Sample records for radiation lithium chloride

  1. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  2. Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parry, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

  3. Analysis of lithium/thionyl chloride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Mukul

    The lithium/thionyl chloride battery (Li/SOClsb2) has received considerable attention as a primary energy source due to its high energy density, high operating cell voltage, voltage stability over 95% of the discharge, large operating temperature range (-55sp°C to 70sp°C), long storage life, and low cost of materials. In this dissertation, a one-dimensional mathematical model of a spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery has been developed. Mathematical models can be used to tailor a battery design to a specific application, perform accelerated testing, and reduce the amount of experimental data required to yield efficient, yet safe cells. The Model was used in conjunction with the experimental data for parameter estimation and to obtain insights into the fundamental processes occurring in the battery. The diffusion coefficient and the kinetic parameters for the reactions at the anode and the cathode are obtained as a function of temperature by fitting the simulated capacity and average cell voltage to experimental data over a wide range of temperatures (-55 to 49sp°C) and discharge loads (10 to 250 ohms). The experiments were performed on D-sized, cathode-limited, spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride cells at Sandia National Laboratories. The model is also used to study the effect of cathode thickness and current and temperature pulsing on the cell capacity. Thionyl chloride reduction in the porous cathode is accompanied with a volume reduction. The material balance used previously in one-dimensional mathematical models of porous electrodes is invalid when the volume occupied by the reactants and the products is not equal. It is shown here how the material balance has to be modified to either account for the loss in volume, or to account for the inflow of electrolyte from the header into the active pores. The one-dimensional mathematical model of lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery is used to illustrate the effect of this material balance modification on the prediction of the delivered capacity and the electrolyte concentration.

  4. The DELTA 181 lithium thionyl chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Ralph M.; Brown, Lawrence E.; Leigh, A. P.

    In 1986, the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) undertook the development of a sensor module for the DELTA 181 spacecraft, a low earth orbit (LEO) mission of less than two months duration. A large lithium thionyl chloride battery was developed as the spacecraft's primary power source, the first known such use for this technology. The exceptionally high energy density of the lithium thionyl chloride cell was the primary driver for its use, resulting in a completed battery with a specific energy density of 120 Wh/lb. Safety requirements became the primary driver shaping all aspects of the power system design and development due to concerns about the potential hazards of this relatively new, high-energy technology. However, the program was completed without incident. The spacecraft was launched on February 8, 1988, from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with over 60,000 Wh of battery energy. It reentered on April 2, 1988, still operating after 55 days, providing a successful, practical, and visible demonstration of the use of this technology for spacecraft applications.

  5. Partial molar volumes of uni-univalent electrolytes in methanol + water; 1: Lithium chloride, sodium chloride, and potassium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Takenaka, Nobuo; Takemura, Takeshi; Sakurai, Masao (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Research Inst. for Electronic Science)

    1994-04-01

    Densities of methanol + water + lithium chloride, + sodium chloride, and + potassium chloride were measured at 15, 25, 35, and 45 C. The apparent molar volumes of the electrolytes in these mixtures were calculated, and the apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution, the partial molar volumes, and partial molar thermal expansivities were evaluated.

  6. Active primary lithium thionyl chloride battery for artillery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Arlen R.; Delnick, Frank M.; Miller, David L.

    1990-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Eagle Picher Industries have successfully developed an Active Lithium Thionyl Chloride (ALTC) power battery for unique artillery applications. Details of the design and the results of safety and performance will be presented.

  7. The lithium-thionyl chloride battery - A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gangadharan; P. N. N. Namboodiri; K. V. Prasad; R. Viswanathan

    1979-01-01

    The lithium-thionyl chloride nonaqueous cell system is a recent development. Low atomic weight and high electrode potential make lithium unique as an anode in energy devices. Preparation of the anode, cathode, and the electrolyte is reviewed. The construction of the cell, its performance characteristics, uses, etc., are also surveyed.

  8. CONTROLLED POTENTIAL COULOMETRY IN FUSED LITHIUM CHLORIDE-POTASSIUM CHLORIDE EUTECTIC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Van Norman

    1962-01-01

    Analyses for Zn(II) and Cd(II) in the fused lithium chloride - potassium ; chloride eutectic at 450 deg C were performed by controlled potential coulometric ; stripping of the predeposited metal from a bismuth pool electrode, and Ni(II) was ; determined by controlled potential stripping of the predeposited metal from a ; platinum gauze electrode. Analyses were performed with an

  9. Characterization of lithium-thionyl chloride cells by impedance techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, F.; Pozin, M.; Cherniy, A.; Tikhonov, K.

    The main contributor to voltage drop observed on initial discharge of lithium-thionyl chloride cells is the resistance of the passive layer on the lithium anode, as can be determined from the Nyquist plot of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell. At extremely low discharge currents, initial voltage drop corresponds to the value found from the impedance measurements; at higher current, an empirical correction based on the experimental results is required. The dispersion in the values of the impedance parameters and thus in initial voltage drop of individual cells was analyzed. The condition of the lithium surface after assembly was shown not to be the only reason for high dispersion in impedance parameter values.

  10. Low temperature safety of lithium-thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Shen, D. H.; Dawson, S.; Halpert, G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of lithium thionyl chloride cells for low-temperature applications is presently restricted because of their unsafe behavior. An attempt is made in the present investigation to identify the safe/unsafe low temperature operating conditions and to understand the low temperature cell chemistry responsible for the unsafe behavior. Cells subjected to extended reversal at low rate and -40 C were found to explode upon warm-up. Lithium was found to deposit on the carbon cathodes during reversal. Warming up to room temperature may be accelerating the lithium corrosion in the electrolyte. This may be one of the reasons for the cell thermal runaway.

  11. Low temperature safety of lithium-thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbarao, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Shen, D. H.; Dawson, S.; Halpert, G.

    The use of lithium thionyl chloride cells for low-temperature applications is presently restricted because of their unsafe behavior. An attempt is made in the present investigation to identify the safe/unsafe low temperature operating conditions and to understand the low temperature cell chemistry responsible for the unsafe behavior. Cells subjected to extended reversal at low rate and -40 C were found to explode upon warm-up. Lithium was found to deposit on the carbon cathodes during reversal. Warming up to room temperature may be accelerating the lithium corrosion in the electrolyte. This may be one of the reasons for the cell thermal runaway.

  12. Determination of the heat capacities of Lithium/BCX (bromide chloride in thionyl chloride) batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubow, Stephen A.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    1989-12-01

    Heat capacities of twelve different Lithium/BCX (BrCl in thionyl chloride) batteries in sizes AA, C, D, and DD were determined. Procedures and measurement results are reported. The procedure allowed simple, reproducible, and precise determinations of heat capacities of industrially important Lithium/BCX cells, without interfering with performance of the cells. Use of aluminum standards allowed the accuracy of the measurements to be maintained. The measured heat capacities were within 5 percent of calculated heat capacity values.

  13. Optimization of the lithium/thionyl chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Ralph E.

    1987-08-01

    The progress which has been made in modeling the lithium/thionyl chloride cell over the past year and proposed research for the coming year are discussed. A one-dimensional mathematical model for a lithium/thionyl chloride cell has been developed and used to investigate methods of improving cell performance. During the course of the work a problem was detected with the banded solver being used. It was replaced with one more reliable. Future work may take one of two directions. The one-dimensional model could be augmented to include additional features and to investigate in more detail the cell temperature behavior, or a simplified two-dimensional model for the spirally wound design of this battery could be developed to investigate the heat flow within the cell.

  14. Optimization of the lithium/thionyl chloride battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Ralph E.

    1987-01-01

    The progress which has been made in modeling the lithium/thionyl chloride cell over the past year and proposed research for the coming year are discussed. A one-dimensional mathematical model for a lithium/thionyl chloride cell has been developed and used to investigate methods of improving cell performance. During the course of the work a problem was detected with the banded solver being used. It was replaced with one more reliable. Future work may take one of two directions. The one-dimensional model could be augmented to include additional features and to investigate in more detail the cell temperature behavior, or a simplified two-dimensional model for the spirally wound design of this battery could be developed to investigate the heat flow within the cell.

  15. Design of a safe cylindrical lithium/thionyl chloride cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Cell design criteria were established which can result in a safe lithium/thionyl chloride cell. A cell vent, a low area internal anode cell, cell balance and composition of the cathode-electrolyte solution were found to be important factors in the design of a safe cell. In addition to routine testing, both undischarged and discharged cells were subjected to electrical abuse, environmental abuse and mechanical abuse without disassembly.

  16. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, P. G.; Goebel, F.

    The lithium/thionyl chloride ( {Li}/{SOCl2}) electrochemistry is capable of providing high power and high specific power, especially under pulse discharge conditions, when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. This paper describes recent work concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells for Sonobuoy application.

  17. Selective dehydrocoupling of phosphines by lithium chloride carbenoids.

    PubMed

    Molitor, Sebastian; Becker, Julia; Gessner, Viktoria H

    2014-11-01

    The development of a simple, transition-metal-free approach for the formation of phosphorus-phosphorus bonds through dehydrocoupling of phosphines is presented. The reaction is mediated by electronically stabilized lithium chloride carbenoids and affords a variety of different diphosphines under mild reaction conditions. The developed protocol is simple and highly efficient and allows the isolation of novel functionalized diphosphines in high yields. PMID:25322474

  18. Development of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for Centaur

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald Halpert; Harvey Frank; Ralph Lutwack

    1987-01-01

    Lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary cells and batteries have received considerable attention over the last several years because of their high theoretical specific energy and energy density. The objective was to develop a 300 wh\\/kg cell capable of safe operation at C\\/2 rate and active storage life for 5 to 10 years. This technology would replace other primary cell technologies

  19. Active lithium chloride cell for spacecraft power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischmann, C. W.; Horning, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    An active thionyl chloride high rate battery is under development for spacecraft operations. It is a 540kC (150 Ah) battery capable of pulses up to 75A. This paper describes the design and initial test data on a 'state-of-the-art' cell that has been selected to be the baseline for the prototype cell for that battery. Initial data indicate that the specification can be met with fresh cells. Data for stored cells and additional environmental test data are in the process of being developed.

  20. Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (active lithium\\/thionyl chloride) batteries. [Active lithium\\/thionyl chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. S. Bovard; W. R. Cieslak

    1987-01-01

    (ALTC = active lithium\\/thionyl chloride.) We have investigated the corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin materials in 1.5M LiAlClâ\\/SOClâ electrolyte using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4 PH, and

  1. Optimization of reserve lithium thionyl chloride battery electrochemical design parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doddapaneni, N.; Godshall, N. A.

    The performance of Reserve Lithium Thionyl Chloride (RLTC) batteries was optimized by conducting a parametric study of seven electrochemical parameters: electrode compression, carbon thickness, presence of catalyst, temperature, electrode limitation, discharge rate, and electrolyte acidity. Increasing electrode compression (from 0 to 15 percent) improved battery performance significantly (10 percent greater carbon capacity density). Although thinner carbon cathodes yielded less absolute capacity than did thicker cathodes, they did so with considerably higher volume efficiencies. The effect of these parameters, and their synergistic interactions, on electrochemical cell performance is illustrated.

  2. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Philip G.; Goebel, F.

    1994-02-01

    Presented in viewgraph format are results and accomplishments on the development of lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar batteries. Results include the development of manufacturing capability for producing large quantities of uniform cathodes and bipolar plates; the development of assembly, sealing, and activation procedures for fabrication of battery modules containing up to 150 cells in bipolar configuration; and the successful demonstration of a 10.7 kW 150-cell module with constant power pulse discharge, 20 second pulse, and 10 percent duty cycle.

  3. Calorimetry of 25 Ah lithium/thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. J.; Dawson, S.

    1991-01-01

    Heat flow measurements of 25-Ah lithium thionyl chloride cells provided a method to calculate an effective thermal potential, E(TP) of 3.907 V. The calculation is useful to determine specific heat generation of this cell chemistry and design. The E(TP) value includes heat generation by electrochemical cell reactions, competitive chemical reactions, and resistance heating at the tabs, connectors, and leads. Heat flow was measured while applying electrical loads to the cell in an isothermal calorimeter set at 0, 20, and 60 C.

  4. Development of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for Centaur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Frank, Harvey; Lutwack, Ralph

    1988-01-01

    Lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary cells and batteries have received considerable attention over the last several years because of their high theoretical specific energy and energy density. The objective was to develop a 300 wh/kg cell capable of safe operation at C/2 rate and active storage life for 5 to 10 years. This technology would replace other primary cell technologies in NASA applications mainly the silver zinc (AgZn) batteries presently in use. The LiSOCl2 system exceeds the capabilities of the AgZn in terms of specific energy of 300 wh/kg (compared with 100 wh/kg for AgZn), active storage life of 10 to 20 times the 3 to 6 months active storage and has a significantly lower projected cost.

  5. Development of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for Centaur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Frank, Harvey; Lutwack, Ralph

    1987-09-01

    Lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary cells and batteries have received considerable attention over the last several years because of their high theoretical specific energy and energy density. The objective was to develop a 300 wh/kg cell capable of safe operation at C/2 rate and active storage life for 5 to 10 years. This technology would replace other primary cell technologies in NASA applications mainly the silver zinc (AgZn) batteries presently in use. The LiSOCl2 system exceeds the capabilities of the AgZn in terms of specific energy of 300 wh/kg (compared with 100 wh/kg for AgZn), active storage life of 10 to 20 times the 3 to 6 months active storage and has a significantly lower projected cost.

  6. Development of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for Centaur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Frank, Harvey; Lutwack, Ralph

    1987-01-01

    Lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary cells and batteries have received considerable attention over the last several years because of their high theoretical specific energy and energy density. The objective was to develop a 300 wh/kg cell capable of safe operation at C/2 rate and active storage life for 5 to 10 years. This technology would replace other primary cell technologies in NASA applications mainly the silver zinc (AgZn) batteries presently in use. The LiSOCl2 system exceeds the capabilities of the AgZn in terms of specific energy of 300 wh/kg (compared with 100 wh/kg for AgZn), active storage life of 10 to 20 times the 3 to 6 months active storage and has a significantly lower projected cost.

  7. High-rate lithium thionyl-chloride battery development

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, W.R.; Weigand, D.E.

    1993-12-31

    We have developed a lithium thionyl-chloride cell for use in a high rate battery application to provide power for a missile computer and stage separation detonators. The battery pack contains 20 high surface area ``DD`` cells wired in a series-parallel configuration to supply a nominal 28 volts with a continuous draw of 20 amperes. The load profile also requires six squib firing pulses of one second duration at a 20 ampere peak. Performance and safety of the cells were optimized in a ``D`` cell configuration before progressing to the longer ``DD` cell. Active surface area in the ``D`` cell is 735 cm{sup 2}, and 1650 cm{sup 2} in the ``DD`` cell. The design includes 1.5M LiAlCl{sub 4}/SOCl{sub 2} electrolyte, a cathode blend of Shawinigan Acetylene Black and Cabot Black Pearls 2000 carbons, Scimat ETFE separator, and photoetched current collectors.

  8. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Pinakin M.

    1993-03-01

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

  9. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Pinakin M.

    1993-01-01

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

  10. Chloride and Lithium Transport in Large Arrays of Undisturbed Silt Loam and Sandy Loam Soil Columns

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    Chloride and Lithium Transport in Large Arrays of Undisturbed Silt Loam and Sandy Loam Soil Columns sitesoil columns (28-cm diam., 35 cm deep) representing two soil series: structured silt loam (Hudson; fine

  11. Safety considerations of lithium-thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, Surampudi; Halpert, Gerald; Stein, Irving

    1986-01-01

    The use of spirally wound lithium-thionyl chloride (Li-SOCl2) cells is currently limited because of their hazardous behavior. Safety hazards have ranged from mild venting of toxic materials to violent explosions and fires. These incidents may be related to both user- and manufacturer-induced causes. Many explanations have been offered to explain the unsafe behavior of the cells under operating and abuse conditions. Explanations fall into two categories: (1) thermal mechanisms, and (2) chemical mechanisms. However, it is quite difficult to separate the two. Both may be responsible for cell venting or explosion. Some safety problems encountered with these cells also may be due to design deficiencies and ineffective quality control during cell fabrication. A well-coordinated basic and applied research program is needed to develop safe Li-SOCl2 cells. Recommendations include: (1) learnig more about Li-SOL2 cell chemistry; (2) modeling cell and battery behavior; (3) optimizing cell design for safety and performance, (4) implementing quality control procedures; and (5) educating users.

  12. A mathematical model of a lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, T. I.; Nguyen, T. V.; White, R. E.

    1987-08-01

    A 1-D mathematical model for the lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell was developed to investigate methods of improving its performance and safety. The model includes many of the components of a typical lithium/thionyl chloride cell such as the porous lithium chloride film which forms on the lithium anode surface. The governing equations are formulated from fundamental conservation laws using porous electrode theory and concentrated solution theory. The model is used to predict 1-D, time dependent profiles of concentration, porosity, current, and potential as well as cell temperature and voltage. When a certain discharge rate is required, the model can be used to determine the design criteria and operating variables which yield high cell capacities. Model predictions can be used to establish operational and design limits within which the thermal runaway problem, inherent in these cells, can be avoided.

  13. Lithium chloride protects retinal neurocytes from nutrient deprivation by promoting DNA non-homologous end-joining

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang Jing; Li Fan; Liu Xuan; Liu Zhiping; Lin Jianxian [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Ge Yihong [Department of Stomatology, the Southern Medical University (China); Kaminski, Joseph M. [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation, University of South Alabama (United States); Summers, James Bradley [Department of Radiology, University of South Alabama (United States); Wang Zhichong [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Ge Jian [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)], E-mail: gejian@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Yu Keming [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)], E-mail: yukeming@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2009-03-13

    Lithium chloride is a therapeutic agent for treatment of bipolar affective disorders. Increasing numbers of studies have indicated that lithium has neuroprotective effects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of lithium have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate whether lithium chloride produces neuroprotective function by improving DNA repair pathway in retinal neurocyte. In vitro, the primary cultured retinal neurocytes (85.7% are MAP-2 positive cells) were treated with lithium chloride, then cultured with serum-free media to simulate the nutrient deprived state resulting from ischemic insult. The neurite outgrowth of the cultured cells increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner when exposed to different levels of lithium chloride. Genomic DNA electrophoresis demonstrated greater DNA integrity of retinal neurocytes when treated with lithium chloride as compared to the control. Moreover, mRNA and protein levels of Ligase IV (involved in DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway) in retinal neurocytes increased with lithium chloride. The end joining activity assay was performed to determine the role of lithium on NHEJ in the presence of extract from retinal neurocytes. The rejoining levels in retinal neurocytes treated with lithium were significantly increased as compared to the control. Furthermore, XRCC4, the Ligase IV partner, and the transcriptional factor, CREB and CTCF, were up-regulated in retinal cells after treating with 1.0 mM lithium chloride. Therefore, our data suggest that lithium chloride protects the retinal neural cells from nutrient deprivation in vitro, which may be similar to the mechanism of cell death in glaucoma. The improvement in DNA repair pathway involving in Ligase IV might have an important role in lithium neuroprotection. This study provides new insights into the neural protective mechanisms of lithium chloride.

  14. Case-positive versus case-negative designs for low-rate lithium thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahy, T. X.

    1982-01-01

    Case polarity design choices are discussed. Two examples of case-negative designs are presented. One battery is thionyl chloride limited and the other is lithium limited. The case-positive design is thionyl chloride limited. It is found that the case-positive/case-negative design consideration does not seem to have much bearing on storage. However, during low rate discharge, the case-negative cells show a steadily decreasing capacity as you go to lower and lower rates.

  15. A description of the vapor phase in the lithium thionyl chloride battery 

    E-print Network

    Morales, Rodolfo

    1988-01-01

    no data. is available (3 ? 7'J. This situation holds true for the lithium/thionyl chloride (Li/SOClz) bat- tery. Lithium batteries shov great promise as an energy source because of lithium's large negative standard potential ( ? 3 945 volts) and lov... and heavier counterparts. There have been many investigations conducted on the Li/SOClz battery to ascertain its discharge reactions, to identif'y the mechanisms through which the discharge products are formed, to assess shelf life, and to analyze how all...

  16. Accelerated aging and discharge of lithium/thionyl-chloride D cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieslak, W. R.

    Lithium/Thionyl-Chloride spiral wound 'D' cells from a variety of suppliers have been evaluated. Abuse testing has been used to verify safety of the cells, and accelerated aging has been used to estimate their performance for long life projects.

  17. Protective effects of lithium chloride on seizure susceptibility: Involvement of ?2-adrenoceptor.

    PubMed

    Payandemehr, Borna; Bahremand, Arash; Ebrahimi, Ali; Nasrabady, Sara Ebrahimi; Rahimian, Reza; Bahremand, Taraneh; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2015-06-01

    For more than 60years, lithium has been the mainstay in the treatment of mental disorders as a mood stabilizer. In addition to the antimanic and antidepressant responses, lithium also shows some anticonvulsant properties. In spite of the ascertained neuroprotective effects of this alkali metal, the underlying mechanisms through which lithium regulates behavior are still poorly understood. Among different targets, some authors suggest neuromodulatory effects of lithium are the consequences of interaction of this agent with the brain neurotransmitters including adrenergic system. In order to study the involvement of ?2-adrenergic system in anticonvulsant effect of lithium, we used a model of clonic seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male NMRI mice. Injection of a single effective dose of lithium chloride (30mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased the seizure threshold (p<0.01). The anticonvulsant effect of an effective dose of lithium was prevented by pre-treatment with low and per se non-effective dose of clonidine [?2-adrenoceptor agonist] (0.05, 0.1 and 0.25mg/kg). On the other hand, yohimbine [?2-adrenoceptor antagonist] augmented the anticonvulsant effect of sub-effective dose of lithium (10mg/kgi.p.) at relatively low doses (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2.5mg/kg). Moreover, UK14304 [a potent and selective ?2-adrenoceptor agonist] (0.05 and 0.1mg/kg) and RX821008 [a potent and selective ?2D-adrenoceptor antagonist] (0.05, 0.1 and 0.25mg/kg) repeated the same results confirming that these modulatory effects are conducted specifically through the ?2D-adrenoceptors. In summary, our findings demonstrated that ?2-adrenoceptor pathway could be involved in the anticonvulsant properties of lithium chloride in the model of chemically induced clonic seizure. PMID:25824982

  18. Zero-gravity growth of a sodium chloride-lithium fluoride eutectic mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.; Yeh, C. W.; Yue, B. K.

    1982-01-01

    Continuous and discontinuous lithium fluoride fibers embedded in a sodium chloride matrix were produced in space and on Earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convective current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and Earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of lithium fluoride fibers along the growth direction.

  19. Investigation of an Aberrant Cell Voltage During the Filling of a Large Lithium Thionyl Chloride Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Quinzio, Michael V.

    1997-01-01

    The investigation of an aberrant cell voltage during the filling of a large lithium thionyl chloride cell summary is at: an aberrant voltage trace was noted during the review of cell filling data; incident was traced to an interruption during filling; experimentation suggested oxidizable sites within the carbon electrode were responsible for the drop in voltage; the voltage anomaly could be reproduced by interrupting the filling of similar cells; and anomalous voltage dip was not due to a short.

  20. Microcalorimetric studies on lithium thionyl chloride cells: temperature effects between 25 °C and -40 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, I. R.; Sibbald, A. M.; Donepudi, V. S.; Adams, W. A.; Donaldson, G. J.

    Microcalorimetry studies were performed on commercial lithium thionyl chloride cells to investigate whether there was a change in reaction mechanism in the temperature range between 25 °C and -40 °C. The entropy change associated with cell discharge was calculated from the calorimetry data and was also determined from the temperature dependence of the open-circuit potential. The entropy changes determined by the two methods are compared and discussed in terms of the electrolyte composition variable.

  1. Lithium thionyl chloride cells and batteries Technical predictions versus 1994 realities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniewicz, R. J.

    Lithium thionyl chloride D-cells, when discharged at moderate rates of 50 W/kg, provide an impressive energy density of > 350 Wh/kg; however, multiple cell batteries present serious challenges for thermal management when subjected to discharge to 0 V and overdischarge into voltage reversal at the 50 W/kg rate. This paper describes the important influence electrochemical cell balance and design has upon decreasing the heat generation within batteries.

  2. Safety test results of lithium-thionyl chloride wound-type cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallin, D.; Broussely, M.

    1989-05-01

    Increase in the use of spirally-wound, lithium-thionyl chloride cells is currently limited because of unsafe incidents which have been reported during the early stage of development of this product. Today, it is believed that these cells are safe over a wide range of operating conditions if properly designed. The paper describes the external and internal SAFT design of Li-SOCl2LSH series cells, as well as the results of safety tests.

  3. Learned taste and temperature aversions due to lithium chloride sickness after temporal delays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marvin Nachman

    1970-01-01

    78 Sprague-Dawley rats, reared on water, were given saccharin and then made sick with a single lithium chloride (LiCl) injection after various intervals. Similarly, Ss reared on saccharin were made sick with LiCl at various times after drinking water. In both conditions, Ss learned to avoid drinking the fluid which preceded sickness and the amount of aversion was a function

  4. Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (Active Lithium\\/Thionyl Chloride) batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francine S. Bovard; Wendy R. Cieslak

    1987-01-01

    The corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin material candidates for ALTC (Active Lithium\\/Thionyl Chloride) batteries in 1.5M LiAlCl4\\/SOCl2 electrolyte have been investigated using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4

  5. Selective Reduction of Active Metal Chlorides from Molten LiCl-KCl using Lithium Drawdown

    SciTech Connect

    Michael F. Simpson; Daniel LaBrier; Michael Lineberry; Tae-Sic Yoo

    2012-10-01

    In support of optimizing electrorefining technology for treating spent nuclear fuel, lithium drawdown has been investigated for separating actinides from molten salt electrolyte. Drawdown reaction selectivity is a major issue that needs to be investigated, since the goal is to remove actinides while leaving the fission products in the salt. A series of lithium drawdown tests with surrogate fission product chlorides was run to obtain selectivity data with non-radioactive salts, develop a predictive model, and draw conclusions about the viability of using this process with actinide-loadd salt. Results of tests with CsCl, LaCl3, CeCl3, and NdCl3 are reported here. An equilibrium model has been formulated and fit to the experimental data. Excellent fits to the data were achieved. Based on analysis and results obtained to date, it is concluded that clean separation between minor actinides and lanthanides will be difficult to achieve using lithium drawdown.

  6. Evaluation of high-energy lithium thionyl chloride primary cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.

    1980-01-01

    An advanced commercial primary lithium cell (LiSoCl2) was evaluated in order to establish baseline data for improved lithium batteries for aerospace applications. The cell tested had nominal capacity of 6 Ah. Maximum energy density at low rates (less than C/30, where C is the cell capacity in amp-hrs and 30 corresponds to a 30 hr discharge time) was found to be near 300 Wh/kg. An equation which predicts the operating voltage of these cells as a function of current and state of charge is presented. Heat generation rates of these cells were determined as a function of current in a calorimeter. It was found that heat rates could be theoretically predicted with some degree of accuracy at currents less than 1 amp or the C/6 rate. No explosions were observed in the cells during the condition of overdischarge or reversal nor during high rate discharge. It was found, however, that the cells can vent when overdischarge currents are greater than C/30 and when discharge rates are greater than 1.5C.

  7. Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for missile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planchat, J. P.; Descroix, J. P.; Sarre, G.

    A comparative performance study has been conducted for silver-zinc, thionyl chloride, and thermal batteries designed for such missile applications as ICBM guidance system power supplies. Attention is given to each of the three candidates' conformity to requirements concerning mechanical configuration, electrochemical design, electrolyte reservoir, external case, and gas generator. The silver-zinc and Li-SOCl2 candidates employ similar cell configurations and yield comparable performance. The thermal battery is found to be incapable of meeting battery case temperature-related requirements.

  8. The myoneural effects of lithium chloride on the nerve-muscle preparations of rats. Role of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Zaher, A O

    2000-02-01

    The potential effects of lithium chloride on the neuromuscular transmission and muscular contraction were studied using in vitro and in vivo nerve-muscle preparations of rats. Addition of lithium chloride to the fluid bathing the isolated rat diaphragm produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of diaphragmatic contractions elicited by either indirect or direct electrical stimulation. The threshold concentrations were 1 mmol l(-1)and 3 mmol l(-1), respectively. Similarly, the intravenous administration of lithium chloride as bolus injections, produced a dose-dependent progressive inhibition of the indirectly- and directly-induced gastrocnemius muscle contractions during the 2-h period of investigation. The indirectly-induced contractions were much more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of lithium chloride than directly-induced contractions. Also, lithium chloride was found to be capable of enhancing the paralysis of the indirectly stimulated rat diaphragm in vitro and gastrocnemius muscle in vivo induced by either pipecuronium or succinylcholine. The combination of lithium chloride and pipecuronium led to a synergistic inhibition of the neuromuscular transmission, while the combination of lithium chloride and succinylcholine led to additive inhibition. Pretreatment with lithium chloride at the threshold concentrations enhanced the inhibitory effects of verapamil on diaphragmatic contractions elicited either indirectly or directly. The inhibitory effects of verapamil on the indirectly- and directly-induced rat gastrocnemius muscle contractions were potentiated by lithium chloride administration to rats. Glibenclamide was found to be capable of inhibiting the relaxant effects of lithium chloride on the indirectly- and directly-elicited contractions of rat diaphragm in vitro and rat gastrocnemius muscle in vivo, in a concentration- and dose-dependent manner, respectively. Doubling the concentration of magnesium in the bathing fluid potentiated the inhibitory effects of the threshold concentrations of lithium chloride on the diaphragmatic contractions induced either indirectly or directly. Pretreatment with 4-aminopyridine or barium chloride inhibited the relaxant effects of lithium chloride on the indirectly- and directly-elicited diaphragmatic contractions. The inhibitory effects of diazoxide on the indirectly-evoked contractions of rat diaphragm in vitro and rat gastrocnemius muscle in vivo were potentiated by lithium chloride. Pretreatment with glibenclamide inhibited markedly the combined effects of lithium chloride and diazoxide on the contractions of the diaphragm and gastrocnemius muscles induced indirectly. Additionally, the intravenous administration of lithium chloride into rats as bolus injections produced a dose-dependent progressive increase in plasma potassium level and a dose-dependent progressive decrease in the intracellular levels of adenosine triphosphate in the sciatic nerve and gastrocnemius muscle. It is concluded that lithium chloride, via activation of adenosine triphosphate- sensitive potassium channels, acts presynaptically to inhibit the neuromuscular transmission and acts at the muscle membrane to inhibit the muscular contraction. PMID:10623484

  9. Lithium chloride improves the efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurospheres.

    PubMed

    Tafreshi, Azita Parvaneh; Sylvain, Aude; Sun, Guizhi; Herszfeld, Daniella; Schulze, Keith; Bernard, Claude C A

    2015-08-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurospheres, which consist mainly of neural progenitors, are considered to be a good source of neural cells for transplantation in regenerative medicine. In this study, we have used lithium chloride, which is known to be a neuroprotective agent, in an iPSC-derived neurosphere model, and examined both the formation rate and size of the neurospheres as well as the proliferative and apoptotic status of their contents. Our results showed that lithium enhanced the formation and the sizes of the iPSC-derived neurospheres, increased the number of Ki67-positive proliferating cells, but reduced the number of the TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells. This increased number of Ki67 proliferating cells was secondary to the decreased apoptosis and not to the stimulation of cell cycle entry, as the expression of the proliferation marker cyclin D1 mRNA did not change after lithium treatment. Altogether, we suggest that lithium enhances the survival of neural progenitors and thus the quality of the iPSC-derived neurospheres, which may strengthen the prospect of using lithium-treated pluripotent cells and their derivatives in a clinical setting. PMID:25719317

  10. Investigation of high-rate lithium-thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Catherine A.; Gust, Steven; Farrington, Michael D.; Lockwood, Judith A.; Donaldson, George J.

    Chemical analysis of a commercially produced high-rate D-size lithium-thionyl cell was carried out, as a function of rate of discharge (1 ohm and 5 ohms), depth of discharge, and temperature (25 C and -40 C), using specially developed methods for identifying suspected minor cell products or impurities which may effect cell performance. These methods include a product-retrieval system which involves solvent extraction to enhance the recovery of suspected semivolatile minor chemicals, and methods of quantitative GC analysis of volatile and semivolatile products. The nonvolatile products were analyzed by wet chemical methods. The results of the analyses indicate that the predominant discharge reaction in this cell is 4Li + 2SOCl2 going to 4LiCl + S + SO2, with SO2 formation decreasing towards the end of cell life (7 to 12 Ah). The rate of discharge had no effect on the product distribution. Upon discharge of the high-rate cell at -40 C, one cell exploded, and all others exhibited overheating and rapid internal pressure rise when allowed to warm up to room temperature.

  11. Development of a 300 Amp-hr high rate lithium thionyl chloride cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Gerard H.

    1991-05-01

    The development of a high-rate lithium thionyl chloride cylindrical cell with parallel plate electrodes is discussed. The development was divided into three phases: phase 1, a 150 Amp/hour low rate (1 mA/sq cm) design; phase 2, a 25 Amp/hour high rate (5 mA/sq cm) design; and phase 3, a 300 Amp/hour high rate (5 mA/sq cm) design. The basic design is the same for all three cells. The electrodes are perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder. Multiple electrodes are bussed up the side of the cylinder, 180 deg apart allowing excellent anode and cathode utilization. It is a lithium limited design with excess electrolyte. The cathode is Shawinigan or Gulf Acetylene black with no catalyst. The electrolyte is 1.8 Molar lithium tetrachloroaluminate (LiAlCl4) in thionyl chloride. All cell cases are 304L Stainless Steel with a BS&B burst disc.

  12. Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for high rate extended mission applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peabody, Mark; Brown, Robert A.

    An effort has been made to develop technology for lithium-thionyl chloride batteries whose emission times will extend beyond 20 min and whose power levels will be in excess of 1800 W, using the requirements for an existing silver-zinc battery's electrical requirements as a baseline. The target design encompasses separate 31- and 76-V sections; the design goal was the reduction of battery weight to 50 percent that of the present silver/zinc cell. A cell has been achieved whose mission can be conducted without container heat losses.

  13. Assessment of capacity loss in low-rate lithium/bromine chloride in thionyl chloride cells by microcalorimetry and long-term discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, E. S.; Meyer, S. M.; Holmes, C. F.

    1990-06-01

    Real-time discharge is one of the few reliable methods available for determining capacities of low-rate cells. The utilization of high energy density lithium batteries in low-rate implantable applications has increased the need for more time-efficient methods of predicting cell longevity since cells have been shown to last in excess of eight years. The relationship between heat dissipation and self-discharge of low-rate lithium/BCX (bromine chloride in thionyl chloride) cells was studied and allows prediction of cell life prior to the availability of real-time data. The method was verified by real-time cell discharge data and provided estimates of delivered capacity within 6 percent of the actual values.

  14. Development and characterization of a high capacity lithium/thionyl chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Gerald H.; Goebel, Franz

    A 30 V lithium/thionyl chloride battery with 320 Ah capacity capable of operating at currents of 14 to 75 A has been developed and tested over a temperature range from 15 to 71 °C. The 81 lb battery consists of nine series connected cylindrical cells in a three-by-three arrangement within an aluminum case. The cells are of a parallel disc electrode design with a total active surface area of 10 200 cm 2. Cells and batteries have each been tested for safety, performance and to a space environment. The battery has clearly performed in excess of the specification requirements. The cell design is very adaptable to many battery design requirements.

  15. Development of a moderate rate lithium/thionyl-chloride D cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieslak, Wendy R.; Street, Henry K.

    1990-05-01

    We have designed a lithium/thionyl chloride D cell for efficient performance at the moderate rate of approximately 500 mA (6.25 omega load). The SNL-MR-D cell has 345 sq cm of active electrode area, 1.0 M LiAlCl4 electrolyte that may have SO2 additive, and a cathode blended of Shawinigan Acetylene Black, Cabot Black Pearls 2000, and Teflon binder. The average performance of cells built in-house and discharged at 25 C and 6.25 omega has been 14.9 Ah (50 Wh). We have aged the cells at 30 C and 50 C, and measured complex impedance and microcalorimetry during the aging period. The cells have been discharged after the aging period at 25 C and 0 C. This preliminary study has allowed us to establish an initial cell design and estimate the rate of capacity loss on storage or long-term usage.

  16. Mitogen-activated protein kinase in the amygdala plays a critical role in lithium chloride-induced taste aversion learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bumsup Kwon; Thomas A. Houpt

    The intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in the brain is necessary for the formation of a variety of memories including conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning. However, the functional role of MAPK activation in the amygdala during lithium chloride (LiCl)-induced CTA learning has not been established. In the present study, we investigated if local microinjection of SL327, a MAPK kinase

  17. In situ Raman spectra of the discharge products of calcium and lithium-anoded thionyl chloride cells — sulphur dioxide generation in oxyhalide systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, W. P.; Sargeant, D. G.

    A cell has been constructed that allows a calcium or lithium-anoded oxyhalide cell of conventional composition to be analysed for catholyte-soluble discharge products using laser Raman spectroscopy. Both cells showed the presence of sulphur dioxide solvated by thionyl chloride. Species of the type M(SOCl 2)(SO 2) n+ (AlCl 4) n- could only be detected in cells having calcium or lithium anodes with LiAlCl 4 as the supporting electrolyte in thionyl chloride. Vapour pressure measurements of discharging cells confirmed that Ca(AlCl 4) 2 was less likely to form a complex with sulphur dioxide than the analogous lithium salt.

  18. Development of a moderate rate lithium/thionyl-chloride D'' cell

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, W.R.; Street, H.K.

    1990-01-01

    We have designed a lithium/thionyl chloride D'' cell for efficient performance at the moderate rate of {approximately}500 mA (6.25 {Omega} load). The SNL-MR-D cell has 345 cm{sup 2} of active electrode area, 1.0 M LiAlCl{sub 4} electrolyte that may have SO{sub 2} additive, and a cathode blended of Shawinigan Acetylene Black, Cabot Black Pearls 2000, and Teflon binder. The average performance of cells built in-house and discharged at 25{degree}C and 6.25 {Omega} has been 14.9 Ah (50 Wh). We have aged the cells at 30{degree}C and 50{degree}C, and measured complex impedance and microcalorimetry during the aging period. The cells have been discharged after the aging period at 25{degree}C and 0{degree}C. This preliminary study has allowed us to establish an initial cell design and estimate the rate of capacity loss on storage or long-term usage. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Further studies on the potentiating effect of lithium chloride on methamphetamine-induced stereotypy in mice.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, T; Kikuchi, K; Satoh, S

    1981-02-01

    To study the mechanism of the potentiating effect of lithium chloride (LiCl) on methamphetamine (MA)-induced stereotypy in mice, effects of various drugs on the action of LiCl on the stereotypy and pharmacokinetics of MA in different brain regions and liver were examined. The potentiating effect of LiCl disappeared in mice pretreated with atropine or scopolamine whereas LiCl potentiated the stereotypy in mice pretreated with p-chlorophenylalanine, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, nialamide, physostigmine or butylscopolamine. The concentrations of MA in the striatum, brainstem and liver were increased and the half-life of MA in these tissues was prolonged by LiCl. The effect of LiCl on the kinetics of MA in the brain, but not that in the liver, was blocked by scopolamine. LiCl prolonged the half-life of MA in the brain and liver in mice treated with physostigmine or butylscopolamine. The inhibition of MA elimination from the brain and its blockade by scopolamine seem to explain the potentiating action of LiCl on the stereotypy and the antagonism by scopolamine of the behavioural action of LiCl, respectively. PMID:7195953

  20. Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovard, Francine S.; Cieslak, Wendy R.

    1987-09-01

    The corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin material candidates for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries in 1.5M LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte have been investigated using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4 PH, and 446), three Fe-Ni glass sealing alloys (Kovar, Alloy 52, and Niromet 426), a Ni-based alloy (Hastelloy B-2) and a zirconium-based alloy (Zircaloy), were compared to the reference materials Ni and 316L SS. All of the candidate materials showed some evidence of corrosion and, therefore, did not perform as well as the reference materials. The Hastelloy B-2 and Zircaloy are clearly unacceptable materials for this application. Of the remaining alternate materials, the 446 SS and Alloy 52 are the most promising candidates.

  1. Reentrant condensation of lysozyme: Implications for studying dynamics of lysozyme in aqueous solutions of lithium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL] [ORNL; O'Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have outlined the use of eutectic solution of lithium chloride in water to study microscopic dynamics of lysozyme in an aqueous solvent that is remarkably similar to pure water in many respects, yet allows experiments over a wide temperature range without the solvent crystallization. The eutectic point in (H2O)R(LiCl) system corresponds to R 7.3, and it is of interest to investigate whether less concentrated aqueous solutions of LiCl could be employed in low-temperature studies of a solvated protein. We have investigated a range of concentrations of lysozyme and LiCl in aqueous solutions to identify systems that do not show phase separation and avoid solvent crystallization on cooling down. Compared to the lysozyme concentration in solution, the concentration of LiCl in the aqueous solvent plays the major role in determining systems suitable for low-temperature studies. We have observed interesting and rich phase behavior reminiscent of reentrant condensation of proteins.

  2. The effect of impurities on the performance of lithium intended for lithium/thionyl chloride battery manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, W. P.; Hampson, N. A.; Packer, R. K.

    The elemental impurities in four different, commercially-available lithium samples have been determined. Cells consisting of these lithium samples as anodes and pressed acetylene black as cathodes were discharged at 20 °C and at 70 °C at a rate of 50 mA cm -2. The passivating films remaining on the lithium surface after discharge were examined using electron microscopy and their elemental compositions determined using the surface sensitive technique of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Performance characteristics (voltage and capacity) of test cells consisting, in part, of the different lithium samples are discussed in terms of impurity concentrations determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The permeability and electronic conductivity of the LiCl passivating films are adduced as two possible reasons for the variations in capacity and on-load voltage of the different lithium samples.

  3. Action Mechanisms of Lithium Chloride on Cell Infection by Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiaofeng; Meng, Fandan; Yin, Jiechao; Li, Guangxing; Li, Xunliang; Wang, Chao; Herrler, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a porcine coronavirus. Lithium chloride (LiCl) has been found to be effective against several DNA viruses, such as Herpes simplex virus and vaccinia virus. Recently, we and others have reported the inhibitory effect of LiCl on avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) infection, an RNA virus. In the current study, the action mechanism of LiCl on cell infection by TGEV was investigated. Plaque assays and 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenyl tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assays showed that the cell infection by TGEV was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, when LiCl was added to virus-infected cells; the cell infection was not affected when either cells or viruses were pretreated with the drug. The inhibition of TGEV infection in vitro by LiCl was observed at different virus doses and with different cell lines. The inhibitory effect of LiCl against TGEV infection and transcription was confirmed by RT-PCR and real-time PCR targeting viral S and 3CL-protease genes. The time-of-addition effect of the drug on TGEV infection indicated that LiCl acted on the initial and late stage of TGEV infection. The production of virus was not detected at 36 h post-infection due to the drug treatment. Moreover, immunofluorescence (IF) and flow cytometry analyses based on staining of Annexin V and propidium iodide staining of nuclei indicated that early and late cell apoptosis induced by TGEV was inhibited efficiently. The ability of LiCl to inhibit apoptosis was investigated by IF analysis of caspase-3 expression. Our data indicate that LiCl inhibits TGEV infection by exerting an anti-apoptotic effect. The inhibitory effect of LiCl was also observed with porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus. Together with other reports concerning the inhibitory effect of lithium salts on IBV in cell culture, our results indicate that LiCl may be a potent agent against porcine and avian coronaviruses. PMID:21573100

  4. Lrp5-independent activation of Wnt signaling by lithium chloride increases bone formation

    E-print Network

    in these mice. SAMP6 mice have accelerated osteoporosis due to inadequate osteoblast renewal. Lithium lithium should determine whether it also improves bone mass in humans. anabolic osteoporosis therapy the Osteoporosis­Pseudoglioma syndrome (OPPG), an autosomal re- cessive disorder characterized by extremely low

  5. Slow dynamics of water molecules in an aqueous solution of lithium chloride probed by neutron spin-echo.

    PubMed

    Mamontov, E; Ohl, M

    2013-07-14

    Aqueous solutions of lithium chloride are uniquely similar to pure water in the parameters such as glass transition temperature, Tg, yet they could be supercooled without freezing down to below 200 K even in the bulk state. This provides advantageous opportunity to study low-temperature dynamics of water molecules in water-like environment in the bulk rather than nano-confined state. Using high-resolution neutron spin-echo data, we argue that the critical temperature, Tc, which is also common between lithium chloride aqueous solutions and pure water, is associated with the split of a secondary relaxation from the main structural relaxation on cooling down. Our results do not allow distinguishing between a well-defined separate secondary relaxation process and the "excess wing" scenario, in which the temperature dependence of the secondary relaxation follows the main relaxation. Importantly, however, in either of these scenarios the secondary relaxation is associated with density-density fluctuations, measurable in a neutron scattering experiment. Neutron scattering could be the only experimental technique with the capability of providing information on the spatial characteristics of the secondary relaxation through the dependence of the signal on the scattering momentum transfer. We propose a simple method for such analysis. PMID:23689686

  6. Use of carbon filaments in place of carbon black as the current collector of a lithium cell with a thionyl chloride bromine chloride catholyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frysz, Christine A.; Shui, Xiaoping; Chung, D. D. L.

    Submicron carbon filaments (ADNH, Applied Sciences Inc.) used in place of carbon black as porous reduction electrodes (i.e., current collectors) in plate and jellyroll configurations in carbon limited lithium batteries with the BCX (bromine chloride in thionyl chloride) catholyte gave a specific capacity (at 2 V cut-off) of up to 8700 mAh/g of carbon, compared with a value of up to 2900 mAh/g of carbon for carbon black. The high specific capacity for the filament electrode is partly due to the filaments' processability into sheets as thin as 0.2 mm with good porosity, acceptable mechanical properties and without binder, and partly due to the high catholyte absorptivity and high rate of catholyte absorption of the filament electrode. Use of solvent-cleansed filaments in place of as-received filaments in making electrodes increased the packing density, thus decreasing capacity per g of carbon. The BCX catholyte acted as a cleanser anyway, due to the thionyl chloride in it. The specific capacity per cm 3 of carbon and that per unit density of carbon were also increased by using carbon filaments in place of carbon black, provided that the filament electrode was not pressed after forming by slurry filtration. Though no binder was needed for the filament plate electrode, it was needed for the filament jellyroll electrode. The Teflon™ binder increased the tensile strength and modulus, but decreased the catholyte absorption and rate of absorption. The filament electrode exhibited 405 less volume electrical resistivity than the carbon black electrode, both without a binder.

  7. RADIOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS IN POLYVINYL CHLORIDE UNDER THE EFFECT OF Co⁶° GAMMA RADIATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wuckel

    1960-01-01

    The role of air oxygen in the radiochemical changes of polyvinyl ; chloride was investigated. A polyvinyl chloride emulsion polymeride with a K ; value of 60 to 65 was used as a sample. It was radiated in the form of powder, ; films, and massive cylinders in high vacuum and in air. The total viscosity of ; the powders

  8. Calorimetric investigation of radiation-thermal synthesized lithium pentaferrite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Surzhikov; A. M. Pritulov; E. N. Lysenko; A. N. Sokolovskiy; V. A. Vlasov; E. A. Vasendina

    2010-01-01

    LiFe5O8 solid-phase synthesis at radiation-thermal (RT) annealing of lithium carbonate and iron oxide mechanical mixture was studied\\u000a using thermal analysis (TG\\/DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) techniques. The RT annealing was proceeded with high-power\\u000a pulsing beam of 2.4 MeV electrons. It was shown that RT synthesis of the precursors considerably enhances the reactivity of\\u000a the solid system within temperatures range 600–800 °C.

  9. Blockade of lithium chloride-induced conditioned place aversion as a test for antiemetic agents: Comparison of metoclopramide with combined extracts of Zingiber officinale and Ginkgo biloba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Frisch; Rüdiger U. Hasenöhrl; Claudia M. Mattern; Rüdiger Häcker; Joseph P. Huston

    1995-01-01

    The present study tests the hypothesis that the blockade of lithium chloride-induced conditioned place aversion might be a suitable model to assess antiemetic properties of drugs, especially in species that do not vomit, like rats. The effects of the known antiemetic compound metoclopramide were compared with those of zingicomb®, a combination preparation of extracts of Ginkgo biloba and Zingiber officinale,

  10. Molecular Structure of Thionyl chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-10-01

    Thionyl chloride is a slightly yellowish liquid with an intense odor and low viscosity. It reacts with lithium to produce lithium chloride and is a good solvent for most organic compounds. Other uses of thionyl chloride include as an intermediate for the production of pharmaceutically active ingredients, as an electrolyte in lithium batteries, and in crop protection.

  11. Neurite outgrowth and differentiation of rat cortex progenitor cells are sensitive to lithium chloride at non-cytotoxic exposures.

    PubMed

    Jeerage, Kavita M; Oreskovic, Tammy L; Hume, Stephanie L

    2012-10-01

    Neuron-specific in vitro screening strategies have the potential to accelerate the evaluation of chemicals for neurotoxicity. We examined neurite outgrowth as a measure of neuronal response with a commercially available rat cortex progenitor cell model, where cells were exposed to a chemical during a period of cell differentiation. In control cultures, the fraction of beta-III-tubulin positive neurons and their neurite length increased significantly with time, indicating differentiation of the progenitor cells. Expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, an astrocyte marker, also increased significantly with time. By seeding progenitor cells at varying densities, we demonstrated that neurite length was influenced by cell-cell spacing. After ten days, cultures seeded at densities of 1000 cells/mm(2) or lower had significantly shorter neurites than cultures seeded at densities of 1250 cells/mm(2) or higher. Progenitor cells were exposed to lithium, a neuroactive chemical with diverse modes of action. Cultures exposed to 30 mmol/L or 10 mmol/L lithium chloride (LiCl) had significantly lower metabolic activity than control cultures, as reported by adenosine triphosphate content, and no neurons were observed after ten days of exposure. Cultures exposed to 3 mmol/L, 1 mmol/L, or 0.3 mmol/L LiCl, which encompass lithium's therapeutic range, had metabolic activity similar to control cultures. These cultures exhibited concentration-dependent decreases in neurite outgrowth after ten days of LiCl exposure. Neurite outgrowth results were relatively robust, regardless of the evaluation methodology. This work demonstrates that measurement of neurite outgrowth in differentiating progenitor cell cultures can be a sensitive endpoint for neuronal response under non-cytotoxic exposure conditions. PMID:22771960

  12. Radiation damage and defect behavior in ion-implanted, lithium counterdoped silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Mehta, S.; Swartz, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    Boron doped silicon n+p solar cells were counterdoped with lithium by ion implanation and the resultant n+p cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons. The function of fluence and a Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) was studied to correlate defect behavior with cell performance. It was found that the lithium counterdoped cells exhibited significantly increased radiation resistance when compared to boron doped control cells. It is concluded that the annealing behavior is controlled by dissociation and recombination of defects. The DLTS studies show that counterdoping with lithium eliminates at least three deep level defects and results in three new defects. It is speculated that the increased radiation resistance of the counterdoped cells is due primarily to the interaction of lithium with oxygen, single vacancies and divacancies and that the lithium-oxygen interaction is the most effective in contributing to the increased radiation resistance.

  13. Lithium chloride treatment induces epithelial cell proliferation in xenografted human endometrium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex J. Polotsky; Liyin Zhu; Nanette Santoro; Jeffrey W. Pollard

    2009-01-01

    methods: Human endometrial samples were obtained from normal volunteers, then implanted under the kidney capsule of nude mice, and treated with estradiol-17ß (E2) or LiCl. Xenografts were assessed for protein expression of MKI-67, mini-chromosome maintenance protein-2, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and cyclin D1. results: Both E2 and LiCl induced a robust proliferative response in the epithelium. Only lithium

  14. Radiation and phase change of lithium fluoride in an annulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, Kurt O.

    1993-01-01

    A one-dimensional thermal model is developed to evaluate the effect of radiation on the phase change of lithium-fluoride (LiF) in an annular canister under gravitational and microgravitational conditions. Specified heat flux at the outer wall of the canister models focused solar flux; adiabatic and convective conditions are considered for the inner wall. A two-band radiation model is used for the combined-mode heat transfer within the canister, and LiF optical properties relate metal surface properties in vacuum to those in LiF. For axial gravitational conditions, the liquid LiF remains in contact with the two bounding walls, whereas a void gap is used at the outer wall to model possible microgravitational conditions. For the adiabatic cases, exact integrals are obtained for the time required for complete melting of the LiF. Melting was found to occur primarily from the outer wall in the 1-g model, whereas it occurred primarily from the inner wall in the mu-g model. For the convective cases, partially melted steady-state conditions and fully melted conditions are determined to depend on the source flux level, with radiation extending the melting times.

  15. Radiation hardness of the storage phosphor europium doped potassium chloride for radiation therapy dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Driewer, Joseph P.; Chen, Haijian; Osvet, Andres; Low, Daniel A.; Li, H. Harold

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: An important property of a reusable dosimeter is its radiation hardness, that is, its ability to retain its dosimetric merits after irradiation. The radiation hardness of europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu2+), a storage phosphor material recently proposed for radiation therapy dosimetry, is examined in this study. Methods: Pellet-style KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters, 6 mm in diameter, and 1 mm thick, were fabricated in-house for this study. The pellets were exposed by a 6 MV photon beam or in a high dose rate 137Cs irradiator. Macroscopic properties, such as radiation sensitivity, dose response linearity, and signal stability, were studied with a laboratory photostimulated luminescence (PSL) readout system. Since phosphor performance is related to the state of the storage centers and the activator, Eu2+, in the host lattice, spectroscopic and temporal measurements were carried out in order to explore radiation-induced changes at the microscopic level. Results: KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters retained approximately 90% of their initial signal strength after a 5000 Gy dose history. Dose response was initially supralinear over the dose range of 100–700 cGy but became linear after 60 Gy. Linearity did not change significantly in the 0–5000 Gy dose history spanned in this study. Annealing high dose history chips resulted in a return of supralinearity and a recovery of sensitivity. There were no significant changes in the PSL stimulation spectra, PSL emission spectra, photoluminescence spectra, or luminescence lifetime, indicating that the PSL signal process remains intact after irradiation but at a reduced efficiency due to reparable radiation-induced perturbations in the crystal lattice. Conclusions: Systematic studies of KCl:Eu2+ material are important for understanding how the material can be optimized for radiation therapy dosimetry purposes. The data presented here indicate that KCl:Eu2+ exhibits strong radiation hardness and lends support for further investigations of this novel material. PMID:21928642

  16. The 250AH/90A active lithium-thionyl chloride cell for Centaur-G application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolla, A. E.; Tura, D. D.

    1987-09-01

    A high rate active Li/SOCl2 cell was designed for use in a 28 volt, 250 amp-hour space battery system. The lithium battery is being considered as a replacement of its heavier silver-zinc counterpart on board the Centaur-G booster rocket which is used to launch payloads from the Space Shuttle cargo bay into deep-space. Basically a feasibility study, this development effort is demonstrating the ability of the lithium cell to deliver up to 90 amps safely at power densities of approximately 25 watts per pound. Test data on 4 prototype units is showing an energy density of 85 watt-hours per pound and 9.0 watt-hours/cu in. The cells tested typically delivered 280 to 300 amp-hours under ambient temperature test conditions using alternating continuous loads of 90, 55, and 20 amperes throughout life. Data from four cells tested are presented to demonstrate the capability of Li/SOCl2 technology for a C/3 discharge rate in active and hermetic cell units.

  17. The 250AH/90A active lithium-thionyl chloride cell for Centaur-G application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolla, A. E.; Tura, D. D.

    1987-01-01

    A high rate active Li/SOCl2 cell was designed for use in a 28 volt, 250 amp-hour space battery system. The lithium battery is being considered as a replacement of its heavier silver-zinc counterpart on board the Centaur-G booster rocket which is used to launch payloads from the Space Shuttle cargo bay into deep-space. Basically a feasibility study, this development effort is demonstrating the ability of the lithium cell to deliver up to 90 amps safely at power densities of approximately 25 watts per pound. Test data on 4 prototype units is showing an energy density of 85 watt-hours per pound and 9.0 watt-hours/cu in. The cells tested typically delivered 280 to 300 amp-hours under ambient temperature test conditions using alternating continuous loads of 90, 55, and 20 amperes throughout life. Data from four cells tested are presented to demonstrate the capability of Li/SOCl2 technology for a C/3 discharge rate in active and hermetic cell units.

  18. Mitogen-activated protein kinase in the amygdala plays a critical role in lithium chloride-induced taste aversion learning.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bumsup; Houpt, Thomas A

    2012-01-01

    The intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in the brain is necessary for the formation of a variety of memories including conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning. However, the functional role of MAPK activation in the amygdala during lithium chloride (LiCl)-induced CTA learning has not been established. In the present study, we investigated if local microinjection of SL327, a MAPK kinase inhibitor, into the rat amygdala could alleviate LiCl-induced CTA learning. Our results revealed that acute administration of a high dose of LiCl (0.15M, 12 ml/kg, i.p.) rapidly increased the level of phosphorylated MAPK (pMAPK)-positive cells in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) of rats as measured by immunohistochemistry. Local microinjection of SL327 (1 ?g/0.5 ?l/hemisphere) into the CeA 10 min before LiCl administration decreased both the strength of LiCl-induced CTA paired with 0.125% saccharin and the level of LiCl-induced pMAPK-positive cells in the CeA, but not in the NTS. Our data suggest that the intracellular signaling cascade of the MAPK pathway in the CeA plays a critical role in the processing of visceral information induced by LiCl for CTA learning. PMID:22085719

  19. Mitogen-activated protein kinase in the amygdala plays a critical role in lithium chloride-induced taste aversion learning

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Bumsup; Houpt, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in the brain is necessary for the formation of a variety of memories including conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning. However, the functional role of MAPK activation in the amygdala during lithium chloride (LiCl)-induced CTA learning has not been established. In the present study, we investigated if local microinjection of SL327, a MAPK kinase inhibitor, into the rat amygdala could alleviate LiCl-induced CTA learning. Our results revealed that acute administration of a high dose of LiCl (0.15 M, 12 ml/kg, i.p.) rapidly increased the level of phosphorylated MAPK (pMAPK)-positive cells in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) of rats as measured by immunohistochemistry. Local microinjection of SL327 (1 µg/0.5 µl/hemisphere) into the CeA 10 min before LiCl administration decreased both the strength of LiCl-induced CTA paired with 0.125% saccharin and the level of LiCl-induced pMAPK-positive cells in the CeA, but not in the NTS. Our data suggest that the intracellular signaling cascade of the MAPK pathway in the CeA plays a critical role in the processing of visceral information induced by LiCl for CTA learning. PMID:22085719

  20. Nano-web structures constructed with a cellulose acetate/lithium chloride/polyethylene oxide hybrid: modeling, fabrication and characterization.

    PubMed

    Broumand, Atefeh; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Mirzakhanlouei, Sasan; Davoodi, Driush; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali A

    2015-01-22

    Electrospun nano-web structures (ENWSs) were successfully fabricated from ionized binary solution of cellulose(Mn30)/polyethylene oxide(Mn200) (CA/PEO of 0.5-1.5). Final concentration of polymers was 12% (w/v) in the solution, and lithium chloride was used as ionizing agent. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to the optimize fabrication of ENWSs. Results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the solution properties and ENWSs morphology were strongly influenced by CA/PEO. An increase in PEO amount increased the viscosity which is a function of molecular weight, and as a result raised the entanglement of polymeric solution but decreased the surface tension that all support nanofibers fabrication. The size of nanofibers decreased with reducing PEO and LiCl concentration. Increasing the content of LiCl promoted the electrical conductivity (EC) value; however, junction zones were formed. The overall optimum region was found to be at combined level of 1.5% CA/PEO and 0.49% (w/v) LiCl. PMID:25439959

  1. Neural Network Modeling of the Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery System

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, D.; Jungst, R.G.; O'Gorman, C.C.; Paez, T.L.

    1998-10-29

    Battery systems have traditionally relied on extensive build and test procedures for product realization. Analytical models have been developed to diminish this reliance, but have only been partially successful in consistently predicting the performance of battery systems. The complex set of interacting physical and chemical processes within battery systems has made the development of analytical models a significant challenge. Advanced simulation tools are needed to more accurately model battery systems which will reduce the time and cost required for product realization. Sandia has initiated an advanced model-based design strategy to battery systems, beginning with the performance of lithiumhhionyl chloride cells. As an alternative approach, we have begun development of cell performance modeling using non-phenomenological models for battery systems based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). ANNs are inductive models for simulating input/output mappings with certain advantages over phenomenological models, particularly for complex systems. Among these advantages is the ability to avoid making measurements of hard to determine physical parameters or having to understand cell processes sufficiently to write mathematical functions describing their behavior. For example, ANN models are also being studied for simulating complex physical processes within the Li/SOC12 cell, such as the time and temperature dependence of the anode interracial resistance. ANNs have been shown to provide a very robust and computationally efficient simulation tool for predicting voltage and capacity output for Li/SOC12 cells under a variety of operating conditions. The ANN modeling approach should be applicable to a wide variety of battery chemistries, including rechargeable systems.

  2. Lithium chloride promotes the odontoblast differentiation of hair follicle neural crest cells by activating Wnt/?-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Shan, Tengfei; Zhou, Cheng; Yang, Rong; Yan, Fei; Zhang, Ping; Fu, Yu; Jiang, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    The Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathway contributes to the maintenance of pluripotency and partial reprogramming of stem cells. Postnatal neural crest cells (NCCs) can differentiate into odontoblast-like cells due to their multi-potential property, but further endeavors need to be made to promote odontogenic differentiation of hair follicle neural crest cells (hfNCCs). This study investigated whether the Wnt pathway activator lithium chloride (LiCl) promotes odontoblast differentiation of hfNCCs. Change of proliferation, ?-catenin and pluripotency markers of hfNCCs were examined after treatment with LiCl. An in vitro odontoblast differentiation model of hfNCCs was built using dental cell conditioned media (DC-CM). The effects of LiCl on odontoblast differentiation of hfNCCs showed that proliferation and expression of ?-catenin in the cytosolic and nuclear compartments were increased in the LiCl-treated hfNCCs, and the pluripotency marks, Oct4, Klf4, Sox2 and Nanog, were more highly expressed in the LiCl-treated group than in the control group. The odontoblast markers such as DSP, DMP1 and Runx2, could be detected in hfNCCs induced by DC-CM, but in LiCl -treated group all three markers had stronger expression. Expression of ?-catenin in the nuclear of LiCl-treated hfNCCs induced by DC-CM was higher than in the other groups. The data indicate that the Wnt pathway activator LiCl can promote proliferation and odontoblast differentiation of hfNCCs, and chemical approaches are of benefit in obtaining more desirable seed cell types for cell-based therapies. PMID:25044369

  3. WNT activation by lithium abrogates TP53 mutation associated radiation resistance in medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zhukova, Nataliya; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Remke, Marc; Martin, Dianna C; Castelo-Branco, Pedro; Zhang, Cindy H; Fraser, Michael; Tse, Ken; Poon, Raymond; Shih, David J H; Baskin, Berivan; Ray, Peter N; Bouffet, Eric; Dirks, Peter; von Bueren, Andre O; Pfaff, Elke; Korshunov, Andrey; Jones, David T W; Northcott, Paul A; Kool, Marcel; Pugh, Trevor J; Pomeroy, Scott L; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Pietsch, Torsten; Gessi, Marco; Rutkowski, Stefan; Bognár, Laszlo; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Eberhart, Charles G; Conter, Cecile Faure; Fouladi, Maryam; French, Pim J; Grajkowska, Wieslawa A; Gupta, Nalin; Hauser, Peter; Jabado, Nada; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Jung, Shin; Kim, Seung-Ki; Klekner, Almos; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Lach, Boleslaw; Leonard, Jeffrey R; Liau, Linda M; Massimi, Luca; Pollack, Ian F; Ra, Young Shin; Rubin, Joshua B; Van Meir, Erwin G; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Weiss, William A; Zitterbart, Karel; Bristow, Robert G; Alman, Benjamin; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Malkin, David; Clifford, Steven C; Pfister, Stefan M; Taylor, Michael D; Tabori, Uri

    2014-01-01

    TP53 mutations confer subgroup specific poor survival for children with medulloblastoma. We hypothesized that WNT activation which is associated with improved survival for such children abrogates TP53 related radioresistance and can be used to sensitize TP53 mutant tumors for radiation. We examined the subgroup-specific role of TP53 mutations in a cohort of 314 patients treated with radiation. TP53 wild-type or mutant human medulloblastoma cell-lines and normal neural stem cells were used to test radioresistance of TP53 mutations and the radiosensitizing effect of WNT activation on tumors and the developing brain. Children with WNT/TP53 mutant medulloblastoma had higher 5-year survival than those with SHH/TP53 mutant tumours (100% and 36.6%±8.7%, respectively (p<0.001)). Introduction of TP53 mutation into medulloblastoma cells induced radioresistance (survival fractions at 2Gy (SF2) of 89%±2% vs. 57.4%±1.8% (p<0.01)). In contrast, ?-catenin mutation sensitized TP53 mutant cells to radiation (p<0.05). Lithium, an activator of the WNT pathway, sensitized TP53 mutant medulloblastoma to radiation (SF2 of 43.5%±1.5% in lithium treated cells vs. 56.6±3% (p<0.01)) accompanied by increased number of ?H2AX foci. Normal neural stem cells were protected from lithium induced radiation damage (SF2 of 33%±8% for lithium treated cells vs. 27%±3% for untreated controls (p=0.05). Poor survival of patients with TP53 mutant medulloblastoma may be related to radiation resistance. Since constitutive activation of the WNT pathway by lithium sensitizes TP53 mutant medulloblastoma cells and protect normal neural stem cells from radiation, this oral drug may represent an attractive novel therapy for high-risk medulloblastomas. PMID:25539912

  4. Investigation of the 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride-AlCl 3 \\/LiAlCl 4 system for lithium battery application Part I: Physical properties and preliminary chronopotentiometric study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. S. Fung; S. M. Chad

    1993-01-01

    The applicability of the 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride — AlCl3 system for lithium battery application was investigated. Lithium chloride was found to dissolve up to 1.59 mole ratio of LiAlCl4\\/MeEtImAlCl4 upon reaction between LiCl and AlCl3 in the melt. Density, conductivity and viscosity of the melt upon addition of LiAlCl4 were determined. The density was found to increase monotonically from 1280 to

  5. Radiation-induced grafting of vinylbenzyltrimethylammonium chloride (VBT) onto cotton fabric and study of its anti-bacterial activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virendra Kumar; Y. K. Bhardwaj; K. P. Rawat; S. Sabharwal

    2005-01-01

    Mutual radiation grafting technique using 60Co gamma radiation has been used to carry out grafting of vinylbenzyltrimethylammonium chloride (VBT) onto cotton cellulose substrate. Grafting yield increased with radiation dose and decreased with dose rate but was adversely affected by the presence of O2 and salts of Fe2+ and Cu2+. However, the presence of an acid did not affect grafting in

  6. Study of interaction among silicon, lithium, oxygen and radiation-induced defects for radiation-hardened solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    In order to improve reliability and the useful lifetime of solar cell arrays for space use, a program was undertaken to develop radiation-hardened lithium-doped silicon solar cells. These cells were shown to be significantly more resistant to degradation by ionized particles than the presently used n-p nonlithium-doped silicon solar cells. The results of various analyses performed to develop a more complete understanding of the physics of the interaction among lithium, silicon, oxygen, and radiation-induced defects are presented. A discussion is given of those portions of the previous model of radiation damage annealing which were found to be in error and those portions which were upheld by these extensive investigations.

  7. Radiation effects on microcrystalline cellulose in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yan; Peng, Jing; Ao, Yinyong; Li, Jiuqiang; Zhai, Maolin

    2012-11-01

    The radiation processing of cellulose in ionic liquids (ILs) demands a comprehensive knowledge of radiation effects on cellulose in ILs. Herein, gamma radiation-induced degradation kinetics of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) was studied by viscometry. The intrinsic viscosity of MCC in [Bmim]Cl decreased slightly with increasing dose; while chemical structure and crystalline state of cellulose has no obvious change up to 300 kGy. The radiation degradation rate constant (k) of MCC in [Bmim]Cl was 2.60×10(-7)/kGy, lower than that of solid cellulose, but higher than that in N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) solvent. Furthermore, k value decreased to 1.12×10(-7)/kGy in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/[Bmim]Cl system due to the free radicals scavenging of DMSO. The radicals generated during irradiation play main role in the radiation degradation of MCC in [Bmim]Cl. This work provides a new way to control the average molecular weight of cellulose by radiation-induced degradation of cellulose in ILs. PMID:22944426

  8. Periadolescent oral manganese exposure affects conditioned place preference by cocaine and conditioned place aversion by lithium chloride in rats 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Samuel Ming Hin

    2013-02-22

    Manganese neurotoxicity compromises basal ganglia functions that could affect the limbic system and drug sensitivity. Male rats were orally exposed to manganese chloride (0, 100, 200 mg/kg/day Mn) for 15 days starting at postnatal day (PND) 28...

  9. Structure and optical investigation of the effect of laser radiation in stabilized poly (vinyl chloride)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouh, S. A.; Radwan, M. M.; Abdel-Naby, A. S.; Agami, W. R.; Morsey, M.

    Structure and optical property studies using IR & UV spectroscopy, refractive index measurement and X-ray diffraction were performed on poly (vinyl chloride), PVC, stabilized by para-ethyl carboxy N-phenyl maleimide (PEC-NPMI) additive. The effect of addition of the stabilizer PEC-NPMI, with different concentrations, was studied. The results indicate that the addition of PEC-NPMI with 0.01 g/1 g PVC enhances the isotropic nature of the PVC polymer. Furthermore the effect of laser radiation on the optical properties of the 0.01 g PEC-NPMI/1 g PVC polymer was studied. The study shows that the PVC stabilized with 0.01 g PEC-NPMI/1 g PVC and irradiated with 4.27 J/cm infrared laser radiation is most suitable for applications requiring PVC of high absorbance value in the IR and UV regions.

  10. LITHIUM--2003 45.1 By Joyce A. Ober

    E-print Network

    plant in Nevada. Lithium carbonate and lithium chloride also were produced from brines from the Salar catalysts, and lithium compound additions to concrete are rapidly expanding markets. Production The U operation. FMC produced lithium carbonate and lithium chloride in Argentina in 2003. LithChem International

  11. Lithium chloride administration prevents spatial learning and memory impairment in repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion mice by depressing apoptosis and increasing BDNF expression in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mingyue; Jin, Wei; Zhao, Haifeng; Xiao, Yining; Jia, Yanqiu; Yin, Yu; Jiang, Xin; Xu, Jing; Meng, Nan; Lv, Peiyuan

    2015-09-15

    Lithium has been reported to have neuroprotective effects, but the preventive and treated role on cognition impairment and the underlying mechanisms have not been determined. In the present study, C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to repeated bilateral common carotid artery occlusion to induce the learning and memory deficits. 2mmol/kg or 5mmol/kg of lithium chloride (LiCl) was injected intraperitoneally per day before (for 7 days) or post (for 28 days) the operation. This repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) induced dynamic overexpression of ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and BDNF in hippocampus of mice. LiCl pretreatment and treatment significantly decreased the escape latency and increased the percentage of time that the mice spent in the target quadrant in Morris water maze. 2mmol/kg LiCl evidently reversed the morphologic changes, up-regulated the survival neuron count and increased the BDNF gene and protein expression. 5mmol/kg pre-LiCl significantly increased IR-stimulated reduce of Bcl-2/Bax and p-CREB/CREB. These results described suggest that pre-Li and Li treatment may induce a pronounced prevention on cognitive impairment. These effects may relay on the inhibition of apoptosis and increasing BDNF and p-CREB expression. PMID:26031381

  12. The design and application of lithium drift silicon diodes as nuclear radiation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. Gibbons; N. G. Blamires

    1965-01-01

    A range of lithium-drifted silicon radiation detectors is described. Areas up to 8 cm2 and thicknesses up to 0.6 cm have been achieved. At - 20°C, a resolution of 8 kev full width half maximum was obtained on 661 kev beta particles using a 1 cm2 detector 0.1 cm thick. The performance of the detectors is discussed in relation to

  13. ASSESSMENT OF LITHIUM USING THE IEHR EVALUATIVE PROCESS FOR ASSESSING HUMAN DEVELOPMENTAL AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents an evaluation of the reproductive and developmental effects of lithium and reviews toxicologic information on several specific lithium salts: ithium carbonate, lithium chloride, lithium citrate, and lithium hypochlorite. ithium (Li), an alkali metal, is a n...

  14. Inactivation of Kupffer Cells by Gadolinium Chloride Protects Murine Liver From Radiation-Induced Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Du Shisuo; Qiang Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zeng Zhaochong, E-mail: zeng.zhaochong@zs-hospital.sh.c [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ke Aiwu; Ji Yuan [Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhang Zhengyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zeng Haiying [Department of Pathology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Liu Zhongshan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To determine whether the inhibition of Kupffer cells before radiotherapy (RT) would protect hepatocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis. Materials and Methods: A single 30-Gy fraction was administered to the upper abdomen of Sprague-Dawley rats. The Kupffer cell inhibitor gadolinium chloride (GdCl3; 10 mg/kg body weight) was intravenously injected 24 h before RT. The rats were divided into four groups: group 1, sham RT plus saline (control group); group 2, sham RT plus GdCl3; group 3, RT plus saline; and group 4, RT plus GdCl3. Liver tissue was collected for measurement of apoptotic cytokine expression and evaluation of radiation-induced liver toxicity by analysis of liver enzyme activities, hepatocyte micronucleus formation, apoptosis, and histologic staining. Results: The expression of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was significantly attenuated in group 4 compared with group 3 at 2, 6, 24, and 48 h after injection (p <0.05). At early points after RT, the rats in group 4 exhibited significantly lower levels of liver enzyme activity, apoptotic response, and hepatocyte micronucleus formation compared with those in group 3. Conclusion: Selective inactivation of Kupffer cells with GdCl3 reduced radiation-induced cytokine production and protected the liver against acute radiation-induced damage.

  15. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Coops, M.S.

    1992-06-02

    This patent describes a method for production of plutonium metal from plutonium oxide by metallic lithium reduction, with regeneration of lithium reactant. It comprises: reacting the plutonium oxide with metallic lithium; oxides and unreacted lithium; subliming the product lithium oxide and unreacted lithium from unreacted plutonium oxide with high heat and low pressure; recapturing the product lithium oxides; reacting the recaptured product lithium oxides with anhydrous hydrochloric acid to produce lithium chloride salt; and decomposing product lithium chloride salt by electrolysis to regenerate lithium metal.

  16. Radiation damage and defect behavior in proton irradiated lithium-counterdoped n+p silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stupica, John; Goradia, Chandra; Swartz, Clifford K.; Weinberg, Irving

    1987-01-01

    Two lithium-counterdoped n+p silicon solar cells with different lithium concentrations were irradiated by 10-MeV protons. Cell performance was measured as a function of fluence, and it was found that the cell with the highest concentration of lithium had the highest radiation resistance. Deep level transient spectroscopy which showed two deep level defects that were lithium related. Relating the defect energy levels obtained from this study with those from earlier work using 1-MeV electron irradiation shows no correlation of the defect energy levels. There is one marked similarity: the absence of the boron-interstitial-oxygen-interstitial defect. This consistency strengthens the belief that lithium interacts with oxygen to prevent the formation of the boron interstitial-oxygen interstitial defect. The results indicate that, in general, addition of lithium in small amounts to the p-base of a boron doped silicon solar cell such that the base remains p-type, tends to increase the radiation resistance of the cell.

  17. A potential strategy for high-grade gliomas: combination treatment with lithium chloride and BmK CT.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuejun; Zheng, Shuhua; Huang, Rui; An, Na; Zheng, Yali; Zhang, Zhiyun; Liang, Aihua

    2012-01-01

    Therapies for high-grade gliomas (HHG) that have strong tendency of infiltration and resistance to chemotherapies are currently unavailable. Here, we report that lower-dose combination therapy of Buthus martensii Karsch (BmK) CT, a type of scorpion toxin peptide, and LiCl, clinically used as mood stabilizer, could synergistically inhibit the migration, invasion and proliferation of C6 glioma cells. The decreased invasiveness of C6 glioma cells was accompanied by inhibited activation, catalytic activity and/or expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2. Moreover, TOPfalsh luciferase reporter and immunofluorescence staining showed altered localization pattern of ?-catenin at the leading edge of 2D scratch. Our results suggested that the combination treatment of lithium and BmK CT may constitute a novel and potential strategy for HHG therapy. PMID:21932030

  18. Induction of inflammatory cell infiltration and necrosis in normal mouse skin by the combined treatment of tumor necrosis factor and lithium chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Beyaert, R.; De Potter, C.; Vanhaesebroeck, B.; Van Roy, F.; Fiers, W.

    1991-01-01

    Previously we reported that lithium chloride (LiCl) potentiates tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Here, using a murine normal skin model, it is shown that a subcutaneous injection of TNF plus LiCl induces acute dermal and subcutaneous inflammation and necrosis. Histology showed a marked initial dermal and subcutaneous neutrophil infiltrate by approximately 2 hours, followed by a predominantly mononuclear infiltrate by 24 hours, which remained present for several days. Tumor necrosis factor or LiCl alone induced negligible inflammation, disappearing after 6 hours; furthermore there was never necrosis or ulceration of the overlying skin in case of single-agent application. In vitro studies showed that the combination of TNF and LiCl, but not either agent alone, was directly cytotoxic to fibroblastic cells of murine skin. No inflammatory infiltration was visible in tumors treated intratumorally or perilesionally with TNF plus LiCl, although the latter treatment resulted in a perilesional leukocyte infiltration. Furthermore the combination of TNF and LiCl had no effect on macrophage cytotoxicity to L929 tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:1848044

  19. Modification of nylon-6 fibres by radiation-induced graft polymerisation of vinylbenzyl chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, T. M.; Nasef, Mohamed Mahmoud; Hashim, Kamaruddin

    2015-04-01

    Modification of nylon-6 fibres by radiation-induced graft copolymerisation (RIGP) of vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) using the preirradiation method was investigated. A number of grafting parameters such as type of solvent, total dose, monomer concentrations, reaction temperature and reaction time were studied to obtain desired degree of grafting (DG). The DG was found to be a function of reaction parameters and achieved a maximum value of 130 wt% at 20 vol% VBC concentration in methanol, 300 kGy dose, 30 °C temperature and 3 h reaction time. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to evaluate the chemical, morphological and structural changes that occurred in the grafted fibres, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was also applied to determine the thermal stability, whereas differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and universal mechanical tester were used to analyse respective thermal and mechanical properties of the grafted fibres. The results of these analyses provide strong evidence for successful grafting of VBC onto nylon-6, and the variation in the properties of the grafted fibres depends on DG.

  20. Depopulation of metastable helium by radiative association with hydrogen and lithium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Augustovi?ová, L.; Soldán, P. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Chemical Physics and Optics, Ke Karlovu 3, CZ-12116 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Kraemer, W. P., E-mail: pavel.soldan@mff.cuni.cz [Max-Planck Institute of Astrophysics, Postfach 1371, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2014-02-10

    Depopulation of metastable He(2{sup 3}S) by radiative association with hydrogen and lithium ions is investigated using a fully quantal approach. Rate coefficients for spontaneous and stimulated radiative association of the HeH{sup +}, HeD{sup +}, and LiHe{sup +} molecular ions on the spin-triplet manifold are presented as functions of temperature considering the association to rotational-vibrational states of the lowest triplet electronic states a {sup 3}?{sup +} and b {sup 3}?{sup +} from the continuum states of the b {sup 3}?{sup +} electronic state. Evaluation of the rate coefficients is based on highly accurate quantum calculations, taking into account all possible state-to-state transitions at thermal energies (for spontaneous association) or at higher background energies (stimulated association). As expected, calculations show that the rate coefficients for radiative association to the a state are several orders of magnitude larger than the one for the b state formation. A noticeable effect by blackbody background radiation on the radiative association is only obtained for the b ? b process. Aspects of the formation and abundance of the metastable HeH{sup +}(a {sup 3}?{sup +}) in astrophysical environments are briefly discussed.

  1. Dextran sodium sulfate inhibits the activities of both polymerase and reverse transcriptase: lithium chloride purification, a rapid and efficient technique to purify RNA

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) is commonly used in mouse studies to induce a very reproducible colitis that effectively mimics the clinical and histological features of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, especially ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanisms of action of DSS remain poorly understood, and observations by our laboratory and other groups indicate that DSS contamination of colonic tissues from DSS-treated mice potently inhibits the quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) amplification of mRNA. Results A prior study used poly-A-mediated mRNA purification to remove DSS from RNA extracts, but we herein report a second efficient and cost-effective approach to counteract this inhibition, using lithium chloride precipitation to entirely remove DSS from RNAs. We also explored how DSS interferes with qRT-PCR process, and we report for the first time that DSS can alter the binding of reverse transcriptase to previously primed RNA and specifically inhibits the enzymatic activities of reverse transcriptase and Taq polymerase in vitro. This likely explains why DSS-treated colonic RNA is not suitable to qRT-PCR amplification without a previous purification step. Conclusion In summary, we provide a simple method to remove DSS from colonic RNAs, and we demonstrate for the first time that DSS can inhibit the activities of both polymerase and reverse transcriptase. In order to reliably analyze gene expression in the colonic mucosa of DSS-treated mice, the efficiency rate of qRT-PCR must be the same between all the different experimental groups, including the water-treated control group, suggesting that whatever the duration and the percentage of the DSS treatment, RNAs must be purified. PMID:24010775

  2. Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride towards Technetium-99 Extraction - 13016

    SciTech Connect

    Paviet-Hartmann, Patricia; Horkley, Jared; Campbell, Keri [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Street, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Street, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Roman, Audrey [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Harry Reid Center, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Box 4009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States)] [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Harry Reid Center, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Box 4009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States); Nunez, Ana; Espartero, Amparo [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 40, 28040- Madrid (Spain)] [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 40, 28040- Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning processes, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, the UREX process has been developed in the United States to co-extract hexavalent uranium (U) and hepta-valent technetium (Tc) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Tc-99 is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radio-toxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t{sub 1/2} = 2.13 x 10{sup 5} years), and as such, is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste-form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flowsheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for ultimate disposal. In addition, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste-forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macro-compounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, quaternary ammonium salts, and resorcin-arenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} by benzyl tributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand's matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e. diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using an external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed. (authors)

  3. Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride Towards Technetium-99 Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Jared Horkley; Audrey Roman; Keri Campbell; Ana Nunez; Amparo Espartero

    2013-02-01

    A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning process, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, low nitric acid concentration in the aqueous phase of a UREX based process will co-extract U(VI) and Tc(VII) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Technetium (Tc-99) is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radiotoxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t1/2 = 2.13 × 105 years), and as such, it is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flow sheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for ultimate disposal. Furthermore, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macrocompounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, and resorcinarenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO4- by benzyltributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand’s matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e., diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed.

  4. SBIR reports on the chemistry of lithium battery technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilroy, W. P.

    1989-11-01

    The following contents are included: Identification of an Improved Mixed Solvent Electrolyte for a Lithium Secondary Battery; Catalyzed Cathodes for Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Batteries; Improved Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Cells Using New Electrolyte Salts; Development of Calcium Primary Cells With Improved Anode Stability and Energy Density.

  5. Effect of lithium carbonate on renal and extra-renal functions of rats.

    PubMed

    Puri, V N

    1984-01-01

    Effect of high doses of lithium carbonate (40 rag/Kg.i.p. and p.o.) and lithium chloride (40 mg/Kg.i.p.) on renal and extra-renal functions were studied in normal male Charles Foster Strain of rats. Insignificant effect on urine output, creatinine clerance, sodium, potassium and lithium excretion was observed with these salts. Antidiuretic hormone levels were also not effected. However lithium clearance was significantly raised in both groups with lithium carbonate and with lithium chloride treated rats. Lithium carbonate and lithium chloride had failed to produce nephrogenic polyuric syndrome in this strain of rats. PMID:21965958

  6. Lithium reduction of americium dioxide to generate americium metal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Usami; T. Kato; M. Kurata; T. Inoue; H. E. Sims; S. A. Beetham; J. A. Jenkins

    2002-01-01

    The lithium reduction process has been developed for application to a pyrochemical recycle process for oxide fuels. This process uses lithium metal as a reductant to convert oxides of actinide elements to metal. Lithium oxide generated as a product of the reduction would be dissolved in a molten lithium chloride bath to enhance reduction. In this work, the reduction of

  7. Study of Surface Effects in Thick Lithium Drifted Silicon Radiation Detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Llacer

    1964-01-01

    Leakage current in lithium drifted detectors is a very sensitive function of surface condition. In this paper some attempts at gaining a better understanding of the relevant surface phenomena are reported. N-type conduction layers were found which extended from the lithium-rich side across the depleted material to an inversion layer on the p-type material, at the other end of the

  8. Broadband low-density radiation source utilising argon, krypton, and xenon chlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Shuaibov, Aleksandr K; Dashchenko, Arkadii I; Shevera, Igor V [Uzhgorod National University, Uzhgorod (Ukraine)

    2002-03-31

    The parameters of a broadband excimer radiation source emitting in the 175-310-nm range and excited by a dc glow discharge in an Ar-Kr-Xe-Cl{sub 2} mixture are studied. The emission spectrum of the discharge consists of the ArCl, KrCl, XeCl, and Cl{sub 2} molecular emission bands. The optimal partial pressure of argon in the mixture is 1.3 kPa, those of krypton and xenon are 0.24 kPa each, and the partial chlorine pressure is in the 0.15-0.30-kPa range. The UV-VUV radiation power emitted from the entire side surface of the discharge tube amounts to 4-6 W for an efficiency of 15%-25%. The radiation source is of interest for applications in photometry, microelectronics, photochemistry, and medicine. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  9. Vinyl Chloride

    Cancer.gov

    Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas that burns easily. It does not occur naturally and must be produced industrially for its commercial uses. Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC); PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials. Vinyl chloride is also produced as a combustion product in tobacco smoke.

  10. Chronic lithium chloride administration to rats elevates glucose metabolism in wide areas of brain, while potentiating negative effects on metabolism of dopamine D 2 -like receptor stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mireille Basselin; Lisa Chang; Stanley I. Rapoport

    2006-01-01

    Rationale and objectives  The regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc) can be imaged in vivo as a marker of brain functional activity. The effects of chronic lithium administration on baseline values of rCMRglc and values in response to administration of dopamine D2-like receptor agonists have not been examined in humans or rats. Knowing these effects may elucidate and localize the

  11. X-ray structure analysis of the polycrystalline complex of copper (II) chloride with 1,5-dimethyltetrazole. Application of synchrotron radiation and laboratory diffraction data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashkevich, L. S.; Lyakhov, A. S.; Shmakov, A. N.; Efimov, V. V.; Ivashkevich, O. A.; Tyutyunnikov, S. I.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the complex of copper (II) chloride CuCl2 L, where L is 1,5-dimethyltetrazole, was refined with the Rietveld method using three sets of powder diffraction data obtained at laboratory diffractometers and with synchrotron radiation. The comparative analysis of the results of the structure refinement was performed; this analysis showed that the application of the laboratory data for the wavelength of X-rays ? = 1.7902 Å (Co K? radiation) provides the structural characteristics of the complex comparable in accuracy with those obtained using the synchrotron radiation for the wavelength ? = 1.5443 Å.

  12. The effect of mechanical strain on the radiation-coloration of potassium chloride 

    E-print Network

    Everett, James Eugene

    1964-01-01

    ultra violet srd infra red Figure 2 shove the complete a'hsorption spectrum of an irradiated sample of i; Cl, The various bands are named r sr the types of color centers that caused then, For example, sn abcox", tion hand in tl. e ultra-violet region... jacket near the 11 active collector, !. ut entirely ou?side the x ray bo?&. ". . The active or irradiated collector va" ?laced in a sm?. ll niece of styrofoam so that it would not, radiate heat to thc interior of thc !acket or to the reference...

  13. PROCEEDINGS O F THE IEEE, VOL.56, NO. 1, JANUARY196837 [`I J. J. Wysocki,"Lithium-doped radiation-resistant silicon solar

    E-print Network

    Teich, Malvin C.

    ,"Lithium-doped radiation-resistant silicon solar cells," IEEE Trans. Nuclear Science. vol.NS-13, pp. 168-173, December 1966 damagein semiconductorsXI1: Effects ofhighenergy electrons in silicon and silicon solar cells," Contract NAS 5-3805, May 25, 1966. 14] R. V. Tauke, "Thermal annealing of irradiated n-on-p silicon solar cells

  14. Radiation-induced grafting of vinylbenzyl chloride onto a poly(ether ether ketone) film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Mi-Lim; Song, Ju-Myung; Ko, Beom-Seok; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Nho, Young-Chang; Shin, Junhwa

    2012-06-01

    In this study, the effects of various irradiation conditions including solvent, monomer concentration, total dose, and dose rate on the radiation grafting of a VBC monomer onto a PEEK aromatic hydrocarbon film for the preparation of a PVBC-grafted PEEK (PEEK-g-PVBC) film were investigated. The results show that the desired PVBC-grafted PEEK film can be prepared using a simultaneous irradiation grafting method, and that the degree of grafting (DOG) of the film is largely influenced by the irradiation conditions. Among the applied solvents, halogenated solvents, dichloromethane and chloroform, were found to be suitable for grafting. The successful preparation of the grafted film was confirmed using analytical instruments such as FT-IR, TGA, and SEM-EDX.

  15. The role of <100> edge dislocations in nucleating radiation-induced colloid particles in sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Teutonico, L.J.

    1982-09-01

    A theoretical program to investigate the role of dislocations in the nucleation of sodium colloids in irradiated rock salt has been outlined. As the first study in the investigation the interaction of radiation-produced defects with the <001> edge dislocation in rock salt, i.e., the edge dislocation in the principal slip system of NaCl, has been considered. The interaction potential between a symmetric defect and the <001> edge dislocation has been determined on the basis of anisotropic elasticity theory. The potential arises from the interaction between the long-range stress field of the dislocation and the displacements around the point defect. The corresponding flow lines, i.e., the lines along which the defects flow to the dislocation, have also been determined. In general, the flow lines are closed loops passing through the center of the dislocation. One of the novel features introduced by anisotropy is the possibility of open flow lines for certain elastic constant values. Along some of these open flow lines defects are attracted to the dislocation, whereas long others defects are repelled from the dislocation of common plane. 33 refs., 17 figs.

  16. Hydrothermal Transformation of Microporous Lithium Zinc Phosphates; A Kinetic Study using in situ Synchrotron Radiation Powder Diffraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, T.R. [University of Odense (Denmark); Norby, P. [SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Hanson, J.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The solution mediated phase transformation of a lithium zinc phosphate has been investigated. The zeolite type ABW phase, LiZnPO{sub 4}. H{sub 2}O, suspended in an aqueous solution of LiNO{sub 3}, transforms to the more dense phase, (delta tau) LiZnPO{sub 4} (crystobalite type structure). In situ time resolved powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation, has been utilized to obtain isothermal crystallization curves in the temperature range 179 {degrees} C to 210 {degrees} C. A power law was used for the kinetic analysis, giving an apparent activation energy for the reaction, Ea = 93.1 kJ/mole. The order of the power law varies from 2. 80 to 4.41 in the observed temperature range. This indicates a continuous change in the mechanism of the nucleation.

  17. Radiation Damage Calculations for the FUBR and BEATRIX Irradiations of Lithium Compounds in EBR-II and FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    LR Greenwood

    1999-06-17

    The Fusion Breeder Reactor (FUBR) and Breeder Exchange Matrix (BEATRIX) experiments were cooperative efforts by members of the International Energy Agency to investigate the irradiation behavior of solid breeder materials for tritium production to support future fusion reactors. Lithium ceramic materials including Li{sub 2}O, LiAlO{sub 2}, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} with varying {sup 6}Li enrichments from 0 to 95% were irradiated in a series of experiments in the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR II) and in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) over a period of about 10 years from 1982 to 1992. These experiments were characterized in terms of the nominal fast neutron fluences and measured {sup 6}Li burnup factors, as determined by either mass spectrometry or helium measurements. Radiation damage in these compounds is caused by both the {sup 6}Li-burnup reaction and by all other possible neutron reactions with the atoms in the compound materials. In this report, displacements per atom (dpa) values have been calculated for each type of material in each of the various irradiations that were conducted. Values up to 11% {sup 6}Li-burnup and 130 dpa are predicted for the longest irradiations. The dpa cross sections were calculated for each compound using the SPECOMP computer code. Details of the dpa calculations are presented in the report. Total dpa factors were determined with the SPECTER computer code by averaging the dpa cross sections over the measured or calculated neutron flux spectra for each series of irradiations. Using these new calculations, previously measured radiation damage effects in these lithium compounds can be compared or correlated with other irradiation data on the basis of the dpa factor as well as {sup 6}Li-burnup.

  18. Research and development of lithium batteries in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Dao-zhi

    Basic research work on lithium cells in China was initiated in 1965, and a variety of primary cells has been developed and introduced to the market. Lithium-iodine (1978), lithium-thionyl chloride (1977), lithium-sulfur dioxide (1979) and lithium-manganese dioxide (1980) cells, and lithium thermal batteries (1982) have been successfully manufactured and have found wide application. In this paper, the development and the state-of-the-art of various lithium battery systems in China are presented and the present applications and future markets are discussed.

  19. Suppression of lithium chloride-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats (using the taste reactivity test) with metoclopramide is enhanced by cannabidiolic acid.

    PubMed

    Rock, E M; Parker, L A

    2013-10-01

    We aimed to determine the potential of various doses of metoclopramide (MCP, a dopamine antagonist) to reduce lithium chloride (LiCl)-induced conditioned gaping (a nausea-induced behaviour) in rats, using the taste reactivity test. We then evaluated whether an ineffective low dose of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA, 0.1 ?g/kg, Rock and Parker, 2013), the potent acidic precursor of cannabidiol (CBD, a non-psychoactive component of cannabis) could enhance the anti-nausea effects of an ineffective low dose of MCP. MCP (3.0 mg/kg) reduced conditioned gaping responses. Coadministration of ineffective doses of MCP (0.3 mg/kg) and CBDA (0.1 ?g/kg) enhanced the suppression of conditioned gaping, over that of either drug alone, without interfering with conditioned taste avoidance. MCP dose-dependently reduced nausea-induced conditioned gaping in rats. As well, the suppression of conditioned gaping was enhanced when ineffective doses of MCP and CBDA were coadministered. These data suggest that CBDA could be a powerful adjunct treatment to anti-emetic regimens for chemotherapy-induced nausea. PMID:24012649

  20. Advances in lithium and calcium high-rate oxyhalide batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, W. P.; Green, S.; Sargeant, D. G.; Packer, R. K.

    The characteristics of lithium and calcium oxyhalide battery systems are considered, with special attention given to those of lithium-thionyl chloride and lithium-sulfuryl chloride cells. It is shown that, for a capability of above 50 mA/sq cm, lithium-sulfuryl chloride is the preferred cell chemistry, although calcium-thionyl chloride (which is acceptable up to 50 mA/sq cm) may be preferrable if thermal management is a problem. Lithium-sulfuryl chloride cells were found to exhibit a form of concentration polarization which is strongly dependent on interelectrode separation. In such cells, interelectrode separations have to be minimized if premature failure is to be avoided.

  1. Mechanism of Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiation of 1,4-Bis(trifluoromethyl)benzene under Nonequilibrium Conditions: Condition-Dependent Rate Limitation and Lithium Chloride-Catalyzed Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun; Hoepker, Alexander C; Algera, Russell F; Ma, Yun; Collum, David B

    2015-05-20

    Lithiation of 1,4-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzene with lithium diisopropylamide in tetrahydrofuran at -78 °C occurs under conditions at which the rates of aggregate exchanges are comparable to the rates of metalation. Under such nonequilibrium conditions, a substantial number of barriers compete to be rate limiting, making the reaction sensitive to trace impurities (LiCl), reactant concentrations, and isotopic substitution. Rate studies using the perdeuterated arene reveal odd effects of LiCl, including catalyzed rate acceleration at lower temperature and catalyzed rate inhibition at higher temperatures. The catalytic effects are accompanied by corresponding changes in the rate law. A kinetic model is presented that captures the critical features of the LiCl catalysis, focusing on the influence of LiCl-catalyzed re-aggregation of the fleeting monomer that can reside above, at, or below the equilibrium population without catalyst. PMID:25900574

  2. Pyrochemical reduction of uranium dioxide and plutonium dioxide by lithium metal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Usami; M. Kurata; T. Inoue; H. E Sims; S. A Beetham; J. A Jenkins

    2002-01-01

    The lithium reduction process has been developed to apply a pyrochemical recycle process for oxide fuels. This process uses lithium metal as a reductant to convert oxides of actinide elements to metal. Lithium oxide generated in the reduction would be dissolved in a molten lithium chloride bath to enhance reduction. In this work, the solubility of Li2O in LiCl was

  3. Optimized lithium oxyhalide cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilroy, W. P.; Schlaikjer, C.; Polsonetti, P.; Jones, M.

    1993-04-01

    Lithium thionyl chloride cells were optimized with respect to electrolyte and carbon cathode composition. Wound 'C-size' cells with various mixtures of Chevron acetylene black with Ketjenblack EC-300J and containing various concentrations of LiAlCl4 and derivatives, LiGaCl4, and mixtures of SOCl2 and SO2Cl2 were evaluated as a function of discharge rate, temperature, and storage condition.

  4. In vitro effects of lithium and nickel at different levels on Neuro-2a mouse Neuroblastoma cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Repetto; A. del Peso; P. Sanz; M. Repetto

    2001-01-01

    Lithium and nickel present low toxicity, but are able to cause alterations in different tissues. The toxic effects of lithium and nickel at different cellular levels were assessed using two inorganic chemical species: lithium chloride and nickel(II) chloride. Mouse neuroblastoma cell cultures (Neuro-2a) were exposed to both compounds for 24 h. The cytotoxic effects evaluated were cell proliferation by quantification

  5. The determination of x-ray temperature factors for aluminium and potassium chloride single crystals using nuclear resonant radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Butt; D. A. OConnor

    1967-01-01

    The elastic scattering of 14.4 keV gamma rays from 57Fe by single crystals of aluminium and potassium chloride has been measured as a function of Bragg angle and temperature using the Mössbauer effect to distinguish between the elastic and inelastic scattering processes. From the results, using the Debye model, Debye temperatures of 202 ± 5 °K for KCl and 387

  6. Use of Isobestic and Isoemission Points in Absorption and Luminescence Spectra for Study of the Transformation of Radiation Defects in Lithium Fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitovich, A. P.; Kalinov, V. S.; Stupak, A. P.; Runets, L. P.

    2015-03-01

    Isobestic and isoemission points are recorded in the combined absorption and luminescence spectra of two types of radiation defects involved in complex processes consisting of several simultaneous parallel and sequential reactions. These points are observed if a constant sum of two terms, each formed by the product of the concentration of the corresponding defect and a characteristic integral coefficient associated with it, is conserved. The complicated processes involved in the transformation of radiation defects in lithium fluoride are studied using these points. It is found that the ratio of the changes in the concentrations of one of the components and the reaction product remains constant in the course of several simultaneous reactions.

  7. Cobalt(II) chloride catalysed oxidative degradation of poly(ethylene oxide) by a short wavelength UV-radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kami?ska; H. Kaczmarek; J. Kowalonek

    1999-01-01

    Photo-oxidative degradation of poly(ethylene oxide) with small amount (1 and 3wt.%) of cobalt (II) chloride was studied in acetonitrile solutions and in solid state. On the basis of FTIR, UV-Vis spectroscopy, GPC and viscometry measurements it was found that cobalt salt accelerates photodecomposition of PEO. DSC was applied for study of crystallinity changes in PEO and PEO+CoCl2 during UV-irradiation. The

  8. Radiation crosslinking of rubber phase in poly(vinyl chloride)\\/epoxidized natural rubber blend: Effect on mechanical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chantara Thevy Ratnam; Sabariah Kamaruddin; Yaganaidu Sivachalam; Marina Talib; Norzawani Yahya

    2006-01-01

    The effect of pre-irradiation of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR 50) on the properties of 50\\/50 poly(vinyl chloride)\\/epoxidized natural rubber blend (PVC\\/ENR) was investigated. The ENR 50 was irradiated using a 3.0MeV electron beam accelerator at a dose range of 10–100kGy in air and at room temperature. The irradiated ENR 50 was then melt blended with PVC using a Brabender Plasticorder

  9. Radiation-chemical reaction of 2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride in liquid and solid state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kovács; L. Wojnárovits; W. L. McLaughlin; S. E. Ebrahim Eid; A. Miller

    1996-01-01

    In pulse radiolysis of 2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) at around 360 nm fast formation of intermediate tetrazolium radical was observed under both oxidizing and reducing conditions. In the latter case bimolecular formation of formazan, absorbing at around 480 nm, was observed. This reaction is accompanied by combination to the diformazan dimer, absorbing over the spectral range 500–550 nm. A polyvinyl-alcohol-based TTC

  10. Lithium and its recovery from low-grade nevada clays. Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, L.; Lien, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Processes were investigated for recovering a marketable lithium product from the montmorillonite-type clays of the McDermitt caldera. Limestone-gypsum roasting and selective chlorination proved most successful for extracting lithium from the clays; 80-pct Li recovery was achieved using either technique. With both processes, lithium silicate in the clay was converted to a water-soluble compound - either lithium sulfate or lithium chloride. The lithium was then recovered as a carbonate by water leaching the calcine, concentrating the leach solution by evaporation, and precipitating the lithium with soda ash.

  11. Polyfluoroalkanesulfenyl chlorides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Yu Sizov; Aleksei F Kolomiets; Alexandr V Fokin

    1992-01-01

    Data appearing since 1975 are correlated for the methods of synthesis of polyfluoroalkanesulfenyl chlorides, their reactions with O-, S-, N-, P- and C-nucleophiles, with unsaturated aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds, for their behaviour in oxidation and heterocyclisation reactions and in free radical conversions. The bibliography includes 214 references.

  12. Ionic transport in passivation layered on the lithium electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimon, Eugeny S.; Churikov, Alexei V.; Shirokov, Alexander V.; Lvov, Arlen L.; Chuvashkin, Anatoly N.

    1993-04-01

    The processes of ionic transport in passivating layers on the surface of the lithium electrode in solutions based on thionyl chloride, propylene carbonate and gamma -butyrolactone have been studied by means of pulse electrochemical methods. The data obtained are quantitatively described by a model which takes into account transport of both the intrinsic mobile lithium ions of the passivating layer and lithium ions injected into the passivating layer from the electrode or from the electrolyte solution under anodic or cathodic current directions, respectively. The values of mobility and concentration of mobile lithium ions in passivating layers formed on lithium in various solutions under open-circuit conditions have been determined.

  13. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tempe, AZ)

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  14. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  15. High-rate lithium thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, F.

    1982-01-01

    A high-rate C cell with disc electrodes was developed to demonstrate current rates which are comparable to other primary systems. The tests performed established the limits of abuse beyond which the cell becomes hazardous. Tests include: impact, shock, and vibration tests; temperature cycling; and salt water immersion of fresh cells.

  16. High-rate lithium thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, F.

    1982-03-01

    A high-rate C cell with disc electrodes was developed to demonstrate current rates which are comparable to other primary systems. The tests performed established the limits of abuse beyond which the cell becomes hazardous. Tests include: impact, shock, and vibration tests; temperature cycling; and salt water immersion of fresh cells.

  17. High efficiency lithium-thionyl chloride cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doddapaneni, N.

    1982-01-01

    Cathode polarization and discharge performance was studied at -20 and -40 F. It is shown that the limiting currents of Li/SOCl2 cells decrease linearly with reciprocal temperature and an Arrhenius temperature dependence of limiting current is not observed between the temperatures -40 and 75 F. Cathode variables such as carbon substrate, thickness and density on the cathode performance were evaluated at 0 F and 75 F. Cathode polarization and performance were improved with catalyzed cathodes containing 5% Teflon binder.

  18. High efficiency lithium-thionyl chloride cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doddapaneni, N.

    1982-08-01

    The polarization characteristics and the specific cathode capacity of Teflon bonded carbon electrodes in the Li/SOCl2 system have been evaluated. Doping of electrocatalysts such as cobalt and iron phthalocyanine complexes improved both cell voltage and cell rate capability. High efficiency Li/SOCl2 cells were thus achieved with catalyzed cathodes. The electrochemical reduction of SOCl2 seems to undergo modification at catalyzed cathode. For example, the reduction of SOCl2 at FePc catalyzed cathode involves 2-1/2 e-/mole of SOCl2. Furthermore, the reduction mechanism is simplified and unwanted chemical species are eliminated by the catalyst. Thus a potentially safer high efficiency Li/SOCl2 can be anticipated.

  19. High efficiency lithium-thionyl chloride cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doddapaneni, N.

    1981-10-01

    The main objectives are to evaluate the polarization characteristics of Teflon bonded carbon electrodes in the Li/SOCl2 system and to improve cathode performance at high discharge rates and low operating temperatures (-40 F to 32 F). During the report period, we have studied the half-cell polarization and discharge performance characteristics of Li/SOCl2 cells with and without improved cathodes. In addition, the effect of catalysts on cyclic volt-ammograms and electrolyte viscosity and conductivity relationships with operating temperature have been examined. Electrolyte properties in Li/SOCL2 systems are found to contribute significantly towards the cathode overpotential. Cathodes doped with catalysts greatly minimized the activation polarization throughout the operating temperatures.

  20. High efficiency lithium-thionyl chloride cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doddapaneni, N.

    1982-04-01

    During the third quarter, cathode optimization with respect to specified variables was completed. Performance evaluation of optimized cathodes at 32 F and 75 F showed both catalyst B and C (FePc) and (CoPc)(n) minimized the electrode overpotential. Plots from rotating disc electrode studies produced parallel straight lines, indicative of a first order reaction mechanism. The slope of the straight line decreased with FePc catalyzed cathodes. This could indicate a change in reaction mechanism. The ac impedance measurements of a carbon electrode indicated extremely slow charge transfer and at high discharge rates, the rates were purely diffusion controlled.

  1. Efficiency of the Electrolytic Separation of Lithium Isotopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herrick L. Johnston; Clyde A. Hutchison

    1940-01-01

    The electrolytic separation coefficient, ?, has been determined for the lithium isotope separation in the electrolysis of lithium chloride solutions at a mercury cathode. Its value was found to be 1.055± about 0.005 and, within limits of error, was independent of temperature, of the fraction electrolyzed and of the amount of back reaction at the cathode. The factor was the

  2. Endonuclease IV Is the Main Base Excision Repair Enzyme Involved in DNA Damage Induced by UVA Radiation and Stannous Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Ellen S.; Souza-Santos, Paulo Thiago; Cassiano, Tuany R.; Dantas, Flávio J. S.; Caldeira-de-Araujo, Adriano; De Mattos, José Carlos P.

    2010-01-01

    Stannous chloride (SnCl2) and UVA induce DNA lesions through ROS. The aim of this work was to study the toxicity induced by UVA preillumination, followed by SnCl2 treatment. E. coli BER mutants were used to identify genes which could play a role in DNA lesion repair generated by these agents. The survival assays showed (i) The nfo mutant was the most sensitive to SnCl2; (ii) lethal synergistic effect was observed after UVA pre-illumination, plus SnCl2 incubation, the nfo mutant being the most sensitive; (iii) wild type and nfo mutants, transformed with pBW21 plasmid (nfo+) had their survival increased following treatments. The alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis assays pointed that (i) UVA induced DNA breaks and fpg mutant was the most sensitive; (ii) SnCl2-induced DNA strand breaks were higher than those from UVA and nfo mutant had the slowest repair kinetics; (iii) UVA + SnCl2 promoted an increase in DNA breaks than SnCl2 and, again, nfo mutant displayed the slowest repair kinetics. In summary, Nfo protects E. coli cells against damage induced by SnCl2 and UVA + SnCl2. PMID:20300433

  3. Prismatic thionyl chloride cell characterization through parametric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smesko, Sally Ann; Takeuchi, Esther Sans

    The Taguchi method of experimental design was followed to investigate and understand the performance and general electrical characteristics of prismatic lithium/thionyl chloride cells as functions of electrolyte salt, electrolyte salt concentration, anode pre-treatment, and exposure to elevated temperature. An L8 matrix was used to assess the effects of each of the 4 independent variables on open- and closed-circuit voltages, capacity under discharge, cell thickness, internal impedance, and heat dissipation. ANOVA analysis of the 48 cell population has allowed the projection of optimized prismatic lithium/thionyl chloride cells, through the use of 0.5 M lithium tetrachloroaluminate in thionyl chloride as the catholyte. The salt concentration was found to have the greatest impact on cell performance in terms of delivered capacity.

  4. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  5. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  6. Reduction of calcium corrosion in thionyl chloride-based electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, J.; Mitchell, P. J.; Hagan, W. P.; Tuck, C. D. S.

    Concern in respect of the safety of lithium oxyhalide cells has led to a search for alternative anode materials. A well-documented alternative is calcium; but this corrodes more rapidly than does lithium. This corrosion is a fundamental shortcoming of the calcium?thionyl chloride system and must be improved before exploitation is feasible. We have demonstrated that modification of the electrolyte can result in a considerable decrease in the calcium corrosion rate.

  7. Lithium nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Azab, Abed N; Shnaider, Alla; Osher, Yamima; Wang, Dana; Bersudsky, Yuly; Belmaker, R H

    2015-12-01

    Reports of toxic effects on the kidney of lithium treatment emerged very soon after lithium therapy was introduced. Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is usually self-limiting or not clinically dangerous. Some reports of irreversible chronic kidney disease and renal failure were difficult to attribute to lithium treatment since chronic kidney disease and renal failure exist in the population at large. In recent years, large-scale epidemiological studies have convincingly shown that lithium treatment elevates the risk of chronic kidney disease and renal failure. Most patients do not experience renal side effects. The most common side effect of polyuria only weakly predicts increasing creatinine or reduced kidney function. Among those patients who do experience decrease in creatinine clearance, some may require continuation of lithium treatment even as their creatinine increases. Other patients may be able to switch to a different mood stabilizer medication, but kidney function may continue to deteriorate even after lithium cessation. Most, but not all, evidence today recommends using a lower lithium plasma level target for long-term maintenance and thereby reducing risks of severe nephrotoxicity. PMID:26043842

  8. Research in X-ray optics with the ultimate aim of constructing a synchrotron radiation pumped soft X-ray lithium laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csonka, P. L.

    1988-08-01

    One of the primary components of the proposed synchrotron radiation (SR) pumped Li X-Ray Laser was a vacuum based high density plasma of predominantly monatomic Lithium as the lasing medium. A monomer density in excess of 10(19) particles/cu cm at temperatures (gt) 1600 C, in volume of roughly 1 cm x 0.001 cm x 0.001 cm was estimated as being necessary for attaining useful gain. Originally two different methods of achieving this were considered, namely: laser driven ablation of solid Li, and steady state thermal emission of Li gas from an orifice in a suitable chamber. Due to uncertainties associated with the first option, the resources of the present development program were focused primarily on the latter technique.

  9. Safety aspects in primary high-rate lithium cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichinger, G.

    1993-03-01

    A comprehensive presentation of the most important features influencing the safety of primary high-rate lithium cells is given. The design of such cells as well as the balance of cathode/electrolyte/anode are the most important features with respect to safety. The reliability of production, however, is of equal importance. The chemical reactions under electrical abuse conditions for the lithium/thionyl chloride system are given. Examples, how lithium/thionyl chloride spirally-wound 'C-size' cells behave under charging and forced overdischarge are presented. There are no indications that in the primary high-rate lithium systems, which are produced in a technical scale, dangerous chemical reactions influence the safety of the systems. Regarding the great number of primary high-rate lithium cells available in the market, the safety of these cells is excellent.

  10. Lyoluminescence, thermoluminescence and mechanoluminescence studies in ?-ray irradiated Dy3+ activated potassium chloride phosphor for accidental radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Bhujbal, P M; Dhoble, S J

    2012-01-01

    The lyoluminescence (LL), thermoluminescence (TL) and mechanoluminescence (ML) of ?-ray-irradiated coloured powder of KCl:Dy (0.05-0.5?mol%) phosphors are reported in this paper. To understand the mechanism of LL and ML, the LL and ML spectra are compared with TL studies. The variation of intensity of respective luminescence with different ?-ray doses and with different concentrations of Dy3+ ion doped in KCl is found to be similar in nature. The intensities differ from each other, but their nature is found to be similar with ?-ray exposures. The ML glow peak intensity is linear up to high 1?kGy exposure as compared to LL (up to 0.5?kGy) and TL (up to 0.75?kGy) techniques. Therefore, according to our results, the recommendation is that KCl:Dy (0.1?mol%) phosphor prepared by wet chemical technique is useful for high-dose measurements using the ML technique for accidental radiation dosimetry. PMID:23044770

  11. Accumulation of radiation defects and products of radiolysis in lithium orthosilicate pebbles with silicon dioxide additions under action of high absorbed doses and high temperature in air and inert atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarins, A.; Supe, A.; Kizane, G.; Knitter, R.; Baumane, L.

    2012-10-01

    One of the technological problems of a fusion reactor is the change in composition and structure of ceramic breeders (Li4SiO4 or Li2TiO3 pebbles) during long-term operation. In this study changes in the composition and microstructure of Li4SiO4 pebbles with 2.5 wt% silicon dioxide additions, fabricated by a melt-spraying process, were investigated after fast electron irradiation (E = 5 MeV, dose rate up to 88 MGy h-1) with high absorbed dose from 1.3 to 10.6 GGy at high temperature (543-573 K) in air and argon atmosphere. Three types of pebbles with different diameters and grain sizes were investigated. Products of radiolysis were studied by means of FTIR and XRD. TSL and ESR spectroscopy were used to detect radiation defects. SEM was used to investigate structure of pebbles. Experiments showed that Li4SiO4 pebbles with a diameter of 500 ?m had similar radiation stability as pebbles with diameter <50 ?m which were annealed at 1173 K for 128 h in argon and air atmosphere. As well as determined that lithium orthosilicate pebbles with size 500 (1243 K 168 h) and <50 ?m (1173 K 128 h) have a higher radiation stability in air and argon atmosphere than pebbles with size <50 ?m (1073 K 1 h). Degree of decomposition ?10.56 of the lithium orthosilicate pebbles at an absorbed dose of 10.56 GGy in air atmosphere is 1.5% and 0.15% at irradiation in dry argon. It has been suggested that changes of radiation stability of lithium orthosilicate pebbles in air atmosphere comparing with irradiated pebbles in argon atmosphere is effect of chemical reaction of lithium orthosilicate surface with air containing - H2O and CO2 in irradiation process. As well as it has been suggested that silicon dioxide - lithium metasilicate admixtures do not affect formation mechanism of radiation defect and products of radiolysis in lithium orthosilicate pebbles.

  12. (Data in metric tons of contained lithium, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The United States was the largest producer and consumer of lithium minerals and

    E-print Network

    , should enter the lithium carbonate and lithium chloride markets early in 1997. This operation concrete more feasible for preventing the silica alkali reaction that can cause premature cracking of concrete. This is an especially serious problem in California. The California-based company purchased 31

  13. The Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) satellite: radiation exposure in low-earth orbit and supporting laboratory studies of iron tetraphenylporphyrin chloride.

    PubMed

    Cook, Amanda M; Mattioda, Andrew L; Ricco, Antonio J; Quinn, Richard C; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricca, Alessandra; Jones, Nykola C; Hoffmann, Søren V

    2014-02-01

    We report results from the exposure of the metalloporphyrin iron tetraphenylporphyrin chloride (FeTPPCl) to the outer space environment, measured in situ aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses nanosatellite. FeTPPCl was exposed for a period of 17 months (3700?h of direct solar exposure), which included broad-spectrum solar radiation (?122?nm to the near infrared). Motivated by the potential role of metalloporphyrins as molecular biomarkers, the exposure of thin-film samples of FeTPPCl to the space environment in low-Earth orbit was monitored in situ via ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy and reported telemetrically. The space data were complemented by laboratory exposure experiments that used a high-fidelity solar simulator covering the spectral range of the spaceflight measurements. We found that thin-film samples of FeTPPCl that were in contact with a humid headspace gas (0.8-2.3% relative humidity) were particularly susceptible to destruction upon irradiation, degrading up to 10 times faster than identical thin films in contact with dry headspace gases; this degradation may also be related to the presence of oxides of nitrogen in those cells. In the companion terrestrial experiments, simulated solar exposure of FeTPPCl films in contact with either Ar or CO2:O2:Ar (10:0.01:1000) headspace gas resulted in growth of a band in the films' infrared spectra at 1961?cm(-1). We concluded that the most likely carriers of this band are allene (C3H4) and chloropropadiene (C3H3Cl), putative molecular fragments of the destruction of the porphyrin ring. The thin films studied in space and in solar simulator-based experiments show qualitatively similar spectral evolution as a function of contacting gaseous species but display significant differences in the time dependence of those changes. The relevance of our findings to planetary science, biomarker research, and the photostability of organic materials in astrobiologically relevant environments is discussed. PMID:24512475

  14. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  15. Lithium Local Pseudopotential Using

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    Lithium Local Pseudopotential Using DFT Sergio Orozco Student Advisor: Chen Huang Faculty Mentor Lithium LPS Test Lithium LPS #12;Density Functional Theory (DFT) Successful quantum mechanical approach (1979) #12;Building LPS for Lithium Create a LPS using NLPS density for Lithium Test LPS by comparing

  16. Europium- and lithium-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals that provide a linear emissive response with X-ray radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Ian N; Belley, Matthew D; Nguyen, Giao; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Yifan; Kirsch, David G; Yoshizumi, Terry T; Therien, Michael J

    2014-05-21

    Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2-xO3; Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2-xO3; Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40-220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2-xO3; Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 ± 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 ?m sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605-617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precision XRAD 225Cx small-animal image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. For both 80 and 225 kVp energies, this radiotransparent device recorded scintillation intensities that tracked linearly with total radiation exposure, highlighting its capability to provide alternately accurate dosimetry measurements for both diagnostic imaging (80 kVp) and radiation therapy treatment (225 kVp). PMID:24696056

  17. Lithium and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    Lithium and Pregnancy This sheet talks about the risks that exposure to lithium can have during pregnancy. With each pregnancy, all ... miscarriage has been reported. Can taking lithium during pregnancy cause birth defects? Yes, although not very often. ...

  18. Europium- and lithium-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals that provide a linear emissive response with X-ray radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Ian N.; Belley, Matthew D.; Nguyen, Giao; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Yifan; Kirsch, David G.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.; Therien, Michael J.

    2014-04-01

    Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40-220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2-xO3 Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 +/- 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 ?m sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605-617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precision XRAD 225Cx small-animal image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. For both 80 and 225 kVp energies, this radiotransparent device recorded scintillation intensities that tracked linearly with total radiation exposure, highlighting its capability to provide alternately accurate dosimetry measurements for both diagnostic imaging (80 kVp) and radiation therapy treatment (225 kVp).Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40-220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2-xO3 Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 +/- 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 ?m sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605-617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precisi

  19. Sodium-phosphate cotransporter mediates reabsorption of lithium in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Uwai, Yuichi; Arima, Ryosuke; Takatsu, Chihiro; Furuta, Ryo; Kawasaki, Tatsuya; Nabekura, Tomohiro

    2014-09-01

    Lithium, used for the treatment of bipolar disorders, is reabsorbed via sodium-transport system in the proximal tubule. This step causes intra-/inter-individual difference of lithium disposition, and it has not been unclear which transporter contributes. In this study, we examined effect of foscarnet and parathyroid hormone (PTH), inactivators for sodium-phosphate cotransporter, and phlorizin, a typical inhibitor for sodium-glucose cotransporter, on the disposition of lithium in rats. Their intravenous administration stimulated urinary excretion of phosphate or glucose. After the intravenous injection of lithium chloride as a bolus, plasma concentration of lithium decreased time-dependently. The renal clearance of lithium was calculated to be 0.740 ml/min/kg in control rats, and this was 26.7% of creatinine clearance. Foscarnet and PTH significantly increased the renal clearance of lithium and its ratio to creatinine clearance, suggesting that they prevented the reabsorption of lithium. No effect of phlorizin on the renal handling of lithium was recognized. In control rats, the renal clearance of lithium showed a strong correlation with the renal excretion rate of phosphate, compared with creatinine clearance. These findings suggest that sodium-phosphate cotransporter reabsorbs lithium in the rat kidney. Furthermore, its contribution was estimated to be more than 65.9% in the lithium reabsorption. And, this study raised the possibility that therapeutic outcome of lithium is related with the functional expression of sodium-phosphate cotransporter in the kidney. PMID:24997387

  20. Safety considerations for fabricating lithium battery packs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesla, J. J.

    1986-09-01

    Lithium cell safety is a major issue with both manufacturers and end users. Most manufacturers have taken great strides to develop the safest cells possible while still maintaining performance characteristics. The combining of lithium cells for higher voltages, currents, and capacities requires the fabricator of lithium battery packs to be knowledgable about the specific electrochemical system being used. Relatively high rate, spirally wound (large surface area) sulfur oxychloride cells systems, such as Li/Thionyl or Sulfuryl chloride are considered. Prior to the start of a design of a battery pack, a review of the characterization studies for the cells should be conducted. The approach for fabricating a battery pack might vary with cell size.

  1. Safety considerations for fabricating lithium battery packs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciesla, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Lithium cell safety is a major issue with both manufacturers and end users. Most manufacturers have taken great strides to develop the safest cells possible while still maintaining performance characteristics. The combining of lithium cells for higher voltages, currents, and capacities requires the fabricator of lithium battery packs to be knowledgable about the specific electrochemical system being used. Relatively high rate, spirally wound (large surface area) sulfur oxychloride cells systems, such as Li/Thionyl or Sulfuryl chloride are considered. Prior to the start of a design of a battery pack, a review of the characterization studies for the cells should be conducted. The approach for fabricating a battery pack might vary with cell size.

  2. Lithium isotope separation with tunable diode lasers.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Ignacio E; Duarte, Andrés E; Saravia, Eduardo A; Duarte, Francisco J

    2002-05-20

    A laser-isotope-separation study of lithium has been performed with two-step excitation involving UV laser radiation and a visible tunable-diode laser. The method yields a high degree of selectivity by tuning the narrow-linewidth diode laser to the D1 or D2 levels of the lithium atom. Selective laser excitation is simplified by the use of the tunable diode laser and the overall approach benefits from the application of a compact mass selector that includes a precision magnetic sector and an ion beam that is designed specifically for light atoms such as lithium. PMID:12027187

  3. Lithium isotope separation with tunable diode lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ignacio E. Olivares; Andres E. Duarte; Eduardo A. Saravia; Francisco J. Duarte

    2002-01-01

    A laser-isotope-separation study of lithium has been performed with two-step excitation involving UV laser radiation and a visible tunable-diode laser. The method yields a high degree of selectivity by tuning the narrow-linewidth diode laser to the D1 or D2 levels of the lithium atom. Selective laser excitation is simplified by the use of the tunable diode laser and the overall

  4. Electrolyte for lithium-sulfur dioxide electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, L.R.; Davidson, I.J.

    1988-06-21

    A nonaqueous conductive liquid is described which comprises a solution of aluminium chloride and at least one lithium salt in a mixture of liquid sulfur dioxide with at least one polar organic compound wherein the polar organic compound has a Donor Number in the range from about 10 to about 25.

  5. The kinetics of the reduction of thionyl chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlaikjer, Carl R.

    1989-05-01

    The rate, reaction mechanisms, and the catalysis of the electrochemical reduction of thionyl chloride from anhydrous media, are discussed. Voltammetric measurements at stationary plane and rotated disc electrodes, using glassy carbon, graphite, or metal electrodes, have been made using thionyl chloride alone or at high dilution in supporting electrolytes. Porous carbon electrodes have been used to study stoichiometry and to determine how electrolyte concentration affects capacity. Chemical analysis of cells after partial or complete discharge has established that without catalysis, the products are sulfur, sulfur dioxide, and lithium chloride. In both acid and neutral electrolytes, the reduction behaves as though it were diffusion controlled, whether the cathodes are porous carbon electrodes or rotated disc electrodes. The mechanism of the reduction likely involves several electrochemical and chemical steps, proceeding through unstable and metastable intermediates. The reduction is irreversible because the species initially produced rapidly decomposes. On decomposition, one of the intermediates produces thionyl chloride. The overpotential at either porous or nonporous electrodes can be lowered, and the capacity of porous electrodes increased, by high surface area carbons or by the use of catalysts. It is not known whether catalysts change the overall discharge stoichiometry. In basic electrolytes, the first step in the reduction on a carbon surface appears to be first order with respect to the concentration of chloride ion and to involve only one electron. The species produced by the initial reduction is stabilized by chloride ion. As the chloride ion concentration is lowered, the initial reduction begins to involve more than one electron.

  6. Cathode performance improvement in calcium-thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C. W., Jr.; Wade, W. L., Jr.; Binder, M.; Gilman, S.

    1986-08-01

    Carbon cathode performance in calcium-thionyl chloride cells was markedly improved with a cathode comprised of a mixture of high and low surface area carbon blacks. Addition of sulfur dioxide gas to the electrolyte further enhanced cathode performance and electrolyte conductivity. Load potentials and cathode life were nearly equal to that of the analogous lithium based system. The advantage of the calcium based system is its potential for greater safety.

  7. Thionyl-chloride-induced lung injury and bronchiolitis obliterans.

    PubMed

    Konichezky, S; Schattner, A; Ezri, T; Bokenboim, P; Geva, D

    1993-09-01

    Thionyl-chloride (TCl) is used in the manufacture of lithium batteries, producing SO2 and HCl fumes on contact with water. We report two cases of accidental TCl exposure resulting in lung injury that may vary from a relatively mild and reversible interstitial lung disease to a severe form of bronchiolitis obliterans causing, after a latent period, an acute/chronic respiratory failure as well as other complications (spontaneous pneumothorax and bronchopleural fistula), previously unreported in TCl fume inhalation. PMID:8365329

  8. Phosphonium chloride for thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Development of systems for storage of thermal energy is discussed. Application of phosphonium chloride for heat storage through reversible dissociation is described. Chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties of phosphonium chloride are analyzed and dangers in using phosphonium chloride are explained.

  9. Research on lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, I. R.; Goledzinowski, M.; Dore, R.

    1993-12-01

    Research was conducted on two types of lithium batteries. The first is a rechargeable Li-SO2 system using an all-inorganic electrolyte. A Li/liquid cathode system was chosen to obtain a relatively high discharge rate capability over the +20 to -30 C range. The fabrication and cycling performance of research cells are described, including the preparation and physical properties of porous polytetra fluoroethylene bonded carbon electrodes. Since the low temperature performance of the standard electrolyte was unsatisfactory, studies of electrolytes containing mixed salts were made. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the species present in these electrolytes and to identify discharge products. Infrared spectroscopy was used to measure electrolyte impurities. Film growth on the LiCl was also monitored. The second battery is a Li-thionyl chloride nonrechargeable system. Research cells were fabricated containing cobalt phthalo cyanine in the carbon cathode. The cathode was heat treated at different temperatures and the effect on cell discharge rate and capacity evaluated. Commercially obtained cells were used in an investigation of a way to identify substandard cells. The study also involved electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cell discharging at various rates. The results are discussed in terms of LiCl passivation.

  10. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  11. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  12. NSTX Plasma Response to Lithium Coated Divertor

    SciTech Connect

    H.W. Kugel, M.G. Bell, J.P. Allain, R.E. Bell, S. Ding, S.P. Gerhardt, M.A. Jaworski, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, R. Maingi, R. Majeski, R. Maqueda, D.K. Mansfield, D. Mueller, R. Nygren, S.F. Paul, R. Raman, A.L. Roquemore, S.A. Sabbagh, H. Schneider, C.H. Skinner, V.A. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor, J.R. Timberlak, W.R. Wampler, L.E. Zakharov, S.J. Zweben, and the NSTX Research Team

    2011-01-21

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  13. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  14. Studies in lithium oxyhalide cells for downhole instrumentation Use of lithium tetrachlorogallate electrolyte in Li/SOCl 2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Mark M.; Marincic, Nikola

    Lithium/thionyl chloride cells containing lithium tetrachlorogallate electrolyte have been shown to provide improved performance during interrupted use with temperature cycling. In LiAlCl 4-containing cells, the effect, referred to as the 'early failure problem', is profound for temperature cycling above 70 °C and subsequent use at room temperature. This is mitigated when the solute is LiGaCl 4. Generally, the voltage delay for LiGaCl 4-containing cells is lower than for cells with lithium tetrachloroaluminate, is more reproducible, and the voltage on load is higher. The reduction of LiAlCl 4 at the lithium electrode under discharge at elevated temperature is suggested as the possible reason for the early failure problem.

  15. Internal Rotation, Mixing and Lithium Abundances

    E-print Network

    Brian Chaboyer

    1998-03-10

    Lithium is an excellent tracer of mixing in stars as it is destroyed (by nuclear reactions) at a temperature around $\\sim 2.5\\times 10^6$ K. The lithium destruction zone is typically located in the radiative region of a star. If the radiative regions are stable, the observed surface value of lithium should remain constant with time. However, comparison of the meteoritic and photospheric Li abundances in the Sun indicate that the surface abundance of Li in the Sun has been depleted by more than two orders of magnitude. This is not predicted by solar models and is a long standing problem. Observations of Li in open clusters indicate that Li depletion is occurring on the main sequence. Furthermore, there is now compelling observational evidence that a spread of lithium abundances is present in nearly identical stars. This suggests that some transport process is occurring in stellar radiative regions. Helioseismic inversions support this conclusion, for they suggest that standard solar models need to be modified below the base of the convection zone. There are a number of possible theoretical explanations for this transport process. The relation between Li abundances, rotation rates and the presence of a tidally locked companion along with the observed internal rotation in the Sun indicate that the mixing is most likely induced by rotation. The current status of non-standard (particularly rotational) stellar models which attempt to account for the lithium observations are reviewed.

  16. Lithium batteries: Future batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald Reiche

    1991-01-01

    The main characteristics and applications of lithium batteries are reviewed. Miniature batteries for quartz crystal watches have been developed and fabricated in Switzerland since 1970. High technology systems like lithium batteries are largely used for their low auto-discharge during storage and for their high energy density. Two kinds of lithium batteries can be distinguished concerning their place in the watch:

  17. Lithium Ion Production NDE

    E-print Network

    .L. Wood, "Non-destructive evaluation of slot-die-coated lithium secondary battery electrodes by in-Voltage Lithium-Manganese-Rich Cathode (TODA HE5050) Thickness Measurement Uniform wet-thickness during coating, and D.L. Wood, "Non-destructive evaluation of slot-die-coated lithium secondary battery electrodes by in

  18. Lithium composite anode

    SciTech Connect

    McManis, G.E.; Fletcher, A.N.; Bliss, D.E.

    1986-12-30

    A method is described of manufacturing a lithium composite anode for thermal batteries comprising the steps of: preparing a homogeneous lithium alloy; grinding the alloy into a powder; melting elemental lithium onto the surface of the powder to form a uniform heterogenous mixture; cooling the mixture to ambient to form an ingot; and configuring the ingot into an anode.

  19. Lithium Surface Coatings and Improved Plasma Performance in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugel, H. W.

    2007-11-01

    NSTX research on lithium-coated plasma facing components is the latest step in a decade-long, multi-institutional research program to develop lithium as a plasma-facing system that can withstand the high heat and neutron fluxes in a DT reactor. The NSTX research is also aimed towards sustaining the current non- inductively in H-mode plasmas which requires control of both wall recycling and impurity influxes. Employing several techniques to coat the plasma facing components (PFCs) with lithium, NSTX experiments have shown, for the first time, significant benefits in high-power divertor plasmas. Lithium pellet injection (LPI) uses the plasma itself to distribute lithium on the divertor or limiter surfaces. The multi-barrel LPI on NSTX can introduce either lithium pellets with masses 1 - 5 mg or powder during a discharge. This significantly lowered recycling and reduced the density in a subsequent NBI-heated, divertor plasma. Lithium coatings have also been applied with a LIThium EvaporatoR (LITER) that was installed on an upper vacuum vessel port to direct a collimated stream of lithium vapor toward the graphite tiles of the lower center stack and divertor. The lithium was evaporated either before tokamak discharges, or continuously between and during them. By evaporating lithium into the helium glow discharge that typically precedes each tokamak discharge, a coating of the entire PFC area was achieved. Lithium depositions from a few mg to 1 g have been applied between discharges. Among the effects observed in subsequent neutral-beam heated plasmas were decreases in oxygen impurities, plasma density, and the inductive flux consumption, and increases in electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement and DD neutron rate. In addition, a reduction in the ELM frequency, including their complete suppression, was achieved in H-mode plasmas. Additional observations, such as, the duration of the lithium coatings, increases in core metal impurity radiation, and diagnostic window depositions will also be discussed.

  20. Lithium use in batteries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Influence of co-ions in the eluent on the separation factor of lithium isotopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Kim; G. S. Lee

    1991-01-01

    The influence of co-ions in the eluent on the separation factor () of lithium isotope separation has been studied by ion exchange chromatography. A strongly acid cation exchange resin (Dowex 50W-X8) was used for the separation of lithium isotopes. The co-ions used in eluent were H+, K+, Ba2+, Cu2+, Al3+ and Cr3+ as their chlorides. From the experiments, it was

  2. FRACTIONATION OF LITHIUM ISOTOPES IN ION EXCHANGE CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH TITANIUM PHOSPHATE EXCHANGER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ooi; Y. Miyai; Y. Makita; H. Kanoh

    1999-01-01

    Ion exchange chromatography of lithium was carried out to study the lithium isotope effect in an aqueous ion-exchange system, using titanium phosphate exchangers granulated with polyvinyl chloride or an inorganic binder. The sample granulated with PVC showed significant isotope fractionations when a 0.05 M (NH4)2CO3 solution was used as an eluent. The lighter isotope Li was preferentially fractionated into the

  3. Aluminum-lithium for aerospace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Fielding; G. J. Wolf

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum-lithium alloys were developed primarily to reduce the weight of aircraft and aerospace structures. Lithium is the lightest metallic element, and each 1% of lithium added to aluminum reduces alloy density by about 3% and increases modulus by about 5%. Though lithium has a solubility limit of 4.2% in aluminum, the amount of lithium ranges between 1 and 3% in

  4. Poly(acetylene) as a positive electrode in lithium sulfur oxyhalide cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, Jeffrey M.; Weiner, Bryndyn; Smith, Jerry J.; Nowak, Robert J.

    1989-03-01

    Conductive poly(acetylene) film was employed as the positive electrode in primary lithium/thionyl chloride and lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells. Neutral (CH)x, doped to the metallic state upon in situ exposure to LiAlCl4/sulfur oxyhalide electrolytes, acts as a catalytic surface rather than as the active electrochemical element. Sulfur oxyhalides were reduced on(CH)x film at high rates as on PTFE-bonded Shawinigan carbon black felt. Electrode capacity was limited by the inability of the electrolyte to permeate the (CH)x film and the formation of a surface passive filmby discharge products.

  5. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    SciTech Connect

    Slaathaug, E.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

  6. The synergetic effect of lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate to prevent lithium dendrite growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyang; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liang, Zheng; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Lithium metal has shown great promise as an anode material for high-energy storage systems, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and low negative electrochemical potential. Unfortunately, uncontrolled dendritic and mossy lithium growth, as well as electrolyte decomposition inherent in lithium metal-based batteries, cause safety issues and low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the growth of lithium dendrites can be suppressed by exploiting the reaction between lithium and lithium polysulfide, which has long been considered as a critical flaw in lithium-sulfur batteries. We show that a stable and uniform solid electrolyte interphase layer is formed due to a synergetic effect of both lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate as additives in ether-based electrolyte, preventing dendrite growth and minimizing electrolyte decomposition. Our findings allow for re-evaluation of the reactions regarding lithium polysulfide, lithium nitrate and lithium metal, and provide insights into solving the problems associated with lithium metal anodes. PMID:26081242

  7. Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Batteries for the Mars Pathfinder Microrover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deligiannis, Frank; Frank, Harvey; Staniewicz, R. J.; Willson, John

    1996-01-01

    A discussion of the power requirements for the Mars Pathfinder Mission is given. Topics include: battery requirements; cell design; battery design; test descriptions and results. A summary of the results is also included.

  8. Heat generation rates in lithium thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H.

    1982-01-01

    An empirical equation that is useful for good first approximation in thermal modeling is presented. Indications and measurements of electrochemical heat effects were investigated. The particular cells of interest are of the D size, with spiral wound configuration and were instrumented with a thermocouple. It is found that cathode limited cells can explode on reversal at moderate temperatures.

  9. International Meeting on Lithium Batteries, 4th, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, May 24-27, 1988, Proceedings. Parts I & II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Haering

    1989-01-01

    The conference presents papers on the properties of thionyl chloride solutions, electrolyte solvation in aprotic solvents, polymer electrolytes, high-temperature high-pulse-power lithium batteries, and materials science principles related to alloys of potential use in rechargeable lithium cells. Consideration is also given to the kinetics of charge-transfer reactions on passive lithium electrodes, the kinetics of porous insertion electrodes, and the kinetics of

  10. Synthesis of lithium nitride for neutron production target of BNCT by in situ lithium deposition and ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, S.; Baba, Y.; Fujii, R.; Nakamura, M.; Imahori, Y.

    2012-12-01

    To achieve high performance of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) device, Li3N/Li/Pd/Cu four layered Li target was designed and the structures of the synthesized four layered target were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. For the purpose of avoiding the radiation blistering and lithium evaporation, in situ vacuum deposition and nitridation techniques were established for in situ production and repairing maintenance of the lithium target. Following conclusions were derived: Uniform lithium layer of a few hundreds nanometer was formed on Pd/Cu multilayer surface by in situ vacuum deposition technique using metallic lithium as a source material. Lithium nitrides were formed by in situ nitridation reaction by the implantation of low-energy nitrogen ions on the deposited lithium layer surface. The chemical states of the nitridated zone were close to the stoichiometric lithium nitride, Li3N. This nitridated zone formed on surface of four layered lithium target is stable for a long time in air condition. The in situ nitridation is effective to protect lithium target from degradation by unfavorable reactions.

  11. Rechargeable lithium batteries in the Navy -- Policy and protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Banner, J.A.; Winchester, C.S. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Silver Spring, MD (United States). Carderock Div.

    1996-12-31

    Rechargeable lithium batteries are an emerging technology that is finding widespread use in myriad applications. These batteries are supplanting many others because of superior performance characteristics, including high energy density and improved cycle life. The newest model laptop computers, camcorders and cellular phones are using these systems to provide lighter products with longer battery life. Potential military-use scenarios for this technology range from propulsion power for autonomous unmanned vehicles to power sources for exercise mines. Current battery chemistries that might eventually be replaced by rechargeable lithium batteries include silver-zinc batteries, lithium-thionyl chloride batteries, and possibly lithium thermal batteries. The Navy is developing and implementing a universal test protocol for evaluating the safety characteristics of rechargeable lithium power sources, as discussed by Winchester et al (1995). Test plans based on this protocol are currently being used to evaluate both commercially available and developmental products. In this paper the authors will review the testing protocol that has been developed for evaluating the safety of rechargeable lithium batteries. Relevant data from current test programs will be presented.

  12. Lithium battery hazard: old-fashioned planning implications of new technology.

    PubMed

    Ducatman, A M; Ducatman, B S; Barnes, J A

    1988-04-01

    Lithium battery technology has important military applications and will increasingly enter the civilian marketplace. In order to prevent explosive fragmentation under some circumstances of malfunction or misuse, lithium batteries are designed to vent externally in the event of malfunction. Depending on the chemistry and size of a venting lithium battery, the release of toxic gases such as sulfur dioxide or thionyl chloride may pose risks to exposed individuals, particularly in enclosed spaces. Chemical and thermal burns, laryngeal edema, pulmonary edema, and bronchiolitis obliterans are potential outcomes. A case report is presented which illustrates the hazards. The hazards are not from unpredictable outcomes, but from failure to plan for predictable outcomes. PMID:3379484

  13. Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

  14. Lithium battery space experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Chmlelewski, A.B.; Surampudi, S.; Bennett, R.; Frank, H.; Mueller, R. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The In-Space Technology Experiments Program selected the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to conduct a Phase A study of the Lithium Battery Experiment. The experiment will mark the first time a rechargeable lithium battery will be flown in space. The operation of the battery involves lithium deposition and dissolution processes. Micro gravity influences these processes significantly. The experiment will check the rate capability, discharge voltage, capacity and the phenomena affecting cycle life. The paper describes the design and methodology of this experiment.

  15. Stability and electrochemistry of lithium in room temperature chloroaluminate molten salts

    SciTech Connect

    Scordilis-Kelley, C.; Carlin, R.T. (Air Force Academy, CO (United States). Frank J. Seiler Research Lab.)

    1994-04-01

    Room temperature chloroaluminate molten salts derived from AlCl[sub 3], and 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolum chloride (MEIC) hold great promise as electrolytes for high energy density batteries. Addition of protons to buffered neutral AlCl[sub 3]:MEIC:LiCl melts allows elemental lithium to be deposited and stripped at a 250 [mu]m tungsten electrode. Chronopotentiometric studies performed at current densities from 0.16 to 3.06 mA cm[sup [minus]2] show minimal overpotentials for lithium deposition and stripping. When the lithium is stripped immediately after deposition, the stripping to deposition efficiency approaches 80%; however, when the deposited lithium is allowed to contact the electrolyte circuit for several minutes, the efficiencies drop rapidly due to the reaction of lithium with the melt. In basic (chloride-rich) AlCl[sub 3]:MEIC melts, elemental lithium appears to be stable for long times with and without the addition of protons. In addition, the maximum lithium anodization current density achieved in basic melts is higher than the buffered neutral melts.

  16. Chloride channels as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (?-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery. PMID:19153558

  17. Terahertz intracenter photoluminescence of silicon with lithium at interband excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrianov, A. V.; Zakhar'in, A. O.; Zhukavin, R. Kh.; Shastin, V. N.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Bobylev, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    Terahertz radiation has been revealed at interband photoexcitation of lithium-doped silicon crystals at liquid helium temperatures. It has been shown that the lines caused by optical transitions of electrons from the 2 P excited states of lithium centers to the 1 S( A 1) state of the impurity prevail in the radiation spectrum. The strong suppression of terahertz radiation associated with transitions to the lowest state of the donor 1 S( E + T 2) as compared to radiation associated with transitions to the 1 S( A 1) state is explained by the reabsorption of radiation. The radiation spectrum also includes weaker terahertz lines, which can be attributed to the intracenter transitions in donors that are caused by Li-O complexes. The radiation spectrum also exhibits lines at ˜12.7 and ˜15.3 meV, which are possibly due to intraexcitonic radiative transitions and transitions from continuum to the ground state of excitons.

  18. Chloride and Salinity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-07-15

    This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  19. Modelling of lithium erosion and transport in FTU lithium experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, R.; Maddaluno, G.; Apicella, M. L.; Mazzitelli, G.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Kirschner, A.; Chen, J. L.; Li, J. G.; Luo, G.-N.

    2013-07-01

    The ERO code has been used to simulate lithium erosion, transport and re-deposition from liquid lithium limiter experiments in FTU. Two different operational cases from LLL experiments with different plasma parameters and surface temperature are modelled. According to the effective lithium sputtering yields, for both cases the lithium erosion is mainly due to physical sputtering rather than evaporation. Furthermore, the modelled re-deposition fraction of evaporated lithium is much higher than that of sputtered lithium, which is due to the shorter ionisation mean free path of thermal lithium atoms. Therefore, the evaporation erosion effect can be neglected compared to physical sputtering when the surface temperature is below 450 °C. According to the simulations, most of the lithium impurities exist in the form of Li+, and the main plasma contamination by lithium ions is low because most of eroded lithium particles are not transported into the core plasma and stay outside of the LCFS.

  20. Lithium Irradiation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Leveling, A.F.; /Fermilab

    2000-08-22

    The subject of tritium production in the Antiproton Source Collection lens was raised in the mid-1980s during the design phase of the pbar source. Interest in it has recurred during development of the proton lens and in recent investigations to determine the feasibility of liquid lithium collection lenses for the pbar source and a muon collider project. Calculations for tritium and beryllium 7 production on lithium suffer from a lack of information on medium and high energy cross section data. In addition, knowledge of the energy spectrum within the target vault is based upon calculations. Knowledge of the low energy spectrum, important for tritium production on lithium, is limited, if not non-existent. For Collider Run II, effort is to be applied to improve the performance of the solid lithium lens. Historically, examination of failed lithium lenses has not been pursued because they have been fairly radioactive and because they are thought to contain significant quantities of the radionuclides tritium and beryllium 7. The development of methods to examine failed lithium lenses may be desirable so that the specific causes of failure can be discovered. From such studies, design improvements can be incorporated with the goal of achieving lens performances goals related to Collider Run II. The purpose of the lithium irradiation experiment is to determine the production rates of radioisotopes tritium and beryllium 7 within the lithium lens in its operating in its operating environment.

  1. Atmospheric corrosion of lithium electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnson

    1981-01-01

    Atmospheric corrosion of lithium during lithium-cell assembly and the dry storage of cells prior to electrolyte fill has been found to initiate lithium corrosion pits and to form corrosion products. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate lithium pitting and the white floccullent corrosion products. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Auger spectroscopy in combination with X-ray diffraction

  2. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  3. Determination of lithium isotopes at natural abundance levels by atomic absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meier, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationships of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li hollow cathode lamp emissions are used to determine lithium isotopic composition in the natural abundance range of geologic materials. Absorption was found to have a nonlinear dependence upon total lithium concentration and isotopic composition. A method using nonlinear equations to describe the relationship of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li lamp radiation is proposed as a means of calculating isotopic composition that is independent of total lithium concentration.

  4. Enhancing ionic conductivity in lithium amide for improved energy storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Rosalind A.; Hewett, David R.; Anderson, Paul A.

    2015-03-01

    Non-stoichiometry and bulk cation transport have been identified as key factors in the release and uptake of hydrogen in the Li–N–H system. Amide halide phases have been synthesized that have ionic conductivities several orders of magnitude greater than lithium amide, a faster rate of hydrogen release and elimination of the by-product, ammonia. Here we report the effect of both anion- and cation-doping on the hydrogen desorption properties of lithium amide, focusing in particular on how the presence of chloride anions and magnesium cations affects and controls the structure of the amide and imide compounds at the sub-nanometre level. Reducing the chloride content resulted in new low-chloride rhombohedral phases that contain around half of the chloride present in earlier amide chlorides, but maintained the enhancements seen in hydrogen desorption properties when compared to the halide-free system. These materials may also have potential in a range of other energy applications such as all solid state lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, and CO2 capture and storage membranes. Invited talk at the 7th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology IWAMSN2014, 2–6 November 2014, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  5. Molecular Structure of Ferric chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-27

    Ferric chloride is a corrosive chemical, thus, it is used to deodorize sewage and industrial waste by partially reducing to ferrous chloride. It is also employed as an engraving reagent on metal surfaces. Other applications include its use as a flocculating agent in water treatment. Ferric chloride is a hazardous chemical that irritates the skin and eyes and is toxic if ingested, however it can be used as a reagent in pharmaceutical preparations.

  6. Chloride channels as drug targets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis J. V. Galietta; Alan S. Verkman

    2008-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human

  7. Heat generation in lithium-thionyl chloride and lithium-SO2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, R.; Melman, A.; Livne, N.; Peled, E.

    1992-09-01

    The effects of current density, temperature, depth of discharge (DOD), and storage on the heat generation rate and faradaic efficiency of Li/Tc and Li/SO2 cells have been determined. Several C-size commercial cells from different manufacturers have been tested. The faradaic efficiency for both systems was found to be very high, typically 96-100 percent even at high current density and high temperatures (55 C). It does not change much with DOD and decreases only slightly with the increase of current density and high temperature (tested up to 4.5 mA/sq cm at 50 percent DOD and 55 C). A performance degradation problem was found for some Li/TC cells. The heat factor, the ratio between the useful electric power and the thermal power generated by the cell, is about the same for fresh Li/TC cells and Li/SO2 cells. However, some Li/TC cells stored for 3 years showed a poor heat factor. It was confirmed that the maximum thermoneutral voltage for the Li/TC and Li/SO2 cells is 3.80 and 3.22 V, respectively.

  8. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  9. Lithium-methomyl induced seizures in rats: A new model of status epilepticus?

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, Rafal M. [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland)]. E-mail: kaminskr@mail.nih.gov; Blaszczak, Piotr [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Dekundy, Andrzej [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Parada-Turska, Jolanta [Department of Rheumatology and Connective Tissue Diseases, Medical University, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-090 Lublin (Poland); Calderazzo, Lineu [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Laboratory of Experimental Neurology, Escola Paulista de Medicina, R. Botucatu 862, BR-04023 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Cavalheiro, Esper A. [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Laboratory of Experimental Neurology, Escola Paulista de Medicina, R. Botucatu 862, BR-04023 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Turski, Waldemar A. [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-090 Lublin (Poland)

    2007-03-15

    Behavioral, electroencephalographic (EEG) and neuropathological effects of methomyl, a carbamate insecticide reversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity, were studied in naive or lithium chloride (24 h, 3 mEq/kg, s.c.) pretreated male Wistar rats. In naive animals, methomyl with equal potency produced motor limbic seizures and fatal status epilepticus. Thus, the CD50 values (50% convulsant dose) for these seizure endpoints were almost equal to the LD50 (50% lethal dose) of methomyl (13 mg/kg). Lithium pretreated rats were much more susceptible to convulsant, but not lethal effect of methomyl. CD50 values of methomyl for motor limbic seizures and status epilepticus were reduced by lithium pretreatment to 3.7 mg/kg (a 3.5-fold decrease) and 5.2 mg/kg (a 2.5-fold decrease), respectively. In contrast, lithium pretreatment resulted in only 1.3-fold decrease of LD50 value of methomyl (9.9 mg/kg). Moreover, lithium-methomyl treated animals developed a long-lasting status epilepticus, which was not associated with imminent lethality observed in methomyl-only treated rats. Scopolamine (10 mg/kg) or diazepam (10 mg/kg) protected all lithium-methomyl treated rats from convulsions and lethality. Cortical and hippocampal EEG recordings revealed typical epileptic discharges that were consistent with behavioral seizures observed in lithium-methomyl treated rats. In addition, convulsions induced by lithium-methomyl treatment were associated with widespread neurodegeneration of limbic structures. Our observations indicate that lithium pretreatment results in separation between convulsant and lethal effects of methomyl in rats. As such, seizures induced by lithium-methomyl administration may be an alternative to lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus, which is associated with high lethality.

  10. Relationship between free chloride and total chloride contents in concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. U. Mohammed; H. Hamada

    2003-01-01

    Linear relationships between free chloride and total chloride contents in concrete are proposed based on the results of several long-term exposure tests under marine environment for various cements, such as ordinary portland cement (OPC), high early strength portland cement (HES), moderate heat portland cement (MH), calcium aluminate cement (AL), slag cements of Types A (SCA) and B (SCB), and fly

  11. Lithium drifted germanium system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fjarlie, E. J.

    1969-01-01

    General characteristics of the lithium-drifted germanium photodiode-Dewar-preamplifier system and particular operating instructions for the device are given. Information is included on solving operational problems.

  12. Solubility of some alkali and alkaline earth chlorides in water at moderate temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clynne, M.A.; Potter, R.W., II

    1979-01-01

    Solubilities for the binary systems, salt-H2O, of the chlorides of lithium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium from near 0??C to the saturated boiling point are reported. The experimental data and coefficients of an equation for a smoothed curve describing each system are listed in the tables. The data are improvements on those previously reported in the literature, having a precision on the average of ??0.09%.

  13. Polyfluoro-tert-alkylsulfenyl chlorides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Yu. Sizov; A. F. Kolomiets; A. V. Fokin

    1988-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkylsulfenyl chlorides with tert-alkyl groups were obtained and these compounds were found to be similar to sulfenyl chlorides with primary polyfluoroalkyl groups in electrophilic addition at the C=C bond and are distinguished only in somewhat reduced reactivity.

  14. Molecular Structure of Picryl chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-09-20

    Picryl chloride is ranked as one of the 100 most commonly found explosive and shock sensitive materials. It is made by reacting 2,4,6 trinitrophenol with thionyl chloride. This highly reactive compound is known to be hazardous and toxic, and to cause liver injury in mice. It is often used as a sensitization agent in mice when their cells undergo hypersensitivity studies.

  15. Modelling chloride diffusion in concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. A. Thomas; Phil B. Bamforth

    1999-01-01

    Data from long-term field and laboratory studies of concrete exposed to chloride environments were analyzed using a chloride transport model developed at the University of Toronto. The results show that the incorporation of fly ash and slag may have little impact on transport properties determined at early ages (e.g., 28 days), but can lead to order of magnitude improvements in

  16. Aluminum-lithium for aerospace

    SciTech Connect

    Fielding, P.S.; Wolf, G.J. [Reynolds Metals Co., Richmond, VA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Aluminum-lithium alloys were developed primarily to reduce the weight of aircraft and aerospace structures. Lithium is the lightest metallic element, and each 1% of lithium added to aluminum reduces alloy density by about 3% and increases modulus by about 5%. Though lithium has a solubility limit of 4.2% in aluminum, the amount of lithium ranges between 1 and 3% in commercial alloys. Aluminum-lithium alloys are most often selected for aerospace components because of their low density, high strength, and high specific modulus. However, other applications now exploit their excellent fatigue resistance and cryogenic toughness.

  17. Solid-state lithium battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  18. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  19. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  20. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  1. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  2. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  3. Lithium battery thermal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, Daniel H.; Butler, Paul C.; Jungst, Rudolph G.; Roth, E. Peter

    Thermal characteristics and thermal behavior of lithium batteries are important both for the batteries meeting operating life requirements and for safety considerations. Sandia National Laboratories has a broad-based program that includes analysis, engineering and model development. We have determined thermal properties of lithium batteries using a variety of calorimetric methods for many years. We developed the capability to model temperature gradients and cooling rates of high-temperature primary lithium thermal batteries several years ago. Work is now under way to characterize the response of ambient-temperature rechargeable lithium-ion batteries to thermal abuse. Once the self-heating rates of lithium cells have been established over a range of temperatures, the thermal response can be estimated under a variety of conditions. We have extended this process to isolate the behavior of individual battery components and have begun to understand the chemical nature of the species responsible for heat evolution within the cells. This enhanced level of understanding will enable more accurate modeling of cell thermal behavior and will allow model-based design of safer, more abuse-tolerant lithium batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in the future. Progress toward this goal and key information still needed to reach it are discussed.

  4. Chloride thresholds in marine concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-04-01

    This paper reports results from an ongoing study of the performance of fly ash concrete in marine exposure. Reinforced concrete specimens exposed to tidal conditions were retrieved at ages ranging from 1 to 4 years. Steel reinforcement mass losses are compared with chloride contents at the location of the bar for concrete specimens of various strength grades and with a range of fly ash levels. The maximum level of chloride that could be tolerated without significant mass loss due to corrosion was found to vary with fly ash content. This threshold chloride level decreased with increasing fly ash content; values obtained were 0.70%, 0.65%, 0.50% and 0.20% acid-soluble chloride (by mass of cementitious material) for concrete with 0%, 15%, 30% and 50% ash, respectively. Despite the lower threshold values, fly ash concrete was found to provide better protection to the steel under these conditions, due to its increased resistance to chloride ion penetration.

  5. Lithium Isotope Selectivity of Sorbents Prepared from Lithium Manganese Oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HIROTSUGU TAKEUCHI; TAKAO OI; MORIKAZU HOSOE

    1999-01-01

    Sorbents are prepared by extracting lithium ions from lithium manganese oxides with the lithium\\/manganese mole ratio (Li\\/Mn ratio) varying between 0.42 and 0.84, and their lithium isotope selectivities are investigated. All the sorbents are Li-specific and the values of the Li-to-Li isotopic separation factor (S) are between 1.0040 and 1.0092 at 25°C. The S value is slightly dependent on the

  6. Cesium133, Lithium6, and Lithium7 Hyperfine Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Vollmerhausen

    2010-01-01

    I report a spectroscopy study on Cesium-133, Lithium-6, and Lithium-7. Hyperfine splittings are created using a controllable laser with a wavelength of 852.350 nm for Cesium, and a wavelength of 670.980 nm. This study covers the D2 line of Cesium and the D1 and D2 lines of Lithium-6 and Lithium-7. These are examined using two different techniques. These techniques are

  7. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely...

  8. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely...

  9. Spectroscopic properties of Dy 3+ ions in lithium borate and lithium fluoroborate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, P.; Jayasankar, C. K.

    2000-09-01

    Spectral study of Dy 3+-doped borate glasses modified with lithium oxide and fluoride are presented. These glasses include lithium borates: (99- x)Li 2CO 3+ xH 3BO 3+1Dy 2O 3, x=39.5, 49.5, 59.5 and 69.5 and lithium fluoroborates: xLi 2CO 3+(49.5- x)LiF+49.5H 3BO 3+1Dy 2O 3, x=24.75 and 0. Using Judd-Ofelt (JO) theory, the intensity parameters ( ? ?, ?=2,4,6 ) have been evaluated for all the six glasses. These intensity parameters are used to predict radiative properties that include electric ( Sed) and magnetic ( Smd) dipole line strengths, radiative ( A) and total radiative ( AT) transition probabilities, lifetimes ( ?R), branching ratios ( ?R) for the excited ( 4K(1) 13/2, 4F(3) 5/2, 4P(2) 3/2, 4M21/2, 4G(4) 11/2, 4I(3) 15/2, 4F(3) 9/2, 6F9/2 and 6H9/2) levels of these Dy 3+-doped lithium borate and lithium fluoroborate glasses along with 11 different systems doped with Dy 3+ ions. The predicted values of ?R and ?R are compared with the experimental values for 4F(3) 9/2 transition. The stimulated emission cross-sections are also evaluated for 4F(3) 9/2 ? 6HJ ( J=7/2,9/2,11/2,13/2 and 15/2) transitions. The dependence of the spectral characteristics of Dy 3+ ions due to compositional changes of the glasses are examined.

  10. Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Dwight; Jaskula, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Lithium, which has the chemical symbol Li and an atomic number of 3, is the first metal in the periodic table. Lithium has many uses, the most prominent being in batteries for cell phones, laptops, and electric and hybrid vehicles. Worldwide sources of lithium are broken down by ore-deposit type as follows: closed-basin brines, 58%; pegmatites and related granites, 26%; lithium-enriched clays, 7%; oilfield brines, 3%; geothermal brines, 3%; and lithium-enriched zeolites, 3% (2013 statistics). There are over 39 million tons of lithium resources worldwide. Of this resource, the USGS estimates there to be approximately 13 million tons of current economically recoverable lithium reserves. To help predict where future lithium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where identified resources are concentrated in the Earth’s crust, and they use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered resources also exist.

  11. Radiators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1985-01-01

    A heat-exchange radiator is connected to a fluid flow circuit by a connector which provides one member of an interengageable spigot and socket pair for push-fit, fluid-tight, engagement between the connector and the radiator, with latching formations at least one of which is resilient. Preferably the connector carries the spigot which tapers and engages with a socket of corresponding shape,

  12. Radiation 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    State. s. ABSTRACT This study is an attempt to find a tentative atmospheric index of human comfort and to show its applications for the area of College Station~ Texas. Temperature, relative humidity~ air move- ment, and global short-wave radiation... (direct plus diffuse) were combined into a single numerical expression for outdoor human comfort. The contribution of global short-wave radiation to the heat load on man also is evaluated in a single numerical expression, and expressed as an equivalent...

  13. Advances in primary lithium liquid cathode batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomgren, George E.

    1989-05-01

    Recent work on cell development and various aspects of cell chemistry and cell development of lithium/thionyl chloride liquid cathode batteries is reviewed. As a result of safety studies, a number of cell sizes can now be considered satisfactory for many applications and the energy densities of these cells is higher than any other developed battery system. Primary batteries operate with low to moderate currents and the anode delay effect appears to be under reasonable control. Reserve cells are in the design stage and operate at high to very high power densities as well as very high energy densities. The nature of the anode film and the operation of the lithium anode has been studied with substantial success and understanding has grown accordingly. Also, studies of the structure of the electrolyte and the effects on the electrolyte of impurities and additives have led to improved understanding in this area as well. Work in progress on new electrolytes is reviewed. The state of the art of mathematical modeling is also discussed and it is expected that this work will continue to develop.

  14. Electrochemical noise in lithium primary cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, George J.; Nip, Wing S.; Patraboy, Timothy J.; Anderson, James S.; Farrington, Michael D.

    Electrochemical noise is interpreted as the occurrence of microscopic fluctuations of the potential of an electrochemical cell. A study was conducted on a number of commercial lithium cells to evaluate the practicality of electrochemical noise measurement as a diagnostic tool for performance and/or safety. The survey was limited to the following lithium based systems: sulfur dioxide, thionyl chloride, and manganese dioxide. The cells were subjected to a program of storage, environmental, and discharge conditions and then examined to determine whether there was any detectable effect on the electrochemical noise characteristics. While the study was of limited scope, it was nevertheless established that all cells exhibited some measurable electrochemical noise under certain conditions. The characteristics of the noise and its magnitude were influenced by many factors. The occurrence of observable noise above the instrumental background was generally associated with cells which had been discharged to between 80 and 100 percent of their nominal capacity. Most of the noise of interest was found at frequencies below 100 Hz.

  15. Reversibility of anodic lithium in rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Shui, Jiang-Lan; Okasinski, John S; Kenesei, Peter; Dobbs, Howard A; Zhao, Dan; Almer, Jonathan D; Liu, Di-Jia

    2013-01-01

    Non-aqueous lithium-air batteries represent the next-generation energy storage devices with very high theoretical capacity. The benefit of lithium-air batteries is based on the assumption that the anodic lithium is completely reversible during the discharge-charge process. Here we report our investigation on the reversibility of the anodic lithium inside of an operating lithium-air battery using spatially and temporally resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction and three-dimensional micro-tomography technique. A combined electrochemical process is found, consisting of a partial recovery of lithium metal during the charging cycle and a constant accumulation of lithium hydroxide under both charging and discharging conditions. A lithium hydroxide layer forms on the anode separating the lithium metal from the separator. However, numerous microscopic 'tunnels' are also found within the hydroxide layer that provide a pathway to connect the metallic lithium with the electrolyte, enabling sustained ion-transport and battery operation until the total consumption of lithium. PMID:23929396

  16. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1980-01-01

    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  17. A review of lithium deposition in lithium-ion and lithium metal secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhe; Huang, Jun; Yann Liaw, Bor; Metzler, Viktor; Zhang, Jianbo

    2014-05-01

    Major aspects related to lithium deposition in lithium-ion and lithium metal secondary batteries are reviewed. For lithium-ion batteries with carbonaceous anode, lithium deposition may occur under harsh charging conditions such as overcharging or charging at low temperatures. The major technical solutions include: (1) applying electrochemical models to predict the critical conditions for deposition initiation; (2) preventions by improved battery design and material modification; (3) applying adequate charging protocols to inhibit lithium deposition. For lithium metal secondary batteries, the lithium deposition is the inherent reaction during charging. The major technical solutions include: (1) the use of mechanistic models to elucidate and control dendrite initiation and growth; (2) engineering surface morphology of the lithium deposition to avoid dendrite formation via adjusting the composition and concentration of the electrolyte; (3) controlling battery working conditions. From a survey of the literature, the areas that require further study are proposed; e.g., refining the lithium deposition criteria, developing an effective AC self pre-heating method for low-temperature charging of lithium-ion batteries, and clarifying the role the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) plays in determining the deposition morphology; to facilitate a refined control of the lithium deposition.

  18. An XAFS study of nickel chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; G Cheek; K Pandya; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Nickel chloride was studied with cyclic voltammetry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Acidic melts display metal stripping peaks which are not observed in the basic melt. EXAFS analysis shows that the nickel is tetrahedrally coordinated with chloride ions in the basic solution. In the acidic solution the nickel is coordinated by six chloride ions that are also associated with aluminum ions.

  19. Lithium Dinitramide as an Additive in Lithium Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorkovenko, Alexander A.

    2007-01-01

    Lithium dinitramide, LiN(NO2)2 has shown promise as an additive to nonaqueous electrolytes in rechargeable and non-rechargeable lithium-ion-based electrochemical power cells. Such non-aqueous electrolytes consist of lithium salts dissolved in mixtures of organic ethers, esters, carbonates, or acetals. The benefits of adding lithium dinitramide (which is also a lithium salt) include lower irreversible loss of capacity on the first charge/discharge cycle, higher cycle life, lower self-discharge, greater flexibility in selection of electrolyte solvents, and greater charge capacity. The need for a suitable electrolyte additive arises as follows: The metallic lithium in the anode of a lithium-ion-based power cell is so highly reactive that in addition to the desired main electrochemical reaction, it engages in side reactions that cause formation of resistive films and dendrites, which degrade performance as quantified in terms of charge capacity, cycle life, shelf life, first-cycle irreversible capacity loss, specific power, and specific energy. The incidence of side reactions can be reduced through the formation of a solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) a thin film that prevents direct contact between the lithium anode material and the electrolyte. Ideally, an SEI should chemically protect the anode and the electrolyte from each other while exhibiting high conductivity for lithium ions and little or no conductivity for electrons. A suitable additive can act as an SEI promoter. Heretofore, most SEI promotion was thought to derive from organic molecules in electrolyte solutions. In contrast, lithium dinitramide is inorganic. Dinitramide compounds are known as oxidizers in rocket-fuel chemistry and until now, were not known as SEI promoters in battery chemistry. Although the exact reason for the improvement afforded by the addition of lithium dinitramide is not clear, it has been hypothesized that lithium dinitramide competes with other electrolyte constituents to react with lithium on the surface of the anode to form a beneficial SEI. Apparently, nitrides and oxides that result from reduction of lithium dinitramide on the anode produce a thin, robust SEI different from the SEIs formed from organic SEI promoters. The SEI formed from lithium dinitramide is more electronically insulating than is the film formed in the presence of an otherwise identical electrolyte that does not include lithium dinitramide. SEI promotion with lithium dinitramide is useful in batteries with metallic lithium and lithium alloy anodes.

  20. Recent Liquid Lithium Limiter Experiments in CDX-U

    SciTech Connect

    R. Majeski; S. Jardin; R. Kaita; T. Gray; P. Marfuta; J. Spaleta; J. Timberlake; L. Zakharov; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Seraydarian; V. Soukhanovskii; R. Maingi; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; D. Rodgers; S. Angelini

    2005-05-03

    Recent experiments in the Current Drive eXperiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) provide a first-ever test of large area liquid lithium surfaces as a tokamak first wall, to gain engineering experience with a liquid metal first wall, and to investigate whether very low recycling plasma regimes can be accessed with lithium walls. The CDX-U is a compact (R=34 cm, a=22 cm, B{sub toroidal} = 2 kG, I{sub P} =100 kA, T{sub e}(0) {approx} 100 eV, n{sub e}(0) {approx} 5 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) spherical torus at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. A toroidal liquid lithium pool limiter with an area of 2000 cm{sup 2} (half the total plasma limiting surface) has been installed in CDX-U. Tokamak discharges which used the liquid lithium pool limiter required a fourfold lower loop voltage to sustain the plasma current, and a factor of 5-8 increase in gas fueling to achieve a comparable density, indicating that recycling is strongly reduced. Modeling of the discharges demonstrated that the lithium limited discharges are consistent with Z{sub effective} < 1.2 (compared to 2.4 for the pre-lithium discharges), a broadened current channel, and a 25% increase in the core electron temperature. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that edge oxygen and carbon radiation are strongly reduced.

  1. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  2. Large lithium loop experience

    SciTech Connect

    Kolowith, R.; Owen, T.J.; Berg, J.D.; Atwood, J.M.

    1981-10-01

    An engineering design and operating experience of a large, isothermal, lithium-coolant test loop are presented. This liquid metal coolant loop is called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) and has operated safely and reliably for over 6500 hours through September 1981. The loop is used for full-scale testing of components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Main system parameters include coolant temperatures to 430/sup 0/C and flow to 0.038 m/sup 3//s (600 gal/min). Performance of the main pump, vacuum system, and control system is discussed. Unique test capabilities of the ELS are also discussed.

  3. New method to measure the rapid chloride migration coefficient of chloride-contaminated concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Lay; S. Liebl; H. Hilbig; P. Schießl

    2004-01-01

    The apparent chloride diffusion coefficient, Dapp, which is obtained by fitting chloride profiles as the result of time-consuming immersion tests can be substituted in a model on chloride ingress by the rapid chloride migration (RCM) coefficient of concrete, DRCM, which is determined under electrically accelerated conditions. Until now, it was not possible to measure DRCM of chloride-contaminated concrete, as already

  4. Chloride channels in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-ping; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Dayue Darrel

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles, including proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain, ie, stroke. Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Cl?) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke. At least three Cl? channel genes are expressed in VSMCs: 1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1), which may encode the calcium-activated Cl? channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Cl? channel and Cl?/H+ antiporter, which is closely related to the volume-regulated Cl? channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which encodes the PKA- and PKC-activated Cl? channels. Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization, vasoconstriction, and inhibition of VSMC proliferation. Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs. Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension. In addition, Cl? current mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death. This review focuses on the functional roles of Cl? channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Cl? channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke. PMID:23103617

  5. A review of hazards associated with primary lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego Lisbona; Timothy Snee

    Primary lithium batteries contain hazardous materials such as lithium metal and flammable solvents, which can lead to exothermic activity and runaway reactions above a defined temperature. Lithium-ion batteries operating outside the safe envelope can also lead to formation of lithium metal and thermal runaway. Despite protection by battery safety mechanisms, fires originating from primary lithium and lithium-ion batteries are a

  6. XPS investigation of thionyl chloride action on iron phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines and on hydrogen phthalocyanine — Correlations with the activity of Li/SOCl 2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savy, Michel; Riga, Joseph; Verbist, Jacques J.

    1989-03-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements have been performed on iron phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines, and hydrogen phthalocyanine powders, after dissolution in SOCl 2 and reprecipitation. The comparison of XPS results with catalytic activities observed in the lithium/thionyl chloride batteries during their discharge underlines the rôles of the central ion oxidation facility and ligand stability in the electrocatalysis of SOCl 2 reduction.

  7. Increase of glucocorticoids is not required for the acquisition, but hinders the extinction, of lithium-induced conditioned taste aversion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu-Nam; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Kim, Young-Sang; Lee, Jong-Ho; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2014-05-01

    Lithium chloride at doses sufficient to induce conditioned taste aversion (CTA) causes c-Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus and increases the plasma level of corticosterone with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study was conducted to define the role of glucocorticoid in the acquisition and extinction of lithium-induced CTA. In experiment 1, Sprague-Dawley rats received dexamethasone (2mg/kg) or RU486 (20mg/kg) immediately after 5% sucrose access, and then an intraperitoneal injection of isotonic lithium chloride (12ml/kg) was followed with 30min interval. Rats had either 1 or 7 days of recovery period before the daily sucrose drinking tests. In experiment 2, rats were conditioned with the sucrose-lithium pairing, and then received dexamethasone or vehicle at 30min before each drinking test. In experiment 3, adrenalectomized (ADX or ADX+B) rats were subjected to sucrose drinking tests after the sucrose-lithium pairing. Dexamethasone, but not RU486, pretreatment blunted the formation of lithium-induced CTA memory. Dexamethasone prior to each drinking test suppressed sucrose consumption and prolonged the extinction of lithium-induced CTA. Sucrose consumption was significantly suppressed not only in ADX+B rats but also in ADX rats during the first drinking session; however, a significant decrease was found only in ADX rats on the fourth drinking session. These results reveal that glucocorticoid is not a necessary component in the acquisition, but an important player in the extinction, of lithium-induced CTA, and suggest that a pulse increase of glucocorticoid may hinder the extinction memory formation of lithium-induced CTA. PMID:24582760

  8. Material Effectiveness for Radiation Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Materials with a smaller mean atomic mass, such as lithium (Li) hydride and polyethylene, make the best radiation shields for astronauts. The materials have a higher density of nuclei and are better able to block incoming radiation. Also, they tend to produce fewer and less dangerous secondary particles after impact with incoming radiation.

  9. Chronic lithium administration enhances serotonin release in the lateral hypothalamus but not in the hippocampus in rats. A microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Baptista, T J; Hernández, L; Burguera, J L; Burguera, M; Hoebel, B G

    1990-01-01

    Chronic administration of lithium displays therapeutic and prophylactic effects in bipolar affective disorders, but its mechanism of action remains unknown. Several studies in animals and humans strongly suggest that central serotonergic neurons might be involved in lithium effects. In the experiments reported here microdialysis with removable probes and high pressure liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection were used to assess the amphetamine-induced release of serotonin (5-HT) and the 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels in the perifornical hypothalamus (PFH) and hippocampus (HP) of freely moving rats before and after chronic lithium chloride administration (2 meq/kg, as intragastric daily injections for 14 days). The serum lithium levels were 0.66 +/- 0.08 meq/l. After lithium treatment, the amphetamine-induced 5-HT release was significantly enhanced in the PFH but not so in the HP. Basal levels of 5-HIAA in the control group decreased but remained unchanged in the lithium group in the PFH. No change of basal levels of 5-HIAA was observed in the HP. The effect of lithium on the PFH could be related to the improvement of the autonomic and cyclic symptoms of patients with manic depressive disorders undergoing lithium therapy. PMID:1698388

  10. Lithium in Evolved Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel D. Hiltgen; Christopher Sneden

    1994-01-01

    I. Lithium in F-G Giants at the Rotational Break As a star crosses the Hertzprung Gap, its surface rotational velocity declines abruptly between between spectral types G0 and G3 III. This rotational break must in large part be due to the growth of of the convective envelope and, thus, the star must exhibit a decline of the surface Li abundance.

  11. Lithium Lens Interlocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Krider

    1985-01-01

    The lithium lens in the antiproton source target vault is protected by an interlock system, which is located in relay racks R5 and R6 near the southwest corner of the Target Hall (building APO). The interlock system consists of crates of commercial signal conditioner and alarm modules built by Acromag, Inc and interlock Master Modules built by Fermilab: Twenty analog

  12. Lithium iodate, intracavity upconversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, Y. C.; Falk, J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes an internal CW parametric upconverter which uses a lithium iodate crystal and a CW argon laser. The upconversion reported demonstrates a noise equivalent power (NEP) of 5 x 10 to the -14th W/Hz to the 1/2th at 3.39-micron wavelength. Noise properties of the upconverter are outlined.

  13. Lithium ion battery production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antti Väyrynen; Justin Salminen

    Recently, new materials and chemistry for lithium ion batteries have been developed. There is a great emphasis on electrification in the transport sector replacing part of motor powered engines with battery powered applications. There are plans both to increase energy efficiency and to reduce the overall need for consumption of non-renewable liquid fuels. Even more significant applications are dependent on

  14. CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-11-30

    Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

  15. Incidence of cancer among vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride workers.

    PubMed Central

    Heldaas, S S; Langård, S L; Andersen, A

    1984-01-01

    The results of a follow up study of the incidence of cancer and the mortality in a cohort of 454 male workers producing vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride are presented. The study population was restricted to employees with more than one year's work experience in the study plant between 1950 and 1969 and the cohort was followed up from 1953 to the end of 1979. Twenty three new cases of cancer were observed compared with 20.2 expected; one case of liver angiosarcoma was found. Five cases of lung cancer were found (2.8 expected) and four cases of malignant melanoma of the skin were observed (0.8 expected). The possibility of a causal relationship between exposure to vinyl chloride and the development of malignant melanomas is discussed. PMID:6691932

  16. Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Seedhouse

    \\u000a It is more than forty years since astronauts ventured beyond Earth’s protective magnetic shield and travelled to the Moon.\\u000a Although the Apollo missions subjected astronauts to space radiation, the short duration minimized the risk, but an ECM will\\u000a subject astronauts to much longer exposure. In fact, astronauts will be in deep space for so long, they will run the risk

  17. Growth and decomposition of lithium and lithium hydride on nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engbæk, Jakob; Nielsen, Gunver; Nielsen, Jane H.; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2006-04-01

    In this paper we have investigated the deposition, structure and decomposition of lithium and lithium-hydride films on a nickel substrate. Using surface sensitive techniques it was possible to quantify the deposited Li amount, and to optimize the deposition procedure for synthesizing lithium-hydride films. By only making thin films of LiH it is possible to study the stability of these hydride layers and compare it directly with the stability of pure Li without having any transport phenomena or adsorbed oxygen to obscure the results. The desorption of metallic lithium takes place at a lower temperature than the decomposition of the lithium-hydride, confirming the high stability and sintering problems of lithium-hydride making the storage potential a challenge.

  18. Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

    2012-10-30

    The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. PMID:22947185

  19. Growth and decomposition of lithium and lithium hydride on nickel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakob Engbæk; Gunver Nielsen; Jane H. Nielsen; Ib Chorkendorff

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we have investigated the deposition, structure and decomposition of lithium and lithium-hydride films on a nickel substrate. Using surface sensitive techniques it was possible to quantify the deposited Li amount, and to optimize the deposition procedure for synthesizing lithium-hydride films.By only making thin films of LiH it is possible to study the stability of these hydride layers

  20. Thin-film lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Bates; N. J. Dudney; B. Neudecker; A. Ueda; C. D. Evans

    2000-01-01

    Research over the last decade at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has led to the development of solid-state thin-film lithium and lithium-ion batteries. The batteries, which are less than 15 ?m thick, have important applications in a variety of consumer and medical products, and they are useful research tools in characterizing the properties of lithium intercalation compounds in thin-film form. The

  1. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  2. Application of quality function deployment to the design of a lithium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbleib, L.; Wormington, P.; Cieslak, W.; Street, H.

    Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is the tool we have selected to aid in the design, development and subsequent commercial manufacture of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride 'D' cell for use in weapons applications. QFD is a structured methodology used to help assure that customer needs and expectations will be satisfied throughout the product life cycle. In this paper, we will describe our application of QFD, some of the lessons learned, and what we expect to be the final product of this QFD exercise.

  3. Lithium isotope separation on an ion exchange resin having azacrown ether as an anchor group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Kim; Ch. P. Hong; Ch. S. Kim; Y. K. Jeong; Y. Sh. Jeon; J. K. Lee

    1997-01-01

    A study on the separation of lithium isotopes was carried out with an ion exchange resin having 1,7,13-trioxa-4,10,16-triazacyclooctadecane (N3O3) as an anchor group. The lighter isotope,6Li concentrated in the resin phase, while the heavier isotope,7Li is enriched in the fluid phase. Upon column chromatography [0.6 cm (I. D.)×20 cm (height)] using 1.0M ammonium chloride solution as an eluent, single separation

  4. Effect of cannabinoids on lithium-induced vomiting in the Suncus murinus (house musk shrew)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda A. Parker; Magdalena Kwiatkowska; Page Burton; Raphael Mechoulam

    2004-01-01

    RationaleMarijuana has been reported to interfere with nausea and vomiting in chemotherapy patients. The principal cannabinoids found in marijuana include the psychoactive compound ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the non-psychoactive compound cannabidiol (CBD). The experiments reported here evaluated the potential of THC and CBD to interfere with vomiting in the Suncus murinus (house musk shrew) produced by lithium chloride (LiCl), which is

  5. Contamination of lithium heparin blood by K2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA): an experimental evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Brocco, Giorgio; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The contamination of serum or lithium heparin blood with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) salts may affect accuracy of some critical analytes and jeopardize patient safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lithium heparin sample contamination with different amounts of K2EDTA. Materials and methods: Fifteen volunteers were enrolled among the laboratory staff. Two lithium heparin tubes and one K2EDTA tube were collected from each subject. The lithium-heparin tubes of each subject were pooled and divided in 5 aliquots. The whole blood of K2EDTA tube was then added in scalar amount to autologous heparinised aliquots, to obtained different degrees of K2EDTA blood volume contamination (0%; 5%; 13%; 29%; 43%). The following clinical chemistry parameters were then measured in centrifuged aliquots: alanine aminotranspherase (ALT), bilirubin (total), calcium, chloride, creatinine, iron, lactate dehydrogenase (LD), lipase, magnesium, phosphate, potassium, sodium. Results: A significant variation starting from 5% K2EDTA contamination was observed for calcium, chloride, iron, LD, magnesium (all decreased) and potassium (increased). The variation of phosphate and sodium (both increased) was significant after 13% and 29% K2EDTA contamination, respectively. The values of ALT, bilirubin, creatinine and lipase remained unchanged up to 43% K2EDTA contamination. When variations were compared with desirable quality specifications, the bias was significant for calcium, chloride, LD, magnesium and potassium (from 5% K2EDTA contamination), sodium, phosphate and iron (from 29% K2EDTA contamination). Conclusions: The concentration of calcium, magnesium, potassium, chloride and LD appears to be dramatically biased by even modest K2EDTA contamination (i.e., 5%). The values of iron, phosphate, and sodium are still reliable up to 29% K2EDTA contamination, whereas ALT, bilirubin, creatinine and lipase appear overall less vulnerable towards K2EDTA contamination. PMID:25351354

  6. Will advanced lithium-alloy anodes have a chance in lithium-ion batteries?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O. Besenhard; J. Yang; M. Winter

    1997-01-01

    The high packing density of lithium is a significant advantage of lithium insertion into metallic matrices that can be achieved in lithium alloys compared with lithium intercalation into carbonaceous materials. Moreover, the operating voltage of lithium-alloy anodes may be chosen well-above the potential of metallic lithium and the solvent co-intercalation has not been observed at lithium-alloy electrodes. On the other

  7. Advanced calcium-thionyl chloride high-power battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peled, Emanuel

    1989-07-01

    Recently, a breakthrough was made in the development of two advanced Ca-TC systems which have much better electric storage properties than the state-of-the-art Ca-SOC cell. This was done by replacing the CaX2 (X=AlCl4) electrolyte by SrX2 (type A), or BaX2 (type B). The project's goals are to gain a better understanding of the electrochemistry of the advanced systems and to establish their safety and performance. In this phase, the cell performance was improved significantly. An improved C-size A7 type cell delivers 4.4 Ah at 0.9 A rate and room temperature which is 50 percent more than similar size commercial lithium cells have. The SAFT LSH14 lithium-thionyl chloride and the Duracell L028SH lithium-SO2 cells have at this rate only 2.9 and 2.7 Ah respectively. During one year of storage at room temperature the heat generation rate of 150 sq cm C-size A7 type cells decreased to a level of 60 to 70 microwatts. A cell lost 0.3 Ah after this storage period. The effect of several parameters on the corrosion rate of calcium in TC solutions was studied. Preliminary results indicate: SO2 decreases corrosion, there is no stress corrosion due to twisting of Ca foils, the native oxide layer helps in preventing corrosion, Ca foils as received contain only about 90 percent metallic calcium. The role native calcium oxide layer plays depends on the type of electrolyte used.

  8. Effects of low chloride intake on performance, clinical characteristics, and chloride, sodium, potassium, and nitrogen metabolism in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Burkhalter, D L; Neathery, M W; Miller, W J; Whitlock, R H; Allen, J C

    1979-12-01

    Young male Holstein calves were fed either a control (.5% chloride) or a low-chloride (.038% chloride) practical diet for 7 wk. Both groups received low-chloride (.00038% chloride) well water. Feeding the low-chloride diet did not produce definite clinical symptoms of chloride deficiency. Neither body weight gains, feed intake, feed digestibility, nor body retention of chloride, sodium, potassium, or nitrogen were effected adversely. Although the chloride intake of the low-chloride calves was only one-sixteenth that of controls, body chloride retention was similar for the two groups. The similar retention of body chloride was due to effective homeostatic mechanisms in which urinary chloride excretion was reduced by 95% in the low-chloride calves. Low-chloride calves consumed more water and excreted more urine than control calves. Although the exact minimum chloride requirement for growth in calves was not established, .038% chloride was adequate for normal growth for the 7 wk. PMID:541461

  9. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures...Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then reacted with...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures...Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then reacted with...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures...Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then reacted with...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures...Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then reacted with...

  13. Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Chloride Sweat Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test Print A A A ...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in...

  17. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in...

  20. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in...

  1. CHEMILUMINESCENT MONITOR FOR VINYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A monitor for vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) in ambient air was constructed using commercially available components of a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a chemiluminescence ozone analyzer slightly modified to make it suitable for use as a GC detector. The specificity for VCM is...

  2. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 by lithium correlates with reduced tauopathy and degeneration in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Wendy; Planel, Emmanuel; Zehr, Cindy; Olm, Vicki; Meyerson, Jordana; Suleman, Farhana; Gaynor, Kate; Wang, Lili; LaFrancois, John; Feinstein, Boris; Burns, Mark; Krishnamurthy, Pavan; Wen, Yi; Bhat, Ratan; Lewis, Jada; Dickson, Dennis; Duff, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated, aggregated tau are a common pathological feature of tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease. Abnormal phosphorylation of tau by kinases or phosphatases has been proposed as a pathogenic mechanism in tangle formation. To investigate whether kinase inhibition can reduce tauopathy and the degeneration associated with it in vivo, transgenic mice overexpressing mutant human tau were treated with the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitor lithium chloride. Treatment resulted in significant inhibition of GSK-3 activity. Lithium administration also resulted in significantly lower levels of phosphorylation at several epitopes of tau known to be hyperphosphorylated in Alzheimer's disease and significantly reduced levels of aggregated, insoluble tau. Administration of a second GSK-3 inhibitor also correlated with reduced insoluble tau levels, supporting the idea that lithium exerts its effect through GSK-3 inhibition. Levels of aggregated tau correlated strongly with degree of axonal degeneration, and lithium-chloride-treated mice showed less degeneration if administration was started during early stages of tangle development. These results support the idea that kinases are involved in tauopathy progression and that kinase inhibitors may be effective therapeutically. PMID:15867159

  3. Rechargeable lithium battery anodes: alternatives to metallic lithium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Fauteux; R. Koksbang

    1993-01-01

    This review is concerned with alternatives to metallic lithium for use in rechargeable lithium batteries. Emphasis is placed on the use of various materials and combinations of materials in different types of electrodes rather than on the properties of the materials themselves. The review includes carbon based electrodes, alloys, conducting polymers and transition metal compounds. Special consideration is given to

  4. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M. (Stanford, CA); Muller, Jochen A. (Baltimore, MD); Rosner, Bettina M. (Berlin, DE); Von Abendroth, Gregory (Nannhein, DE); Meshulam-Simon, Galit (Los Altos, CA); McCarty, Perry L (Stanford, CA)

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  5. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  6. Developing chloride resisting concrete using PFA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Dhir; M. A. K. El-Mohr; T. D. Dyer

    1997-01-01

    PFA concrete mixes were designed to optimise resistance to chloride ingress. Chloride binding capacity, intrinsic permeability and their concomitant influence on the coefficient of chloride diffusion have been investigated. PFA replacements up to 67% and exposure concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mole\\/litre were used. Chloride binding capacity was found to increase with increasing PFA replacement up to 50%

  7. Radiation Damage Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    The availability of data regarding the radiation behavior of GaAs and silicon solar cells is discussed as well as efforts to provide sufficient information. Other materials are considered too immature for reasonable radiation evaluation. The lack of concern over the possible catastrophic radiation degradation in cascade cells is a potentially serious problem. Lithium counterdoping shows potential for removing damage in irradiated P-type material, although initial efficiencies are not comparable to current state of the art. The possibility of refining the lithium doping method to maintain high initial efficiencies and combining it with radiation tolerant structures such as thin BSF cells or vertical junction cells could provide a substantial improvement in EOL efficiencies. Laser annealing of junctions, either those formed ion implantation or diffusion, may not only improve initial cell performance but might also reduce the radiation degradation rate.

  8. Electrochemical chloride removal from concrete prisms containing chloride penetrated from sea water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rob B. Polder

    1996-01-01

    Electrochemical chloride removal tests were carried out in the laboratory of reinforced concrete prisms containing chloride due to 16 years' submersion in the North Sea. After 39 days of treatment using current densities of about 1 and 4 Am2 steel surface, about 40% to 70% of the initial chloride was removed from the concrete on average. The chloride contents close

  9. Analysis of the isotope effect in the hydrogen exchange reaction between pyridinium chloride and hydrogen chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Szydlowski; M. Zielinski

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope exchange between pyridinium chloride and gaseous hydrogen chloride has been studied both experimentally and theoretically over the temperature range of 273 to 353 K. The experimental fractionation factor obtained shows some dependence on the composition of the substrates. This phenomenon can be accounted for by specific interactions in pyridinium chloride + hydrogen chloride system. The calculated fractionation factor

  10. Lithium Research Status and PlansLithium Research Status and Plans Charles H. Skinner, PPPL

    E-print Network

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Lithium Research Status and PlansLithium Research Status and Plans Charles H. Skinner, PPPL Robert February 3-5, 2010 #12;NSTX PAC-27 ­ Lithium Research Status and Plans 2/15February 3-5, 2010 NSTX lithium research is an integral part of a program to develop lithium as a PFC concept for magnetic fusion NSTX w

  11. High-Capacity Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal control systems for space suits and spacecraft will need to meet critical requirements for water conservation and adaptability to highly variable thermal environments. This paper describes a Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) that has been designed to meet performance requirements for future life support systems. A SEAR system comprises a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR) for heat rejection coupled with a space water membrane evaporator (SWME) for heat acquisition. SEAR systems provide heat pumping to minimize radiator size, thermal storage to accommodate variable environmental conditions, and water absorption to minimize use of expendables. We have built and tested a flightlike, high-capacity LCAR, demonstrated its performance in thermal vacuum tests, and explored the feasibility of an ISS demonstration test of a SEAR system. The new LCAR design provides the same cooling capability as prior LCAR prototypes while enabling over 30% more heat absorbing capacity. Studies show that it should be feasible to demonstrate SEAR operation in flight by coupling with an existing EMU on the space station.

  12. High-Capacity Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal control systems for space suits and spacecraft will need to meet critical requirements for water conservation and multifunctional operation. This paper describes a Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) that has been designed to meet performance requirements for future life support systems. A SEAR system comprises a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR) for heat rejection coupled with a space water membrane evaporator (SWME) for heat acquisition. SEAR systems provide heat pumping to minimize radiator size, thermal storage to accommodate variable environmental conditions, and water absorption to minimize use of expendables. We have built and tested a flight-like, high-capacity LCAR, demonstrated its performance in thermal vacuum tests, and explored the feasibility of an ISS demonstration test of a SEAR system. The new LCAR design provides the same cooling capability as prior LCAR prototypes while enabling over 30% more heat absorbing capacity. Studies show that it should be feasible to demonstrate SEAR operation in flight by coupling with an existing EMU on the space station.

  13. High-temperature oxidation and corrosion of structural materials in molten chlorides.

    SciTech Connect

    Indacochea, J. E.; Smith, J. L.; Litko, K. R.; Karell, E. J.; Raraz, A. G.; Chemical Engineering

    2001-02-01

    A molten salt-based process for treatment of spent oxide fuels is under development at the Argonne National Laboratory. A major part of the development effort involves identification of corrosion-resistant structural materials for the process vessels. Coupons of two stainless steels, tantalum, and two Inconel alloys were submitted to a corrosion test in an argon atmosphere with 10% oxygen. The coupons were partially immersed in molten lithium chloride salt containing small amounts of lithium metal, lithium oxide, and lithium nitride. Two sets of coupons were tested, the first at 750{sup o}C for 30 days and the second at 650{sup o}C for 6 days. Coupons of the first set corroded completely. In the second set of coupons, all corroded to some extent, but Inconel 600 showed the best performance overall. The salt-exposed region generally showed the greatest corrosion in the other coupons. One of the 316L SS coupons was welded and the weld area was severely attacked.

  14. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  15. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  16. Worker exposure to vinyl chloride and poly(vinyl chloride).

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J H

    1981-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in early 1974 began industrial hygiene studies of vinyl chloride exposed workers. Three VC monomer plants, three VC polymerization plants, and seven PVC fabrication plants were surveyed. V polymerization plant workers and workers in one job category in VC monomer plants were exposed to average levels above 1 ppm. The highest average exposure was 22 ppm. NIOSH health hazard evaluation studies since these initial surveys have primarily shown nondetectable levels of vinyl chloride. A NIOSH control technology study in 1977 showed that exposure levels in VC polymerization plants had been drastically reduced but exposure levels above 1 ppm were still found in several cases. PMID:7333231

  17. An XAFS Study of Tantalum Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride/ aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Tantalum chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs). Anhydrous Ta2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic solution than in the acidic solution and the X-ray absorption data shows that the coordination shell of chlorides around the tantalum is larger in the basic solution. In the acidic solution, tantalum has five chlorides in its coordination shell while in the basic solution; the tantalum is coordinated by seven chlorides. This indicates that the Lewis acidity of the tantalum chloride causes the Ta to coordinate differently in the acidic and the basic solutions.

  18. Improved Carbon Anodes For Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo; Surampudi, Subbarao; Attia, Alan; Halpert, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Carbon anodes for rechargeable lithium cells improved by choosing binder contents and fabrication conditions to achieve maximum porosity, uniform loading, and maximum reversible lithium capacity. Stacking electrodes under pressure during assembly of cells increases cyclability of lithium. Rechargeable, high-energy-density lithium cells containing improved carbon anodes find use in spacecraft, military, communications, automotive, and other demanding applications.

  19. Factors influencing electrochemical removal of chloride from concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. W. Vassie

    1996-01-01

    Electrochemical chloride removal was studied using prisms made from concrete containing various levels of chlorides derived from sodium chloride added during mixing. The amount of chloride removed during the treatment was assessed by analysing the anolyte. Chloride removal increased with increasing applied potential, number of reinforcing bars at a particular depth and initial chloride content of the concrete. A greater

  20. Effects of Low Chloride Intake on Performance, Clinical Characteristics, and Chloride, Sodium, Potassium, and Nitrogen Metabolism in Dairy Calves1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Burkhalter; M. W. Neathery; W. J. Miller; R. H. Whitlock; J. C. Allen

    1979-01-01

    Young male Holstein calves were fed either a control (.5% chloride) or a low-chloride (.038% chloride) practical diet for 7 wk. Both groups received low-chloride (.00038% chloride) well water. Feeding the low-chloride diet did not produce definite clinical symptoms of chloride deficiency. Neither body weight gains, feed intake, feed digestibility, nor body retention of chloride, sodium, potassium, or nitrogen were

  1. Developing chloride resisting concrete using PFA

    SciTech Connect

    Dhir, R.K.; El-Mohr, M.A.K.; Dyer, T.D. [Univ. of Dundee (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering] [Univ. of Dundee (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-11-01

    PFA concrete mixes were designed to optimize resistance to chloride ingress. Chloride binding capacity, intrinsic permeability and their concomitant influence on the coefficient of chloride diffusion have been investigated. PFA replacements up to 67% and exposure concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mole/liter were used. Chloride binding capacity was found to increase with increasing PFA replacement up to 50% and to then decline. It increased with chloride exposure concentration as well as water/binder ratio. The coefficient of chloride diffusion of concrete samples was found to be dependent on both the intrinsic permeability of the concrete and the ability of its cement matrix to bind chlorides.

  2. Lithium-selective phosphine oxide-based ditopic receptors show enhanced halide binding upon alkali metal ion coordination†

    PubMed Central

    Gavette, Jesse V.; Lara, Juven; Reling, Linda L.; Haley, Michael M.; Johnson, Darren W.

    2012-01-01

    Previous work on a ditopic receptor based on a tripodal phosphine oxide core demonstrated preferential enhancement of bromide binding over chloride or iodide in the presence of lithium cation. Current studies on an elongated receptor provide evidence that preferential bromide binding enhancement in the presence of lithium cation is common to this receptor class in general, and that lengthening of the receptor results in an overall increase in halide association. Furthermore, the extended receptor shows a strong preference for Li+ binding in solution. PMID:23505609

  3. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, Charles H. (Clearwater, FL); Graham, Robert A. (Los Lunas, NM); Kuehn, Stephen F. (Albuquerque, NM); Precit, Richard R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rogers, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

  4. Lithium electric dipole polarizability

    SciTech Connect

    Puchalski, M.; KePdziera, D.; Pachucki, K. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, PL-60-780 Poznan (Poland); Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 7, PL-87-100 Torun (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-11-15

    The electric dipole polarizability of the lithium atom in the ground state is calculated including relativistic and quantum electrodynamics corrections. The obtained result {alpha}{sub E}=164.0740(5) a.u. is in good agreement with the less accurate experimental value of 164.19(1.08) a.u. The small uncertainty of about 3 parts per 10{sup 6} comes from the approximate treatment of quantum electrodynamics corrections. Our theoretical result can be considered as a benchmark for more general atomic structure methods and may serve as a reference value for the relative measurement of polarizabilities of the other alkali-metal atoms.

  5. Electromagnetically Restrained Lithium Blanket APEX Interim Report November, 1999

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    to avoid corrosion or fire. Lithium's high electrical conductivity may possibly permit efficient, compactElectromagnetically Restrained Lithium Blanket APEX Interim Report November, 1999 6-1 CHAPTER 6: ELECTROMAGNETICALLY RESTRAINED LITHIUM BLANKET Contributors Robert Woolley #12;Electromagnetically Restrained Lithium

  6. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tulsa, OK)

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  7. Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kepler, Keith D. (Mountain View, CA); Vaughey, John T. (Elmhurst, IL)

    2003-01-01

    A negative electrode (12) for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell (10) with an intermetallic host structure containing two or more elements selected from the metal elements and silicon, capable of accommodating lithium within its crystallographic host structure such that when the host structure is lithiated it transforms to a lithiated zinc-blende-type structure. Both active elements (alloying with lithium) and inactive elements (non-alloying with lithium) are disclosed. Electrochemical cells and batteries as well as methods of making the negative electrode are disclosed.

  8. A Lithium Superionic Sulfide Cathode for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Zengcai [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a facile synthesis approach for core-shell structured Li2S nanoparticles, which have Li2S as the core and Li3PS4 as the shell. This material functions as lithium superionic sulfide (LSS) cathode for long-lasting, energy-efficient lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The LSS has an ionic conductivity of 10-7 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 6 orders of magnitude higher than that of bulk Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high lithium-ion conductivity of LSS imparts an excellent cycling performance to all-solid Li-S batteries, which also promises safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

  9. Lithium isotope effect accompanying electrochemical insertion of lithium into gallium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keita Zenzai; Satoshi Yanase; Yong-Hong Zhang; Takao Oi

    2008-01-01

    Lithium has been electrochemically inserted from a 1:2 (v\\/v) mixed solution of ethylene carbonate (EC) and methylethyl carbonate (MEC) containing 1M LiClO4 or from dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) containing 1M LiCl into gallium, and the lithium isotope fractionation accompanying the insertion has been observed. The lighter isotope was preferentially fractionated into gallium, which was in accordance with the theory of the

  10. Lithium reduced neural progenitor apoptosis in the hippocampus and ameliorated functional deficits after irradiation to the immature mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Huo, Kaiming; Sun, Yanyan; Li, Hongfu; Du, Xiaonan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Karlsson, Niklas; Zhu, Changlian; Blomgren, Klas

    2012-08-01

    Lithium was recently shown to inhibit apoptosis and promote survival of neural progenitor cells after hypoxia-ischemia in the immature rat brain. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of lithium on cell death and proliferation in the hippocampus after irradiation (IR) to the immature brain. Male mice were injected with 2 mmol/kg lithium chloride i.p. on postnatal day 9 (P9) and additional lithium injections, 1 mmol/kg, were administered at 24 h intervals for up to 7 days. BrdU was injected 4 h after lithium injections on P9 and P10. The left hemisphere received a single dose of 8 Gy (MV photons) on P11. The animals were euthanized 6 h or 7 weeks after IR. The number of BrdU-labeled cells in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the granule cell layer (GCL) 6h after IR was 24% higher in the lithium-treated mice. The number of proliferating, phospho-histone H3-positive cells in the SGZ 7 weeks after IR was 59% higher in the lithium group, so the effect was long-lasting. The number of apoptotic cells in the SGZ 6 h after IR was lower in the lithium group, as judged by 3 different parameters, pyknosis, staining for active caspase-3 and TUNEL. Newly formed cells (BrdU-labeled 1 or 2 days before IR) showed the greatest degree of protection, as judged by 50% fewer TUNEL-positive cells, whereas non-BrdU-labeled cells showed 38% fewer TUNEL-positive cells 6 h after IR. Consequently, the growth retardation of the GCL was less pronounced in the lithium group. The number and size of microglia in the DG were also lower in the lithium group, indicating reduced inflammation. Learning was facilitated after lithium treatment, as judged by improved context-dependent fear conditioning, and improved place learning, as judged by assessment in the IntelliCage platform. In summary, lithium administration could decrease IR-induced neural progenitor cell apoptosis in the GCL of the hippocampus and ameliorate learning impairments. It remains to be shown if lithium can be used to prevent the debilitating cognitive late effects seen in children treated with cranial radiotherapy. PMID:22800605

  11. An XAFS Study of Niobium chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Niobium chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Although anhydrous Nb2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic melt than in the acidic melt, the EXAFS data shows that the coordination shell around the niobium does not change in the different ionic liquids. Both the acidic and basic melts show a coordination of five chlorides in the first shell. This indicates that in this series of ionic liquids, the Nb2Cl10 breaks up into two NbCl5 entities in both the acidic and the basic melts.

  12. Method for manufacturing nuclear radiation detector with deep diffused junction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hall

    1977-01-01

    Germanium radiation detectors are manufactured by diffusing lithium into high purity p-type germanium. The diffusion is most readily accomplished from a lithium-lead-bismuth alloy at approximately 430°C and is monitored by a quartz half cell containing a standard composition of this alloy. Detectors having n-type cores may be constructed by converting high purity p-type germanium to n-type by a lithium diffusion

  13. Decomposition of lithium amide and imide films on nickel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakob Engbæk; Gunver Nielsen; Jane H. Nielsen; Ib Chorkendorff

    2007-01-01

    Thin films of lithium hydride, lithium amide and lithium imide were grown from lithium and ammonia under controlled conditions in an ultra high vacuum chamber. By making thin films instead of bulk or powder samples, it was possible to study the stability and the release of hydrogen without influence of transport phenomena. Surprisingly, lithium amide and lithium imide were seen

  14. Metal chloride cathode for a battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Bankston, C. Perry (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method of fabricating a rechargeable battery is disclosed which includes a positive electrode which contains a chloride of a selected metal when the electrode is in its active state. The improvement comprises fabricating the positive electrode by: providing a porous matrix composed of a metal; providing a solution of the chloride of the selected metal; and impregnating the matrix with the chloride from the solution.

  15. Indium-111 chloride imaging with ununited fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Sayle, B.A.; Fawcett, H.D.; Yudt, W.M.; Wang, S.C.; Mader, J.T.; Cierny, G. 3d.

    1987-03-01

    Twenty patients with ununited fractures and a suspicion of infection had In-111 chloride imaging. Surgically obtained cultures were positive for infection in 12 and negative in eight patients. In-111 chloride images were positive in all 12 patients with infection but also were positive in six of the patients with negative cultures. It is not possible to differentiate infected from noninfected ununited fractures by In-111 chloride imaging.

  16. Molecular Structure of Sodium chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-15

    Sodium chloride, or simply (table) salt, is found in the mineral Halite (rock salt) but also in seawater, sweat, etc. It is used in industry and in our everyday life, for seasoning and perserving food or for winter road maintenance. Seawater contains a lot of salt, on average of 2.6% NaCl, or 26 million metric tons per cubic kilometer. In rock salt the NaCl content typically ranges between 95% and 99% NaCl, and mechanically evaporated salt and solar salt normally exceed 99% NaCl.

  17. Chloride Transporting CLC Proteins1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusch, Michael

    In the early 1980s, Chris Miller and colleagues described a curious "double-barreled" chloride channel from the electric organ of Torpedo fish reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers (Miller and White, 1980). Single-channel openings occurred in "bursts" separated by long closures. A single burst was characterized by the presence of two open conductance levels of equal size and the gating (i.e., openings and closings) during a burst could be almost perfectly described as a superposition of two identical and independent conductances that switched between open and closed states with voltage-dependent rates ? and ? (Hanke and Miller, 1983) (Fig. 8.1).

  18. Secondary lithium batteries for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, B.; Khanna, S. K.; Yen, S. P. S.; Shen, D.; Somoano, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    Secondary lithium cells which use a LiAsF6-2-Me-THF electrolyte and a TiS2 intercalatable cathode exhibit encouraging cycle life at ambient temperature. Electrochemical and surface analytical studies indicate that the electrolyte is unstable in the presence of metallic lithium, leading to the formation of a lithium passivating film composed of lithium arsenic oxyfluorides and lithium fluorsilicates. The lithium cyclability remains as the most important problem to solve. Different electrolyte solvents, such as sulfolane, exhibit promising characteristics but lead to new compatibility problems with the other cell component materials.

  19. Lithium alloy anode for thermal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cupp, E.B.; Cottingham, D.R.

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes as an article of manufacture, an anode wafer for a thermal cell, the anode wafer comprising particles of a lithium anode alloy bonded with particles of a metal binder, the lithium anode alloy being of the class consisting of lithium-aluminum alloys; lithium-silicon alloys; and lithium-boron alloys, the metal binder being of the class consisting of unalloyed iron, copper, nickel, manganese; and mixtures thereof, and wherein substantially all the metal binder in the wafer remains present as a discrete phase, unalloyed with the lithium alloy.

  20. Dendrite preventing separator for secondary lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David H. (inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (inventor); Halpert, Gerald (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Dendrites are prevented from shorting a secondary lithium battery by use of a first porous separator, such as porous polypropylene, adjacent to the lithium anode that is unreactive with lithium and a second porous fluoropolymer separator between the cathode and the first separator, such as polytetrafluoroethylene, that is reactive with lithium. As the tip of a lithium dendrite contacts the second separator, an exothermic reaction occurs locally between the lithium dendrite and the fluoropolymer separator. This results in the prevention of the dendrite propagation to the cathode.

  1. Dendrite preventing separator for secondary lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David H. (inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (inventor); Halpert, Gerald (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Dendrites are prevented from shorting a secondary lithium battery by use of a first porous separator such as porous polypropylene adjacent the lithium anode that is unreactive with lithium and a second porous fluoropolymer separator between the cathode and the first separator such as polytetrafluoroethylene that is reactive with lithium. As the tip of a lithium dendrite contacts the second separator, an exothermic reaction occurs locally between the lithium dendrite and the fluoropolymer separator. This results in the prevention of the dendrite propagation to the cathode.

  2. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall...joints are not permitted for pipe diameters exceeding 2 inches. Brazed joints are prohibited. (c) Each cargo tank shall be...

  3. Lithium isotope separation by laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Arisawa; Y. Maruyama; Y. Suzuki; K. Shiba

    1982-01-01

    A lithium isotope separation was performed using a laser isotope separation method. It was found that the lithium atoms with a natural isotopic abundance enhanced its6Li concentration up to over 90% by tuning the laser wavelength to the2P1\\/2 of6Li. Too high power, however, leads to a loss of enrichment due to the power broadening effect which was analysed by the

  4. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, O.M.; Hansen, P.F.; Coats, A.M.; Glasser, F.P.

    1999-09-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature). The measurements are modelled on Fick's law modified by a term for chloride binding. Inclusion of chloride binding significantly improves the profile shape of the modelled ingress profiles. The presence of fine aggregate and formation of interfacial transition zones at paste-aggregate boundaries does not significantly affect diffusion rates.

  5. Potentiometric titration of chloride in plant tissue extracts using the chloride ion electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. LaCroix; D. R. Keeney; L. M. Walsh

    1970-01-01

    Use of the chloride specific ion electrode to determine chloride in plants was evaluted. Direct potentiometric determination of chloride by the electrode resulted in unreproducible and extremely high chloride values. However, use of this electrode to indicate the end point in titration of the tissue?extract mixture with AgNO3 gave results nearly identical to those obtained by the Mohr procedure. The

  6. Chloride Analysis of RFSA Second Campaign Dissolver Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, H.P.

    2001-05-17

    The dissolver solution from the second RFSA campaign was analyzed for chloride using the recently-developed turbidimetric method. Prior to chloride removal in head end, the solution contained 1625 ppm chloride. After chloride removal with Hg(I) and prior to feeding to solvent extraction, the solution contained only 75 ppm chloride. This report discusses those analysis results.

  7. Chemistry of Metal Chloride Complexes in Aprotic Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. K. Felker; A. D. Kelmers

    1983-01-01

    A study of metal chloride solubility in aprotic solvents has been initiated. These solvent systems have very low hydrogen ion activities and thus allow chloride ion activities which are much higher than those attainable in water. The high chloride ion activities can be generated by the dissolution of soluble salts, such as calcium chloride or sodium chloride, in the aprotic

  8. Numerical Modeling of Electrochemical Chloride Removal from Concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q Sa’id-Shawqi; C Arya; P. R Vassie

    1998-01-01

    A numerical model of electrochemical chloride removal from concrete (desalination) based on the Nernst-Planck and the Laplace equations is proposed. The model relies on experimentally derived chloride transport number profiles. It is shown that the model can make realistic predictions of both the chloride removed and the chloride remaining in concrete made with admixed sodium chloride.

  9. Enrofloxacin hydro­chloride dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Calderón, Jorge E.; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Sumano, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H23FN3O3 +·Cl?·2H2O [systematic name: 4-(3-carb­oxy-1-cyclo­propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-di­hydro­quin­o­lin-7-yl)-1-ethyl­piperazin-1-ium chloride dihydrate], consists of two independent monocations of the protonated enrofloxacin, two chloride anions and four water mol­ecules. In the cations, the piperazinium rings adopt chair conformations and the dihedral angles between the cyclo­propyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring system are 56.55?(2) and 51.11?(2)°. An intra­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bond is observed in each cation. In the crystal, the components are connected via O—H?Cl, N—H?Cl and O—H?O hydrogen bonds, and a ?–? inter­action between the benzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.6726?(13)?Å], resulting in a three-dimensional array. PMID:24826167

  10. Chloride Deficiency in Holstein Calves from a Low Chloride Diet and Removal of Abomasal Contents1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Neathery; D. M. Blackmon; W. J. Miller; Shelia Heinmiller; Susan McGuire; J. M. Tarabula; R. P. Gentry; J. C. Allen

    1981-01-01

    Chloride deficiency signs were pro- duced in young Holstein calves by a low chloride diet (.063% chlorine) and daily removal of chloride in abomasal contents. General clinical signs included anorexia, weight loss, lethargy, mild polydipsia, and mild polyuria. In latter stages of the deficiency, severe eye defects (scleral injection, sunken eyes, scaliness around eyes) and reduced respiration rate became evident.

  11. Real-time observation of lithium fibers growth inside a nanoscale lithium-ion battery

    E-print Network

    Endres. William J.

    .1063/1.3643035] Lithium-ion batteries are of great interest due to their high energy density, however, various safetyReal-time observation of lithium fibers growth inside a nanoscale lithium-ion battery Hessam properties, many applications are pos- sible.10,11 One is the electrolyte of the lithium-ion batteries, where

  12. Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

  13. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium wallsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G.; Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K.; Kubota, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Widmann, K.; Tritz, K.

    2015-05-01

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started.

  14. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-print Network

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    advantage of solid polymer electrolytes in these cells isSolid Electrolyte and Its Application to Secondary Lithium Cell,"cell sandwich ci consisting of lithium foil negative electrode, solid electrolyte,

  15. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-print Network

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    MODELING OF LITHIUM DEPOSITION Figure 6.15: Time to deposition as electrode is either extended or thickened, for separatorMODELING OF LITHIUM DEPOSITION Because electrolyte concentration does not vary, ? eff is a constant, adjusted for the separator

  16. Michael Thackery on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema

    Michael Thackery

    2010-01-08

    Michael Thackery, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Astrophysics: A lithium-rich stellar explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernanz, Margarita

    2015-02-01

    The contribution of explosions known as novae to the lithium content of the Milky Way is uncertain. Radioactive beryllium, which transforms into lithium, has been detected for the first time in one such explosion. See Letter p.381

  18. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema

    Khalil Amine

    2010-01-08

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Preventing lithium intoxication. Guide for physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Delva, N. J.; Hawken, E. R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To raise awareness of risk factors for, and symptoms of, lithium intoxication. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The literature was searched via MEDLINE from January 1970 to December 1999 using the MeSH headings Lithium, Lithium Carbonate, Drug Toxicity, and Aging. Articles were selected based on clinical relevance and design. Most were case reports, case series, or reviews. MAIN MESSAGE: A case study illustrates both risk factors predisposing patients to lithium intoxication and the symptoms of lithium intoxication. Lithium intoxication can be avoided by conservative dosing, care in combining drug therapies, regular clinical observation, monitoring drug plasma concentrations, and educating patients and caregivers to recognize early signs of intoxication. CONCLUSION: Knowing about lithium intoxication and how to avoid it is most important for family physicians who regularly treat patients receiving lithium. PMID:11561336

  20. Hydrocracking with molten zinc chloride catalyst containing 2-12% ferrous chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA); Bagshaw, Gary H. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. by contacting the feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten zinc chloride catalyst and thereafter separating at least a major portion of the hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten zinc chloride catalyst, an improvement comprising: adjusting the FeCl.sub.2 content of the molten zinc chloride to from about 2 to about 12 mol percent based on the mixture of ferrous chloride and molten zinc chloride.

  1. Carbonation and electrochemical chloride extraction from concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Ihekwaba; B. B. Hope; C. M. Hansson

    1996-01-01

    Chloride ingress into steel reinforced concrete (r.c.), and the subsequent application of electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) are shown to be considerably retarded by the presence of a carbonation front. Four concrete blocks each reinforced with two layers of steel mats in two different configurations were electrochemically treated. One block of each type was initially carbonated to a depth of about

  2. Influence of microwave heating on fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulfate concentrations in water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Costa Figueiredo; Jailson Cardoso Dias; Lauro Tatsuo Kubota; Mauro Korn; Pedro Vitoriano Oliveira; Marco Aurélio Zezzi Arruda

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a study about the influence of microwave radiation using closed vessels on fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulfate concentrations in aqueous media. The experiments were processed by heating water using PFA vessels and a microwave cavity oven, determining the anions by ion chromatography. The influence of the exposure time, the atmospheric composition, the kind of heating (water bath

  3. Lithium toxicity and PRES: a novel association.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Ryan T; Fitzgerald, Caris T; Samant, Rohan S; Kumar, Manoj; Ramakrishniah, Raghu; Van Hemert, Rudy; Angtuaco, Edgardo J

    2015-01-01

    We report two cases of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) occurring in association with supra-therapeutic serum lithium levels. Although the neurologic manifestations of lithium toxicity are well known, this is, to our knowledge, the first report describing a link between lithium toxicity and PRES. We discuss the current understanding of the pathogenesis of PRES and suggest mechanisms by which lithium may play a role in its development. PMID:24571251

  4. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...114 and 120) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...

  5. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination... The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination...7.0-8.0; total amines, maximum 1 percent...

  6. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination... The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination...7.0-8.0; total amines, maximum 1 percent...

  7. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination... The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination...7.0-8.0; total amines, maximum 1 percent...

  8. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination... The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination...7.0-8.0; total amines, maximum 1 percent...

  9. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination... The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination...7.0-8.0; total amines, maximum 1 percent...

  10. Factors influencing electrochemical removal of chloride from concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Arya, C.; Sa`id-Shawqi, Q. [South Bank Univ., London (United Kingdom). Div. of Civil Engineering] [South Bank Univ., London (United Kingdom). Div. of Civil Engineering; Vassie, P.R.W. [Transport Research Lab., Crowthorne (United Kingdom)] [Transport Research Lab., Crowthorne (United Kingdom)

    1996-06-01

    Electrochemical chloride removal was studied using prisms made from concrete containing various levels of chlorides derived from sodium chloride added during mixing. The amount of chloride removed during the treatment was assessed by analyzing the anolyte. Chloride removal increased with increasing applied potential, number of reinforcing bars at a particular depth and initial chloride content of the concrete. A greater percentage of chloride was removed from prisms where the thickness of the chloride bearing layer of concrete was less than the depth of cover to the reinforcement. Where the thickness of the chloride bearing layer exceeded the cover to the reinforcement, the use of an external cathode significantly increased the total amount of chloride removed. Chloride removal from a face remote from the source of the chloride contamination (soffit desalination) was shown to be feasible.

  11. Diffusion behavior of chloride ions in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, T.; Gjoerv, O.E. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Div. of Building Materials] [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Div. of Building Materials

    1996-06-01

    In the present paper, an analysis of the diffusion behavior of chloride ions in concrete is presented. In concentrated electrolytic aqueous solutions such as seawater or that typically used in laboratory experiments, the effect of ionic interaction may significantly reduce the chemical potential and thus the driving force of the diffusing species. Because of different drift velocities of the cations and chloride ions in the solution, the lagging motion of the cations will also retard the drift velocity of the chlorides. In addition, both the electrical double layer forming on the solid surface and the chemical binding may significantly interfere with the transport of the chloride ions. As a result, the diffusion behavior of the chloride ions in concrete is a more complex and complicated transport process than what can be described by Fick`s law of diffusion.

  12. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-01-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  13. Secondary lithium cells for space applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Surampudi; D. H. Shen; C.-K. Huang; S. R. Narayanan; A. Attia; G. Halpert

    1992-01-01

    It is concluded that secondary lithium batteries are suitable for planetary missions requiring high specific energy, long active shelf life, and limited cycle life. Titanium disulfide cathode material meet all the requirements for rechargeable lithium cell, including high intrinsic reversibility and realizable specific energy. Secondary lithium technology is still evolving, although low capacity cells have been demonstrated and greater than

  14. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  15. Organometallic for lithium intercalation. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Yuan; F. Walsh

    1984-01-01

    The goal of the Phase I program was to determine whether pairs of electrodes containing tetraazaannulenes (TAAs) can be used as the anode and cathode in a lithium metal-free lithium secondary cell. The extent of chemical and electrochemical lithium intercalation of selected TAAs was evaluated. Cyclic voltammetry was also used to characterize the lithiation reaction involved. Three TAAs were identified

  16. Long-term lithium battery tests, 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Levy

    1980-01-01

    Data from the second 6 month period of a 6 year test of ambient temperature lithium batteries are reported. Lithium-sulfur dioxide cells from three manufacturers and lithium-polycarbon monofluoride cells from a fourth are included. One year's storage at room temperature or below had a minor effect on capacity. Storage at 49 C resulted in a significant capacity loss. Two mechanisms

  17. Purification of mercury contaminated lithium hydroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Bronfin; D. M. Jenkins; E. E. Jr. Wright

    1960-01-01

    The object of this investigation was to determine an economical method of preparing pure lithium hydroxide from a mercury-contaminated lithium hydroxide monohydrate salt presently produced as a waste product. Pure lithium hydroxide has application for chemical removal of carbon dioxide from air and general open market sale if the mercury contamination is reduced to approximately one part per billion. Because

  18. Electrochemical isotope effect and lithium isotope separation.

    PubMed

    Black, Jay R; Umeda, Grant; Dunn, Bruce; McDonough, William F; Kavner, Abby

    2009-07-29

    A large electrochemical isotopic effect is observed upon the electrodeposition of lithium from solutions of propylene carbonate producing isotopically light metal deposits. The magnitude of fractionation is controlled by the applied overpotential and is largest close to equilibrium. Calculated partition function ratios for tetrahedrally coordinated lithium complexes and metallic lithium predict an equilibrium fractionation close to that measured experimentally. PMID:19580315

  19. Heterogeneous lithium niobate photonics on silicon substrates

    E-print Network

    Fathpour, Sasan

    Heterogeneous lithium niobate photonics on silicon substrates Payam Rabiei,1,* Jichi Ma,1 Saeed-confined lithium niobate photonic devices and circuits on silicon substrates is reported based on wafer bonding high- performance lithium niobate microring optical resonators and Mach- Zehnder optical modulators

  20. Lithium treatment of chronic hair pulling.

    PubMed

    Christenson, G A; Popkin, M K; Mackenzie, T B; Realmuto, G M

    1991-03-01

    Ten patients with chronic hair pulling received trials of lithium carbonate of 2 to 14 months' duration. Eight patients demonstrated decreased hair pulling and mild to marked hair regrowth. Three responders experienced increased hair pulling subsequent to discontinuation of lithium treatment. Lithium's effect on hair pulling may be related to its observed benefits in treating aggressivity, impulsivity, and mood instability. PMID:1900831

  1. Magnetism in Lithium–Oxygen Discharge Product

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2013-05-13

    Nonaqueous lithium–oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium–oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium–oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium– oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

  2. Magnetism in lithium-oxygen discharge product.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S; Greeley, Jeffrey; Ferguson, Glen A; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A; Amine, Kahlil

    2013-07-01

    Nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium-oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium-oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium-oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules. PMID:23670967

  3. Acute renal failure and lithium intoxication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Lavender; J. N. Brown; W. T. Berrill

    1973-01-01

    A case of acute renal failure is reported in a patient with severe lithium intoxication. Renal biopsy showed damage in the proximal tubules with less marked changes in the glomeruli and interlobular arteries.Lithium was withdrawn, and after treatment with peritoneal dialysis the patient regained normal renal function.The accumulation of lithium is known to lead to acute renal failure in the

  4. Chloride penetration into concrete structures in the marine atmosphere zone – Relationship between deposition of chlorides on the wet candle and chlorides accumulated into concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Meira; C. Andrade; I. J. Padaratz; C. Alonso; J BORBAJR

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between chlorides from marine aerosol and chlorides accumulated into concrete is discussed in this paper. The experimental programme comprised an environmental characterisation, with climatic and chloride deposition data, and a study of chloride penetration into concrete based on natural exposure of specimens in a marine atmosphere zone. Results show that salt concentration in marine aerosol strongly decreases in

  5. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Incheon, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Mountain View, CA); Andersson, Anna M. (Vasteras, SE)

    2012-04-03

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  6. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Seoul, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Cambridge, MA); Andersson, Anna M. (Uppsala, SE)

    2008-03-18

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z(A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).s- ub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  7. Research, Development and Fabrication of Lithium Solar Cells, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iles, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    The development and fabrication of lithium solar cells are discussed. Several single-step, lithium diffusion schedules using lower temperatures and times are described. A comparison was made using evaporated lithium metal as the lithium source, and greatly improved consistency in lithium concentrations was obtained. It was possible to combine all processing steps to obtain lithium doped cells of high output which also contained adequate lithium to ensure good recoverability.

  8. Strengthened lithium for x-ray blast windows

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, N. R. [Ecopulse Inc., P.O. Box 528, Springfield, Virginia 22150 (United States); Imam, M. A. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Lithium's high x-ray transparency makes it an attractive material for windows intended to protect soft x-ray diagnostics in high energy density experiments. Pure lithium is soft and weak, but lithium mixed with lithium hydride powder becomes harder and stronger, in principle without any additional x-ray absorption. A comparison with the standard material for x-ray windows, beryllium, suggests that lithium or lithium strengthened by lithium hydride may well be an excellent option for such windows.

  9. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

    2004-01-13

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  10. Nanostructured lithium nickel manganese oxides for lithium-ion batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haixia Deng; Ilias Belharouak; Russel E. Cook; Huiming Wu; Yang-Kook Sun; Khalil Amine

    2010-01-01

    Nanostructured lithium nickel manganese oxides were investigated as advanced positive electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries designated to power plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and all-electric vehicles. The investigation included material characterization and electrochemical testing. In cell tests, the Li{sub 1.375}Ni{sub 0.25}Mn{sub 0.75}O{sub 2.4375} composition achieved high capacity (210 mAh g¹) at an elevated rate (230 mA g¹), which makes this material

  11. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2006-11-14

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  12. Spectroscopic study of lithium oxide irradiated by fast neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, N. M.; Noda, K.; Watanabe, H.; Clemmer, R. G.; Hollenberg, G. W.

    1994-09-01

    Lithium oxide (Li 2O) is a candidate material for solid breeder blankets in d-t fusion reactors. Radiation damage in Li 2O was investigated in IEA BEATRIX-II phase 1 irradiation tests using the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Li 2O single crystal specimens with various 6Li concentrations, 6Li/( 6Li + 7Li), were irradiated at about 650 K for 300 effective full power days in FFTF by fast neutrons (the fast neutron fluence) ( > 0.1 MeV): 3.9 × 10 26 n/m 2). After the neutron-irradiation, measurements of electron-spin resonance (ESR) and optical absorption were carried out for the specimens at room temperature. From the measurements, colloidal lithium metal was found to be formed in Li 2O irradiated with fast neutrons.

  13. Spatial diagnostics of the laser induced lithium fluoride plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Baig, M. A.; Qamar, Aisha; Fareed, M. A.; Anwar-ul-Haq, M.; Ali, Raheel [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2012-06-15

    We present spatial characteristics of the lithium fluoride plasma generated by the fundamental and second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser. The plume emission has been recorded spatially using five spectrometers covering the spectral region from 200 nm to 720 nm. The electron density is measured from the Stark broadened line profile of the line at 610.37 nm, whereas the plasma temperature has been determined using the Boltzmann plot method including all the observed spectral lines of lithium. Both the plasma parameters; electron density and plasma temperature decrease with the increase of the distance from the target surface. The thermal conduction towards the target, the radiative cooling of the plasma, and the conversion of thermal energy into kinetic energy are the main mechanisms responsible for the spatially decrease of the plasma parameters.

  14. Effect of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition on electrical and optical properties of lithium borate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Gedam, R. S.; Ramteke, D. D. [Department of Applied physics, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur-440 010 (India)

    2012-06-05

    The electrical and optical property of lithium borate glasses was investigated. It is observed that conductivity decreases while density and refractive index increases with the addition of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Radiation length of glasses was determined and it is observed that radiation length decreases with the addition of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  15. Papain incorporated chitin dressings for wound debridement sterilized by gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Durgeshwer; Singh, Rita

    2012-11-01

    Wound debridement is essential for the removal of necrotic or nonviable tissue from the wound surface to create an environment conducive to healing. Nonsurgical enzymatic debridement is an attractive method due to its effectiveness and ease of use. Papain is a proteolytic enzyme derived from the fruit of Carica papaya and is capable of breaking down a variety of necrotic tissue substrates. The present study was focused on the use of gamma radiation for sterilization of papain dressing with wound debriding activity. Membranes with papain were prepared using 0.5% chitin in lithium chloride/dimethylacetamide solvent and sterilized by gamma radiation. Fluid absorption capacity of chitin-papain membranes without glycerol was 14.30±6.57% in 6 h. Incorporation of glycerol resulted in significant (p<0.001) increase in the absorption capacity. Moisture vapour transmission rate of the membranes was 4285.77±455.61 g/m2/24 h at 24 h. Gamma irradiation at 25 kGy was found suitable for sterilization of the dressings. Infrared (IR) spectral scanning has shown that papain was stable on gamma irradiation at 25-35 kGy. The irradiated chitin-papain membranes were impermeable to different bacterial strains and also exhibited strong bactericidal action against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The fluid handling characteristics and the antimicrobial properties of chitin-papain membranes sterilized by gamma radiation were found suitable for use as wound dressing with debriding activity.

  16. Composite electrodes for lithium batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Hackney, S. A.; Johnson, C. S.; Kahaian, A. J.; Kepler, K. D.; Shao-Horn, Y.; Thackeray, M. M.; Vaughey, J. T.

    1999-02-03

    The stability of composite positive and negative electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries is discussed. Positive electrodes with spinel-type structures that are derived from orthorhombic-LiMnO{sub 2} and layered-MnO{sub 2} are significantly more stable than standard spinel Li[Mn{sub 2}]O{sub 4} electrodes when cycled electrochemically over both the 4-V and 3-V plateaus in lithium cells. Transmission electron microscope data of cycled electrodes have indicated that a composite domain structure accounts for this greater electrochemical stability. The performance of composite Cu{sub x}Sn materials as alternative negative electrodes to amorphous SnO{sub x} electrodes for lithium-ion batteries is discussed in terms of the importance of the concentration of the electrochemically inactive copper component in the electrode.

  17. Nanomaterials for rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Peter G; Scrosati, Bruno; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Energy storage is more important today than at any time in human history. Future generations of rechargeable lithium batteries are required to power portable electronic devices (cellphones, laptop computers etc.), store electricity from renewable sources, and as a vital component in new hybrid electric vehicles. To achieve the increase in energy and power density essential to meet the future challenges of energy storage, new materials chemistry, and especially new nanomaterials chemistry, is essential. We must find ways of synthesizing new nanomaterials with new properties or combinations of properties, for use as electrodes and electrolytes in lithium batteries. Herein we review some of the recent scientific advances in nanomaterials, and especially in nanostructured materials, for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. PMID:18338357

  18. Lithium-6 from Solar Flares

    E-print Network

    R. Ramaty; V. Tatischeff; J. P. Thibaud; B. Kozlovsky; N. Mandzhavidze

    2000-03-23

    By introducing a hitherto ignored Li-6 producing process, due to accelerated He-3 reactions with He-4, we show that accelerated particle interactions in solar flares produce much more Li-6 than Li-7. By normalizing our calculations to gamma-ray data we demonstrate that the Li-6 produced in solar flares, combined with photospheric Li-7, can account for the recently determined solar wind lithium isotopic ratio, obtained from measurements in lunar soil, provided that the bulk of the flare produced lithium is evacuated by the solar wind. Further research in this area could provide unique information on a variety of problems, including solar atmospheric transport and mixing, solar convection and the lithium depletion issue, and solar wind and solar particle acceleration.

  19. Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.

    1995-06-01

    Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin-film battery.

  20. Materials for Conoco zinc chloride hydrocracking process

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, V.B.; Keiser, J.R.; DeVan, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Use of zinc chloride to augment hydrogenation of coal and yield a high-octane gasoline product is the most significant feature of a coal liquefaction process being developed by Conoco Coal Development Company. The zinc chloride catalyst is regenerated in a fluidized sand bed, where the spent melt is mixed with air and hydrogen chloride at about 1000/sup 0/C. Recovery is completed at 370/sup 0/C in a condenser, where the zinc chloride is collected and the oxygen and sulfur are separated as H/sub 2/O and SO/sub 2/. The economic viability of the entire process is highly dependent on almost complete recovery of the zinc chloride. The severe environmental conditions of this recovery process cause unique materials problems. Although high-temperature oxidation and sulfidation are being studied in related programs, suitable materials to resist their combined effects along with those of chlorides have not yet been specifically addressed. Common engineering materials, such as the austenitic stainless steels and many nickel-base alloys, are unsuitable because of their inability to tolerate the elevated temperatures and sulfidation, respectively. The objectives of this task are to screen various metallic and ceramic materials for resistance to the zinc chloride recovery system environment and to determine the nature of the attack by exposing coupons to the simulated environment in the laboratory.

  1. Spatial periphery of lithium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanina, L. I.; Zelenskaja, N. S.

    2013-12-01

    The spatial structure of lithium isotopes is studied with the aid of the charge-exchange and ( t, p) reactions on lithium nuclei. It is shown that an excited isobaric-analog state of 6Li (0+, 3.56MeV) has a halo structure formed by a proton and a neutron, that, in the 9Li nucleus, there is virtually no neutron halo, and that 11Li is a Borromean nucleus formed by a 9Li core and a two-neutron halo manifesting itself in cigar-like and dineutron configurations.

  2. Lithium synthesis in microquasar accretion.

    PubMed

    Iocco, Fabio; Pato, Miguel

    2012-07-13

    We study the synthesis of lithium isotopes in the hot tori formed around stellar mass black holes by accretion of the companion star. We find that sizable amounts of both stable isotopes 6Li and 7Li can be produced, the exact figures varying with the characteristics of the torus and reaching as much as 10(-2) M? for each isotope. This mass output is enough to contaminate the entire Galaxy at a level comparable with the original, pregalactic amount of lithium and to overcome other sources such as cosmic-ray spallation or stellar nucleosynthesis. PMID:23030150

  3. Liquid Lithium Experiments in CDX-U

    SciTech Connect

    R. Majeski; R. Doerner; R. Kaita; G. Antar; J. Timberlake; et al

    2000-11-15

    The initial results of experiments involving the use of liquid lithium as a plasma facing component in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) are reported. Studies of the interaction of a steady-state plasma with liquid lithium in the Plasma Interaction with Surface and Components Experimental Simulator (PISCES-B) are also summarized. In CDX-U a solid or liquid lithium covered rail limiter was introduced as the primary limiting surface for spherical torus discharges. Deuterium recycling was observed to be reduced, but so far not eliminated, for glow discharge-cleaned lithium surfaces. Some lithium influx was observed during tokamak operation. The PISCES-B results indicate that the rates of plasma erosion of lithium can exceed predictions by an order of magnitude at elevated temperatures. Plans to extend the CDX-U experiments to large area liquid lithium toroidal belt limiters are also described.

  4. DBAR investigation on films of polypyrrole incorporated polyvinylalcohol doped with ferric chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Blaise; Baraker, B. M.; Hammannavar, P. B.; Bhajantri, R. F.; Ranganath, M. R.; Hurkadli, M.; Ravindrachary, V.

    2015-06-01

    Flexible films of pyrrole(Py) sorbed, ferric chloride (FeCl3) doped polyvinylalcohol(PVA) were prepared by solution casting. The films were characterized by XRD, UV-Visible spectrometry, Thermal Analysis (DSC, DTA/TGA), FTIR and electrical measurements. In this paper, the results of Doppler Broadening of Annihilation Radiation (DBAR) spectra in the doping range, from 4 wt% up to 18 wt%, are discussed. The XRD and DSC scans complement the DBAR results. The computed S- parameter and W -parameter reflect changes in the degree of crystallinity and the average crystallite size, respectively, of polypyrrole(PPy) incorporated PVA samples doped with ferric chloride.

  5. The transport of chloride in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Levinson, C; Villereal, M L

    1976-06-01

    The steady state transport and distribution of chloride between the intracellular and extracellular phases was investigated when the extracellular chloride concentration was varied by isosmotic replacement with nitrate, bromide and acetate. The results of these experiments show that chloride transport, measured by uptake of 36Cl, is sensitive to the replacement anion. In the presence of nitrate, chloride transport is a linear function of the extracellular chloride concentration. The relationship between chloride transport and extracellular chloride in the presence of bromide is concave upward which suggests that this anion inhibits chloride movement. However, when acetate replaces chloride, the relationship between chloride transport and extracellular chloride is concave downward. The chloride distribution ratio of cells incubated in 145-155mM chloride medium is 0.386 and is not effected by the replacement of chloride with nitrate, bromide or acetate. These findings are consistent with the assertion that chloride transport is composed of two parallel pathways, a diffusional plus a saturating, mediated component. Of the total chloride flux (9.1 mmoles Cl-/kg dry weight per minute) measured in chloride medium (145-155 mM Cl-), the mediated component represents 40% and the diffusional component 60%. PMID:1270521

  6. A physical model of an ejection suppressed CPS liquid lithium divertor target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Wei; Zheng, X. J.; Gou, F. J.; Deng, B. Q.; Peng, L. L.; Cao, X.; Zhang, W. W.; Xue, X. Y.

    2015-04-01

    A physical model has been developed which includes high temperature liquid lithium evaporation, the expanding motion of the liquid lithium vapour cloud, the shielding effects of the vapour cloud on incident plasma particle bombardments, ejection suppressed analysis and a perpendicular field proposal, and photon radiation, heat flux and transport in the lithium vapour cloud plasma. The engineering outline design scheme and the relevant parameters for the liquid lithium surface divertor target plate configured by discrete tiny capillary arrays have been established. Splashing can be suppressed by utilizing discrete and electrical insulating capillary porous systems (CPSs), since the conductivity among the capillary cells has been cut off by adopting a special kind of ceramic composite material made of a non-conducting and unbreakable composite which is able to withstand high temperatures. The formula to describe the temperature-dependent evaporation power has been derived. The maximum temperature increases of the discrete plasma-facing liquid lithium surface divertor target plate have been compared under the high energy flux deposition of 10 MJ m?2 during a 1 ms time duration with or without evaporation power. The results show that a high surface heat load can be withstood by the designed discrete plasma-facing liquid lithium surface divertor target plate due to violent evaporation. The energy deposition of incident energetic particles and weakly relativistic electrons from the scrape-off layer have been calculated. A laboratory experimental facility to simulate liquid lithium surface interactions with plasma has been set up. Research on lithium evaporation, re-deposition and ejection suppressed experiments under high density linear plasma dumping is ongoing.

  7. Photodisintegration of Lithium Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurtz, Ward Andrew

    We have performed a measurement of the photodisintegration of the lithium isotopes, 6Li and 7Li, using a monochromatic, polarised photon beam and a segmented neutron detector array which covers approximately ¼ of 4pi srad. Using time-of-flight and scintillator light-output spectra we separate the data into individual reaction channels. This work is motivated by the need to compare with recent theoretical predictions and to provide data for future theoretical work. For the photodisintegration of 6Li we took data at 12 photon energies between 8 and 35 MeV. We describe the data using a model consisting of two-body reaction channels and obtain angular distributions and absolute cross sections for many of these reaction channels. We compare our results with a recent Lorentz integral transform calculation (Bacca et al. Phys. Rev. C 69, 057001 (2004)). Our results are in reasonable agreement with the calculation, in contradiction with previous experimental results. For the photodisintegration of 7Li, we took data at 9 photon energies between 10 and 35 MeV. We obtain cross sections for the reaction channel 7Li + gamma ? n + 6 Li(g.s.) at all photon energies with angular distributions at all but the highest energy. We obtain angular distributions and total cross sections for reaction channels involving excited states of the daughter nucleus, 6Li, at select energies. We hope that these measurements will provide incentive for new theoretical calculations. We observe neutrons that can only be described by the reaction channel 7Li + gamma ? n + 6Li(10.0) which necessitates an excited state of 6Li with excitation energy Ex = 10.0 +/- 0.5 MeV that is not in the standard tables of excited states. ii

  8. Lithium: effect on (/sup 3/H)spiperone binding, ionic content, and amino acid levels in the brain of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Banay-Schwartz, M.; Wajda, I.J.; Manigault, I.; DeGuzman, T.; Lajtha, A.

    1982-02-01

    After prolonged treatment of rats with lithium (pellets, 0.21% lithium carbonate, or 0.5 mg/ml lithium chloride in drinking water) for three months, the level of lithium in plasma was 0.87 meq/liter; in several brain regions, between 1.06-1.39 mueq/g wet weight. The content of sodium and potassium in the plasma was normal. The level of potassium in the brain regions tested increased by 13-30% and that of sodium by about 10%. Glycine levels increased significantly in all the regions (cerebral cortex, midbrain, cerebellum, and spinal cord). In the cerebellum GABA was also increased, while glutamine was decreased. In midbrain, apart from increases in glycine levels, alanine, valine, GABA and lysine were also increased. In the spinal cord, glutamic acid was also increased. Changes were largely in the putative neurotransmitters. Long-term treatment with lithium also influenced the high-affinity binding of (/sup 3/H) spiperone in the cerebral cortex and corpus striatum. Two specific binding sites were found in both brain regions; the main change was the reduction in the lower affinity binding site (B max 2).

  9. Manufacturing of advanced Li(NiMnCo)O2 electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyrek, P.; Pröll, J.; Rakebrandt, J.-H.; Seifert, H. J.; Pfleging, W.

    2015-03-01

    Lithium-ion batteries require an increase in cell life-time as well as an improvement in cycle stability in order to be used as energy storage systems, e.g. for stationary devices or electric vehicles. Nowadays, several cathode materials such as Li(NiMnCo)O2 (NMC) are under intense investigation to enhanced cell cycling behavior by simultaneously providing reasonable costs. Previous studies have shown that processing of three-dimensional (3D) micro-features in electrodes using nanosecond laser radiation further increases the active surface area and therefore, the lithium-ion diffusion cell kinetics. Within this study, NMC cathodes were prepared by tape-casting and laser-structured using nanosecond laser radiation. Furthermore, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used in a first experimental attempt to analyze the lithium distribution in unstructured NMC cathodes at different state-of-charges (SOC). LIBS will be applied to laser-structured cathodes in order to investigate the lithium distribution at different SOC. The results will be compared to those obtained for unstructured electrodes to examine advantages of 3D micro-structures with respect to lithium-ion diffusion kinetics.

  10. Spectroscopy of Pr 3+ ions in lithium borate and lithium fluoroborate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, P.; Jayasankar, C. K.

    2001-08-01

    Optical absorption and emission spectra of 1 mol% Pr 3+ doped lithium borate and lithium fluoroborate glasses have been recorded. The intensities of f-f transitions are parameterized in terms of Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters ?? ( ?=2, 4 and 6). The JO parameters obtained with modified JO theory have been used to predict radiative properties such as spontaneous emission probabilities ( A), lifetimes ( ?R) and branching ratios ( ?R) for all the 12 excited states of these Pr 3+ doped glasses along with some of the reported Pr 3+ : systems. The predicted ?R are compared with the experimental values for the emission from 3P 0 and 3P 1 levels. The stimulated emission cross-sections are also evaluated for all the observed emission transitions. The ?R values for the potential laser transitions including the 1G 4? 3H 5 (1.3 ?m) transition useful for fibre amplifier have been compared for 17 Pr 3+ : systems. The effect of compositional changes of the glasses on the optical properties of Pr 3+ ions have been discussed.

  11. Phenomics of Cardiac Chloride Channels

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Dayue Darrel

    2014-01-01

    Forward genetic studies have identified several chloride (Cl?) channel genes, including CFTR, ClC-2, ClC-3, CLCA, Bestrophin, and Ano1, in the heart. Recent reverse genetic studies using gene targeting and transgenic techniques to delineate the functional role of cardiac Cl? channels have shown that Cl? channels may contribute to cardiac arrhythmogenesis, myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure, and cardioprotection against ischemia reperfusion. The study of physiological or pathophysiological phenotypes of cardiac Cl? channels, however, is complicated by the compensatory changes in the animals in response to the targeted genetic manipulation. Alternatively, tissue-specific conditional or inducible knockout or knockin animal models may be more valuable in the phenotypic studies of specific Cl? channels by limiting the effect of compensation on the phenotype. The integrated function of Cl? channels may involve multiprotein complexes of the Cl? channel subproteome. Similar phenotypes can be attained from alternative protein pathways within cellular networks, which are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The phenomics approach, which characterizes phenotypes as a whole phenome and systematically studies the molecular changes that give rise to particular phenotypes achieved by modifying the genotype under the scope of genome/proteome/phenome, may provide more complete understanding of the integrated function of each cardiac Cl? channel in the context of health and disease. PMID:23720326

  12. Semiconductor nuclear radiation detector studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Sher

    1974-01-01

    In response to a problem that arose with regard to the availability of germanium for lithium-drifted germanium detectors (Ge(Li) detectors), a comprehensive program was undertaken aimed toward the development of a method for the rapid specification of germanium quality for nuclear radiation detector use, and the determination of factors affecting germanium quality. Measurements on a large number of germanium crystals,

  13. Corrosion behaviors of materials in aluminum chloride–1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chien-Hsiung Tseng; Jeng-Kuei Chang; Jhen-Rong Chen; W. T. Tsai; Ming-Jay Deng; I-Wen Sun

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion properties of carbon steel (CS), 304 stainless steel (304 SS), and pure titanium (Ti) are first studied in aluminum chloride–1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid (IL). An active-to-passive transition behavior was clearly observed for CS. The 304 SS exhibited the best stability among the materials; no considerable corrosion was recognized even in this high-chloride environment. In contrast, although Ti resists

  14. Influence of voltage on chloride diffusion coefficients from chloride migration tests

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, P.F.; Hooton, R.D. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-08-01

    A chloride migration test method is described and test results are given for concrete subjected to a range of potential gradients. A method for setting the potential across the sample length using reference electrodes and Luggin capillaries is described. Apparent and effective diffusion coefficients were calculated from chloride break-through time and steady state chloride flux respectively at each potential. Accounting for polarization and IR drop losses is significant particularly at lower applied potentials.

  15. Reductive Dechlorination of the Vinyl Chloride Surrogate

    E-print Network

    Semprini, Lewis

    , microbial transformation of TCE results in the accumulation of vinyl chloride (VC), a known carcinogen with PVC manufacturing. In addition, accumulation of VC, a known carcinogen (2), is sometimes observed

  16. Microencapsulation of potassium chloride with mastic.

    PubMed

    Georgarakis, M; Gröning, R; Henzler, P

    1987-07-01

    The present investigation deals with the microencapsulation of potassium chloride with mastic. Spherical potassium chloride crystals with a mean particle diameter of approximately 450 microns were used. It could be shown that with a layer of mastic wall material thicker than 21 microns the release of potassium chloride in the in vitro test can be controlled for more than 6 h. The thickness of the wall material over the tested range of 21 to 33 microns has only a limited effect on the kinetics of release of potassium chloride. Increasing the thickness of the layer from 21 to 33 microns merely leads to a reduction of about another 10% in the amount of drug released in 6 h. PMID:3671470

  17. Reactions of polyfluoroalkenylsulfenyl chlorides with carbonyl compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Kovregin; A. Yu. Sizov; A. F. Ermolov; A. F. Kolomiets

    2000-01-01

    Polyfluorinated 1-fluoroalk-1-enylsulfenyl chlorides react with ketones RCOCH2R? to give unsaturated sulfides. The latter undergo smooth cyclization into 2-alkylidene-1,3-oxathioles in the presence of\\u000a BF3NEt3.

  18. Toward a Lithium-"Air" Battery: The Effect of CO2 on the Chemistry of a Lithium-Oxygen Cell

    E-print Network

    Goddard III, William A.

    Toward a Lithium-"Air" Battery: The Effect of CO2 on the Chemistry of a Lithium-Oxygen Cell Hyung as a "lithium-air battery". Most studies of lithium-air batteries have focused on demonstrating battery operations in pure oxygen conditions; such a battery should technically be described as a "lithium- dioxygen

  19. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Belharouak, Ilias (Westmont, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

    2012-01-31

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  20. Anode material for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Belharouak, Ilias (Bolingbrook, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

    2008-06-24

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell system. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plastized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  1. Anode material for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Belharouak, Ilias (Bolingbrook, IL); Amine, Khalil (Oak Brook, IL)

    2011-04-05

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  2. Gelled Electrolytes For Lithium Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Attia, Alan; Halpert, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    Gelled polymer electrolyte consists of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), LiBF4, and propylene carbonate (PC). Thin films of electrolyte found to exhibit stable bulk conductivities of order of 10 to the negative 3rd power S/cm at room temperature. Used in thinfilm rechargeable lithium batteries having energy densities near 150 W h/kg.

  3. Anode material for lithium batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilias Belharouak; Khalil Amine

    2011-01-01

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  4. Anode material for lithium batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilias Belharouak; Khalil Amine

    2008-01-01

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell system. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plastized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  5. Anode material for lithium batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilias Belharouak; Khalil Amine

    2012-01-01

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  6. Lithium-loaded liquid scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Kesanli, Banu (Mersin, TR); Neal, John S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-05-15

    The invention is directed to a liquid scintillating composition containing (i) one or more non-polar organic solvents; (ii) (lithium-6)-containing nanoparticles having a size of up to 10 nm and surface-capped by hydrophobic molecules; and (iii) one or more fluorophores. The invention is also directed to a liquid scintillator containing the above composition.

  7. Membrane potential, chloride exchange, and chloride conductance in Ehrlich mouse ascites tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, E K; Simonsen, L O; Sjøholm, C

    1979-01-01

    1. The steady-state tracer exchange flux of chloride was measured at 10-150 mM external chloride concentration, substituting either lactate or sucrose for chloride. The chloride flux saturates in both cases with a K 1/2 about 50 and 15 mM, respectively. 2. The inhibitory effect of other monovalent anions on the chloride transport was investigated by measuring the 36Cl- efflux into media where either bromide, nitrate, or thiocyanate had been substituted for part of the chloride. The sequence of increasing affinity for the chloride transport system was found to be: Br- less than Cl- less than SCN- = NO3-. 3. The chloride steady-state exchange flux in the presence of nitrate can be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with nitrate as a competitive inhibitor of the chloride flux. 4. The apparent activation energy (EA) was determined to be 67 +/- 6.2 kJ/mole, and was constant between 7 and 38 degrees C. 5. The membrane potential (Vm) was measured as a function of the concentration of external K+, substituting K+ for Na+. The transference number of K+ (tK) was estimated from the slope of Vm vs. log10 (K+)e, and tCl and tNa were calculated, neglecting current carried by ions other than Cl-, K+, and Na+. The diffusional net flux of K+ was calculated from the steady-state exchange flux of 42K+, assuming the flux ratio equation to be valid. From this value the K+ conductance and the Na+ and Cl- conductances were calculated. The experiments showed that GCl, GNa, and GK are all about 14 muS/cm2. 6. The net (conductive) chloride permeability derived from the chloride conductance was 4 x 10(-8) cm/sec compared with the apparent permeability of 6 x 10(-7) cm/sec as calculated from the chloride tracer exchange flux. These data suggest that about 95% of the chloride transport is mediated by an electrically silent exchange diffusion. 7. Comparable effects of phloretin (0.25 mM) on the net (conductive) permeability and the apparent permeability to chloride (about 80% inhibition) may indicate that the chloride exchange and conductance pathways are not completely separate and distinct modes of transport, but may involve common elements. The reduced chloride permeability in the presence of phloretin is estimated to be two orders of magnitude larger than the ground permeability of the cell membrane. PMID:529133

  8. Reactions of polyfluoroalkylsulfenyl chlorides with phenols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Yu. Sizov; A. F. Kolomiets; A. V. Fokin

    1991-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkylsulfenyl chlorides thiolate phenol and its ortho- and meta-substituted derivatives regiospecifically at the para-position in the absence of a catalyst and of a hydrogen chloride acceptor. Ortho thiolation occurs with significantly greater difficulty in the para-substituted phenols, and is only possible with the strong electron-donor properties of the substituent. Polyfluoroalkylthiolation of phenols is rendered more difficult with the increase in

  9. Copper chloride cathode for a secondary battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (inventor); Bankston, Clyde P. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Higher energy and power densities are achieved in a secondary battery based on molten sodium and a solid, ceramic separator such as a beta alumina and a molten catholyte such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a copper chloride cathode. The higher cell voltage of copper chloride provides higher energy densities and the higher power density results from increased conductivity resulting from formation of copper as discharge proceeds.

  10. Inhibition of epithelial chloride channels by cytosol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kunzelmann; M. Tilmann; Ch. P. Hansen; R. Greger

    1991-01-01

    Chloride channels that have an intermediate conductance and are outwardly rectifying were studied by the patch-clamp technique in cell-excised membrane patches from respiratory epithelial cells in primary culture (REC) of normal and cystic fibrosis tissue, HT29 and T84 human colon carcinoma cells and placenta trophoblast cells (PTC). Chloride channels were immediately activated by the exposure of the cytosolic side of

  11. The 5-(4-Ethynylophenoxy) isophthalic chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B. J. (inventors)

    1986-01-01

    Sulfone-ester polymers containing pendent ethynyl groups and a direct and multistep process for preparing them are disclosed. The multistep process involves the conversion of a pendent bromo group to the ethynyl group while the direct route involves reating hydroxy-terminated sulfone oligomer or polymers with a stoichiometric amount of 5-(4-ethynylphenoxy) isophthaloyl chloride. The 5-(4-ethynylphenoxy) isophthaloyl chloride and the process for preparing it are also disclosed.

  12. Asymmetry of the chloride transport system in human erythrocyte ghosts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus F. Schnell; Elisabeth Besl; Annette Manz

    1978-01-01

    The concentration dependence of the unidirectional chloride flux and the inhibition of the unidirectional chloride flux by sulfate were studied in human red cell ghosts. The concentration dependence of the unidirectional chloride flux and its inhibition by sulfate were asymmetric. The unidirectional chloride flux can be saturated from the inner and from the outer membrane surface. For the inner membrane

  13. Thermal stability of lithiated vanadium oxide (LVO), gamma-lithium vanadium bronze (gamma-LiV2O5) and vanadium dioxide (VO2) thermal battery cathode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, A. G.; Bryce, J. C.

    1992-08-01

    Thermal analysis of lithiated vanadium oxide (LVO) has shown that it has limited thermal stability, possibly accounting for the failure of some thermal batteries with LVO cathodes. Its minor component, gamma-LiV2O5, melts at temperatures which could be reached during thermal battery activation. The major component of LVO, VO2, is thermally stable on its own, but can react with lithium chloride-potassium chloride binary eutectic when heated for prolonged periods above 700 C, though VO2/binary eutectic mixtures should be sufficiently stable for use in thermal batteries.

  14. Effects of icatibant on the ramipril-induced decreased in renal lithium clearance in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bagaté, K; Grima, M; De Jong, W; Imbs, J L; Barthelmebs, M

    2001-03-01

    The interaction between an inhibitor of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ramipril) and renal lithium handling was analysed in conscious, normotensive Wistar rats in the absence or the presence of a specific bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist, icatibant. The rats were treated for 5 days with ramipril (1 mg/kg/day p.o.) or its vehicle, alone or together with icatibant (0.1 mg/kg/day, s.c. infusion). Lithium chloride (8.3 mg/kg i.p.) was given as a single dose on day 5. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured by tail plethysmography on day 3 (3, 9 and 15 h after ramipril administration) and renal function on day 4 (0-6 and 6-24 h urine sampling) and day 5 (0-6 h urine sampling). In another group of rats, 24 h sodium excretion was assessed during the first 4 days of ramipril treatment. Ramipril decreased renal lithium clearance (90+/-8 vs. 142+/-10 microl/min/100 g, P<0.001, n=24) and increased the fractional lithium reabsorption (74.3+/-1.9 vs. 66.7+/-1.7%, P<0.05) and plasma lithium concentration (0.108+/-0.006 vs. 0.085+/-0.004 mM, P<0.01). Alteration of renal lithium handling by ramipril was associated with a decrease in systolic blood pressure (-15% 3 h after ramipril administration) and sodium excretion (0-6 h after ramipril). The 24-h sodium excretion, however, tended to increase. Icatibant had no effect per se on renal function but attenuated the ramipril-induced decrease in renal lithium clearance (118+/-16 vs. 90+/-8 microl/min/100 g, n=12 and 24 respectively, P<0.05 one-tailed test) and systolic blood pressure. These results suggest that endogenous bradykinin contributes to the ramipril-associated alteration in renal lithium handling. Bradykinin B2 receptor-mediated vasodilation seems to be involved. PMID:11284442

  15. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721.10031 Section 721...Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and...substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02-214; CAS...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721.10031 Section 721...Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and...substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02-214; CAS...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721.10031 Section 721...Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and...substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02-214; CAS...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721.10031 Section 721...Substances § 721.10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and...substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02-214; CAS...

  19. Identification of the different sources of chlorides in streams by regression analysis using chloride-discharge relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albek

    1999-01-01

    Chloride-discharge relationships at several stations on Turkish streams are investigated, both qualitatively and quantitatively, to identify natural and anthropogenic sources of chloride. Simple expressions are used to distinguish among sources. Linear regression analysis is conducted to estimate parameters of the models. Five groups of stations are distinguished respective to different sources of chloride and change of chloride concentration with stream

  20. Lithium borate cluster salts as novel redox shuttles for overcharge protection of lithium-ion cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Liu, J.; Jansen, A. N.; Casteel, B.; Amine, K.; GirishKumar, G.; Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.

    2010-01-01

    Redox shuttle is a promising mechanism for intrinsic overcharge protection in lithium-ion cells and batteries. Two lithium borate cluster salts are reported to function as both the main salt for a nonaqueous electrolyte and the redox shuttle for overcharge protection. Lithium borate cluster salts with a tunable redox potential are promising candidates for overcharge protection for most positive electrodes in state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells.

  1. Lithium\\/water battery with lithium ion conducting glass–ceramics electrolyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Katoh; Yasushi Inda; Kousuke Nakajima; Rongbin Ye; Mamoru Baba

    2011-01-01

    Lithium\\/water batteries have attracted considerable attention as high power supply devices because they use high energy density lithium metal as an anode and water as a cathode. In this study, we investigate the use of lithium\\/water batteries that use a glass–ceramics plate as an electrolyte.A lithium ion conducting glass–ceramics plate has no through-holes and does not exhibit moisture permeation. Such

  2. Lithium isotope effects upon electrochemical lithium insertion to host material from ionic liquid medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shun Saito; Yuta Takami; Masahiro Yoshizawa-Fujita; Satoshi Yanase; Takao Oi

    2011-01-01

    Lithium was electrochemically inserted from a Li+ ion containing ionic liquid into graphite or tin to observe lithium isotope effects that accompanied the insertion. While no preferential uptake of the lithium isotopes was detected with graphite, the lighter isotope, 6Li, was preferentially fractionated into tin with the single-stage lithium isotope separation factors, S, ranging from 1.004 to 1.008 at 25 °C.

  3. Observation of Lithium Isotope Effect Accompanying Electrochemical Insertion of Lithium into Tin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi YANASE; Takao OI; Satoru HASHIKAWA

    2000-01-01

    Electrolysis of an organic electrolyte solution containing lithium ions was conducted to observe lithium isotope fractionation accompanying electrochemical insertion of lithium from the electrolyte to tin metal. The experimental setup consisted of a three-electrode electrolysis cell with a tin wire as cathode, lithium foils as anode and reference electrode and 1 M LiPF6 dissolved in 1:2 volume ratio of ethylene

  4. Lithium requirements for electric vehicles using lithium-water-air batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Cooper; I. Y. Borg; L. G. Oconnell; E. Behrin; B. Rubin; H. Wiesner

    1975-01-01

    In the electrochemical reaction involved in the lithium-water-air battery lithium, oxygen, and CO2 are combined; Li2CO3 is left as a by product to be removed from the battery and recycled. A subcompact car weighing 910 kg would transform 7.2 kg of lithium in traveling 320 km at 97 km\\/hr. At least an equal amount of lithium per car would be

  5. Evaluation of lithium as a toxicant and the modifying effect of sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.; O`Reilly, S.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Routine compliance tests conducted for a groundwater treatment facility at the Y-12 Plant on the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), TN, showed that the effluent was acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae. An evaluation of suspected contaminants revealed that increased toxicity coincided with increased concentrations of lithium. Lithium is a light, strong metal that is used in DOE operations, including fusion weapons and fission reactors. Little has been published about lithium toxicity. Toxicity tests were conducted with fathead minnows and C. dubia using lithium chloride and lithium tetraborate. Dilute mineral water (DMW) or the receiving stream water (East Fork Poplar Creek) was used as the dilution water in the toxicity evaluation. A concentration of 1 mg Li/L in DMW reduced the survival of both test species; 0.5 mg Li/L in DMW reduced C. dubia reproduction and minnow growth. Sodium appears to influence the toxicity of Li; the metal was six times more toxic in the low-sodium DMW than in stream water containing 30 mg Na/L. Tests with LiCl in combination with NaCl and NA{sub 2}SO{sub 4} demonstrated that the presence of sodium reduced the toxicity of Li to C. dubia. In laboratory tests with a snail (Elimia clavaeformis) common on the ORR, the feeding rate declined in 0.15 mg Li/L. Because Li has also been demonstrated to be toxic to several plant species, tests with LiCi were also conducted using buttercrunch lettuce (Lactuca saliva). The EC{sub 50} for seed growth after 8 d incubation was 37.5 mg Li/L. These findings are significant because of widespread industrial use and potential accumulation of Li in soils.

  6. Dentin decalcification during lithium treatment: case report.

    PubMed

    Eduardo, Carlos de P; Simões, Alyne; de Freitas, Patricia M; Arana-Chavez, Victor E; Nicolau, José; Gentil, Valentim

    2013-01-01

    Severe dental decay and changes in tooth structure have been reported in association with the use of lithium in Psychiatry, but lithium effects on tooth inorganic composition remain unknown. A 30-year-old woman with bipolar disorder, treated with lithium carbonate presented severe dental decay. Dentin samples from lithium and healthy volunteers were collected and submitted to ionic and ultrastructural analysis. Samples from the lithium patient exhibited irregular peritubular walls and the mineral crystals were irregularly arranged in the intertubular dentin. In addition, a decrease in Mg/P/Ca and an increase of Zn concentrations were detected. These data suggest that the severe dental decay and changes in the tooth structure observed for the lithium-treated patient are related to dentin mineral loss and that this pathological condition is different from caries lesions. PMID:23451930

  7. Properties of lithium aluminate for application as an OSL dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twardak, A.; Bilski, P.; Marczewska, B.; Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.; Gieszczyk, W.; Mrozik, A.; S?del, M.; Wróbel, D.

    2014-11-01

    Several samples of undoped and carbon or copper doped lithium aluminate (LiAlO2) were prepared in an attempt to achieve a material, which can be applicable in optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry. All investigated samples are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation and show good reproducibility. The undoped and copper doped samples exhibit sensitivity several times higher than that of Al2O3:C, while sensitivity of the carbon doped samples is lower. The studied samples exhibit significant fading, but dynamics of signal loss is different for differently doped samples, what indicates a possibility of improving this characteristic by optimizing dopant composition.

  8. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yi

    on larger scales. Im- provement of the safety of lithium-ion batteries must occur if they are to be utilized. The high power output and energy density of lithium-ion batter- ies have led to their widespread use electrolytes found in commercial lithium-ion cells with an aqueous electrolyte would resolve the safety

  9. Coaxial nuclear radiation detector with deep junction and radial field gradient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hall

    1979-01-01

    Germanium radiation detectors are manufactured by diffusion lithium into high purity p-type germanium. The diffusion is most readily accomplished from a lithium-lead-bismuth alloy at approximately 430° and is monitored by a quartz half cell containing a standard composition of this alloy. Detectors having n-type cores may be constructed by converting high purity p-type germanium to n-type by a lithium diffusion

  10. Passivation of metals in thionyl-chloride electrolytes for lithium batteries: Summary abstract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, D. E.; Rogers, J. W., Jr.; Cieslak, W. R.; Delnick, F. M.

    1986-10-01

    Electrochemical methods have indicated that Ni and SS form passive films in SOCl2 electrolytes. The presence of a passive film has been verified by XPS, while the content of the films confirms that they were formed in situ, not prior to immersion in the electrolyte. In contrast, the electrochemical experiments have shown that both Pt and Mo behave kinetically as film-free inert electrodes, a result which has been confirmed by XPS.

  11. Characteristics of a lithium-thionyl chloride battery as a memory back-up power source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamaru, T.; Uetani, Y.

    An Li/SOCl 2 battery of R6 size (ER6C) has been evaluated as a memory back-up power source for CMOS RAM. The working voltage is 3.6 V and the discharge capacity is 1900 mA h on a 1OK-ohm load. The cell exhibits satisfactory working voltage and discharge capacity over the temperature range -40 °C to 85 °C. The discharge reaction mechanism has been elucidated. Cumulative self discharge during 10 years discharge at 20 ?A is estimated to be 3.5%. No serious problems have been observed during abuse tests.

  12. Safety and performance of a long life lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieslak, W. R.; Street, H. K.

    A Li/SOCl2 'D' cell for applications requiring 10 to 15 years life at very low drain rates, typically less than 150 microA, were developed. Maximizing cell safety and reliability, while delivering very good energy density, were the goals. These goals were achieved by designing the cell to be application specific. The low-rate cell was optimized to deliver up to 16 Ah at drain rates of less than 70 mA. By virtue of its low surface area, 145 cm(sup 2), the cell demonstrated excellent safety behavior. Safety testing was performed on individual cells as well as on two-cell and four-cell batteries. Single cells did not vent when short-circuited. Benign venting in a two cell string was produced, but only when the string was partially discharged before shorting. The vent mechanism is a 300 psi rupture pressure burst disc manufactured by BS&B Safety Systems. Benign venting is defined as full opening of the 3/8 in. dia vent hole without deformation of the case. Material is expelled from the cell without flame, and the cell stack remains largely intact. Venting of the Sandia-designed low rate cell was not produced under any other abuse test conditions. The vent functions as an ultimate safety mechanism in the case of severe abuse, but resistance to venting under normal use and mild abuse conditions is key to the achievement of high reliability.

  13. Lithium chloride - Expanded graphite composite sorbent for solar powered ice maker

    SciTech Connect

    Kiplagat, J.K.; Wang, R.Z.; Li, T.X. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Oliveira, R.G. [Centro de Tecnologia de Alegrete, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Av. Tiaraju, 810, Alegrete (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    Consolidated composite material made from expanded graphite (EG) powder impregnated with LiCl salt is proposed for use in solar powered adsorption ice makers. Laboratory experiments were done to test the adsorption and desorption performance of the sorbent under different temperature conditions suitable for solar energy utilization. More than 75% of the reaction between LiCl and ammonia was completed after 30 min of synthesis at evaporation temperatures of -10 and -5 C and adsorption temperature between 25 and 35 C. Under the same period, it was possible to obtain 80% conversion in the desorption phase, when the generation temperatures ranged between 75 and 80 C, and the condensation temperature varied from 25 to 35 C. The highest average specific cooling power during the synthesis phase was 117 W per kg of the block. The calculated theoretical coefficient of performance (COP) under different cycle conditions was nearly constant at 0.47. Moreover, the new composite sorbent showed higher Specific Cooling Capacity (SCC), compared to activated carbon (AC)/methanol pair. Experiments done with blocks with different proportion of EG, showed that the proportion of EG influence the cooling capacity per unit mass of salt and had almost no influence on the cooling capacity per unit mass of the block. Moreover, the reaction enthalpy ({delta}H) and entropy ({delta}S) were calculated from experimental data obtained experimentally, and confirmed previous reported values. (author)

  14. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride on infection of cells by porcine parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ye; Yan, Huichao; Zheng, Hao; Shi, Yuzhen; Sun, Lingsuang; Wang, Chong; Sun, Jingchen

    2015-04-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) causes reproductive failure in pigs, which leads to economic losses to the industry. As reported previously, LiCl efficiently impairs the replication of a variety of viruses, including the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and pseudorabies herpesvirus. We demonstrate for the first time that inhibition of PPV replication in swine testis (ST) cells by LiCl is dose-dependent, and that the antiviral effect of LiCl occurred in the early phase of PPV replication. These results indicate that LiCl might be an effective anti-PPV drug to control PPV disease. Further studies are required to explore the mechanism of the antiviral effect of LiCl on PPV infection in vivo. PMID:25663217

  15. Lithium chloride induces mesenchymal-to-epithelial reverting transition in primary colon cancer cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    COSTABILE, VALERIA; DURATURO, FRANCESCA; DELRIO, PAOLO; REGA, DANIELA; PACE, UGO; LICCARDO, RAFFAELLA; ROSSI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA; GENESIO, RITA; NITSCH, LUCIO; IZZO, PAOLA; DE ROSA, MARINA

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) confers stem cell-like phenotype and more motile properties to carcinoma cells. During EMT, the expression of E-cadherin decreases, resulting in loss of cell-cell adhesion and increased migration. Expression of Twist1 and other pleiotropic transcription factors, such as Snail, is known to activate EMT. We established primary colon cancer cell cultures from samples of operated patients and validated cultures by cytogenetic and molecular biology approaches. Western blot assay, quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence were performed to investigate the expression of E-cadherin, vimentin, ?-catenin, cytokeratin-20 and -18, Twist1, Snail, CD44, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), Sox2, Oct4 and Nanog. Moreover, cell differentiation was induced by incubation with LiCl-containing medium for 10 days. We observed that these primary colorectal cancer (CRC) cells lost expression of the E-cadherin epithelial marker, which was instead expressed in cancer and normal colon mucosa of the same patient, while overexpressed vimentin (mesenchymal marker), Twist1, Snail (EMT markers) and COX2. Cytokeratin-18 was expressed both in tissues and cell cultures. Expression of stem cell markers, such as CD44, Oct4 and Nanog, were also observed. Following differentiation with the glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) inhibitor LiCl, the cells began to express E-cadherin and, at once, Twist1 and Snail expression was strongly downregulated, suggesting a MET-reverting process. In conclusion, we established primary colon mesenchymal cancer cell cultures expressing mesenchymal and epithelial biomarkers together with high level of EMT transcription factors. We propose that they could represent a good model for studying EMT and its reverting mechanism, the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). Our observation indicates that LiCl, a GSK3? inhibitor, induces MET in vitro, suggesting that LiCl and GSK3? could represent, respectively, interesting drug, and target for CRC therapy. PMID:25738332

  16. Discharge of 1400 AH lithium thionyl chloride cells into voltage reversal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolla, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a high energy density battery is discussed. Tests were conducted on a 1400 AH cell and they include: drop tests, crush tests, vibration and shock tests, hydrostatic pressure effects, charge current tests, and discharge tests. None of these tests led to a venting or explosion of the cell. Criteria are presented for extending RV safety of a 1400 AH cell.

  17. Lithium/thionyl chloride batteries for the small intercontinental ballistic missile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, V. D. A.; Wilson, J. P.; Bruckner, J.; Inenaga, B.; Hall, J. C.

    The Small ICBM (SICBM) requires two batteries for flight testing; while power for the instrumentation and range safety system (IRSS) is furnished by a five-function battery set, the guidance and control system is powered by a three-function airborne power supply (APS). The activated stand requirements of the IRSS are met by the use of LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte in all cells. The APS cells employ a slightly acidic electrolyte. The SICBM's IRSS battery has already completed a formal certification program, and is accordingly the first spaceflight-qualified reserve Li battery.

  18. MSXalpha calculation of the electronic structure of Cu + and Ag + ions in lithium chloride single crystal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Moine; H. Chermette; C. Pedrini

    1986-01-01

    The multiple-scattering X? method applied to an embedded (MCl6)5? cluster (M=Ag,Cu) is used to describe the electronic structure of Ag+ and Cu+ in the LiCl crystal. Several calculations have been performed with different impurity–ligand distances in order to reach the equilibrium distance. The vibrational energy of the breathing mode is deduced from the total energy variation of the cluster vs

  19. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Oakbrook, IL)

    2008-12-23

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  20. Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes For Lithium Cells And Batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

    2004-01-20

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  1. Round-Robin test on chloride analysis in concrete—Part I: Analysis of total chloride content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Castellote; C. Andrade

    2001-01-01

    The present paper gives part of the results of a Round Robin Test on chloride analysis in concrete, carried out by the Technical\\u000a Committee TC 178-TMC. In this RRT, the analysis of total chloride, free chloride and the colourimetric determination of the\\u000a front of chlorides in concrete have been tested. This paper reports the results corresponding to total chloride content.

  2. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tommasso J.R., Wright, M. I.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  3. Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Generation of waste water containing sodium chloride from cucumber fermentation tank yards could be eliminated if cucumbers were fermented in brines that did not contain this salt. To determine if this is feasible, cucumbers were fermented in brines that contained only calcium chloride to maintain f...

  4. Sources of error in using silver\\/silver chloride electrodes to monitor chloride activity in concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P Atkins; M. A Carter; J. D Scantlebury

    2001-01-01

    The silver\\/silver chloride electrode is discussed as a chloride-monitoring device in concrete rather than as a reference electrode. The effects of temperature, bromide ions, and applied potential fields on the reliability and accuracy of these electrodes are evaluated. The effect of temperature is assessed using a novel mathematical approach and the other two effects are examined experimentally.

  5. Recovery of Lithium Hydroxide from Spent Lithium Carbonate using Crystallizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2008-01-01

    Recovery of LiOH from the spent Li2CO3 used as absorbent for carbon dioxide in breathing apparatus was successfully explored by precipitation and crystallization. A lithium hydroxide solution was prepared by precipitation of calcium carbonate using reaction of spent Li2CO3 and calcium hydroxide. The effects of the operating conditions on the reaction were investigated. Conversion of calcium carbonate was about 95%.

  6. Minerals yearbook, 1993: Lithium. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, J.A.

    1994-06-01

    The two companies that produced lithium in the United States in 1993 did so from two different types of deposits. Both firms mined spodumene (a ltihium-aluminum-silicate mineral) from large hard-rock deposits in North Carolina using open pit methods. Lithium was recovered from geothermal brine deposits in Nevada. During 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) offered for sale approximately 14 million kilograms of its 36-million-kilogram stock of lithium hydroxide monohydrate.

  7. Electrode materials and lithium battery systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalil Amine; Ilias Belharouak; Jun Liu

    2011-01-01

    A material comprising a lithium titanate comprising a plurality of primary particles and secondary particles, wherein the average primary particle size is about 1 nm to about 500 nm and the average secondary particle size is about 1 .mu.m to about 4 .mu.m. In some embodiments the lithium titanate is carbon-coated. Also provided are methods of preparing lithium titanates, and

  8. Lithium ion batteries for medical devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Spillman; Esther S. Takeuchi

    1999-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are being developed for nonimplantable and implantable medical devices. The high voltage, energy density and unique characteristics of this battery system are, in some cases, an enabling technology for the medical device. In other cases, the lithium-ion system provides additional convenience to the patients who use these devices. Especially for implantable medical devices, lithium-ion batteries must be designed

  9. Electrode materials and lithium battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Belharouak, Ilias (Westmont, IL); Liu, Jun (Naperville, IL)

    2011-06-28

    A material comprising a lithium titanate comprising a plurality of primary particles and secondary particles, wherein the average primary particle size is about 1 nm to about 500 nm and the average secondary particle size is about 1 .mu.m to about 4 .mu.m. In some embodiments the lithium titanate is carbon-coated. Also provided are methods of preparing lithium titanates, and devices using such materials.

  10. Neutron attenuation characteristics of polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, and heavy aggregate concrete and mortars

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul-Majid, S.; Othman, F. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    1994-03-01

    Polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride pellets were introduced into concrete to improve its neutron attenuation characteristics while several types of heavy coarse aggregates were used to improve its gamma ray attenuation properties. Neutron and gamma ray attenuation were studied in concrete samples containing coarse aggregates of barite, pyrite, basalt, hematite, and marble as well as polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride pellets in narrow-beam geometry. The highest neutron attenuation was shown by polyethylene mortar, followed by polyvinyl chloride mortar; barite and pyrite concrete showed higher gamma ray attenuation than ordinary concrete. Broad-beam and continuous (infinite) medium geometries were used to study the neutron attenuation of samples containing polymers at different concentrations with and without heavy aggregates, the fitting equations were established, and from these the neutron removal coefficients were deduced. In a radiation field of neutrons and gamma rays, the appropriate concentration of polymer and heavy aggregate can be selected to give the optimum total dose attenuation depending on the relative intensities of each type of radiation. This would give much better design flexibility over ordinary concrete. The compressive strength tests performed on mortar and concrete samples showed that their value, in general, decreases as polymer concentration increases and that the polyvinyl chloride mortar showed higher values than the polyethylene mortar. For general construction purposes, the compression strength was considered acceptable in these samples. 34 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Neutron attenuation characteristics of polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, and heavy aggregate concrete and mortars.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Majid, S; Othman, F

    1994-03-01

    Polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride pellets were introduced into concrete to improve its neutron attenuation characteristics while several types of heavy coarse aggregates were used to improve its gamma ray attenuation properties. Neutron and gamma ray attenuation were studied in concrete samples containing coarse aggregates of barite, pyrite, basalt, hematite, and marble as well as polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride pellets in narrow-beam geometry. The highest neutron attenuation was shown by polyethylene mortar, followed by polyvinyl chloride mortar; barite and pyrite concrete showed higher gamma ray attenuation than ordinary concrete. Broad-beam and continuous (infinite) medium geometries were used to study the neutron attenuation of samples containing polymers at different concentrations with and without heavy aggregates, the fitting equations were established, and from these the neutron removal coefficients were deduced. In a radiation field of neutrons and gamma rays, the appropriate concentration of polymer and heavy aggregate can be selected to give the optimum total dose attenuation depending on the relative intensities of each type of radiation. This would give much better design flexibility over ordinary concrete. The compressive strength tests performed on mortar and concrete samples showed that their value, in general, decreases as polymer concentration increases and that the polyvinyl chloride mortar showed higher values than the polyethylene mortar. For general construction purposes, the compression strength was considered acceptable in these samples. PMID:8106253

  12. Effect of mercuric chloride and methylmercury chloride exposure on tissue concentrations of six essential minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Bogden, J.D.; Kemp, F.W.; Troiano, R.A.; Jortner, B.S.; Timpone, C.; Giuliani, D.

    1980-04-01

    There are few data on the effects of mercury exposure on tissue concentrations of essential minerals. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to mercuric chloride and methylmercury chloride administered via the drinking water. Subsequently, the kidneys, spleen, liver, and brain were analyzed for mercury, calcium, copper, magnesium, manganese, iron, and zinc by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Significant differences from controls were found for brain copper, kidney copper, and kidney zinc in the mercuric chloride-exposed animals; and for brain iron, kidney copper, kidney iron, kidney magnesium, spleen magnesium, and liver manganese in the methylmercury chloride-exposed rats. There was a fivefold higher mean kidney copper concentration in the mercuric chloride-exposed group; this may be related to the induction of renal metallothionein synthesis by mercury. Increased kidney copper may be a manifestation of heavy metal-induced renal toxicity. Both inorganic and methylmercury exposure produce significant changes in tissue concentrations of some essential minerals.

  13. Secondary lithium cells for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surampudi, S.; Shen, D. H.; Huang, C.-K.; Narayanan, S. R.; Attia, A.; Halpert, G.

    1992-02-01

    It is concluded that secondary lithium batteries are suitable for planetary missions requiring high specific energy, long active shelf life, and limited cycle life. Titanium disulfide cathode material meet all the requirements for rechargeable lithium cell, including high intrinsic reversibility and realizable specific energy. Secondary lithium technology is still evolving, although low capacity cells have been demonstrated and greater than 700 cycle life was achieved. Work is in progress to improve the cycle life and safety of the electrolytes, alternate lithium anode, and the separators.

  14. Is lithium potentially a trace element?

    PubMed Central

    Terao, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Lithium, a naturally occurring element, is widely used in clinical settings for psychiatric treatment. Several studies showed that micro-dose lithium (e.g., lithium in drinking water) could have anti-aging and anti-dementia effects in addition to an anti-suicidal effect, although anti-mania and psychosis or anti-cancer effects are yet to be determined. Although these studies do not provide conclusive evidence, further studies are warranted to investigate whether lithium is trace element. If so, future studies would need to determine what levels are required to maintain mental health. PMID:25815250

  15. Review of lithium-ion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.; Cieslak, W.R.

    1993-12-31

    The first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds (GIC) as battery anodes was reported in a 1981 patent by Basu in which a molten salt cell was described having a negative electrode that consisted of lithium intercalated in graphite. A second patent by Basu, issued in 1983, described an ambient temperature rechargeable system which also utilized lithium intercalated in graphite as the anode. Work in this area progressed at a low level, however, until interest was sparked in 1990 when Sony Corporation announced a new ``lithium-ion`` rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode. These cells have the advantages of metallic lithium systems; i.e., high energy density, high voltage, and light weight, without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium. Materials other than carbon have been studied as intercalation anodes. Examples are Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, WO{sub 2} and TiS{sub 2}. Although these alternate anode materials are of interest academically and for specialty applications, they do not hold much promise for widespread general use due to their increased weight and lower cell voltage. Studies of cathode materials for lithium-ion systems have centered on the transition metal chalcogenides. A number of these materials are capable of reversibly intercalating lithium ions at a useful potential versus lithium. Both organic liquids and polymers are candidate electrolytes for this technology.

  16. Ternary compound electrode for lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Godshall, Ned A. (Stanford, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and of light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated in the temperature range of about 350.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell in which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell has a positive electrode which includes a ternary compound generally represented as Li-M-O, wherein M is a transition metal. Corrosion of the inventive cell is considerably reduced.

  17. Lithium: How it might Protect the Brain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-04-14

    Professor Wayne Drevets discusses ways in which lithium may affect bipolar disorder. It affects multiple neurotransmitter systems and may protect brain structures that are atrophied in bipolar disorder.

  18. Secondary lithium cells for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Shen, D. H.; Huang, C.-K.; Narayanan, S. R.; Attia, A.; Halpert, G.

    1992-01-01

    It is concluded that secondary lithium batteries are suitable for planetary missions requiring high specific energy, long active shelf life, and limited cycle life. Titanium disulfide cathode material meet all the requirements for rechargeable lithium cell, including high intrinsic reversibility and realizable specific energy. Secondary lithium technology is still evolving, although low capacity cells have been demonstrated and greater than 700 cycle life was achieved. Work is in progress to improve the cycle life and safety of the electrolytes, alternate lithium anode, and the separators.

  19. Is lithium potentially a trace element?

    PubMed

    Terao, Takeshi

    2015-03-22

    Lithium, a naturally occurring element, is widely used in clinical settings for psychiatric treatment. Several studies showed that micro-dose lithium (e.g., lithium in drinking water) could have anti-aging and anti-dementia effects in addition to an anti-suicidal effect, although anti-mania and psychosis or anti-cancer effects are yet to be determined. Although these studies do not provide conclusive evidence, further studies are warranted to investigate whether lithium is trace element. If so, future studies would need to determine what levels are required to maintain mental health. PMID:25815250

  20. Water- Lithium Bromide-?- Butyrolactone Absorption Refrigerating Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyoki, Shigeki; Uemura, Tadashi

    This investigation was carried out in order to find corrosion inhibitors which would be effective in controlling the corrosion for the water-lithium bromide-?-butyrolactone (20 moles water/1 mole ?-butyrolactone) absorption refrigerating machine. The experiments were carried out on continuous boiling test, intermittent boiling test and galvanic corrosion test with the use of organic inhibitors and inorganic inhibitors in ?-butyrolactone aqueous solution of lithium bromide. The metals used in these corrosion tests were mainly SS 41 and copper. From these experimental results, the most suitable corrosion inhibitors for SS 41 and copper in ?-butyrolactone aqueous solution of lithium bromide Were recognized to be benzotriazole, tolyltriazole and lithium molybdate.

  1. Iron-lithium anode for thermal battery

    SciTech Connect

    Winchester, C.S.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a lithium anode for use in a thermal battery having a composite material comprising lithium and a particulate metal capable of being wetted by molten lithium, but only slightly or not alloyable with the lithium. The composite anode material is positioned adjacent a metal collector element the improvement comprising: a metal screen positioned between and substantially co-extensive with the anode composite and the metal collector element. The anode is thereby spaced apart from the element but is in electrical contact and the screen is electrically conductive.

  2. Protected anodes for lithium-air batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gleb Yu. Aleshin; Dmitry A. Semenenko; Alina I. Belova; Tatyana K. Zakharchenko; Daniil M. Itkis; Eugene A. Goodilin; Yurii D. Tretyakov

    2011-01-01

    A new protected anode for lithium-air batteries is designed using lithium foil and lithium–aluminium–germanium–phosphorus glass–ceramics (LAGP) with improved specific conductivity exceeding 3.1?10?4Scm?1 at 80°C and 1.4?10?4Scm?1 at ?20°C. Prevention of anode or electrolyte degradation provided stability of the battery characteristics for at least 10 cycles. In particular, a lithium-air battery with the protected anode and an activated carbon cathode modified

  3. Uranium nitride chloride UNCl: 30 K-class ferromagnet with layered structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Akio; Akabori, Mitsuo; Ogawa, Toru; Huntelaar, M.

    2005-04-01

    Uranium nitride chloride (UNCl) has an unique tetragonal crystal structure, in which the U/N/U trilayer is sandwiched by the chlorine (Cl) double layers. This structure is homologous to Hf(Zr)NCl, for which high- TC superconductivity ( T=25.5 K) has been recently discovered to result from the lithium (Li) intercalation. Recent specific heat measurements on this compound have revealed the existence of a lambda-type phase transition around 32 K. In the present study, this anomaly was confirmed to be correspondent for a ferromagnetic transition in the uranium ions having a localized 4f 2(U 4+) character: Its saturation moment ( ?B(sat)) attains a value of ?1.56 ?B at 2 K. Among varieties of actinide (An) compounds, UNCl and related systems, AnNX (X=halogens (Cl, Br, I)) may represent a novel class of layer mixed compounds with intriguing magnetic, electronic and chemical-bonding properties.

  4. Electrochemical chloride extraction: efficiency and side effects

    SciTech Connect

    Orellan, J.C.; Escadeillas, G.; Arliguie, G

    2004-02-01

    Some specimens of reinforced concrete cast with an alkali-resistant aggregate, previously maintained in a solution of NaCl, were subjected to an electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE). The chloride profiles before and after treatment were determined. Likewise, alkali ions profiles before and after treatment were determined. After treatment, some specimens were stored in a controlled atmosphere (60 deg. C and 100% RH) in order to accelerate the alkali-silica reaction, if any. Results of chloride content after treatment show that about 40% of the initial chloride is removed within 7 weeks. About one-half of the chloride close to steel was removed, but at the same time, significant amounts of alkali ions were observed around the steel. Microstructural observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that after treatment, new cementitious phases containing higher concentrations of sodium, aluminum and potassium were formed. Moreover, alkali-silica gel was observed in the specimens stored at 60 deg. C and 100% RH. It may be possible that the ECE accumulates locally high amounts of alkali ions that stimulate the alkali-silica reaction even though the concrete contained nominally inert siliceous aggregates. The specimen expansions were not recorded, but no cracks were observed.

  5. Plasma response to lithium-coated plasma-facing components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, M. G.; Kugel, H. W.; Kaita, R.; Zakharov, L. E.; Schneider, H.; Le Blanc, B. P.; Mansfield, D.; Bell, R. E.; Maingi, R.; Ding, S.; Kaye, S. M.; Paul, S. F.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Canik, J. M.; Hosea, J. C.; Taylor, G.; NSTX Research Team

    2009-12-01

    Experiments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have shown beneficial effects on the performance of divertor plasmas as a result of applying lithium coatings on the graphite and carbon-fiber-composite plasma-facing components. These coatings have mostly been applied by a pair of lithium evaporators mounted at the top of the vacuum vessel which inject collimated streams of lithium vapor toward the lower divertor. In neutral beam injection (NBI)-heated deuterium H-mode plasmas run immediately after the application of lithium, performance modifications included decreases in the plasma density, particularly in the edge, and inductive flux consumption, and increases in the electron and ion temperatures and the energy confinement time. Reductions in the number and amplitude of edge-localized modes (ELMs) were observed, including complete ELM suppression for periods of up to 1.2 s, apparently as a result of altering the stability of the edge. However, in the plasmas where ELMs were suppressed, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities, although not of lithium itself which remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. The impurity buildup could be inhibited by repetitively triggering ELMs with the application of brief pulses of an n = 3 radial field perturbation. The reduction in the edge density by lithium also inhibited parasitic losses through the scrape-off-layer of ICRF power coupled to the plasma, enabling the waves to heat electrons in the core of H-mode plasmas produced by NBI. Lithium has also been introduced by injecting a stream of chemically stabilized, fine lithium powder directly into the scrape-off-layer of NBI-heated plasmas. The lithium was ionized in the SOL and appeared to flow along the magnetic field to the divertor plates. This method of coating produced similar effects to the evaporated lithium but at lower amounts.

  6. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  7. Aluminum-lithium target behavior

    SciTech Connect

    McDonell, W.R.

    1989-10-01

    Information on physical properties and irradiation behavior of aluminum-lithium target alloys employed for the production of tritium in Savannah River reactors has been reviewed to support development of technology for the New Production Reactor (NPR). Phase compositions and microstructures, thermal conductivity, mechanical properties, and constituent diffusion phenomena of the alloys, established in prior site studies, are presented. Irradiation behavior, including distributions of product tritium and helium and related exposure limits due to swelling and cracking of the target alloys is discussed, along with gas release processes occurring during subsequent product recovery operations. The property review supports designation of the aluminum-lithium alloys as ideally well-suited target materials for low-temperature, tritium-producing reactors, demonstrated over 35 years of Savannah River reactor operation. Low temperature irradiation and reaction with lithium in the alloy promotes tritium retention during reactor exposure, and the aluminum provides a matrix from which the product is readily recovered on heating following irradiation. 33 refs., 26 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Lithium batteries for pulse power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redey, Laszlo

    New designs of lithium batteries having bipolar construction and thin cell components possess the very low impedance that is necessary to deliver high-intensity current pulses. The research and development and understanding of the fundamental properties of these pulse batteries have reached an advanced level. Ranges of 50 to 300 kW/kg specific power and 80 to 130 Wh/kg specific energy have been demonstrated with experimental high-temperature lithium alloy/transition-metal disulfide rechargeable bipolar batteries in repeated 1- to 100-ms long pulses. Other versions are designed for repetitive power bursts that may last up to 20 or 30 s and yet may attain high specific power (1 to 10 kW/kg). Primary high-temperature Li-alloy/FeS2 pulse batteries (thermal batteries) are already commercially available. Other high-temperature lithium systems may use chlorine or metal-oxide positive electrodes. Also under development are low-temperature pulse batteries: a 50-kW Li/SOCl2 primary batter and an all solid-state, polymer-electrolyte secondary battery. Such pulse batteries could find use in commercial and military applications in the near future.

  9. Lithium ion storage between graphenes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the storage of lithium ions between two parallel graphene sheets using the continuous approximation and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential. The continuous approximation assumes that the carbon atoms can be replaced by a uniform distribution across the surface of the graphene sheets so that the total interaction potential can be approximated by performing surface integrations. The number of ion layers determines the major storage characteristics of the battery, and our results show three distinct ionic configurations, namely single, double, and triple ion forming layers between graphenes. The number densities of lithium ions between the two graphenes are estimated from existing semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations, and the graphene sheets giving rise to the triple ion layers admit the largest storage capacity at all temperatures, followed by a marginal decrease of storage capacity for the case of double ion layers. These two configurations exceed the maximum theoretical storage capacity of graphite. Further, on taking into account the charge-discharge property, the double ion layers are the most preferable choice for enhanced lithium storage. Although the single ion layer provides the least charge storage, it turns out to be the most stable configuration at all temperatures. One application of the present study is for the design of future high energy density alkali batteries using graphene sheets as anodes for which an analytical formulation might greatly facilitate rapid computational results. PMID:21711713

  10. In-situ vacuum deposition technique of lithium on neutron production target for BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, S.; Baba, Y.; Fujii, R.; Nakamura, M.; Imahori, Y.

    2012-10-01

    For the purpose of avoiding the radiation blistering of the lithium target for neutron production in BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) device, trilaminar Li target, of which palladium thin layer was inserted between cupper substrate and Li layer, was newly designed. In-situ vacuum deposition and electrolytic coating techniques were applied to validate the method of fabrication of the Li/Pd/Cu target, and the layered structures of the synthesized target were characterized. In-situ vacuum re-deposition technique was also established for repairing and maintenance for lithium target damaged. Following conclusions were derived; (1) Uniform lithium layers with the thickness from 1.6 nm to a few hundreds nanometer were formed on Pd/Cu multilayer surface by in situ vacuum deposition technique using metallic lithium as a source material. (2) Re-deposition of lithium layer on Li surface can be achieved by in situ vacuum deposition technique. (3) Small amount of water and carbonate was observed on the top surface of Li. But the thickness of the adsorbed layer was less than monolayer, which will not affect the quality of the Li target. (4) The formation of Pd-Li alloy layer was observed at the Pd and Li interface. The alloy layer would contribute to the stability of the Li layer.

  11. Enhanced H-mode pedestals with lithium injection in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, T. H.; Jackson, G. L.; Yan, Z.; Maingi, R.; Mansfield, D. K.; Grierson, B. A.; Chrobak, C. P.; McLean, A. G.; Allen, S. L.; Battaglia, D. J.; Briesemeister, A. R.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; McKee, G. R.; Snyder, P. B.; The DIII-D Team

    2015-06-01

    Periods of edge localized mode (ELM)-free H-mode with increased pedestal pressure and width were observed in the DIII-D tokamak when density fluctuations localized to the region near the separatrix were present. Injection of a powder of 45 µm diameter lithium particles increased the duration of the enhanced pedestal phases to up to 350 ms, and also increased the likelihood of a transition to the enhanced phase. Lithium injection at a level sufficient for triggering the extended enhanced phases resulted in significant lithium in the plasma core, but carbon and other higher Z impurities as well as radiated power levels were reduced. Recycling of the working deuterium gas appeared unaffected by this level of lithium injection. The ion scale, k??s ? 0.1–0.2, density fluctuations propagated in the electron drift direction with f ? 80 kHz and occurred in bursts every ?1 ms. The fluctuation bursts correlated with plasma loss resulting in a flattening of the pressure profile in a region near the separatrix. This localized flattening allowed higher overall pedestal pressure at the peeling–ballooning stability limit and higher pressure than expected under the EPED model due to reduction of the pressure gradient below the ‘ballooning critical profile’. Reduction of the ion pressure by lithium dilution may contribute to the long ELM-free periods.

  12. Radiation damage effects on solid state detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trainor, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Totally depleted silicon diodes are discussed which are used as nuclear particle detectors in investigations of galactic and solar cosmic radiation and trapped radiation. A study of radiation and chemical effects on the diodes was conducted. Work on electron and proton irradiation of surface barrier detectors with thicknesses up to 1 mm was completed, and work on lithium-drifted silicon devices with thicknesses of several millimeters was begun.

  13. Lithium plating in a commercial lithium-ion battery - A low-temperature aging study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzl, Mathias; Kasper, Michael; Danzer, Michael A.

    2015-02-01

    The formation of metallic lithium on the negative graphite electrode in a lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery, also known as lithium plating, leads to severe performance degradation and may also affect the cell safety. This study is focused on the nondestructive characterization of the aging behavior during long-term cycling at plating conditions, i.e. low temperature and high charge rate. A commercial graphite/LiFePO4 Li-ion battery is investigated in order to elucidate the aging effects of lithium plating for real-world purposes. It is shown that lithium plating can be observed as a loss of cyclable lithium which affects the capacity balance of the electrodes. In this way, lithium plating counteracts its own occurrence during prolonged cycling. The capacity losses due to lithium plating are therefore decreasing at higher cycle numbers and the capacity retention curve exhibits an inflection point. It is further shown that the observed capacity fade is partly reversible. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) reveals a significant increase of the ohmic cell resistance due to electrolyte consumption during surface film formation on the plated lithium. Additional cell opening provides important quantitative information regarding the thickness of the lithium layer and the corresponding mass of the plated lithium.

  14. Development of liquid-lithium film jet-flow for the target of (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reactions for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tooru; Miura, Kuniaki; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Aritomi, Masanori

    2014-06-01

    A feasibility study on liquid lithium target in the form of a flowing film was performed to evaluate its potential use as a neutron generation target of (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction in BNCT. The target is a windowless-type flowing film on a concave wall. Its configuration was adapted for a proton beam which is 30mm in diameter and with energy and current of up to 3MeV and 20mA, respectively. The flowing film of liquid lithium was 0.6mm in thickness, 50mm in width and 50mm in length. The shapes of the nozzle and concave back wall, which create a stable flowing film jet, were decided based on water experiments. A lithium hydrodynamic experiment was performed to observe the stability of liquid lithium flow behavior. The flowing film of liquid lithium was found to be feasible at temperatures below the liquid lithium boiling saturation of 342°C at the surface pressure of 1×10(-3)Pa. Using a proto-type liquid lithium-circulating loop for BNCT, the stability of the film flow was confirmed for velocities up to 30m/s at 220°C and 250°C in vacuum at a pressure lower than 10(-3) Pa. It is expected that for practical use, a flowing liquid lithium target of a windowless type can solve the problem of radiation damage and target cooling. PMID:24412425

  15. Chloride deficiency in Holstein calves from a low chloride diet and removal of abomasal contents.

    PubMed

    Neathery, M W; Blackmon, D M; Miller, W J; Heinmiller, S; McGuire, S; Tababula, J M; Gentry, R P; Allen, J C

    1981-11-01

    Chloride deficiency signs were produced in young Holstein calves by a low chloride diet (.063% chlorine) and daily removal of chloride in abomasal contents. General clinical signs included anorexia, weights loss, lethargy, mild polydipsia, and mild polyuria. In latter stages of the deficiency, severe eye defects (scleral injection, sunken eyes, scaliness around eyes) and reduced respiration rate became evident. Feces contained varying amounts of blood and mucus. The chloride imbalance resulted in severe alkalosis and hypochloremia leading to secondary hypokalemia, hyponatremia, and azotemia. All deficient calves died after 24, 28, 38, and 46 days of treatment. Chloride concentrations of plasma in each of the calves just prior to death were similar at 31 to 35 meq/liter, which compares with normal 96 meq/liter. One additional calf made chloride deficient was recovered to normal health in 9 days following a single treatment with salt water and feeding of control diet containing .48% chlorine. Control calves fed a diet with .48% chlorine and which also had their abomasal contents removed daily grew normally and exhibited no deficiency signs. When dietary chloride was adequate, removal of abomasal contents (and chlorine) had no adverse effects on the animals. PMID:7199542

  16. Alkyl Chlorides as Hydrogen Bond Acceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Nadas, Janos I [ORNL; Vukovic, Sinisa [ORNL; Hay, Benjamin [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    To gain an understanding of the role of an alkyl chloride as a hydrogen bond acceptor, geometries and interaction energies were calculated at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory for complexes between ethyl chloride and representative hydrogen donor groups. The results establish that these donors, which include hydrogen cyanide, methanol, nitrobenzene, pyrrole, acetamide, and N-methylurea, form X-H {hor_ellipsis} Cl hydrogen bonds (X = C, N, O) of weak to moderate strength, with {Delta}E values ranging from -2.8 to -5.3 kcal/mol.

  17. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines.

    PubMed

    Ammitzbóll, Andreas L; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata; Vegge, Tejs; Quaade, Ulrich J

    2013-04-28

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammonia desorption originating from the adsorbed state is directly observed below the bulk desorption temperature, as confirmed by density functional theory calculations. The desorption enthalpy of the adsorbed state of strontium chloride octa-ammine is determined with both techniques to be around 37-39 kJ?mol. A simple kinetic model is proposed that accounts for the absorption of ammonia through the adsorbed state. PMID:23635159

  18. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata; Vegge, Tejs; Quaade, Ulrich J.

    2013-04-01

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammonia desorption originating from the adsorbed state is directly observed below the bulk desorption temperature, as confirmed by density functional theory calculations. The desorption enthalpy of the adsorbed state of strontium chloride octa-ammine is determined with both techniques to be around 37-39 kJ/mol. A simple kinetic model is proposed that accounts for the absorption of ammonia through the adsorbed state.

  19. A chloride conduction test for concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Streicher, P.E.; Alexander, M.G. [Univ. of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa). Dept. of Civil Engineering] [Univ. of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-08-01

    The paper describes the development of a very rapid test that measures the permeability of concrete to chloride ions. Once sample conditioning has been done, up to 20 concrete samples can be tested in an hour using a single conductivity cell. The test involves saturating a concrete sample with a 5 M NaCl solution, before measuring the conductivity of the sample. By saturating samples with a highly conductive solution, they have virtually the same pore water conductivity. Difference concrete samples yield different conductivities primarily because of differences in their pore structure. The measured conductivity is related to the diffusibility ratio as well as to the chloride diffusivity of the concrete.

  20. Properties of a passivating film on the surface of lithium electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazarinov, V. E.; Bagotzky, V. S.

    The properties of the primary passivation film formed on a lithium electrode in a solution of LiAlCl 4 in thionyl chloride are described. The thickness of the film grows rapidly to 1 - 1.5 nm during the first few hours after contact of the lithium with the electrolyte, and then becomes ? 5 nm after a certain period of time. The film has a continuous, not obviously crystalline, structure, and its conductivity for lithium ions has a semiconductor nature that is determined by the presence of defects in the crystal. The film exhibits a p-type electronic conductivity that is caused by electron holes as the minority current carriers, and its presence leads to the further growth of a continuous film. The decrease in the concentration of the minority carriers in the bulk of the film during exposure of the electrode to the solution can be associated with slow structure-ordering processes. The formation of a thick, crystalline secondary film after long electrode exposure hinders mass transfer in the solution layers adjacent to the electrode and preserves the primary film.

  1. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the ischemic brain under lithium treatment. Link to mitochondrial disorders under stroke.

    PubMed

    Silachev, Denis N; Gulyaev, Mikhail V; Zorova, Ljubava D; Khailova, Ljudmila S; Gubsky, Leonid V; Pirogov, Yury A; Plotnikov, Egor Y; Sukhikh, Gennady T; Zorov, Dmitry B

    2015-07-25

    Recent evidence suggests that mitochondria are one of the main factors in the pathogenesis in different organs including brain. The pathogenesis after brain damage is caused not only by the change in bioenergetics, but also involves impairment of alternative functions of mitochondria, particularly those related to the control of cell death. In this study we evaluated partial metabolic pathways under the simulation of a stroke by using the occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats. The analysis shows that the induced switch to a non-oxidative energy metabolism (glycolysis) due to the block of tissue oxygen supply does not ensure the adequate supply of the tissue with ATP. Moreover, the well-known acidification of the ischemic tissue is not associated with the so-called traditionally and incorrectly considered "lactic acidosis" (the generation of lactate from glucose by itself does not lead to excessive generation of protons), but occurs because of the consumption of tissue ATP under its reduced resynthesis. Incubation of mitochondria isolated from normal rat brain at neutral and slightly acidic pH, mimicking the intracellular pH of normal and ischemic tissues correspondingly, revealed serious changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics, partially reflected in the magnitude of respiratory control and the basal and maximally stimulated respiration rates. Measurement of available metabolites by (1)H MR spectra of normal and ischemia-damaged brains showed a significant increase in lactate and myo-inositol and a moderate decrease in N-acetylaspartate 24h after reperfusion. Remarkably, the administration of lithium chloride in the reperfusion phase normalized the levels of metabolites. Moreover, the introduction of lithium salts (chloride or succinate) in the bloodstream, restored after ischemia, reduced both the size of the ischemia-induced brain damage and the degree of brain swelling. Besides, post-ischemic introduction of lithium salts largely restored the neurological status of the animal. PMID:26079057

  2. Effect of lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus on ultrasonic vocalizations in the infant rat pup.

    PubMed

    López-Meraz, Maria-Leonor; Medel-Matus, Jesus-Servando; Morgado-Valle, Consuelo; Beltrán-Parrazal, Luis; Pérez-Estudillo, César; Manzo, Jorge

    2014-02-01

    Evidence shows that febrile convulsions induced in rat pups increase ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs); however, the effect of status epilepticus (SE) induced in developing rats on USVs has not been fully investigated. The goal of this study was to analyze USVs following lithium-pilocarpine-induced SE in fourteen-day-old (P14) rat pups. The rat pups were given 3-mEq/kg lithium chloride i.p. on the day before the induction of SE, which was carried out at P14 by subcutaneous injection of 100-mg/kg pilocarpine hydrochloride; control animals were given an equal volume of lithium chloride and saline on P13 and P14, respectively. Ultrasonic vocalizations were monitored at P15, P16, and P21 with a Mini 3 Bat Detector Ultra Sound Advice (15kHz-160kHz) set at 40±4kHz and digitally recorded in WAV format using the Audacity 1.3 beta software. A clear box (60×40×30cm) split down the middle with a holed wall was used; each pup was placed alone in one compartment, whereas its dam was placed on the other cage side at room temperature. Vocalizations were recorded over a 5-minute period, converted to sonograms and spectrograms, and analyzed using the Raven software. Parameters evaluated were as follows: USV frequency, latency to the first USV, and mean USV duration. There was a significant decrease in the latency (35.5±6.9s) and duration (50.8±8.6s) of USVs after SE compared with the control group (81.9±10.8s and 78.1±9.9s, respectively). Status epilepticus affected male and female rats differentially. PMID:24230988

  3. Lithium barium titanate: A stable lithium storage material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiaoting; Li, Peng; Shao, Lianyi; Shui, Miao; Wang, Dongjie; Long, Nengbing; Ren, Yuanlong; Shu, Jie

    2015-03-01

    A series of Li2BaTi6O14 samples are synthesized by a traditional solid-state method by calcining at different temperatures from 800 to 1000 °C. Structural analysis and electrochemical evaluation suggest that the optimum calcining temperature for Li2BaTi6O14 is 950 °C. The Li2BaTi6O14 calcined at 950 °C exhibits a high purity phase with an excellent reversible capacity of 145.7 mAh g-1 for the first cycle at a current density of 50 mA g-1. After 50 cycles, the reversible capacity can be maintained at 137.7 mAh g-1, with the capacity retention of 94.51%. Moreover, this sample also shows outstanding rate property with a high reversible capacity of 118 mAh g-1 at 300 mA g-1. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the stable lithium storage host structure, decreased electrochemical resistance and improved lithium-ion diffusion coefficient. In-situ and ex-situ structure analysis shows that the electrochemical reaction of Li2BaTi6O14 with Li is a highly reversible lithiation-delithiation process. Therefore, Li2BaTi6O14 may be a promising alternative anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Thackeray, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

  5. Bimetallic Cathode Materials for Lithium Based Batteries

    E-print Network

    Bimetallic Cathode Materials for Lithium Based Batteries Frontiers in Materials Science Seminar for implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) are based on the Lithium/Silver vanadium oxide (SVO, Ag2V4O11 to the favorable battery characteristics associated with Ag2VO2PO4 cathodes. Website/Bio Information: http://www.cbe.buffalo.edu/people/full_time/e_takeuchi.php

  6. Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema

    Thackeray, Michael

    2013-04-19

    Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

  7. Dry composite polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Appetecchi, G.B.; Croce, F.; Dautzenberg, G.; Scrosati, B.

    1998-07-01

    The synthesis, characteristics and properties of a PEO-based, dry composite electrolyte are presented and discussed. The major feature of this electrolyte is the high stability towards the lithium metal electrode. This unique property makes the electrolyte quite promising for the development of rechargeable polymer lithium batteries.

  8. Intercalation materials for lithium rechargeable batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Rahner; S. Machill; H. Schlörb; K. Siury; M. Klo?; W. Plieth

    1996-01-01

    In this contribution an overview will be given about the intercalation materials both for the negative and positive electrode of lithium batteries in comparison with results of our own research. Besides lithium metal as a negative electrode, interest is focused on insertion materials based on aluminium alloys. In the case of the positive electrode metal-oxides, those based on manganese, nickel

  9. Anode for rechargeable ambient temperature lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo (inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (inventor); Attia, Alan I. (inventor); Halpert, Gerald (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An ambient room temperature, high density, rechargeable lithium battery includes a Li(x)Mg2Si negative anode which intercalates lithium to form a single crystalline phase when x is up to 1.0 and an amorphous phase when x is from 1 to 2.0. The electrode has good reversibility and mechanical strength after cycling.

  10. Carbon materials for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Flandrois; B. Simon

    1999-01-01

    The recent development of lithium rechargeable batteries results from the use of carbon materials as lithium reservoir at the negative electrode. Reversible intercalation, or insertion, of lithium into the carbon host lattice avoids the problem of lithium dendrite formation and provides large improvement in terms of cycleability and safety. This paper reviews the main achievements on performance and understanding of

  11. Biological effects of lithium: Experimental analysis in plant cytokinesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Becerra; C. L. Encina

    1987-01-01

    Summary The biological effects of lithium ions have been studied, using plant cytokinesis in onion root meristems as the experimental model. Lithium induces binucleate cells by inhibiting cell plate formation. Moreover, lithium and caffeine have additive effects on the induction of binucleate cells. Na+, K+, Ca++ and Mg++ antagonize lithium-induced inhibition of cytokinesis.

  12. Intense Lithium Streams in Tokamaks 1 Leonid E. Zakharov,

    E-print Network

    Zakharov, Leonid E.

    Intense Lithium Streams in Tokamaks 1 Leonid E. Zakharov, Princeton University, Princeton Plasma. Temperature of the streams. 2. Lithium jets. 3. Injection into vacuum chamber. 4. Propulsion inside the vacuum chamber. 5. Stability of the lithium streams. 6. Expulsion of the lithium. 7. Summary. PRINCETON PLASMA

  13. Lithium Lorentz Force Accelerator Thruster (LiLFA)

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    Lithium Lorentz Force Accelerator Thruster (LiLFA) Adam Coulon Princeton University Electric #12;LiLFA Thruster · Lithium vapor ionizes in the electric field · A current evolves in the plasma and Control System Position Sensing Detector #12;Lithium Reservoir Argon Flow Copper Water Flow Piston/Lithium

  14. Block Copolymer-Templated Nanocomposite Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    E-print Network

    Sadoway, Donald Robert

    of rechargeable lithium batteries, the search for high capacity anodes that avoid the safety concerns associatedBlock Copolymer-Templated Nanocomposite Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries S. C. Mui in lithium-alloying metals.1-4 While some lithium alloys such as Li-Sn have high theoretical capacities 990 m

  15. Tritium recovery from lithium oxide pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Bertone, P.C.; Jassby, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    The TFTR Lithium Blanket Module is an assembly containing 650 kg of lithium oxide that will be used to test the ability of neutronics codes to model the tritium breeding characteristics of limited-coverage breeding zones in a tokamak. It is required that tritium concentrations as low as 0.1 nCi/g bred in both metallic lithium samples and lithium oxide pellets be measured with an uncertainty not exceeding +- 6%. A tritium assay technique for the metallic samples which meets this criterion has been developed. Two assay techniques for the lithium oxide pellets are being investigated. In one, the pellets are heated in a flowing stream of hydrogen, while in the other, the pellets are dissolved in 12 M hydrochloric acid.

  16. A lithium deposition system for tokamak devices*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graziul, Christopher; Majeski, Richard; Kaita, Robert; Hoffman, Daniel; Timberlake, John; Card, David

    2002-11-01

    The production of a lithium deposition system using commercially available components is discussed. This system is intended to provide a fresh lithium wall coating between discharges in a tokamak. For this purpose, a film 100-200 Å thick is sufficient to ensure that the plasma interacts solely with the lithium. A test system consisting of a lithium evaporator and a deposition monitor has been designed and constructed to investigate deposition rates and coverage. A Thermionics 3kW e-gun is used to rapidly evaporate small amounts of solid lithium. An Inficon XTM/2 quartz deposition monitor then measures deposition rate at varying distances, positions and angles relative to the e-gun crucible. Initial results from the test system will be presented. *Supported by US DOE contract #DE-AC02-76CH-03073

  17. A preliminary deposit model for lithium brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Dwight; Munk, LeeAnn; Jochens, Hillary; Hynek, Scott; Labay, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    This report is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to update existing mineral deposit models and to develop new ones. The global transition away from hydrocarbons toward energy alternatives increases demand for many scarce metals. Among these is lithium, a key component of lithium-ion batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Lithium brine deposits account for about three-fourths of the world’s lithium production. Updating an earlier deposit model, we emphasize geologic information that might directly or indirectly help in exploration for lithium brine deposits, or for assessing regions for mineral resource potential. Special attention is given to the best-known deposit in the world—Clayton Valley, Nevada, and to the giant Salar de Atacama, Chile.

  18. Precipitation of gold by the reaction of aqueous gold(III)-chloride with cyanobacteria at 25-80°C, studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maggy F. Lengke; Bruce Ravel; Michael E. Fleet; Gregory Wanger; Robert A. Gordon; Gordon Southam

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms of gold precipitation by the interaction of cyanobacteria (Plectonema boryanum UTEX 485) and gold(III) chloride aqueous solutions (7.6 mmol\\/L final gold) have been studied at 25, 60, and 80 C, using both laboratory and real-time synchrotron radiation absorption spectroscopy experiments. Addition of aqueous gold(III) chloride to the cyanobacterial culture initially promoted the precipitation of amorphous gold(I) sulfide at

  19. Aerobic vinyl chloride metabolism in Mycobacterium aurum L1.

    PubMed Central

    Hartmans, S; De Bont, J A

    1992-01-01

    Mycobacterium aurum L1, capable of growth on vinyl chloride as a sole carbon and energy source, was previously isolated from soil contaminated with vinyl chloride (S. Hartmans et al., Biotechnol. Lett. 7:383-388, 1985). The initial step in vinyl chloride metabolism in strain L1 is catalyzed by alkene monooxygenase, transforming vinyl chloride into the reactive epoxide chlorooxirane. The enzyme responsible for chlorooxirane degradation appeared to be very unstable and thus hampered the characterization of the second step in vinyl chloride metabolism. Dichloroethenes are also oxidized by vinyl chloride-grown cells of strain L1, but they are not utilized as growth substrates. Three additional bacterial strains which utilize vinyl chloride as a sole carbon and energy source were isolated from environments with no known vinyl chloride contamination. The three new isolates were similar to strain L1 and were also identified as Mycobacterium aurum. PMID:1599242

  20. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.) [comps.

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)