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1

Taste Aversion Learning Produced by Combined Treatment with Subthreshold Radiation and Lithium Chloride,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These experiments were designed to determine whether treatment with two subthreshold doses of radiation or lithium chloride, either alone or in combination, could lead to taste aversion learning. The first experiment determined the threshold for a radiati...

B. M. Rabin W. A. Hunt J. Lee

1987-01-01

2

Attenuation and cross-attenuation in taste aversion learning in the rat: Studies with ionizing radiation, lithium chloride and ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preexposure paradigm was utilized to evaluate the similarity of ionizing radiation, lithium chloride and ethanol as unconditioned stimuli for the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion. Three unpaired preexposures to lithium chloride (3.0 mEq\\/kg, IP) blocked the acquisition of a taste aversion when a novel sucrose solution was paired with either the injection of the same dose of lithium

B. M. Rabin; W. A. Hunt; J. Lee

1988-01-01

3

Effects of lithium chloride as a potential radioprotective agent on radiation response of DNA synthesis in mouse germinal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse spermatogonial germ cells are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation. Lithium salts are reported to stimulate the postirradiation\\u000a recovery of hematopoietic marrow cells. We have, therefore, examined whether administered lithium chloride (LiCl) would also\\u000a be able to protect the mouse germinal cells against radiation injury. Taking DNA synthesis as an endpoint, our results show\\u000a that the testicular DNA-specific activity in

D. Bhattacharjee; R. Rajan; L. Krishnamoorthy; B. B. Singh

1997-01-01

4

Lithium thionyl chloride battery  

SciTech Connect

The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

1982-10-19

5

A comparison of taste aversions induced by radiation and lithium chloride in CS-US and US-CS paradigms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes 3 experiments with a total of 454 albino male Charles-River rats. Conditioned taste aversions induced by ionizing radiation and lithium chloride (LiCl) were compared with both forward (CS-UCS, conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus) and backward (UCS-CS) conditioning paradigms. Taste aversions were produced when a saccharin CS preceded or followed a 100-r radiation UCS by as much as 6 hrs, but a

Lewis M. Barker; James C. Smith

1974-01-01

6

Thermokinetic characteristics of lithium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterisation of the ionic compound of lithium chloride, LiCl, through XRD, SEM, DSC, TG, DTG and TG-MS analysis is\\u000a reported. The results show that nominally anhydrous LiCl particles can readily absorb water from the ambient atmosphere to\\u000a form a surface layer of lithium chloride mono-hydrate, LiCl·H2O. Solid surface-hydrated LiCl is de-dehydrated via a two-stage mechanism at low heating rates

Ali Reza Kamali; Derek J. Fray; Carsten Schwandt

2011-01-01

7

Lithium orotate, carbonate and chloride: pharmacokinetics, polyuria in rats.  

PubMed Central

1 The pharmacokinetics of the lithium ion administered as lithium orotate were studied in rats. Parallel studies were carried out with lithium carbonate and lithium chloride. 2 No differences in the uptake, distribution and excretion of the lithium ion were observed between lithium orotate, lithium carbonate and lithium chloride after single intraperitoneal, subcutaneous or intragastric injections (0.5-1.0 mEq lithium/kg) or after administration of the lithium salts for 20 days in the food. 3 The findings oppose the notion that the pharmacokinetics of the lithium ion given as lithium orotate differ from lithium chloride or lithium carbonate. 4 Polyuria and polydipsia developed more slowly in rats given lithium orotate than in those given lithium carbonate or lithium chloride, perhaps due to an effect of the orotate anion.

Smith, D F

1976-01-01

8

Distal nephron function of the rat during lithium chloride infusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distal nephron function of the rat during lithium chloride infusion.Chronic lithium (Li) administration in the rat leads to reduced renal concentration (TcH2O) without alterations in renal dilution (CH2O). To examine the acute effects of lithium on TcH2O and CH2O, rats were infused with a solution composed of 1% sodium chloride and 1% lithium chloride or a 0.225% lithium chloride solution

Manuel Martinez-Maldonado; Susan Opava-Stitzer; M Martinez-Maldonaldo

1977-01-01

9

BAM Media M81: Lithium Chloride-Phenylethanol ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M81: Lithium Chloride-Phenylethanol-Moxalactam (LPM) Medium. ... M81 Lithium Chloride-Phenylethanol-Moxalactam (LPM) Medium. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

10

Vapor pressures of water + lithium chloride + ethylene glycol and water + lithium chloride + lithium bromide + ethylene glycol  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous-based working fluids containing several salts or their mixtures concerning primarily lithium bromide have been of much interest for the application to absorption coolers, absorption heat transformers, and absorption heat pumps. The vapor pressures of water + lithium chloride + ethylene glycol and water + lithium chloride + lithium bromide + ethylene glycol (LiCniBr mass ratio 1:1) (H{sub 2}O/C{sub 2}H{sub 6}O{sub 2} mole ratio 10:1) were measured in the temperature ranges from 306.65 to 394.90 K and from 308.10 to 398.20 K and in the absorbent concentration ranges from 11.20 to 45.15 mass % and from 10.01 to 54.17 mass %, respectively. The experimental values were correlated with an Antoine-type equation, and the overall average absolute deviations between the experimental values and the calculated values were found to be 1.65% and 1.03% for the two systems, respectively.

Kim, J.S.; Lee, H. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Won, S.H. [Keonyang Univ., Chungnam (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-03-01

11

Solubilities, vapor pressures, densities, and viscosities of the (water + lithium bromide + lithium iodide + lithium chloride) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of thermophysical properties of the (water + lithium bromide + lithium iodide + lithium chloride) system (LiBr:LiI:LiCl = 4.5:1:2 by mole ratio) were performed as functions of concentration and temperature. Solubilities were measured by a visual polythermal method at temperatures from (248.59 to 350.46) K. Regression equations were obtained with a least-squares method, and the average absolute deviations of

Kee-Kahb Koo; Hyung-Rae Lee; Siyoung Jeong; Young-Sam Oh; Dal-Ryung Park; Young-Soon Baek

1998-01-01

12

Preparation and physical properties of lithium phosphide-lithium chloride, a solid electrolyte for solid state lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid electrolytes with high ionic conductivity and thermodynamic stability are required for high energy density lithium batteries. In this work we prepared a series of composite electrolytes made of lithium phosphide and lithium chloride which are thermodynamically stable in contact with a lithium electrode and which have ionic conductivity significantly higher than other known lithium ion conductors. These composites were

G. A. Nazri; R. A. Conell; C. Julien

1996-01-01

13

Analysis of lithium/thionyl chloride batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lithium/thionyl chloride battery (Li/SOClsb2) has received considerable attention as a primary energy source due to its high energy density, high operating cell voltage, voltage stability over 95% of the discharge, large operating temperature range (-55sp°C to 70sp°C), long storage life, and low cost of materials. In this dissertation, a one-dimensional mathematical model of a spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery has been developed. Mathematical models can be used to tailor a battery design to a specific application, perform accelerated testing, and reduce the amount of experimental data required to yield efficient, yet safe cells. The Model was used in conjunction with the experimental data for parameter estimation and to obtain insights into the fundamental processes occurring in the battery. The diffusion coefficient and the kinetic parameters for the reactions at the anode and the cathode are obtained as a function of temperature by fitting the simulated capacity and average cell voltage to experimental data over a wide range of temperatures (-55 to 49sp°C) and discharge loads (10 to 250 ohms). The experiments were performed on D-sized, cathode-limited, spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride cells at Sandia National Laboratories. The model is also used to study the effect of cathode thickness and current and temperature pulsing on the cell capacity. Thionyl chloride reduction in the porous cathode is accompanied with a volume reduction. The material balance used previously in one-dimensional mathematical models of porous electrodes is invalid when the volume occupied by the reactants and the products is not equal. It is shown here how the material balance has to be modified to either account for the loss in volume, or to account for the inflow of electrolyte from the header into the active pores. The one-dimensional mathematical model of lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery is used to illustrate the effect of this material balance modification on the prediction of the delivered capacity and the electrolyte concentration.

Jain, Mukul

14

Solubilities for the two ternary systems water + lithium bromide + lithium iodide and water + lithium chloride + lithium nitrate at various temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The analyses of absorption refrigeration and heat pump systems need extensive thermodynamic information such as heat capacities, heats of mixing, vapor pressures, solubilities, densities, viscosities, and surface tensions for working medium plus absorbent systems. Solubilities for the water + lithium bromide + lithium iodide (salt mole ratio 4:1) and the water + lithium chloride + lithium nitrate (salt model ratio 2.8:1) systems were measured by means of visual polythermal method from 277.75 to 415.15 K and from 284.85 to 351.75 K, respectively. The transition point for the water + lithium bromide + lithium iodide system existed at 65.3 mass % salts and 293.85 K and at 54.2 mass % salts and 295.75 K for the water + lithium chloride + lithium nitrate system. Two solid-liquid phases for these two ternary systems were stable below and above the individual transition point. Two least-squares regression equations as a function of absolute temperatures were obtained from the individual measured solubility data for these two ternary systems. The maximum and average absolute deviations of the calculated values from the individual experimental data were 0.29 and 0.10 % for the water + lithium chloride + lithium nitrate system, respectively.

Iyoki, Shigeki; Iwasaki, Shozo; Kuriyama, Yutaka; Uemura, Tadashi (Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1993-07-01

15

Open cycle lithium chloride cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lithium chloride open cycle absorption chiller has been designed, built and tested. Solution reconcentration takes place in a small counter current packed column supplied with solar heated air. Removal of noncondensable gases that enter the chiller dissolved in the strong solution and the make-up refrigerant streams is accomplished by a liquid-jet ejector and a small vacuum pump. Cooling capacities approaching 1.4 tons and COP levels of 0.58 have been achieved at non-optimum operating conditions. Test results from preliminary system operation suggest that mass transfer processes in both the packed column reconcentrator and the absorber are controlled by concentration gradients in the lithium chloride solution. Liquid phase controlled mass transfer dictates an operating strategy different from the previously assumed gas phase controlled process to obtain maximum rates of evaporation in the packed column. Determination of optimal operating conditions leading to decreased electrical power consumption and improved cooling capacity and coefficient of performance will require further analysis and testing.

Lenz, T. G.; Loef, G. O. G.; Iyer, R.; Wenger, J.

1983-05-01

16

Measurements of the partial electronic conductivity in lithium chloride - potassium chloride molten salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partial electronic conductivity of the lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic molten salt electrolyte has been studied as a function of lithium activity, temperature and melt composition using the Wagner asymmetric d-c polarization technique. Measurements were made over the temperature range 383-465Ā°C and at lithium activities extending from 1.95 X 10ā»ā· to unity. The results confirmed the applicability of this technique

G. J. Reynolds; R. A. Huggins; M. C. Y. Lee

1983-01-01

17

Effect of catalysts on lithium passivation in thionyl chloride electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

The effect that various catalysts added to the electrolyte or the cathode of lithium-thionyl chloride cells for promoting the cathodic process exert on lithium anodes is studied. It is shown that, in the presence of platinum, the lithium anode is subjected to intense corrosion, and this leads to the appearance of a great voltage delay. Macrocyclic complexes activate lithium electrodes. Impedance measurements showed that the introduction of such complexes in the system is accompanied by changes in the passive film characteristics, and this leads to a decrease in the corrosion rate of lithium and a noticeable reduction of the voltage delay.

Kanevskii, L.S.; Avdalyan, M.B.; Kulova, T.L. [Frumkin Institute of Electrochemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-04-01

18

Integral enthalpies of mixing for water + lithium bromide + lithium iodide and water + lithium chloride + lithium nitrate at 298. 15 K  

SciTech Connect

The analyses of absorption refrigerating machines, absorption heat pumps, and absorption heat transformers require thermal and physical properties for working medium + absorbent systems. The enthalpy of mixing data for working fluids are one of the most important basic properties for the research and the design of absorption refrigeration and heat pump systems. Differential enthalpies of dilution and differential enthalpies of solution for water + lithium bromide + lithium iodide (salt mole ratio 4:1) and water + lithium chloride + lithium nitrate (salt mole ratio 2.8:1) were measured with a twin isoperibol calorimeter at 298.15 K. Integral enthalpies of mixing for these two ternary systems at 298.15 K were measured as a function of mass fraction, and were exothermic in both ternary systems. The results were correlated by means of Redlich-Kister-type polynomials. The average absolute deviation between the experimental and the calculated values from these equations was 0.57 % for water + lithium bromide + lithium iodide and 0.52% for water + lithium chloride + lithium nitrate.

Iyoki, S.; Iwasaki, S.; Kuriyama, Y.; Uemura, T. (Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan))

1993-04-01

19

REACTIONS BETWEEN NICKEL CHLORIDE, PHENYL-LITHIUM, AND HYDROGEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of anhydrous nickel chloride with phenyllithium dissolved ; in ether was investigated in an atmosphere or hydrogen. NiClā is reduced ; by phenyl-lithium to elementary nickel which is produced in a highly active form; ; therefore, a very rapid catalytic hydrogenation is started. Independent of the ; presence of the nickel catalyst, phenyl-lithium reacts more alowly with hydrogen

B. Sarry; W. Hanke

1958-01-01

20

Partial molar volumes of uni-univalent electrolytes in methanol + water; 1: Lithium chloride, sodium chloride, and potassium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Densities of methanol + water + lithium chloride, + sodium chloride, and + potassium chloride were measured at 15, 25, 35, and 45 C. The apparent molar volumes of the electrolytes in these mixtures were calculated, and the apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution, the partial molar volumes, and partial molar thermal expansivities were evaluated.

Takenaka, Nobuo; Takemura, Takeshi; Sakurai, Masao (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Research Inst. for Electronic Science)

1994-04-01

21

Phase equilibria for propan-1-ol + water + sodium chloride and + potassium chloride and propan-2-ol + water + lithium chloride and + lithium bromide  

SciTech Connect

Measurements are reported on phase equilibria of the four mixtures propan-1-ol + water + sodium chloride, propan-1-ol + water + potassium chloride, propan-2-ol + water + lithium chloride, and propan-2-ol + water + lithium bromide at atmospheric pressure. The phase behavior of these mixtures exhibits three-phase equilibria, two liquids and one vapor, different from the previous reports that these only exhibit two phases. The phase diagrams for these mixtures are discussed.

Cheng-Long Lin (Kwang Wu Inst. of Technology, Taiwan (China)); Liang-Sun Lee (National Central Univ., Taiwan (China)); Hsieng-Cheng Tseng (National Taiwan Inst. of Technology, Taiwan (China))

1993-04-01

22

Thermodynamic characterization of the partially denatured states of ribonuclease A in calcium chloride and lithium chloride.  

PubMed

The denaturations of ribonuclease A by calcium chloride and lithium chloride were studied by circular dichroism measurements in the far-ultraviolet region. The temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant for the unfolding of the protein by calcium chloride and lithium chloride gave values of 46 and 52 kcal mol-1 (1 cal = 4.1868 J) for the enthalpy of denaturation at 25 degrees C and pH 7.0, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters for the denaturation by calcium chloride and lithium chloride are compared with those for the heat and guanidine hydrochloride denaturation. It has been observed that the thermodynamic quantity, be it free energy, entropy, or enthalpy, cannot be related quantitatively to the extent of unfolding measured by various conformational properties of the protein. PMID:3000547

Ahmad, F

1985-10-01

23

Densities, viscosities, and surface tensions of the (water + lithium bromide + lithium nitrate + lithium iodide + lithium chloride) system  

SciTech Connect

Recently, LiBr-based working fluids have been extensively studied for air-cooled absorption refrigerators and heat pumps. For proper design of absorption machines, the thermophysical properties of the working fluids are needed. Measurements of the thermophysical properties of the (water + lithium bromide + lithium nitrate + lithium iodide + lithium chloride) system (LiBr/LiNO{sub 3}/LiI/LiCl = 5:1:1:2 by mole) were performed as functions of concentration and temperature. Densities, viscosities, and surface tensions were measured at concentrations from (50.2 to 65.0) mass % and temperatures from (283.15 to 333.15) K. Regression equations for densities, viscosities, and surface tensions were obtained with least-squares methods. The average absolute deviations of the calculated values from the experimental data were 0.05%, 0.90%, and 0.30%, respectively.

Koo, K.K.; Lee, H.R.; Oh, Y.S.; Park, D.R.; Baek, Y.S.

1999-12-01

24

Solubilities, vapor pressures, densities, and viscosities of the (water + lithium bromide + lithium iodide + lithium chloride) system  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of thermophysical properties of the (water + lithium bromide + lithium iodide + lithium chloride) system (LiBr:LiI:LiCl = 4.5:1:2 by mole ratio) were performed as functions of concentration and temperature. Solubilities were measured by a visual polythermal method at temperatures from (248.59 to 350.46) K. Regression equations were obtained with a least-squares method, and the average absolute deviations of the calculated values from the experimental data were 0.10% (solution temperature < 284.59 K) and 0.12% (temperature {ge} 284.59 K), respectively. The vapor pressures were measured by a boiling point method at lithium salts concentrations from (50.0 to 70.0) mass % and temperatures from (318.36 to 455.75) K. The experimental data were correlated with an Antoine-type equation. The average absolute deviation of the calculated values from the experimental data was 1.83%. Densities and viscosities were measured at concentrations from (50.0 to 64.0) mass % and temperatures from (283.15 to 333.15) K. Regression equations for densities and viscosities were obtained with a least-squares method, and the average absolute deviations of the calculated values from the experimental data were 0.08% and 0.87%, respectively.

Koo, K.K.; Lee, H.R.; Jeong, S. [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Y.S.; Park, D.R.; Baek, Y.S. [Korea Gas Corp., Ansan (Korea, Republic of). R and D Center

1998-09-01

25

Thermodynamics of Molten Mixtures of Lithium Chloride-Potassium Chloride at 640 C.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thermodynamics of lithium chloride-potassium chloride mixtures were studied over the concentration range x(LiCl) = 0.3 - 0.9 at 640C from the emf measurements on concentration cells with transference of the type: Cl2(g)-C/LiCl, KCl//LiCl/C-Cl2(g). A q...

W. K. Behl

1972-01-01

26

Thermoluminescence of ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride (10?30gcm?3) have been irradiated by X- and ?-rays at 77K, then progressively rewarmed to room temperature. During that phase, their thermoluminescence has been studied and it was found that, despite their dilution beyond the Avogadro number, the emitted light was specific of the original salts dissolved initially.

Louis Rey

2003-01-01

27

Measurements of the partial electronic conductivity in lithium chloride - potassium chloride molten salts  

SciTech Connect

The partial electronic conductivity of the lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic molten salt electrolyte has been studied as a function of lithium activity, temperature and melt composition using the Wagner asymmetric d-c polarization technique. Measurements were made over the temperature range 383-465/sup 0/C and at lithium activities extending from 1.95 X 10/sup -7/ to unity. The results confirmed the applicability of this technique to molten salt systems. The partial electronic conductivity was shown to be much greater than the partial hole conductivity over the range of lithium activities investigated, and was found to increase monotonically with temperature and lithium activity, but decreased on addition of excess LiCl to the eutectic composition. Approximate values of self-discharge currents for cells utilizing an ''Al/LiAl'' negative electrode and a LiCl-KCl molten salt electrolyte have been calculated.

Reynolds, G.J.; Huggins, R.A.; Lee, M.C.Y.

1983-05-01

28

Thermodynamic Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Lithium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapor pressure of aqueous solutions of lithium chloride were measured by differential static method, in a concentration range of 12.9-44.2% weight and in the temperature range of 30-100°C. The experimental data were fitted to the Antoine type equation: log P = A( m ) + B( m )\\/ T + C( m )\\/ T 2 , where A, B, and

S. K. Chaudhari; K. R. Patil

2002-01-01

29

The Lithium Amalgam-Lithium Chloride and Thallium Amalgam-Thallous Chloride Electrodes in Lithium Chloride-Dimethyl Sulfoxide Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The electrodes Li(Hg)/Li(+) and Tl(Hg)/TlCl(s)/Cl(-) were studied in anhydrous LiCl-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions at 25C. The solubility product of TlCl is(5.5 plus or minus 0.5) x 0.0000001, and the formation constants of the thallous chloride comp...

D. R. Cogley J. N. Butler

1966-01-01

30

The enthalpy of occlusion of the (lithium chloride + potassium chloride) eutectic salt in zeolite 4A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molar enthalpy of occlusion of the (lithium chloride + potassium chloride) eutectic salt in zeolite 4A at the salt melting temperature ?occHm(Tfus) was measured using differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that up to a mole fraction of the salt x= 0.931 in the (salt + zeolite) mixture, which is near the expected zeolite occlusion limit, ?occHm(Tfus) was negative

Dusan Lexa

1999-01-01

31

On the existence of ``l-threonine formate'', ``l-alanine lithium chloride'' and ``bis l-alanine lithium chloride'' crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We argue that the recently reported crystals "L-threonine formate" as well as "L-alanine lithium chloride" and "bis L-alanine lithium chloride" actually are the well-known crystals L-threonine and L-alanine, respectively.

Petrosyan, A. M.; Ghazaryan, V. V.; Fleck, M.

2013-03-01

32

Photodissociation of lithium chloride: Interferometric predissociation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the lithium observed throughout the Universe is believed to be primordial. Understanding the abundance of Li has crucial implications for theories of the early Universe, interstellar processes, and Galactic and stellar evolution. In low-temperature environments, a large amount of Li can be sequestered into molecular species such as LiCl. Photodissociation cross sections for the production of ground-state Li and Cl atoms were computed up to temperatures of 1500 K, at which LiCl is believed to be the primary Li-bearing gas in cool dwarf atmospheres. Narrow Rydberg resonances in the total absorption spectrum are found to dominate the thermally averaged cross sections.

Hosseini, B. H.; Weck, P. F.; Sadeghpour, H. R.; Kirby, K.; Stancil, P. C.

2009-11-01

33

Properties of a new liquid desiccant solution - Lithium chloride and calcium chloride mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desiccants, broadly classified as solid and liquid desiccants, have the property of extracting and retaining moisture from air brought into contact with them. By using either type, moisture in the air is removed and the resulting dry air can be used for air-conditioning or drying purposes. Because of its properties, lithium chloride is the most stable liquid desiccant and has

A. Ertas; E. E. Anderson; I. Kiris

1992-01-01

34

Mathematical Model of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model of a spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery has been developed ~d used for parameter estimation and design studies. The model formulation is based on the fimdarnental Consemation laws using porous electrode theory and concentrated solution theory. The model is used to estimate the difision coefficient and the kinetic parameters for the reactions at the anode and the cathode as a function of temperature. These parameters are obtained by fitting the simulated capacity and average cell voltage to experimental data over a wide range of temperatures (-55 to 49"C) and discharge loads (10 to 250 ohms). The experiments were performed on D-sized, cathode-limited, spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride cells. The model is also used to study the effkct of cathode thickness on the cell capacity as a finction of temperature, and it was found that the optimum thickness for the cathode- limited design is temperature and load dependent.

Jain, M.; Jungst, R.G.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Weidner, J.W.

1998-11-24

35

Combination therapy with histone deacetylase inhibitors and lithium chloride  

PubMed Central

Background In carcinoid cell lines, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors valproic acid (VPA) and suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid (SBHA) activate the Notch1 pathway, while lithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?). These compounds limit growth and decrease hormonal secretion in vitro. We hypothesized that lower-dose combination therapy of HDAC inhibitors and lithium chloride could achieve similar growth inhibition to that of the drugs alone. Methods GI and pulmonary carcinoid cells were treated with either VPA or SBHA and lithium chloride for up to 48 hours. Western analysis was used to measure the effects on the Notch1 and GSK-3? pathways and the neuroendocrine tumor marker chromogranin A (CgA). Growth was measured by a cellular proliferation assay. Results With lower-dose combination therapy, a decrease in CgA was observed. The HDAC inhibitors increased the amount of active Notch1 protein, while treatment with lithium was associated with inhibition of GSK-3?. Moreover, growth was inhibited with lower-dose combination therapy. Conclusions Treatment of carcinoid cells with either VPA or SBHA and lithium chloride suppresses the neuroendocrine marker CgA while upregulating Notch1 and inhibiting GSK-3?. This combination effectively reduces growth. Thus, lower-dose combination therapy may be a viable therapeutic approach for carcinoid tumors. Synopsis In carcinoid cell lines, activate of the Notch1 pathway and inhibition of the glycogen synthase kinase-3? limit growth and decrease hormonal secretion in vitro. Lower-dose combination therapy to simultaneously target these pathways effectively reduced growth and limited hormonal secretion. Thus, lower-dose combination therapy may be a viable therapeutic approach for carcinoid tumors.

Adler, Joel T.; Hottinger, Daniel G.; Kunnimalaiyaan, Muthusamy; Chen, Herbert

2009-01-01

36

The electrowinning of lithium from chloride-carbonate melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that lithium can be electrowon from a lithium chloride-carbonate electrolyte with current efficiencies as high as 90 pct from cells where the catholyte and anolyte are separated by a porous diaphragm and lithium carbonate is fed to the anolyte. The reduction of carbonate ions at the cathode was kept to a minimum by the porous diaphragm. The primary product of the reaction of carbonate ions with the carbon anode was carbon dioxide. Various cell designs were investigated, and a packed-bed anode consisting of a graphite tube containing a bed of graphite particles showed the greatest promise in providing a dimensionally stable current collector with preferential consumption of the bed material.

Kruesi, William H.; Fray, Derek J.

1993-08-01

37

Aggregation of cellulose in lithium chloride\\/ N, N-dimethylacetamide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardwood kraft pulps can be completely dissolved in lithium chloride\\/N,N-dimethylacetamide (LiCl\\/DMAc). The cellulose and hemicellulose components can be separated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The molecular weight distribution that corresponds to cellulose is extended up to the high molecular weight region and the weight average molecular weight (Mw) relative to pullulan of this distribution is high. Light scattering (LS) measurements

E. Sjöholm; K. Gustafsson; B. Eriksson; W. Brown; A. Colmsjö

2000-01-01

38

Properties of a new liquid desiccant solution - Lithium chloride and calcium chloride mixture  

SciTech Connect

Desiccants, broadly classified as solid and liquid desiccants, have the property of extracting and retaining moisture from air brought into contact with them. By using either type, moisture in the air is removed and the resulting dry air can be used for air-conditioning or drying purposes. Because of its properties, lithium chloride is the most stable liquid desiccant and has a large dehydration concentration (30% to 45%), but its cost is relatively high ($9.00-13.00 per kg). It is expected that lithium chloride will reduce the relative humidity to as low as 15%. Calcium chloride is the cheapest (45 cents per kg) and most readily available desiccant, but it has the disadvantage of being unstable depending on the air inlet conditions and the concentration of the desiccant in the solution. To stabilize calcium chloride and to decrease the high cost of lithium chloride, the two can be mixed in different weight combinations. The main objective of this research is to measure the physical properties of different combinations of this mixture such as density, viscosity, and vapor pressure which are necessary for analysis of heat and mass transfer in a packed tower desiccant-air contact system. The solubility of this new liquid desiccant under certain temperature-concentrations will also be studied.

Ertas, A.; Anderson, E.E.; Kiris, I. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock (United States))

1992-09-01

39

Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (active lithium\\/thionyl chloride) batteries. [Active lithium\\/thionyl chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

(ALTC = active lithium\\/thionyl chloride.) We have investigated the corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin materials in 1.5M LiAlClā\\/SOClā electrolyte using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4 PH, and

F. S. Bovard; W. R. Cieslak

1987-01-01

40

Electrolytic Deposition and Diffusion of Lithium onto Magnesium-9 Wt Pct Yttrium Bulk Alloy in Low-Temperature Molten Salt of Lithium Chloride and Potassium Chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrolytic deposition and diffusion of lithium onto bulk magnesium-9 wt pct yttrium alloy cathode in molten salt of 47 wt pct lithium chloride and 53 wt pct potassium chloride at 693 K were investigated. Results show that magnesium-yttrium-lithium ternary alloys are formed on the surface of the cathodes, and a penetration depth of 642 ?m is acquired after 2 hours of electrolysis at the cathodic current density of 0.06 A·cm-2. The diffusion of lithium results in a great amount of precipitates in the lithium containing layer. These precipitates are the compound of Mg41Y5, which arrange along the grain boundaries and hinder the diffusion of lithium, and solid solution of yttrium in magnesium. The grain boundaries and the twins of the magnesium-9 wt pct yttrium substrate also have negative effects on the diffusion of lithium.

Dong, Hanwu; Wu, Yaoming; Wang, Lidong; Wang, Limin

2009-10-01

41

Investigation of lithium chloride/ambient-temperature 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride ionic liquids. 1. Ion interactions in a neutral tetrachloraluminate melt  

SciTech Connect

Lithium chloride/ambient-temperature 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolinium chloride-aluminium chloride ionic liquids are of interest for use in lithium batteries. The authors studied ion interactions in this system using FTIR and NMR spectroscopies. It is found that Li{sup +} strongly effects the AlCl{sub 4}{sup {minus}} ion. Effects of Li{sup +} concentration on the structure of the AlCl{sub 4}{sup {minus}} ion and the physical properties of the liquids are discussed.

Fung, Y.S.; Chau, S.M.

1995-04-26

42

Prevention of overpressurization of lithium-thionyl chloride battery cells  

SciTech Connect

A method of preventing overpressurization of a lithium-thionyl chloride battery cell by formation of excessive SO/sub 2/ during high rate discharge. The method comprises the step of providing PCl/sub 5/ in the cathode. Alternatively, the PCl/sub 5/ may be provided in the electrolyte or in both the cathode and electrolyte as desired. The PCl/sub 5/ may be incorporated in the cathode by introduction thereof into the porous carbon structure of a preformed carbon element. Alternatively, the PCl/sub 5/ may be dry mixed with the carbon and the mixture formed into the desired cathode element.

Ramsay, G. R.; Salmon, D. J.

1984-12-25

43

High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presented in viewgraph format are results and accomplishments on the development of lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar batteries. Results include the development of manufacturing capability for producing large quantities of uniform cathodes and bipolar plates; the development of assembly, sealing, and activation procedures for fabrication of battery modules containing up to 150 cells in bipolar configuration; and the successful demonstration of a 10.7 kW 150-cell module with constant power pulse discharge, 20 second pulse, and 10 percent duty cycle.

Russell, Philip G.; Goebel, F.

1994-02-01

44

Photodissociation dynamics of lithium chloride: Contribution of interferometric predissociation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuum photoabsorption of lithium chloride (LiCl) was investigated using a coupled-channel time-dependent wave packet approach. Photodissociation cross sections for the production of ground-state Li and Cl atoms were computed up to temperatures of 1500 K for a thermal distribution of rotational levels. At such temperatures, LiCl is believed to be the primary Li-bearing gas in cool stellar atmospheres. Narrow Rydberg resonances in the total absorption spectrum are found to dominate the thermally averaged cross section due to the large density of Rydberg states in the predissociation gap. Comparison with measured photoabsorption cross sections, where available, is made.

Hosseini, B. H.; Weck, P. F.; Sadeghpour, H. R.; Kirby, K.; Stancil, P. C.

2009-02-01

45

Equilibrium distribution of lanthanum, neodymium, and thorium between lithium chloride melt and liquid bismuth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of lanthanum, neodymium, and thorium between a lithium chloride melt and liquid bismuth with additions of lithium as a reducing agent are investigated at 650°C. Equilibrium values of their distribution constants are measured. It is shown that in contrast to neodymium and lanthanum, thorium cannot be extracted from bismuth into lithium chloride. This allows us to propose an efficient scheme for separating lanthanides and thorium in a system for the extraction of fuel salts in molten-salt nuclear reactors.

Zagnit'ko, A. V.; Ignat'ev, V. V.

2013-04-01

46

The effects of chronic lithium chloride administration on some behavioural and immunological changes in the bilaterally olfactory bulbectomized rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of chronic lithium chloride (3 mmol\\/kg for 15 days) on the 'open field' activity and some aspects of immune function was studied in bilaterally olfactory bulbectomized and sham-operated rats. Chronic lithium chloride administration did not reverse the hyperactivity of the bulbectomized rats in the 'open field', neither did it affect the growth rate significantly. Lithium chloride treatment reversed

Cai Song; B. E. Leonard

1994-01-01

47

Self-discharge rate of lithium thionyl-chloride cells  

SciTech Connect

Our low-rate lithium/thionyl-chloride ``D`` cell is required to provide power continuously for up to 10 years. The cell was designed at Sandia National Laboratories and manufactured at Eagle-Picher Industries, Joplin, Missouri. We have conducted accelerated aging studies at elevated temperatures to predict long-term performance of cells fabricated in 1992. Cells using 1.0M LiAlCl{sub 4} electrolyte follow Arrhenius kinetics with an activation energy of 14.6 Kcal/mol. This results in an annual capacity loss to self-discharge of 0.13 Ah at 25 C. Cells using a 1.0M LiAlCl{sub 4}{sm_bullet}SO{sub 2} electrolyte do not follow Arrhenius behavior. The performance of aged cells from an earlier fabrication lot is variable.

Cieslak, W.R.

1993-12-31

48

Open-Cycle Lithium Chloride (Solar) Cooling. Final Report, 1 February 1980-31 May 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The characteristics of packed towers for use with open-cycle lithium chloride solar cooling are described, including types of packing, pressure drop, irrigated packings and allowable vapor velocity. The theory of packed column operation is outlined. Coeff...

G. O. G. Loef S. Rao T. Lenz

1981-01-01

49

Acute and chronic effects of lithium chloride on physiological and psychological measures in normals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the acute experiment six healthy volunteers were given orally two doses of lithium chloride, 16 and 32 mmol, and placebo sodium chloride 32 mmol in a double-blind standardized procedure, with a 1-week interval between treatments. Compared to sodium, lithium produced a decrease in subjective well-being, decrease of skin conductance fluctuations, and increase in plasma calcium concentrations. Dose-related effects were

I. G. Karniol; J. Dalton; M. H. Lader

1978-01-01

50

On the reactive occlusion of the (uranium trichloride + lithium chloride + potassium chloride) eutectic salt in zeolite 4A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between the (uranium trichloride+lithium chloride+potassium chloride) eutectic salt and zeolite 4A has been studied by temperature-resolved synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, evolved gas analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, between 300 and 900 K. The onset of salt occlusion by the zeolite has been detected at 450 K. Evidence of a reaction between zeolitic water and uranium trichloride, leading to

Dusan Lexa; Leonard Leibowitz; Jeremy Kropf

2000-01-01

51

A New Bonded Catalyst for Safe Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the research effort was to demonstrate that a new class of organometallic cathode catalysts, the TAAs, are stable in thionyl chloride and that they significantly improve the power performance of lithium-thionyl chloride primary batteries. A nu...

F. Walsh J. Hopewood

1982-01-01

52

Impedance spectroscopy as a method for evaluation of lithium-thionyl chloride cells  

SciTech Connect

Impedance spectroscopy was evaluated as a method for ascertaining the state of constituent components of Li-thionyl chloride cells. No unambiguous correlation between impedance characteristics and residual capacity was detected as a result of investigation of a large population of different size and capacity Li-thionyl chloride cells. Impedance studies of nonpolarized lithium electrodes in operating cells resulted in a conclusion that the diagnostics of Li-thionyl chloride cells is extremely difficult, due to the specific nature of lithium passivation in operating cells and the influence on this process exerted by sulfur dioxide generated during discharge.

Kanevskii, L.S.; Bagotzky, V.S.; Nizhnikovskii, E.A. [Frumkin Institute of Electrochemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-04-01

53

Lithium chloride protects retinal neurocytes from nutrient deprivation by promoting DNA non-homologous end-joining  

SciTech Connect

Lithium chloride is a therapeutic agent for treatment of bipolar affective disorders. Increasing numbers of studies have indicated that lithium has neuroprotective effects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of lithium have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate whether lithium chloride produces neuroprotective function by improving DNA repair pathway in retinal neurocyte. In vitro, the primary cultured retinal neurocytes (85.7% are MAP-2 positive cells) were treated with lithium chloride, then cultured with serum-free media to simulate the nutrient deprived state resulting from ischemic insult. The neurite outgrowth of the cultured cells increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner when exposed to different levels of lithium chloride. Genomic DNA electrophoresis demonstrated greater DNA integrity of retinal neurocytes when treated with lithium chloride as compared to the control. Moreover, mRNA and protein levels of Ligase IV (involved in DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway) in retinal neurocytes increased with lithium chloride. The end joining activity assay was performed to determine the role of lithium on NHEJ in the presence of extract from retinal neurocytes. The rejoining levels in retinal neurocytes treated with lithium were significantly increased as compared to the control. Furthermore, XRCC4, the Ligase IV partner, and the transcriptional factor, CREB and CTCF, were up-regulated in retinal cells after treating with 1.0 mM lithium chloride. Therefore, our data suggest that lithium chloride protects the retinal neural cells from nutrient deprivation in vitro, which may be similar to the mechanism of cell death in glaucoma. The improvement in DNA repair pathway involving in Ligase IV might have an important role in lithium neuroprotection. This study provides new insights into the neural protective mechanisms of lithium chloride.

Zhuang Jing; Li Fan; Liu Xuan; Liu Zhiping; Lin Jianxian [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Ge Yihong [Department of Stomatology, the Southern Medical University (China); Kaminski, Joseph M. [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation, University of South Alabama (United States); Summers, James Bradley [Department of Radiology, University of South Alabama (United States); Wang Zhichong [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Ge Jian [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)], E-mail: gejian@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Yu Keming [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)], E-mail: yukeming@mail.sysu.edu.cn

2009-03-13

54

The Painlike Effect of Gallamine and Naloxone Differs From Sickness Induced by Lithium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rats, the conditioned place and taste aversions produced by 31.8 mg\\/kg lithium chloride were compared with those produced by 10 mg\\/kg gallamine in Experiment 1 and 20 mg\\/kg or 2.5 mg\\/kg naloxone in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. Lithium produced stronger taste aversions than gallamine or the two doses of naloxone, but gallamine and naloxone each produced stronger place

Bow Tong Lett

1985-01-01

55

Reduction of the spent nuclear fuel of a VVER-1000 reactor by lithium in a lithium chloride melt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers at FGUP GNTs RF NIIAR performed a series of experiments on the lithium reduction of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of a VVER-1000 reactor to a metal in a lithium chloride melt. The depletion of the nuclear fuel taken before experiments is about 30000 (MW day)/t, and the cooling time is 5 years. The experiments are performed on 5.8-kg samples of a prepared SNF powder. Data are obtained on a decrease in the heat release, the specific activity of the processed powder, and the distribution of actinides and the main fission products between a salt phase and a reduced SNF powder.

Bychkov, A. V.; Ishunin, V. S.; Kormilitsyn, M. V.

2010-08-01

56

Rechargeable lithium and sodium anodes in chloroaluminate molten salts containing thionyl chloride  

SciTech Connect

Lithium and sodium deposition-stripping studies were performed in room temperature buffered neutral chloroaluminate melts containing low concentrations of thionyl chloride (SOCl{sub 2}). The SOCl{sub 2} solute promotes high cycling efficiencies of the alkali metals in these electrolytes. Staircase cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry show cycling efficiencies of approximately 90% for both lithium and sodium. High cycling efficiencies are maintained following extended exposure of the melt to the dry box atmosphere and after time delays at open circuit. The performance of the SOCl{sub 2}-promoted systems is substantially improved over previous studies in room temperature melts containing hydrogen chloride as the promoting solute.

Fuller, J.; Osteryoung, R.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Carlin, R.T.

1995-11-01

57

Lithium chloride ionic association in dilute aqueous solution: a constrained molecular dynamics study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constrained molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the lithium chloride ionic associations in dilute aqueous solutions over a wide temperature range. Solvent mediated potentials of mean force have been carefully calculated at different thermodynamic conditions. Two intermediate states of ionic association can be well identified with an energy barrier from the oscillatory free energy profile. Clear pictures for

Zhigang Zhang; Zhenhao Duan

2004-01-01

58

The effect of lithium chloride on the replication of Herpes simplex virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium chloride inhibited the replication of type 1 and type 2Herpes simplex virus at concentrations which permitted host cell replication. Virus polypeptide and antigen synthesis were unaffected while viral DNA synthesis was inhibited. The replication of two other DNA viruses, pseudorabies and vaccinia virus, was inhibited but there was no inhibition of two RNA viruses, namely, EMC and influenza virus.

G. R. B. Skinner; C. Hartley; A. Buchan; L. Harper; P. Gallimore

1980-01-01

59

Lithium Chloride Induces the Expression of Tyrosine Hydroxylase in hNT Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, several doses of lithium chloride were tested for their ability to induce the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in neurons derived from a human teratocarcinoma cell line (hNT) after 5 and 10 days in vitro (DIV). Following immunocytochemical staining for tyrosine hydroxylase, the percentage of TH-positive neurons was determined and morphometric analysis, including mean soma profile

Tanja Zigova; Alison E. Willing; Erin M. Tedesco; Cesario V. Borlongan; Samuel Saporta; Gary L. Snable; Paul R. Sanberg

1999-01-01

60

Naloxone Potentiation of Effects of Cholecystokinin and Lithium Chloride on Oxytocin Secretion, Gastric Motility and Feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurohypophyseal secretion of oxytocin (OT) in response to dehydration, hypovolemia, restraint, and parturition in rats is known to be potentiated by the opioid antagonist naloxone. The present studies demonstrated that stimulation of OT secretion by systemic injections of cholecystokinin (CCK) and lithium chloride (LiCl) likewise are potentiated by naloxone pretreatment. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of CCK and LiCl on gastric

Loretta M. Flanagan; Joseph G. Verbalis; Edward M. Strieker

1988-01-01

61

Solar regeneration of lithium chloride solutions in open cycle absorption cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconcentration of a lithium chloride solution in an open cycle absorption chiller can be accomplished by passing solar heated air through a packed column to which the dilute solution is supplied. Following a theoretical study of heat transfer and water vapor transfer rates in the column, experimental measurement of those rates was made. Heat transfer and mass transfer coefficients are

O. G. Lof; T. G. Lenz; S. Rao

1982-01-01

62

Corrosion Susceptibility Study of Candidate Pin Materials for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

(ALTC = active lithium/thionyl chloride.) We have investigated the corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin materials in 1.5M LiAlCl sub 4 /SOCl sub 2 electrolyte using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coef...

F. S. Bovard W. R. Cieslak

1987-01-01

63

Solubilities, vapor pressures, and heat capacities of the water + lithium bromide + lithium nitrate + lithium iodide + lithium chloride system  

SciTech Connect

The optimum mole ratio of lithium salts in the H[sub 2]O + LiBr + LiNO[sub 3] + LiI + LiCl system was experimentally determined to be LiBr:LiNO[sub 3] LiI:LiCl = 5:1:1:2. The solubilities were measured at temperatures from 252.02 to 336.75 K. Regression equations on the solubility data were obtained with a least-squares method. Average absolute deviations of the calculated values from the experimental data were 0.15% at temperatures <285.18 K and 0.05% at temperatures [ge]185.18 K. The vapor pressures were measured at concentrations ranging from 50.0 to 70.0 mass % and at temperatures from 330.13 to 434.88 K. The experimental data were correlated with an Antoine-type equation, and the average absolute deviation of the calculated values from the experimental data 65.0 mass % and temperatures from 298.15 to 328.15 K. The average absolute deviation of the values calculated by the regression equation from the experimental data was 0.24%.

Koo, K.K.; Lee, H.R.; Jeong, S. (Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Oh, Y.S.; Park, D.R.; Back, Y.S. (Korea Gas Corp., Ansan (Korea, Republic of). R and D Center)

1999-03-01

64

Solubilities, vapor pressures, and heat capacities of the water + lithium bromide + lithium nitrate + lithium iodide + lithium chloride system  

SciTech Connect

The optimum mole ratio of lithium salts in the H{sub 2}O + LiBr + LiNO{sub 3} + LiI + LiCl system was experimentally determined to be LiBr:LiNO{sub 3} LiI:LiCl = 5:1:1:2. The solubilities were measured at temperatures from 252.02 to 336.75 K. Regression equations on the solubility data were obtained with a least-squares method. Average absolute deviations of the calculated values from the experimental data were 0.15% at temperatures <285.18 K and 0.05% at temperatures {ge}185.18 K. The vapor pressures were measured at concentrations ranging from 50.0 to 70.0 mass % and at temperatures from 330.13 to 434.88 K. The experimental data were correlated with an Antoine-type equation, and the average absolute deviation of the calculated values from the experimental data 65.0 mass % and temperatures from 298.15 to 328.15 K. The average absolute deviation of the values calculated by the regression equation from the experimental data was 0.24%.

Koo, K.K.; Lee, H.R.; Jeong, S. [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Y.S.; Park, D.R.; Back, Y.S. [Korea Gas Corp., Ansan (Korea, Republic of). R and D Center

1999-03-01

65

Collisional-radiative study of lithium plasmas.  

PubMed

The sensitivity of lithium plasma models to the underlying atomic data is investigated. Collisional-radiative modeling is carried out with both the Los Alamos and ADAS suite of codes. The effects of plane-wave Born, distorted-wave, and nonperturbative R -matrix with pseudostates and time-dependent close-coupling electron impact atomic data on derived plasma quantities such as the ionization balance and radiated power are studied. Density and temperature regimes are identified where nonperturbative excitation and ionization rate coefficients must be used. The electron temperature and density ranges investigated were 0.2 eV< or = T(e) < or =90 eV and 10(10) cm(-3) < or = N(e) < or = 10(14) cm(-3). PMID:15244743

Loch, S D; Fontes, C J; Colgan, J; Pindzola, M S; Ballance, C P; Griffin, D C; O'Mullane, M G; Summers, H P

2004-06-04

66

Application of Lithium Thionyl Chloride Batteries to Marine Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Requirements for undersea systems applications have, over the past several years, forced rapid advances in lithium battery state-of-the-art. Recent technological improvements have provided safe, reliable batteries that have proven to be highly tolerant to the abusive undersea environment. Cell developments have been directed towards small cells for low, medium, and high rate applications; large low rate cells; and reserve electrolyte

J. McCartney; Thomas J. Lund

1979-01-01

67

Heat capacity for the water + lithium chloride + lithium nitrate system at temperatures from 283. 15 to 433. 15 K  

SciTech Connect

The heat capacity data for working fluids are one of the most important basic properties for the research and the design of absorption refrigeration and heat pump systems. Heat capacities of the water + lithium chloride + lithium nitrate (salt mole ratio 2.8:1) system were measured in the range of temperatures from 283.15 to 433.15 K and in the range of absorbent concentrations from 9.1 to 63.5 mass %. The measurements of heat capacity were made with two separate experimental apparatus for individual temperatures below 343.15 K and above 353.15 K. An empirical formula for this ternary system was obtained as a function of absolute temperature by a least-squares method from these experimental data. Maximum and average absolute deviations between these experimental data measured with two apparatus and the calculated values from this empirical formula were 0.97% and 0.35%, respectively.

Iyoki, Shigeki; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Kuriyama, Yutaka; Uemura, Tadashi (Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-10-01

68

Electrochemical Reduction of Sulfuryl Chloride in Solutions Containing Lithium Tetrachloroaluminate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The electrochemical reduction and oxidation of sulfuryl chloride in 1 molar LiAlCl4-So2Cl2 solutions were studied at glassy carbon electrodes using the technique of cyclic voltammetry. It was found that the reduction of chlorine, which is formed by the de...

W. K. Behl

1980-01-01

69

Thermoluminescence ofultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-high dilutions oflithium chloride and sodium chloride (10 ?30 gc m?3) have been irra- diated by X- and -rays at 77 K, then progressively rewarmed to room temperature. During that phase, their thermoluminescence has been studied and it was found that, despite their dilu- tion beyond the Avogadro number, the emitted light was speci-c ofthe original salts dissolved initially.

Louis Rey

2003-01-01

70

Lrp5-independent activation of Wnt signaling by lithium chloride increases bone formation and bone mass in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the well characterized cell biologic actions of lithium is the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 and the consequent activation of canonical Wnt signaling. Because deficient Wnt signaling has been implicated in disorders of reduced bone mass, we tested whether lithium could improve bone mass in mice. We gavage-fed lithium chloride to 8-week-old mice from three different strains (Lrp5-\\/-,

Philippe Clément-Lacroix; Minrong Ai; Frederic Morvan; Sergio Roman-Roman; Béatrice Vayssičre; Cecille Belleville; Kenneth Estrera; Matthew L. Warman; Roland Baron; Georges Rawadi

2005-01-01

71

Effect of Lithium Chloride on Proliferation and Bone Differentiation of Rat Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective(s) It is believed that the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation and proliferation are the results of activation of wnt signaling pathway. On the other hand, lithium chloride is reported to be able to activate this pathway. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lithium on in vitro proliferation and bone differentiation of marrow-derived MSC. Materials

Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad; Mahmood Talkhabi; Bahman Zeynali

2008-01-01

72

Synthesis, growth, and characterization of a non-linear optical crystal-glycine lithium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new non-linear optical material, glycine lithium chloride, was synthesized and single crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at constant temperature from its aqueous solution. Transparent and well-crystallized hexagonal prisms were obtained by controlled evaporation at a constant temperature of 45 °C. The grown crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction methods, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, and optical absorption spectrum. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the crystal lattice of glycine lithium chloride is hexagonal with unit cell a = b = 7.023 Å, c = 5.478 Å, ? = ? = 90°, ? = 120°, V = 234 Å3. The dielectric response of the crystal with varying frequencies was studied. The second harmonic generation efficiency of the crystal was studied and is found to be larger than KDP.

Lenin, M.; Bhavannarayana, G.; Ramasamy, P.

2009-03-01

73

Selective Reduction of Active Metal Chlorides from Molten LiCl-KCl using Lithium Drawdown  

SciTech Connect

In support of optimizing electrorefining technology for treating spent nuclear fuel, lithium drawdown has been investigated for separating actinides from molten salt electrolyte. Drawdown reaction selectivity is a major issue that needs to be investigated, since the goal is to remove actinides while leaving the fission products in the salt. A series of lithium drawdown tests with surrogate fission product chlorides was run to obtain selectivity data with non-radioactive salts, develop a predictive model, and draw conclusions about the viability of using this process with actinide-loadd salt. Results of tests with CsCl, LaCl3, CeCl3, and NdCl3 are reported here. An equilibrium model has been formulated and fit to the experimental data. Excellent fits to the data were achieved. Based on analysis and results obtained to date, it is concluded that clean separation between minor actinides and lanthanides will be difficult to achieve using lithium drawdown.

Michael F. Simpson; Daniel LaBrier; Michael Lineberry; Tae-Sic Yoo

2012-10-01

74

Conditioned Responses to a Taste Conditioned Stimulus Paired With Lithium Chloride Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experiments examined whether behavioral conditioned responses (CRs) develop to lithium chloride (LiCl)–paired tastes and whether these CRs are similar to the behaviors that follow administration of the drug. Rats were exposed to a saccharin solution via intraoral infusions before being injected with either LiCl or saline. CRs were assessed after conditioning when the saccharin conditioned stimulus was delivered

Cynthia L. Meachum; Ilene L. Bernstein

1990-01-01

75

Solutions of cellulose in N, N-dimethylacetamide\\/lithium chloride studied by light scattering methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solution state of cellulose dissolved in the solvent system N,N-dimethylacetamide\\/lithium chloride (DMAc\\/LiCl) has been investigated by static and dynamic light scattering. Emphasis has been placed on the influence of the dissolution conditions, such as type of cellulose activation and concentrations of cellulose or LiCl, respectively. Dependent on these conditions, a molecular dispersion of cellulose molecules have been found in

T. Röder; B. Morgenstern; N. Schelosky; O. Glatter

2001-01-01

76

Chitin fractionation and characterization in N, N-dimethylacetamide\\/lithium chloride solvent system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study of the interaction of chitin molecular species with the solvent system N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc)\\/lithium chloride (LiCl) allowed the development of a new method for chitin fractionation by coacervate extraction. The controlled increase of the extracting power of the solvent was carried out using slight modification of the solvent composition. Partial extractions of molecular species were done between coacervation

Martin Poirier; Gérard Charlet

2002-01-01

77

Succinoylation of sago starch in the N, N-dimethylacetamide\\/lithium chloride system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modification reaction of sago starch with succinic anhydride (SA) using pyridine (PY) and\\/or 4-dimethyaminopyridine (DMAP) as catalyst and N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA)\\/lithium chloride (LiCl) system as solvent was studied. A series of succinylated starch derivatives were prepared with a degree of substitution (DS) ranging from 0.14 to 1.54. The structure of the resulting polymers determined by means of 13C NMR spectroscopy

Runcang Sun; X. F Sun

2002-01-01

78

Lithium Chloride–Assisted Selective Hydrolysis of Methyl Esters Under Microwave Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and mild method for the selective hydrolysis of methyl ester in lithium chloride–N,N-dimethylformamide (LiCl–DMF) system under microwave irradiation has been developed. The effects of substituent, metal salt, and solvent on the reactivity and selectivity of the hydrolysis reaction have been investigated. Microwave irradiation significantly improves the reaction yield within a short time in an LiCl–DMF system. Moreover, the

Xiao-Ai Wu; Ping Ying; Jun-Yang Liu; Heng-Shui Shen; Yue Chen; Ling He

2009-01-01

79

Solvation of lithium chloride in aqueous and mixed solutions of an aprotic solvent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic hydration and solvation numbers of lithium chloride are estimated on the basis of experimental data on the limiting electrodialysis concentration of an electrolyte from aqueous and aqueousorganic solutions containing aprotic solvent N,N-dimethylacetamide. It is established that the dependence of the hydration numbers of the salt on the volume fraction of the aprotic solvent is of an extreme character, and its solvation number on N,N-dimethylacetamide does not depend on the composition of the mixed solution.

Zabolotskii, V. I.; Demin, A. V.; Demina, O. A.

2013-02-01

80

Learned taste and temperature aversions due to lithium chloride sickness after temporal delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

78 Sprague-Dawley rats, reared on water, were given saccharin and then made sick with a single lithium chloride (LiCl) injection after various intervals. Similarly, Ss reared on saccharin were made sick with LiCl at various times after drinking water. In both conditions, Ss learned to avoid drinking the fluid which preceded sickness and the amount of aversion was a function

Marvin Nachman

1970-01-01

81

Dehumidification of Air by Aqueous Lithium Chloride in a Packed Column  

Microsoft Academic Search

A packed bed absorber-stripper system has been designed to dehumidify moist air by contact with aqueous solutions of lithium chloride. The packing material used in the study is 1.6 cm (5\\/8 inch) polypropylene Flexi rings, which have a surface to volume ratio of 342 m\\/m (104 ft\\/ft). The absorber is capable of handling air face velocities from 3362.4 to 6746.4

Tsair-Wang Chung; Tushar K. Ghosh; Anthony L. Hines

1993-01-01

82

Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (Active Lithium\\/Thionyl Chloride) batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin material candidates for ALTC (Active Lithium\\/Thionyl Chloride) batteries in 1.5M LiAlCl4\\/SOCl2 electrolyte have been investigated using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4

Francine S. Bovard; Wendy R. Cieslak

1987-01-01

83

Action Mechanisms of Lithium Chloride on Cell Infection by Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a porcine coronavirus. Lithium chloride (LiCl) has been found to be effective against several DNA viruses, such as Herpes simplex virus and vaccinia virus. Recently, we and others have reported the inhibitory effect of LiCl on avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) infection, an RNA virus. In the current study, the action mechanism of LiCl on

Xiaofeng Ren; Fandan Meng; Jiechao Yin; Guangxing Li; Xunliang Li; Chao Wang; Georg Herrler

2011-01-01

84

Hydrogen, Rhodium, and Iridium Electrode Potentials in Lithium Chloride-Potassium Chloride Eutectic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A hydrogen electrode suitable for use in anhydrous molten LiCl-KCl at 450C was prepared by bubbling mixtures of purified hydrogen and hydrogen chloride over a platinized platinum flag immersed in the melt. The potential of this electrode with respect to p...

H. A. Laitinen J. A. Plambeck

1964-01-01

85

Solid-phase extraction of cobalt(II) from lithium chloride solutions using a poly(vinyl chloride)-based polymer inclusion membrane with Aliquat 336 as the carrier.  

PubMed

The extraction of cobalt(II) from solutions containing various concentrations of lithium chloride, hydrochloric acid, and mixtures of lithium chloride plus hydrochloric acid is reported using a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) containing 40% (w/w) Aliquat 336 as a carrier. The extraction from lithium chloride solutions and mixtures with hydrochloric acid is shown to be more effective than extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions alone. The solution concentrations giving the highest amounts of extraction are 7 mol L(-1) for lithium chloride and 8 mol L(-1) lithium chloride plus 1 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid for mixed solutions. Cobalt(II) is easily stripped from the membrane using deionized water. The cobalt(II) species extracted into the membrane are CoCl(4)(2-) for lithium chloride solutions and HCoCl(4)(-) for mixed solutions; these form ion-pairs with Aliquat 336. It is also shown that both lithium chloride and hydrochloric acid are extracted by the PIM and suppress the extraction of cobalt(II) by forming ion-pairs in the membrane (i.e. R(3)MeN(+)·HCl(2)(-) for hydrochloric acid and R(3)MeN(+)·LiCl(2)(-) for lithium chloride). PMID:21666365

Kagaya, Shigehiro; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

2011-01-01

86

Lithium based alloy-thionyl chloride cells for applications at temperatures to 200 C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-life lithium battery for industrial applications at temperatures up to 200 C was developed by combining Li-based alloy anodes with oxyhalide electrolytes. Cathodes were fabricated by rolling the blend of polycarbonomonofluoride, a conductive carbon additive, and a binder, while anodes were fabricated as those used in oxyhalide cells, incorporating a modified anode current collector designed to prevent the formation of 'lithium islands' at the end of discharge; nonwoven glass fiber separators were pretreated to remove excessive binders and lubricants. Various active electrode surface areas were combined with a corresponding thickness of electrodes and separators, matched in capacity. Tests of the high-rate electrode structure, using Li-Mg alloy anode in conjunction with thionyl chloride electrolyte, have demonstrated that the battery with this anode can be used under abusive conditions such as short circuit and external heating (at 175 C). Raising the operating temperature to 200 C did require some modifications of regular cell hardware.

Kane, P.; Marincic, N.; Epstein, J.; Lindsey, A.

87

Cellulose esterification with fatty acids and acetic anhydride in lithium chloride\\/ N,N -dimethylacetamide medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homogeneous esterification of cellulose with saturated fatty acids (n-octanoic to n-octadecanoic) was accomplished with acetic anhydride co-reactant in lithium chloride\\/N,N-dimethylacetamide (LiCl\\/DMAc) medium. Cellulose mixed triesters (CMT) were obtained after 5 h at 130°C with an average of\\u000a 2.2 acetyl groups and 0.8 fatty substituents per anhydroglucose unit. A mixed acetic-fatty anhydride, formed in situ, accounts for the grafting of the

C. Vaca-Garcia; S. Thiebaud; M. E. Borredon; G. Gozzelino

1998-01-01

88

Analysis of a lithium/thionyl chloride battery under moderate-rate discharge  

SciTech Connect

A one-dimensional mathematical model of a spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery is developed and used for parameter estimation and design studies. The model formulation is based on the fundamental conservation laws using porous electrode theory and concentrated solution theory. The model is used to estimate the transference number, the diffusion coefficient, and the kinetic parameters for the reactions at the anode and the cathode as a function of temperature. These parameters are obtained by fitting the simulated capacity and average cell voltage to experimental data over a wide range of temperatures ({minus}55 to 49 C) and discharge loads (10--250 {Omega}). The experiments were performed on D-sized, cathode-limited, spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride cells. The model is also used to study the effect of cathode thickness on the cell capacity as a function of temperature, and it was found that the optimum thickness for the cathode-limited design is temperature and load dependent.

Jain, M.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Jungst, R.G.; Weidner, J.W.

1999-11-01

89

Open cycle lithium chloride cooling system. Final report, March 1, 1982-May 28, 1983  

SciTech Connect

A lithium chloride open cycle absorption chiller has been designed, built and tested. Solution reconcentration takes place in a small counter-current packed column supplied with solar heated air. Removal of non-condensable gases that enter the chiller dissolved in the strong solution and the make-up refrigerant streams is accomplished by a liquid-jet ejector and a small vacuum pump. Cooling capacities approaching 1.4 tons and COP levels of 0.58 have been achieved at non-optimum operating conditions. Test results from preliminary system operation suggest that mass transfer processes in both the packed column reconcentrator and the absorber are controlled by concentration gradients in the lithium chloride solution. Liquid phase controlled mass transfer dictates an operating strategy different from the previously assumed gas phase controlled process to obtain maximum rates of evaporation in the packed column. Determination of optimal operating conditions leading to decreased electrical power consumption and improved cooling capacity and coefficient of performance will require further analysis and testing.

Lenz, T.G.; Loef, G.O.G.; Iyer, R.; Wenger, J.

1983-05-01

90

Homogeneous esterification of cellulose in the lithium chloride– N, N-dimethylacetamide solvent system: effect of temperature and catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial rayon grade cellulose was dissolved in the lithium chloride–N,N-dimethylacetamide (LiCl–DMAc) solvent system and esterified with acetic anhydride using p-toluenesulfonyl chloride (p-TsCl) and pyridine as catalysts. The reaction temperature was varied from 28 to 70°C and the time of reaction from 2 to 24 h. Full substitution took place at 60 and 70°C at respective reaction times of 10 and

Biranchinarayan Tosh; Chowdhury N. Saikia; Narendra N. Dass

2000-01-01

91

Preexposure and Extinction Effects of Lithium Chloride Induced Taste-Potentiated Aversions for Spatially Contiguous Auditory Food Cues in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taste potentiated illness-induced aversions for noisy food were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats ate from receptacles containing salty food and a contiguous tone produced by speakers under the food followed by lithium chloride injections. In preference tests, the rats then avoided noisy food in favor of quiet food followed by extinction and spontaneous recovery of the auditory aversion over

Stuart R. Ellins; Silvia von Kluge

1987-01-01

92

Coefficients of heat and mass transfer in a packed bed suitable for solar regeneration of aqueous lithium chloride solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconcentration of a lithium chloride solution in an open-cycle absorption chiller can be accomplished by passing solar heated air through a packed column to which the dilute solution is supplied. Following a theoretical study of heat transfer and water vapor transfer rates in the column, experimental measurement of those rates was made. Heat transfer and mass transfer coefficients are correlated

G. O. G. Lof; T. G. Lenz; S. Rao

1984-01-01

93

POLYMERIZATION OF VINYL CHLORIDE UNDER EFFECT OF $gamma$RADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted on the polymerization of technical vinyl ; chloride under the effect of gamma radiation at with an activity of 18,000 g-; equiv Ra was used as the source. Ths polymerization kinetics was shown to obey ; the general laws governing free radical polymerization. There is a considerable ; induction period, because the initial radicals react with inhibiting

L. D. Bubis; V. L. Karpov; Yu. M. Malinskii; D. M. Yanovskii

1962-01-01

94

Computational fluid dynamics modeling of a lithium/thionyl chloride battery with electrolyte flow  

SciTech Connect

A two-dimensional model is developed to simulate discharge of a lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery. As in earlier one-dimensional models, the model accounts for transport of species and charge, and electrode porosity variations and electrolyte flow induced by the volume reduction caused by electrochemical reactions. Numerical simulations are performed using a finite volume method of computational fluid dynamics. The predicted discharge curves for various temperatures show good agreement with published experimental data, and are essentially identical to results published for one-dimensional models. The detailed two-dimensional flow simulations show that the electrolyte is replenished from the cell head space predominantly through the separator into the front of the cathode during most parts of the discharge, especially for higher cell temperatures.

Gu, W.B.; Wang, C.Y.; Weidner, J.W.; Jungst, R.G.; Nagasubramanian, G.

2000-02-01

95

Growth, Structural And Optical Studies On Bis L-alanine Lithium Chloride (BLALC) Single Crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bis L-alanine Lithium Chloride (BLALC) single crystals were grown successfully by solution method with slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Crystals of size 15 x 9 x 4 mm3 have been obtained in 28 days. The grown crystals were colourless and transparent. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) study showed that BLALC belongs to orthorhombic system with a non-centro-symmetric space group P212121. The crystallinity of BLALC crystal was confirmed by the powder X-ray diffraction study and diffraction peaks were indexed. The functional groups of the grown crystals have been identified by FTIR studies. UV-visible transmittance spectrum was recorded to study the optical transparency of BLALC crystal. The nonlinear optical (NLO) property of the grown crystal was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique.

Rose, A. S. J. Lucia; Selvarajan, P.; Perumal, S.

2011-10-01

96

Open-cycle lithium chloride (solar) cooling. Final report, 1 February 1980-31 May 1981  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of packed towers for use with open-cycle lithium chloride solar cooling are described, including types of packing, pressure drop, irrigated packings and allowable vapor velocity. The theory of packed column operation is outlined. Coefficients of heat transfer and mass transfer in a packed column in which water is vaporized from a LiCi solution by heated air are expermentally determined. The influences of air flow rate, humidity, and temperature on the coefficients of heat transfer and mass transfer in a packed column are also determined. Theoretical predictions of transfer coefficients and packed column sizes in an open cycle LiCl solar cooling system are verified. The feasibility of operating an open cycle cooling system is established. (LEW)

Loef, G.O.G.; Rao, S.; Lenz, T.

1981-12-01

97

Method of pretreating carbon black powder to improve cathode performance and lithium sulfuryl chloride cell including the pretreated carbon black powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon black powder is pretreated with acetone or methanol prior to cathode fabrication to improve the cathode operating voltage and increase the cathode life of lithium sulfuryl chloride electrochemical cells.

M. Binder; S. Gilman; E. R. Petersen; W. L. Wade Jr; C. W. Walker Jr

1985-01-01

98

Method of Pretreating Carbon Black Powder to Improve Cathode Performance and Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Cell Including the Pretreated Carbon Black Powder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carbon black powder is pretreated with acetone or methanol prior to cathode fabrication to improve the cathode operating voltage and increase the cathode life of lithium sulfuryl chloride electrochemical cells.

M. Binder C. W. Walker E. R. Petersen W. L. Wade S. Gilman

1983-01-01

99

Method of pretreating carbon black powder to improve cathode performance and lithium sulfuryl chloride cell including the pretreated carbon black powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon black powder is pretreated with acetone or methanol prior to cathode fabrication to improve the cathode operating voltage and increase the cathode life of lithium sulfuryl chloride electrochemical cells.

M. Binder; C. W. Jr Walker; E. R. Petersen; W. L. Jr Wade; S. Gilman

1983-01-01

100

Method of Pretreating Carbon Black Powder to Improve Cathode Performance and Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Cell Including the Pretreated Carbon Black Powder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carbon black powder is pretreated with acetone or methanol prior to cathode fabrication to improve the cathode operating voltage and increase the cathode life of lithium sulfuryl chloride electrochemical cells.

M. Binder C. W. Walker E. R. Petersen W. L. Wade S. Gilman

1985-01-01

101

An electro-active paper actuator made with lithium chloride/cellulose films: effects of glycerol content and film thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellulose-based electro-active paper (EAPap) has been reported as a smart material that has merits in terms of light weight, dry condition, biodegradability, large displacement output and low actuation voltage. However, it requires high humidity. This paper introduces an EAPap that can be actuated in low humidity conditions. The fabrication process and performance test of the EAPap actuator are illustrated. Cellulose fibers were dissolved in N,N-dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride. The solution was cast and immersed in water to form the cellulose film, followed by adding glycerol and lithium chloride aqueous solution, and drying in air. Depositing thin gold electrodes on both sides of the cellulose film made a bending EAPap actuator. Effects and optimum values of the glycerol content and the thickness of the films are discussed.

Kim, Jaehwan; Wang, Niangui; Chen, Yi; Yun, Gyu-Young

2007-10-01

102

Alkali Halide Opacity in Brown Dwarf and Cool Stellar Atmospheres: A Study of Lithium Chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent thermochemical equilibrium calculations have revealed the important role played by lithium chloride in the lithium chemistry of cool dwarf atmospheres (K. Lodders 1999, ApJ 519, 793). Indeed, LiCl appears to be the dominant Li-bearing gas over an extended domain of the (P,T) diagram, typically for temperatures below 1500 K. LiCl has a large dipole moment in its ground electronic state which can give rise to intense rovibrational line spectra. In addition, LiCl can make dipole transitions to several low-lying unbound excited states, causing dissociation of the molecule. For these reasons, LiCl may be a significant source of line and continuum opacity in brown dwarf and cool stellar atmospheres. In this work, we report calculations of complete lists of line oscillator strengths and photodissociation cross sections for the low-lying electronic states of LiCl. We have performed single- and double-excitation configuration interaction calculations using the ALCHEMY ab initio package (Mc Lean et al. 1991, MOTECC 91, Elsevier, Leiden) and obtained the potential curves and the corresponding dipole transition moment functions between the X 1? ^+ ground state and the B 1? ^+ and A 1? excited states. The resulting line oscillator strengths and molecular photodissociation cross sections have been included in the PHOENIX stellar atmosphere code (Hauschildt & Baron 1999, J. Comput. App. Math. 102, 41). The new models, calculated using spherical geometry for all gravities considered, also incorporate our latest database of nearly 670 million molecular lines, and updated equations of state (EOS). This work was supported in part by NSF grants AST-9720704 and AST-0086246, NASA grants NAG5-8425, NAG5-9222, and NAG5-10551 as well as NASA/JPL grant 961582.

Kirby, K.; Weck, P. F.; Schweitzer, A.; Stancil, P. C.; Hauschildt, P. H.

2003-12-01

103

Conformation and d n\\/d c determination of cellulose in N,N-dimethylacetamide containing lithium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to characterise cellulose dissolved in lithium chloride\\/N,N-dimethylacetamide (LiCl\\/DMAc) using size-exclusion chromatography with online multiangle laser light scattering and differential refractive index detection, a number of parameters were determined. One of them in particular, the specific refractive index increment (dn\\/dc) of cellulose in 0.5% LiCl\\/DMAc, is required in order to calculate the molar mass from the light scattering signal.

Anne-Laurence Dupont; Gabrielle Harrison

2004-01-01

104

A Lithium Chloride-Extracted, Broad-Spectrum-Adhesive 42-Kilodalton Protein of Staphylococcus epidermidis Is Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify novel putative staphylococcal adhesins, lithium chloride extraction (an established method for selective surface molecule solubilization) was employed. N-terminal sequencing and functional assays identi- fied a 42-kDa fibronectin-binding protein from Staphylococcus epidermidis as ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCTase). However, OCTase was not recognizable extracellularly, and this fact together with the fact that LiCl induced DNA release and a decrease in viability

MUZAFFAR HUSSAIN; GEORG PETERS; GURSHARAN S. CHHATWAL; MATHIAS HERRMANN

1999-01-01

105

Lithium Chloride Reinforces the Regeneration-Promoting Effect of Chondroitinase ABC on Rubrospinal Neurons after Spinal Cord Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

After spinal cord injury, enzymatic digestion of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans promotes axonal regeneration of central nervous system neurons across the lesion scar. We examined whether chon- droitinase ABC (ChABC) promotes the axonal regeneration of rubrospinal tract (RST) neurons fol- lowing injury to the spinal cord. The effect of a GSK-3? inhibitor, lithium chloride (LiCl), on the regeneration of axotomized RST

Leung-Wah Yick; Kwok-Fai So; Pik-To Cheung; Wu-Tian Wu

2004-01-01

106

Investigation of mechanical properties of polyvinyl chloride–polyethylene oxide (PVC–PEO) based polymer electrolytes for lithium polymer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer electrolytes composed of a blend of polyvinyl chloride–polyethylene oxide (PVC–PEO) as a host polymer, lithium triflate (LiCF3SO3) as a salt, mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and dibuthyl phthalate (DBP) as plasticizers and silica (SiO2) as the nanocomposite filler were studied. Results suggest that PVC–PEO blending exhibits improved mechanical strength compared to that of pure PEO. The introduction of LiCF3SO3

S. Ramesh; Tan Winie; A. K. Arof

2007-01-01

107

Effects of lithium counterdoping on radiation damage and annealing in N + P silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Boron doped silicon solar cells were counterdoped with lithium by ion implantation and the resultant cells irradiated by one million electronvolt electrons. The lithium counterdoped cells exhibited increased radiation resistance when compared to boron doped control cells. Significant annealing occurred at 100/sup 0/C. It was speculated that the increased radiation resistance of the counterdoped cells is due to the interaction of lithium with oxygen, single and double vacancies, and that the lithium-oxygen interaction is the major contributor to the increased radiation resistance.

Brandhorst, H.W. Jr.; Mehta, S.; Swartz, C.K.

1984-09-01

108

Lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide synthesized using alkali chloride flux: morphology and performance as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries.  

PubMed

Li(Ni(0.8)Co(0.1)Mn(0.1))O(2) (NCM811) was synthesized using alkali chlorides as a flux and the performance as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries was examined. Primary particles of the powder were segregated and grown separately in the presence of liquid state fluxes, which induced each particle to be composed of one primary particle with well-developed facet planes, not the shape of agglomerates as appears with commercial NCMs. The new NCM showed far less gas emission during high temperature storage at charged states, and higher volumetric capacity thanks to its high bulk density. The material is expected to provide optimal performances for pouch type lithium ion batteries, which require high volumetric capacity and are vulnerable to deformation caused by gas generation from the electrode materials. PMID:22497580

Kim, Yongseon

2012-04-17

109

Preferential interactions between lithium chloride and glucan chains in N,N-dimethylacetamide drive cellulose dissolution.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring cellulose is crystalline as a consequence of the strong interactions between the glucan chains that comprise it and therefore is insoluble in most solvents. One of the few solvent systems able to dissolve cellulose is lithium chloride (LiCl) dissolved in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA). By an integrated application of all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, reaction path optimization, free-energy calculations, and a force-matching analysis of coarse-grained atomistic simulations, we establish that DMA-mediated preferential interactions of Li(+) cations and Cl(-) anions with glucan chains enable cellulose dissolution in LiCl/DMA. The relatively weak solvation of Li(+), Cl(-), and glucan chains by DMA results in strong effective interactions of Li(+) and Cl(-) ions with the glucans, leading to cellulose dissolution. The small size of the Li(+) cations allows them to strongly couple to multiple interaction sites on the glucan chains of cellulose, including the spatially restricted regions around the ether linkages connecting neighboring glucose residues. Li(+) cations were thus identified as the main component responsible for driving cellulose dissolution. The mechanism for explaining the solubility of cellulose in the LiCl/DMA system deduced from the analysis of atomistic-scale simulations conducted in this work is also consistent with most of the empirical observations related to cellulose dissolution in salt/amide solvent systems. PMID:23442105

Gross, Adam S; Bell, Alexis T; Chu, Jhih-Wei

2013-03-20

110

Lithium chloride attenuates cell death in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy by perturbing Wnt/?-catenin pathway.  

PubMed

Expansion of polyalanine tracts causes at least nine inherited human diseases. Among these, a polyalanine tract expansion in the poly (A)-binding protein nuclear 1 (expPABPN1) causes oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). So far, there is no treatment for OPMD patients. Developing drugs that efficiently sustain muscle protection by activating key cell survival mechanisms is a major challenge in OPMD research. Proteins that belong to the Wnt family are known for their role in both human development and adult tissue homeostasis. A hallmark of the Wnt signaling pathway is the increased expression of its central effector, beta-catenin (?-catenin) by inhibiting one of its upstream effector, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3?. Here, we explored a pharmacological manipulation of a Wnt signaling pathway using lithium chloride (LiCl), a GSK-3? inhibitor, and observed the enhanced expression of ?-catenin protein as well as the decreased cell death normally observed in an OPMD cell model of murine myoblast (C2C12) expressing the expanded and pathogenic form of the expPABPN1. Furthermore, this effect was also observed in primary cultures of mouse myoblasts expressing expPABPN1. A similar effect on ?-catenin was also observed when lymphoblastoid cells lines (LCLs) derived from OPMD patients were treated with LiCl. We believe manipulation of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway may represent an effective route for the development of future therapy for patients with OPMD. PMID:24091664

Abu-Baker, A; Laganiere, J; Gaudet, R; Rochefort, D; Brais, B; Neri, C; Dion, P A; Rouleau, G A

2013-10-03

111

Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin material candidates for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries in 1.5M LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte have been investigated using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4 PH, and 446), three Fe-Ni glass sealing alloys (Kovar, Alloy 52, and Niromet 426), a Ni-based alloy (Hastelloy B-2) and a zirconium-based alloy (Zircaloy), were compared to the reference materials Ni and 316L SS. All of the candidate materials showed some evidence of corrosion and, therefore, did not perform as well as the reference materials. The Hastelloy B-2 and Zircaloy are clearly unacceptable materials for this application. Of the remaining alternate materials, the 446 SS and Alloy 52 are the most promising candidates.

Bovard, Francine S.; Cieslak, Wendy R.

1987-09-01

112

Lithium Chloride Alleviates Neurodegeneration Partly by Inhibiting Activity of GSK3? in a SCA3 Drosophila Model.  

PubMed

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a CAG trinucelotide repeat that encodes an abnormal polyglutamine (PolyQ) tract in the disease protein, ataxin-3. The formation of neuronal intranuclear inclusions in the specific brain regions is one of the pathological hallmarks of SCA3. Acceleration of the degradation of the mutant protein aggregates is proven to produce beneficial effects in SCA3 and other PolyQ diseases. Lithium is known to be neuroprotective in various models of neurodegenerative disease and can reduce the mutant protein aggregates by inducing autophagy. In this study, we explored the therapeutic potential of lithium in a SCA3 Drosophila model. We showed that chronic treatment with lithium chloride at specific doses notably prevented eye depigmentation, alleviated locomotor disability, and extended the median life spans of SCA3 transgenic Drosophila. By means of genetic approaches, we showed that co-expressing the mutant S9E, which mimicked the phosphorylated S9 state of Shaggy as done by lithium, also partly decreased toxicity of gmr-SCA3tr-Q78. Taken together, our findings suggest that lithium is a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of SCA3 and other PolyQ diseases. PMID:23812869

Jia, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Li; Chen, Zhao; Wang, Chun-Rong; Huang, Feng-Zhen; Duan, Ran-Hui; Xia, Kun; Tang, Bei-Sha; Jiang, Hong

2013-12-01

113

Comparison between random and structured packings for dehumidification of air by lithium chloride solutions in a packed column and their heat and mass transfer correlations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random and structured packings were compared for their efficiency in dehumidification of air in a packed column using lithium chloride solutions. Experiments were conducted with cross corrugated cellulose and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) structured packings, and the results were compared with the data previously obtained for polypropylene Flexi rings and ceramic Berl saddles as random packings. The heat and mass transfer

Tsair-Wang Chung; Tushar K. Ghosh; Anthony L. Hines

1996-01-01

114

Optimisation of lithium borate barium chloride glass-ceramic thermal neutron imaging plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glass-ceramic thermal neutron imaging plates (NIPs) recently reported have been further developed for use in neutron radiography. The plate consists of nanocrystallites of the storage phosphor BaCl2:Eu2+ embedded within a neutron-sensitive lithium borate glass-matrix. A new generation of samples, enriched with both 10B and 6Li with thicknesses in the range 280 500 ?m have been studied. Neutron images were read out using a Fuji BAS2500 imaging plate scanner and the quality of the images obtained was comparable to those recorded on a commercial NIP. Details of the response to neutron-irradiation as well as the obtained spatial resolution of the images are presented. The neutron absorption and radiation hardness of the materials studied is also measured.

Appleby, G. A.; Vontobel, P.

2008-09-01

115

Dissociation of vertical and horizontal components of activity in rats treated with lithium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé La chlorure de lithium, administré aux rats. a affaibli leur activité verticale, sans porter atteinte ą leur activité horizontale. Ces résultats sont compatibles avec l'hypothčse selon laquelle le lithium affaiblit les réponses des animaux aux stimulations.

F. N. Johnson

1972-01-01

116

Action mechanisms of lithium chloride on cell infection by transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus.  

PubMed

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a porcine coronavirus. Lithium chloride (LiCl) has been found to be effective against several DNA viruses, such as Herpes simplex virus and vaccinia virus. Recently, we and others have reported the inhibitory effect of LiCl on avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) infection, an RNA virus. In the current study, the action mechanism of LiCl on cell infection by TGEV was investigated. Plaque assays and 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenyl tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assays showed that the cell infection by TGEV was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, when LiCl was added to virus-infected cells; the cell infection was not affected when either cells or viruses were pretreated with the drug. The inhibition of TGEV infection in vitro by LiCl was observed at different virus doses and with different cell lines. The inhibitory effect of LiCl against TGEV infection and transcription was confirmed by RT-PCR and real-time PCR targeting viral S and 3CL-protease genes. The time-of-addition effect of the drug on TGEV infection indicated that LiCl acted on the initial and late stage of TGEV infection. The production of virus was not detected at 36 h post-infection due to the drug treatment. Moreover, immunofluorescence (IF) and flow cytometry analyses based on staining of Annexin V and propidium iodide staining of nuclei indicated that early and late cell apoptosis induced by TGEV was inhibited efficiently. The ability of LiCl to inhibit apoptosis was investigated by IF analysis of caspase-3 expression. Our data indicate that LiCl inhibits TGEV infection by exerting an anti-apoptotic effect. The inhibitory effect of LiCl was also observed with porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus. Together with other reports concerning the inhibitory effect of lithium salts on IBV in cell culture, our results indicate that LiCl may be a potent agent against porcine and avian coronaviruses. PMID:21573100

Ren, Xiaofeng; Meng, Fandan; Yin, Jiechao; Li, Guangxing; Li, Xunliang; Wang, Chao; Herrler, Georg

2011-05-06

117

Effect of lithium chloride on spectral, optical, thermal and mechanical behaviour of bis thiourea zinc acetate crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of pure bis thiourea zinc acetate (BTZA) and lithium chloride (LiCl) doped BTZA have been synthesized and grown successfully from aqueous solutions by slow evaporation technique. The single crystals thus grown were characterized by different techniques such as single crystal XRD, AAS, FT-IR, UV-Vis, TG/DTA and SHG test. The single crystal XRD study proved that the dopant has not changed the structure of the parent crystal. The AAS study confirmed the presence of lithium in the doped crystal. The FTIR study ascertained the metal coordination of lithium chloride doped BTZA through thiourea. The optical behavior of the doped crystal has been examined by UV spectral analysis. Thermal studies TGA & DTA of the doped crystal have been investigated and found that the doped crystal is thermally more stable than the pure crystal. The SHG test using Nd: YAG Laser confirmed the NLO activity of the pure and doped crystal. The obtained results are presented and discussed.

Ruby Nirmala, L.; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J.

2012-11-01

118

Dose response effects of lithium chloride on conditioned place aversions and locomotor activity in rats.  

PubMed

The present study examined the multi-variable locomotor activity effects of lithium chloride (LiCl) treatment in male rats. Of interest was a determination of which variables might show a dose-response relationship in LiCl-induced conditioned place aversions. Automated open-fields were partitioned into two chambers distinct in tactile and visual cues. A control group [n=8] received saline (NaCl; 0.15 M) paired with both chambers while three LiCl groups (0.15 M; 32 mg/kg [n=7], 95 mg/kg [n=7], 127 mg/kg [n=7]) received LiCl paired with the normally preferred chamber and saline paired with the non-preferred chamber. During extinction trials, rats were allowed to choose between the two chambers to provide an index of conditioned place aversions. Locomotor activity and its distribution within the chambers were also assessed during both conditioning and extinction trials. Dose-dependent decreases occurred in all measures of locomotor activity following LiCl administration during conditioning. During extinction trials, place aversions developed in animals conditioned with LiCl. LiCl-treated rats spent significantly less time in the LiCl-paired chamber relative to controls but not in a dose-dependent manner. Animals that had been conditioned with 95 or 127 but not 32 mg/kg LiCl, displayed significantly more vertical activity in the LiCl-paired chamber than controls during extinction trials. These findings indicate that, in addition to producing dose-dependent unconditioned effects on locomotor activity, LiCl also produces dose-dependent conditioned effects on vertical activity. These conditioned rearing response effects provide a valid measure of the conditioned avoidance response that provides evidence for dose-dependent LiCl-induced conditioned place aversions. PMID:15899481

Tenk, Christine M; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

2005-05-16

119

Phospho-acetylation of histone H3 in the amygdala after acute lithium chloride  

PubMed Central

Acute injection of a high dose of lithium chloride (LiCl) increases c-Fos expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We investigated if LiCl-induced c-Fos expression in the CeA is correlated with histone acetylation and phospho-acetylation. Chromatin modifications such as acetylation and phosphorylation are necessary for optimal gene expression, and gene expression may be increased by inhibiting the activity of histone deacetylases. LiCl (0.15 M, 12 ml/kg, i.p.) highly increased the levels of acetylation and phospho-acetylation of histone H3 in the CeA. The time course of these increases closely corresponded to and preceded the time course of c-Fos induction. Moreover, LiCl-induced c-Fos was co-localized with phospho-acetylated histone H3 in a majority of c-Fos-positive cells in the CeA. Systemic administration of a histone deacetylase inhibitor, sodium butyrate (NaB; 0.3 M, 0.4 g/kg, i.p.), significantly increased the levels of LiCl-induced c-Fos and phospho-acetylated histone H3 in the CeA. NaB also enhanced conditioned taste aversion learning induced by pairing saccharin consumption with LiCl injection, by making the conditioned taste aversion more resistant to extinction. These results suggest that LiCl-induced c-Fos expression may be regulated by modification of histone H3, especially phospho-acetylation, in the CeA. Furthermore, the level of phospho-acetylation of histone H3, c-Fos induction, and amygdalar-dependent taste aversion learning is constrained by endogenous histone deacetylase activity.

Kwon, Bumsup; Houpt, Thomas A.

2010-01-01

120

Combination of imatinib mesylate with lithium chloride and medroxyprogesterone acetate is highly active in Ishikawa endometrial carcinoma in vitro  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of the study was to investigate whether lithium chloride and medroxyprogesterone acetate can potentiate the cytotoxicity of imatinib mesylate in human endometrial cancer in vitro and the effect of midkine in these therapies. Methods Imatinib mesylate (50 µM), lithium chloride (100 µM), medroxyprogesterone acetate (200 µM) and their combination were applied to monolayer and three dimensional cultures of human Ishikawa endometrial cancer for 72 hours. The cell proliferation index, apoptotic index, caspase-3 and midkine levels, cell cycle distributions in monolayer cultures and cell ultrastructure in spheroid cultures were evaluated. Results were statistically analyzed using the Student's t-test. Results All drug applications inhibited cell proliferation (p<0.05), however the combination were the effective groups for 72 hours (p<0.05). Interestingly, although the loss of efficiency was seen higly seen every 24 hours at single applications, the inhibition rates of the combination groups were almost same for 72 hours. In concordance with these results, the apoptotic index, caspase-3 levels (p<0.05), cell morphology and ultrastructure damages were much higher in the combination groups. Imatinib mesylate induced S-phase arrest, however other groups induced G0+G1-phase arrest at 24 hours and all groups induced G0+G1 arrest at 72 hours (p<0.05). Imatinib mesylate and imatinib mesylate with medroxyprogesterone acetate induced highest decrease in midkine levels, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusion The present study showed that the combination of imatinib mesylate with lithium chloride and medroxyprogesterone acetate is highly active in Ishikawa endometrial carcinoma in vitro and the inhibition of midkine involved in their mechanism of action against endometrium defense.

Erguven, Mine; Ermis, Ezgi; Sencan, Mine; Yazihan, Nuray

2011-01-01

121

Growth, spectroscopic, dielectric and nonlinear optical studies of semi organic nonlinear optical crystal--L-alanine lithium chloride.  

PubMed

A new and efficient semi organic nonlinear optical crystal (NLO) from the amino acid family L-alanine lithium chloride (LAL) has been grown by slow evaporation technique from aqueous solution. The functional groups were identified from NMR spectral studies. Mass spectral analysis shows the molecular ion mass. Dielectric studies has been done for the grown crystal and relative SHG efficiency is measured by Kurtz and Perry method and found to about 0.43 times that of standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals. The compound crystallized in non-centrosymmetric space group Pna21. The results have been discussed in detail. PMID:22074890

Hanumantharao, Redrothu; Kalainathan, S

2011-10-19

122

Growth, spectroscopic, dielectric and nonlinear optical studies of semi organic nonlinear optical crystal - L-Alanine lithium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new and efficient semi organic nonlinear optical crystal (NLO) from the amino acid family L-alanine lithium chloride (LAL) has been grown by slow evaporation technique from aqueous solution. The functional groups were identified from NMR spectral studies. Mass spectral analysis shows the molecular ion mass. Dielectric studies has been done for the grown crystal and relative SHG efficiency is measured by Kurtz and Perry method and found to about 0.43 times that of standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals. The compound crystallized in non-centrosymmetric space group Pna21. The results have been discussed in detail.

Hanumantharao, Redrothu; Kalainathan, S.

2012-02-01

123

Coefficients of heat and mass transfer in a packed bed suitable for solar regeneration of aqueous lithium chloride solutions  

SciTech Connect

Reconcentration of a lithium chloride solution in an open-cycle absorption chiller can be accomplished by passing solar heated air through a packed column to which the dilute solution is supplied. Following a theoretical study of heat transfer and water vapor transfer rates in the column, experimental measurement of those rates was made. Heat transfer and mass transfer coefficients are correlated with rates of air and liquid flow, and with temperatures of air and liquid supply. Performance data are presented and commercial design and operating requirements are suggested.

Lof, G.O.G.; Lenz, T.G.; Rao, S.

1984-11-01

124

Radiation damage of lithium ceramics by ion bombardment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium compounds are being considered as fusion reactor breeder blanket ceramics. The present studies will examine the stability of the Li-compounds to radiation damage effects, and to the formation of non-crystalline phases. Ion bombardment studies have been carried out to determine damage cross-sections of the crystal structures of Li2SiO3, Li2ZrO3 to 7 MeV Si ions. Monolayers of fine powders, less than 5 ? particle size, are examined by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy before and after irradiation. The lithium compounds damage readily becoming largely non-crystalline by 4 ions/nm2 with damage cross-sections of 0.8 +/- 0.1 nm2 for Li2SiO3 and 0.66 + 0.05 nm2 for Li2ZrO3. By contrast, Li2O has a fluorite structure and is expected to remain crystalline.

Özkan, H.; Karioris, F. G.; Eridon, J.; Cartz, L.

1990-02-01

125

Radiation damage and defect behavior in ion-implanted, lithium counterdoped silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Boron doped silicon n+p solar cells were counterdoped with lithium by ion implanation and the resultant n+p cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons. The function of fluence and a Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) was studied to correlate defect behavior with cell performance. It was found that the lithium counterdoped cells exhibited significantly increased radiation resistance when compared to boron doped control cells. It is concluded that the annealing behavior is controlled by dissociation and recombination of defects. The DLTS studies show that counterdoping with lithium eliminates at least three deep level defects and results in three new defects. It is speculated that the increased radiation resistance of the counterdoped cells is due primarily to the interaction of lithium with oxygen, single vacancies and divacancies and that the lithium-oxygen interaction is the most effective in contributing to the increased radiation resistance.

Weinberg, I.; Mehta, S.; Swartz, C.K.

1984-01-01

126

Efficient generation of far-infrared radiation in the vicinity of polariton resonance of lithium niobate.  

PubMed

We efficiently generated far-infrared radiation at the wavelengths centered at 20.8 ?m in the vicinity of one of the polariton resonances of lithium niobate. Such an efficient nonlinear conversion is made possible by exploiting phase matching for difference-frequency generation in lithium niobate. The highest peak power reached 233 W. PMID:22940991

Lin, Xiaomu; Wang, Lei; Ding, Yujie J

2012-09-01

127

[Therapeutic effect of lithium chloride combined with cyclosporine A on mouse model with aplastic anemia].  

PubMed

Wnt signaling has been shown to inhibit adipogenic differentiation while inducing the osteogenic pathway of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC). Patients with aplastic anemia (AA) often show excess fat accumulation in the bone marrow, possibly due to overactivation of the adipogenic pathway. Therefore, an activator of the Wnt signaling may alleviate the symptoms by enhancing the inhibition on the differentiation of BMSC towards adipocytes. To judge this hypothesis, the therapeutic effects of Wnt signaling activator lithium chloride (LiCl) combined with the currently used immunosuppressor cyclosporine A (CsA) on mice with AA in vivo was investigated. Mouse model with AA was established and the disease was confirmed by increased fat cell counts and decreased hematopoietic cell counts in the bone marrow of these animals. These mice treated with CsA 50 mg/(kg·d) alone or together with LiCl 20 mg/(kg·d), once daily for 5 d, then at day 14, 21 and 28 after establishment of mouse model with AA, the treatment effects were observed, including peripheral blood cells, bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC) count and bone marrow biopsy examination in each group. The results showed that compared with the AA group, Hb content, WBC and BMMNC counts of CsA group and the combination group significantly increased. HE staining of bone marrow biopsy sample showed that the fat cells were significantly reduced in the bone marrow cavity (P < 0.05). Compared with the CsA group, Hb content, WBC and BMMNC counts of the combination group significantly increased (P < 0.05); HE staining of bone marrow biopsy sample showed that fat cells were reduced, the hematopoiesis of bone marrow was close to the normal. It is concluded that Wnt signal activator (LiCl) combined with CsA displayed a better treatment effect on AA in mouse models than the effect of using CsA only. They can promote the hematopoietic function of bone marrow, which may correlate with inhibiting differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into the fat cells by Wnt signaling. PMID:22739176

Zhang, Na; Dai, Yu-Long; Huang, Li-Fang; Liu, Wen-Li

2012-06-01

128

RADIATION-INDUCED EXCHANGE OF HYDROGEN CHLORIDE-ClĀ³ā¶ AND PROPYL CHLORIDES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The irradiation of the two propyl chlorides has been studied, both ; alone and admixed with hydrogen chlorideClĀ³ā¶. The principal radiolysis ; product is hydrogen chloride; G\\/sub HCI\\/. , values are 3.38 for n-PrCl and 3.82 ; for i-PrCl. The isotopic exchange reaction is zero order in hydrogen chloride; G\\/; sub excchg\\/ values are 3.32 for n-PrCl and 1.27 for

Rowland E. Johnson; Charles E. Miller

1959-01-01

129

Slow dynamics of water molecules in an aqueous solution of lithium chloride probed by neutron spin-echo.  

PubMed

Aqueous solutions of lithium chloride are uniquely similar to pure water in the parameters such as glass transition temperature, Tg, yet they could be supercooled without freezing down to below 200 K even in the bulk state. This provides advantageous opportunity to study low-temperature dynamics of water molecules in water-like environment in the bulk rather than nano-confined state. Using high-resolution neutron spin-echo data, we argue that the critical temperature, Tc, which is also common between lithium chloride aqueous solutions and pure water, is associated with the split of a secondary relaxation from the main structural relaxation on cooling down. Our results do not allow distinguishing between a well-defined separate secondary relaxation process and the "excess wing" scenario, in which the temperature dependence of the secondary relaxation follows the main relaxation. Importantly, however, in either of these scenarios the secondary relaxation is associated with density-density fluctuations, measurable in a neutron scattering experiment. Neutron scattering could be the only experimental technique with the capability of providing information on the spatial characteristics of the secondary relaxation through the dependence of the signal on the scattering momentum transfer. We propose a simple method for such analysis. PMID:23689686

Mamontov, E; Ohl, M

2013-05-20

130

Analysis of the metabolome and transcriptome of Brassica carinata seedlings after lithium chloride exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of B. carinata seedlings to increasing concentrations of a non-physiological ion, lithium, showed significant effects on the germination rate, root length, chlorophyll content and fresh weight in brown-seeded and yellow-seeded near-isogenic lines. Metal content analysis and phytochemical profiling indicated that lithium hyper-accumulated and the lipid and phenolic composition dramatically changed in brown-seeded seedlings. Here, sinapic acid esters and chloroplast

Xiang Li; Peng Gao; Branimir Gjetvaj; Neil Westcott; Margaret Y. Gruber

2009-01-01

131

Blockade of lithium chloride-induced conditioned place aversion as a test for antiemetic agents: Comparison of metoclopramide with combined extracts of Zingiber officinale and Ginkgo biloba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study tests the hypothesis that the blockade of lithium chloride-induced conditioned place aversion might be a suitable model to assess antiemetic properties of drugs, especially in species that do not vomit, like rats. The effects of the known antiemetic compound metoclopramide were compared with those of zingicomb®, a combination preparation of extracts of Ginkgo biloba and Zingiber officinale,

Christian Frisch; Rüdiger U. Hasenöhrl; Claudia M. Mattern; Rüdiger Häcker; Joseph P. Huston

1995-01-01

132

Method of recycling lithium borate to lithium borohydride through diborane  

DOEpatents

This invention provides a method for the recycling of lithium borate to lithium borohydride which can be reacted with water to generate hydrogen for utilization as a fuel. The lithium borate by-product of the hydrogen generation reaction is reacted with hydrogen chloride and water to produce boric acid and lithium chloride. The boric acid and lithium chloride are converted to lithium borohydride through a diborane intermediate to complete the recycle scheme.

Filby, Evan E. (Rigby, ID)

1976-01-01

133

Local order in aqueous lithium chloride solutions as studied by X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out on pure water and aqueous lithium chloride solutions at four salt concentrations 0.5, 1.5, 3 and 4 molal. Both experimental and theoretical results indicate a decrease of hydrogen bonding in liquid water as compared with pure fluid. MD results also show that the hydration number around the cation decreases with increasing salt concentration; simultaneously the fraction of contact ion pairs increases and that of solvent-separated ion pairs decreases. The local order in the systems, as deduced from MD simulation by considering the rigid SPC water model and the Lennard-Jones potential, is directly confronted with that extracted from X-ray data. A good agreement is shown between the theoretical and experimental pair correlation functions of each system.

Bouazizi, Salah; Nasr, Salah

2007-06-01

134

Water dynamics in a lithium chloride aqueous solution probed by Brillouin neutron and x-ray scattering.  

PubMed

We studied the collective excitations in an aqueous solution of lithium chloride over the temperature range of 270-205 K using neutron and x-ray Brillouin scattering. Both neutron and x-ray experiments revealed the presence of low- and high-frequency excitations, similar to the low- and high-frequency excitations in pure water. These two excitations were detectable through the entire temperature range of the experiment, at all probed values of the scattering momentum transfer (0.2 Å(-1) < Q < 1.8 Å(-1)). A wider temperature range was investigated using elastic intensity neutron and x-ray scans. Clear evidence of the crossover in the dynamics of the water molecules in the solution was observed in the single-particle relaxational dynamics on the µeV (nanosecond) time scale, but not in the collective dynamics on the meV (picosecond) time scale. PMID:22277241

Mamontov, E; De Francesco, A; Formisano, F; Laloni, A; Sani, L; Leu, B M; Said, A H; Kolesnikov, A I

2012-01-25

135

Water dynamics in a lithium chloride aqueous solution probed by Brillouin neutron and x-ray scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the collective excitations in an aqueous solution of lithium chloride over the temperature range of 270-205 K using neutron and x-ray Brillouin scattering. Both neutron and x-ray experiments revealed the presence of low- and high-frequency excitations, similar to the low- and high-frequency excitations in pure water. These two excitations were detectable through the entire temperature range of the experiment, at all probed values of the scattering momentum transfer (0.2 Å - 1 < Q < 1.8 Å - 1). A wider temperature range was investigated using elastic intensity neutron and x-ray scans. Clear evidence of the crossover in the dynamics of the water molecules in the solution was observed in the single-particle relaxational dynamics on the µeV (nanosecond) time scale, but not in the collective dynamics on the meV (picosecond) time scale.

Mamontov, E.; De Francesco, A.; Formisano, F.; Laloni, A.; Sani, L.; Leu, B. M.; Said, A. H.; Kolesnikov, A. I.

2012-02-01

136

Dendritic cells from the elderly display an intrinsic defect in the production of IL-10 in response to Lithium Chloride.  

PubMed

Chronic, low grade inflammation is a characteristic of old age. Innate immune system cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) from the elderly display a pro-inflammatory phenotype associated with increased reactivity to self. Lithium is a well-established anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of bipolar disorders. It has also been reported to reduce inflammation in DCs. Here, we investigated whether Lithium is effective in reducing the inflammatory responses in DCs from the elderly. The effect of Lithium Chloride (LiCl) was compared on the response of TLR4 agonist, LPS and TLR2 agonist, PAM3CSK4 stimulated aged and young DCs. LiCl enhanced the production of IL-10 in LPS stimulated young DCs. However, it did not affect TNF-? and IL-6 production. In contrast, in aged DCs, LiCl reduced the secretion of TNF-? and IL-6 in LPS stimulated DCs but did not increase IL-10. LiCl had no significant effect on PAM3CSK4 responses in aged and young DCs. LiCl treated DCs also displayed differences at the level of CD4 T cell priming and polarization. LPS-stimulated young DCs reduced IFN-? secretion and biased the Th cell response towards Th2/Treg while LiCl treated aged DCs only reduced IFN-? secretion but did not bias the response towards Th2/Treg. In summary, our data suggests that LiCl reduces inflammation in aged and young DCs via different mechanisms. Furthermore, the effect of LiCl is different on LPS and PAM3CSK4 responses. PMID:23988651

Agrawal, Sudhanshu; Gollapudi, Sastry; Gupta, Sudhir; Agrawal, Anshu

2013-08-26

137

Neurite outgrowth and differentiation of rat cortex progenitor cells are sensitive to lithium chloride at non-cytotoxic exposures.  

PubMed

Neuron-specific in vitro screening strategies have the potential to accelerate the evaluation of chemicals for neurotoxicity. We examined neurite outgrowth as a measure of neuronal response with a commercially available rat cortex progenitor cell model, where cells were exposed to a chemical during a period of cell differentiation. In control cultures, the fraction of beta-III-tubulin positive neurons and their neurite length increased significantly with time, indicating differentiation of the progenitor cells. Expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, an astrocyte marker, also increased significantly with time. By seeding progenitor cells at varying densities, we demonstrated that neurite length was influenced by cell-cell spacing. After ten days, cultures seeded at densities of 1000 cells/mm(2) or lower had significantly shorter neurites than cultures seeded at densities of 1250 cells/mm(2) or higher. Progenitor cells were exposed to lithium, a neuroactive chemical with diverse modes of action. Cultures exposed to 30 mmol/L or 10 mmol/L lithium chloride (LiCl) had significantly lower metabolic activity than control cultures, as reported by adenosine triphosphate content, and no neurons were observed after ten days of exposure. Cultures exposed to 3 mmol/L, 1 mmol/L, or 0.3 mmol/L LiCl, which encompass lithium's therapeutic range, had metabolic activity similar to control cultures. These cultures exhibited concentration-dependent decreases in neurite outgrowth after ten days of LiCl exposure. Neurite outgrowth results were relatively robust, regardless of the evaluation methodology. This work demonstrates that measurement of neurite outgrowth in differentiating progenitor cell cultures can be a sensitive endpoint for neuronal response under non-cytotoxic exposure conditions. PMID:22771960

Jeerage, Kavita M; Oreskovic, Tammy L; Hume, Stephanie L

2012-07-04

138

Radiation damage and defect behavior in ion-implanted, lithium counterdoped silicon solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron doped silicon n+p solar cells were counterdoped with lithium by ion implantation and the resuitant n+p cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons. The function of fluence and a Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) was studied to correlate defect behavior with cell performance. It was found that the lithium counterdoped cells exhibited significantly increased radiation resistance when compared to boron

I. Weinberg; S. Mehta; C. K. Swartz

1984-01-01

139

Radiation hardness of the storage phosphor europium doped potassium chloride for radiation therapy dosimetry  

PubMed Central

Purpose: An important property of a reusable dosimeter is its radiation hardness, that is, its ability to retain its dosimetric merits after irradiation. The radiation hardness of europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu2+), a storage phosphor material recently proposed for radiation therapy dosimetry, is examined in this study. Methods: Pellet-style KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters, 6 mm in diameter, and 1 mm thick, were fabricated in-house for this study. The pellets were exposed by a 6 MV photon beam or in a high dose rate 137Cs irradiator. Macroscopic properties, such as radiation sensitivity, dose response linearity, and signal stability, were studied with a laboratory photostimulated luminescence (PSL) readout system. Since phosphor performance is related to the state of the storage centers and the activator, Eu2+, in the host lattice, spectroscopic and temporal measurements were carried out in order to explore radiation-induced changes at the microscopic level. Results: KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters retained approximately 90% of their initial signal strength after a 5000 Gy dose history. Dose response was initially supralinear over the dose range of 100–700 cGy but became linear after 60 Gy. Linearity did not change significantly in the 0–5000 Gy dose history spanned in this study. Annealing high dose history chips resulted in a return of supralinearity and a recovery of sensitivity. There were no significant changes in the PSL stimulation spectra, PSL emission spectra, photoluminescence spectra, or luminescence lifetime, indicating that the PSL signal process remains intact after irradiation but at a reduced efficiency due to reparable radiation-induced perturbations in the crystal lattice. Conclusions: Systematic studies of KCl:Eu2+ material are important for understanding how the material can be optimized for radiation therapy dosimetry purposes. The data presented here indicate that KCl:Eu2+ exhibits strong radiation hardness and lends support for further investigations of this novel material.

Driewer, Joseph P.; Chen, Haijian; Osvet, Andres; Low, Daniel A.; Li, H. Harold

2011-01-01

140

Tadiran High Energy Lithium Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The electrical and environmental performance of a primary lithium inorganic battery is described as well as its reliability and safety features. The cell consists of a lithium anode, a carbon cathode, and a solution of lithium aluminum chloride in thionyl...

1977-01-01

141

Cellulose in lithium chloride\\/ N, N-dimethylacetamide, optimisation of a dissolution method using paper substrates and stability of the solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activation and dissolution in lithium chloride\\/N,N-dimethylacetamide (LiCl\\/DMAc) of cellulose from paper substrates are studied. The importance of the multiple parameters involved such as salt concentration, sample source and preparation is shown in a literature review. The experiments are carried out in order to perfect the method of activation and dissolution of paper containing different kinds of additives, typically found in

Anne-Laurence Dupont

2003-01-01

142

Hydrolytic processes and condensation reactions in the cellulose solvent system N, N-dimethylacetamide\\/lithium chloride. Part 2: degradation of cellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain cellulose samples, especially those of higher molecular weight, are initially insoluble in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc, 1)\\/lithium chloride, which is a very common solvent system for cellulosic materials. According to a common protocol, heating or refluxing these samples in DMAc, or in DMAc containing dissolved LiCl, represents one of several so-called ‘activation’ procedures, which are aimed at facilitating subsequent dissolution. In

Antje Potthast; Thomas Rosenau; Jürgen Sartori; Herbert Sixta; Paul Kosma

2003-01-01

143

The cellulose solvent system N,N -dimethylacetamide\\/lithium chloride revisited: the effect of water on physicochemical properties and chemical stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water content in the binary systemN,N-dimethylacetamide\\/lithium chloride (DMAc\\/LiCl), acommon cellulose solvent, has been proven to be a crucial parameter. A quickdetermination of water content in DMAc based on the solvatochromism of aUV-active betain probe dye has been developed and validated. An analogousmethod, based on the solvatochromic fluorescence shift ofZelinskij's dye, which strongly depends on thesolventpolarity, was established for water

Antje Potthast; Thomas Rosenau; Richard Buchner; Thomas Röder; Gerald Ebner; Hartmut Bruglachner; Herbert Sixta; Paul Kosma

2002-01-01

144

The neuroprotective action of the mood stabilizing drugs lithium chloride and sodium valproate is mediated through the up-regulation of the homeodomain protein Six1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mood stabilizing agents lithium chloride (LiCl) and sodium valproate (VPA) have recently gained interest as potential neuroprotective therapeutics. However, exploitation of these therapeutic applications is hindered by both a lack of molecular understanding of the mode of action, and a number of sub-optimal properties, including a relatively small therapeutic window and variable patient response. Human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were

Kathryn E. Plant; Elizabeth Anderson; Nicole Simecek; Richard Brown; Sam Forster; Jenny Spinks; Nick Toms; G. Gordon Gibson; Jon Lyon; Nick Plant

2009-01-01

145

The Role of CNS Glucagon-Like Peptide1 (7-36) Amide Receptors in Mediating the Visceral Illness Effects of Lithium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral administration of large doses of lithium chloride (LiCl) to rats causes a spectrum of effects that are consistent with visceral illness. LiCl reduces food intake, decreases salt inges- tion after sodium depletion, induces pica, and produces robust conditioned taste aversions. Because some of the effects of peripheral LiCl are mimicked by centrally administered glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide (GLP-1), we

Randy J. Seeley; Kathleen Blake; Paul A. Rushing; Stephen Benoit; John Eng; Stephen C. Woods; David D'Alessio

2000-01-01

146

Central infusion of glucagon-like peptide-1-(7–36) amide (GLP-1) receptor antagonist attenuates lithium chloride-induced c-Fos induction in rat brainstem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central infusion of glucagon-like peptide-1-(7–36) amide (GLP-1) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of lithium chloride (LiCl) produce similar patterns of c-Fos induction in the rat brain. These similarities led us to assess the hypothesis that neuronal activity caused by i.p. injection of LiCl involves activation of central GLP-1 pathways. We therefore determined if third-ventricular (i3vt) infusion of a GLP-1 receptor antagonist

Todd E. Thiele; Randy J. Seeley; David D’ Alessio; John Eng; Ilene L. Bernstein; Stephen C. Woods; Gertjan van Dijk

1998-01-01

147

Differential fate and functional outcome of lithium chloride primed adult neural progenitor cell transplants in a rat model of Huntington disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The ability to predetermine the fate of transplanted neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and specifically to direct their maturation\\u000a has the potential to enhance the efficiency of cell-transplantation therapy for neurodegenerative disease. We previously demonstrated\\u000a that transient exposure of subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived adult NPCs to lithium chloride during in vitro proliferation alters differential fate in vitro and increases the proportion of

Elena M Vazey; Bronwen Connor

2010-01-01

148

Effects of lithium counterdoping on radiation damage and annealing in n(+)p silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Boron-doped silicon n(+)p solar cells were counterdoped with lithium by ion implantation and the resultant n(+)p cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons. Performance parameters were determined as a function of fluence and a deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) study was conducted. The lithium counterdoped cells exhibited significantly increased radiation resistance when compared to boron doped control cells. Isochronal annealing studies of cell performance indicate that significant annealing occurs at 100 C. Isochronal annealing of the deep level defects showed a correlation between a single defect at E sub v + 0.43 eV and the annealing behavior of short circuit current in the counterdoped cells. The annealing behavior was controlled by dissociation and recombination of this defect. The DLTS studies showed that counterdoping with lithium eliminated three deep level defects and resulted in three new defects. The increased radiation resistance of the counterdoped cells is due to the interaction of lithium with oxygen, single vacancies and divacancies. The lithium-oxygen interaction is the most effective in contributing to the increased radiation resistance.

Weinberg, I.; Brandhorst, H.W. Jr.

1984-01-01

149

Radiation damage and defect behavior in ion-implanted, lithium counterdoped silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Boron-doped silicon n/sup +/p solar cells were counterdoped with lithium by ion implantation and the resultant n/sup +/p cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons. Performance parameters were determined as a function of fluence and a Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) study was conducted in order to correlate defect behavior with cell performance. It was found that the lithium counterdoped cells exhibited significantly increased radiation resistance when compared to boron doped control cells. Isochronal annealing studies of cell performance indicate that significant annealing occurs at 100/sup 0/C. Isochronal annealing of the deep level defects showed a correlation between a single defect at E /sub v+/ .43 eV and the annealing behavior of short circuit current in the counterdoped cells. It was concluded that the annealing behavior was controlled by dissociation and recombination of this defect. The DLTS studies also showed that counterdoping with lithium eliminated at least three deep level defects and resulted in three new defects. It was speculated that the increased radiation resistance of the counterdoped cells is due primarily to the interaction of lithium with oxygen, single vacancies and divacancies and that the lithium-oxygen interaction is the most effective in contributing to the increased radiation resistance.

Weinberg, I.; Mehta, S.; Swartz, C.K.

1984-05-01

150

Structure and neutron imaging characteristics of lithium borate barium chloride glass-ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A glass-ceramic has been developed which can be used as a thermal neutron imaging plate (NIP) for neutron radiography. The plate consists of nanocrystallites of the storage phosphor BaCl2:Eu2+ embedded within a neutron sensitive lithium borate glass-matrix. Details of their preparation and structure are discussed. Neutron images were read out using a Fuji BAS2500 imaging plate scanner and the quality of the images obtained is comparable to those recorded on a commercial NIP. Details of the response to neutron and X-irradiation as well as the obtained spatial resolution of the images are presented. The neutron activation of the materials studied is also calculated.

Appleby, G. A.; Edgar, A.; Williams, G. V. M.; Vontobel, P.

2006-08-01

151

Mitogen-activated protein kinase in the amygdala plays a critical role in lithium chloride-induced taste aversion learning  

PubMed Central

The intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in the brain is necessary for the formation of a variety of memories including conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning. However, the functional role of MAPK activation in the amygdala during lithium chloride (LiCl)-induced CTA learning has not been established. In the present study, we investigated if local microinjection of SL327, a MAPK kinase inhibitor, into the rat amygdala could alleviate LiCl-induced CTA learning. Our results revealed that acute administration of a high dose of LiCl (0.15 M, 12 ml/kg, i.p.) rapidly increased the level of phosphorylated MAPK (pMAPK)-positive cells in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) of rats as measured by immunohistochemistry. Local microinjection of SL327 (1 µg/0.5 µl/hemisphere) into the CeA 10 min before LiCl administration decreased both the strength of LiCl-induced CTA paired with 0.125% saccharin and the level of LiCl-induced pMAPK-positive cells in the CeA, but not in the NTS. Our data suggest that the intracellular signaling cascade of the MAPK pathway in the CeA plays a critical role in the processing of visceral information induced by LiCl for CTA learning.

Kwon, Bumsup; Houpt, Thomas A.

2011-01-01

152

Impurity evaluation of fused lithium chloride salt for a pilot-scale oxide reduction.  

SciTech Connect

The inorganic and physical chemistry of reactants (e.g., impurities) produced during the reduction of spent light water reactor fuel in a hot cell has been analyzed. Two source terms were identified that influence the composition and quantity of these impurities in the salt matrix. One source comes from the reduction process, which occurs between the fuel and the Li/LiCl salt matrix, and the other from chemical reactions that occur between the hot cell atmosphere and the salt matrix. The spent-fuel-oxide chemistry and energy of formation for the reactants were evaluated. Most of the rare-earth-oxide reactions were not thermodynamically feasible with molten lithium, except when nitrogen was present during the reduction process. A model of the reaction at a vapor-liquid interface was developed and applied to the pilot-scale oxide reduction device design. A predominance diagram for the Li-O-N reactions was constructed to determine the possible reactions during operation of the device, and from these results, the mass accumulation was determined from hot cell conditions.

Eberle, C. S.; Herrmann, S. D.; King, R. W.; Engineering Division

1999-12-01

153

Nebulizer calibration using lithium chloride: an accurate, reproducible and user-friendly method.  

PubMed

Conventional gravimetric (weight loss) calibration of jet nebulizers overestimates their aerosol output by up to 80% due to unaccounted evaporative loss. We examined two methods of measuring true aerosol output from jet nebulizers. A new adaptation of a widely available clinical assay for lithium (determined by flame photometry, LiCl method) was compared to an existing electrochemical method based on fluoride detection (NaF method). The agreement between the two methods and the repeatability of each method were examined. Ten Mefar jet nebulizers were studied using a Mefar MK3 inhalation dosimeter. There was no significant difference between the two methods (p=0.76) with mean aerosol output of the 10 nebulizers being 7.40 mg x s(-1) (SD 1.06; range 5.86-9.36 mg x s(-1)) for the NaF method and 7.27 mg x s(-1) (SD 0.82; range 5.52-8.26 mg x s(-1)) for the LiCl method. The LiCl method had a coefficient of repeatability of 13 mg x s(-1) compared with 3.7 mg x s(-1) for the NaF method. The LiCl method accurately measured true aerosol output and was considerably easier to use. It was also more repeatable, and hence more precise, than the NaF method. Because the LiCl method uses an assay that is routinely available from hospital biochemistry laboratories, it is easy to use and, thus, can readily be adopted by busy respiratory function departments. PMID:9623700

Ward, R J; Reid, D W; Leonard, R F; Johns, D P; Walters, E H

1998-04-01

154

Investigation of Physical-Chemical Characteristics of Radiation-Exposed Lithium Compounds Like Oxide, Aluminate and Silicates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Investigation of physico-chemical characteristics of radiation-exposed lithium compounds like oxide, aluminate and silicates. At present inorganic lithium compounds, in particular thermal enduring Li sub 2 O, LiAlO sub 2 , LiSiO sub 3 , Li sub 4 SO sub 4 ...

V. G. Vasil'ev S. R. Borisov N. N. Ryazantseva A. A. Vashman

1980-01-01

155

Neural Network Modeling of the Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery System  

SciTech Connect

Battery systems have traditionally relied on extensive build and test procedures for product realization. Analytical models have been developed to diminish this reliance, but have only been partially successful in consistently predicting the performance of battery systems. The complex set of interacting physical and chemical processes within battery systems has made the development of analytical models a significant challenge. Advanced simulation tools are needed to more accurately model battery systems which will reduce the time and cost required for product realization. Sandia has initiated an advanced model-based design strategy to battery systems, beginning with the performance of lithiumhhionyl chloride cells. As an alternative approach, we have begun development of cell performance modeling using non-phenomenological models for battery systems based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). ANNs are inductive models for simulating input/output mappings with certain advantages over phenomenological models, particularly for complex systems. Among these advantages is the ability to avoid making measurements of hard to determine physical parameters or having to understand cell processes sufficiently to write mathematical functions describing their behavior. For example, ANN models are also being studied for simulating complex physical processes within the Li/SOC12 cell, such as the time and temperature dependence of the anode interracial resistance. ANNs have been shown to provide a very robust and computationally efficient simulation tool for predicting voltage and capacity output for Li/SOC12 cells under a variety of operating conditions. The ANN modeling approach should be applicable to a wide variety of battery chemistries, including rechargeable systems.

Ingersoll, D.; Jungst, R.G.; O'Gorman, C.C.; Paez, T.L.

1998-10-29

156

A comparison between taste avoidance and conditioned disgust reactions induced by ethanol and lithium chloride in preweanling rats  

PubMed Central

Adult rats display taste avoidance and disgust reactions when stimulated with gustatory stimuli previously paired with aversive agents such as lithium chloride (LiCl). By the second postnatal week of life, preweanling rats also display specific behaviors in response to a tastant conditioned stimulus (CS) that predicts LiCl-induced malaise. The present study compared conditioned disgust reactions induced by LiCl or ethanol (EtOH) in preweanling rats. In Experiment 1 we determined doses of ethanol and LiCl that exert similar levels of conditioned taste avoidance. After having equated drug dosage in terms of conditioned taste avoidance, 13-Day old rats were given a single pairing of a novel taste (saccharin) and either LiCl or ethanol (2.5 g/kg; Experiment 2). Saccharin intake and emission of disgust reactions were assessed 24 and 48 hours after training. Pups given paired presentations of saccharin and the aversive agents (ethanol or LiCl) consumed less saccharin during the first testing Day than controls. These pups also showed more aversive behavioral reactions to the gustatory CS than controls. Specifically, increased amounts of grooming, general activity, head shaking and wall climbing as well as reduced mouthing were observed in response to the CS. Conditioned aversive reactions but not taste avoidance were still evident on the second testing Day. In conclusion, a taste CS paired with post-absorptive effects of EtOH and LiCl elicited a similar pattern of conditioned rejection reactions in preweanling rats. These results suggest that similar mechanisms may be underlying CTAs induced by LiCl and a relatively high EtOH dose.

Arias, Carlos; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Molina, Juan Carlos; Spear, Norman E.

2011-01-01

157

Ab initio MRSDCI study on the low-lying electronic states of the lithium chloride molecule (LiCl)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential energy curves (PECs) for the low-lying states of the lithium chloride molecule (LiCl) have been calculated using the internally contracted multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) method with the aug-cc-PVnZ (AVnZ) and aug-cc-PCVnZ (ACVnZ) basis sets, where n = T, Q, and 5. First, we calculate PECs for 7 spin-orbit (SO)-free ?-S states, X1?+, A1?+, 3?+, 1?, and 3?, and then obtain PECs for 13 SO ? states, X0+, A0+, B0+, 0-(I), 0-(II), 1(I), 1(II), 1(III), and 2, by diagonalizing the matrix of the electronic Hamiltonian plus the Breit-Pauli SO Hamiltonian. The MRSDCI calculations not including core orbital correlation through the single and double excitations are also performed with the AV5Z and ACV5Z basis sets. The Davidson corrections (Q0) are added to both the ?-S and ? state energies. Vibrational eigenstates for the obtained X1?+ and X0+ PECs are calculated by solving the time-independent Schrödinger equation with the grid method. Thus, the effects of basis set, core orbital correlation, and the Davidson correction on the X1?+ and X0+ PECs of LiCl are investigated by comparing the spectroscopic constants calculated from the PECs with one another and with experiment. It is confirmed that to accurately predict the spectroscopic constants we need to include core-electron correlation in the CI expansion and use the basis sets designed to describe core-valence correlation, i.e., ACVnZ. The SO PECs presented in this paper will be of help in the future study of diatomic alkali halide dynamics.

Kurosaki, Yuzuru; Yokoyama, Keiichi

2012-08-01

158

Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3? by lithium chloride suppresses 6-hydroxydopamine-induced inflammatory response in primary cultured astrocytes.  

PubMed

An increasing amount of evidence has emerged to suggest that neuroinflammatory process is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Activated microglia and astrocytes are found in the substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinson's disease brains as well as in animal models of Parkinson's disease. Although reactive astrocytes are involved in the progression of PD, the role of reactive astrocytes in neuroinflammation of PD has received limited attention to date. Recently, Glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) was identified as a crucial regulator of the inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanism by which 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induces inflammatory response in astrocytes and observe the anti-inflammatory effect of lithium chloride (LiCl) on 6-OHDA-treated astrocytes. In the present study, we found that glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was markedly upregulated in the presence of 6-OHDA. Moreover, our results revealed that proinflammatory molecules including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2), prostaglandins E2 (PGE2), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were obviously increased in astrocytes exposed to 6-OHDA. Western blot analysis revealed that 6-OHDA significantly increased dephosphorylation/activation of GSK-3? as well as the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) p65. Besides, GSK-3? inhibitor LiCl and SB415286 inhibited the GSK-3?/NF-?B signaling pathway, leading to the reduction of proinflammatory molecules in 6-OHDA-activated astrocytes. These results confirmed that GSK-3? inhibitor LiCl and SB415286 provide protection against neuroinflammation in 6-OHDA-treated astrocytes. Therefore, GSK-3? may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of PD. PMID:23871716

Wang, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Ting; Li, Qiang; Huang, Jian-Kang; Chen, Rong-Fu; Sun, Xiao-Jiang

2013-07-16

159

Ab initio MRSDCI study on the low-lying electronic states of the lithium chloride molecule (LiCl).  

PubMed

Potential energy curves (PECs) for the low-lying states of the lithium chloride molecule (LiCl) have been calculated using the internally contracted multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) method with the aug-cc-PVnZ (AVnZ) and aug-cc-PCVnZ (ACVnZ) basis sets, where n = T, Q, and 5. First, we calculate PECs for 7 spin-orbit (SO)-free ?-S states, X(1)?(+), A(1)?(+), (3)?(+), (1)?, and (3)?, and then obtain PECs for 13 SO ? states, X0(+), A0(+), B0(+), 0(-)(I), 0(-)(II), 1(I), 1(II), 1(III), and 2, by diagonalizing the matrix of the electronic Hamiltonian plus the Breit-Pauli SO Hamiltonian. The MRSDCI calculations not including core orbital correlation through the single and double excitations are also performed with the AV5Z and ACV5Z basis sets. The Davidson corrections (Q0) are added to both the ?-S and ? state energies. Vibrational eigenstates for the obtained X(1)?(+) and X0(+) PECs are calculated by solving the time-independent Schro?dinger equation with the grid method. Thus, the effects of basis set, core orbital correlation, and the Davidson correction on the X(1)?(+) and X0(+) PECs of LiCl are investigated by comparing the spectroscopic constants calculated from the PECs with one another and with experiment. It is confirmed that to accurately predict the spectroscopic constants we need to include core-electron correlation in the CI expansion and use the basis sets designed to describe core-valence correlation, i.e., ACVnZ. The SO PECs presented in this paper will be of help in the future study of diatomic alkali halide dynamics. PMID:22897271

Kurosaki, Yuzuru; Yokoyama, Keiichi

2012-08-14

160

Contrasting Effects of Lithium Chloride and CB1 Receptor Blockade on Enduring Changes in the Valuation of Reward.  

PubMed

When an organism responds for a reward, its learned behavior can be characterized as goal-directed or habitual based on whether or not it is susceptible to reward devaluation. Here, we evaluated whether instrumental responding for brain stimulation reward (BSR) can be devalued using a paradigm traditionally used for natural rewards. Rats were trained to lever press for BSR; afterward, BSR was paired with either lithium chloride (LiCl, 5?mg/kg, i.p.), a pro-emetic, or AM251, a CB1 receptor antagonist (3?mg/kg, i.p.) or the vehicle of these compounds. Pairings of BSR with these compounds and their vehicles were performed in a novel environment so that only unconditional effects of BSR would be affected by the pharmacological manipulations. Subsequently, in a probe test, all rats were returned in the drug-free state to the boxes where they had received training and instrumental responding was reassessed in the absence of BSR delivery. When compared to control, LiCl produced a significant decrease in the number of responses during the test session, whereas AM251 did not. These results show that instrumental responding for BSR is susceptible to devaluation, in accord with the proposal that this behavior is supported at least in part by associations between the response and the rewarding outcome. Further, they suggest that reward modulation observed in studies involving the use of CB1 receptor antagonists arises from changes in the organism's motivation rather than drug-induced changes in the intrinsic value of reward. PMID:21922005

Hernandez, Giovanni; Bernstein, David; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey; Cheer, Joseph F

2011-09-06

161

Determination of trace lithium in human urine by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using nitric acid as a chemical modifier to eliminate the interference of chloride.  

PubMed

Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is considered the most common and advanced technique to determine trace lithium in biological fluids. However, chloride existing in samples has been reported to create serious interferences. Nitric acid was verified as a chemical modifier to eliminate the interference of chloride in determining trace lithium in urine samples and the possible mechanism was also elucidated. The influence of chloride was completely eliminated by using 0.5% (v/v) HNO(3) as a chemical modifier. Confidence interval analysis on the difference for the slopes of linear regression curves indicated no significant difference between the slopes of aqueous and of urine-matched standard curves with and without 30 mmol/L NaCl in the presence of 0.5% (v/v) HNO(3) (P = 0.146). Thus the direct standardization with an aqueous calibration curve could be used instead of the standard-addition method. We conclude that the developed method is accurate and easily applicable for both routine use and research investigations. PMID:19430146

Zhao, Jianxing; Gao, Pingjin; Wu, Shengnan; Zhu, Dingliang

2009-05-01

162

Radiation Grafting of Acrylonitrile onto Polyester Fiber as the Reinforcing Filler for Poly (Vinyl Chloride).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies have been carried out on radiation-induced grafting of acrylonitrile onto polyester fiber and on the properties of the grafted fiber in an attempt to increase the strength of polyester fiber reinforced soft poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) sheet by imp...

K. Kaji I. Ando

1985-01-01

163

Experimental evaluation of aqueous lithium halides as single- and double-salt systems in absorption heat-pumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance data have been obtained on a small glass absorption heat-pump operating with water as a working fluid in combination with both single- and double-salt solutions as the absorbent. The salts were lithium chloride, lithium bromide, lithium iodide and mixtures of lithium chloride and lithium bromide, and lithium chloride and lithium iodide. The experiments were carried out with a delivery

K. R. Patil; M. N. Kim; M. A. R. Eisa; F. A. Holland

1989-01-01

164

Method of recycling lithium borate to lithium borohydride through methyl borate  

DOEpatents

This invention provides a method for the recycling of lithium borate to lithium borohydride which can be reacted with water to generate hydrogen for utilization as a fuel. The lithium borate by-product of the hydrogen generation reaction is reacted with hydrogen chloride and water to produce boric acid and lithium chloride. The boric acid and lithium chloride are converted to lithium borohydride through a methyl borate intermediate to complete the recycle scheme.

Filby, Evan E. (Rigby, ID)

1977-01-01

165

Enhancement of vinorelbine-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis by clomipramine and lithium chloride in human neuroblastoma cancer cell line SH-SY5Y  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to investigate whether clomipramine (CIM) and lithium chloride (LiCl) potentiate the cytotoxicity\\u000a of vinorelbine (VNR) on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells in vitro and whether midkine (MK) can be a resistance factor for\\u000a these treatments. Four groups of experiments were performed for 96 h using both monolayer and spheroid cultures of SH-SY5Y\\u000a cells: (1) control group, (2)

Ayhan Bilir; Mine Erguven; Nuray Yazihan; Esin Aktas; Gulperi Oktem; Akin Sabanci

2010-01-01

166

Radical formation induced by ? radiation in poly(vinyl chloride) powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly(vinyl chloride) powders were submitted to ? irradiation in the dose range 25-150 kGy in vacuum, argon and air atmosphere conditions. The free radicals induced by radiation were investigated by EPR measurements performed at different times from the end of irradiation. Obtained results confirmed that at room temperature the poly(vinyl chloride) degradation process causes the formation of polyenil radicals, which can react with the oxygen diffused into the polymer giving rise to peroxyl radical species. The ratio of polyenil and peroxyl radicals is a function of the experimental condition atmosphere.

Costa, L.; Brunella, V.; Paganini, M. C.; Baccaro, S.; Cecilia, A.

2004-02-01

167

Bragg gratings made with ultrafast radiation in crystal waveguides: lithium niobate, sapphire and YAG Bragg gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of Bragg gratings inscription in several crystalline optical weveguiding structures. Using infrared femtosecond radiation and the phase mask method, Bragg gratings were inscribed in multimode crystalline sapphire fiber, RPE lithium niobate waveguides and large area core multimode YAG fibers. It was shown that Bragg grating structures could be created in all these crystalline substrates with comparable IR- intensities. The spectral characteristics and the thermal stability of these Bragg gratings is also presented.

Grobnic, Dan; Mihailov, Stephen J.; Smelser, Christopher W.

2007-10-01

168

Dysprosium lithium borate glass mircrospheres for radiation synovectomy: The in vitro and in vivo performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radioactive dysprosium lithium borate glass (DyLB) microspheres with different glass compositions were prepared for radiation synovectomy. The biodegradability and biocompatibility of these DyLB microspheres were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The DyLB microspheres studied in this work were partially biodegradable in a simulated body fluid (SBF), with the final weight loss of the microspheres in the range of

Di Zhao; Jing Yu; Wenhai Huang; Nai Zhou; Deping Wang; Wei Yin; Yaqing Chen

2010-01-01

169

Lithium chloride attenuates BMP2 signaling and inhibits osteogenic differentiation through a novel WNT\\/GSK3- independent mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase3 (GSK3) activity has been shown to mimic the canonical WNT signaling. Analogous to WNT, lithium prevents GSK3-mediated phosphorylation of cytosolic transcription factor ?-catenin and its subsequent degradation by the proteasome complex. Although stabilization of ?-catenin in osteoblasts has been shown to promote bone mass accrual in a mouse model, several studies reported inhibitory effects

Jingjing Li; Zohreh Khavandgar; Sue-Hwa Lin; Monzur Murshed

2011-01-01

170

The effects of acute corticosterone on lithium chloride-induced conditioned place aversion and locomotor activity in rats.  

PubMed

Acute administration of corticosterone (CORT) facilitates learning in a number of associative paradigms including lithium chloride (LiCl)-induced conditioned taste aversion learning. The present study examined the effects of acute CORT on LiCl-induced conditioned place aversions in male rats. Automated open-fields were partitioned into two chambers distinct in tactile and visual cues. Animals received either LiCl (64 mg/kg, 0.15 M) or saline (NaCl, 0.15 M) followed 10 min later by either CORT (5 mg/kg) or beta-cyclodextrin vehicle (45%) prior to placement in one of the chambers. Control rats received NaCl-Vehicle paired with both chambers. Three experimental groups received either NaCl-CORT, LiCl-Vehicle or LiCl-CORT paired with the preferred chamber and NaCl-Vehicle (control) paired with the non-preferred chamber. During extinction trials, animals were allowed to choose between the two chambers. Locomotor activity and its distribution within the chambers were assessed during both conditioning and extinction trials. CORT administration produced significant increases in a variety of measures of locomotor activity during conditioning trials. During extinction trials both LiCl groups displayed a conditioned place aversion while the NaCl-CORT group did not. In addition, significant increases in vertical activity were recorded in both LiCl groups in the LiCl-paired chamber. Moreover, CORT administration had no effect on LiCl-induced conditioned place aversion as time spent in the LiCl-paired chamber did not significantly differ between LiCl-Vehicle and LiCl-CORT groups. Significant increases in a number of measures of horizontal activity were also observed in both CORT groups. The present study shows that acute CORT administration does not significantly influence LiCl-induced conditioned place aversions and suggests that the facilitatory effects of acute CORT administration on learning are highly context-dependent. PMID:16600311

Tenk, Christine M; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

2006-03-16

171

Comparing immune activation (lipopolysaccharide) and toxin (lithium chloride)-induced gustatory conditioning: lipopolysaccharide produces conditioned taste avoidance but not aversion.  

PubMed

Feeding and drinking typically involve both appetitive and consummatory behaviors. Appetitive behaviors include those behaviors produced by an animal prior to the actual consumption, such as approach movements, whereas consummatory behaviors (such as licking and chewing) are involved in the actual consumption of food. The present research compared the gustatory conditioning effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lithium chloride (LiCl) in two different paradigms, conditioned taste avoidance and conditioned taste aversion which differentially affect the appetitive and consummatory components of feeding. Male rats were implanted with intraoral cannulae and habituated to a water deprivation schedule and afterwards received two conditioning days (Days 1 and 4). Each conditioning day consisted of 1 h access to a novel sucrose solution (0.3 M) immediately followed by a systemic injection of LPS (200 microg/kg), LiCl (0.15 M, 3 meq) or NaCl vehicle. Conditioned taste aversion was assessed using the taste reactivity test on Day 7, where orofacial and somatic responses were videotaped and analyzed during 3 brief (1 min) exposures to the sucrose solution. Conditioned taste avoidance was assessed on Days 8 and 9 using a two-bottle preference test (sucrose versus water). Animals conditioned with LiCl displayed typical aversive-like responses in the taste reactivity paradigm evidenced by significant reductions in positive ingestive responses (P<0.05) and an increase in active aversive responses (P<0.05) relative to controls. Furthermore, LiCl treatment resulted in conditioned avoidance of sucrose in the two-bottle preference test characterized by a decreased sucrose preference (P<0.05). Conditioning with LPS produced a reduced sucrose preference (P<0.05) relative to controls, comparable to the avoidance seen in LiCl-treated rats. In contrast, conditioning with LPS resulted in similar positive ingestive responses to intraorally infused sucrose as seen in controls. The present results demonstrate that LPS treatment produces conditioned avoidance but not aversion and suggest that LPS can selectively condition the appetitive aspects of feeding whereas the consummatory behaviors remain unaffected. PMID:14684243

Cross-Mellor, Shelley K; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

2004-01-01

172

Laser-produced lithium plasma as a narrow-band extended ultraviolet radiation source for photoelectron spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Extended ultraviolet (EUV) emission characteristics of a laser-produced lithium plasma are determined with regard to the requirements of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The main features of interest are spectral distribution, photon flux, bandwidth, source size, and emission duration. Laser-produced lithium plasmas are characterized as emitters of intense narrow-band EUV radiation. It can be estimated that the lithium Lyman-alpha line emission in combination with an ellipsoidal silicon/molybdenum multilayer mirror is a suitable EUV source for an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy microscope with a 50-meV energy resolution and a 10-mum lateral resolution. PMID:18268711

Schriever, G; Mager, S; Naweed, A; Engel, A; Bergmann, K; Lebert, R

1998-03-01

173

Radiation-induced grafting of vinylbenzyltrimethylammonium chloride (VBT) onto cotton fabric and study of its anti-bacterial activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual radiation grafting technique using 60Co gamma radiation has been used to carry out grafting of vinylbenzyltrimethylammonium chloride (VBT) onto cotton cellulose substrate. Grafting yield increased with radiation dose and decreased with dose rate but was adversely affected by the presence of O2 and salts of Fe2+ and Cu2+. However, the presence of an acid did not affect grafting in

Virendra Kumar; Y. K. Bhardwaj; K. P. Rawat; S. Sabharwal

2005-01-01

174

The effects of lithium counterdoping on radiation damage and annealing in n(+)p silicon solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron-doped silicon n(+)p solar cells were counterdoped with lithium by ion implantation and the resultant n(+)p cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons. Performance parameters were determined as a function of fluence and a deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) study was conducted. The lithium counterdoped cells exhibited significantly increased radiation resistance when compared to boron doped control cells. Isochronal annealing studies

I. Weinberg; H. W. Brandhorst Jr.; S. Mehta; C. K. Swartz

1984-01-01

175

Model-Independent Calculation of Radiative Neutron Capture on Lithium-7  

SciTech Connect

The radiative neutron capture on lithium-7 is calculated model independently using a low-energy halo effective field theory. The cross section is expressed in terms of scattering parameters directly related to the S-matrix elements. It depends on the poorly known p-wave effective range parameter r{sub 1}. This constitutes the largest uncertainty in traditional model calculations. It is explicitly demonstrated by comparing with potential model calculations. A single parameter fit describes the low-energy data extremely well and yields r{sub 1{approx_equal}}-1.47 fm{sup -1}.

Rupak, Gautam [Department of Physics and Astronomy and High Performance Computing Collaboratory, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 (United States); Higa, Renato [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Theory Group, University of Groningen, 9747AA Groningen (Netherlands)

2011-06-03

176

Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for production of plutonium metal from plutonium oxide by metallic lithium reduction, with regeneration of lithium reactant. It comprises: reacting the plutonium oxide with metallic lithium; oxides and unreacted lithium; subliming the product lithium oxide and unreacted lithium from unreacted plutonium oxide with high heat and low pressure; recapturing the product lithium oxides; reacting the recaptured product lithium oxides with anhydrous hydrochloric acid to produce lithium chloride salt; and decomposing product lithium chloride salt by electrolysis to regenerate lithium metal.

Coops, M.S.

1992-06-02

177

CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Effect of Electrochemical Treatment in a Lithium Chloride Solution on Field Emission from Carbon Nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are electrochemically treated in a lithium chloride solution at a concentration 0.1 mol/L. The field emission properties of the CNTs are investigated at different temperatures before and after the electrochemical treatment. After treatment, the turn-on voltage to produce field emission current of 10 ?A decreases from 4.2 kV to 2.7 kV and the field emission current increases distinctly, but the stability falls off. Based on the Fowler-Nordheim plot, the values of the work function for the CNTs are calculated, which reveals that work function decreases after the electrochemical treatment. These results are attributed to the decrease of the work function of the carbon nanotubes.

Wang, Qiang; Li, Chun; Yuan, Guang; Gu, Chang-Zhi

2009-08-01

178

Novel diet consumption and body weight gain are reduced in rats chronically infused with lithium chloride: mediation by the chemosensitive area postrema.  

PubMed

The effects of chronic lithium chloride infusions on consumption of, and subsequent preferences for, a novel diet were examined in rats with ablations of the area postrema (AP) and sham-lesioned control rats. Osmotic minipumps (Alza), filled with a saturated aqueous solution of LiCl (63 g/100 ml), were implanted in the peritoneal cavity of half of the lesioned rats (n = 9) and half of the control rats (n = 8). The remaining rats received empty pumps (n = 9 and n = 7 for lesioned and controls, respectively). The LiCl or sham drug phase was paired with free access to a highly palatable novel diet (AIN diet) during a 7-day conditioning period. Subsequent preferences for the novel diet relative to a familiar diet (ground Purina lab pellets) were determined using a two-food choice procedure. The only group to show a persistent and significant reduction in novel food consumption during the conditioning phase was the sham-lesioned group infused with LiCl (p < 0.01). This group also exhibited a marked aversion for the novel diet, indicative of a conditioned food aversion (CFA), during the preference tests. No significant differences in novel diet consumption or in novel diet preference were found between the two AP-lesioned groups. This study provides evidence that anorexia and CFAs to a novel diet, induced with chronic infusions of lithium, are abolished by destruction of the chemosensitive area postrema. PMID:8495383

Eckel, L A; Ossenkopp, K P

1993-01-01

179

Hydration structure in concentrated aqueous lithium chloride solutions: A reverse Monte Carlo based combination of molecular dynamics simulations and diffraction data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a comparison of three interaction potential models of water (SPC/E, TIP4P-2005, and SWM4-DP) for describing the structure of concentrated aqueous lithium chloride solutions. Classical molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out and total scattering structure factors, calculated from the particle configurations, were compared with experimental diffraction data. Later, reverse Monte Carlo structural modelling was applied for refining molecular dynamics results, so that particle configurations consistent with neutron and X-ray diffraction data could be prepared that, at the same time, were as close as possible to the final stage of the molecular dynamics simulations. Partial radial distribution functions, first neighbors, and angular correlations were analysed further from the best fitting particle configurations. It was found that none of the water potential models describe the structure perfectly; overall, the SWM4-DP model seems to be the most promising. At the highest concentrations the SPC/E model appears to provide the best approximation of the water structure, whereas the TIP4P-2005 model proved to be the most successful for estimating the lithium-oxygen partial radial distribution function at each concentration.

Harsįnyi, I.; Pusztai, L.

2012-11-01

180

Hydration structure in concentrated aqueous lithium chloride solutions: a reverse Monte Carlo based combination of molecular dynamics simulations and diffraction data.  

PubMed

We report on a comparison of three interaction potential models of water (SPC/E, TIP4P-2005, and SWM4-DP) for describing the structure of concentrated aqueous lithium chloride solutions. Classical molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out and total scattering structure factors, calculated from the particle configurations, were compared with experimental diffraction data. Later, reverse Monte Carlo structural modelling was applied for refining molecular dynamics results, so that particle configurations consistent with neutron and X-ray diffraction data could be prepared that, at the same time, were as close as possible to the final stage of the molecular dynamics simulations. Partial radial distribution functions, first neighbors, and angular correlations were analysed further from the best fitting particle configurations. It was found that none of the water potential models describe the structure perfectly; overall, the SWM4-DP model seems to be the most promising. At the highest concentrations the SPC/E model appears to provide the best approximation of the water structure, whereas the TIP4P-2005 model proved to be the most successful for estimating the lithium-oxygen partial radial distribution function at each concentration. PMID:23206015

Harsįnyi, I; Pusztai, L

2012-11-28

181

Lithium Anode Cells Operating at Room Temperature in Inorganic Electrolytic Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium anode electrochemical cells have been operated at room temperature using electrolytic solutions of lithium salts in inorganic solvents such as phosphorus oxychloride, thionyl chloride and sulfuryl chloride. Lithium metal can be electrodeposited fr...

J. J. Auborn K. W. French S. I. Lieberman V. K. Shah A. Heller

1973-01-01

182

Rapid toxin-induced gustatory conditioning in rats: separate and combined effects of systemic injection or intraoral infusion of lithium chloride.  

PubMed

The present experiment examined the individual and combined effects of systemic injection and oral ingestion of lithium chloride (LiCl) on both within and across session shifts in palatability. Male rats fitted with intraoral cannulae received two conditioning days in which they were injected with either LiCl or sodium chloride (NaCl) and were then presented with brief intraoral infusions of a sucrose plus LiCl or NaCl solution. The individual taste reactivity responses during the intraoral infusions were videotaped and later analyzed for response frequency. Forty-eight hours after the second conditioning day the same sucrose plus salt solution was presented again in the absence of any injection. The present results demonstrate that systemic injections of LiCl result in profound within session and across session decreases in ingestive responding accompanied by increased active and passive aversive responses. Animals receiving LiCl by injection as well as ingestion demonstrated an exaggerated response. Rats which received LiCl only through intraoral infusions produced the same pattern of decreased ingestive responding to the sucrose plus salt flavored tastant on each test trial suggesting little or no across session conditioning effects. A two process model by which animals may regulate toxicosis is discussed. PMID:15313030

Cross-Mellor, Shelley; Clarke, Sharon N D A; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

2004-10-01

183

Effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on fish hepatoma cells treated with mercury chloride and ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

Organisms are exposed to natural radiations from cosmic or terrestrial origins. Furthermore the combined action of radiation with various chemicals is an inevitable feature of modern life. Radiation is known to cause cell death, mainly due to its ability to produce reactive oxygen species in cells. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a well-known sulfhydryl-containing antioxidant whose role in radioprotection has been reported. Synergistic effects of radiation and mercury chloride on human cells was previously reported by the authors. Based on the previous report, this study was designed to assess the synergistic effects of radiation and mercury chloride on fish hepatoma cells, as well as to investigate the protective effects of NAC on the cells. The cytotoxicity of radiation was enhanced in the presence of mercury chloride. NAC in lower concentrations prevented cells from death after irradiation with lower doses (<300 Gy) while it did not prevent cells from radiation-induced death after irradiation with higher doses (300, 500 Gy). The intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels significantly decreased after irradiation while the combined treatment of NAC and radiation alleviated the decrease in the GSH levels. The investigations give a clue for the action mechanism of synergistic or protective effects of NAC on the cells. Due to their high resistance to ionizing radiation, the PLHC-1 cells can be effectively used as a screening tool for assessing the combined effects of radiation with toxic chemicals. PMID:21962883

Kim, Jin Kyu; Han, Min; Nili, Mohammad

2011-10-02

184

Dynamics of c-fos and ICER mRNA expression in rat forebrain following lithium chloride injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium is commonly used as a treatment for affective disorders in humans and as a toxin to produce conditioned taste aversions in rats. LiCl administration in rats has been correlated with activation of c-fos and cAMP-mediated gene transcription in many brain regions; however, little is known about the timing or duration of gene activation. We hypothesized that c-fos gene transcription

Corinne M. Spencer; Thomas A. Houpt

2001-01-01

185

Chronic Lithium Chloride Administration Attenuates Brain NMDA Receptor-Initiated Signaling via Arachidonic Acid in Unanesthetized Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that lithium is effective in bipolar disorder (BD) by inhibiting glutamatergic neurotransmission, particularly via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). To test this hypothesis and to see if the neurotransmission could involve the NMDAR-mediated activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), to release arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane phospholipid, we administered subconvulsant doses of NMDA to unanesthetized rats fed a chronic

Mireille Basselin; Lisa Chang; Jane M Bell; Stanley I Rapoport

2006-01-01

186

Manganese chloride treatment does not protect against acute radiation injury of skin or crypt cells  

SciTech Connect

Metallothieonein (MT), the synthesis of which can be induced by metalloelement administration, is a known radical scavenger. This study investigated the possible protective effect of MT against acute radiation injury. Manganese chloride (10 mg of manganese/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to male C3H/He mice 24 h prior to irradiation. The paw of each mouse was irradiated locally, and the acute skin reaction was scored daily and averaged. Acute radiation injury of the small intestine was studied using an LD{sub 50/8} assay and a gut microcolony assay after abdominal irradiation. An LD{sub 50/8} value represents the radiation dose required to kill 50% of animals within 8 days. The number of microcolonies per tissue section was counted 3.5 days after irradiation. The level of MT in the liver, skin and intestine was determined by a modified {sup 203}Hg-binding assay. Acute skin reaction was not prevented by manganese pre-administration. The LD{sub 50/8} values of manganese-pretreated and control mice were 19.4 and 18.4 Gy, respectively. However, the difference was not significant. The number of microcolonies was not significantly different for these two groups in the dose range of 13-19 Gy. The level of MT in the skin and intestine was not increased by administration of manganese, although a sixfold increase was observed in the liver. In conclusion, manganese chloride treatment of mice 24 h prior to irradiation did not significantly protect skin and small intestine against acute radiation injury, because such a treatment did not result in increased levels of MT in the skin and small intestine. 20 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Murata, R.; Nishimura, Y.; Hiraoka, M. [Kyoto Univ., Sakyo-ku (Japan)] [and others

1995-09-01

187

Synthesis of antibacterial cotton fabric by radiation-induced grafting of [2-(Methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride (MAETC) onto cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma radiation has been used to covalently link polymer chains of [2-(Methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride (MAETC) to cotton fabric by mutual radiation grafting. The grafted samples have been characterized for water uptake, surface morphology and thermal stability. Grafting extent was found to increase with the dose and monomer concentration. However high dose rate, O2, inorganic salts and alcohols suppressed grafting. Radiation polymerized

N. K. Goel; M. S. Rao; Virendra Kumar; Y. K. Bhardwaj; C. V. Chaudhari; K. A. Dubey; S. Sabharwal

2009-01-01

188

Inactivation of Kupffer Cells by Gadolinium Chloride Protects Murine Liver From Radiation-Induced Apoptosis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether the inhibition of Kupffer cells before radiotherapy (RT) would protect hepatocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis. Materials and Methods: A single 30-Gy fraction was administered to the upper abdomen of Sprague-Dawley rats. The Kupffer cell inhibitor gadolinium chloride (GdCl3; 10 mg/kg body weight) was intravenously injected 24 h before RT. The rats were divided into four groups: group 1, sham RT plus saline (control group); group 2, sham RT plus GdCl3; group 3, RT plus saline; and group 4, RT plus GdCl3. Liver tissue was collected for measurement of apoptotic cytokine expression and evaluation of radiation-induced liver toxicity by analysis of liver enzyme activities, hepatocyte micronucleus formation, apoptosis, and histologic staining. Results: The expression of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was significantly attenuated in group 4 compared with group 3 at 2, 6, 24, and 48 h after injection (p <0.05). At early points after RT, the rats in group 4 exhibited significantly lower levels of liver enzyme activity, apoptotic response, and hepatocyte micronucleus formation compared with those in group 3. Conclusion: Selective inactivation of Kupffer cells with GdCl3 reduced radiation-induced cytokine production and protected the liver against acute radiation-induced damage.

Du Shisuo; Qiang Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zeng Zhaochong, E-mail: zeng.zhaochong@zs-hospital.sh.c [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ke Aiwu; Ji Yuan [Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhang Zhengyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zeng Haiying [Department of Pathology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Liu Zhongshan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

2010-03-15

189

Conversion of broadband thermal radiation in lithium niobate crystals of various compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conversion of the broadband thermal radiation in stoichiometric ( R = 1) lithium niobate single crystals that are grown from melt with 58.6 mol % of LiO2, congruent ( R = Li/Nb = 0.946) melt with the K2O flux admixture (4.5 and 6.0 wt %), and congruent melt and in congruent single crystals doped with the Zn2+, Gd3+, and Er3+ cations is studied. It is demonstrated that the conversion efficiency of the stoichiometric crystal that is grown from the melt with 58.6 mol % of LiO2 is less than the conversion efficiency of congruent crystal. In addition, the stoichiometric and almost stoichiometric crystals and the doped congruent crystals exhibit the blue shift of the peak conversion intensity in comparison with a nominally pure congruent crystal. For the congruent crystals, the conversion intensities peak at 520 and 495 nm, respectively.

Syuy, A. V.; Litvinova, M. N.; Goncharova, P. S.; Sidorov, N. V.; Palatnikov, M. N.; Krishtop, V. V.; Likhtin, V. V.

2013-05-01

190

Structuring of material parameters in lithium niobate crystals with low-mass, high-energy ion radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferroelectric lithium niobate crystals offer a great potential for applications in modern optics. To provide powerful optical components, tailoring of key material parameters, especially of the refractive index n and the ferroelectric domain landscape, is required. Irradiation of lithium niobate crystals with accelerated ions causes strong structured modifications in the material. The effects induced by low-mass, high-energy ions (such as 3He with 41 MeV, which are not implanted, but transmit through the entire crystal volume) are reviewed. Irradiation yields large changes of the refractive index ?n, improved domain engineering capability within the material along the ion track, and waveguiding structures. The periodic modification of ?n as well as the formation of periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) (supported by radiation damage) is described. Two-step knock-on displacement processes, 3He?Nb and 3He?O causing thermal spikes, are identified as origin for the material modifications.

Peithmann, K.; Eversheim, P.-D.; Goetze, J.; Haaks, M.; Hattermann, H.; Haubrich, S.; Hinterberger, F.; Jentjens, L.; Mader, W.; Raeth, N. L.; Schmid, H.; Zamani-Meymian, M.-R.; Maier, K.

2011-10-01

191

Chemical modification of chitin and chitosan 1: preparation of partially deacetylated chitin derivatives via a ring-opening reaction with cyclic acid anhydrides in lithium chloride\\/ N, N-dimethylacetamide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Derivatives of partially N-deacetylated chitin (DAC) were prepared via ring-opening reactions with various cyclic acid anhydrides in lithium chloride\\/N,N-dimethylacetamide (LiCl\\/DMAc) system. Some cyclic acid anhydrides such as succinic, maleic, glutaric, and phthalic anhydrides gave successfully water-soluble DAC derivatives. From the enzymatic studies, the glycosyl bond of succinyl and maleoyl DAC-20 (20% DAC) was rapidly degraded by lysozyme or chitinase, though

Y Shigemasa; H Usui; M Morimoto; H Saimoto; Y Okamoto; S Minami; H Sashiwa

1999-01-01

192

Comparisons of fixation of heat, radiation, and heat plus radiation damage by anisotonic sodium chloride solutions  

SciTech Connect

Heat treatment at temperatures greater than 40 degrees C synergistically enhanced damage produced by ionizing radiation. Researchers experiments indicated that radiation damage in exponentially growing Chinese hamster cells could be fixed in a dose-dependent manner by postirradiation treatment with both hypertonic and hypotonic NaCl solutions. At a 1,000-rad dose level, survival could be depressed by a factor of about 260. For various treatments at either 42 or 45 degrees C, exposure after heating to anisotonic solutions did not result in the fixation of heat damage. When cells were heated at 45 degrees C for 5 minutes and irradiated with 500 rad before or after heating or given 500 rad without heating and then exposed to 0.05 M NaCl solutions for 120 minutes, survival was reduced by factors of 875, 667, and 12, respectively. For heat treatments at lower temperatures, such as 41.5 or 42 degrees C, less damage fixation for the combined treatments was observed. The data indicated that heat and radiation damage were different and damage from the combined treatments was not the same for low- and high-treatment temperatures.

Raaphorst, G.P.; Azzam, E.I.

1982-06-01

193

Synthesis of antibacterial cotton fabric by radiation-induced grafting of [2-(Methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride (MAETC) onto cotton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma radiation has been used to covalently link polymer chains of [2-(Methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride (MAETC) to cotton fabric by mutual radiation grafting. The grafted samples have been characterized for water uptake, surface morphology and thermal stability. Grafting extent was found to increase with the dose and monomer concentration. However high dose rate, O2, inorganic salts and alcohols suppressed grafting. Radiation polymerized poly(MAETC) and MAETC-g-cotton samples were tested for their antibacterial efficacy against various bacteria and were found to possess significant antibacterial activity.

Goel, N. K.; Rao, M. S.; Kumar, Virendra; Bhardwaj, Y. K.; Chaudhari, C. V.; Dubey, K. A.; Sabharwal, S.

2009-06-01

194

Ionizing radiation from hydrogen recombination strongly suppresses the lithium scattering signature in the CMB  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested that secondary CMB anisotropies generated by neutral lithium could open a new observational window into the universe around the redshift z{approx}400, and permit a determination of the primordial lithium abundance. The effect is due to resonant scattering in the allowed Li i doublet (2s{sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-2p{sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2}), so its observability depends on the formation history of neutral lithium. Here we show that the ultraviolet photons produced during hydrogen recombination are sufficient to keep lithium in the Li ii ionization stage in the relevant redshift range and suppress the neutral fraction by {approx}3 orders of magnitude from previous calculations, making the lithium signature unobservable.

Switzer, Eric R.; Hirata, Christopher M. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2005-10-15

195

Lithium formate EPR dosimetry for verifications of planned dose distributions prior to intensity-modulated radiation therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate lithium formate electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry for measurement of dose distributions in phantoms prior to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Lithium formate monohydrate tablets were carefully prepared, and blind tests were performed in clinically relevant situations in order to determine the precision and accuracy of the method. Further experiments confirmed that within the accuracy of the current method, the dosimeter response was independent of beam energies and dose rates used for IMRT treatments. The method was applied to IMRT treatment plans, and the dose determinations were compared to ionization chamber measurements. The experiments showed that absorbed doses above 3 Gy could be measured with an uncertainty of less than 2.5% of the dose (coverage factor k = 1.96). Measurement time was about 15 min using a well-calibrated dosimeter batch. The conclusion drawn from the investigation was that lithium formate EPR dosimetry is a promising new tool for absorbed dose measurements in external beam radiation therapy, especially for doses above 3 Gy.

Gustafsson, H.; Lund, E.; Olsson, S.

2008-09-01

196

Process for recovering tritium from molten lithium metal  

DOEpatents

Lithium tritide (LiT) is extracted from molten lithium metal that has been exposed to neutron irradiation for breeding tritium within a thermonuclear or fission reactor. The extraction is performed by intimately contacting the molten lithium metal with a molten lithium salt, for instance, lithium chloride - potassium chloride eutectic to distribute LiT between the salt and metal phases. The extracted tritium is recovered in gaseous form from the molten salt phase by a subsequent electrolytic or oxidation step.

Maroni, Victor A. (Naperville, IL)

1976-01-01

197

Lithium counterdoped silicon solar cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resistance to radiation damage of an n(+)p boron doped silicon solar cell is improved by lithium counterdoping. Even though lithium is an n-dopant in silicon, the lithium is introduced in small enough quantities so that the cell base remains p-type. The lithium is introduced into the solar cell wafer by implantation of lithium ions whose energy is about 50

I. Weinberg; H. W. Brandhorst Jr.

1986-01-01

198

Lithium counterdoped silicon solar cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resistance to radiation damage of an n(+)p boron doped silicon solar cell is improved by lithium counterdoping. Even though lithium is an n-dopant in silicon, the lithium is introduced in small enough quantities so that the cell base remains p-type. The lithium is introduced into the solar cell wafer by implantation of lithium ions whose energy is about 50

I. Weinberg; Brandhorst H. W. Jr

1984-01-01

199

Interelectronic effects on the photon angular distribution following the radiative electron capture into lithium-like ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiative electron capture into medium- and high-Z, lithium-like ions is studied in the framework of the density matrix theory. For these few-electron ions, detailed computations have been carried out for the angular distribution of the emitted X-rays following the capture into the low-lying 1s22s2ljLJ1,3 beryllium-like levels, including the 1s22s2S01 ground state. In these computations, emphasis is placed on the

Stephan Fritzsche; Andrey Surzhykov; Gediminas Gaigalas

2007-01-01

200

Lithium Inorganic Electrolyte Battery Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium Thionyl Chloride Batteries were investigated for three potential applications and their performance measured under simulated loads. The problem of passivation during storage was investigated and additions of 5 weight percent sulfur dioxide was fou...

D. L. Chua C. R. Walk

1977-01-01

201

Lithium chloride disrupts consolidation of morphine-induced conditioned place preference in male mice: the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Lithium effects on brain functions such as cognition, attention, learning and memory are well-established for ages; however, the way it affects these functions and its precise mechanism of action remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of lithium on the consolidation of morphine-associated conditioned place preference and the possible involvement of the NO/cGMP pathway. Using an unbiased conditioned place preference (CPP) model, the effects of lithium (1-100 mg/kg, i.p.), nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (5-100 mg/kg, i.p.), nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (50-150 mg/kg, i.p.) and phosphodiesterase inhibitor sildenafil (5-40 mg/kg, i.p.) on the consolidation of morphine-induced CPP were assessed. In addition, the possible interaction between lithium, L-arginine and sildenafil or subeffective doses of lithium and L-NAME on the consolidation of morphine-induced contextual memory was evaluated. NMRI mice were used in all studies. Lithium (5-30 mg/kg, i.p.), immediately after conditioning trials, significantly reduced the time spent by mice in the reward-paired compartment. Although post-training administration of L-arginine, sildenafil or L-NAME had no significant effect on the consolidation of CPP, concomitant administration of L-arginine (50-150 mg/kg) and sildenafil (5-10 mg/kg) with lithium (30 mg/kg) prevented the impairing effect of lithium. Also, co-administration of sub-effective doses of lithium (1 mg/kg) and L-NAME (5 mg/kg) disrupted consolidation of CPP. However, delayed administration of effective doses of lithium, which shows specific effect on memory consolidation, did not affect morphine-induced CPP. Lithium seems to inhibit consolidation of morphine-induced CPP and this impairing effect might be via nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway. PMID:21241742

Kiyani, Amirali; Javadi-Paydar, Mehrak; Mohammadkhani, Hoda; Esmaeili, Behnaz; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

2011-01-15

202

Lithium reduction of americium dioxide to generate americium metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium reduction process has been developed for application to a pyrochemical recycle process for oxide fuels. This process uses lithium metal as a reductant to convert oxides of actinide elements to metal. Lithium oxide generated as a product of the reduction would be dissolved in a molten lithium chloride bath to enhance reduction. In this work, the reduction of

T. Usami; T. Kato; M. Kurata; T. Inoue; H. E. Sims; S. A. Beetham; J. A. Jenkins

2002-01-01

203

Poly(triazine imide) with intercalation of lithium and chloride ions [(C3N3)2(NH(x)Li(1-x))3?LiCl]: a crystalline 2D carbon nitride network.  

PubMed

Poly(triazine imide) with intercalation of lithium and chloride ions (PTI/Li(+)Cl(-)) was synthesized by temperature-induced condensation of dicyandiamide in a eutectic mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride as solvent. By using this ionothermal approach the well-known problem of insufficient crystallinity of carbon nitride (CN) condensation products could be overcome. The structural characterization of PTI/Li(+)Cl(-) resulted from a complementary approach using spectroscopic methods as well as different diffraction techniques. Due to the high crystallinity of PTI/Li(+)Cl(-) a structure solution from both powder X-ray and electron diffraction patterns using direct methods was possible; this yielded a triazine-based structure model, in contrast to the proposed fully condensed heptazine-based structure that has been reported recently. Further information from solid-state NMR and FTIR spectroscopy as well as high-resolution TEM investigations was used for Rietveld refinement with a goodness-of-fit (?(2)) of 5.035 and wRp=0.05937. PTI/Li(+)Cl(-) (P6(3)cm (no. 185); a=846.82(10), c=675.02(9)?pm) is a 2D network composed of essentially planar layers made up from imide-bridged triazine units. Voids in these layers are stacked upon each other forming channels running parallel to [001], filled with Li(+) and Cl(-) ions. The presence of salt ions in the nanocrystallites as well as the existence of sp(2)-hybridized carbon and nitrogen atoms typical of graphitic structures was confirmed by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy investigations using (15)N-labeled PTI/Li(+)Cl(-) proved the absence of heptazine building blocks and NH(2) groups and corroborated the highly condensed, triazine-based structure model. PMID:21312298

Wirnhier, Eva; Döblinger, Markus; Gunzelmann, Daniel; Senker, Jürgen; Lotsch, Bettina V; Schnick, Wolfgang

2011-02-10

204

Radiation Damage and Defect Behavior in Ion-Implanted, Lithium Counterdoped Silicon Solar Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Boron doped silicon n+p solar cells were counterdoped with lithium by ion implanation and the resultant n+p cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons. The function of fluence and a Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) was studied to correlate defect behavio...

I. Weinberg S. Mehta C. K. Swartz

1984-01-01

205

Lithium Counterdoped Silicon Solar Cell.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The resistance to radiation damage of an n(+)p boron doped silicon solar cell is improved by lithium counterdoping. Even though lithium is an n-dopant in silicon, the lithium is introduced in small enough quantities so that the cell base remains p-type. T...

I. Weinberg H. W. Brandhorst

1984-01-01

206

Lithium counterdoped silicon solar cell  

SciTech Connect

The resistance to radiation damage of an n(+)p boron doped silicon solar cell is improved by lithium counterdoping. Even though lithium is an n-dopant in silicon, the lithium is introduced in small enough quantities so that the cell base remains p-type. The lithium is introduced into the solar cell wafer by implantation of lithium ions whose energy is about 50 keV. After this lithium implantation, the wafer is annealed in a nitrogen atmosphere at 375 C for two hours. NASA

Weinberg, I.; Brandhorst, H.W., Jr.

1984-11-01

207

Optical spectroscopy and microscopy of radiation-induced light-emitting point defects in lithium fluoride crystals and films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broad-band light-emitting radiation-induced F2 and F3+ electronic point defects, which are stable and laser-active at room temperature in lithium fluoride crystals and films, are used in dosimeters, tuneable color-center lasers, broad-band miniaturized light sources and novel radiation imaging detectors. A brief review of their photoemission properties is presented, and their behavior at liquid nitrogen temperatures is discussed. Some experimental data from optical spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy of these radiation-induced point defects in LiF crystals and thin films are used to obtain information about the coloration curves, the efficiency of point defect formation, the effects of photo-bleaching processes, etc. Control of the local formation, stabilization, and transformation of radiation-induced light-emitting defect centers is crucial for the development of optically active micro-components and nanostructures. Some of the advantages of low temperature measurements for novel confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy techniques, widely used for spatial mapping of these point defects through the optical reading of their visible photoluminescence, are highlighted.

Montereali, R. M.; Bonfigli, F.; Menchini, F.; Vincenti, M. A.

2012-08-01

208

Radiative properties of Nd-doped transparent glass-ceramics in the lithium aluminosilicate system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the optical (absorption, luminescence) properties of Nd3+-doped transparent glass-ceramics obtained in the lithium aluminosilicate system. Phase composition of the glass-ceramics has been determined to affect their luminescent characteristics. We have found out that concentration quenching of neodymium fluorescence decreases upon recrystallization of ?-eucryptite solid solutions (SS) into ?-spodumene ones. The effect is due to partitioning of the

U. Kang; T. I Chuvaeva; A. A Onushchenko; A. V Shashkin; A. A Zhilin; Hee-Je Kim; Yung-Gi Chang

2000-01-01

209

Hydrothermal Transformation of Microporous Lithium Zinc Phosphates; A Kinetic Study using in situ Synchrotron Radiation Powder Diffraction.  

SciTech Connect

The solution mediated phase transformation of a lithium zinc phosphate has been investigated. The zeolite type ABW phase, LiZnPO{sub 4}. H{sub 2}O, suspended in an aqueous solution of LiNO{sub 3}, transforms to the more dense phase, (delta tau) LiZnPO{sub 4} (crystobalite type structure). In situ time resolved powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation, has been utilized to obtain isothermal crystallization curves in the temperature range 179 {degrees} C to 210 {degrees} C. A power law was used for the kinetic analysis, giving an apparent activation energy for the reaction, Ea = 93.1 kJ/mole. The order of the power law varies from 2. 80 to 4.41 in the observed temperature range. This indicates a continuous change in the mechanism of the nucleation.

Jensen, T.R. [University of Odense (Denmark); Norby, P. [SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Hanson, J.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1997-12-31

210

Lithium Dilution Cardiac Output Measurements Using a Peripheral Injection Site: Comparison with Central Injection Technique and Thermodilution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The lithium dilution technique for the measurement of cardiac output by the central injection of lithium chloride was introduced by Linton et al. in 1993. In the present report, we compare lithium dilution cardiac output measurement (LD) by the peripheral injection of lithium chloride (pLD) and by central venous injection (cLD), cardiac output determined by electromagnetic flowmetry (EM), and

Tadayoshi Kurita; Koji Morita; Shigeru Kato; Hiroyuki Kawasaki; Mutsuhito Kikura; Tomiei Kazama; Kazuyuki Ikeda

1999-01-01

211

Refractive index changes in lithium niobate crystals by high-energy particle radiation  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation of lithium niobate crystals with 41 MeV {sup 3}He ions causes strong changes of the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indexes. We present a detailed study of this effect. Small fluence of irradiation already yields refractive index changes about 5x10{sup -4}; the highest values reach 3x10{sup -3}. These index modulations are stable up to 100 degree sign C and can be erased thermally, for which temperatures up to 500 degree sign C are required. A direct correlation between the refractive index changes and the produced lattice vacancies is found.

Peithmann, Konrad; Zamani-Meymian, Mohammad-Reza; Haaks, Matz; Maier, Karl; Andreas, Birk; Breunig, Ingo [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Wegelerstrasse 8, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

2006-10-15

212

Radiation-induced grafting of vinylbenzyltrimethylammonium chloride (VBT) onto cotton fabric and study of its anti-bacterial activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mutual radiation grafting technique using 60Co gamma radiation has been used to carry out grafting of vinylbenzyltrimethylammonium chloride (VBT) onto cotton cellulose substrate. Grafting yield increased with radiation dose and decreased with dose rate but was adversely affected by the presence of O2 and salts of Fe2+ and Cu2+. However, the presence of an acid did not affect grafting in the concentration range studied. The effect of organic solvents like methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, iso-propanol, tert-butanol on grafting yield was investigated in the mixed aqueous solvent system. The VBT grafted cotton samples showed significantly higher water uptake and water retention properties and possessed excellent anti-bacterial activity against strains like Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Samples with 25% grafting extent showed 6 log cycles reduction in bacterial counts within 6 h of exposure time. The anti-bacterial activity of the grafted cotton samples was retained after several cycles of washing and drying in a commercial detergent powder.

Kumar, Virendra; Bhardwaj, Y. K.; Rawat, K. P.; Sabharwal, S.

2005-06-01

213

Device for Growing and Thermal Treatment of Silver Chloride Sheets as Detectors of Ionizing Radiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A short review on technology of preparing AgCl crystals as detectors of ionizing radiation is given. The device, constructed for growing and thermal treatment of these crystals is described. Since sensitivity of crystals as detectors is strongly influence...

F. Bradna V. Bradnova F. Yukl

1983-01-01

214

Basic study of influence of radiation defects on tritium release processes from lithium silicates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiolysis of Li2SiO3 and Li4SiO4 was studied using the chemical scavengers method (CSM), thermoluminescence, lyoluminescence, electron spin resonance and spectrometric methods. The influence of the absorbed dose and many another parameters such as: irradiation conditions, sample preparation conditions and concentration of impurities on the accumulation rate of each type RD and RP were studied. Several possibilities for reducing the radiolysis of silicates were discussed. It has been found that tritium localization on the surface and in grains proceed by two different mechanisms. Tritium thermoextraction from the surface proceeds as chemidesorption of tritiated water, but from the bulk as diffusion. The tritium retention processes were studied. It has been found that tritium retention depends on irradiation conditions. Tritium retention is due to the formation of chemical bonds LiT and thermal stable ?SiT bonds. The accumulation of colloidal silicon and lithium can increase the tritium retention up to 25 35%.

Abramenkovs, A.; Tiliks, J.; Kizane, G.; Grishmanovs, V.; Supe, A.

1997-09-01

215

Lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning design, development, components, testing, electrolytes, and safety aspects of lithium cells. Applications include use in electric vehicles, and in utility load leveling operations. Lithium chloride and lithium sulfur batteries are among the types discussed. (Contains a minimum of 127 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01

216

Compatibility of Polyacetylene with Lithium Battery Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of the research conducted under this contract is to evaluate polyacetylene (CHx) as a replacement for carbon as the cathode material in primary lithium/thionyl chloride (Li/SOC12) and lithium/sulfur dioxide (Li/SO2) batteries. The choice of the...

1982-01-01

217

A multiwavelength low-pressure radiation source based on argon and xenon chlorides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of an excimer radiation source pumped by a subnormal dc glow discharge in an Ar\\/Xe\\/Cl2 mixture with the source operating in a spectral range of 160–310 nm were studied. The emission intensities of the 175, 236,\\u000a 258, and 308 nm bands due to the transitions ArCl (B-X), XeCl (D-X), Cl2 (D?-A?), and XeCl (B-X), respectively, were optimized in

A. K. Shuaibov; A. I. Dashchenko; I. V. Shevera

2002-01-01

218

Pyrochemical reduction of uranium dioxide and plutonium dioxide by lithium metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium reduction process has been developed to apply a pyrochemical recycle process for oxide fuels. This process uses lithium metal as a reductant to convert oxides of actinide elements to metal. Lithium oxide generated in the reduction would be dissolved in a molten lithium chloride bath to enhance reduction. In this work, the solubility of Li2O in LiCl was

T. Usami; M. Kurata; T. Inoue; H. E Sims; S. A Beetham; J. A Jenkins

2002-01-01

219

Line radiation of cesium and lithium evaporation in a hypersonic flow around a cone  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental technique is developed for studying the radiation that arises when the products of the destruction of indicator layers based on the alkaline metal salts CsCl and LiF are carried out to outer supersonic air flow around conic models. To create a supersonic flow, an aerodynamic device with an arc jet was used. A supersonic nozzle at the outlet

N. N. Pilyugin; I. V. Orfanov

1995-01-01

220

Potassium Chloride  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Contains Nonbinding Recommendations Draft Guidance on Potassium Chloride ... Active ingredient: Potassium Chloride ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

221

Suppression of lithium chloride-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats (using the taste reactivity test) with metoclopramide is enhanced by cannabidiolic acid.  

PubMed

We aimed to determine the potential of various doses of metoclopramide (MCP, a dopamine antagonist) to reduce lithium chloride (LiCl)-induced conditioned gaping (a nausea-induced behaviour) in rats, using the taste reactivity test. We then evaluated whether an ineffective low dose of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA, 0.1?g/kg, Rock and Parker, 2013), the potent acidic precursor of cannabidiol (CBD, a non-psychoactive component of cannabis) could enhance the anti-nausea effects of an ineffective low dose of MCP. MCP (3.0mg/kg) reduced conditioned gaping responses. Coadministration of ineffective doses of MCP (0.3mg/kg) and CBDA (0.1?g/kg) enhanced the suppression of conditioned gaping, over that of either drug alone, without interfering with conditioned taste avoidance. MCP dose-dependently reduced nausea-induced conditioned gaping in rats. As well, the suppression of conditioned gaping was enhanced when ineffective doses of MCP and CBDA were coadministered. These data suggest that CBDA could be a powerful adjunct treatment to anti-emetic regimens for chemotherapy-induced nausea. PMID:24012649

Rock, E M; Parker, L A

2013-09-04

222

Effect of various combinations of flame-retardant fillers on flammability of radiation cross-linked poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various formulations of radiation cross-linked poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) were prepared to improve the flame retardancy for wire and cable insulation applications. Limiting oxygen index (LOI) was used to characterize the flammability of the developed formulations. The effect of different plasticizers, dioctyl phthalate (DOP), di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) and tri-2-ethylhexyl trimellitate (TOTM) and various combinations of different flame-retardant additives, namely Sb2O3, zinc

A. A Basfar

2003-01-01

223

The role of <100> edge dislocations in nucleating radiation-induced colloid particles in sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical program to investigate the role of dislocations in the nucleation of sodium colloids in irradiated rock salt has been outlined. As the first study in the investigation the interaction of radiation-produced defects with the <001> edge dislocation in rock salt, i.e., the edge dislocation in the principal slip system of NaCl, has been considered. The interaction potential between a symmetric defect and the <001> edge dislocation has been determined on the basis of anisotropic elasticity theory. The potential arises from the interaction between the long-range stress field of the dislocation and the displacements around the point defect. The corresponding flow lines, i.e., the lines along which the defects flow to the dislocation, have also been determined. In general, the flow lines are closed loops passing through the center of the dislocation. One of the novel features introduced by anisotropy is the possibility of open flow lines for certain elastic constant values. Along some of these open flow lines defects are attracted to the dislocation, whereas long others defects are repelled from the dislocation of common plane. 33 refs., 17 figs.

Teutonico, L.J.

1982-09-01

224

Recharging processes, radiation induced strain and changes of OH ? bands under H + ion implantation in Ti doped lithium niobate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic analysis of variations in structural and optical characteristics of Z-cut plates of titanium doped congruent lithium niobate single crystals implanted with 120keV proton beam at various fluences of 1015, 1016 and 1017protons\\/cm2 is presented. Through, high resolution X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and UV–visible–NIR analysis of congruent lithium niobate, the correlation of properties before and

P. Kumar; S. Moorthy Babu; I. Bhaumik; S. Ganesamoorthy; A. K. Karnal; G. O. Rodrigues; I. Sulania; D. Kanjilal; A. K. Pandey; R. Raman

2010-01-01

225

Safe practices for handling, storing, processing, and testing lithium ambient cells and batteries  

SciTech Connect

The Lithium Ambient Battery Operations (LAMB) battery safety procedures cover the safe assembly, storage, and test of lithium batteries [herein defined as assemblies containing active lithium cells utilizing lithium dioxide (Li/SO{sub 2}), lithium thionyl chloride (Li/SOCl{sub 2}), lithium copper oxide (Li/CuO), lithium carbon-monofluoride (Li/CF{sub x}), or lithium manganese dioxide (Li/MnO{sub 2})]. Any new cell electrochemistry will be reviewed with appropriate diligence to determine what additional measures, if any, are needed prior to first use. These additional precautions will be stated in any test plan regarding the cell design. These procedures do not cover reserve batteries.

Evans, T.P.

1990-05-04

226

Chloride effect on the palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution vs elimination of cyclic vinyloxazolidinones and oxazolines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of catalytic amounts of lithium chloride, or the utilization of chloride containing catalyst sources completely inhibited elimination in the Pd-catalyzed allylic substitution of vinyloxazolidinones and oxazolines.

Gregory R. Cook; P. Sathya Shanker

1998-01-01

227

Line radiation of cesium and lithium evaporation in a hypersonic flow around a cone.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental technique is developed for studying the radiation that arises when the products of the destruction of indicator layers based on the alkaline metal salts CsCl and LiF are carried out to outer supersonic air flow around conic models. To create a supersonic flow, an aerodynamic device with an arc jet was used. A supersonic nozzle at the outlet of the plasmotron provides the flow with the parameters V? = 8.2 km/s, T = 8000K, and p = 1 - 10 Torr. The intensities I? of the spectral lines of Li, ? = 670.7 nm and Cs, ? = 455.5 nm were recorded simultaneously. Substances with different volume contents of Li and Cs were used on the cone surfaces. To determine the gas dynamic parameters, a theory for the calculation of mass loss and equilibrium vapor composition in a free-molecular flow was developed. A method for the determination of the temperature and electron concentration in the blast layer on the surface of a cone by means of measured spectral intensities of atomic lines I? was developed. It is based on the theory of spectral line broadening and the curves of growth.

Pilyugin, N. N.; Orfanov, I. V.

1995-10-01

228

Line radiation of cesium and lithium evaporation in a hypersonic flow around a cone  

SciTech Connect

An experimental technique is developed for studying the radiation that arises when the products of the destruction of indicator layers based on the alkaline metal salts CsCl and LiF are carried out to outer supersonic air flow around conic models. To create a supersonic flow, an aerodynamic device with an arc jet was used. A supersonic nozzle at the outlet of the plasmotron provides the flow with the parameters V{sub infinity} = 8.2 km/s, T = 8000 K, and p = 1 - 10 Torr. The intensities I{sub {lambda}} of the spectral lines of Li, {lambda} = 670.7 nm and Cs, {lambda} = 455.5 nm were recorded simultaneously. Substances with different volume contents of Li and Cs were used on the cone surfaces. To determine the gas dynamic parameters, a theory for the calculation of mass loss and equilibrium vapor composition in a free-molecular flow was developed. A method for the determination of the temperature and electron concentration in the blast layer on the surface of a cone by means of measured spectral intensities of atomic lines I{sub {lambda}} was developed. It is based on the theory of spectral line broadening and the curves and growth. We obtained the following values: T = 3175 {+-} 135 K and n{sub e} = 4.04 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} for the Cs line; and T = 2890 {+-} 75 K and n{sub e} = 1.71 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} for the Li line.

Pilyugin, N.N. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation); Orfanov, I.V. [Keldysh Research Institute of Thermal Processes, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-09-01

229

Lithium ion conducting electrolytes  

DOEpatents

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

1996-04-09

230

Lithium Ion Aqueous Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium ion aqueous cells were investigated using lithium intercalating compounds as anodes and cathodes. The aqueous electrolyte consisted of 4 to 5 molar solutions of either lithium perchlorate or lithium nitrate which contained lithium hydroxide in mil...

E. J. Plichta W. K. Behl

1995-01-01

231

Cost Estimation of Butadiene-Grafted Polyvinyl Chloride Produced by Gas Phase Radiation-Induced Graft Polymerization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Butadiene gas in contact with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) powder is easily graft-polymerized onto PVC by Co-60 gamma irradiation. The product polymer has a high impact strength comparable with that of blended PVC and a modifier (ABS, MBS, chlorinated polyeth...

K. Yoshida K. Araki

1976-01-01

232

Radiation synthesis of temperature-responsive hydrogels by copolymerization of [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride with /N-isopropylacrylamide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel cationic hydrogels were synthesized by /?-irradiation copolymerization of [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride with /N-isopropylacrylamide in the presence of cross-linking agent. The synthesis regularities have been studied. The swelling behavior of hydrogels as a function of copolymers composition and temperature was evaluated.

Mun, Grigoriy A.; Nurkeeva, Zauresh S.; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V.; Sergaziyev, Aibek D.; Rosiak, Janusz M.

2002-08-01

233

Potassium reduces lithium toxicity: circadian rhythm actions are maintained.  

PubMed

We tested whether a high potassium diet alters lithium's effects on locomotor activity rhythms to the same extent as it prevents lithium toxicity. Rats fed a standard diet containing 0.47% potassium lost weight after subcutaneous implantation of an osmotic pump delivering 1.35 mg of lithium chloride per hour, and most died or became sick within three weeks after implantation. In contrast, all rats fed a diet containing 4.1% potassium gained weight at the same rate regardless of whether they had received lithium infusions or placebo. In a second experiment, lithium administration by either diet or osmotic pump delayed wheel running rhythms, showing that lithium's central nervous system action did not depend on potassium intake or method of lithium administration. Dietary potassium supplementation may provide a useful strategy for improving the therapeutic index of lithium treatment. PMID:3600167

Klemfuss, H; Kripke, D F

1987-06-29

234

Impairment of lithium chloride-induced conditioned gaping responses (anticipatory nausea) following immune system stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) occurs in both LPS tolerant and LPS non-tolerant rats.  

PubMed

Anticipatory nausea is a classically conditioned response to a context that has been previously paired with toxin-induced nausea and/or vomiting. When injected with a nausea-inducing drug, such as lithium chloride (LiCl), rats will show a distinctive conditioned gaping response that has been suggested to be an index of nausea. Previous studies have found that immune system activation with an endotoxin, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), attenuates LiCl-induced conditioned gaping in rats. The present study examined the acquisition of LiCl-induced conditioned gaping in rats that were either LPS tolerant or LPS non-tolerant, as little is known about the effects of endotoxin tolerance on learning and memory. Male Long-Evan rats were given four systemic injections of LPS (200 ?g/kg) or isotonic saline (NaCl) to induce LPS tolerance, indexed with 24 h changes in body weight following treatment. The animals were then given 4 acquisition trials in a LiCl-induced conditioned gaping paradigm. On conditioning days animals were treated with LPS (200 ?g/kg) or saline followed 90 min later by injection of LiCl (127 mg/kg) or saline and then placed in a distinctive context for 30 min and their behavior video-recorded. On a drug free test day all animals were again placed in the distinctive context for 10 min and behavior was video-recorded. Gaping responses were scored for all acquisition days and the test day. Spleen and body weights were also obtained for all rats at the end of the experiment. Gaping responses were attenuated in rats treated with LPS in both the LPS tolerant and LPS non-tolerant groups. There were significant negative correlations between spleen weight as well as spleen/body weight ratios, and levels of conditioned gaping responses in LiCl treated rats, but not control rats. These results show that LPS interferes with learning/memory in the anticipatory nausea paradigm in rats that are both LPS tolerant and LPS non-tolerant. PMID:23064080

Chan, Melissa Y T; Cross-Mellor, Shelley K; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

2012-10-12

235

Lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning design, development, components, testing, electrolytes, and safety aspects of lithium cells. Applications include use in electric vehicles, and in utility load leveling operations. Lithium chloride and lithium sulfur batteries are among the types discussed.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

236

Lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning design, development, components, testing, electrolytes, and safety aspects of lithium cells. Applications include use in electric vehicles, and in utility load leveling operations. Lithium chloride and lithium sulfur batteries are among the types discussed. (Contains a minimum of 138 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

237

Lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning design, development, components, testing, electrolytes, and safety aspects of lithium cells. Applications include use in electric vehicles, and in utility load leveling operations. Lithium chloride and lithium sulfur batteries are among the types discussed. (Contains a minimum of 139 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

238

Lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning design, development, components, testing, electrolytes, and safety aspects of lithium cells. Applications include use in electric vehicles, and in utility load leveling operations. Lithium chloride and lithium sulfur batteries are among the types discussed.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-02-01

239

Effect of additives on lithium cycling efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Lithium cycling efficiency was evaluated for LiAsF[sub 6]-ethylene carbonate/2-methyltetrahydrofuran mixed-solvent electrolyte (LiAsF[sub 6]-EC/2MeTHF) with several additives: tetraalkylammonium chlorides with a long n-alkyl chain and three methyl groups. The ammonium chlorides with n-alkyl group longer than n-C[sub 12]H[sub 25]- increased lithium cycling efficiency. Cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) produced the best improvement in lithium cycling efficiency. A figure of merit (FOM) of lithium for 0.01 M CTAC was 46, which was 1.5 times the FOM for the corresponding additive-free electrolyte. The LiAsF[sub 6]-EC/2MeTHF with CTAC showed an increase in FOM with stack pressure, but the effect was less than that for the additive-free LiAsF[sub 6]-EC/2MeTHF. Scanning electron microscope observation showed that the addition of CTAC decreased the needle-like lithium deposition and increased particulate lithium deposition. This deposition morphology may be the main cause of the increase in FOM. The additive had no effect on rate capability for cell cycling at 3 mA/cm[sup 2] discharge and 1 mA/cm[sup 2] charge.

Hirai, Toshiro; Yoshimatsu, Isamu; Yamaki, J. (NTT Interdisciplinary Research Labs., Ibaraki (Japan))

1994-09-01

240

Lithium effects on adjunctive alcohol consumption in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats receiving chronic administration of lithium chloride (20 mEq\\/l) in their drinking water were tested for acquisition of adjunctive alcohol (10% v\\/v) consumption. Contrary to expectations, subjects receiving lithium acquired the adjunctive drinking more rapidly, and under less optimal conditions, than did control subjects. The high death rate in subjects receiving lithium while undergoing a concurrent alcohol withdrawal suggests that

Garth Hines; Deanna F. Henslee

1986-01-01

241

Lithium batteries. Citations from the Engineering Index data base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on design, development, components, corrosion, and harzards are included in the compilation of worldwide research. Lithium batteries with sulfides, chlorine, thionyl chloride, organic compounds, and water are cited. Applications cover use of lithium cells in pacemakers, spacecraft, electric vehicles, and off peak energy storage. This updated bibliography contains 283 citations, 60 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

Cavagnaro, D. M.

1980-07-01

242

Lithium-Silver Chloride Secondary Battery Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aluminum cases for housing the Li - AgCl-nonaqueous electrolyte cell system were prepared using an improved seal assembly technique. No leaks greater than 10 to the- 9th power CC/sec were found. Propylene carbonate electrolyte conductivity may be increase...

J. E. Chilton W. J. Conner R. W. Holsinger

1964-01-01

243

Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

1993-01-01

244

Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

1993-10-12

245

Synthesis and Characterization of Hexanuclear Molybdenum Chloride Sulfide Cluster Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new preparative route to the mixed chloride sulfide cluster species, (Mo sub 6 S/sub x/Cl/sub 8-x/)/sup (4-x)+/ with x approx. = 4, was explored. Reaction of molybdenum(II) chloride and lithium sulfide in an aluminum trichloride medium afforded such mix...

D. A. Spink

1986-01-01

246

Lithium neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

Inspite of the advent of newer antimanic drugs, lithium carbonate remains widely used in the treatment and prevention of manic-depressive illness. However care has to be exercised due to its low therapeutic index. The central nervous system and renal system are predominantly affected in acute lithium intoxication and is potentially lethal. The more common side effect involves the central nervous system. It occurs early and is preventable. We describe three cases of lithium toxicity admitted to Johor Bahru Hospital, with emphasis on its neurological preponderance. PMID:11732087

Suraya, Y; Yoong, K Y

2001-09-01

247

Lithium battery  

SciTech Connect

In a lithium battery having a negative electrode formed with lithium as active material and the positive electrode formed with manganese dioxide, carbon fluoride or the like as the active material, the discharge capacity of the negative electrode is made smaller than the discharge capacity of the positive electrode, whereby a drop in the battery voltage during the final discharge stage is steepened, and prevents a device using such a lithium battery as a power supply from operating in an unstable manner, thereby improving the reliability of such device.

Ikeda, H.; Nakaido, S.; Narukara, S.

1983-08-16

248

Recharging processes, radiation induced strain and changes of OH- bands under H+ ion implantation in Ti doped lithium niobate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic analysis of variations in structural and optical characteristics of Z-cut plates of titanium doped congruent lithium niobate single crystals implanted with 120 keV proton beam at various fluences of 1015, 1016 and 1017 protons/cm2 is presented. Through, high resolution X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and UV-visible-NIR analysis of congruent lithium niobate, the correlation of properties before and after implantation are discussed. HRXRD (0 0 6) reflection by Triple Crystal Mode shows that both tensile and compressive strain peak are produced by the high fluence implantation. A distinct tensile peak was observed from implanted region for a fluence of 1016 protons/cm2. AFM micrographs indicate mountain ridges, bumps and protrusions on target surface on implantation. UV-visible-NIR spectra reveal an increase in charge transfer between Ti3+/Ti4+ and ligand oxygen for implantation with 1015 protons/cm2, while spectra for higher fluence implanted samples show complex absorption band in the region from 380-1100 nm. Variations of OH- stretching vibration mode were observed for cLN Pure, cLNT2% virgin, and implanted samples with FTIR spectra. The concentration of OH- ion before and after implantation was calculated from integral absorption intensity. The effect of 120 keV proton implantation induced structural, surface and optical studies were correlated.

Kumar, P.; Moorthy Babu, S.; Bhaumik, I.; Ganesamoorthy, S.; Karnal, A. K.; Kumar, Praveen; Rodrigues, G. O.; Sulania, I.; Kanjilal, D.; Pandey, A. K.; Raman, R.

2010-01-01

249

Lithium battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention features the use of additives such as 2-methylfuran or related cyclic or acyclic organic compounds in non-aqueous electrolyte-containing secondary lithium cells for improving the cycle life of such cells.

K. M. Abraham; B. Brummer; J. S. Foos

1984-01-01

250

Chloride Test  

MedlinePLUS

... Chloride Related tests: Sodium , Potassium , Bicarbonate (total CO2) , Electrolytes , CMP , BMP , Blood Gases At a Glance Test ... if there is a problem with your body's electrolyte balance or acid-base balance and to monitor ...

251

Highly efficient nanojoule second harmonic generation of a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser radiation in a lithium niobate crystal  

SciTech Connect

Highly efficient ({approx}70%) second harmonic generation of tightly focused femtosecond radiation from a Cr:forsterite laser is obtained in a LiNbO{sub 3} crystal. The pulse energy amounts to 10 nJ, the spatial and spectral quality of second harmonic radiation being preserved. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

Gordienko, Vyacheslav M; Dyakov, Vladimir A; Mikheev, Pavel M [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Syrtsov, Vladimir S [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2006-11-30

252

Determination of lithium in rocks by distillation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the quantitative extraction and recovery of lithium from rocks is based on a high temperature volatilization procedure. The sample is sintered with a calcium carbonate-calcium chloride mixture at 1200?? C. for 30 minutes in a platinum ignition tube, and the volatilization product is collected in a plug of Pyrex glass wool in a connecting Pyrex tube. The distillate, which consists of the alkali chlorides with a maximum of 5 to 20 mg. of calcium oxide and traces of a few other elements, is removed from the apparatus by dissolving in dilute hydrochloric acid and subjected to standard analytiaal procedures. The sinter residues contained less than 0.0005% lithium oxide. Lithium oxide was recovered from synthetic samples with an average error of 1.1%.

Fletcher, M. H.

1949-01-01

253

Lithium batteries. January 1984-October 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data-Base). Rept. for Jan 84-Oct 91  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning design, development, components, testing, electrolytes, and safety aspects of lithium cells. Applications include use in electric vehicles, and in utility load leveling operations. Lithium chloride and lithium sulfur batteries are among the types discussed. (Contains 177 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1991-09-01

254

Cell and defect behavior in lithium-counterdoped solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Some n(+)/p cells in which lithium is introduced as a counterdopant, by ion-implantation, into the cell's boron-doped p-region were studied. To determine if the cells radiation resistance could be significantly improved by lithium counterdoping. Defect behavior was related to cell performance using deep level transient spectroscopy. Results indicate a significantly increased radiation resistance for the lithium counterdoped cells when compared to the boron doped 1 ohm-cm control cell. The increased radiation resistance of the lithium counterdoped cells is due to the complexing of lithium with divacancies and boron. It is speculated that complexing with oxygen and single vacancies also contributes to the increased radiation resistance. Counterdoping silicon with lithium results in a different set of defects.

Weinberg, I.; Mehta, S.

1984-01-01

255

Solid state chemistry and non-steady state radiation enhanced diffusion (NSRED): Part I. Synthesis and characterization of some lithium-tin and lithium-silver-tin polar intermetallics. Part II. Titanium diffusion in ion-modified magnesium oxide surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I of this thesis centers on the investigation of the structural, electronic and physical properties of Li-Sn based novel polar intermetallic compounds. In spite of both scientific and technological interests, the understanding of structure-property relationships of polar intermetallics based on Li-Sn system have not been extensively studied. Our exploratory studies focus on the chemistry of the Li-richest binary phase, Li4.4Sn, as well as on the discovery of new ternary Li-rich phases. Careful phase analyses coupled with X-ray and neutron diffraction studies resulted in the reformulation of Li4.4Sn as Li17Sn4. Exploratory synthesis in the Li-rich side of the ternary Li-Ag-Sn system also led to the discovery of two novel ternary lithium silver stannides phases: Li32.54Ag 9.46Sn10 and Li17Ag3Sn6. The new ternary compounds represent examples of two new crystal structure-types. Li32.54Ag9.46Sn10 exhibits high Li content, and a structure with covalent Ag-Sn framework with significant Li/Ag defects indicating its potential as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. Li 17Ag3Sn6 represents the first example of a quasi-2-dimensional polar intermetallic of the Li-Ag-Sn system. Its high lithium content also suggests it is a viable candidate for Li-battery anode applications. Part II of this thesis focuses on the investigation of defect production upon inert and chemically reactive energetic ion irradiated single crystals of MgO (100). Ti diffusion in ion pre-irradiated (low-energy ion beams of Ar+, Cl+ and Cr+ of 7keV) MgO (100) surfaces was selected as a model system in this work. The annealing process followed ion-irradiation treatment. Diffusion was conducted in an inert atmosphere. In these conditions, non-steady state concentration defects were created and a new type of diffusion termed as Non-Steady State Radiation Enhanced Diffusion (NSRED) was developed. NSRED is obtained by using the following: ion irradiation in the keV range followed by annealing; the diffusion range overlaps heavily with the central region of the collision cascade; the diffusing species are evaporated on the pre-irradiated surfaces. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry was used to measure the diffusion coefficients versus ion irradiation conditions as well as their time dependence. A theoretical model was formulated to calculate the depth-dependent bulk diffusion coefficients and the following order was obtained: DTi/Cr/MgO > DTi/Ar/MgO > DTi/Cl/MgO (where D stands for the depth-dependent diffusion coefficient of samples bombarded with Cr, Ar and Cl, respectively). Monte-Carlo (TRIM) simulations, lattice deformation effects, electrical neutrality requirements as well as nature of vacancies were used to explain the observed trend. Additional kinetic studies and HRXRD experiments were performed to further explain the DTi/Ar/MgO > DTi/Cl/MgO trend. A modified Kapinos-Platonov model was used to include the chemical effect observed. Larger vacancies cluster are assumed to form after relaxation processes under Cl+ bombardment versus Ar+ bombardment. The model accounts for: (1) enhanced diffusion obtained due to the vacancy cluster dissociation during the annealing process, the so-called post-irradiation annealing effect; (2) enhanced diffusion obtained due to the chemical properties of the ions, the so-called chemical effect.

Lupu, Corina

256

Chloride channelopathies.  

PubMed

Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms. Impaired chloride transport can cause diseases as diverse as cystic fibrosis, myotonia, epilepsy, hyperekplexia, lysosomal storage disease, deafness, renal salt loss, kidney stones and osteopetrosis. These disorders are caused by mutations in genes belonging to non-related gene families, i.e. CLC chloride channels and transporters, ABC transporters, and GABA- and glycine receptors. Diseases due to mutations in TMEM16E and bestrophin 1 might be due to a loss of Ca++-activated Cl- channels, although this remains to be shown. PMID:19708126

Planells-Cases, Rosa; Jentsch, Thomas J

2009-03-01

257

On the stability of boron nitride with lithium alloy electrodes in molten salt cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were carried out to determine the stability of boron nitride separator material in molten salt cells using lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic electrolyte and two stainless steel screen electrodes. The potentials of these electrodes were set by two separate electrical circuits and a lithium-silicon (Li-Si) reservoir electrode. The boron nitride separator was found stable at potentials above -136 mV with respect to a lithium-aluminum reference electrode at 700 K. The separator reacted with lithium and became conductive at potentials more reducing than about -200 mV. Formation of a boride and Li3N led to the conductivity.

Sharma, R. A.; Bradley, T. G.

1981-09-01

258

Morphological and histochemical observations of hepatic peroxisomes and lysosomes of rats after treatment with methylmercuric chloride, hydrogen peroxide and gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

The ultrastructure of cytochemically identified hepatic peroxisomes and lysosomes was studied at days 2, 7 and 21 following treatment with hydrogen peroxide (HP), methylmercuric chloride (MMC) and gamma radiation (I). Morphological observations revealed severe cytoplasmic degradation at day 2 after HP treatment which persisted to a moderate extent at day 7; no signs of toxic effect were observed at day 21. Livers of MMC treated rats demonstrated disruption of peroxisomal, lysosomal and mitochondrial membranes and formation of different shapes and sizes of peroxisomes at day 2. Damage appeared to be mild at day 7 and no apparent damage persisted until day 21. Following the whole body irradiation of 750 R, granularity in hepatic peroxisomes, accumulation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, loss of mitochondril cristae and presence of polyribosomes and/or glycogen were observed at day 2. Seepage of hydrolytic enzymes from disrupted lysosomal membrane and persistence of polyribosomes or glycogen and dissolution of mitochondrial cristae were observed at day 7. Diffusion of reaction products from peroxisomes and apparent dissolution and peripheral movement of crystalline cores was observed at day 21 after irradiation.

Chowdhury, A.

1985-01-01

259

Introduction to Lithium Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium batteries are being introduced into all three services in the Australian Defence Force. However, general information concerning lithium batteries is not available in a condensed form. This review examines various aspects of lithium batteries, incl...

W. N. Garrard

1988-01-01

260

Lithium counterdoped silicon solar cell  

SciTech Connect

A radiation damage resistant solar cell is described comprising a wafer of p-type boron doped silicon having lithium ions implanted therein in small enough quantities such that the wafer remains p-type after lithium addition. The wafer has an n/sup +/ region formed by phosphorus ions implanted therein adjacent to a surface of the wafer, a first electrical contact on the surface adjacent to the n/sup +/ region, and a second electrical contact on an opposite surface of the wafer.

Weinberg, I.; Brandhorst, H.W. Jr.

1986-08-26

261

Fragmentation of molecular tributyltin chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fragmentation of tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) vapour has been studied experimentally by means of time-of-flight mass spectrometry at the photon energy range of 9-25 eV of synchrotron radiation, at 21.22 eV of HeI as well as with 500 eV electron beam excitation. Branching ratios of the tributyltin chloride fragments taken with HeI and synchrotron radiation have been presented first time. Calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) were carried out for TBTCl and the ionization energies obtained were used to predict the dissociation pathways creating the observed ions.

Osmekhin, S.; Caló, A.; Kisand, V.; Nõmmiste, E.; Kotilainen, H.; Aksela, H.; Aksela, S.

2008-06-01

262

Lithium literature review: lithium's properties and interactions  

SciTech Connect

The lithium literature has been reviewed to provide a better understanding of the effects of lithium spills that might occur in magnetic fusion energy (MFE) facilities. Lithium may be used as a breeding blanket and reactor coolant in these facilities. Physical and chemical properties of lithium as well as the chemical interactions of lithium with various gases, metals and non-metals have been identified. A preliminary assessment of lithium-concrete reactions has been completed using differential thermal analysis. Suggestions are given for future studies in areas where literature is lacking or limited.

Jeppson, D.W.; Ballif, J.L.; Yuan, W.W.; Chou, B.E.

1978-04-01

263

Optical properties of lithium-rich lithium niobate fabricated by vapor transport equilibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium-rich lithium niobate of excellent optical homogeneity can be fabricated by a vapor transport equilibration (VTE) technique. The high-optical-quality, uniformly birefringent crystals noncritically phase match for second-harmonic generation of 532-nm radiation from 1064-nm Nd:YAG radiation at 238°C. The refractive indexes and their temperature dependence have been measured and used to derive temperature-dependent Sellmeier equations, which predict noncritical phase matching for

DIETER H. JUNDT; MARTIN M. FEJER; ROBERT L. BYER

1990-01-01

264

The Mechanics of Iron Inhibition During Dissolution of Lithium Fluoride Cleavages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radiotracers of iron are used to obtain adsorption isotherms for iron adsorbed on lithium fluoride surfaces from dilute solutions of ferric chloride. The isotherms are related to the observed etch morphologies and substantiate the argument that the condit...

M. S. Baskin M. B. Ives

1964-01-01

265

Lithium Ion Conductivity in Lithium Nitride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ionic conductivity of polycrystalline lithium nitride has been determined using ac techniques and complex plane analysis. The ionic conductivity is quite high, so that this material may be an interesting lithium-conducting solid electrolyte. (Author)

B. A. Boukamp R. A. Huggins

1976-01-01

266

Influence of irradiation on the thermal decomposition of lithium perchlorate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of Co-60 gamma-irradiation, up to 500 Mrad, on the kinetics of the thermal decomposition of lithium perchlorate has been studied over the temperature range 400–440°C. The material (m.p. 236°C) decomposes in the molten state and the lithium chloride formed remains dissolved initially but separates out as solid after about 50% decomposition. Decomposition occurs in four stages, viz., (i)

S. D. Bhattamisra; S. R. Mohanty

1976-01-01

267

Lithium inhibits carcinoid cell growth in vitro.  

PubMed

Carcinoids are slow growing neuroendocrine tumors that often cause debilitating symptoms due to excessive secretion of hormones such as serotonin. Surgery is the only potentially curative treatment, but many patients have unresectable metastatic disease. Lithium is a non- competitive inhibitor of GSK-3 with an established safety profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of lithium on carcinoid cell growth in vitro. Lithium treatment caused a dose-dependent reduction in carcinoid cancer cell (BON and H727) growth. Western blot analysis revealed increased expression of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), indicating the induction of apoptosis. Lithium treatment also suppressed cellular levels of serotonin and chromogranin A. In summary, lithium inactivates GSK-3, induces apoptosis, and suppresses carcinoid cancer cell growth in vitro. The drug has been used clinically since the 19(th) century to treat a variety of diseases including bipolar disorder, and its safety profile is well documented. Therefore, based on these findings, we have undertaken a clinical trial of lithium chloride in the treatment of patients with unresectable carcinoid cancer. PMID:20589165

Greenblatt, David Yu; Ndiaye, Mary; Chen, Herbert; Kunnimalaiyaan, Muthusamy

2010-05-10

268

Lithium inhibits carcinoid cell growth in vitro  

PubMed Central

Carcinoids are slow growing neuroendocrine tumors that often cause debilitating symptoms due to excessive secretion of hormones such as serotonin. Surgery is the only potentially curative treatment, but many patients have unresectable metastatic disease. Lithium is a non- competitive inhibitor of GSK-3 with an established safety profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of lithium on carcinoid cell growth in vitro. Lithium treatment caused a dose-dependent reduction in carcinoid cancer cell (BON and H727) growth. Western blot analysis revealed increased expression of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), indicating the induction of apoptosis. Lithium treatment also suppressed cellular levels of serotonin and chromogranin A. In summary, lithium inactivates GSK-3, induces apoptosis, and suppresses carcinoid cancer cell growth in vitro. The drug has been used clinically since the 19th century to treat a variety of diseases including bipolar disorder, and its safety profile is well documented. Therefore, based on these findings, we have undertaken a clinical trial of lithium chloride in the treatment of patients with unresectable carcinoid cancer.

Greenblatt, David Yu; Ndiaye, Mary; Chen, Herbert; Kunnimalaiyaan, Muthusamy

2010-01-01

269

On the stability of boron nitride with lithium alloy electrodes in molten salt cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out to determine the stability of boron nitride separator material in molten salt cells using lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic electrolyte and two stainless steel screen electrodes. The potentials of these electrodes were set by two separate electrical circuits and a lithium-silicon (Li-Si) reservoir electrode. The boron nitride separator was found stable at potentials above -136 mV

R. A. Sharma; T. G. Bradley

1981-01-01

270

The effects of lithium salts on the turnover and metabolism of norepinephrine in rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute or chronic administration of lithium chloride increased the disappearance of intracisternally administered norepinephrine-H3 from rat brain. Tritiated deaminated catechol metabolites and free deaminated-O-methylated metabolites represented a larger fraction of the radioactivity present in the brain in animals treated with lithium chloride than in control animals. Statistically significant changes in the uptake of norepinephrine-H3 into brain were not observed after

Joseph J. Schildkraut; Mayada A. Logue; George A. Dodge

1969-01-01

271

Melitracenium chloride.  

PubMed

IN THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 3-(10,10-dimethyl-anthracen-9-yl-idene)-N,N,N-trimethyl-propanaminium chlor-ide], C(21)H(26)N(+)·Cl(-), the cyclo-hexane ring adopts a chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the terminal benzene rings is 40.43?(12)°. In the crystal, ions are linked through inter-molecular N-H?Cl and C-H?Cl hydrogen bonds, forming supra-molecular layers parallel to the bc plane. PMID:21837115

Fun, Hoong-Kun; Hemamalini, Madhukar; Siddegowda, M S; Yathirajan, H S; Narayana, B

2011-06-18

272

A putative amino acid transporter of the SLC6 family is up-regulated by lithium and is required for resistance to lithium toxicity in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Lithium is an efficacious drug for the treatment of mood disorders, and its application is also considered a potential therapy for brain damage. However, the mechanisms underlying lithium’s therapeutic action and toxic effects in the nervous system remain largely elusive. Here we report on the use of a versatile genetic model, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, to discover novel molecular components involved in the lithium-responsive neurobiological process. We previously identified CG15088, which encodes a putative nutrient amino acid transporter of the solute carrier 6 (SLC6) family, as one of the genes most significantly up-regulated in response to lithium treatment. This gene was the only SLC6 gene induced by lithium, and was thus designated as Lithium-inducible SLC6 transporter or List. Either RNAi-mediated knockdown or complete deletion of List resulted in a remarkable increase in the susceptibility of adult flies to lithium’s toxic effects, whereas transgenic expression of wild-type List significantly suppressed the lithium hypersensitive phenotype of List-deficient flies. Other ions such as sodium, potassium and chloride did not induce List up-regulation, nor did they affect the viability of flies with suppressed List expression. These results indicate that lithium’s biochemical or physical properties, rather than general osmotic responses, are responsible for the lithium-induced up-regulation of List, as well as for the lithium-susceptible phenotype observed in List knockdown flies. Interestingly, flies became significantly more susceptible to lithium toxicity when List RNAi was specifically expressed in glia than when it was expressed in neurons or muscles, which is consistent with potential glial expression of List. These results show that the List transporter confers resistance to lithium toxicity, possibly as a consequence of its amino acid transporter activity in CNS glia. Our results have provided a new avenue of investigation toward a better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie lithium-responsive neurobiological process.

Kasuya, Junko; Kaas, Garrett A.; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

2009-01-01

273

Hafnium extraction from acidic chloride solutions by Cyanex 923  

SciTech Connect

Hafnium extraction from hydrochloric acid/lithium chloride solutions into Cyanex 923 in kerosene has been studied. Variables investigated were hydrochloric acid, total chloride and hafnium concentrations in the aqueous phase, and extractant/modifier (isodecanol) levels in the organic phase. Hafnium is considered to load as the tetrachloride complex forming a disolvate with Cyanex 923. Results are compared with equivalent data for zirconium extraction. 14 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

El-Ammouri, E.; Distin, P.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)

1996-08-01

274

Thermodynamic Functions of Some Gaseous Diatomic Halides of Aluminum, Boron, and Lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature survey was made to locate spectroscopic data on the gaseous halides of aluminum, boron, and lithium. The thermodynamic functions were computed and a tabulation of the heat capacity, enthalpy, and entropy of the gaseous diatomic bromides, chlorides, and fluorides of aluminum, boron, and lithium has been made from zero to 6000°K in order that this useful thermodynamic information

Robert L. Altman

1959-01-01

275

All-solid-state measurements of electrical properties of passive films on lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

An all-solid-state cell for studying the electrical properties of passive films on lithium formed in thionyl chloride was constructed in which the counterelectrode was a sheet of metallic lithium pressed against the surface of the passive film. In modeling the impedance response of the cell the poor electrical contact between the passive film and the counterelectrode was taken into account.

Darja Kek; M. Gaberscek; S. Pejovnik

1996-01-01

276

Method for monitoring potassium chloride concentration in drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

The potassium chloride concentration of a drilling fluid is monitored during well drilling operations to identify any depletion in such concentration with time. Initially, the gamma radiation measuring apparatus utilized is calibrated by making gamma radiation measurements on self-shielded drilling fluid samples having successively increasing potassium chloride concentrations. A calibration constant is derived from the measured relationship between the potassium chloride concentrations of the various drilling fluid samples and their respective gamma radiation count rates. This calibration constant is then used along with the measured gamma radiation count rates from drilling fluid taken during well drilling operations to identify drilling fluid potassium chloride concentration.

Dion, E. P.

1985-10-08

277

Minerals Yearbook 1989: Lithium  

SciTech Connect

The United States led the world in lithium mineral and compound production and consumption. Estimated consumption increased slightly, and world production also grew. Sales increased for domestic producers, who announced price increases for the third consecutive year. Because lithium is electrochemically reactive and has other unique properties, there are many commercial lithium products. Producers sold lithium as mineral concentrate, brine, compound, or metal, depending upon the end use. Most lithium compounds were consumed in the production of ceramics, glass, and primary aluminum.

Ober, J.A.

1989-01-01

278

Polymer gel electrolytes for lithium batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data on the most promising polymer gel electrolytes for lithium batteries published in the past decade are surveyed and described systematically. Gel electrolytes with matrices of polyethylene oxide, poly(vinylidene fluoride) and its copolymer with hexafluoropropylene, poly(methyl methacrylate), polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride) and polyacrylates are discussed. A special section is devoted to gel electrolytes with ionic liquids as the solvents. The bibliography includes 160 references.

Baskakova, Yu V.; Yarmolenko, Ol'ga V.; Efimov, Oleg N.

2012-04-01

279

ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOR OF ZINC-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS IN THE PRESENCE OF FUSED CHLORIDES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical behavior of zinc-zirconium alloys was studied by ; determinating the electromotive force of galvanic cells which comprise an alloy ; electrode, a pure metal electrode (zinc or zirconium), and an electrolyte made up ; of a eutectic mixture of potassium chloride and lithium chloride. When the ; galvanic chain comprises an alloy electrode and a pure zinc electrcde,

C. Decroly; R. Vaghar

1961-01-01

280

Proposed Regulation: Vinyl Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

OSHA proposes to regulate producers of vinyl chloride, polyvinyl chloride, and articles made from these substances by requiring that their employees not be exposed to vinyl chloride above specified levels. The major impact of the regulation is expected to...

1974-01-01

281

The recovery of chlorine from hydrogen chloride Part 1: new method using a molten salt as the electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method of recovering chlorine from by-product hydrogen chloride is proposed and developed. Hydrogen chloride gas is led through a carbon pipe to a gas diffusion-type porous carbon cathode, which is immersed in a molten salt of lithium chloride (58 mol%)-potassium chloride (42 mol%) at 400°C. A graphite anode is immersed in the same electrolyte. By the direct electrolysis

S. Yoshizawa; Z. Takehara; Y. Ito; K. Oka

1971-01-01

282

Lithium Ion Conductive Electrolyte Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A solid electrolyte for the lithium family of batteries is proposed which has a high lithium ion conductivity. It comprises a solid solution of lithium sulfate and lithium hydroxide. 3 figures. (ERA citation 02:048856)

H. Ikeda S. Narukawa

1977-01-01

283

Poly Iron Chloride and Poly Aluminum Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structures, basic chemistry, preparation procedures, and applications of poly iron chloride (PIC) and poly aluminum chloride (PAC) are presented. PIC and PAC are unconventional inorganic polymers known to be extremely effective for treatment of water ...

L. K. Wang

1987-01-01

284

Chloride-Initiated Reinforcement Corrosion: Chloride Binding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present report deals with chloride binding, which is one of the mechanisms which determines the service life of the structure with regard to chloride-initiated reinforcement corrosion. The report has been structured so that a model for chloride bindin...

K. Byfors

1990-01-01

285

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1983-01-01

286

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1982-02-09

287

Lithium power sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theoretical and applied aspects of the development of lithium power sources are examined. The characteristics of lithium power sources with liquid and solid cathode materials are analyzed, and their performance is evaluated as a function of the discharge regime and temperature. The discussion also covers the electrochemical kinetics of the lithium electrode, inorganic and organic electrolytes, primary and secondary lithium power sources, and medium-temperature storage batteries of the system lithium/iron sulfides. Particular attention is given to the existing and prospective applications of lithium power sources of various kinds.

Kedrinskii, Il'ia A.; Dmitrenko, Vasilii E.; Grudianov, Igor'i.

288

Lithium-ion mobility improvement in floating-zone silicon by external gettering  

SciTech Connect

Phosphorous diffusion for approximately 1 h at 950 [degree]C is shown to be an effective gettering procedure to remove lithium-ion mobility reducing defects in floating-zone [ital p]-type silicon wafers. The removal of these defects, which can severely impede the movement of lithium ions in silicon wafers during lithium-ion compensation process, is crucial in the fabrication of silicon lithium-drifted radiation detectors.

Walton, J.T.; Derhacobian, N.; Wong, Y.K. (Engineering Science Department, Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)); Haller, E.E. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Department of Material Science and Mineral Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

1993-07-19

289

Lithium AA-size cells for Navy mine applications. 1. Selection and test plan. Final report  

SciTech Connect

As part of an effort to reduce Navy battery procurement problems, a program has been developed to standardize battery chemistries and cell sizes. Currently, several mercury-based cells are being used in mine batteries; however, they have limited energy and power densities and present uncertain long-term availability and disposal issues. The lithium/thionyl chloride electrochemical technology is being considered as a long-term solution to these problems. This report describes the surveillance effort that gave rise to selection of AA-size lithium thionyl chloride cells for mine battery development. A test plan to verify this choice and to identify potential cell or battery production and performance problems is also provided. Lithium/thionyl chloride, Lithium, Battery, Mercury-based cells.

Kilroy, W.J.; Freeman, W.A.; Banner, J.A.; Hoff, G.F.; Mitchell, K.A.

1993-11-30

290

Lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and applications of lithium batteries. Topics include electrochemical aspects, cycling characteristics, performance evaluations, and applications in cardiac pacemaker devices. Batteries using organic compounds, chlorides, and metal sulfides are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01

291

Characterization Lithium Mineralized Pegmatite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium economic importance has increased in the last years. In Brazil its reserves, generally pegmatites bodies, are found in Itinga-Aracuai-MG. This study of characterization belongs to a global plan of lithium mineralized bodies research of 'Arqueana d...

E. F. S. Pereira O. Luz Ferreira R. Z. L. Cancado J. Mauricio Neto

1986-01-01

292

Lithium batteries: Future batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main characteristics and applications of lithium batteries are reviewed. Miniature batteries for quartz crystal watches have been developed and fabricated in Switzerland since 1970. High technology systems like lithium batteries are largely used for their low auto-discharge during storage and for their high energy density. Two kinds of lithium batteries can be distinguished concerning their place in the watch:

Harald Reiche

1991-01-01

293

Lithium nephrotoxicity revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium is widely used to treat bipolar disorder. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is the most common adverse effect of lithium and occurs in up to 40% of patients. Renal lithium toxicity is characterized by increased water and sodium diuresis, which can result in mild dehydration, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and renal tubular acidosis. The concentrating defect and natriuretic effect develop within

Bernard C. Rossier; Jean-Pierre Grünfeld

2009-01-01

294

Organometallic for Lithium Intercalation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the Phase I program was to determine whether pairs of electrodes containing tetraazaannulenes (TAAs) can be used as the anode and cathode in a lithium metal-free lithium secondary cell. The extent of chemical and electrochemical lithium interc...

S. S. Yuan F. Walsh

1984-01-01

295

Lithium Polymer Electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present development trend in lithium ion batteries is focused on the replacement of the common liquid electrolyte with a lithium ion conducting polymer electrolyte membrane to finally achieve the fabrication of batteries having a full plastic structure. Such plastic lithium ion batteries are expected to be less expensive and more easily scaled up than their liquid counterparts. In addition,

Bruno Scrosati

296

Lithium fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of our research project is to design safe, high energy and power density lithium\\/water systems. We explored the feasibility of substituting the natural bilayer (formed on the lithium surface when lithium is in contact with water), for a thin polymeric film. By substituting the natural bilayer film we hope to reduce the parasitic reactions occurring at the

Mirna Urquidi-Macdonald; Homero Castaneda; Angela M. Cannon

2002-01-01

297

Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes for Lithium Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li(sub (2+2x)/(2+x))M'(sub 2x/(2+x))M(sub (2-2x)/(2+x))O(sub 2-delta), in which 0 < or = x < 1 and delta is less than 0....

C. S. Johnson K. Amine M. M. Thackeray S. H. Kang

2006-01-01

298

Lithium Surface Coatings and Improved Plasma Performance in NSTX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NSTX research on lithium-coated plasma facing components is the latest step in a decade-long, multi-institutional research program to develop lithium as a plasma-facing system that can withstand the high heat and neutron fluxes in a DT reactor. The NSTX research is also aimed towards sustaining the current non- inductively in H-mode plasmas which requires control of both wall recycling and impurity influxes. Employing several techniques to coat the plasma facing components (PFCs) with lithium, NSTX experiments have shown, for the first time, significant benefits in high-power divertor plasmas. Lithium pellet injection (LPI) uses the plasma itself to distribute lithium on the divertor or limiter surfaces. The multi-barrel LPI on NSTX can introduce either lithium pellets with masses 1 - 5 mg or powder during a discharge. This significantly lowered recycling and reduced the density in a subsequent NBI-heated, divertor plasma. Lithium coatings have also been applied with a LIThium EvaporatoR (LITER) that was installed on an upper vacuum vessel port to direct a collimated stream of lithium vapor toward the graphite tiles of the lower center stack and divertor. The lithium was evaporated either before tokamak discharges, or continuously between and during them. By evaporating lithium into the helium glow discharge that typically precedes each tokamak discharge, a coating of the entire PFC area was achieved. Lithium depositions from a few mg to 1 g have been applied between discharges. Among the effects observed in subsequent neutral-beam heated plasmas were decreases in oxygen impurities, plasma density, and the inductive flux consumption, and increases in electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement and DD neutron rate. In addition, a reduction in the ELM frequency, including their complete suppression, was achieved in H-mode plasmas. Additional observations, such as, the duration of the lithium coatings, increases in core metal impurity radiation, and diagnostic window depositions will also be discussed.

Kugel, H. W.

2007-11-01

299

Lithium use in batteries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

Goonan, Thomas G.

2012-01-01

300

Enhancing effects of chronic lithium treatment on detour learning in chicks.  

PubMed

Lithium is the first line of therapeutic drugs used to treat both mania and depression in bipolar disorder.Although a body of research suggests that lithium acts as a cognitive enhancer, other animal studies suggest that lithium induces cognitive deficits. Comparatively, the effects of lithium on cognitive behaviour in these studies are inconsistent and contradictory. Further investigations in different species of animals and behavioural tasks are important to evaluate the possibility that lithium may act as a cognitive enhancer. In the present study, the chicks were treated intraperitoneally with lithium chloride (120 mg/kg), and the effects of chronic lithium treatment on chick cognitive behaviour were examined using a detour learning task.Additionally, the effects of chronic lithium treatment on BDNF messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were measured in RTPCR. We found that chronic lithium treatment(120 mg/kg) had no effect on spontaneous motor activity or weight gain of the chicks and that the chicks had a general healthy appearance, while chronic lithium treatment significantly promoted the response latency of detour learning and BDNF mRNA expression. These results suggest that chronic lithium treatment may improve cognitive function. PMID:22290294

Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiaoyun; Feng, Wei; Cui, Yonghua; Xu, Shiqing; Che, Yi

2012-07-01

301

Integral enthalpies of mixing for water + lithium bromide + lithium iodide and water + lithium chloride + lithium nitrate at 298. 15 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analyses of absorption refrigerating machines, absorption heat pumps, and absorption heat transformers require thermal and physical properties for working medium + absorbent systems. The enthalpy of mixing data for working fluids are one of the most important basic properties for the research and the design of absorption refrigeration and heat pump systems. Differential enthalpies of dilution and differential enthalpies

Shigeki Iyoki; Shozo Iwasaki; Yutaka Kuriyama; Tadashi Uemura

1993-01-01

302

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

303

Mercuric chloride poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different ... poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric chloride. This is for information only and not for ...

304

Dehydration of Magnesium Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application discloses a method for dehydrating magnesium chloride hydrates or brines by complexing with amine hydrochlorides. Magnesium chloride hydrate or brine is reacted to an amine hydrochloride to form a complex which is then heated to fir...

H. Dolezal

1975-01-01

305

Chloride Removal Implementation Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equipment and procedures for the electrochemical removal of chloride from reinforced concrete structures are described. The guide provides basic information needed to implement the chloride removal process of field structures. Pretreatment and posttreatme...

J. Bennett T. J. Schue

1993-01-01

306

Improvement of water vapor adsorption ability of natural mesoporous material by impregnating with chloride salts for development of a new desiccant filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is the development of a new adsorbent for the desiccant material which can be regenerated by the domestic\\u000a exhaust heat by using natural mesoporous material, Wakkanai siliceous shale. To improve this shale’s performance to adsorb\\/desorb\\u000a the water vapor, lithium chloride, calcium chloride or sodium chloride was supported into the mesopores by impregnating with\\u000a each chloride

Saya Nakabayashi; Katsunori Nagano; Makoto Nakamura; Junya Togawa; Asami Kurokawa

307

Synthesis of lithium nitride for neutron production target of BNCT by in situ lithium deposition and ion implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To achieve high performance of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) device, Li3N/Li/Pd/Cu four layered Li target was designed and the structures of the synthesized four layered target were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. For the purpose of avoiding the radiation blistering and lithium evaporation, in situ vacuum deposition and nitridation techniques were established for in situ production and repairing maintenance of the lithium target.Following conclusions were derived:Uniform lithium layer of a few hundreds nanometer was formed on Pd/Cu multilayer surface by in situ vacuum deposition technique using metallic lithium as a source material.Lithium nitrides were formed by in situ nitridation reaction by the implantation of low-energy nitrogen ions on the deposited lithium layer surface. The chemical states of the nitridated zone were close to the stoichiometric lithium nitride, Li3N.This nitridated zone formed on surface of four layered lithium target is stable for a long time in air condition. The in situ nitridation is effective to protect lithium target from degradation by unfavorable reactions.

Ishiyama, S.; Baba, Y.; Fujii, R.; Nakamura, M.; Imahori, Y.

2012-12-01

308

Lithium Attenuates IFN-? Production and Antiviral Response via Inhibition of TANK-Binding Kinase 1 Kinase Activity.  

PubMed

Lithium salt is a widely used glycogen synthase kinase-3? inhibitor and effective drug for the treatment of psychiatric diseases. However, the effects of lithium in innate immune responses, especially in cellular antiviral responses, are unknown. In this study, we show that lithium chloride attenuates LPS-, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-, and Sendai virus-induced IFN-? production and IFN regulatory factor 3 activation in macrophages in a glycogen synthase kinase-3?-independent manner. The ability of the lithium to inhibit IFN-? production was confirmed in vivo, as mice treated with lithium chloride exhibited decreased levels of IFN-? upon Sendai virus infection. In vitro kinase assay demonstrates that lithium suppresses TANK-binding kinase 1 kinase activity. Consistently, lithium significantly enhanced the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus in vitro and in vivo. Severe infiltration of monocytes and tissue damage were observed in the lungs of control mice, compared with lithium-treated mice after virus infection. Our findings suggest lithium as an inhibitor of TANK-binding kinase 1 and potential target for the intervention of diseases with uncontrolled IFN-? production. Furthermore, lithium attenuates host defense to virus infection and may cause severely adverse effects in clinical applications. PMID:24043902

Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Xueying; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Wei; Gao, Chengjiang

2013-09-16

309

Synthesis of acetylenic azomethines from imidoyl chlorides and copper(I) acetylides, catalyzed by palladium compounds  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis of acetylenic azomethines from N-phenylbenzimidoyl chloride and copper butylacetylide in the presence of lithium iodide, from imidoyl chlorides and copper and silver acetylides in boiling acetonitrile, and from imidoyl chloride and trimethylsilylacetylene with lead acetate and triphenylphosphine as catalyst (80/degree/C, 2 h) has been described. The authors have found that acetylenic azomethines are formed readily from imidoyl chlorides and copper acetylides at room temperature in the presence of the phosphine complexes of Pd(0), produced in situ.

Ukhin, L.Yu.; Orlova, Zh.I.; Tokarskaya, O.A.

1988-04-20

310

Chloride in smooth muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in the functions of intracellular chloride expanded about twenty years ago but mostly this referred to tissues other than smooth muscle. On the other hand, accumulation of chloride above equilibrium seems to have been recognised more readily in smooth muscle.Experimental data is used to show by calculation that the Donnan equilibrium cannot account for the chloride distribution in smooth

A. R. Chipperfield; A. A. Harper

2000-01-01

311

Purification of lithium salts by CSA continuous countercurrent ion exchange  

SciTech Connect

A Continuous Countercurrent Ion Exchange (CCIX) process was developed for extraction of low levels of sodium, potassium, iron, and nickel from strong solutions of lithium chloride and lithium hydroxide. This study was done on a two-inch diameter CSA, Inc. CCIX pilot unit. A standard 8% cross-linked cation exchange resin was used. The feed was either 2[und M] LiCl or 2[und M] LiOH. The trace levels of contaminants had a slightly higher affinity for the resin than lithium and extracted 90% or better. Residual lithium on the resin was scrubbed of with KOH to render a lithium loss of less than 1% in the waste. Contaminants were stripped from the resin with 3[und M] HCl. Zinc was one metal that was not extracted because it formed an anionic chloride complex. However zinc and certain other metals were extracted with high efficiency using strong-base type resin. Other resins are available for efficient extraction of many other metal contaminants, but the alkali metals, Na and K, were dependent on the CCIX common cation exchange system.

Higgins, I.R. (CSA, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

1986-12-01

312

Lithium manganese oxides for rechargeable lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium manganese spinel compounds HT-LiMn2O4 (HT means high temperature) synthesized at > 700 °C have high capacity in the 4 V range (LixMn2O4, x ? 1), However, lithium manganese oxides LT-LiMn2O4 (LT means low temperature) synthesized at temperatures lower than 400 °C, resemble to the spinel structure and tend to have a reduced capacity in the 4 V range. We

Yoshiaki Nitta; Kazuhiro Okamura; Masatoshi Nagayama; Akira Ohta

1997-01-01

313

Highly selective lithium recovery from brine using a ?-MnO2-Ag battery.  

PubMed

The demand for lithium has greatly increased with the rapid development of rechargeable batteries. Currently, the main lithium resource is brine lakes, but the conventional lithium recovery process is time consuming, inefficient, and environmentally harmful. Rechargeable batteries have been recently used for lithium recovery, and consist of lithium iron phosphate as a cathode. These batteries feature promising selectivity between lithium and sodium, but they suffer from severe interference from coexisting magnesium ions, an essential component of brine, which has prompted further study. This study reports on a highly selective and energy-efficient lithium recovery system using a rechargeable battery that consists of a ?-MnO2 positive electrode and a chloride-capturing negative electrode. This system can be used to recover lithium from brine even in the presence of magnesium ions as well as other dissolved cations. In addition, lithium recovery from simulated brine is successfully demonstrated, consuming 1.0 W h per 1 mole of lithium recovered, using water similar to that from the artificial brine, which contains various cations (mole ratio: Na/Li ? 15.7, K/Li ? 2.2, Mg/Li ? 1.9). PMID:23595419

Lee, Jaehan; Yu, Seung-Ho; Kim, Choonsoo; Sung, Yung-Eun; Yoon, Jeyong

2013-04-17

314

Absence of a losartan interaction with renal lithium excretion in the rat.  

PubMed Central

1. The interaction of losartan, a non-peptide specific AT1 receptor antagonist with the renal handling of lithium was analysed in conscious normotensive Wistar rats and compared with the known increase in renal tubular lithium reabsorption induced by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin. 2. The rats were treated for five days with losartan (10 mg kg-1 day-1, orally), indomethacin (2.5 mg kg-1 day-1, intramuscularly) or their solvents. Lithium chloride (16.7 mg kg-1, i.p.) was given as a single dose on the fifth day; renal functions were then measured. 3. Indomethacin, in the absence of any effect on creatinine clearance, increased renal fractional lithium reabsorption and led to an increase in plasma lithium levels. 4. Losartan did not modify renal lithium handling and its plasma level. No change was observed in renal lithium clearance, the quantity of filtered lithium or the fractional reabsorption of the metal. As expected, losartan had no effect on systolic blood pressure in normotensive rats. 5. In conclusion, our results indicate that losartan, when given orally in the rat at a dose of 10 mg kg-1 day-1 over five days, does not modify renal lithium handling. They suggest that blockade of the angiotensin II receptors does not interfere with renal lithium reabsorption, which occurs mainly at a proximal tubular site.

Barthelmebs, M.; Alt-Tebacher, M.; Madonna, O.; Grima, M.; Imbs, J. L.

1995-01-01

315

Lithium ion cell safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety characteristics of recent commercial lithium ion cells are examined in relation to their use for cellular phones. These are prismatic cells with an aluminum cell housing (can) and a 500–600 mA h capacity. They have one of two types of 4-V class cathodes, lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) or lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4). This report provides results of the

Shin-ichi Tobishima; Koji Takei; Yoji Sakurai; Jun-ichi Yamaki

2000-01-01

316

Lithium purification technique  

DOEpatents

A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

Keough, Robert F. (Richland, WA); Meadows, George E. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01

317

Lithium purification technique  

DOEpatents

A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

Keough, R.F.; Meadows, G.E.

1984-01-10

318

Lithium isotope geochemistry and origin of Canadian shield brines.  

PubMed

Hypersaline calcium/chloride shield brines are ubiquitous in Canada and areas of northern Europe. The major questions relating to these fluids are the origin of the solutes and the concentration mechanism that led to their extreme salinity. Many chemical and isotopic tracers are used to solve these questions. For example, lithium isotope systematics have been used recently to support a marine origin for the Yellowknife shield brine (Northwest Territories). While having important chemical similarities to the Yellowknife brine, shield brines from the Sudbury/Elliot Lake (Ontario) and Thompson/Snow Lake (Manitoba) regions, which are the focus of this study, exhibit contrasting lithium behavior. Brine from the Sudbury Victor mine has lithium concentrations that closely follow the sea water lithium-bromine concentration trajectory, as well as delta6Li values of approximately -28/1000. This indicates that the lithium in this brine is predominantly marine in origin with a relatively minor component of crustal lithium leached from the host rocks. In contrast, the Thompson/Snow Lake brine has anomalously low lithium concentrations, indicating that it has largely been removed from solution by alteration minerals. Furthermore, brine and nonbrine mine waters at the Thompson mine have large delta6Li variations of approximately 30/1000, which primarily reflects mixing between deep brine with delta6Li of -35 +/- 2/1000 and near surface mine water that has derived higher delta6Li values through interactions with their host rocks. The contrary behavior of lithium in these two brines shows that, in systems where it has behaved conservatively, lithium isotopes can distinguish brines derived from marine sources. PMID:14649868

Bottomley, D J; Chan, L H; Katz, A; Starinsky, A; Clark, I D

319

Lithium batteries: Future batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main characteristics and applications of lithium batteries are reviewed. Miniature batteries for quartz crystal watches have been developed and fabricated in Switzerland since 1970. High technology systems like lithium batteries are largely used for their low auto-discharge during storage and for their high energy density. Two kinds of lithium batteries can be distinguished concerning their place in the watch: integrated batteries; and batteries placed between motion parts and the bottom of the watchcase. Lithium batteries are also used in pocket calculators, electronic modules for integrated circuits, telephone, control systems, electronic games, bank cards, and heart stimulators.

Reiche, Harald

320

Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum-Lithium Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion behavior of three aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys was investigated in aerated 0.5 M sodium sulfate (Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]), deaerated 3.5% sodium chloride (NaCl), and aerated 3.5% NaCl. Corrosion behavior of the Aluminum Association (AA) alloys 2090-T8E41 (UNS A92090, sheet), AA 8090-T851 (UNS A98090, sheet), and AA 8090-T82551 (UNS A98090, bar) was compared to behavior of the conventional AA 7075-T6 (UNS

W. N. Garrard

1994-01-01

321

Chronic lithium downregulates cyclooxygenase-2 activity and prostaglandin E2 concentration in rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats treated with lithium chloride for 6 weeks have been reported to demonstrate reduced turnover of arachidonic acid (AA) in brain phospholipids, and decreases in mRNA and protein levels, and enzyme activity, of AA-selective cytosolic phospholipase A2(cPLA2). We now report that chronic lithium administration to rats significantly reduced the brain protein level and enzyme activity of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), without affecting

F Bosetti; J Rintala; R Seemann; T A Rosenberger; M A Contreras; S I Rapoport; M C Chang

2002-01-01

322

Thionyl-chloride-induced lung injury and bronchiolitis obliterans  

SciTech Connect

Thionyl-chloride (TCl) is used in the manufacture of lithium batteries, producing SO2 and HCl fumes on contact with water. We report two cases of accidental TCl exposure resulting in lung injury that may vary from a relatively mild and reversible interstitial lung disease to a severe form of bronchiolitis obliterans causing, after a latent period, an acute/chronic respiratory failure as well as other complications (spontaneous pneumothorax and bronchopleural fistula), previously unreported in TCl fume inhalation.

Konichezky, S.; Schattner, A.; Ezri, T.; Bokenboim, P.; Geva, D. (Kaplan Hospital, Rehovot (Israel))

1993-09-01

323

Using lithium safely.  

PubMed

Lithium is a difficult drug to use. Although it is effective in the management of mania, manic-depressive illness and recurrent depression, its unwanted effects are troublesome and the dose needs to be titrated against measurements of blood levels. With care, however, the risks can be minimized. Here we discuss lithium and approaches to optimize its use. PMID:10563060

1999-03-01

324

Lithium battery thermal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal characteristics and thermal behavior of lithium batteries are important both for the batteries meeting operating life requirements and for safety considerations. Sandia National Laboratories has a broad-based program that includes analysis, engineering and model development. We have determined thermal properties of lithium batteries using a variety of calorimetric methods for many years. We developed the capability to model temperature

Daniel H Doughty; Paul C Butler; Rudolph G Jungst; E. Peter Roth

2002-01-01

325

LITHIUM AND RENAL FUNCTIONS  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Thirty patients of affective disorder who were on lithium for a year and thirty patients on antidepressant were studied in detail for renal functions. Our observation is that lithium therapy does not lead to any deterioration in kidney functions. The results are discussed.

Sethi, N.; Trivedi, J.K.; Sethi, B.B.

1987-01-01

326

Laminar Multicell Lithium Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Laminar batteries of series connected cells comprising lithium anodes and an electrolyte containing a passivating solvent reactive with lithium in which the cells are electrically connected in series by intercell barriers comprising outer layers of electrochemically inert electronically conducting material in contact with the electrochemically active anode and cathode of adjacent cells and a layer of metal foil between the electrochemically inert layers.

Bruder, A. H.

1984-01-31

327

Lithium Polymer Battery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report focuses on the development of a lithium-ion conducting channel as a solid-state electrolyte for rechargeable lithium batteries. Dilithium phthalocyanine (Li2Pc) has been used in this development since it can undergo molecular self-assembly to ...

L. G. Scanlon

2003-01-01

328

Mania pre-lithium.  

PubMed

The changes that lithium brought are most fully understood when we grasp the difficulties for management that acute mania presented. Restraint in canvas camisoles, padded cells, paraldehyde, water-baths and salts-Epsom, not Lithium-met mania in echos of Bedlam still heard in the early 1950s. It is a part of psychiatric history important to remember. PMID:10622174

Cawte, J

1999-12-01

329

Study about lithium battery's characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make certain the lithium battery's terminal limited discharge voltage and internal resistance in different load, four 3.2 V\\/60Ah lithium batteries are put in series to form battery pack in tests. The lithium battery pack terminal voltage, current and overall internal resistance were recorded with the discharge time. By analyze datas from the tests with MATLAB, the lithium battery pack

Ding Zuowu; Wang Shulin; Zhao Weijun; Qu Min

2010-01-01

330

Atmospheric corrosion of lithium electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric corrosion of lithium during lithium-cell assembly and the dry storage of cells prior to electrolyte fill has been found to initiate lithium corrosion pits and to form corrosion products. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate lithium pitting and the white floccullent corrosion products. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Auger spectroscopy in combination with X-ray diffraction

Johnson

1981-01-01

331

Cathode material for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

2013-07-23

332

Reactions of p-toluenesulfonyl chloride with inorganic fluorides in heterogeneous systems  

SciTech Connect

The formation of p-toluenesulfonyl fluoride in the heterogeneous reactions of p-toluenesulfonyl chloride with inorganic fluorides in dipolar aprotic solvents becomes faster in the series of alkali metals from lithium to rubidium in parallel with the decrease in the crystal-lattice energies of the fluorides. In media if DMF and dimethylacetamide, even at 0/sup 0/C, after a relatively short reaction time p-toluenesulfonyl chloride is converted practically completely in the corresponding fluoride.

Krylov, E.N.; Mashkevich, I.V.

1986-10-20

333

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

2008-01-01

334

Lithium battery hazard: old-fashioned planning implications of new technology.  

PubMed

Lithium battery technology has important military applications and will increasingly enter the civilian marketplace. In order to prevent explosive fragmentation under some circumstances of malfunction or misuse, lithium batteries are designed to vent externally in the event of malfunction. Depending on the chemistry and size of a venting lithium battery, the release of toxic gases such as sulfur dioxide or thionyl chloride may pose risks to exposed individuals, particularly in enclosed spaces. Chemical and thermal burns, laryngeal edema, pulmonary edema, and bronchiolitis obliterans are potential outcomes. A case report is presented which illustrates the hazards. The hazards are not from unpredictable outcomes, but from failure to plan for predictable outcomes. PMID:3379484

Ducatman, A M; Ducatman, B S; Barnes, J A

1988-04-01

335

Stability and electrochemistry of lithium in room temperature chloroaluminate molten salts  

SciTech Connect

Room temperature chloroaluminate molten salts derived from AlCl[sub 3], and 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolum chloride (MEIC) hold great promise as electrolytes for high energy density batteries. Addition of protons to buffered neutral AlCl[sub 3]:MEIC:LiCl melts allows elemental lithium to be deposited and stripped at a 250 [mu]m tungsten electrode. Chronopotentiometric studies performed at current densities from 0.16 to 3.06 mA cm[sup [minus]2] show minimal overpotentials for lithium deposition and stripping. When the lithium is stripped immediately after deposition, the stripping to deposition efficiency approaches 80%; however, when the deposited lithium is allowed to contact the electrolyte circuit for several minutes, the efficiencies drop rapidly due to the reaction of lithium with the melt. In basic (chloride-rich) AlCl[sub 3]:MEIC melts, elemental lithium appears to be stable for long times with and without the addition of protons. In addition, the maximum lithium anodization current density achieved in basic melts is higher than the buffered neutral melts.

Scordilis-Kelley, C.; Carlin, R.T. (Air Force Academy, CO (United States). Frank J. Seiler Research Lab.)

1994-04-01

336

Hydrogen Chloride Sparging Crystallization of Aluminum Chloride Hexahydrate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of its effort to produce cell-grade alumina from clay, the Bureau of Mines investigated the hydrogen chloride gas-sparging crystallization of aluminum chloride hexahydrate (ACH) from aluminum chloride liquor, to provide information for optimizing ...

D. E. Shanks D. J. Bauer J. A. Eisle

1982-01-01

337

An integrated model of the lithium/thionyl chloride battery  

SciTech Connect

The desire to reduce the time and cost of design engineering on new components or to validate existing designs in new applications is stimulating the development of modeling and simulation tools. The authors are applying a model-based design approach to low and moderate rate versions of the Li/SOCl{sub 2} D-size cell with success. Three types of models are being constructed and integrated to achieve maximum capability and flexibility in the final simulation tool. A phenomenology based electrochemical model links performance and the cell design, chemical processes, and material properties. An artificial neural network model improves computational efficiency and fills gaps in the simulation capability when fundamental cell parameters are too difficult to measure or the forms of the physical relationships are not understood. Finally, a PSpice-based model provides a simple way to test the cell under realistic electrical circuit conditions. Integration of these three parts allows a complete link to be made between fundamental battery design characteristics and the performance of the rest of the electrical subsystem.

Jungst, R.G.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Ingersoll, D.; O`Gorman, C.C.; Paez, T.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jain, M.; Weidner, J.W. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1998-06-08

338

Platinized Silver Chloride Electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid electrode made by platinizing silver-silver chloride has been found to combine the stable potential and low direct-current resistance properties of a silver-silver chloride electrode with the low high-frequency impedance characteristic of a platinized platinum electrode.

Kenneth S. Cole; Uichiro Kishimoto

1962-01-01

339

Lithium intercalation from aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

Lithium can be intercalated into a wide variety of materials using nonaqueous electrochemical cells. The use of aqueous methods is less common because of the reactivity of many lithium intercalation compounds with water. Here the authors show that lithium can be intercalated into host compounds from aqueous LiOH solution, provided the chemical potential of the intercalated lithium is sufficiently lower than the chemical potential of lithium in lithium metal. Using LiMn[sub 2]O[sub 4] as the host, the authors formed Li[sub 2]Mn[sub 2]O[sub 4] by intercalating Li from LiOH solution in an aqueous cell. This method may prove to be an economical way of preparing lithium transition metal oxides with high lithium contents for lithium-ion cell cathodes.

Li, W.; Dahn, J.R. (Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Physics); McKinnon, W.R. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Inst. of Microstructural Sciences)

1994-09-01

340

The lithium problems.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This note reports on a workshop discussing the observed abundances of lithium and their astrophysical implications. The workshop was held at the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA, 19 - 20 May 1989.

Lattanzio, J.; Malaney, R.

341

Lithium Ion Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be conne...

1997-01-01

342

Transport properties of aluminum chloride-thionyl chloride-based electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

Conductance, viscosity, and density of AlCl/sub 3/-SOCl/sub 2/-based electrolyte solutions with and without sulfur dioxide and sulfur and varying concentration of lithium chloride have been determined as a function of temperature. While the data on AlCl/sub 3/-SOCl/sub 2/ system can be interpreted in terms of solute-solvent interaction forming adducts, those in the presence of sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride have been interpreted in terms of ion-ion and ion-solvent interactions and equilibria involving ion pairs and triple ions with complex anions such as Al/sub 2/Cl/sub 7/-and Al/sub 3/ Cl/sub 10/-. Data on energy of activation for conductance and for viscous flow along with Walden product are in agreement with this interpretation. The unusually high electrolytic conductance observed for these concentrated electrolyte solutions and the energy of activation data are interpreted in terms of the hopping mechanism for conductance. The implication of increased complexity of solution structure on mass transport during Li/SOCl/sub 2/ battery discharge is discussed.

Szpak, S.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

1984-05-01

343

Lithium and Hematopoietic Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies are described that demonstrate the ability of lithium (Li) to enhance total peripheral blood neutrophil, platelet and stem cell (CFU-S, CFU-MIX, CFU-GM and CFU-MEG) populations from mice administered cyclophosphamide (CTX). Mice were preinjected on each of 3 consecutive days with ultrapure lithium carbonate (Li2CO3, 35 ?g\\/kg b.w.) before receiving CTX (200 mg\\/kg, b.w.). Control groups were preinjected with phosphate-buffered

Vincent S. Gallicchio

1988-01-01

344

Lithium ion "cyclotron resonance" magnetic fields decrease seizure onset times in lithium-pilocarpine seized rats.  

PubMed

The cyclotron resonance equation predicts that the frequency of an applied magnetic field that might optimally interact with a single ion species may be computed as a function of the charge-to-mass ratio of the ion and the strength of the background static magnetic field. The present study was undertaken to discern the applicability of this equation for optimizing lithium ion utilization in the rat, as inferred by the predicted magnetic "ion resonance "field-induced shift of lithium's dose-dependent curve for seizure onset times (SOTs) when combined with the cholinergic agent pilocarpine. Groups of rats were administered 1.5 thru 3 mEq/kg lithium chloride (in 0.5 mEq/kg increments) and exposed to reference conditions or to one of three intensities (70 nanoTesla, 0.8 microTesla, or 25 microTesla) of a 85 Hz magnetic field calculated to resonate with lithium ions given the background static geomagnetic field of approximately 38,000 nanoTesla (0.38 Gauss). A statistically significant quadratic relationship for SOT as a function of magnetic field intensity (irrespective of lithium dose) was noted: this U-shaped function was characterized by equal SOTs for the reference and 25 microTesla groups, with a trend toward shorter SOTs for the 70 nanoTesla and 0.8 microTesla groups. Although not predicted by the equations, this report extends other findings suggestive of discrete intensity windows for which magnetic field frequencies derived from the cyclotron ion resonance equation may affect ion activity. PMID:15527207

McKay, B E; Persinger, M A

2004-08-01

345

Aluminum-lithium for aerospace  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum-lithium alloys were developed primarily to reduce the weight of aircraft and aerospace structures. Lithium is the lightest metallic element, and each 1% of lithium added to aluminum reduces alloy density by about 3% and increases modulus by about 5%. Though lithium has a solubility limit of 4.2% in aluminum, the amount of lithium ranges between 1 and 3% in commercial alloys. Aluminum-lithium alloys are most often selected for aerospace components because of their low density, high strength, and high specific modulus. However, other applications now exploit their excellent fatigue resistance and cryogenic toughness.

Fielding, P.S.; Wolf, G.J. [Reynolds Metals Co., Richmond, VA (United States)

1996-10-01

346

NSTX plasma response to lithium coated divertor  

SciTech Connect

NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma-facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Z(eff) and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, < 0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kugel, H. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Bell, M. G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Allain, J. P. [Purdue University; Bell, R. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ding, S. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Plasma Physics, Hefei, China; Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Jaworski, M. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kallman, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kaye, S. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); LeBlanc, B. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Maingi, Rajesh [ORNL; Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Maqueda, R. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Mansfield, D.K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Mueller, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Nygren, R. E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Paul, S. F. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Raman, R [University of Washington, Seattle; Roquemore, A. L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia University; Schneider, H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Skinner, C. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Soukhanovskii, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Taylor, C. N. [Purdue University; Timberlake, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Wampler, W. R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Zakharov, L. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Zweben, S. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

2011-01-01

347

Ramipril-induced decrease in renal lithium excretion in the rat.  

PubMed Central

1. The interaction of ramipril, an inhibitor of angiotensin I converting enzyme, with renal lithium handling was analysed in conscious normotensive Wistar rats and compared with the known increase in renal tubular lithium reabsorption induced by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin. 2. The rats were treated for five days with ramipril (1 mg kg-1 day-1 orally), indomethacin (2.5 mg kg-1 day-1 intramuscularly) or their solvents. Lithium chloride (16.7 mg kg-1 intraperitonealy) was given as a single dose on the fifth day and renal functions were measured. 3. Ramipril induced a decrease in renal lithium clearance which was correlated with the decrease in the quantity of filtered lithium and the increase in the tubular fractional reabsorption of the metal. Ramipril also reduced the systolic blood pressure of the rats by about 15 mmHg. 4. In the absence of any effect on creatinine clearance or systolic blood pressure, indomethacin increased renal fractional lithium reabsorption and led to an increase in plasma lithium levels, as previously reported by our group. 5. In conclusions, our results indicate that ramipril decreases renal lithium excretion in Wistar rats, when given orally at a dose of 1 mg kg-1 day-1 over five days.

Barthelmebs, M.; Grima, M.; Imbs, J. L.

1995-01-01

348

Atmospheric corrosion of lithium electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric corrosion of lithium during lithium-cell assembly and the dry storage of cells prior to electrolyte fill has been found to initiate lithium corrosion pits and to form corrosion products. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate lithium pitting and the white floccullent corrosion products. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Auger spectroscopy in combination with X-ray diffraction were used to characterize lithium surfaces. Lithium surfaces with corrosion products were found to be high in carbonate content indicating the presence of lithium carbonate. Lithium electrodes dry stored in unfilled batteries were found to contain high concentration of lithium flouride a possible corrosion product from gaseous materials from the carbon monofluoride cathode. Future investigations of the corrosion phenomena will emphasize the effect of the corrosion products on the electrolyte and ultimate battery performance. The need to protect lithium electrodes from atmospheric exposure is commonly recognized to minimize corrosion induced by reaction with water, oxygen, carbon dioxide or nitrogen (1). Manufacturing facilities customarily limit the relative humidity to less than two percent. Electrodes that have been manufactured for use in lithium cells are typically stored in dry-argon containers. In spite of these precautions, lithium has been found to corrode over a long time period due to residual gases or slow diffusion of the same into storage containers. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the nature of the lithium corrosion.

Johnson, C.J.

1981-10-01

349

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

350

Lithium Isotope Selectivity of Sorbents Prepared from Lithium Manganese Oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorbents are prepared by extracting lithium ions from lithium manganese oxides with the lithium\\/manganese mole ratio (Li\\/Mn ratio) varying between 0.42 and 0.84, and their lithium isotope selectivities are investigated. All the sorbents are Li-specific and the values of the Li-to-Li isotopic separation factor (S) are between 1.0040 and 1.0092 at 25°C. The S value is slightly dependent on the

HIROTSUGU TAKEUCHI; TAKAO OI; MORIKAZU HOSOE

1999-01-01

351

Lithium Nickel Manganese Oxides for Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

for advanced lithium-ion batteries. These samples can be prepared by adjusting the molar ratio of lithium, nickel, and manganese. A common feature among a series of lithium insertion materials is that well-defined crystals are superior to ill-defined crystals in terms of rechargeable capacity, rate-capability, and cycleability. Therefore, we usually apply the high-temperature synthesis of these lithium insertion materials.

Tsutomu Ohzuku; Kingo Ariyoshi

352

Anode-limited cell reversal in lithium-sulfur oxyhalide cells  

SciTech Connect

In situ infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry were used to investigate the gas and liquid phases in lithium-sulfur oxyhalide cells driven into anode-limited reversal at 1-5 mA/sq cm. In the lithium-thionyl chloride system the species HCl, CS2, SO2, S2O, SCl2, and SO2Cl2 were identified in the gas phase and HCl, AlCl3OH(-), SO2, SO2Cl2, and SOCl(+) AlCl4(-) in the liquid phase. A species giving rise to three absorption bands at 1337, 1070, and 665/cm was observed in the liquid phase of that system during anode-limited reversal only, and in the lithium sulfuryl chloride system during normal discharge and during reversal this compound was tentatively identified as Li(SO2, SO2Cl2(+)AlCl4(-) and is analogous to the well-known complexes involving LiAlCl4, SO2, and SOCl2. The lithium-sulfuryl chloride cell behaved similarly to the thionyl chloride cell, specifically with respect to formation of SO2(-) and SOCl(+)-like species - the latter tentatively identified as SO2CL(+). Indirect evidence suggests that chlorine may accumulate in both systems at -20 C, but at 25 C its accumulation in the cells is prevented by its reaction with SO2 to form SO2Cl2. 18 references.

Attia, A.I.; Sarrazin, C.; Gabriel, K.A.

1984-11-01

353

Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum-Lithium Alloys. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Corrosion behavior of three aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys was investigated in aerated 0.5 M sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), deaerated 3.5% sodium chloride (NaCl), and aerated 3.5% NaCl. Corrosion behavior of the Aluminum Association (AA) alloys 2090-T8E41 (UNS...

W. N. Garrard

1994-01-01

354

Effect of lithium on the eeg and serotonin concentration in the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single injection of lithium chloride (200 and 450 mg\\/kg, intramuscularly, for rats and 100 and 300 mg\\/kg, intravenously, for rabbits) led to a decrease in the serotonin concentration in the brain stem of rats and in the hypothalamus, reticular formation, and amygdala of the rabbit brain. The compound had a depriming effect on electrical activity of the hippocampus, caudate

A. S. Saratikov; Z. I. Spiridonova; L. P. Alekseeva

1974-01-01

355

Long-term lithium treatment prevents neurotoxic effects of beta-bungarotoxin in primary cultured neurons.  

PubMed

Lithium is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of manic-depressive illness. The precise mechanisms underlying its clinical efficacy remain unknown. In this study, we found that long-term exposure to lithium chloride protected cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) against beta-bungarotoxin (beta-BuTX)-induced neurotoxicity. This neuroprotection was exhibited at the therapeutically relevant concentration of 1.2 mM lithium. Pretreatments for 3-5 days (long-term) were required for protection to occur; but a 3 hr treatment (short-term) was ineffective. In contrast, a longer treatment for 6-7 days or a higher concentration of 3 mM lithium led not only to loss of the neuroprotective effect but also to a neurotoxic effect. These findings suggest that lithium protection is limited to its narrow window of concentration and apparently relevant to its narrow therapeutic index in clinical application. Measurement of intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)](i) revealed that neurotoxic concentrations of beta-BuTX markedly increased [Ca(2+)](i), which could be attenuated by long-term, but not short-term, lithium treatment. Thus, the protection induced by lithium in CGNs was attributed to its inhibition of calcium overload. In addition, the Ca(2+) signaling pathway, including reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane potential reduction, along with the neurotoxic effect of beta-BuTX was blocked by long-term, but not short-term, lithium treatment. All of these results indicate that a crucial step for lithium protection is modulation of [Ca(2+)](i) homeostasis and that lithium neurotoxicity possibly, at least in part, is due to calcium overload. In conclusion, our results suggest that lithium, in addition to its use in treatment of bipolar depressive illness, may have an expanded use in intervention for neurotoxicity. PMID:12210829

Tseng, Wen-Pei; Lin-Shiau, Shoei-Yn

2002-09-01

356

Lithium-methomyl induced seizures in rats: A new model of status epilepticus?  

SciTech Connect

Behavioral, electroencephalographic (EEG) and neuropathological effects of methomyl, a carbamate insecticide reversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity, were studied in naive or lithium chloride (24 h, 3 mEq/kg, s.c.) pretreated male Wistar rats. In naive animals, methomyl with equal potency produced motor limbic seizures and fatal status epilepticus. Thus, the CD50 values (50% convulsant dose) for these seizure endpoints were almost equal to the LD50 (50% lethal dose) of methomyl (13 mg/kg). Lithium pretreated rats were much more susceptible to convulsant, but not lethal effect of methomyl. CD50 values of methomyl for motor limbic seizures and status epilepticus were reduced by lithium pretreatment to 3.7 mg/kg (a 3.5-fold decrease) and 5.2 mg/kg (a 2.5-fold decrease), respectively. In contrast, lithium pretreatment resulted in only 1.3-fold decrease of LD50 value of methomyl (9.9 mg/kg). Moreover, lithium-methomyl treated animals developed a long-lasting status epilepticus, which was not associated with imminent lethality observed in methomyl-only treated rats. Scopolamine (10 mg/kg) or diazepam (10 mg/kg) protected all lithium-methomyl treated rats from convulsions and lethality. Cortical and hippocampal EEG recordings revealed typical epileptic discharges that were consistent with behavioral seizures observed in lithium-methomyl treated rats. In addition, convulsions induced by lithium-methomyl treatment were associated with widespread neurodegeneration of limbic structures. Our observations indicate that lithium pretreatment results in separation between convulsant and lethal effects of methomyl in rats. As such, seizures induced by lithium-methomyl administration may be an alternative to lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus, which is associated with high lethality.

Kaminski, Rafal M. [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland)]. E-mail: kaminskr@mail.nih.gov; Blaszczak, Piotr [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Dekundy, Andrzej [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Parada-Turska, Jolanta [Department of Rheumatology and Connective Tissue Diseases, Medical University, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-090 Lublin (Poland); Calderazzo, Lineu [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Laboratory of Experimental Neurology, Escola Paulista de Medicina, R. Botucatu 862, BR-04023 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Cavalheiro, Esper A. [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Laboratory of Experimental Neurology, Escola Paulista de Medicina, R. Botucatu 862, BR-04023 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Turski, Waldemar A. [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-090 Lublin (Poland)

2007-03-15

357

The effects of saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin on nerve conduction in the presence of lithium ions and of magnesium ions  

PubMed Central

1. It has been shown that nerve fibres from rat cauda equina will conduct action potentials after immersion in saline in which lithium chloride is substituted for sodium chloride. 2. Both saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin inhibit lithium-generated action potentials. The concentration of toxin needed to inhibit the lithium-generated action potentials is similar to that needed to inhibit sodium-generated action potentials. 3. If magnesium chloride is added to the saline to give a concentration of 10-15 mM there is usually a slight fall in amplitude of the compound action potential. Saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin now inhibit the action potential to a greater degree than in the absence of magnesium ions.

Evans, M. H.

1969-01-01

358

Rapid diffusion of lithium into bulk graphite in lithium conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the known lithium conditioning effects is the reduction of carbon impurities released from the graphite walls of a tokamak. However, little is known about the role of lithium in graphite–plasma interactions. Graphite intercalates lithium atoms between the hexagonal layer planes. The Li diffusion constant in the direction perpendicular to the basal planes of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG)

N. Itou; H. Toyoda; K. Morita; H. Sugai

2001-01-01

359

Lithium cell having depletion gauge  

SciTech Connect

A lithium cell which includes an outer conductive housing, a cathode having one major surface in contact with the conductive housing, an insulative separator adjacent to the other major surface of the cathode, and a lithium anode having a major surface adjacent to the insulative separator. The lithium anode is comprised of two lithium plates, each having a major surface in contact with the other. One of these major surfaces is formed with a stepped portion to thereby form a gap between the lithium plates. A conductive sensing element is positioned within the gap and is in electrical contact with one of the lithium plates and is electrically isolated from the other lithium plates. With this arrangement an electrical potential which exists between the conductive sensor and the outer conductive housing falls to zero volts when the lithium plate in contact with the conductive sensor has become consumed to thereby provide an indication of predetermined level of discharge of the cell.

De Haan, A.; Tataria, H.

1983-06-14

360

Low Temperature Synthesis of Lithium Manganese Oxide Using LiCl-Li2CO3 and Manganese Acetate Eutectic Mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine crystalline LiMn2O4 powders have been prepared by Molten-Salt Synthesis (MSS) at 500°C, using an eutectic mixture of lithium chloride, lithium carbonate and manganese acetate salts. Thermo Gravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis (TGA\\/DTA) measurements are performed to investigate the thermal decomposition behavior of the precursor salts. The single-phase cubic structure of LiMn2O4 is confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The

M. Helan; L. John Berchmans

2011-01-01

361

Lithium As Plasma Facing Component for Magnetic Fusion Research  

SciTech Connect

The use of lithium in magnetic fusion confinement experiments started in the 1990's in order to improve tokamak plasma performance as a low-recycling plasma-facing component (PFC). Lithium is the lightest alkali metal and it is highly chemically reactive with relevant ion species in fusion plasmas including hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, carbon, and oxygen. Because of the reactive properties, lithium can provide strong pumping for those ions. It was indeed a spectacular success in TFTR where a very small amount (~ 0.02 gram) of lithium coating of the PFCs resulted in the fusion power output to improve by nearly a factor of two. The plasma confinement also improved by a factor of two. This success was attributed to the reduced recycling of cold gas surrounding the fusion plasma due to highly reactive lithium on the wall. The plasma confinement and performance improvements have since been confirmed in a large number of fusion devices with various magnetic configurations including CDX-U/LTX (US), CPD (Japan), HT-7 (China), EAST (China), FTU (Italy), NSTX (US), T-10, T-11M (Russia), TJ-II (Spain), and RFX (Italy). Additionally, lithium was shown to broaden the plasma pressure profile in NSTX, which is advantageous in achieving high performance H-mode operation for tokamak reactors. It is also noted that even with significant applications (up to 1,000 grams in NSTX) of lithium on PFCs, very little contamination (< 0.1%) of lithium fraction in main fusion plasma core was observed even during high confinement modes. The lithium therefore appears to be a highly desirable material to be used as a plasma PFC material from the magnetic fusion plasma performance and operational point of view. An exciting development in recent years is the growing realization of lithium as a potential solution to solve the exceptionally challenging need to handle the fusion reactor divertor heat flux, which could reach 60 MW/m2 . By placing the liquid lithium (LL) surface in the path of the main divertor heat flux (divertor strike point), the lithium is evaporated from the surface. The evaporated lithium is quickly ionized by the plasma and the ionized lithium ions can provide a strongly radiative layer of plasma ("radiative mantle"), thus could significantly reduce the heat flux to the divertor strike point surfaces, thus protecting the divertor surface. The protective effects of LL have been observed in many experiments and test stands. As a possible reactor divertor candidate, a closed LL divertor system is described. Finally, it is noted that the lithium applications as a PFC can be quite flexible and broad. The lithium application should be quite compatible with various divertor configurations, and it can be also applied to protecting the presently envisioned tungsten based solid PFC surfaces such as the ones for ITER. Lithium based PFCs therefore have the exciting prospect of providing a cost effective flexible means to improve the fusion reactor performance, while providing a practical solution to the highly challenging divertor heat handling issue confronting the steadystate magnetic fusion reactors.

Masayuki Ono

2012-09-10

362

Anodic dissolution of uranium mononitride in lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic melt  

SciTech Connect

Uranium-plutonium nitride is a candidate fuel for fast reactors, but its major drawback is {sup 14}C formation from natural nitrogen. One would probably have to use highly {sup 15}N-enriched nitrogen. A pyrochemical process with molten-salt electrorefining has been proposed as a means to increase the nuclear proliferation resistance of the fuel cycle. Molten-salt electrorefining could also be applied to nitride fuels to make possible the recycling of {sup 15}N. The anodic dissolution behavior of UN in LiCl-KCl melt was studied to provide the basis for a feasibility study of electrorefining of irradiated nitride fuels.

Kobayashi, Fumiaki; Ogawa, Toru; Akabori, Mitsuo; Kato, Yoshio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

1995-08-01

363

Anodic dissolution of uranium mononitride in lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic melt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium-plutonium nitride is a candidate fuel for fast reactors, but its major drawback is Ā¹ā“C formation from natural nitrogen. One would probably have to use highly Ā¹āµN-enriched nitrogen. A pyrochemical process with molten-salt electrorefining has been proposed as a means to increase the nuclear proliferation resistance of the fuel cycle. Molten-salt electrorefining could also be applied to nitride fuels to

Fumiaki Kobayashi; Toru Ogawa; Mitsuo Akabori; Yoshio Kato

1995-01-01

364

Aluminum-Lithium Alloy Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A recent Air Force program was focused on developing an isotropic aluminum-lithium alloy, having greater than two weight percent lithium. The addition of two weight percent lithium can reduce the density of aluminum by six percent and increase the modulus...

E. A. Starke A. A. Csontos

1997-01-01

365

Lithium Batteries for Memory Backup.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium batteries in general refer to those batteries which use the metal lithium for their anodes. Various types of lithium batteries have been developed. The typical types produced in quatity for consumer use are the BR and CR systems which use carbon-m...

Y. Okuzaki M. Nakai S. Oguro M. Esa K. Numata

1986-01-01

366

Sixty Years of Lithium Responders  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been 60 years since Cade first described patients who responded to antimanic lithium treatment. Two decades later, responders to lithium stabilization emerged in larger numbers. The responses of many severely ill bipolar patients to lithium were striking and called for an explanation. Remarkable reactions to a simple ion generated hope for an uncomplicated laboratory test of response and

Paul Grof

2010-01-01

367

Exothermic reactions among components of lithium-sulfur dioxide and lithium-thionyl chloride cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential scanning calorimetry measurements were made on various components of Li-SOCl2 cells to identify those combinations that react exothermically and might cause batteries to explode. The passivation of Li by SO2 in acetonitrile (AN) was characterized over a wide range of SO2 concentration (0.1-14M). In the absence of SO2, trace additions of water greatly lower the exothermicity of the Li-AN

S. Dallek; S. D. James; W. P. Kilroy

1981-01-01

368

Lithium-mediated long-term neuroprotection in neonatal rat hypoxia-ischemia is associated with antiinflammatory effects and enhanced proliferation and survival of neural stem\\/progenitor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of lithium treatment on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, inflammation, and neural stem\\/progenitor cell (NSPC) proliferation and survival. Nine-day-old male rats were subjected to unilateral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and 2 mmol\\/kg lithium chloride was injected intraperitoneally immediately after the insult. Additional lithium injections, 1 mmol\\/kg, were administered at 24-hour intervals for

Hongfu Li; Qian Li; Xiaonan Du; Yanyan Sun; Xiaoyang Wang; Guido Kroemer; Klas Blomgren; Changlian Zhu; C Zhu

2011-01-01

369

Electrochemical Reduction of Chromate in the Presence of Nickel Chloride in Molten Lithium Chloride-Potassium Chloride Eutectic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chronopotentiometry of chromate in the presence of NiCl2 in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic reveals a diffusion controlled, three electron reduction step. In the presence of excess NiCl2, chromate is reduced at -0.35V vs. Pt(II)/Pt reference electrode and the el...

B. Popov H. A. Laitinen

1969-01-01

370

Overcharge Protection in Ambient Temperature Lithium and Lithium-Ion Cells: A Literature Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes a survey of the literature on in situ electrochemical methods to provide overcharge protection in ambient temperature lithium and lithium-ion cells. Among the various rechargeable lithium battery systems, only the lithium cells usin...

W. K. Behl

1998-01-01

371

Antithyroid effects of lithium  

PubMed Central

Lithium has been reported to be goitrogenic when used for the treatment of manic-depressive psychosis. To investigate the effects of lithium on iodine metabolism, male Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a low iodine (LID) or normal iodine diet (NID) containing enough Li2CO3 to give serum lithium levels of 0.23-0.86 mEq/liter (human therapeutic range is 0.6-1.6 mEq/liter). The following effects were noted with lithium treatment: (a) thyroid weight increased concomitant with a slowing of thyroidal iodine release; (b) the ability to concentrate iodide was increased only after goiters were established; (c) on the LID, 131I uptake was elevated throughout all phases of treatment, even when the release rate was normal; (d) iodine organification was unaffected but the proportion of 131I present as iodothyronines was decreased; (e) the thyroidal 127I content was increased; (f) despite these changes, the serum PBI remained normal as did the thyroxine turnover rate; and (g) thyrotropin (TSH) levels in serum were the same as controls except for a slight elevation early in the course of treatment; TSH levels did not correlate with goitrogenesis. When LiCl was injected in large doses into intact rats (giving serum lithium levels of 3.08-3.89 mEq/liter), the iodide concentrating mechanism, 131I uptake, and 131I release rates were depressed. Similar experiments in hypophysectomized rats receiving TSH demonstrated these to be local antithyroid effects not mediated through the pituitary. The discrepancy between acute and chronic responses to lithium, and the dissociation between the inhibition of iodine release and stimulatory effects is discussed.

Berens, S. C.; Bernstein, R. S.; Robbins, J.; Wolff, J.

1970-01-01

372

Antithyroid effects of lithium.  

PubMed

Lithium has been reported to be goitrogenic when used for the treatment of manic-depressive psychosis. To investigate the effects of lithium on iodine metabolism, male Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a low iodine (LID) or normal iodine diet (NID) containing enough Li(2)CO(3) to give serum lithium levels of 0.23-0.86 mEq/liter (human therapeutic range is 0.6-1.6 mEq/liter). The following effects were noted with lithium treatment: (a) thyroid weight increased concomitant with a slowing of thyroidal iodine release; (b) the ability to concentrate iodide was increased only after goiters were established; (c) on the LID, (131)I uptake was elevated throughout all phases of treatment, even when the release rate was normal; (d) iodine organification was unaffected but the proportion of (131)I present as iodothyronines was decreased; (e) the thyroidal (127)I content was increased; (f) despite these changes, the serum PBI remained normal as did the thyroxine turnover rate; and (g) thyrotropin (TSH) levels in serum were the same as controls except for a slight elevation early in the course of treatment; TSH levels did not correlate with goitrogenesis. When LiCl was injected in large doses into intact rats (giving serum lithium levels of 3.08-3.89 mEq/liter), the iodide concentrating mechanism, (131)I uptake, and (131)I release rates were depressed. Similar experiments in hypophysectomized rats receiving TSH demonstrated these to be local antithyroid effects not mediated through the pituitary. The discrepancy between acute and chronic responses to lithium, and the dissociation between the inhibition of iodine release and stimulatory effects is discussed. PMID:4194189

Berens, S C; Bernstein, R S; Robbins, J; Wolff, J

1970-07-01

373

Lithium induces clearance of protease resistant prion protein in prion-infected cells by induction of autophagy.  

PubMed

Lithium is used for several decades to treat manic-depressive illness (bipolar affective disorder). Recently, it was found that lithium induces autophagy, thereby promoting the clearance of mutant huntingtin and alpha-synucleins in experimental systems. We show here for the first time that lithium significantly reduces the amount of pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in prion-infected neuronal and non-neuronal cultured cells by inducing autophagy. Treatment of prion-infected cells with 3-methyladenine, a potent inhibitor of autophagy, counteracted the anti-prion effect of lithium, demonstrating that induction of autophagy mediates degradation of PrP(Sc). Co-treatment with lithium and rapamycin, a drug widely used to induce autophagy, had an additive effect on PrP(Sc) clearance compared to treatment with either drug alone. In addition, we provide evidence that the ability to reduce PrP(Sc) and to induce autophagy is common for diverse lithium compounds, not only for the drug lithium chloride, usually administered in clinical therapy. Furthermore, we show here that besides reduction of PrP(Sc)-aggregates, lithium-induced autophagy also slightly reduces the levels of cellular prion protein. Limiting the substrate available for conversion of cellular prion protein into PrP(Sc) may provide an additional mechanism for reduction of PrP(Sc) by lithium-induced autophagy. PMID:19183256

Heiseke, Andreas; Aguib, Yasmine; Riemer, Constanze; Baier, Michael; Schätzl, Hermann M

2009-02-20

374

Large lithium loop experience  

SciTech Connect

An engineering design and operating experience of a large, isothermal, lithium-coolant test loop are presented. This liquid metal coolant loop is called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) and has operated safely and reliably for over 6500 hours through September 1981. The loop is used for full-scale testing of components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Main system parameters include coolant temperatures to 430/sup 0/C and flow to 0.038 m/sup 3//s (600 gal/min). Performance of the main pump, vacuum system, and control system is discussed. Unique test capabilities of the ELS are also discussed.

Kolowith, R.; Owen, T.J.; Berg, J.D.; Atwood, J.M.

1981-10-01

375

In situ optical microscopy investigations of lithium and sodium film formation in buffered room temperature molten salts  

SciTech Connect

Previous work performed in both sodium and lithium buffered chloroaluminate molten salts have shown that the addition of small amounts of SOCl{sub 2} promotes the reversible stripping behavior of lithium and sodium metal with cycling efficiencies between 80 and 90%. The authors have performed a series of optical studies in conjunction with electrochemical experiments at varying SOCl{sub 2} concentrations in both lithium and sodium chloride buffered melts. On investigation, the lithium deposit is dendritic in nature and does not form a uniform film on the tungsten electrode. After discharging at moderate current densities, disconnected lithium metal is observed at the electrode surface. In contrast, the sodium deposits as a uniform, flat film on the tungsten electrode with little or no dendritic growth. The sodium electrodeposits undergo complete stripping from the tungsten electrode without dendritic or disconnected sodium metal left on the electrode surface.

Fuller, J.; Carlin, R.T. [Covalent Associates, Incorporated, Woburn, MA (United States); Osteryoung, R.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-07-01

376

Recent Liquid Lithium Limiter Experiments in CDX-U  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments in the Current Drive eXperiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) provide a first-ever test of large area liquid lithium surfaces as a tokamak first wall, to gain engineering experience with a liquid metal first wall, and to investigate whether very low recycling plasma regimes can be accessed with lithium walls. The CDX-U is a compact (R=34 cm, a=22 cm, B{sub toroidal} = 2 kG, I{sub P} =100 kA, T{sub e}(0) {approx} 100 eV, n{sub e}(0) {approx} 5 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) spherical torus at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. A toroidal liquid lithium pool limiter with an area of 2000 cm{sup 2} (half the total plasma limiting surface) has been installed in CDX-U. Tokamak discharges which used the liquid lithium pool limiter required a fourfold lower loop voltage to sustain the plasma current, and a factor of 5-8 increase in gas fueling to achieve a comparable density, indicating that recycling is strongly reduced. Modeling of the discharges demonstrated that the lithium limited discharges are consistent with Z{sub effective} < 1.2 (compared to 2.4 for the pre-lithium discharges), a broadened current channel, and a 25% increase in the core electron temperature. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that edge oxygen and carbon radiation are strongly reduced.

R. Majeski; S. Jardin; R. Kaita; T. Gray; P. Marfuta; J. Spaleta; J. Timberlake; L. Zakharov; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Seraydarian; V. Soukhanovskii; R. Maingi; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; D. Rodgers; S. Angelini

2005-05-03

377

Liquid Lithium Limiter Experiments in CDX-U  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade provide a first-ever test of large area liquid lithium surfaces as a tokamak first wall, to gain engineering experience with a liquid metal first wall, and to investigate whether very low recycling plasma regimes can be accessed with lithium walls. The CDX-U is a compact (R = 34 cm, a = 22 cm, B{sub toroidal} = 2 kG, I{sub P} = 100 kA, T{sub e}(0) = 100 eV, n{sub e}(0) {approx} 5 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) spherical torus at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. A toroidal liquid lithium tray limiter with an area of 2000 cm{sup 2} (half the total plasma limiting surface) has been installed in CDX-U. Tokamak discharges which used the liquid lithium limiter required a fourfold lower loop voltage to sustain the plasma current, and a factor of 5-8 increase in gas fueling to achieve a comparable density, indicating that recycling is strongly reduced. Modeling of the discharges demonstrated that the lithium-limited discharges are consistent with Z{sub effective} < 1.2 (compared to 2.4 for the pre-lithium discharges), a broadened current channel, and a 25% increase in the core electron temperature. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that edge oxygen and carbon radiation are strongly reduced.

R. Majeski; S. Jardin; R. Kaita; T. Gray; P. Marfuta; J. Spaleta; J. Timberlake; L. Zakharov; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Seraydarian; V. Soukhanovskii; R. Maingi; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; D. Rodgers

2004-10-28

378

Nonisothermal matter transport in sodium chloride and potassium chloride aqueous solutions. 1. Homogeneous system (thermal diffusion)  

SciTech Connect

Thermal diffusion of sodium chloride and potassium chloride aqueous solutions exhibits anomalous behavior in solute-specific concentration and temperature ranges. An accurate analysis is presented showing that these results are not instrumental artifacts. A physical interpretation of the experimental results is advanced, within the frame of reference of the radiation-pressure theory of thermal diffusion. Current ideas on the structure of electrolytic solutions can be fruitfully used, within the proposed approach, to describe some important thermodynamic parameters in terms of molecular organization in the liquid phase. 7 figures, 2 tables.

Gaeta, F.S. (International Inst. of Genetics and Biophysics of CNR, Naples, Italy); Perna, G.; Scala, G.; Bellucci, F.

1982-07-22

379

Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride  

SciTech Connect

The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH{sub 4}, forming Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.9}Cl{sub 0.1}, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH{sub 4} is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.43}Cl{sub 0.57}. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH{sub 4} into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements. - Graphical Abstract: Dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. Dissolution is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples. Sample compositions and dissolution mechanism are studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction data. Highlights: > Studies of dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other. > Solid state diffusion facilitated by mechanical and thermal treatments. > Dissolution is more efficiently induced by heating than by mechanical treatment. > Mechanism for dissolution studied by Rietveld refinement of in situ SR-PXD data.

Ravnsbaek, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H. [Center for Materials Crystallography (CMC), Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Arhus C (Denmark); Jensen, Torben R., E-mail: trj@chem.au.dk [Center for Materials Crystallography (CMC), Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Arhus C (Denmark)

2011-07-15

380

Pyroelectric field assisted ion migration induced by ultraviolet laser irradiation and its impact on ferroelectric domain inversion in lithium niobate crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of UV laser irradiation on the distribution of lithium ions in ferroelectric lithium niobate single crystals has been numerically modelled. Strongly absorbed UV radiation at wavelengths of 244-305 nm produces steep temperature gradients which cause lithium ions to migrate and result in a local variation of the lithium concentration. In addition to the diffusion, here the pyroelectric effect is also taken into account which predicts a complex distribution of lithium concentration along the c-axis of the crystal: two separated lithium deficient regions on the surface and in depth. The modelling on the local lithium concentration and the subsequent variation of the coercive field are used to explain experimental results on the domain inversion of such UV treated lithium niobate crystals.

Ying, C. Y. J.; Daniell, G. J.; Steigerwald, H.; Soergel, E.; Mailis, S.

2013-08-01

381

Lithium-argon discharges in a multicusp-ECR microwave resonant cavity  

SciTech Connect

A newly designed multicusp-ECR microwave resonant cavity is being used as a lithium plasma source. Lithium plasma sources have a variety of applications in nuclear fusion research. As a source of ions or neutrals for beams, they are utilized in diagnostics and fueling of magnetic confinement fusion. Argon and lithium-argon discharges have been created in a multicusp-ECR microwave resonant cavity. A double Langmuir probe has been used to determine discharge characteristics, indicating ion densities of 10{sup 10}--10{sup 11} cm{sup {minus}3} and electron temperatures of about 3 eV with operating pressures of 4--20 mtorr and input powers of 100--250 W. Lithium is introduced to the system in the form of lithium chloride or lithium carbonate which is then heated by a background argon discharge allowing dissociation of lithium. The dissociation is evidenced by the observation of strong Li-I lines in the discharge using optical emission spectroscopy. LiCl was found to give a strong Li-I optical signal for about 15 min run time whereas Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} gave lower intensity lines, but for about 60 min run time.

Brooks, C.B.; Brake, M.L. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1995-12-01

382

Lithium enhances remyelination of peripheral nerves  

PubMed Central

Glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) inhibitors, especially the mood stabilizer lithium chloride, are also used as neuroprotective or anti-inflammatory agents. We studied the influence of LiCl on the remyelination of peripheral nerves. We showed that the treatment of adult mice with LiCl after facial nerve crush injury stimulated the expression of myelin genes, restored the myelin structure, and accelerated the recovery of whisker movements. LiCl treatment also promoted remyelination of the sciatic nerve after crush. We also demonstrated that peripheral myelin gene MPZ and PMP22 promoter activities, transcripts, and protein levels are stimulated by GSK3? inhibitors (LiCl and SB216763) in Schwann cells as well as in sciatic and facial nerves. LiCl exerts its action in Schwann cells by increasing the amount of ?-catenin and provoking its nuclear localization. We showed by ChIP experiments that LiCl treatment drives ?-catenin to bind to T-cell factor/lymphoid-enhancer factor response elements identified in myelin genes. Taken together, our findings open perspectives in the treatment of nerve demyelination by administering GSK3? inhibitors such as lithium.

Makoukji, Joelle; Belle, Martin; Meffre, Delphine; Stassart, Ruth; Grenier, Julien; Shackleford, Ghjuvan'Ghjacumu; Fledrich, Robert; Fonte, Cosima; Branchu, Julien; Goulard, Marie; de Waele, Catherine; Charbonnier, Frederic; Sereda, Michael W.; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Schumacher, Michael; Bernard, Sophie; Massaad, Charbel

2012-01-01

383

Electrochemical noise in lithium primary cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical noise is interpreted as the occurrence of microscopic fluctuations of the potential of an electrochemical cell. A study was conducted on a number of commercial lithium cells to evaluate the practicality of electrochemical noise measurement as a diagnostic tool for performance and/or safety. The survey was limited to the following lithium based systems: sulfur dioxide, thionyl chloride, and manganese dioxide. The cells were subjected to a program of storage, environmental, and discharge conditions and then examined to determine whether there was any detectable effect on the electrochemical noise characteristics. While the study was of limited scope, it was nevertheless established that all cells exhibited some measurable electrochemical noise under certain conditions. The characteristics of the noise and its magnitude were influenced by many factors. The occurrence of observable noise above the instrumental background was generally associated with cells which had been discharged to between 80 and 100 percent of their nominal capacity. Most of the noise of interest was found at frequencies below 100 Hz.

Donaldson, George J.; Nip, Wing S.; Patraboy, Timothy J.; Anderson, James S.; Farrington, Michael D.

384

Lithium Implantation into Fullerite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The depth profiles of lithium, implanted into fullerene at different fluences and temperatures are reported. They deviate considerably from the simple ballistic predictions. They can be understood in terms of depth dependent Li mobility immediately after the ion implantation. This mobility depends considerably on the temperature and on the degree of fullerene damage. It appears that the fullerene destruction products

D. Fink; S. Ghosh; R. Klett; L. Palmetshofer; J. Vacik; V. Hnatowicz; J. Cervena; J. Kaschny; F. C. Zawislak; P. Sanchez; M. Behar

1998-01-01

385

Secondary Lithium Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has been discovered that some fusible alloys composed of Bi, Pb, Sn and Cd exhibit good characteristics as the material of the negative electrode of secondary lithium batteries. The alloy electrode allows charging and discharging by such reaction to ab...

Y. Toyoguchi J. Yamaura T. Matsui N. Koshiba T. Shigematsu

1986-01-01

386

Lithium disulfide battery  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a negative electrode-limited secondary electrochemical cell having dense FeS/sub 2/ positive electrode operating exclusively on the upper plateau, a Li alloy negative electrode and a suitable lithium-containing electrolyte. The electrolyte preferably is 25 mole % LiCl, 38 mole % LiBr and 37 mole % KBr. The cell may be operated isothermally.

Kaun, T.D.

1986-05-29

387

RED Facts: Lithium Hypochlorite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium hypochlorite is an algicide, disinfectant, fungicide and food contact surface sanitizer. Its primary pesticidal use is to control algae, bacteria and mildew in swimming pool water systems, hot tubs and spas; approximately 2,000,000 pounds of the a...

1993-01-01

388

Monitoring Vinyl Chloride Around Polyvinyl Chloride Fabrication Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A program to measure vinyl chloride emissions from polyvinyl chloride fabrication plants was carried out. Four charcoal collectors were stationed around each of five PVC fabrication plants. 24-hour samples were collected daily for 14 days around each plan...

1975-01-01

389

Preparation of Anhydrous Magnesium Chloride from Magnesium Chloride Hexahydrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method was proposed for the preparation of high-purity anhydrous magnesium chloride by using magnesium chloride hexahydrate and ammonium chloride as raw materials, and alumina as covering agent. X-ray diffraction was employed to investigate the process. The mechanism involved in the process was proposed. The factors affecting the purity of anhydrous magnesium chloride were investigated. Dehydrated ammonium carnallite was formed in the process to facilitate the dehydration process. Alumina as covering agent can guarantee that the formation of high-purity anhydrous magnesium chloride was obtained. The content of magnesia in anhydrous magnesium chloride was 0.02 pct under the optimum conditions: molar ratio of ammonium chloride to dehydrated magnesium chloride was 2:1, thickness of alumina 1.3 cm, reaction temperature 723 K (450 °C), reaction time 1 hour, and the number of crystallized water 0.6 to 2.2.

Zhang, Zhimin; Lu, Xuchen; Pan, Feng; Wang, Yun; Yang, Suping

2013-04-01

390

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry using lithium formate in radiotherapy: comparison with thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry using lithium fluoride rods.  

PubMed

Solid-state radiation dosimetry by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and thermoluminescence (TL) was utilized for the determination of absorbed doses in the range of 0.5-2.5 Gy. The dosimeter materials used were lithium formate and lithium fluoride (TLD-100 rods) for EPR dosimetry and TL dosimetry, respectively. 60Co gamma-rays and 4, 6, 10 and 15 MV x-rays were employed. The main objectives were to compare the variation in dosimeter reading of the respective dosimetry systems and to determine the photon energy dependence of the two dosimeter materials. The EPR dosimeter sensitivity was constant over the dose range in question, while the TL sensitivity increased by more than 5% from 0.5 to 2.5 Gy, thus displaying a supralinear dose response. The average relative standard deviation in the dosimeter reading per dose was 3.0% and 1.2% for the EPR and TL procedures, respectively. For EPR dosimeters, the relative standard deviation declined significantly from 4.3% to 1.1% over the dose range in question. The dose-to-water energy response for the megavoltage x-ray beams relative to 60Co gamma-rays was in the range of 0.990-0.979 and 0.984-0.962 for lithium formate and lithium fluoride, respectively. The results show that EPR dosimetry with lithium formate provides dose estimates with a precision comparable to that of TL dosimetry (using lithium fluoride) for doses above 2 Gy, and that lithium formate is slightly less dependent on megavoltage photon beam energy than lithium fluoride. PMID:15566169

Vestad, Tor Arne; Malinen, Eirik; Olsen, Dag Rune; Hole, Eli Olaug; Sagstuen, Einar

2004-10-21

391

Preparation of anhydrous magnesium chloride from ammonium magnesium chloride hexahydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium chloride hydrate can be dehydrated to some extent by heating. However, it is not possible to fully dehydrate magnesium chloride by heating in air because of hydrolytic decomposition. Accordingly, the dehydration should be carried out in hydrogen chloride gas atmosphere. However, this process causes many problems, including HCl gas storage and corrosive nature, consuming a large amount of HCl

Hyoung-Choon Eom; Ho-Sung Yoon

2010-01-01

392

PHOTOOXIDATION OF ALLYL CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The photooxidation of allyl chloride was studied by irradiation either in 100-L Teflon bags or in a 22.7-cu m Teflon smog chamber in the presence of added NOx. In the absence of added hydrocarbons, the reaction involves a Cl atom chain, which leads to a highly reactive system. A ...

393

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: POLYVINYL CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes data on air emissions from the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry. PVC is manufactured by 20 companies at 35 plants. Each plant uses one or more of four possible polymerization processes: (1) suspension polymerization, (2) emulsion polymerization, (3) bulk p...

394

Interaction of nitrogen with lithium in lithium ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of N2 with lithium at electrode in lithium ion batteries was reported in this paper. At room temperature, N2 can react with lithium, mainly at anode, to form Li3N in an electrochemical system very easily during charge–discharge cycles. Li3N has been characterized by XPS. Experimental results also revealed that the higher of the current density and higher of

Hong Wang; Wei-De Zhang; Zhang-Qiong Deng; Ming-Cai Chen

2009-01-01

395

Thin-film lithium and lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research over the last decade at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has led to the development of solid-state thin-film lithium and lithium-ion batteries. The batteries, which are less than 15 ?m thick, have important applications in a variety of consumer and medical products, and they are useful research tools in characterizing the properties of lithium intercalation compounds in thin-film form. The

J. B. Bates; N. J. Dudney; B. Neudecker; A. Ueda; C. D. Evans

2000-01-01

396

Renal Lysosomal Enzyme Changes with Lithium Use.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Renal lysosomal enzyme changes with lithium use was studied. Comparisons of N-acetyl-B-glucosomidase (NAG) excretion were made in patients starting lithium, patients taking lithium for more than one year, controls, and chronic renal disordered patients. N...

M. J. Garvey

1981-01-01

397

Dendrite Preventing Separator for Secondary Lithium Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dendrites are prevented from shorting a secondary lithium battery by use of a first porous separator, such as porous polypropylene, adjacent to the lithium anode that is unreactive with lithium and a second porous fluoropolymer separator between the catho...

D. H. Shen S. Surampudi C. Huang G. Halpert

1993-01-01

398

77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final...prohibit the outbound international mailing of lithium batteries and devices containing lithium batteries. This prohibition also extends to...

2012-05-14

399

Lithium Versus Chlorpromazine in Acute Psychosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The response of patients with acute psychotic episodes to lithium predicted by clinical characteristics was studied. No relationship was found in the diagnosis of schizophrenic symptoms and a poor response to lithium was found. Lithium was concluded to be...

W. Braden

1981-01-01

400

Purification of lithium salts by CSA continuous countercurrent ion exchange. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A Continuous Countercurrent Ion Exchange (CCIX) process was developed for extraction of low levels of sodium, potassium, iron, and nickel from strong solutions of lithium chloride and lithium hydroxide. This study was done on a two-inch diameter CSA, Inc. CCIX pilot unit. A standard 8% cross-linked cation exchange resin was used. The feed was either 2{und M} LiCl or 2{und M} LiOH. The trace levels of contaminants had a slightly higher affinity for the resin than lithium and extracted 90% or better. Residual lithium on the resin was scrubbed of with KOH to render a lithium loss of less than 1% in the waste. Contaminants were stripped from the resin with 3{und M} HCl. Zinc was one metal that was not extracted because it formed an anionic chloride complex. However zinc and certain other metals were extracted with high efficiency using strong-base type resin. Other resins are available for efficient extraction of many other metal contaminants, but the alkali metals, Na and K, were dependent on the CCIX common cation exchange system.

Higgins, I.R. [CSA, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1986-12-01

401

Lithium titanate aerogel for advanced lithium-ion batteries.  

PubMed

This work details the synthesis and characterization of a novel lithium titanate aerogel as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. Excessive loss of lithium during supercritical drying can be overcome by increasing the lithium precursor concentration during synthesis. Chronopotentiometry shows the aerogel to have a capacity about 80 % of theoretical at a symmetric C/3 rate, which is comparable to a commercial product. Cyclic voltammetry reveals a batt-cap behavior for the high-surface area aerogel, implying the potential for improved rate capability if electrical conductivity can be maintained. PMID:22496498

Maloney, Ryan P; Kim, Hyun Joong; Sakamoto, Jeffrey S

2012-04-19

402

Lithium ionization by a strong laser field.  

PubMed

We study ab initio computations of the interaction of lithium with a strong laser field. Numerical solutions of the time-dependent fully correlated three-particle Schrodinger equation restricted to the one-dimensional soft-core approximation are presented. Our results show a clear transition from nonsequential to sequential double ionization for increasing intensities. Nonsequential double ionization is found to be sensitive to the spin configuration of the ionized pair. This asymmetry, also found in experiments of photoionization of Li with synchrotron radiation, shows evidence of the influence of the exclusion principle on the underlying rescattering mechanism. PMID:15783726

Ruiz, Camilo; Plaja, Luis; Roso, Luis

2005-02-17

403

Chloride removal from plutonium alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

SRP is evaluating a program to recover plutonium from a metallic alloy that will contain chloride salt impurities. Removal of chloride to sufficiently low levels to prevent damaging corrosion to canyon equipment is feasible as a head-end step following dissolution. Silver nitrate and mercurous nitrate were each successfully used in laboratory tests to remove chloride from simulated alloy dissolver solution

1983-01-01

404

Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

405

Tokamaks with lithium covered walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic aspects of tokamaks with the lithium covered walls are presented. They include a) magnetic propulsion of intense lithium streams along the plasma facing surface of the first wall, which gives a new, consistent with reactor environment, approach for the power extraction from the tokamak reactors; b) stabilization of resistive wall modes by the lithium streams; c) physics of lithium jets, suitable for injecting and ejecting lithium in presence of the strong tokamak magnetic field; d) importance of the low-recycling regime for tokamaks in suppressing turbulence and MHD instabilities and its association with lithium walls; e) thin wall approach with minimum activated materials for the first wall/blanket design of tokamak-reactors.

Zakharov, Leonid E.

2000-10-01

406

Experimental lithium system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m/sup 3/ lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion.

Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

1985-04-01

407

The history of lithium therapy.  

PubMed

The use of lithium in psychiatry goes back to the mid-19th century. Early work, however, was soon forgotten, and John Cade is credited with reintroducing lithium to psychiatry for mania in 1949. Mogens Schou undertook a randomly controlled trial for mania in 1954, and in the course of that study became curious about lithium as a prophylactic for depressive illness. In 1970, the United States became the 50th country to admit lithium to the marketplace. Meanwhile, interest in lithium for the prophylaxis of depression was growing apace and today the agent is widely prescribed for that indication, even though it has not been accepted by the Food and Drug Administration. Lithium was almost derailed by a small group of opponents from the Maudsley Hospital and its status today is threatened by the "mood stabilizers." PMID:19538681

Shorter, Edward

2009-06-01

408

The history of lithium therapy  

PubMed Central

The use of lithium in psychiatry goes back to the mid-19th century. Early work, however, was soon forgotten, and John Cade is credited with reintroducing lithium to psychiatry for mania in 1949. Mogens Schou undertook a randomly controlled trial for mania in 1954, and in the course of that study became curious about lithium as a prophylactic for depressive illness. In 1970, the United States became the 50th country to admit lithium to the marketplace. Meanwhile, interest in lithium for the prophylaxis of depression was growing apace and today the agent is widely prescribed for that indication, even though it has not been accepted by the Food and Drug Administration. Lithium was almost derailed by a small group of opponents from the Maudsley Hospital and its status today is threatened by the “mood stabilizers.”

Shorter, Edward

2013-01-01

409

Lithium Batteries for Medical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter on lithium batteries for medical applications is not meant to be an exhaustive review, but rather a broad overview\\u000a of some of the different types of lithium batteries that power implantable medical devices. The battery systems described\\u000a in this chapter fall into two major categories, primary or single use cells containing lithium metal anodes, and secondary\\u000a or rechargeable

E. S. Takeuchi; R. A. Leising; D. M. Spillman; R. Rubino; H. Gan; K. J. Takeuchi; A. C. Marschilok

410

Electrodeposition and stripping of lithium and sodium on inert electrodes in room temperature chloroaluminate molten salts  

SciTech Connect

The demonstration of a stable, reversible alkali metal anode is an important step in the development of practical secondary batteries using room temperature chloroaluminate molten salts as electrolytes. Such melts are made by mixing 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMICI) with aluminum chloride, and can be Lewis buffered by adding LiCl or NaCl. It has been shown previously that protons added to a sodium chloride buffered melt as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen dichloride (EMIHCl{sub 2}) provide a more negative voltage window and nearly reversible deposition-stripping behavior for sodium. While EMIHCl{sub 2} is a proven proton source and also enhances lithium deposition and stripping, its stability in the melt is limited by the rapid loss of HCl(g). The authors report here that triethanolamine-hydrogen chloride is effective in widening the voltage window, allows the plating and stripping of both lithium and sodium, and is stable in buffered EMICl/AlCl{sub 3} melts for months. A study of various potential proton donors suggests that deprotonation of one ethanolic group of triethanolamine-HCl is responsible for the effect. A few other reagents also give this effect, but react more slowly or are more difficult to handle. Plated sodium appears to be more stable in this melt system than lithium.

Piersma, B.J. [Houghton Coll., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Ryan, D.M.; Schumacher, E.R.; Riechel, T.L. [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-03-01

411

Lithium batteries with laminar anodes  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a laminar electrical cell, comprising an anode, a cathode, and an electrolyte permeable separator between the anode and the cathode. The anode consists essentially of a layer of lithium having at least one surface of unreacted lithium metal in direct contact with and adhered to a layer of conductive plastic with no intermediate adhesive promoting adjuncts. The cathode comprises a slurry of MnO/sub 2/ and carbon particles in a solution of a lithium salt in an organic solvent, the solution permeating the separator and being in contact with the lithium.

Bruder, A.H.

1986-11-04

412

Will advanced lithium-alloy anodes have a chance in lithium-ion batteries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high packing density of lithium is a significant advantage of lithium insertion into metallic matrices that can be achieved in lithium alloys compared with lithium intercalation into carbonaceous materials. Moreover, the operating voltage of lithium-alloy anodes may be chosen well-above the potential of metallic lithium and the solvent co-intercalation has not been observed at lithium-alloy electrodes. On the other

J. O. Besenhard; J. Yang; M. Winter

1997-01-01

413

Ion exchange in a zeolite-molten chloride system  

SciTech Connect

Electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel results in a secondary waste stream of radioactive fission products dissolved in chloride salt. Disposal plans include a waste form that can incorporate chloride forms featuring one or more zeolites consolidated with sintered glass. A candidate method for incorporating fission products in the zeolites is passing the contaminated salt over a zeolite column for ion exchange. To date, the molten chloride ion-exchange properties of four zeolites have been investigated for this process: zeolite A, IE95{reg_sign}, clinoptilolite, and mordenite. Of these, zeolite A has been the most promising. Treating zeolite 4A, the sodium form of zeolite A , with the solvent salt for the waste stream-lithium-potassium chloride of eutectic melting composition, is expected to provide a material with favorable ion-exchange properties for the treatment of the waste salt. The authors constructed a pilot-plant system for the ion-exchange column. Initial results indicate that there is a direct relationship between the two operating variable of interest, temperature, and initial sodium concentration. Also, the mass ratio has been about 3--5 to bring the sodium concentration of the effluent below 1 mol%.

Woodman, R.H.; Pereira, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

1997-07-01

414

Waveguides in lithium niobate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium niobate (LiNbOā) is considered to be the leading electrooptical material for fabrication of active waveguides, modulators, and switches for application in integrated optical circuits. LiNbOā is a ferroelectric material with a high Curie temperature of 1210Ā°C. This is essential to permit rapid diffusion at high temperature, e.g., >1000Ā°C, without domain reversal. Its high electrooptic coefficient allows modulation at relatively

M. M. Abovelleil; Fred J. Leonberger

1989-01-01

415

Research on lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research was conducted on two types of lithium batteries. The first is a rechargeable Li-SO2 system using an all-inorganic electrolyte. A Li\\/liquid cathode system was chosen to obtain a relatively high discharge rate capability over the +20 to -30 C range. The fabrication and cycling performance of research cells are described, including the preparation and physical properties of porous polytetra

I. R. Hill; M. Goledzinowski; R. Dore

1993-01-01

416

Thin film lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

New electrolyte materials, polymers or inorganic glasses, allow the design of flat lithium primary or secondary batteries for miniaturised devices from smart cards to CMOS back up. The so-called “hybrid plastic electrolytes” allow the design of thick film cells (1–3 mm) with a surface capacity of some mA h cm?2. For Li-ion secondary batteries, the number of cycles does not

Jean Louis Souquet; Michel Duclot

2002-01-01

417

Lithium batteries. October 1987-September 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for October 1987-September 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and applications of lithium batteries. Topics include electrochemical aspects, cycling characteristics, performance evaluations, and applications in cardiac pacemaker devices. Batteries utilizing organic compounds, chlorides, and metal sulfides are discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 240 citations, 100 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-09-01

418

Lithium batteries. October 1984-September 1987 (Citations from the Compendex data base). Report for October 1984-September 1987  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and applications of lithium batteries. Topics include electrochemical aspects, cycling characteristics, performance evaluations, and applications in cardiac pacemaker devices. Batteries utilizing organic compounds, chlorides, and metal sulfides are discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 343 citations, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1988-09-01

419

Lithium batteries. October 1987-September 1988 (Citations from the Compendex data base). Report for October 1987-September 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and applications of lithium batteries. Topics include electrochemical aspects, cycling characteristics, performance evaluations, and applications in cardiac pacemaker devices. Batteries utilizing organic compounds, chlorides, and metal sulfides are discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 140 citations, all of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1988-09-01

420

Chloride and Salinity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-07-15

421

Oxomemazine hydro-chloride  

PubMed Central

In the title compound [systematic name: 3-(5,5-dioxo­phen­othia­zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl­propanaminium chloride], C18H23N2O2S+·Cl?, the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia­zine unit is 30.5?(2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H?Cl and C—H?Cl hydrogen bonds and C—H?? inter­actions.

Siddegowda, M. S.; Butcher, Ray J.; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H. S.; Ramesh, A. R.

2011-01-01

422

Lithium-Aluminum Alloy Electrodes in Lithium Chlorate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To prevent lithium dendrite growth during cycling of Li electrodes in molten LiClO3 at 140 C, a Li-Al electrode in cells of the type Li/LiClO3/liAl has been investigated. Two discharge plateaus, one about 0.42V and the other about 0.20V versus a lithium w...

D. H. Shen D. N. Bennion

1981-01-01

423

Electronic structures of lithium metasilicate and lithium disilicate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic structures of lithium metasilicate (Li2SiO3) and lithium disilicate (Li2Si2O5) are calculated using a first-principles orthogonalized linear combination of atomic-orbitals method. Results are compared with experimental x-ray-photoemission spectra and earlier calculations on sodium metasilicate and sodium disilicates.

Ching, W. Y.; Li, Y. P.; Veal, B. W.; Lam, D. J.

1985-07-01

424

Current status of lithium ion and lithium polymer secondary batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium ion batteries have only a short history in battery technology, but the remarkable growth in sales of these batteries has allowed them to take a leading position in the rechargeable battery field. The present status of these batteries in terms of performance, market and manufacturers is reviewed. The newly developing lithium ion polymer batteries may experience a similar growth

G. E. Blomgren

2000-01-01

425

Chronic Lithium Treatment Robustly Protects Neurons in the Central Nervous System against Excitotoxicity by Inhibiting N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor-Mediated Calcium Influx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of manic depressive illness. The precise mechanisms underlying its clinical efficacy remain unknown. We found that long-term exposure to lithium chloride dramatically protects cultured rat cerebellar, cerebral cortical, and hippocampal neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, which involves apoptosis mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. This neuroprotection is longlasting, occurs at therapeutically relevant

Shigeyuki Nonaka; Christopher J. Hough; De-Maw Chuang

1998-01-01

426

Low-Temperature Synthesis of Lithium Manganese Oxide Using LiCl-Li2CO3 and Manganese Acetate Eutectic Mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine crystalline LiMn2O4 powders have been prepared by molten salt synthesis (MSS) at 500°C, using an eutectic mixture of lithium chloride, lithium carbonate, and manganese acetate salts. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA\\/DTA) measurements are performed to investigate the thermal decomposition behavior of the precursor salts. The single-phase cubic structure of LiMn2O4 is confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The

M. Helan; L. John Berchmans

2011-01-01

427

Lithium-ion conducting electrolyte salts for lithium batteries.  

PubMed

This paper presents an overview of the various types of lithium salts used to conduct Li(+) ions in electrolyte solutions for lithium rechargeable batteries. More emphasis is paid towards lithium salts and their ionic conductivity in conventional solutions, solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) formation towards carbonaceous anodes and the effect of anions on the aluminium current collector. The physicochemical and functional parameters relevant to electrochemical properties, that is, electrochemical stabilities, are also presented. The new types of lithium salts, such as the bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB), oxalyldifluoroborate (LiODFB) and fluoroalkylphosphate (LiFAP), are described in detail with their appropriate synthesis procedures, possible decomposition mechanism for SEI formation and prospect of using them in future generation lithium-ion batteries. Finally, the state-of-the-art of the system is given and some interesting strategies for the future developments are illustrated. PMID:22114046

Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Gnanaraj, Joe; Madhavi, Srinivasan; Liu, Hua-Kun

2011-11-24

428

Radiation Damage Workshop  

SciTech Connect

The availability of data regarding the radiation behavior of GaAs and silicon solar cells is discussed as well as efforts to provide sufficient information. Other materials are considered too immature for reasonable radiation evaluation. The lack of concern over the possible catastrophic radiation degradation in cascade cells is a potentially serious problem. Lithium counterdoping shows potential for removing damage in irradiated P-type material, although initial efficiencies are not comparable to current state of the art. The possibility of refining the lithium doping method to maintain high initial efficiencies and combining it with radiation tolerant structures such as thin BSF cells or vertical junction cells could provide a substantial improvement in EOL efficiencies. Laser annealing of junctions, either those formed ion implantation or diffusion, may not only improve initial cell performance but might also reduce the radiation degradation rate.

Stella, P.M.

1984-01-01

429

The influence of chloride binding on the chloride induced corrosion risk in reinforced concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride binding by the cement in concrete may affect the rate of chloride ingress and chloride threshold level which in turn determine the time to chloride induced corrosion initiation. In this work, a theoretical assessment of the influence of binding when chloride ingress results from diffusion, is presented. While chloride binding reduces the free chloride content within the concrete, it

G. K. Glass; N. R. Buenfeld

2000-01-01

430

Liquid-liquid-solid equilibria for the ternary systems butanols + water + sodium chloride or + potassium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Liquid-liquid-solid equilibria for the ternary systems water + sodium chloride + 2-butanol, water + sodium chloride + 2-methyl-1-propanol, water + sodium chloride + 2-methyl-2-propanol, water + potassium chloride + 1-butanol, water + potassium chloride + 2-butanol, water + potassium chloride + 2-methyl-1-propanol, and water + potassium chloride + 2-methyl-2-propanol have been measured at 25 C.

Gomis, V.; Ruiz, F.; Asensi, J.C.; Saquete, M.D. [Univ. de Alicante (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

1996-03-01

431

Solid lithium-ion electrolyte  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

1998-02-10

432

Solid lithium-ion electrolyte  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

1998-01-01

433

Intercell connector for lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

Laminar batteries of series connected cells comprising lithium anodes and an electrolyte containing a passivating solvent reactive with lithium in which the cells are electrically connected in series by intercell barriers comprising outer layers of electrochemically inert electronically conducting material in contact with the electrochemically active anode and cathode of adjacent cells and a layer of metal foil between the electrochemically inert layers.

Bruder, A.H.

1984-10-16

434

A lithium ion polymer battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the final goal of developing lithium ion batteries having a plastic configuration, we have prepared and characterized highly conducting polymer electrolytes, as well as graphite anode and chromium-stabilized manganese spinel film electrodes. Laboratory prototypes of lithium ion batteries formed by the direct lamination of these electrode and electrolyte components were assembled and tested. The preliminary results of this work

G. B. Appetecchi; B. Scrosati

1998-01-01

435

Lithium polymer electrolyte rechargeable battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief critical review of the lithium polymer electrolyte battery technology is presented. This review specifically addresses some of the key performance characteristics which could yield a superior lithium polymer electrolyte battery technology. Directions for future R&D work are identified.

D. Fauteux; A. Massucco; M. McLin; M. Van Buren; J. Shi

1995-01-01

436

Advanced lithium ion battery charger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lithium ion battery charger has been developed for four and eight cell batteries or multiples thereof. This charger has the advantage over those using commercial lithium ion charging chips in that the individual cells are allowed to be taper charged at their upper charging voltage rather than be cutoff when all cells of the string have reached the upper

V. L. Teofilo; L. V. Merritt; R. P. Hollandsworth

1997-01-01

437

Enhanced lithium-induced brain recovery following cranial irradiation is not impeded by inflammation.  

PubMed

Radiation-induced brain injury occurs in many patients receiving cranial radiation therapy, and these deleterious effects are most profound in younger patients. Impaired neurocognitive functions in both humans and rodents are associated with inflammation, demyelination, and neural stem cell dysfunction. Here we evaluated the utility of lithium and a synthetic retinoid receptor agonist in reducing damage in a model of brain-focused irradiation in juvenile mice. We found that lithium stimulated brain progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation following cranial irradiation while also preventing oligodendrocyte loss in the dentate gyrus of juvenile mice. In response to inflammation induced by radiation, which may have encumbered the optimal reparative action of lithium, we used the anti-inflammatory synthetic retinoid Am80 that is in clinical use in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Although Am80 reduced the number of cyclooxygenase-2-positive microglial cells following radiation treatment, it did not enhance lithium-induced neurogenesis recovery, and this alone was not significantly different from the effect of lithium on this proinflammatory response. Similarly, lithium was superior to Am80 in supporting the restoration of new doublecortin-positive neurons following irradiation. These data suggest that lithium is superior in its restorative effects to blocking inflammation alone, at least in the case of Am80. Because lithium has been in routine clinical practice for 60 years, these preclinical studies indicate that this drug might be beneficial in reducing post-therapy late effects in patients receiving cranial radiotherapy and that blocking inflammation in this context may not be as advantageous as previously suggested. PMID:23197851

Malaterre, Jordane; McPherson, Cameron S; Denoyer, Delphine; Lai, Emily; Hagekyriakou, Jim; Lightowler, Sally; Shudo, Koishi; Ernst, Matthias; Ashley, David M; Short, Jennifer L; Wheeler, Greg; Ramsay, Robert G

2012-05-30

438

Lithium/bromine cell systems  

SciTech Connect

Bromine is attractive as a cathode material because cells with a high energy density and high cell voltage are theoretically possible. The addition of small amounts of certain salts or organic compounds results in bromine solutions of sufficient conductivity for cathode applications. However, given these highly conductive bromine cathodes, lithium/bromine cells are limited in rate and practical available capacity by the high resistivity of the discharge product. The rate of resistance increase for the best bromine cells in this study is more than one order of magnitude greater than that observed for corresponding lithium/iodine cells. Lithium/bromine cells can function at pacemaker rates and they may be superior to cells used in early pacemakers. However, the authors have not found the lithium/bromine cells described to be superior to existing lithium/iodine cells available for cardiac pacemakers. 17 refs.

Howard, W.G.; Skarstad, P.M.; Hayes, T.G.; Owens, B.B.

1980-01-01

439

Lithium Treatment for Psychiatric Disorders  

PubMed Central

Although used around the world since 1949, lithium has come into extensive use in psychiatry in the United States only within the past decade. Before initiating treatment with this drug, physicians must be familiar with the diagnostic scheme of the major affective disorders, the indications and contraindications to lithium's use, and its principles of treatment, including evaluation before lithium therapy, criteria for monitoring blood levels and signs of impending toxicity. Despite earlier reports about the toxicity of lithium when it was promoted as a salt substitute, lithium is a safe drug. Its use not only has revolutionized the treatment of the major affective disorders, but has opened up new and broad avenues of research into the regulation of man's emotions.

Maletzky, Barry M.; Shore, James H.

1978-01-01

440

Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH4)1-xClx is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 °C for three days of NaBH4-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH4, forming Na(BH4)0.9Cl0.1, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH4 is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH4)0.43Cl0.57. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH4 into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements.

Ravnsbęk, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

2011-07-01

441

Lurasidone hydro-chloride  

PubMed Central

In the crystal structure of the title compound, C28H37N4O2S+·Cl? [systematic name: 4-(1,2-benzothia­zol-3-yl)-1-({2-[(3,5-dioxo-4-aza­tricyclo­[5.2.1.02,6]decan-4-yl)meth­yl]cyclo­hex­yl}meth­yl)piperazin-1-ium chloride], the anions and cations are linked by N—H?Cl hydrogen bonds. The crystal structure is further stabilized by C—H?? and C—H?O inter­actions.

Zhang, Hua; Wang, Hubo; Zhu, Xueyan; Yuan, Zhedong; Jiang, Huijuan

2012-01-01

442

Neurotoxicity of methyl chloride.  

PubMed

Methyl chloride is encountered in the chemical industry as a methylating agent in the production of butyl rubber, tetramethyl lead, and other products as well as a blowing agent for some polystyrene foams. It is a potent CNS depressant whose principal route of absorption is by inhalation, although it can be absorbed through the skin. Symptoms of the neurotoxicity include headache, drowsiness, giddiness, ataxia, convulsion, and coma. This review focuses on the human case reports of acute and chronic exposures as well as some of the more important inhalation studies conducted with animals. The chemical and physical properties and the more important industrial uses are also discussed. PMID:7038527

Repko, J D

1981-01-01

443

Novel superacid-based lithium electrolytes for lithium ion and lithium polymer rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to synthesize new and novel superacid-based lithium salts with large anions that will easily ionize in solvent mixtures and in polymer complexes providing improved conductivity and high electrochemical stability. The preparation of lithium imide salts, their solution conductivities and electrochemical stabilities are described. The preparation of solid polymer electrolyte films and their conductivities are

H. V. Venkatasetty

2001-01-01

444

Lithium Treatment Reduces Brain Injury Induced by Focal Ischemia with Partial Reperfusion and the Protective Mechanisms Dispute the Importance of Akt Activity  

PubMed Central

Lithium is a mood stabilizer shown to have neuroprotective effects against several chronic and acute neuronal injuries, including stroke. However, it is unknown whether lithium treatment protects against brain injury post-stroke in a rat model of permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) combined with transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (CCAo), a model that mimics human stroke with partial reperfusion. In addition, whether lithium treatment alters Akt activity as measured by the kinase activity assay has not been reported, although it is known to inhibit GSK3? activity. After stroke, Akt activity contributes to neuronal survival while GSK3? activity causes neuronal death. We report that a bolus of lithium injection at stroke onset robustly reduced infarct size measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining at 48 h post-stroke and inhibited cell death in the ischemic penumbra, but not in the ischemic core, as shown by TUNEL staining performed 24 h post-stroke. However, lithium treatment did not alter the reduction in Akt activity as measured by Akt kinase assay. We further showed that lithium did not alter phosphorylated GSK3? protein levels, or the degradation of ?-catenin, a substrate of GSK3?, which is consistent with previous findings that long-term treatment is required for lithium to alter GSK3? phosphorylation. In summary, we show innovative data that lithium protects against stroke in a focal ischemia model with partial reperfusion, however, our results dispute the importance of Akt activity in the protective effects of lithium.

Takahashi, Tetsuya; Steinberg, Gary K.; Zhao, Heng

2012-01-01

445

Seebeck Coefficient of Lithium and Lithium-Tin Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments into the viability of lithium as a first wall material in a fusion device have shown that it offers great benefits in reducing recycling of hydrogenic species at the wall, increasing energy confinement times, and gettering impurities. However, concerns have been raised about its practicality in regions of high heat fluxes, and one of the greatest is whether or not a lithium divertor concept can function at high steady state temperatures without significant evaporation of the lithium. Lithium-tin alloys might offer a solution by suppressing evaporation, but their performance in a TEMHD driven device such as the LIMIT device under development at UIUC is directly dependent on their thermoelectric properties, namely their unknown Seebeck coefficient. In support of the use of lithium-tin alloys in such a device, experiments are performed to recover the Seebeck coefficient of several different compositions of lithium-tin alloys. Experiments previously performed at the University of Illinois of the Seebeck coefficient of lithium [1] were confirmed and expanded upon by this study. Values of ranging from 12 +/-1 uV/K at 82C to 28 +/-1 uV/K at 240C were obtained.[4pt] [1] V. Surla et al. Journal of Nuclear Materials 415 (2011) 18-22.

Kirsch, L.; Fiflis, P.; Andruczyk, D.; Curreli, D.; Ruzic, D. N.

2012-10-01

446

Chloride channels as drug targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human

Luis J. V. Galietta; Alan S. Verkman

2008-01-01

447

Molecular Structure of Ferric chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ferric chloride is a corrosive chemical, thus, it is used to deodorize sewage and industrial waste by partially reducing to ferrous chloride. It is also employed as an engraving reagent on metal surfaces. Other applications include its use as a flocculating agent in water treatment. Ferric chloride is a hazardous chemical that irritates the skin and eyes and is toxic if ingested, however it can be used as a reagent in pharmaceutical preparations.

2002-08-27

448

Estimates of power deposited via cesium/barium beta and gamma radiation captured in components of a Hanford cesium chloride capsule and by components of overpacked capsules placed in an interim dry storage facility  

SciTech Connect

The deposition of power in Hanford cesium chloride capsules and in the components of design concepts for overpacking and interim storage were determined as requested (Randklev, 1996a). The power deposition results from the selective capture of gamma and beta radiation coming from the decay of the 137CS isotope in the CsCl contained in the capsules. The following three cases were analyzed: (a) a single CsCl capsule, (b) an overpack containing eight CsCl capsules, and (c) an infinite square array of such overpacks as placed in tubes of a interim dry storage facility. The power deposition was expressed as watts per gram for each of the respective physical design components in these three cases. Per the analyses request and guidance (Randklev 1996a), the primary analysis objective was to characterize, for each case, the power deposition across the radial cross-section at the expected axial position of maximum deposition. As requested, this primary part of the analysis work was done using choices for component dimension and material properties that would reasonably characterize the maximum deposition profile across the salt (CsCl) and the inner capsule barrier of the double walled metal capsule system used to construct the Hanford capsules. The secondary objective was to further evaluate the deposition behavior relative to the influence of axial position. The guidance (Randklev 1996a) also requested 1797 an analysis case that involved a lag-storage pit in a hot-cell, in which a cylindrical metal basket from a transportation cask would be used to position several capsules in the lag-storage pit. Although the basic model for the lag storage concept evaluation was essentially completed by the end of FY-96, the analysis was not run because of the need to prioritize and limit the work scope due to funding limitations for FY-97. The specific purpose for performing the subject set of analyses (Randklev 1996a) is to obtain power deposition values (i.e., per the decay of T37cs) that can then be used as input into an analysis of the heat transfer (i.e., component temperature) response (Randklev 1996d) for such cases. The overall objective is to support the TWRS program evaluations of capsule disposal options, which could be implemented if, and when the DOE changes their current designation as `by-product` material, to `waste` material. It was found that the Hanford reference literature concerning the capsules does contain a few reports on previous Monte Carlo code determinations of the power deposition values for assemblages involving the Hanford CsCl capsules. However, in one case (Campbell, 1981) the results are now believed to be seriously in error, and the other two reported analyses (Sasmor, et al, 1988; Midgett, 1995) involve capsule + other components in assemblages that differed significantly from the subject concepts addressed in this present analysis.

Roetman, V.E., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-12-23

449

Lithium niobate explosion monitor  

DOEpatents

Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

1986-05-29

450

Glycine lithium nitrate crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystals of glycine lithium nitrate with non-linear optical properties have been grown in a solution by slow evaporation at room temperature. The crystal shows a good thermal stability from room temperature to 175 °C where the crystal begins to degrade. This property is desirable for future technological applications. Also, a good performance on the second harmonic generation was found, characterizing the emitted dominant wavelength by a customized indirect procedure using luminance and chromaticity measured data based on the CIE-1931 standard. Additionally, the 532 nm signal was detected by using a variant to the Kurtz and Perry method.

Gonzįlez-Valenzuela, R.; Hernįndez-Paredes, J.; Medrano-Pesqueira, T.; Esparza-Ponce, H. E.; Jesśs-Castillo, S.; Rodriguez-Mijangos, R.; Terpugov, V. S.; Alvarez-Ramos, M. E.; Duarte-Möller, A.

451

Positron scattering by lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positron scattering by lithium in the energy range 0.5 - 60 eV is studied within a frozen-core model of the atomic target using six different levels of approximation: (i) 0953-4075\\/30\\/6\\/021\\/img6; (ii) 0953-4075\\/30\\/6\\/021\\/img7; (iii) 0953-4075\\/30\\/6\\/021\\/img8; (iv) 0953-4075\\/30\\/6\\/021\\/img9; (v) 0953-4075\\/30\\/6\\/021\\/img10; (vi) 0953-4075\\/30\\/6\\/021\\/img11; where a bar denotes a pseudostate. The results demonstrate the importance of including the positronium formation channel in the approximation

Mary T. McAlinden; Ann A. Kernoghan; H. R. J. Walters

1997-01-01

452

Positron scattering by lithium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positron scattering by lithium in the energy range 0.5 - 60 eV is studied within a frozen-core model of the atomic target using six different levels of approximation: (i) 0953-4075/30/6/021/img6; (ii) 0953-4075/30/6/021/img7; (iii) 0953-4075/30/6/021/img8; (iv) 0953-4075/30/6/021/img9; (v) 0953-4075/30/6/021/img10; (vi) 0953-4075/30/6/021/img11; where a bar denotes a pseudostate. The results demonstrate the importance of including the positronium formation channel in the approximation scheme. The best approximation, (vi), which is modelled upon the highly successful treatment of Kernoghan et al for positron scattering by atomic hydrogen, and which uses pseudostates only on the atom centre, is believed to give the main cross sections for positron scattering off ground state lithium to a very good degree of accuracy. This confidence stems from the corroboration provided by the `complementary' approximation (v) which employs pseudostates only on the positronium centre. A new prediction from (vi) is the ionization cross section. This turns out to be relatively small, as had been assumed in earlier calculations. The idea that positron scattering by lithium might be treatable in a simple eigenstate approximation including the 2s and 2p states of lithium and a few positronium eigenstates seems to be largely correct for elastic scattering, 0953-4075/30/6/021/img12 excitation of the atom and total scattering. For these cross sections the simple eigenstate approximations (iii) and (iv) agree with the best results (vi) to better than 20%. However, agreement on total positronium formation is not quite so good, the eigenstate approximations (iii) and (iv) predicting a cross section which is generally larger than that given by (vi). It is found that at low energies the total cross section is dominated by elastic scattering, this dominance being directly taken over by 0953-4075/30/6/021/img12 excitation with increasing impact energy. Positronium formation is significant at energies less than 20 eV, although it never exceeds elastic scattering in the energy range studied.

McAlinden, Mary T.; Kernoghan, Ann A.; Walters, H. R. J.

1997-03-01

453

A Preclinical and Clinical Study of Lithium in Low-Grade Neuroendocrine Tumors  

PubMed Central

Background. Low-grade neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) respond poorly to chemotherapy; effective, less toxic therapies are needed. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3? has been shown to regulate growth and hormone production in NETs. Use of lithium chloride in murine models suppressed carcinoid cell growth, reduced GSK-3? levels, and reduced expression of chromogranin A. This study assessed the efficacy of lithium chloride in patients with NETs. Design. Eligible patients had low-grade NETs. A single-arm, open-label phase II design was used. Lithium was dosed at 300 mg orally three times daily, titrated to serum levels of 0.8–1.0 mmol/L. The primary endpoint was objective tumor response by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Secondary endpoints included overall survival, progression-free survival, GSK-3? phosphorylation, and toxicity. Results. Fifteen patients were enrolled between October 3, 2007 and July 17, 2008, six men and nine women. The median age was 58 years. Patient diagnoses were carcinoid tumor for eight patients, islet cell tumor for five patients, and two unknown primary sites. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status scores were 0 or 1. Two patients came off study because of side effects. The median progression-free survival interval was 4.50 months. There were no radiographic responses. Because of an early stopping rule requiring at least one objective response in the first 13 evaluable patients, the study was closed to further accrual. Patients had pre- and post-therapy biopsies. Conclusions. Lithium chloride was ineffective at obtaining radiographic responses in our 13 patients who were treated as part of this study. Based on the pre- and post-treatment tumor biopsies, lithium did not potently inhibit GSK-3? at serum levels used to treat bipolar disorders.

Kunnimalaiyaan, Muthusamy; Holen, Kyle D.; Ning, Li; Ndiaye, Mary; LoConte, Noelle K.; Mulkerin, Daniel L.; Schelman, William R.; Chen, Herbert

2011-01-01

454

All-solid-state measurements of electrical properties of passive films on lithium  

SciTech Connect

An all-solid-state cell for studying the electrical properties of passive films on lithium formed in thionyl chloride was constructed in which the counterelectrode was a sheet of metallic lithium pressed against the surface of the passive film. In modeling the impedance response of the cell the poor electrical contact between the passive film and the counterelectrode was taken into account. Unlike previous studies, passive film thickness calculated from the impedance response temperature range 30 to 150 C, the activation enthalpy for bulk ion conduction was 0.65 {+-} 0.05 eV which is approximately 0.2 eV higher than the value measured by Haven at 300 to 450 C for a LiCl single crystal. The same value of activation enthalpy was found for the reference cell in which LiCl was evaporated on a platinum substrate and the counterelectrode was again a pressed lithium sheet.

Kek, D.; Gaberscek, M.; Pejovnik, S. [National Inst. of Chemistry, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

1996-05-01

455

Electrolytic properties of lithium chelatophosphates and application to lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing interest has been focused on the development of lithium salts with fluorine atoms and on their application to electric vehicles. We have investigated the electrolytic properties of lithium tris[3-fluoro-1,2-benzenediolato(2-)-O,O?]phosphate (3-FLTBP) and lithium tris[1,2-benzenediolato(2-)-O,O?]phosphate (LTBP) and the discharge characteristics of prototype Li\\/V2O5 cells containing ethylene carbonate (EC)-based chain carbonate or EC-based tetrahydrofuran (THF) binary solutions. The introduction of fluorine atoms

Noritoshi Nanbu; Koji Tsuchiya; Yukio Sasaki

2005-01-01

456

Lithium anode for lithium-air secondary batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium ion conducting solid lithium phosphorous nitride (LiPON) has been sputtered on the water-stable NASICON-type lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte Li1+x+yAlxTi2?xP3?ySiyO12 (LATP). The stability and the interface resistance of the Li–Al\\/LiPON\\/LATP\\/LiPON\\/Li–Al cell have been examined. It is shown that the LiPON film protects LATP from reacting with the Li–Al alloy. The impedance of the Li–Al\\/LiPON\\/LATP\\/LiPON\\/Li–Al cell has been measured

Nobuyuki Imanishi; Satoshi Hasegawa; Tao Zhang; Atushi Hirano; Yasuo Takeda; Osamu Yamamoto

2008-01-01

457

Separator for lithium batteries and lithium batteries including the separator  

SciTech Connect

One of the primary problems that has limited development of rechargeable batteries has been the formation of dendrite lithium on the negative electrode. The general object of this invention is to provide a separator between the cathode and anode in lithium secondary or primary batteries that will eliminate internal shorting. A more-specific object is to provide a separator material that will react with any lithium dendrite that could penetrate the separator thus preventing an internal short circuit of the battery. Polymers that can be electrodeposited, such as poly-3 methylthiophene can be used by first sputtering a thin layer of polymer on the metallized surface.

Foster, D.L.

1988-06-27

458

Chemical lithium extraction from manganese oxides for lithium rechargeable batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical lithium extraction has been carried out on the following manganese oxides: the spinel-type compounds LiMn2O4 and Li(4\\/3)Mn(5\\/3)O4, and the rocksalt-related compound Li2MnO3. Lithium can be partially removed chemically from these compounds without destroying the host framework. Some compounds obtained by this method have been tested as cathodic materials in rechargeable lithium cells. Electrochemical results and X-ray diffraction patterns of

F. Lubin; A. Lecerf; M. Broussely; J. Labat

1991-01-01

459

Application of quality function deployment to the design of a lithium battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is the tool we have selected to aid in the design, development and subsequent commercial manufacture of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride 'D' cell for use in weapons applications. QFD is a structured methodology used to help assure that customer needs and expectations will be satisfied throughout the product life cycle. In this paper, we will describe our application of QFD, some of the lessons learned, and what we expect to be the final product of this QFD exercise.

Halbleib, L.; Wormington, P.; Cieslak, W.; Street, H.

460

A high performance silicon\\/carbon composite anode with carbon nanofiber for lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical performance of a composite of nano-Si powder and a pyrolytic carbon of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with carbon nanofiber (CNF) was examined as an anode for lithium-ion batteries. CNF was incorporated into the composite by two methods; direct mixing of CNF with the nano-Si powder coated with carbon produced by pyrolysis of PVC (referred to as Si\\/C\\/CNF-1) and mixing

Q. Si; K. Hanai; T. Ichikawa; A. Hirano; N. Imanishi; Y. Takeda; O. Yamamoto

2010-01-01

461

Effect of lithium on the catecholamine concentration in the rabbit and rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single injection (200 mg\\/kg, intraperitoneally) or a course of injections (100 mg\\/kg subcutaneously, daily for 10 days) of lithium chloride given to rats had no significant effect on the content of catecholamines and dihydroxyphenylalanine in the brain stem 1, and 4 h after the injections. In experiments on rabbits the compound (100 mg\\/kg, intravenously) increased the noradrenalin concentration in

A. S. Saratikov; Z. I. Spiridonova; L. P. Alekseeva

1975-01-01

462

Structure of Aluminum Chloride-Sodium Chloride Melts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equilibrium constants were calculated for reactions governing the species present at 175C in molten mixtures of aluminum chloride and sodium chloride. The equilibria postulated pertain to formation of the complex ions AlCl4(-), Al2Cl7(-), and Al3Cl1o(-) f...

A. A. Fannin D. W. Seegmiller L. A. King

1971-01-01

463

A lithium superionic conductor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10?2?S?cm?1) only at 50–80?°C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li10GeP2S12 that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12?mS?cm?1 at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window).

Kamaya, Noriaki; Homma, Kenji; Yamakawa, Yuichiro; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kato, Yuki; Hama, Shigenori; Kawamoto, Koji; Mitsui, Akio

2011-09-01

464

A lithium superionic conductor.  

PubMed

Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10(-2) S cm(-1)) only at 50-80 °C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li(10)GeP(2)S(12) that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window). PMID:21804556

Kamaya, Noriaki; Homma, Kenji; Yamakawa, Yuichiro; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kato, Yuki; Hama, Shigenori; Kawamoto, Koji; Mitsui, Akio

2011-07-31

465

Neurobiology of lithium: an update.  

PubMed

Lithium remains a first-line approach for the treatment of acute mania and the prophylactic management of manic-depressive illness, yet the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain as yet undefined. In this paper we critically examine the accumulated preclinical and clinical evidence for the action of lithium in the brain and suggest areas that may be most productive for future investigation, i.e., membrane transport systems, neurotransmitter receptor regulation, second messenger generating systems, protein kinase C (PKC) regulation, and gene expression. In their experimental design, preclinical investigations have often jeopardized the physiologic relevance of their studies by a relative lack of attention to issues such as therapeutic concentrations, acute versus chronic exposure, and a lack of adequate cation and/or psychotropic controls. Future studies should account for the established prophylactic efficacy of lithium, the higher risk for relapse into mania after abrupt discontinuation, the ability of lithium to stabilize recurrent depression associated with unipolar disorder, and the efficacy of lithium in the treatment of refractory major depressive disorder in the presence of an antidepressant. Studies of the action of lithium in receptor mediated phosphoinositide signaling in the brain over the past several years have opened up heuristic lines of investigation that stem from lithium's uncompetitive inhibition of the enzyme inositol monophosphatase. Subsequent studies involving regulation of inositol transport, PKC isozymes and activity, and the expression of the major PKC substrate MARCKS (myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate) have offered potential avenues for understanding the complexity of the action of long-term lithium in the brain. These studies will offer us a better understanding of the neuroanatomical sites of action of lithium and together with ongoing clinical investigations using brain imaging in patients with manic-depressive illness a more complete understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:9674936

Lenox, R H; McNamara, R K; Papke, R L; Manji, H K

1998-01-01

466

Chloride dependence of growth in bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride is an abundant anion on earth but studies analyzing a possible function of chloride in prokaryotes are scarce. To address the question, we have tested 44 different Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria for a chloride dependence or chloride stimulation of growth. None required chloride for growth at their optimal growth (salt) conditions. However, in hyperosmotic media containing high concentrations of

Markus Roeßler; Xaver Sewald; Volker Müller

2003-01-01

467

Improved analysis of picomole quantities of lithium, sodium, and potassium in biological fluids.  

PubMed

The analysis of picomolar lithium, sodium, and potassium by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry was studied using a Perkin-Elmer Zeeman 3030 spectrophotometer. With ordinary pyrolytically coated graphite tubes, a number of interference effects associated with the sample matrix were observed. In particular, the lithium and potassium absorbance signal was depressed by chloride, an effect shown to be dependent on the preatomization heating. When an in situ tantalum-coated atomization surface was used, matrix interferences observed in lithium and potassium analyses were abolished, and the linear range for the potassium assay was extended. Technical difficulties encountered during sodium analysis at the primary wavelength were effectively circumvented by analysis at a less-sensitive wavelength (303.3 nm), at which tantalum coating also prevented significant chloride interference. The improved microanalyses were employed to reevaluate the handling of lithium, sodium, and potassium along the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) of the anesthetized rat. The average tubular fluid-to-plasma concentration ratios for lithium [(TF/P)Li] and sodium [(TF/P)Na] were 1.13 +/- 0.08, n = 26, and 0.99 +/- 0.07 (n = 26), respectively. The tubular fluid-to-plasma ultrafiltrate concentration ratio for potassium [(TF/UF)K] was 1.09 +/- 0.05 (n = 13). Ratios did not change significantly with puncture site along the PCT for any of the ions. (TF/P)Li and (TF/UF)K were significantly greater than (TF/P)Na, indicating that lithium and potassium reabsorption do not directly parallel sodium reabsorption in the PCT. PMID:7943365

Shalmi, M; Kibble, J D; Day, J P; Christensen, P; Atherton, J C

1994-10-01

468

Assembling CoSn3 nanoparticles on multiwalled carbon nanotubes with enhanced lithium storage properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CoSn3 nanoparticles have been successfully assembled on noncovalently poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) via a chemical reduction method in a polyol system. The influences of the surface functionality and the reaction temperature on the synthesis of uniform CoSn3-MWCNTs nanohybrids have been investigated. The as-synthesized CoSn3-MWCNTs nanohybrids have been applied as anodes for lithium-ion batteries, and show better lithium storage performance compared to the bare CoSn3 nanoparticles and MWCNTs. The combining of MWCNTs that can hinder the agglomeration and enhance the electronic conductivity of the active materials is responsible for the enhanced cyclic performance.CoSn3 nanoparticles have been successfully assembled on noncovalently poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) via a chemical reduction method in a polyol system. The influences of the surface functionality and the reaction temperature on the synthesis of uniform CoSn3-MWCNTs nanohybrids have been investigated. The as-synthesized CoSn3-MWCNTs nanohybrids have been applied as anodes for lithium-ion batteries, and show better lithium storage performance compared to the bare CoSn3 nanoparticles and MWCNTs. The combining of MWCNTs that can hinder the agglomeration and enhance the electronic conductivity of the active materials is responsible for the enhanced cyclic performance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr01008a

Zhai, Chuanxin; Du, Ning; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Jingxue; Wu, Ping; Xiao, Chengmao; Yang, Deren

2011-04-01

469

The role of noradrenaline, dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the hyperactivity response resulting from the administration of tranylcypromine to rats pretreated with lithium or rubidium  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The administration of 15 mg\\/kg tranylcypromine sulphate (Tc) to rats which have been given lithium chloride (LiCl) in the diet (30 mmol\\/kg dry food) for 14 days produces hyperactivity within 4 hrs, and this lasts for at least 4 further hours.2.If LiCl is replaced by rubidium chloride (RbCl) at the same dose, the hyperactivity following Tc is increased and it

A. Judd; Judith Parker; F. A. Jenner

1975-01-01

470

Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes  

DOEpatents

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tulsa, OK)

1996-01-01

471

A Lithium Superionic Sulfide Cathode for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries  

SciTech Connect

This work presents a facile synthesis approach for core-shell structured Li2S nanoparticles, which have Li2S as the core and Li3PS4 as the shell. This material functions as lithium superionic sulfide (LSS) cathode for long-lasting, energy-efficient lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The LSS has an ionic conductivity of 10-7 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 6 orders of magnitude higher than that of bulk Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high lithium-ion conductivity of LSS imparts an excellent cycling performance to all-solid Li-S batteries, which also promises safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

Lin, Zhan [ORNL; Liu, Zengcai [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL

2013-01-01

472

Electrical properties of lithium-implanted layers on synthetic diamond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium implantation (40 and 50 keV; doses of 2 × 1016 and 4 × 1016 cm?2) has been performed in several synthetic and natural diamond crystals at room temperature (RT) and 850–900 °C (high temperature (HT) implantation). In contrast with the case of the RT implantation, the HT implantation did not result in radiation-induced surface graphitization. The samples implanted at

R. Job; M. Werner; A. Denisenko; A. Zaitsev; W. R. Fahrner

1996-01-01

473

49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of the following requirements: (1)...

2011-10-01

474