitride in lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic melt

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Fumiaki; Ogawa, Toru; Akabori, Mitsuo; Kato, Yoshio

    1995-08-01

    Uranium-plutonium nitride is a candidate fuel for fast reactors, but its major drawback is {sup 14}C formation from natural nitrogen. One would probably have to use highly {sup 15}N-enriched nitrogen. A pyrochemical process with molten-salt electrorefining has been proposed as a means to increase the nuclear proliferation resistance of the fuel cycle. Molten-salt electrorefining could also be applied to nitride fuels to make possible the recycling of {sup 15}N. The anodic dissolution behavior of UN in LiCl-KCl melt was studied to provide the basis for a feasibility study of electrorefining of irradiated nitride fuels.

  4. Ion exchange in a zeolite-molten chloride system

    SciTech Connect

    Woodman, R.H.; Pereira, C.

    1997-07-01

    Electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel results in a secondary waste stream of radioactive fission products dissolved in chloride salt. Disposal plans include a waste form that can incorporate chloride forms featuring one or more zeolites consolidated with sintered glass. A candidate method for incorporating fission products in the zeolites is passing the contaminated salt over a zeolite column for ion exchange. To date, the molten chloride ion-exchange properties of four zeolites have been investigated for this process: zeolite A, IE95{reg_sign}, clinoptilolite, and mordenite. Of these, zeolite A has been the most promising. Treating zeolite 4A, the sodium form of zeolite A , with the solvent salt for the waste stream-lithium-potassium chloride of eutectic melting composition, is expected to provide a material with favorable ion-exchange properties for the treatment of the waste salt. The authors constructed a pilot-plant system for the ion-exchange column. Initial results indicate that there is a direct relationship between the two operating variable of interest, temperature, and initial sodium concentration. Also, the mass ratio has been about 3--5 to bring the sodium concentration of the effluent below 1 mol%.

  5. The synergetic effect of lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate to prevent lithium dendrite growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyang; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liang, Zheng; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Lithium metal has shown great promise as an anode material for high-energy storage systems, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and low negative electrochemical potential. Unfortunately, uncontrolled dendritic and mossy lithium growth, as well as electrolyte decomposition inherent in lithium metal-based batteries, cause safety issues and low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the growth of lithium dendrites can be suppressed by exploiting the reaction between lithium and lithium polysulfide, which has long been considered as a critical flaw in lithium-sulfur batteries. We show that a stable and uniform solid electrolyte interphase layer is formed due to a synergetic effect of both lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate as additives in ether-based electrolyte, preventing dendrite growth and minimizing electrolyte decomposition. Our findings allow for re-evaluation of the reactions regarding lithium polysulfide, lithium nitrate and lithium metal, and provide insights into solving the problems associated with lithium metal anodes. PMID:26081242

  6. The synergetic effect of lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate to prevent lithium dendrite growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiyang; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liang, Zheng; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Lithium metal has shown great promise as an anode material for high-energy storage systems, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and low negative electrochemical potential. Unfortunately, uncontrolled dendritic and mossy lithium growth, as well as electrolyte decomposition inherent in lithium metal-based batteries, cause safety issues and low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the growth of lithium dendrites can be suppressed by exploiting the reaction between lithium and lithium polysulfide, which has long been considered as a critical flaw in lithium-sulfur batteries. We show that a stable and uniform solid electrolyte interphase layer is formed due to a synergetic effect of both lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate as additives in ether-based electrolyte, preventing dendrite growth and minimizing electrolyte decomposition. Our findings allow for re-evaluation of the reactions regarding lithium polysulfide, lithium nitrate and lithium metal, and provide insights into solving the problems associated with lithium metal anodes.

  7. Oxomemazine hydro-chloride.

    PubMed

    Siddegowda, M S; Butcher, Ray J; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H S; Ramesh, A R

    2011-08-01

    IN THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 3-(5,5-dioxo-phen-othia-zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl-propanaminium chloride], C(18)H(23)N(2)O(2)S(+)·Cl(-), the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia-zine unit is 30.5?(2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H?Cl and C-H?Cl hydrogen bonds and C-H?? inter-actions. PMID:22090928

  8. Oxomemazine hydro­chloride

    PubMed Central

    Siddegowda, M. S.; Butcher, Ray J.; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H. S.; Ramesh, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound [systematic name: 3-(5,5-dioxo­phen­othia­zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl­propanaminium chloride], C18H23N2O2S+·Cl?, the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia­zine unit is 30.5?(2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H?Cl and C—H?Cl hydrogen bonds and C—H?? inter­actions. PMID:22090928

  9. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride... hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride... hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride... hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food... GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The...

  13. Radiation

    Cancer.gov

    DCEG researchers carry out a broad-based research program designed to identify, understand, and quantify the risk of cancer in populations exposed to medical, occupational, or environmental radiation. They study ionizing radiation exposures (e.g., x-rays,

  14. Lithium purification technique

    DOEpatents

    Keough, R.F.; Meadows, G.E.

    1984-01-10

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  15. Lithium purification technique

    DOEpatents

    Keough, Robert F. (Richland, WA); Meadows, George E. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  16. Examples Class 2 Calcium Chloride

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    Examples Class 2 Calcium Chloride The orthorhombic unit cell of CaCl2 has a = 0.624 nm, b = 0 of this structure on (001). Figure 1: The structure projection for cal- cium chloride 1. What is the Bravais lattice

  17. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food and Drugs...and Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following...

  18. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food and Drugs...and Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following...

  19. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375 Food and...Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No. 123-93-5) may be...

  20. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food...Chemical Preservatives § 582.3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance...

  1. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food and Drugs...and Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of...

  4. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375 Food and...Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No. 123-03-05) may be...

  5. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375 Food and...Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No. 123-93-5) may be...

  6. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food and Drugs...and Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food...Chemical Preservatives § 582.3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance...

  9. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of...

  10. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. 173.400 Section 173.400 Food and...Additives § 173.400 Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride may be safely used in food in accordance...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ...731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis...the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to...4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No....

  13. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2009-04-01 true Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. 173.400 Section 173.400 Food and...Additives § 173.400 Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride may be safely used in food in accordance...

  15. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food and Drugs...and Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following...

  16. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of...

  17. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375 Food and...Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No. 123-93-5) may be...

  18. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International...the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China...the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead...

  19. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. 173.400 Section 173.400 Food and...Additives § 173.400 Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride may be safely used in food in accordance...

  20. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food...Chemical Preservatives § 582.3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance...

  1. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375 Food and...Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No. 123-03-05) may be...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. 173.400 Section 173.400 Food and...Additives § 173.400 Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride may be safely used in food in accordance...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food...Chemical Preservatives § 582.3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. 173.400 Section 173.400 Food and...Additives § 173.400 Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride may be safely used in food in accordance...

  11. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food...Chemical Preservatives § 582.3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance...

  12. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  13. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  14. Circadian activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may affect central, but not peripheral, effect of lithium in conditioned taste aversion learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Sang; Yoo, Sang Bae; Ryu, Vitaly; Kim, Kyu-Nam; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Lee, Jong-Ho; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2015-09-01

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning induced by lithium chloride. This study investigated if circadian activation of the HPA axis affects the lithium-induced CTA formation. The pairing of conditioned stimulus (sucrose) and unconditioned stimulus (lithium chloride) was performed at night (shortly after light-off) when the HPA activity shows its circadian increase. Intraperitoenal injection of lithium chloride (0.15M, 3ml/kg or 12ml/kg) at night induced CTA formation and the HPA axis activation and increased c-Fos expression in both the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) and the nucleus tractus of solitarius (NTS) in a dose dependent manner. However, intracerebroventricular lithium (0.6M, 5µl) at night failed to induce CTA or the HPA axis activation, although it increased c-Fos expression in the PBN and NTS. Results suggest that circadian activation of the HPA axis may affect central, but not peripheral, effect of lithium in CTA formation, and the lithium-induced c-Fos expression in brain regions may not be effective to induce CTA unless it is coupled with the HPA axis activation. It is concluded that the HPA axis activation may play an important role mediating not only peripheral but also central effect of lithium in CTA formation. PMID:26003276

  15. Solubility of some alkali and alkaline earth chlorides in water at moderate temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clynne, M.A.; Potter, R.W., II

    1979-01-01

    Solubilities for the binary systems, salt-H2O, of the chlorides of lithium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium from near 0??C to the saturated boiling point are reported. The experimental data and coefficients of an equation for a smoothed curve describing each system are listed in the tables. The data are improvements on those previously reported in the literature, having a precision on the average of ??0.09%.

  16. Modelling of lithium erosion and transport in FTU lithium experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, R.; Maddaluno, G.; Apicella, M. L.; Mazzitelli, G.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Kirschner, A.; Chen, J. L.; Li, J. G.; Luo, G.-N.

    2013-07-01

    The ERO code has been used to simulate lithium erosion, transport and re-deposition from liquid lithium limiter experiments in FTU. Two different operational cases from LLL experiments with different plasma parameters and surface temperature are modelled. According to the effective lithium sputtering yields, for both cases the lithium erosion is mainly due to physical sputtering rather than evaporation. Furthermore, the modelled re-deposition fraction of evaporated lithium is much higher than that of sputtered lithium, which is due to the shorter ionisation mean free path of thermal lithium atoms. Therefore, the evaporation erosion effect can be neglected compared to physical sputtering when the surface temperature is below 450 °C. According to the simulations, most of the lithium impurities exist in the form of Li+, and the main plasma contamination by lithium ions is low because most of eroded lithium particles are not transported into the core plasma and stay outside of the LCFS.

  17. Lithium Irradiation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Leveling, A.F.

    2000-08-22

    The subject of tritium production in the Antiproton Source Collection lens was raised in the mid-1980s during the design phase of the pbar source. Interest in it has recurred during development of the proton lens and in recent investigations to determine the feasibility of liquid lithium collection lenses for the pbar source and a muon collider project. Calculations for tritium and beryllium 7 production on lithium suffer from a lack of information on medium and high energy cross section data. In addition, knowledge of the energy spectrum within the target vault is based upon calculations. Knowledge of the low energy spectrum, important for tritium production on lithium, is limited, if not non-existent. For Collider Run II, effort is to be applied to improve the performance of the solid lithium lens. Historically, examination of failed lithium lenses has not been pursued because they have been fairly radioactive and because they are thought to contain significant quantities of the radionuclides tritium and beryllium 7. The development of methods to examine failed lithium lenses may be desirable so that the specific causes of failure can be discovered. From such studies, design improvements can be incorporated with the goal of achieving lens performances goals related to Collider Run II. The purpose of the lithium irradiation experiment is to determine the production rates of radioisotopes tritium and beryllium 7 within the lithium lens in its operating in its operating environment.

  18. Mania pre-lithium.

    PubMed

    Cawte, J

    1999-12-01

    The changes that lithium brought are most fully understood when we grasp the difficulties for management that acute mania presented. Restraint in canvas camisoles, padded cells, paraldehyde, water-baths and salts-Epsom, not Lithium-met mania in echos of Bedlam still heard in the early 1950s. It is a part of psychiatric history important to remember. PMID:10622174

  19. Enhancing ionic conductivity in lithium amide for improved energy storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Rosalind A.; Hewett, David R.; Anderson, Paul A.

    2015-03-01

    Non-stoichiometry and bulk cation transport have been identified as key factors in the release and uptake of hydrogen in the Li-N-H system. Amide halide phases have been synthesized that have ionic conductivities several orders of magnitude greater than lithium amide, a faster rate of hydrogen release and elimination of the by-product, ammonia. Here we report the effect of both anion- and cation-doping on the hydrogen desorption properties of lithium amide, focusing in particular on how the presence of chloride anions and magnesium cations affects and controls the structure of the amide and imide compounds at the sub-nanometre level. Reducing the chloride content resulted in new low-chloride rhombohedral phases that contain around half of the chloride present in earlier amide chlorides, but maintained the enhancements seen in hydrogen desorption properties when compared to the halide-free system. These materials may also have potential in a range of other energy applications such as all solid state lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, and CO2 capture and storage membranes. Invited talk at the 7th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology IWAMSN2014, 2-6 November 2014, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  20. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  1. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-13

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  2. Determination of lithium isotopes at natural abundance levels by atomic absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meier, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationships of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li hollow cathode lamp emissions are used to determine lithium isotopic composition in the natural abundance range of geologic materials. Absorption was found to have a nonlinear dependence upon total lithium concentration and isotopic composition. A method using nonlinear equations to describe the relationship of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li lamp radiation is proposed as a means of calculating isotopic composition that is independent of total lithium concentration.

  3. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  4. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1980-01-01

    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  5. An XAFS study of nickel chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; G Cheek; K Pandya; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Nickel chloride was studied with cyclic voltammetry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Acidic melts display metal stripping peaks which are not observed in the basic melt. EXAFS analysis shows that the nickel is tetrahedrally coordinated with chloride ions in the basic solution. In the acidic solution the nickel is coordinated by six chloride ions that are also associated with aluminum ions.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution....

  7. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution....

  10. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7) is a white... manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant formula in accordance with section 412(g)...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution....

  13. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution....

  14. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium...

  16. Lithium-methomyl induced seizures in rats: A new model of status epilepticus?

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, Rafal M. . E-mail: kaminskr@mail.nih.gov; Blaszczak, Piotr; Dekundy, Andrzej; Parada-Turska, Jolanta; Calderazzo, Lineu; Cavalheiro, Esper A.; Turski, Waldemar A.

    2007-03-15

    Behavioral, electroencephalographic (EEG) and neuropathological effects of methomyl, a carbamate insecticide reversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity, were studied in naive or lithium chloride (24 h, 3 mEq/kg, s.c.) pretreated male Wistar rats. In naive animals, methomyl with equal potency produced motor limbic seizures and fatal status epilepticus. Thus, the CD50 values (50% convulsant dose) for these seizure endpoints were almost equal to the LD50 (50% lethal dose) of methomyl (13 mg/kg). Lithium pretreated rats were much more susceptible to convulsant, but not lethal effect of methomyl. CD50 values of methomyl for motor limbic seizures and status epilepticus were reduced by lithium pretreatment to 3.7 mg/kg (a 3.5-fold decrease) and 5.2 mg/kg (a 2.5-fold decrease), respectively. In contrast, lithium pretreatment resulted in only 1.3-fold decrease of LD50 value of methomyl (9.9 mg/kg). Moreover, lithium-methomyl treated animals developed a long-lasting status epilepticus, which was not associated with imminent lethality observed in methomyl-only treated rats. Scopolamine (10 mg/kg) or diazepam (10 mg/kg) protected all lithium-methomyl treated rats from convulsions and lethality. Cortical and hippocampal EEG recordings revealed typical epileptic discharges that were consistent with behavioral seizures observed in lithium-methomyl treated rats. In addition, convulsions induced by lithium-methomyl treatment were associated with widespread neurodegeneration of limbic structures. Our observations indicate that lithium pretreatment results in separation between convulsant and lethal effects of methomyl in rats. As such, seizures induced by lithium-methomyl administration may be an alternative to lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus, which is associated with high lethality.

  17. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in lithium-induced conditioned taste aversion learning.

    PubMed

    Jahng, Jeong Won; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2015-12-01

    Intraperitoneal injections (ip) of lithium chloride at large doses induce c-Fos expression in the brain regions implicated in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning, and also activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and increase the plasma corticosterone levels in rats. A pharmacologic treatment blunting the lithium-induced c-Fos expression in the brain regions, but not the HPA axis activation, induced CTA formation. Synthetic glucocorticoids at conditioning, but not glucocorticoid antagonist, attenuated the lithium-induced CTA acquisition. The CTA acquisition by ip lithium was not affected by adrenalectomy regardless of basal corticosterone supplement, but the extinction was delayed in the absence of basal corticosterone. Glucocorticoids overloading delayed the extinction memory formation of lithium-induced CTA. ip lithium consistently induced the brain c-Fos expression, the HPA activation and CTA formation regardless of the circadian activation of the HPA axis. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injections of lithium at day time also increased the brain c-Fos expression, activated the HPA axis and induced CTA acquisition. However, icv lithium at night, when the HPA axis shows its circadian activation, did not induce CTA acquisition nor activate the HPA axis, although it increased the brain c-Fos expression. These results suggest that the circadian activation of the HPA axis may affect central, but not peripheral, effect of lithium in CTA learning in rats, and the HPA axis activation may be necessary for the central effect of lithium in CTA formation. Also, glucocorticoids may be required for a better extinction; however, increased glucocorticoids hinder both the acquisition and the extinction of lithium-induced CTA. PMID:26524411

  18. [Determination of high concentrations of rubidium chloride by ICP-OES].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yuan; Sun, Bai; Li, Hai-jun; Wang, Tao; Li, Wu; Song, Peng-sheng

    2015-01-01

    The method of ICP-OES for the direct determination of high content of rubidium in rubidium chloride solutions was studied through mass dilution method and optimizing parameters of the instrument in the present paper. It can reduce the times of dilution and the error introduced by the dilution, and improve the accuracy of determination results of rubidium. Through analyzing the sensitivity of the three detection spectral lines for rubidium ion, linearly dependent coefficient and the relative errors of the determination results, the spectral line of Rb 780. 023 nm was chosen as the most suitable wavelength to measure the high content of rubidium in the rubidium chloride solutions. It was found that the instrument parameters of ICP-OES such as the atomizer flow, the pump speed and the high-frequency power are the major factors for the determination of rubidium ion in the rubidium chloride solutions. As we know instrument parameters of ICP-OES have an important influence on the atomization efficiency as well as the emissive power of the spectral lines of rubidium, they are considered as the significant factors for the determination of rubidium. The optimization parameters of the instrument were obtained by orthogonal experiments and further single factor experiment, which are 0. 60 L . min-1 of atomizer flow, 60 r . min-1 of pump speed, and 1 150 W of high-frequency power. The same experiments were repeated a week later with the optimization parameters of the instrument, and the relative errors of the determination results are less than 0. 5% when the concentration of rubidium chloride ranged from 0. 09% to 0. 18%. As the concentration of rubidium chloride is 0. 06%, the relative errors of the determination results are -1. 7%. The determination of lithium chloride and potassium chloride in the high concentration of the aqueous solutions was studied under the condition of similar instrument parameters. It was found by comparison that the determination results of lithium chloride are better than that of potassium chloride and rubidium chloride. The method of ICP-OES used for determination of high content of rubidium is fast and simple for operation, and the results are accurate. It is suitable for studying the equilibrium in the salt-water system containing rubidium and for analysis of products of rubidium with high content. PMID:25993853

  19. Lithium Dendrite Formation

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-06

    Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory have captured the first real-time nanoscale images of lithium dendrite structures known to degrade lithium-ion batteries. The ORNL team’s electron microscopy could help researchers address long-standing issues related to battery performance and safety. Video shows annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging (ADF STEM) of lithium dendrite nucleation and growth from a glassy carbon working electrode and within a 1.2M LiPF6 EC:DM battery electrolyte.

  20. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  1. Lithium drifted germanium system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fjarlie, E. J.

    1969-01-01

    General characteristics of the lithium-drifted germanium photodiode-Dewar-preamplifier system and particular operating instructions for the device are given. Information is included on solving operational problems.

  2. CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-11-30

    Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

  3. Lithium battery management system

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J. (Waukesha, WI)

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  4. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOEpatents

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  5. Lithium Isotope Effects upon Electrochemical Release from Lithium Cobalt Oxide to Non-Lithium Electrolyte Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takami, Yuta; Yanase, Satoshi; Oi, Takao

    2014-02-01

    Lithium was electrochemically released from a lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) cathode to an ethylene carbonate-based organic electrolyte solution containing no lithium ions, and the change in the lithium isotope composition of the cathode was measured. The 7Li/6Li isotopic ratio of the electrode was practically unchanged before and after the 45% - 62% lithium release, which meant that the lithium release accompanied no isotope preference. This result is quite contrastive to the previous one; when lithium was released to an organic electrolyte solution containing lithium ions, the 7Li/6Li ratio of the cathode became 1.018 to 1.033 times smaller than that before the release. It was induced that the kind of electrolyte solution controlled the attainment of the lithium isotope exchange equilibrium between the cathode and the electrolyte solution.

  6. Resonant two-photon ionization of phenol in methylene chloride doped solid argon using 248 nm KrF laser and 254 nm Hg lamp radiation, a comparative study. The UV/VIS absorption spectrum of phenol radical cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesper, Karl; Diehl, Frank; Simon, Jens Georg Günther; Specht, Harald; Schweig, Armin

    1991-06-01

    Resonant two-photon ionization (TPI) of phenol (PhOH) has been successfully achieved in methylene chloride (CH 2Cl 2) doped solid argon using a KrF laser and a Hg resonance lamp. The result constitutes the first-time TPI of a typically organic molecule in this medium using an excimer laser as well as the first-time spectroscopic identification of PhOH +•. A qualitative model is proposed which is consistent with both the unexpected photostability of PhOH +• and the incomplete running of the TPI process in the applied medium.

  7. Development of a ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Aqueous Chloride and Copper Chloride Obaidur Rahaman,

    E-print Network

    Goddard III, William A.

    Development of a ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Aqueous Chloride and Copper Chloride Obaidur-derived energies for condensed-phase copper-chloride clusters as well as chloride/water and copper-chloride with the DFT-derived values. We have performed MD simulations on chloride/water and copper-chloride

  8. US Navy lithium cell applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, F. M.

    1978-01-01

    Applications of lithium systems that are already in the fleet are discussed. The approach that the Navy is taking in the control of the introduction of lithium batteries into the fleet is also discussed.

  9. Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Dwight; Jaskula, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Lithium, which has the chemical symbol Li and an atomic number of 3, is the first metal in the periodic table. Lithium has many uses, the most prominent being in batteries for cell phones, laptops, and electric and hybrid vehicles. Worldwide sources of lithium are broken down by ore-deposit type as follows: closed-basin brines, 58%; pegmatites and related granites, 26%; lithium-enriched clays, 7%; oilfield brines, 3%; geothermal brines, 3%; and lithium-enriched zeolites, 3% (2013 statistics). There are over 39 million tons of lithium resources worldwide. Of this resource, the USGS estimates there to be approximately 13 million tons of current economically recoverable lithium reserves. To help predict where future lithium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where identified resources are concentrated in the Earth’s crust, and they use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered resources also exist.

  10. Lithium As Plasma Facing Component for Magnetic Fusion Research

    SciTech Connect

    Masayuki Ono

    2012-09-10

    The use of lithium in magnetic fusion confinement experiments started in the 1990's in order to improve tokamak plasma performance as a low-recycling plasma-facing component (PFC). Lithium is the lightest alkali metal and it is highly chemically reactive with relevant ion species in fusion plasmas including hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, carbon, and oxygen. Because of the reactive properties, lithium can provide strong pumping for those ions. It was indeed a spectacular success in TFTR where a very small amount (~ 0.02 gram) of lithium coating of the PFCs resulted in the fusion power output to improve by nearly a factor of two. The plasma confinement also improved by a factor of two. This success was attributed to the reduced recycling of cold gas surrounding the fusion plasma due to highly reactive lithium on the wall. The plasma confinement and performance improvements have since been confirmed in a large number of fusion devices with various magnetic configurations including CDX-U/LTX (US), CPD (Japan), HT-7 (China), EAST (China), FTU (Italy), NSTX (US), T-10, T-11M (Russia), TJ-II (Spain), and RFX (Italy). Additionally, lithium was shown to broaden the plasma pressure profile in NSTX, which is advantageous in achieving high performance H-mode operation for tokamak reactors. It is also noted that even with significant applications (up to 1,000 grams in NSTX) of lithium on PFCs, very little contamination (< 0.1%) of lithium fraction in main fusion plasma core was observed even during high confinement modes. The lithium therefore appears to be a highly desirable material to be used as a plasma PFC material from the magnetic fusion plasma performance and operational point of view. An exciting development in recent years is the growing realization of lithium as a potential solution to solve the exceptionally challenging need to handle the fusion reactor divertor heat flux, which could reach 60 MW/m2 . By placing the liquid lithium (LL) surface in the path of the main divertor heat flux (divertor strike point), the lithium is evaporated from the surface. The evaporated lithium is quickly ionized by the plasma and the ionized lithium ions can provide a strongly radiative layer of plasma ("radiative mantle"), thus could significantly reduce the heat flux to the divertor strike point surfaces, thus protecting the divertor surface. The protective effects of LL have been observed in many experiments and test stands. As a possible reactor divertor candidate, a closed LL divertor system is described. Finally, it is noted that the lithium applications as a PFC can be quite flexible and broad. The lithium application should be quite compatible with various divertor configurations, and it can be also applied to protecting the presently envisioned tungsten based solid PFC surfaces such as the ones for ITER. Lithium based PFCs therefore have the exciting prospect of providing a cost effective flexible means to improve the fusion reactor performance, while providing a practical solution to the highly challenging divertor heat handling issue confronting the steadystate magnetic fusion reactors.

  11. Cold Lithium Atom Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassella, Kayleigh; Copenhaver, Eric; Lai, Chen; Hamilton, Paul; Estey, Brian; Feng, Yanying; Mueller, Holger

    2015-05-01

    Atom interferometers often use heavy alkali atoms such as rubidium or cesium. In contrast, interferometry with light atoms offers a larger recoil velocity and recoil energy, yielding a larger interference signal. This would allow for sensitive measurements of the fine structure constant, gravity gradients and spatially varying potentials. We have built the first light-pulse cold-atom interferometer with lithium in a Mach-Zehnder geometry based on short (100 ns), intense (2.5 W/cm2) pulses. We initially capture approximately 107 lithium atoms at a temperature of about 300 ?K in a magneto-optical trap. To perform interferometry, we couple the F = 1 and F = 2 hyperfine levels of the ground state with a sequence of two-photon Raman transitions, red-detuned from lithium's unresolved 2P3/2 state. Cold lithium atoms offer a broad range of new possibilities for atom interferometry including a large recoil velocity and a fermionic and bosonic isotope. Lithium's isotopes also allow for independent measurements of gravity thus constraining the equivalence principle violations predicted by the Standard-Model Extension. In the near future, we plan to perform a recoil measurement using a Ramsey-Bordé interferometer.

  12. CHEMILUMINESCENT MONITOR FOR VINYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A monitor for vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) in ambient air was constructed using commercially available components of a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a chemiluminescence ozone analyzer slightly modified to make it suitable for use as a GC detector. The specificity for VCM is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations...EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations...EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1152 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1152 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1152 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations...CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations...CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations...CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

  9. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations...EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations...EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1152 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations...CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations...CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations...EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1152 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

  18. [Effect of lithium and cesium ions on the effects of catecholamines and serotonin introduced into the rat hippocampus].

    PubMed

    Zin'kovskaia, L Ia; Komissarov, I V; Tikhonov, V N

    1975-01-01

    Local micro-injection of dophamine, norepinephrine and serotonin into the dorsal hippocampus of rats in doses of 5gamma does not affect the muscle tone and spontaneous motor activity of the animals, but lengthens the latent period of the conditioned avoidance reflex (CAR). When administered into the hippocampus in the same dose 15 minutes after injection of lithium chloride (1gamma equiv) dophamine inhibits stronger the CAR and noticeably stimulates the motor activity. At the same time, a preliminary injection of lithium cloride into the hippocampus does not change the action of norepinephrine and serotonin on the length of the latent CAR period, but, when used against the background of lithium chloride, norepinephrine depresses the motor activity. PMID:1227876

  19. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  20. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M. (Stanford, CA); Muller, Jochen A. (Baltimore, MD); Rosner, Bettina M. (Berlin, DE); Von Abendroth, Gregory (Nannhein, DE); Meshulam-Simon, Galit (Los Altos, CA); McCarty, Perry L (Stanford, CA)

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  1. Coercive fields in ferroelectrics: A case study in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate

    E-print Network

    Gopalan, Venkatraman

    Coercive fields in ferroelectrics: A case study in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate Sungwon lithium niobate (LiNbO3) and lithium tantalate (LiTaO3), which are technologically important,6,7 and typi

  2. Multifunctional Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Hodgson, Ed; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    A system for non-venting thermal control for spacesuits was built by integrating two previously developed technologies, namely NASA's Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare's flexible version of the Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). This SEAR system was tested in relevant thermal vacuum conditions. These tests show that a 1 sq m radiator having about three times as much absorption media as in the test article would be required to support a 7 hour spacewalk. The serial flow arrangement of the LCAR of the flexible version proved to be inefficient for venting non-condensable gas (NCG). A different LCAR packaging arrangement was conceived wherein the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) housing would be made with a high-strength carbon fiber composite honeycomb, the cells of which would be filled with the chemical absorption media. This new packaging reduce the mass and volume impact of the SEAR on the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) compared to the flexible design. A 0.2 sq m panel with flight-like honeycomb geometry is being constructed and will be tested in thermal and thermal vacuum conditions. Design analyses forecast improved system performance and improved NCG control. A flight-like regeneration system also is also being built and tested. Design analyses for the structurally integrated prototype as well as the earlier test data show that SEAR is not only practical for spacesuits but also has useful applications in spacecraft thermal control.

  3. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  5. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  6. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  7. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  8. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2, CAS...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  9. Chloride Channels: Often Enigmatic, Rarely Predictable

    E-print Network

    Chloride Channels: Often Enigmatic, Rarely Predictable Charity Duran,1 Christopher H. Thompson,2C: 9-gene family of chloride channels Transporter: a protein that uses energy of one ion to transport another ion uphill A SHORT HISTORY OF CHLORIDE IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS Not long ago, Cl- channels were

  10. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2, CAS...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely...

  14. interdisciplinary Effects of cadmium chloride on mouse

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    interdisciplinary Effects of cadmium chloride on mouse inner medullary collecting duct cells Eun of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was evaluated on renal inner medullary collecting duct cells (mIMCD3). The 24 hr sensitive to CdCl2 exposure. KEY WORDS: cadmium chloride; cytotoxicity; kidney; mIMCD3 cells Correspondence

  15. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food and...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12 ·6H2 O, CAS Reg. No....

  17. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and...Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food and...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12 ·6H2 O, CAS Reg. No....

  19. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and...Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food and...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7)...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food and...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12 ·6H2 O, CAS Reg. No....

  2. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and...Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in...

  3. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and...Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food and...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7)...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food and...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7)...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2 ·4H2 O, CAS Reg. No....

  7. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and...Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food and...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7)...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food and...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12 ·6H2 O, CAS Reg. No....

  10. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7786-30-3) is a... prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  15. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely...

  16. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must...

  17. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must...

  18. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in asparagus packed...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride....

  1. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must...

  2. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O,...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O,...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT... GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2, CAS Reg. No. 7773-01-5) is a...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13 . 6H2 0, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1)...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  20. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b)...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  3. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  8. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  9. Recent Liquid Lithium Limiter Experiments in CDX-U

    SciTech Connect

    R. Majeski; S. Jardin; R. Kaita; T. Gray; P. Marfuta; J. Spaleta; J. Timberlake; L. Zakharov; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Seraydarian; V. Soukhanovskii; R. Maingi; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; D. Rodgers; S. Angelini

    2005-05-03

    Recent experiments in the Current Drive eXperiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) provide a first-ever test of large area liquid lithium surfaces as a tokamak first wall, to gain engineering experience with a liquid metal first wall, and to investigate whether very low recycling plasma regimes can be accessed with lithium walls. The CDX-U is a compact (R=34 cm, a=22 cm, B{sub toroidal} = 2 kG, I{sub P} =100 kA, T{sub e}(0) {approx} 100 eV, n{sub e}(0) {approx} 5 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) spherical torus at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. A toroidal liquid lithium pool limiter with an area of 2000 cm{sup 2} (half the total plasma limiting surface) has been installed in CDX-U. Tokamak discharges which used the liquid lithium pool limiter required a fourfold lower loop voltage to sustain the plasma current, and a factor of 5-8 increase in gas fueling to achieve a comparable density, indicating that recycling is strongly reduced. Modeling of the discharges demonstrated that the lithium limited discharges are consistent with Z{sub effective} < 1.2 (compared to 2.4 for the pre-lithium discharges), a broadened current channel, and a 25% increase in the core electron temperature. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that edge oxygen and carbon radiation are strongly reduced.

  10. Liquid Lithium Limiter Experiments in CDX-U

    SciTech Connect

    R. Majeski; S. Jardin; R. Kaita; T. Gray; P. Marfuta; J. Spaleta; J. Timberlake; L. Zakharov; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Seraydarian; V. Soukhanovskii; R. Maingi; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; D. Rodgers

    2004-10-28

    Recent experiments in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade provide a first-ever test of large area liquid lithium surfaces as a tokamak first wall, to gain engineering experience with a liquid metal first wall, and to investigate whether very low recycling plasma regimes can be accessed with lithium walls. The CDX-U is a compact (R = 34 cm, a = 22 cm, B{sub toroidal} = 2 kG, I{sub P} = 100 kA, T{sub e}(0) = 100 eV, n{sub e}(0) {approx} 5 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) spherical torus at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. A toroidal liquid lithium tray limiter with an area of 2000 cm{sup 2} (half the total plasma limiting surface) has been installed in CDX-U. Tokamak discharges which used the liquid lithium limiter required a fourfold lower loop voltage to sustain the plasma current, and a factor of 5-8 increase in gas fueling to achieve a comparable density, indicating that recycling is strongly reduced. Modeling of the discharges demonstrated that the lithium-limited discharges are consistent with Z{sub effective} < 1.2 (compared to 2.4 for the pre-lithium discharges), a broadened current channel, and a 25% increase in the core electron temperature. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that edge oxygen and carbon radiation are strongly reduced.

  11. Pyroelectric field assisted ion migration induced by ultraviolet laser irradiation and its impact on ferroelectric domain inversion in lithium niobate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, C. Y. J.; Mailis, S.; Daniell, G. J.; Steigerwald, H.; Soergel, E.

    2013-08-28

    The impact of UV laser irradiation on the distribution of lithium ions in ferroelectric lithium niobate single crystals has been numerically modelled. Strongly absorbed UV radiation at wavelengths of 244–305 nm produces steep temperature gradients which cause lithium ions to migrate and result in a local variation of the lithium concentration. In addition to the diffusion, here the pyroelectric effect is also taken into account which predicts a complex distribution of lithium concentration along the c-axis of the crystal: two separated lithium deficient regions on the surface and in depth. The modelling on the local lithium concentration and the subsequent variation of the coercive field are used to explain experimental results on the domain inversion of such UV treated lithium niobate crystals.

  12. The interaction energies and polarizabilities of sodium fluoride, sodium chloride, and some alkali and halide ions pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounds, David G.; Hinchliffe, Alan

    1982-02-01

    Ab initio SCF pair potentials and polarizabilities for NaF, NaCl, F 2-2, Na 2-2, K 2-2, FCl 2-, LiNa 2+, LiK 2+, presented. Together with results reported previously, these values form a complete and consistent set of energy and polarizability data on the fluorides and chlorides of lithium, sodium and potassium.

  13. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  14. An XAFS Study of Tantalum Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride/ aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Tantalum chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs). Anhydrous Ta2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic solution than in the acidic solution and the X-ray absorption data shows that the coordination shell of chlorides around the tantalum is larger in the basic solution. In the acidic solution, tantalum has five chlorides in its coordination shell while in the basic solution; the tantalum is coordinated by seven chlorides. This indicates that the Lewis acidity of the tantalum chloride causes the Ta to coordinate differently in the acidic and the basic solutions.

  15. [Why must we manufacture vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride?].

    PubMed

    Bauer, H

    1976-09-16

    The manufacture of PVC is necessary for supplying the demands of modern society, for maintaining the equilibrium in the chemical industry such as the manufacture of caustic soda solution-chlorine by means of rocksalt electrolysis, and for the safe disposal of chlorine for environmental reasons. The manufacture of vinyl chloride and dichloroethane is illustrated. The conventional processing of PVC into consumer goods, after treatment of rigid and plasticized PVC compounds or granulate, is demonstrated. PMID:976919

  16. Development of Lithium CPS Based Limiters for Realization of a Concept of Closed Lithium Circulation Loop in Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkov, M. Yu.; Vertkov, A. V.; Lyublinski, I. E.; Mirnov, S. V.; Lazarev, V. B.; Szherbak, A. N.

    Cooling of tokamak boundary plasma owing to radiation of non-fully stripped lithium ions is considered as a promising way for protection of plasma facing elements (PFE) in tokamak. It may be effectively realized when the main part of lithium ions are involved in the closed circuit of migration between plasma and PFE surface. Such an approach may be implemented with the use of lithium device whose hot (500-600 °C) area to be effected by plasma serves as a Li-emitter and the cold part (?180 °C) as a Li-collector in the shadow. Capillary-pore system (CPS) provides the returning of collected and condensed lithium to emitting zone by capillary forces. The main goals of the last T-11 M lithium experiments were investigating Li ions transport in the tokamak scrape of layer (SOL) and their collecting by different kinds of limiters. The design of devices based on lithium CPS with different ratio of emitting/collecting area is the main subject of this paper.

  17. Micro-and nanoscale domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate

    E-print Network

    Byer, Robert L.

    Micro- and nanoscale domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate Vladimir Ya. Shur investigation of the domain evolution in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate during backswitched electric sources based on quasi-phase matching.11 Lithium niobate LiNbO3 (LN) and lithium tantalate LiTaO3 (LT

  18. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... for mailpieces containing lithium metal or lithium-ion cells or batteries and applies regardless of...'' instead of ``lithium content'' for secondary lithium-ion batteries when describing maximum quantity limits...-ion (Rechargeable) Cells and Batteries Small consumer-type lithium-ion cells and batteries like...

  19. Differential role of dopamine in drug- and lithium-conditioned saccharin avoidance.

    PubMed

    Fenu, S; Rivas, E; Di Chiara, G

    2005-05-19

    Rats learn to avoid palatable saccharin solutions that predict the systemic administration of reinforcing drugs as well as malaise-inducing lithium chloride (conditioned saccharin avoidance, CSA). In the present study the involvement of dopamine (DA) transmission in the acquisition of morphine, nicotine and lithium-conditioned CSA was investigated in a two-bottle choice paradigm. Nicotine tartrate (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg s.c.) administered 15 min after saccharin presentation induced CSA, with a maximum effect at 0.4 mg/kg. The DA D1 receptor antagonist, SCH 39166 (0.1 mg/kg s.c.) and the DA D2 receptor antagonist raclopride (0.3 mg/kg s.c.), administered immediately after saccharin, prevented CSA induced by the lower but not by the higher dose of nicotine. However, combined administration of the two antagonists prevented CSA induced by the higher dose of nicotine. SCH 39166 prevented CSA induced by all morphine doses while raclopride prevented only CSA induced by the lowest dose of morphine (1.75 mg/kg). CSA induced by different doses of lithium given by the same schedule of drug-CSA (i.e. two pairings, 15 min after saccharin) was not affected by SCH 39166. However SCH 39166 impaired the acquisition of lithium-CSA when lithium was given 60 min after saccharin. In contrast, raclopride failed to affect lithium-CSA independently from the delay between saccharin and lithium. These results suggest that DA can play different roles in drug- and in lithium-CSA and are consistent with a different mechanism of drug- as compared to lithium-CSA. PMID:15924904

  20. Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, D.R.; Friedman, I.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 ?? 1010 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park. ?? 1985.

  1. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  2. Lithium disulfide battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A negative electrode limited secondary electrochemical cell having dense FeS.sub.2 positive electrode operating exclusively on the upper plateau, a Li alloy negative electrode and a suitable lithium-containing electrolyte. The electrolyte preferably is 25 mole percent LiCl, 38 mole percent LiBr and 37 mole percent KBr. The cell may be operated isothermally.

  3. Sodium-aluminum chloride cells

    SciTech Connect

    Granstaff, S.M. Jr.; Auborn, J.J.; Hooper, A.

    1981-01-01

    Secondary cells using solid electrolytes, with molten sodium anodes and having cathodes composed of sulfur compounds and aluminum chloride have been cycled for over 800 deep cycles on a 2.7 volt plateau at moderate temperatures (150-200/degree/C). At these temperatures and operating in a basic solution, the cells avoid the corrosion problems of other higher temperature or acidic solution sodium-sulfur cells. 14 refs.

  4. Suicidal poisoning with barium chloride.

    PubMed

    Jourdan, S; Bertoni, M; Sergio, P; Michele, P; Rossi, M

    2001-06-15

    A 49-year-old male pharmacist suffering from depression phoned the emergency services telling of how he had ingested barium chloride. He was found semicomatose in bed and resuscitation attempts were to no avail and he died at the scene. A white plastic container labelled "Barium chloride... Poison", and a book with a writing on a blank page... "give sulphate... SO(4)" were found. At autopsy, 1l of whitish-yellow fluid was found in the stomach. Autopsy barium levels were: blood 9.9mg/l; bile 8.8mg/l; urine 6.3mg/l; gastric 10.0g/l. Cause of death was given as cardiorespiratory arrest due to barium chloride poisoning. The issue of barium toxicity in a variety of itatrogenic and non itatrogenic situation is discussed together with the two only other cases of suicidal barium ingestion, and the feasibility of early intervention at the scene by an emergency team. PMID:11376995

  5. Contamination of lithium heparin blood by K2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA): an experimental evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Brocco, Giorgio; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The contamination of serum or lithium heparin blood with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) salts may affect accuracy of some critical analytes and jeopardize patient safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lithium heparin sample contamination with different amounts of K2EDTA. Materials and methods: Fifteen volunteers were enrolled among the laboratory staff. Two lithium heparin tubes and one K2EDTA tube were collected from each subject. The lithium-heparin tubes of each subject were pooled and divided in 5 aliquots. The whole blood of K2EDTA tube was then added in scalar amount to autologous heparinised aliquots, to obtained different degrees of K2EDTA blood volume contamination (0%; 5%; 13%; 29%; 43%). The following clinical chemistry parameters were then measured in centrifuged aliquots: alanine aminotranspherase (ALT), bilirubin (total), calcium, chloride, creatinine, iron, lactate dehydrogenase (LD), lipase, magnesium, phosphate, potassium, sodium. Results: A significant variation starting from 5% K2EDTA contamination was observed for calcium, chloride, iron, LD, magnesium (all decreased) and potassium (increased). The variation of phosphate and sodium (both increased) was significant after 13% and 29% K2EDTA contamination, respectively. The values of ALT, bilirubin, creatinine and lipase remained unchanged up to 43% K2EDTA contamination. When variations were compared with desirable quality specifications, the bias was significant for calcium, chloride, LD, magnesium and potassium (from 5% K2EDTA contamination), sodium, phosphate and iron (from 29% K2EDTA contamination). Conclusions: The concentration of calcium, magnesium, potassium, chloride and LD appears to be dramatically biased by even modest K2EDTA contamination (i.e., 5%). The values of iron, phosphate, and sodium are still reliable up to 29% K2EDTA contamination, whereas ALT, bilirubin, creatinine and lipase appear overall less vulnerable towards K2EDTA contamination. PMID:25351354

  6. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ...SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final...outbound international mailing of lithium batteries and devices containing lithium batteries. This prohibition also extends to the...

  7. Laser microstructuring and annealing processes for lithium manganese oxide cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pröll, J.; Kohler, R.; Torge, M.; Ulrich, S.; Ziebert, C.; Bruns, M.; Seifert, H. J.; Pfleging, W.

    2011-09-01

    It is expected that cathodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIB) composed out of nano-composite materials lead to an increase in power density of the LIB due to large electrochemically active surface areas but cathodes made of lithium manganese oxides (Li-Mn-O) suffer from structural instabilities due to their sensitivity to the average manganese oxidation state. Therefore, thin films in the Li-Mn-O system were synthesized by non-reactive radiofrequency magnetron sputtering of a spinel lithium manganese oxide target. For the enhancement of the power density and cycle stability, large area direct laser patterning using UV-laser radiation with a wavelength of 248 nm was performed. Subsequent laser annealing processes were investigated in a second step in order to set up a spinel-like phase using 940 nm laser radiation at a temperature of 680 °C. The interaction processes between UV-laser radiation and the material was investigated using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The changes in phase, structure and grain shape of the thin films due to the annealing process were recorded using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The structured cathodes were cycled using standard electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode. Different surface structures were investigated and a significant increase in cycling stability was found. Surface chemistry of an as-deposited as well as an electrochemically cycled thin film was investigated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  8. High-Capacity Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal control systems for space suits and spacecraft will need to meet critical requirements for water conservation and multifunctional operation. This paper describes a Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) that has been designed to meet performance requirements for future life support systems. A SEAR system comprises a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR) for heat rejection coupled with a space water membrane evaporator (SWME) for heat acquisition. SEAR systems provide heat pumping to minimize radiator size, thermal storage to accommodate variable environmental conditions, and water absorption to minimize use of expendables. We have built and tested a flight-like, high-capacity LCAR, demonstrated its performance in thermal vacuum tests, and explored the feasibility of an ISS demonstration test of a SEAR system. The new LCAR design provides the same cooling capability as prior LCAR prototypes while enabling over 30% more heat absorbing capacity. Studies show that it should be feasible to demonstrate SEAR operation in flight by coupling with an existing EMU on the space station.

  9. High-Capacity Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal control systems for space suits and spacecraft will need to meet critical requirements for water conservation and adaptability to highly variable thermal environments. This paper describes a Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) that has been designed to meet performance requirements for future life support systems. A SEAR system comprises a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR) for heat rejection coupled with a space water membrane evaporator (SWME) for heat acquisition. SEAR systems provide heat pumping to minimize radiator size, thermal storage to accommodate variable environmental conditions, and water absorption to minimize use of expendables. We have built and tested a flightlike, high-capacity LCAR, demonstrated its performance in thermal vacuum tests, and explored the feasibility of an ISS demonstration test of a SEAR system. The new LCAR design provides the same cooling capability as prior LCAR prototypes while enabling over 30% more heat absorbing capacity. Studies show that it should be feasible to demonstrate SEAR operation in flight by coupling with an existing EMU on the space station.

  10. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m/sup 3/ lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion.

  11. The history of lithium therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The use of lithium in psychiatry goes back to the mid-19th century. Early work, however, was soon forgotten, and John Cade is credited with reintroducing lithium to psychiatry for mania in 1949. Mogens Schou undertook a randomly controlled trial for mania in 1954, and in the course of that study became curious about lithium as a prophylactic for depressive illness. In 1970, the United States became the 50th country to admit lithium to the marketplace. Meanwhile, interest in lithium for the prophylaxis of depression was growing apace and today the agent is widely prescribed for that indication, even though it has not been accepted by the Food and Drug Administration. Lithium was almost derailed by a small group of opponents from the Maudsley Hospital and its status today is threatened by the “mood stabilizers.” PMID:19538681

  12. Occlusion and ion exchange in the molten (lithium chloride + potassium chloride + alkaline earth chloride) salt + zeolite 4A system with alkaline earth chlorides of calcium and strontium, and in the molten (lithium chloride + potassium chloride + actinide chloride) salt + zeolite 4A system with the actinide chloride of uranium.

    SciTech Connect

    Lexa, D.; Chemical Engineering

    2003-04-01

    The interaction between molten salts of the type LiCl-KCl-MeCl n (Me=Ca, Sr, U; x{sub MeCLn} $$ = to 0.45; and x {sub KCl}/x LiCl=0.69) and zeolite 4A have been studied at 823 K. The main interactions between these salts and zeolite are molten salt occlusion to form salt-loaded zeolite and ion exchange between the molten salt and salt-loaded zeolite. An irreversible chemical reaction has been observed in the LiCl-KCl-UCl{sup 3+}zeolite system. The extent of occlusion is a function of the concentration of MeCl n in the zeolite and is equal to 10{+-}1 Cl- per zeolite unit cell, (AlSiO{sub 4}){sub 12}, at infinite MeCl n dilution. The ion-exchange mole-fraction equilibrium constants (separation factors) with respect to Li are decreasing functions of the concentration of SrCl{sub 2} and UCl{sub 3}, but an increasing function of the concentration of CaCl{sub 2} in the zeolite. At infinite MeCl n dilution, they are equal to 0.9, 11.9, and 13 for CaCl{sub 2}, SrCl{sub 2}, and UCl{sub 3}, respectively. The standard ion-exchange chemical potentials are equal to -50.0, -84, and -101.1 kJ x mol-1 for Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, and U{sup 3+}, respectively.

  13. Time-resolved energy transfer from single chloride-terminated nanocrystals to graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O. A. E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu; Wong, C. W. E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu; Anderson, N. C.; Wolcott, A.; Owen, J. S.; Cotlet, M.; Petrone, N.; Hone, J.; Gu, T.; Gesuele, F.

    2014-04-28

    We examine the time-resolved resonance energy transfer of excitons from single n-butyl amine-bound, chloride-terminated nanocrystals to two-dimensional graphene through time-correlated single photon counting. The radiative biexponential lifetime kinetics and blinking statistics of the individual surface-modified nanocrystal elucidate the non-radiative decay channels. Blinking modification as well as a 4× reduction in spontaneous emission were observed with the short chloride and n-butylamine ligands, probing the energy transfer pathways for the development of graphene-nanocrystal nanophotonic devices.

  14. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  15. Membranes in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  16. An XAFS Study of Niobium chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Niobium chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Although anhydrous Nb2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic melt than in the acidic melt, the EXAFS data shows that the coordination shell around the niobium does not change in the different ionic liquids. Both the acidic and basic melts show a coordination of five chlorides in the first shell. This indicates that in this series of ionic liquids, the Nb2Cl10 breaks up into two NbCl5 entities in both the acidic and the basic melts.

  17. Metal chloride cathode for a battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Bankston, C. Perry (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method of fabricating a rechargeable battery is disclosed which includes a positive electrode which contains a chloride of a selected metal when the electrode is in its active state. The improvement comprises fabricating the positive electrode by: providing a porous matrix composed of a metal; providing a solution of the chloride of the selected metal; and impregnating the matrix with the chloride from the solution.

  18. Fabrication Of Metal Chloride Cathodes By Sintering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Di Stefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

    1992-01-01

    Transition-metal chloride cathodes for use in high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries prepared by sintering transition-metal powders mixed with sodium chloride. Need for difficult and dangerous chlorination process eliminated. Proportions of transition metal and sodium chloride in mixture adjusted to suit specific requirements. Cathodes integral to sodium/metal-chloride batteries, which have advantages over sodium/sulfur batteries including energy densities, increased safety, reduced material and thermal-management problems, and ease of operation and assembly. Being evaluated for supplying electrical power during peak demand and electric vehicles.

  19. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject...

  20. Production of chlorine from chloride salts

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A. (Kennewick, WA)

    1981-01-01

    A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

  1. Environment assisted degradation mechanisms in aluminum-lithium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Swanson, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Section 1 of this report records the progress achieved on NASA-LaRC Grant NAG-1-745 (Environment Assisted Degradation Mechanisms in Al-Li Alloys), and is based on research conducted during the period April 1 to November 30, 1987. A discussion of work proposed for the project's second year is included. Section 2 provides an overview of the need for research on the mechanisms of environmental-mechanical degradation of advanced aerospace alloys based on aluminum and lithium. This research is to provide NASA with the basis necessary to permit metallurgical optimization of alloy performance and engineering design with respect to damage tolerance, long term durability and reliability. Section 3 reports on damage localization mechanisms in aqueous chloride corrosion fatigue of aluminum-lithium alloys. Section 4 reports on progress made on measurements and mechanisms of localized aqueous corrosion in aluminum-lithium alloys. Section 5 provides a detailed technical proposal for research on environmental degradation of Al-Li alloys, and the effect of hydrogen in this.

  2. Electrophoretic Deposition for Inexpensive Carbon Nano-Composite Lithium Air Battery Cathodes Vanderbilt Institute of Nanoscale Science and Engineering Research Experience for Undergraduates Summer 2013

    E-print Network

    substrate Etch away substrate with Ferric Chloride Assemble Coin Cell Porous cap Carbon matrix cathodeElectrophoretic Deposition for Inexpensive Carbon Nano-Composite Lithium Air Battery Cathodes such as carbon nano- tube carpets [3], show great promise as cathode materials. We believe that car- bon

  3. Nuclear quantum effects on the high pressure melting of dense lithium Yexin Feng, Ji Chen, Dario Alf, Xin-Zheng Li, and Enge Wang

    E-print Network

    Alfè, Dario

    ­liquid transitions of sodium chloride at high pressures J. Chem. Phys. 125, 154510 (2006); 10Nuclear quantum effects on the high pressure melting of dense lithium Yexin Feng, Ji Chen, Dario, 14 Apr 2015 13:42:31 #12;THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 142, 064506 (2015) Nuclear quantum effects

  4. Nuclear quantum effects on the high pressure melting of dense lithium Yexin Feng, Ji Chen, Dario Alf, Xin-Zheng Li, and Enge Wang

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Ian

    ­liquid transitions of sodium chloride at high pressures J. Chem. Phys. 125, 154510 (2006); 10Nuclear quantum effects on the high pressure melting of dense lithium Yexin Feng, Ji Chen, Dario, 11 Mar 2015 13:41:58 #12;THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 142, 064506 (2015) Nuclear quantum effects

  5. Irreversible gettering of thionyl chloride

    SciTech Connect

    LeRoy Whinnery; Steve Goods; George Buffleben; Tim Sheppodd

    1999-11-01

    The authors have successfully demonstrated the irreversible gettering of SOCl{sub 2} by ZnO/ASZMTEDA carbon over a modest temperature range. While thionyl chloride decomposition was slow below {minus}20 C, lower temperatures are expected to be less of a problem than at higher temperatures. The approximately 30 cc of thionyl chloride in a typical D-cell would require 50 g of ZnO and 107 g of ASZMTEDA carbon. Fortunately, since it is unlikely to happen at all, it is common practice to assume only one cell will fail (leak) in a given battery pack. So, one charge of getter can protect the whole battery pack. In summary, ZnO/ASZMTEDA carbon fulfills all of the requirements of an ideal getter including: irreversible binding or reaction with SOCl{sub 2}, high volumetric uptake capacity, high efficiency, non-volatile, air stable, insensitive to poisoning, non-toxic, cheap, non-corrosive, and the gettering product is not a liquid or oil that could block further flow or accessibility. Future work in this area includes incorporation of the ZnO and carbon into a structural open-celled porous monolith, as well as, gettering for other types of batteries (e.g., Li/MnO{sub 2}).

  6. Probing the role of chloride in Photosystem II from Thermosynechococcus elongatus by exchanging chloride for iodide

    E-print Network

    quinones, 3­4 calcium ions, one of which in the Mn4CaO5 clus- ter, 3 chloride ions, among these three onlyProbing the role of chloride in Photosystem II from Thermosynechococcus elongatus by exchanging chloride for iodide Alain Boussac a, , Naoko Ishida a , Miwa Sugiura b,c , Fabrice Rappaport d a i

  7. 21 CFR 862.1170 - Chloride test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloride test system. 862.1170 Section 862.1170....1170 Chloride test system. (a) Identification. A chloride test system is a device intended to measure the level of chloride in plasma, serum, sweat, and urine. Chloride measurements are used in...

  8. Composition dependence of lithium diffusivity in lithium niobate at high temperature

    E-print Network

    Fejer, Martin M.

    Composition dependence of lithium diffusivity in lithium niobate at high temperature D. H. Jundt on the diffusivity of lithium in lithium niobate at 1100 "C in the crystallographic z direction over the composition niobate crystal with a widely varying diffusion-limited lithium concentration profile. The profile

  9. XAFS Studies of Ni Ta and Nb Chlorides in the Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl Imidazolium Chloride / Aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    W OGrady; D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek

    2011-12-31

    The structures of anhydrous nickel, niobium, and tantalum chlorides have been investigated in situ in acidic and basic ionic liquids (ILs) of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (EMIC)/AlCl{sub 3} with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The coordination of NiCl{sub 2} changes from tetrahedral in basic solution to octahedral in acidic solution. The NiCl{sub 2} is a strong Lewis acid in that it can induce the AlCl{sub 3} to share its chlorides in the highly acidic IL, forming a structure with six near Cl{sup -} ions and eight further distant Al ions which share the chloride ions surrounding the Ni{sup 2+}. When Nb{sub 2}Cl{sub 10}, a dimer, is added to the acidic or basic solution, the dimer breaks apart and forms two species. In the acid solution, two trigonal bipyramids are formed with five equal chloride distances, while in the basic solution, a square pyramid with four chlorides forming a square base and one shorter axial chloride bond. Ta{sub 2}Cl{sub 10} is also a dimer and divides into half in the acidic solution and forms two trigonal bipyramids. In the basic solution, the dimer breaks apart but the species formed is sufficiently acidic that it attracts two additional chloride ions and forms a seven coordinated tantalum species.

  10. Investigation of Lithium Ion Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Leonine; Rao, Gopalkrishna M.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the Storage Study is to establish a best long term storage for the lithium cells, to determine the preferred solstice condition for the lithium ion chemistry (polymer and liquid electrolyte, and to compare voltage clamped with trickle charge storage. The study is presented is viewgraph form.

  11. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  12. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  13. Comparing polyaluminum chloride and ferric chloride for antimony removal.

    PubMed

    Kang, Meea; Kamei, Tasuku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2003-10-01

    Antimony has been one of the contaminants required to be regulated, however, only limited information has been collected to date regarding antimony removal by polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride (FC). Accordingly, the possible use of coagulation by PACl or FC for antimony removal was investigated. Jar tests were used to determine the effects of solution pH, coagulant dosage, and pre-chlorination on the removal of various antimony species. Although high-efficiency antimony removal by aluminum coagulation has been expected because antimony is similar to arsenic in that both antimony and arsenic are a kind of metalloid in group V of the periodic chart, this study indicated: (1) removal density (arsenic or antimony removed per mg coagulant) for antimony by PACl was about one forty-fifth as low as observed for As(V); (2) although the removal of both Sb(III) and Sb(V) by coagulation with FC was much higher than that of PACl, a high coagulant dose of 10.5mg of FeL(-1) at optimal pH of 5.0 was still not sufficient to meet the standard antimony level of 2 microg as SbL(-1) for drinking water when around 6 microg as SbL(-1) were initially present. Consequently, investigation of a more appropriate treatment process is necessary to develop economical Sb reduction; (3) although previous studies concluded that As(V) is more effectively removed than As(III), this study showed that the removal of Sb(III) by coagulation with FC was much more pronounced than that of Sb(V); (4) oxidation of Sb(III) with chlorine decreased the ability of FC to remove antimony. Accordingly, natural water containing Sb(III) under anoxic condition should be coagulated without pre-oxidation. PMID:12946899

  14. Lithium-selective phosphine oxide-based ditopic receptors show enhanced halide binding upon alkali metal ion coordination†

    PubMed Central

    Gavette, Jesse V.; Lara, Juven; Reling, Linda L.; Haley, Michael M.; Johnson, Darren W.

    2012-01-01

    Previous work on a ditopic receptor based on a tripodal phosphine oxide core demonstrated preferential enhancement of bromide binding over chloride or iodide in the presence of lithium cation. Current studies on an elongated receptor provide evidence that preferential bromide binding enhancement in the presence of lithium cation is common to this receptor class in general, and that lengthening of the receptor results in an overall increase in halide association. Furthermore, the extended receptor shows a strong preference for Li+ binding in solution. PMID:23505609

  15. Inositol, lithium, and the brain.

    PubMed

    Agranoff, B W; Fisher, S K

    2001-01-01

    This review of the background and present state of knowledge of the interactions of inositol metabolism and lithium commemorates the 150th anniversaries of the discovery of inositol and, independently, of first attempts to use lithium as a therapeutic agent. We review the inositol depletion hypothesis, which proposes that lithium's beneficial action in the treatment of bipolar disorder is attributable to its inhibition of the enzymatic breakdown of inositol phosphates to free inositol. A resulting reduction in free intracellular inositol is proposed to slow the recycling of inositol-containing metabolites required for signal transduction. We offer an alternative hypothesis, which is also based on lithium's blockade of inositol phosphatase, but proposes that neural signal transduction is suppressed as a consequence of lithium-induced inositol phosphate accumulation rather than of inositol depletion. PMID:12397875

  16. CHLORIDE RESPONSE OF SPRING WHEAT VARIETIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the research reported here was to measure the chloride response of different small grain varieties under controlled environments. Three greenhouse experiments were conducted in which nutrient solutions containing different levels of chloride were applied to different varieties of h...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section are identical to those set forth at 29 CFR 1910.1052. ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section are identical to those set forth at 29 CFR 1910.1052. ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to those set forth at 29 CFR 1910.1052. ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to those set forth at 29 CFR 1910.1052. ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride....

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section are identical to those set forth at 29 CFR 1910.1052. ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152...

  7. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section are identical to those set forth at 29 CFR 1910.1052. ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section are identical to those set forth at 29 CFR 1910.1052. ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to those set forth at 29 CFR 1910.1052. ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to those set forth at 29 CFR 1910.1052. ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to those set forth at 29 CFR 1910.1052. ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  18. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Commission found that the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (74 FR 31757... Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... chloride from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Chloride Vinyl Chloride is a Cancer-Suspect Agent (5) Containers...Flammable Gas Under Pressure Cancer Suspect Agent or (ii) In...with the additional legend: Cancer-Suspect Agent applied near...examination for albumin, red blood cells, and exfoliative abnormal...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CHLORIDE VINYL CHLORIDE IS A CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT (5...FLAMMABLE GAS UNDER PRESSURE CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT (ii) In...near the label or placard: CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT (6) No...examination for albumin, red blood cells, and exfoliative abnormal...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CHLORIDE VINYL CHLORIDE IS A CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT (5...FLAMMABLE GAS UNDER PRESSURE CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT (ii) In...near the label or placard: CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT (6) No...examination for albumin, red blood cells, and exfoliative abnormal...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CHLORIDE VINYL CHLORIDE IS A CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT (5...FLAMMABLE GAS UNDER PRESSURE CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT (ii) In...near the label or placard: CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT (6) No...examination for albumin, red blood cells, and exfoliative abnormal...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Chloride Vinyl Chloride is a Cancer-Suspect Agent (5) Containers...Flammable Gas Under Pressure Cancer Suspect Agent or (ii) In...with the additional legend: Cancer-Suspect Agent applied near...examination for albumin, red blood cells, and exfoliative abnormal...

  4. Process for synthesis of beryllium chloride dietherate

    DOEpatents

    Bergeron, Charles (Baton Rouge, LA); Bullard, John E. (Kendall Park, NJ); Morgan, Evan (Lynchburg, VA)

    1991-01-01

    A low temperature method of producing beryllium chloride dietherate through the addition of hydrogen chloride gas to a mixture of beryllium metal in ether in a reaction vessel is described. A reflux condenser provides an exit for hydrogen produced form the reaction. A distillation condenser later replaces the reflux condenser for purifying the resultant product.

  5. Hydrocracking with molten zinc chloride catalyst containing 2-12% ferrous chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA); Bagshaw, Gary H. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. by contacting the feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten zinc chloride catalyst and thereafter separating at least a major portion of the hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten zinc chloride catalyst, an improvement comprising: adjusting the FeCl.sub.2 content of the molten zinc chloride to from about 2 to about 12 mol percent based on the mixture of ferrous chloride and molten zinc chloride.

  6. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used...

  7. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250 ...Special Use Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1170 - Chloride test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chloride test system. 862.1170 Section 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1170 Chloride test system. (a) Identification. A chloride test system is a device intended to...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1740 - Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. 154...Requirements § 154.1740 Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. When a vessel is carrying vinyl chloride, the master shall ensure that:...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1745 - Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations. 154.1745...Operating Requirements § 154.1745 Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations. A vessel carrying vinyl chloride must meet the requirements of §...

  11. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used...

  12. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250 ...Special Use Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all...

  13. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250 ...Special Use Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1170 - Chloride test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chloride test system. 862.1170 Section 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1170 Chloride test system. (a) Identification. A chloride test system is a device intended to...

  15. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250 ...Special Use Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all...

  16. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used...

  17. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1740 - Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. 154...Requirements § 154.1740 Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. When a vessel is carrying vinyl chloride, the master shall ensure that:...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1845 - Stannous chloride (anhydrous and dihydrated).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stannous chloride (anhydrous and dihydrated). 184...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1845 Stannous chloride (anhydrous and dihydrated). (a) Stannous chloride is anhydrous or contains two...

  20. 21 CFR 178.3290 - Chromic chloride complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromic chloride complexes. 178.3290 Section 178.3290...and Production Aids § 178.3290 Chromic chloride complexes. Myristo chromic chloride complex and stearato chromic...

  1. 21 CFR 178.3290 - Chromic chloride complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chromic chloride complexes. 178.3290 Section 178.3290...and Production Aids § 178.3290 Chromic chloride complexes. Myristo chromic chloride complex and stearato chromic...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1170 - Chloride test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chloride test system. 862.1170 Section 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1170 Chloride test system. (a) Identification. A chloride test system is a device intended to...

  3. 21 CFR 178.3290 - Chromic chloride complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromic chloride complexes. 178.3290 Section 178.3290...and Production Aids § 178.3290 Chromic chloride complexes. Myristo chromic chloride complex and stearato chromic...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1745 - Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations. 154.1745...Operating Requirements § 154.1745 Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations. A vessel carrying vinyl chloride must meet the requirements of §...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1745 - Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations. 154.1745...Operating Requirements § 154.1745 Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations. A vessel carrying vinyl chloride must meet the requirements of §...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1745 - Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations. 154.1745...Operating Requirements § 154.1745 Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations. A vessel carrying vinyl chloride must meet the requirements of §...

  7. 21 CFR 178.3290 - Chromic chloride complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chromic chloride complexes. 178.3290 Section 178.3290...and Production Aids § 178.3290 Chromic chloride complexes. Myristo chromic chloride complex and stearato chromic...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1745 - Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations. 154.1745...Operating Requirements § 154.1745 Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations. A vessel carrying vinyl chloride must meet the requirements of §...

  9. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250 ...Special Use Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all...

  10. 21 CFR 178.3290 - Chromic chloride complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chromic chloride complexes. 178.3290 Section 178.3290...and Production Aids § 178.3290 Chromic chloride complexes. Myristo chromic chloride complex and stearato chromic...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1845 - Stannous chloride (anhydrous and dihydrated).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stannous chloride (anhydrous and dihydrated). 184...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1845 Stannous chloride (anhydrous and dihydrated). (a) Stannous chloride is anhydrous or contains two...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1740 - Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. 154...Requirements § 154.1740 Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. When a vessel is carrying vinyl chloride, the master shall ensure that:...

  13. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1170 - Chloride test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chloride test system. 862.1170 Section 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1170 Chloride test system. (a) Identification. A chloride test system is a device intended to...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1740 - Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. 154...Requirements § 154.1740 Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. When a vessel is carrying vinyl chloride, the master shall ensure that:...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1740 - Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. 154...Requirements § 154.1740 Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. When a vessel is carrying vinyl chloride, the master shall ensure that:...

  17. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...114 and 120) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...

  18. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...114 and 120) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...

  19. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...114 and 120) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...

  20. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...114 and 120) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...

  1. Tri­benzyl­ammonium chloride

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Waly; Diop, Libasse; Plasseraud, Laurent; Cattey, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Single crystals of the title salt, C21H21NH+·Cl?, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving [(C6H5CH2)3NH]2[HPO4] and Sn(CH3)3Cl in ethanol. Both the cation and the anion are situated on a threefold rotation axis. The central N atom in the cation has a slightly distorted tetra­hedral environment, with angles ranging from 107.7 to 111.16?(10)°. In the crystal, the tri­benzyl­ammonium cations and chloride anions are linked through N—H?Cl and C—H?Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of infinite chains along [001]. The crystal studied was a merohedral twin. PMID:24860409

  2. Tri-benzyl-ammonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Diallo, Waly; Diop, Libasse; Plasseraud, Laurent; Cattey, Hélène

    2014-05-01

    Single crystals of the title salt, C21H21NH(+)·Cl(-), were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving [(C6H5CH2)3NH]2[HPO4] and Sn(CH3)3Cl in ethanol. Both the cation and the anion are situated on a threefold rotation axis. The central N atom in the cation has a slightly distorted tetra-hedral environment, with angles ranging from 107.7 to 111.16?(10)°. In the crystal, the tri-benzyl-ammonium cations and chloride anions are linked through N-H?Cl and C-H?Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of infinite chains along [001]. The crystal studied was a merohedral twin. PMID:24860409

  3. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-01-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  4. Fiber optic chloride sensing: if corrosion's the problem, chloride sensing is the key

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhr, Peter L.; MacCraith, Brian D.; Huston, Dryver R.; Guerrina, Mario; Nelson, Matthew

    1997-09-01

    The use of chloride-based deicing agents to help clear US highways of roadway hazards leads to associated chemical related problems. Fouling of local rivers and streams due to runoff of the water borne chlorides is significant and has contributed to local ordances are attempting to force state agencies to reduce, if not eliminate, the use of these chlorides. With respect to the corrosion aspects of chloride application, cracks that occur in the roadway/bridge pavement allow water to seep into the pavement carrying the chloride to the rebar with the resultant increase in corrosion. The costs of this corrosion are considerable and have led to the widespread use of chloride/water impermeable membranes on roadways and especially within bridges. Fiber optic sensor have repeatedly been shown to provide measurement capabilities of parameters within such reinforced concrete structures. Development of a fiber optic chloride sensors capable of being embedded within a roadway or bridge deck is reported.

  5. Lithium electric dipole polarizability

    SciTech Connect

    Puchalski, M.; KePdziera, D.; Pachucki, K.

    2011-11-15

    The electric dipole polarizability of the lithium atom in the ground state is calculated including relativistic and quantum electrodynamics corrections. The obtained result {alpha}{sub E}=164.0740(5) a.u. is in good agreement with the less accurate experimental value of 164.19(1.08) a.u. The small uncertainty of about 3 parts per 10{sup 6} comes from the approximate treatment of quantum electrodynamics corrections. Our theoretical result can be considered as a benchmark for more general atomic structure methods and may serve as a reference value for the relative measurement of polarizabilities of the other alkali-metal atoms.

  6. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

    1990-01-09

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

  7. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, Charles H. (Clearwater, FL); Graham, Robert A. (Los Lunas, NM); Kuehn, Stephen F. (Albuquerque, NM); Precit, Richard R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rogers, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

  8. Halo Star Lithium Depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

    1999-12-10

    The depletion of lithium during the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence phases of stellar evolution plays a crucial role in the comparison of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis with the abundances observed in halo stars. Previous work has indicated a wide range of possible depletion factors, ranging from minimal in standard (nonrotating) stellar models to as much as an order of magnitude in models that include rotational mixing. Recent progress in the study of the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars permits the construction of theoretical models capable of reproducing the angular momentum evolution of low-mass open cluster stars. The distribution of initial angular momenta can be inferred from stellar rotation data in young open clusters. In this paper we report on the application of these models to the study of lithium depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A range of initial angular momenta produces a range of lithium depletion factors on the main sequence. Using the distribution of initial conditions inferred from young open clusters leads to a well-defined halo lithium plateau with modest scatter and a small population of outliers. The mass-dependent angular momentum loss law inferred from open cluster studies produces a nearly flat plateau, unlike previous models that exhibited a downward curvature for hotter temperatures in the 7Li-Teff plane. The overall depletion factor for the plateau stars is sensitive primarily to the solar initial angular momentum used in the calibration for the mixing diffusion coefficients. Uncertainties remain in the treatment of the internal angular momentum transport in the models, and the potential impact of these uncertainties on our results is discussed. The 6Li/7Li depletion ratio is also examined. We find that the dispersion in the plateau and the 6Li/7Li depletion ratio scale with the absolute 7Li depletion in the plateau, and we use observational data to set bounds on the 7Li depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A maximum of 0.4 dex depletion is set by the observed dispersion and 6Li/7Li depletion ratio, and a minimum of 0.2 dex depletion is required by both the presence of highly overdepleted halo stars and consistency with the solar and open cluster 7Li data. The cosmological implications of these bounds on the primordial abundance of 7Li are discussed. (c) (c) 1999. The American Astronomical Society.

  9. Plasma Response to Lithium-Coated Plasma-Facing Components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    M.G. Bell, H.W. Kugel, R. Kaita, L.E. Zakharov, H. Schneider, B.P. LeBlanc, D. Mansfield, R.E. Bell, R. Maingi, S. Ding, S.M. Kaye, S.F. Paul, S.P. Gerhardt, J.M. Canik, J.C. Hosea, G. Taylor and the NSTX Research Team

    2009-08-20

    Experiments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have shown beneficial effects on the performance of divertor plasmas as a result of applying lithium coatings on the graphite and carbonfiber- composite plasma-facing components. These coatings have mostly been applied by a pair of lithium evaporators mounted at the top of the vacuum vessel which inject collimated streams of lithium vapor towards the lower divertor. In NBI-heated, deuterium H-mode plasmas run immediately after the application of lithium, performance modifications included decreases in the plasma density, particularly in the edge, and inductive flux consumption, and increases in the electron and ion temperatures and the energy confinement time. Reductions in the number and amplitude of ELMs were observed, including complete ELM suppression for periods up to 1.2 s, apparently as a result of altering the stability of the edge. However, in the plasmas where ELMs were suppressed, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities, although not of lithium itself which remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. The impurity buildup could be inhibited by repetitively triggering ELMs with the application of brief pulses of an n = 3 radial field perturbation. The reduction in the edge density by lithium also inhibited parasitic losses through the scrape-off layer of ICRF power coupled to the plasma, enabling the waves to heat electrons in the core of H-mode plasmas produced by NBI. Lithium has also been introduced by injecting a stream of chemically stabilized, fine lithium powder directly into the scrape-off layer of NBI-heated plasmas. The lithium was ionized in the SOL and appeared to flow along the magnetic field to the divertor plates. This method of coating produced similar effects to the evaporated lithium but at lower amounts.

  10. A lithium superionic conductor.

    PubMed

    Kamaya, Noriaki; Homma, Kenji; Yamakawa, Yuichiro; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kato, Yuki; Hama, Shigenori; Kawamoto, Koji; Mitsui, Akio

    2011-09-01

    Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10(-2) S cm(-1)) only at 50-80 °C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li(10)GeP(2)S(12) that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window). PMID:21804556

  11. Fight chloride corrosion in aqueous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, G.N.

    1995-02-01

    In iron-based alloys like carbon steel or stainless steel, the chloride ion increases corrosion by increasing the water's conductivity and by penetrating the alloy's protective oxides. It can increase overall or general corrosion, and can cause localized corrosion such as pitting and stress corrosion cracking. The chloride ion occurs naturally in seawater, in ground waters, in potable water, in condensate after incinerating waste materials such as polyvinyl chloride, and from the hydrolysis or decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbons such as carbon tetrachloride or trichloroethane. Chlorides can also occur as trace impurities in bulk chemicals where they are neither expected nor analyzed for, but nonetheless can cause serious corrosion. This trace effect is worsened by the tendency of chlorides to concentrate in pits and crevices, especially on heated or intermittently wet and dry surfaces, to amounts that can be orders of magnitude greater than the percentage of chlorides in the bulk liquid. In this article the effects of chloride corrosion, as well as corrosion resistance are discussed.

  12. Embedded chloride detectors for roadways and bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhr, Peter L.; Huston, Dryver R.; McPadden, Adam P.; Cauley, Robert F.

    1996-04-01

    The problems associated with the application of chloride-based deicing agents to roadways and specifically bridges include chemical pollution and accelerated corrosion of strength members (especially rebar) within the structure. In many instances, local ordinances are attempting to force state agencies to reduce, if not eliminate, the use of these chlorides (typically at the cost of increased driving hazards). With respect to the corrosion aspects of chloride application, cracks that occur in the roadway/bridge pavement allow water to seep into the pavement carrying the chloride to the rebar with the resultant increase in corrosion. In response to this problem, particularly in high roadsalt usage areas, a chloride/water impermeable membrane is placed above the rebar matrix so if/when roadway cracking occurs, the roadsalts won't be able to damage the rebar. Such a membrane is costly -- and the question of its in-service performance is questionable. In a joint effort between the University of Vermont and the Vermont Agency of Transportation, we are developing fiber optic chloride detectors which are capable of being embedded into the rebar-concrete roadway under this membrane. The sensing mechanism relies on spectroscopic analysis of a chemical reaction of chloride and reagents (which have been coated onto the ends of fibers). Laboratory results of these detectors and a usable system configuration are presented.

  13. Methylene chloride poisoning in a cabinet worker.

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, M; Kales, S N

    1999-01-01

    More than a million workers are at risk for methylene chloride exposure. Aerosol sprays and paint stripping may also cause significant nonoccupational exposures. After methylene chloride inhalation, significant amounts of carbon monoxide are formed in vivo as a metabolic by-product. Poisoning predominantly affects the central nervous system and results from both carboxyhemoglobin formation and direct solvent-related narcosis. In this report, we describe a case of methylene chloride intoxication probably complicated by exogenous carbon monoxide exposure. The worker's presentation of intermittent headaches was consistent with both methylene chloride intoxication and carbon monoxide poisoning. The exposures and symptoms were corroborated by elevated carboxyhemoglobin saturations and a workplace inspection that documented significant exposures to both methylene chloride and carbon monoxide. When both carbon monoxide and methylene chloride are inhaled, additional carboxyhemoglobin formation is expected. Preventive efforts should include education, air monitoring, and periodic carboxyhemoglobin determinations. Methylene chloride should never be used in enclosed or poorly ventilated areas because of the well-documented dangers of loss of consciousness and death. Images Figure 1 PMID:10464079

  14. Lithium Reagents DOI: 10.1002/anie.200603038

    E-print Network

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Reagents DOI: 10.1002/anie.200603038 Lithium Diisopropylamide: Solution Kinetics Keywords: kinetics · lithium diisopropylamide · metalation · solvent effects · synthesis design D. B: lithium diiso- propylamide (LDA). LDA has played a profound role in organic synthesis, serving as the base

  15. 77 FR 68069 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ...Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION...and secondary lithium cells or lithium batteries internationally, or to and from an APO...that prohibited the mailing of lithium batteries and cells internationally and when...

  16. Electromagnetically Restrained Lithium Blanket APEX Interim Report November, 1999

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Electromagnetically Restrained Lithium Blanket APEX Interim Report November, 1999 6-1 CHAPTER 6: ELECTROMAGNETICALLY RESTRAINED LITHIUM BLANKET Contributors Robert Woolley #12;Electromagnetically Restrained Lithium Blanket APEX Interim Report November, 1999 6-2 6. ELECTROMAGNETICALLY RESTRAINED LITHIUM BLANKET 6

  17. Lattice dynamics of dense lithium.

    PubMed

    Gorelli, F A; Elatresh, S F; Guillaume, C L; Marqués, M; Ackland, G J; Santoro, M; Bonev, S A; Gregoryanz, E

    2012-02-01

    We report low-frequency high-resolution Raman spectroscopy and ab-initio calculations on dense lithium from 40 to 200 GPa at low temperatures. Our experimental results reveal rich first-order Raman activity in the metallic and semiconducting phases of lithium. The computed Raman frequencies are in excellent agreement with the measurements. Free energy calculations provide a quantitative description and physical explanation of the experimental phase diagram only when vibrational effect are correctly treated. The study underlines the importance of zero-point energy in determining the phase stability of compressed lithium. PMID:22400938

  18. Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kepler, Keith D. (Mountain View, CA); Vaughey, John T. (Elmhurst, IL)

    2003-01-01

    A negative electrode (12) for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell (10) with an intermetallic host structure containing two or more elements selected from the metal elements and silicon, capable of accommodating lithium within its crystallographic host structure such that when the host structure is lithiated it transforms to a lithiated zinc-blende-type structure. Both active elements (alloying with lithium) and inactive elements (non-alloying with lithium) are disclosed. Electrochemical cells and batteries as well as methods of making the negative electrode are disclosed.

  19. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tulsa, OK)

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  20. A Lithium Superionic Sulfide Cathode for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhan; Liu, Zengcai; Dudney, Nancy J; Liang, Chengdu

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a facile synthesis approach for core-shell structured Li2S nanoparticles, which have Li2S as the core and Li3PS4 as the shell. This material functions as lithium superionic sulfide (LSS) cathode for long-lasting, energy-efficient lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The LSS has an ionic conductivity of 10-7 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 6 orders of magnitude higher than that of bulk Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high lithium-ion conductivity of LSS imparts an excellent cycling performance to all-solid Li-S batteries, which also promises safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.