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1

Taste aversion learning produced by combined treatment with subthreshold radiation and lithium chloride  

SciTech Connect

These experiments were designed to determine whether treatment with two subthreshold doses of radiation or lithium chloride, either alone or in combination, could lead to taste aversion learning. The first experiment determined the thresholds for a radiation-induced taste aversion at 15-20 rad and for lithium chloride at 0.30-0.45 mEq/kg. In the second experiment it was shown that exposing rats to two doses of 15 rad separated by up to 3 hr produced a taste aversion. Treatment with two injections of lithium chloride (0.30 mEq/kg) did not produce a significant reduction in preference. Combined treatment with radiation and lithium chloride did produce a taste aversion when the two treatments were administered within 1 hr of each other. The results are discussed in terms of the implications of these findings for understanding the nature of the unconditioned stimuli leading to the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion.

Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

1987-08-01

2

Effects of antiemetics on the acquisition and recall of radiation- and lithium chloride-induced conditioned taste aversions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments were run to evaluate the effect of antiemetics on the acquisition and recall of a conditioned taste aversion induced by exposure to ionizing radiation or by injection of lithium chloride. Groups of male rats were exposed to 100 rad gamma radiation or 3 mEq\\/kg lithium chloride following consumption of a 10% sucrose solution. They were then

B. M. Rabin; W. A. Hunt

1983-01-01

3

Effects of antiemetics on the acquisition and recall of radiation- and lithium chloride-induced conditioned taste aversions  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments were run to evaluate the effect of antiemetics on the acquisition and recall of a conditioned taste aversion induced by exposure to ionizing radiation or by injection of lithium chloride. Groups of male rats were exposed to 100 rad gamma radiation or 3 mEq/kg lithium chloride following consumption of a 10% sucrose solution. They were then injected with saline or with one of three antiemetics (prochlorperazine, trimethobenzamide, or cyclizine) at dose levels that have been reported to be effective in attenuating a previously acquired lithium chloride-induced taste aversion. The pretreatments with antiemetics had no effect on the acquisition or recall of either the lithium chloride- or radiation-induced taste aversion. The data suggest that antiemetics do not disrupt lithium chloride-induced taste aversions as previously reported, nor do they effect radiation-induced taste aversion learning.

Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.

1983-04-01

4

Effects of antiemetics on the acquisition and recall of radiation- and lithium chloride-induced conditioned taste aversions.  

PubMed

A series of experiments were run to evaluate the effect of antiemetics on the acquisition and recall of a conditioned taste aversion induced by exposure to ionizing radiation or by injection of lithium chloride. Groups of male rats were exposed to 100 rad gamma radiation or 3 mEq/kg lithium chloride following consumption of a 10% sucrose solution. They were then injected with saline or with one of three antiemetics (prochlorperazine, trimethobenzamide, or cyclizine) at dose levels that have been reported to be effective in attenuating a previously acquired lithium chloride-induced taste aversion. The pretreatments with antiemetics had no effect on the acquisition or recall of either the lithium chloride- or radiation-induced taste aversion. The data suggest that antiemetics do not disrupt lithium chloride-induced taste aversions as previously reported, nor do they effect radiation-induced taste aversion learning. PMID:6306696

Rabin, B M; Hunt, W A

1983-04-01

5

Acquisition of lithium chloride- and radiation-induced taste aversions in hypophysectomized rats  

SciTech Connect

The effects of hypophysectomy on the acquisition of conditioned taste aversions following injection of lithium chloride and following exposure to ionizing radiation were studied using a two-bottle preference test. Hypophysectomy did not disrupt the acquisition of a taste aversion following either treatment. The results are interpreted as: (a) suggesting that pituitary/adrenal hormones do not mediate the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion following injections of lithium chloride or following exposure to ionizing radiation in a two-bottle preference test, and (b) consistent with other research suggesting that the involvement of pituitary/adrenal hormones in taste aversion learning may be related to the conflict induced by using a one-bottle test and not to the learning itself.

Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

1983-03-01

6

Attenuation and cross-attenuation in taste aversion learning in the rat: Studies with ionizing radiation, lithium chloride and ethanol  

SciTech Connect

The preexposure paradigm was utilized to evaluate the similarity of ionizing radiation, lithium chloride and ethanol as unconditioned stimuli for the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion. Three unpaired preexposures to lithium chloride (3.0 mEq/kg, IP) blocked the acquisition of a taste aversion when a novel sucrose solution was paired with either the injection of the same dose of lithium chloride or exposure to ionizing radiation (100 rad). Similar pretreatment with radiation blocked the acquisition of a radiation-induced aversion, but had no effect on taste aversions produced by lithium chloride (3.0 or 1.5 mEq/kg). Preexposure to ethanol (4 g/kg, PO) disrupted the acquisition of an ethanol-induced taste aversion, but not radiation- or lithium chloride-induced aversions. In contrast, preexposure to either radiation or lithium chloride attenuated an ethanol-induced taste aversion in intact rats, but not in rats with lesions of the area postrema. The results are discussed in terms of relationships between these three unconditioned stimuli and in terms of implications of these results for understanding the nature of the proximal unconditioned stimulus in taste aversion learning.

Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

1988-12-01

7

Attenuation and cross-attenuation in taste-aversion learning in the rat: Studies with ionizing radiation, lithium chloride, and ethanol. Scientific report  

SciTech Connect

The pre-exposure paradigm was utilized to evaluate the similarity of ionizing radiation, lithium chloride, and ethanol as unconditioned stimuli for the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion. Three unpaired pre-exposures to lithium chloride blocked the acquisition of a taste aversion when a novel sucrose solution was paired with either the injection of the same dose of lithium chloride or exposure to ionizing radiation (100 rad). Similar pretreatment with radiation blocked the acquisition of a radiation-induced aversion, but had no effect on taste aversions produced by lithium aversion, but not radiation- or lithium chloride-induced aversions. In contrast, preexposure to either radiation or lithium chloride attenuated an ethanol-induced taste aversion in intact rats, but not in rats with lesions of the area postrema. The results are discussed in terms of relationships between these three unconditioned stimuli and in terms of implications of these results for understanding the nature of the proximal unconditioned stimulus in taste aversion learning.

Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

1989-01-01

8

Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis  

E-print Network

Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis Lekha Gupta, 2008 Ortholithiations of a range of arenes mediated by lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in THF at -78 °C protocols with unpurified commercial samples of n-butyl- lithium to prepare LDA or commercially available

Collum, David B.

9

Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

Parry, J. M.

1978-01-01

10

Space-charge at the lithium-lithium chloride interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical properties of the passive layer formed on lithium as the product of the corrosion reaction in thionyl chloride are discussed. The passive layer is regarded as a thin layer of an ionic crystal placed between two party blocking electrodes (i.e., lithium and liquid electrolyte). After a short review of thermodynamic properties of the system, a model for description of the electric properties of the static space-charge regions is presented. On this basis, a comment on and partial reinterpretation of impedance measurements of the passive layer is given. The suggested approach leads to the conclusion that the quality of Li/SOCl2 batteries decisively depends on the properties of the lithium passive layer interface. Finally, experiments to confirm the model are suggested.

Jamnik, J.; Gaberscek, M.; Meden, A.; Pejovnik, S.

1991-06-01

11

Analysis of lithium/thionyl chloride batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lithium/thionyl chloride battery (Li/SOClsb2) has received considerable attention as a primary energy source due to its high energy density, high operating cell voltage, voltage stability over 95% of the discharge, large operating temperature range (-55sp°C to 70sp°C), long storage life, and low cost of materials. In this dissertation, a one-dimensional mathematical model of a spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery has been developed. Mathematical models can be used to tailor a battery design to a specific application, perform accelerated testing, and reduce the amount of experimental data required to yield efficient, yet safe cells. The Model was used in conjunction with the experimental data for parameter estimation and to obtain insights into the fundamental processes occurring in the battery. The diffusion coefficient and the kinetic parameters for the reactions at the anode and the cathode are obtained as a function of temperature by fitting the simulated capacity and average cell voltage to experimental data over a wide range of temperatures (-55 to 49sp°C) and discharge loads (10 to 250 ohms). The experiments were performed on D-sized, cathode-limited, spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride cells at Sandia National Laboratories. The model is also used to study the effect of cathode thickness and current and temperature pulsing on the cell capacity. Thionyl chloride reduction in the porous cathode is accompanied with a volume reduction. The material balance used previously in one-dimensional mathematical models of porous electrodes is invalid when the volume occupied by the reactants and the products is not equal. It is shown here how the material balance has to be modified to either account for the loss in volume, or to account for the inflow of electrolyte from the header into the active pores. The one-dimensional mathematical model of lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery is used to illustrate the effect of this material balance modification on the prediction of the delivered capacity and the electrolyte concentration.

Jain, Mukul

12

Open-cycle lithium chloride (solar) cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of packed towers for use with open-cycle lithium chloride solar cooling are described, including types of packing, pressure drop, irrigated packings and allowable vapor velocity. The theory of packed column operation is outlined. Coefficients of heat transfer and mass transfer in a packed column in which water is vaporized from a LiCi solution by heated air were experimentally determined. The influences of air flow rate, humidity, and temperature on the coefficients of heat transfer and mass transfer in a packed column were also determined. Theoretical predictions of transfer coefficients and packed column sizes in an open cycle LiCl solar cooling system were verified. The feasibility of operating an open cycle cooling system was established.

Loef, G. O. G.; Rao, S.; Lenz, T.

1981-12-01

13

Highly efficient separation of lithium chloride from seawater.  

PubMed

A complexing reagent composed of two bipyridine moieties enabled the efficient separation of lithium chloride through liquid membrane from seawater, in which 0.005% lithium chloride is contained (more than 99% metal chlorides are NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2). That is, two separations by our liquid membrane changed the molar ratio of LiCl from 0.005% to 80%. The striking characteristic of this compound is that the lithium ion is separated efficiently from alkali and alkaline earth metal ions without the lipophilic anion. Thus this new membrane system contructed by us offers a low-energy, low-cost, and environmentally friendly method to enable the routine use of lithium chloride separation from seawater. PMID:11982339

Tsuchiya, Shinji; Nakatani, Yoko; Ibrahim, Rizwangul; Ogawa, Shojiro

2002-05-01

14

Phase equilibria for propan-1-ol + water + sodium chloride and + potassium chloride and propan-2-ol + water + lithium chloride and + lithium bromide  

SciTech Connect

Measurements are reported on phase equilibria of the four mixtures propan-1-ol + water + sodium chloride, propan-1-ol + water + potassium chloride, propan-2-ol + water + lithium chloride, and propan-2-ol + water + lithium bromide at atmospheric pressure. The phase behavior of these mixtures exhibits three-phase equilibria, two liquids and one vapor, different from the previous reports that these only exhibit two phases. The phase diagrams for these mixtures are discussed.

Cheng-Long Lin (Kwang Wu Inst. of Technology, Taiwan (China)); Liang-Sun Lee (National Central Univ., Taiwan (China)); Hsieng-Cheng Tseng (National Taiwan Inst. of Technology, Taiwan (China))

1993-04-01

15

Optimization of the lithium/thionyl chloride battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1-D math model for the lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell is used in conjunction with a parameter estimation technique in order to estimate the electro-kinetic parameters of this electrochemical system. The electro-kinetic parameters include the anodic transfer coefficient and exchange current density of the lithium oxidation, alpha sub a,1 and i sub o,i,ref, the cathodic transfer coefficient and the effective exchange current density of the thionyl chloride reduction, alpha sub c,2 and a sup o i sub o,2,ref, and a morphology parameter, Xi. The parameter estimation is performed on simulated data first in order to gain confidence in the method. Data, reported in the literature, for a high rate discharge of an experimental lithium/thionyl chloride cell is used for an analysis.

White, Ralph E.

1989-01-01

16

Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis  

PubMed Central

Ortholithiations of a range of arenes mediated by lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in THF at -78 °C reveal substantial accelerations by as little as 0.5 mol % LiCl (relative to LDA). Substrate dependencies suggest a specific range of reactivity within which the LiCl catalysis is optimal. Standard protocols using unpurified commercial samples of n-butyllithium to prepare LDA or commercially available LDA show marked batch-dependent rates--up to 100-fold--that could prove significant to the unwary practitioner. Other lithium salts elicit more modest accelerations. The mechanism is not discussed. PMID:19191711

Gupta, Lekha; Hoepker, Alexander C.; Singh, Kanwal J.

2009-01-01

17

Properties of a new liquid desiccant solution - Lithium chloride and calcium chloride mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desiccants, broadly classified as solid and liquid desiccants, have the property of extracting and retaining moisture from air brought into contact with them. By using either type, moisture in the air is removed and the resulting dry air can be used for air-conditioning or drying purposes. Because of its properties, lithium chloride is the most stable liquid desiccant and has

A. Ertas; E. E. Anderson; I. Kiris

1992-01-01

18

Optimization of the lithium/thionyl chloride battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The progress which has been made in modeling the lithium/thionyl chloride cell over the past year and proposed research for the coming year are discussed. A one-dimensional mathematical model for a lithium/thionyl chloride cell has been developed and used to investigate methods of improving cell performance. During the course of the work a problem was detected with the banded solver being used. It was replaced with one more reliable. Future work may take one of two directions. The one-dimensional model could be augmented to include additional features and to investigate in more detail the cell temperature behavior, or a simplified two-dimensional model for the spirally wound design of this battery could be developed to investigate the heat flow within the cell.

White, Ralph E.

1987-01-01

19

Investigation of lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the ten years since the feasibility of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell was first recognized (1) remarkable progress has been made in hardware development. Cells as large as 16,000 Ah (2) and batteries of 10.8 MWh (3) have been demonstrated. In a low rate configuration, energy densities of 500 to 600 Wh/kg are easily achieved. Even in the absence of reported explosions, safety would be a concern for such a dense energetic package; the energy density of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell is approaching that of dynamite (924 Wh/kg). In fact explosions have occurred. In general the hazards associated with lithium-thionyl chloride batteries may be divided into four categories: Explosions as a result of an error in battery design. Very large cells were in prototype development prior to a full appreciation of the hazards of the system. It is possible that some of the remaining safety issues are related to cell design; Explosions as a result of external physical abuse such as cell incineration and puncture; Explosions due to short circuiting which could lead to thermal runaway reactions. These problems appear to have been solved by changes in the battery design (4); and Explosions due to abnormal electrical operation (i.e., charging (5) and overdischarging (6) and in partially or fully discharged cells on storage (7 and 8).

Attia, A. I.; Gabriel, K. A.; Burns, R. P.

1983-01-01

20

Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (active lithium\\/thionyl chloride) batteries. [Active lithium\\/thionyl chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

(ALTC = active lithium\\/thionyl chloride.) We have investigated the corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin materials in 1.5M LiAlClâ\\/SOClâ electrolyte using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4 PH, and

F. S. Bovard; W. R. Cieslak

1987-01-01

21

Effect of daily lithium chloride administration on bone mass and strength in growing broiler chickens,1.  

PubMed

The objective was to determine the effects of oral lithium chloride supplementation on bone strength and mass in broiler chickens. Ninety-six broilers were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups (lithium chloride or control; n = 48/treatment). Beginning at 1 or 3 wk of age, chickens were administered lithium chloride (20 mg/kg body weight) or water daily by oral gavage. At 6 wk of age, chickens were euthanized and bone and muscle samples were collected. A 24 h lithium chloride (20 mg/kg body weight) challenge determined that serum lithium chloride increased within 2 h and cleared the system within 24 h, demonstrating the effective delivery of lithium chloride. Treatment did not influence body weight (P ? 0.20) or feed intake (P ? 0.81), demonstrating that lithium chloride did not negatively affect broiler growth. To determine bone strength, 3-point bending was performed on the femora and tibiae obtained from control and lithium chloride-treated birds in the 1 wk group. Lithium chloride-treated birds had a 22% reduction in stiffness compared with control in the femora (P = 0.02) without a corresponding reduction in elastic modulus. No differences were observed in yield or ultimate load and in the corresponding calculations of stresses (P ? 0.26). The toughness of tibiae was not altered in lithium chloride compared with control (P = 0.11). Bone length and micro-CT imaging were performed on the tibiae of control and lithium chloride groups. No differences (P ? 0.52) in bone length, cortical or trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, number, or spacing were observed. Lithium chloride treatment did not affect pectoralis muscle color or lipid oxidation (P > 0.05). In conclusion, lithium chloride treatment in broilers did not negatively affect growth or meat quality. A reduction in bone stiffness of the femur with lithium chloride treatment was observed, however unlike the mouse model, the dosages of lithium chloride used in the current study did not result in anabolic effects on broiler long bones. PMID:25609690

Harvey, B M; Eschbach, M; Glynn, E A; Kotha, S; Darre, M; Adams, D J; Ramanathan, R; Mancini, R; Govoni, K E

2015-02-01

22

High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented in viewgraph format are results and accomplishments on the development of lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar batteries. Results include the development of manufacturing capability for producing large quantities of uniform cathodes and bipolar plates; the development of assembly, sealing, and activation procedures for fabrication of battery modules containing up to 150 cells in bipolar configuration; and the successful demonstration of a 10.7 kW 150-cell module with constant power pulse discharge, 20 second pulse, and 10 percent duty cycle.

Russell, Philip G.; Goebel, F.

1994-01-01

23

Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery with Electrolyte Flow  

E-print Network

Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery with Electrolyte Flow W Battery Research and Development Department 1521 Sandia National Laboratories P.O. Box 5800, MS 0613-dimensional model is developed to simulate discharge of a primary lithium/thionyl chloride battery. The model

Wang, Chao-Yang

24

Mixed Aggregates of 1-Methoxyallenyllithium with Lithium Chloride  

PubMed Central

A combined computational and 13C NMR study was used to investigate the formation of mixed aggregates of 1-methoxyallenyllithium and lithium chloride in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution. The observed and calculated chemical shifts, as well as the calculated free energies of mixed aggregate formation (MP2/6-31+G(d)), are consistent with the formation of a mixed dimer as the major species in solution. Free energies of mixed dimer, trimer, and tetramer formation were calculated by using the B3LYP and MP2 methods and the 6-31+G(d) basis set. The two methods generated different predictions of which mixed aggregates will be formed, with B3LYP/6-31+G(d) favoring mixed trimers and tetramers in THF solution, and MP2/6-31+G(d) favoring mixed dimers. Formation of the sterically unhindered mixed dimers is also consistent with the enhanced reactivity of these compounds in the presence of lithium chloride. The spectra are also consistent with some residual 1-methoxyallenyllithium tetramer, as well as small amounts of higher mixed aggregates. Although neither computational method is perfect, for this particular system, the calculated free energies derived using the MP2 method are in better agreement with experimental data than those derived using the B3LYP method. PMID:25558443

Pratt, Lawrence M; Dixon, Darryl D; Tius, Marcus A

2014-01-01

25

Equilibrium distribution of lanthanum, neodymium, and thorium between lithium chloride melt and liquid bismuth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of lanthanum, neodymium, and thorium between a lithium chloride melt and liquid bismuth with additions of lithium as a reducing agent are investigated at 650°C. Equilibrium values of their distribution constants are measured. It is shown that in contrast to neodymium and lanthanum, thorium cannot be extracted from bismuth into lithium chloride. This allows us to propose an efficient scheme for separating lanthanides and thorium in a system for the extraction of fuel salts in molten-salt nuclear reactors.

Zagnit'ko, A. V.; Ignat'ev, V. V.

2013-04-01

26

EFFECTS OF IONIZING RADIATION ON CHOLINE CHLORIDE AND ITS ANALOGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation sensitivities of crystalline choline chloride and nineteen ; crystalline analogs have been compared. The chloride is extremely radiation ; sensitive and appears to decompose by a free-radical chain mechanism. Choline ; bromide is about one-third as sensitive as the chloride; none of the other ; analogs show abnormal radiation instability. That choline chloride's ; susceptibility to radiation damage

R. M. II Lemmon; P. K. Gordon; M. A. Parsons; F. Mazzetti

1958-01-01

27

High-rate lithium thionyl-chloride battery development  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a lithium thionyl-chloride cell for use in a high rate battery application to provide power for a missile computer and stage separation detonators. The battery pack contains 20 high surface area ``DD`` cells wired in a series-parallel configuration to supply a nominal 28 volts with a continuous draw of 20 amperes. The load profile also requires six squib firing pulses of one second duration at a 20 ampere peak. Performance and safety of the cells were optimized in a ``D`` cell configuration before progressing to the longer ``DD` cell. Active surface area in the ``D`` cell is 735 cm{sup 2}, and 1650 cm{sup 2} in the ``DD`` cell. The design includes 1.5M LiAlCl{sub 4}/SOCl{sub 2} electrolyte, a cathode blend of Shawinigan Acetylene Black and Cabot Black Pearls 2000 carbons, Scimat ETFE separator, and photoetched current collectors.

Cieslak, W.R.; Weigand, D.E.

1993-12-31

28

User safety considerations in lithium thionyl chloride batteries  

SciTech Connect

The mechanics of failure of lithium batteries with thionyl chloride as a catholyte are discussed, and methods available to provide user safety are outlined. Advantages of using the batteries are discussed, including a high cell voltage of 3.6 V, a high specific energy density greater than 200 W-hr per pound, excellent voltage stability over 95% of the discharge life of the cell, low cost materials, and a storage life up to 10 years. Safety problems such as explosion, venting, leaking, and short circuit overheating are also discussed. A fault matrix is presented to relate battery hazards to the possible use and disposal conditions, and to determine levels of safety for the user system. A test plan is also developed which includes mechanical, thermal, electrical and chemical considerations, and can be organized into categories convenient to various test facility capabilities.

Johnson, L.J.; Willis, A.H.

1981-01-01

29

The faradaic efficiency of the lithium-thionyl chloride battery  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of converting chemical energy into electrical energy has been studied for the case of D-size, low and medium rate lithium-thionyl chloride (Li/TC) cells, under DC and various pulsed loads. Microcalorimetric monitoring of the heat output during discharge allowed the direct measurement of the faradaic efficiency, and showed that self-discharge is far more pervasive than previously acknowledged by researchers and battery manufacturers. Evaluations of the cell dynamics prove that current load and temperature fluctuations combine to disrupt the lithium passivation and to greatly enhance self-discharge. Typical faradaic efficiencies for DC range from abut 30% at low current density to 90% at moderate and 75% at high current density. Pulsed current further depresses these efficiency levels, except at very low average current densities. The decreased faradaic efficiency of Li/TC batteries in certain pulse situations needs to be studied further to define the range of applications for which it can be successfully used.

Hoier, S.N.; Eisenmann, E.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Battery Research Dept.

1996-04-01

30

A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

Shah, Pinakin M.

1993-01-01

31

A new bonded catalyst for safe lithium-thionyl chloride batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the research effort was to demonstrate that a new class of organometallic cathode catalysts, the TAAs, are stable in thionyl chloride and that they significantly improve the power performance of lithium-thionyl chloride primary batteries. A number of TAAs were evaluated and shown to be active catalysts. Included in this evaluation were TAAs which were covalently bonded to

F. Walsh; J. Hopewood

1982-01-01

32

A mathematical model of a lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1-D mathematical model for the lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell was developed to investigate methods of improving its performance and safety. The model includes many of the components of a typical lithium/thionyl chloride cell such as the porous lithium chloride film which forms on the lithium anode surface. The governing equations are formulated from fundamental conservation laws using porous electrode theory and concentrated solution theory. The model is used to predict 1-D, time dependent profiles of concentration, porosity, current, and potential as well as cell temperature and voltage. When a certain discharge rate is required, the model can be used to determine the design criteria and operating variables which yield high cell capacities. Model predictions can be used to establish operational and design limits within which the thermal runaway problem, inherent in these cells, can be avoided.

Evans, T. I.; Nguyen, T. V.; White, R. E.

1987-01-01

33

Lithium chloride protects retinal neurocytes from nutrient deprivation by promoting DNA non-homologous end-joining  

SciTech Connect

Lithium chloride is a therapeutic agent for treatment of bipolar affective disorders. Increasing numbers of studies have indicated that lithium has neuroprotective effects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of lithium have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate whether lithium chloride produces neuroprotective function by improving DNA repair pathway in retinal neurocyte. In vitro, the primary cultured retinal neurocytes (85.7% are MAP-2 positive cells) were treated with lithium chloride, then cultured with serum-free media to simulate the nutrient deprived state resulting from ischemic insult. The neurite outgrowth of the cultured cells increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner when exposed to different levels of lithium chloride. Genomic DNA electrophoresis demonstrated greater DNA integrity of retinal neurocytes when treated with lithium chloride as compared to the control. Moreover, mRNA and protein levels of Ligase IV (involved in DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway) in retinal neurocytes increased with lithium chloride. The end joining activity assay was performed to determine the role of lithium on NHEJ in the presence of extract from retinal neurocytes. The rejoining levels in retinal neurocytes treated with lithium were significantly increased as compared to the control. Furthermore, XRCC4, the Ligase IV partner, and the transcriptional factor, CREB and CTCF, were up-regulated in retinal cells after treating with 1.0 mM lithium chloride. Therefore, our data suggest that lithium chloride protects the retinal neural cells from nutrient deprivation in vitro, which may be similar to the mechanism of cell death in glaucoma. The improvement in DNA repair pathway involving in Ligase IV might have an important role in lithium neuroprotection. This study provides new insights into the neural protective mechanisms of lithium chloride.

Zhuang Jing; Li Fan; Liu Xuan; Liu Zhiping; Lin Jianxian [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Ge Yihong [Department of Stomatology, the Southern Medical University (China); Kaminski, Joseph M. [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation, University of South Alabama (United States); Summers, James Bradley [Department of Radiology, University of South Alabama (United States); Wang Zhichong [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Ge Jian [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)], E-mail: gejian@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Yu Keming [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)], E-mail: yukeming@mail.sysu.edu.cn

2009-03-13

34

Lithium: Thionyl chloride battery state-of-the-art assessment  

SciTech Connect

Models of the performance of primary Li/SOCl{sub 2} cells can provide for realistic comparisons between technical information from different sources, and set standards that electronic circuit designers may refer to in the generation of high-quality products. Data from various investigators were used to derive mathematical- statistical relationships with physical design features (e.g. size and materials), operating parameters (e.g. current and temperature) and storage conditions (time and temperature). These efforts were substantially promoted by normalization procedures. For example, current loads were converted into current densities, or if appropriate, into current per unit cathode volume. Similarly, cell capacities were standardized with the maximum values observed at low current and also with respect to the cathode volume. Particular emphasis was placed on evaluations of voltage-delay, cell capacity and self-discharge, for which several equations were established. In spite of a considerable expenditure in time to find high-quality datasets, the reality is that all of the reviewed studies are flawed in one way or another. Specifically, all datasets are afflicted with sizable experimental errors and the precision of the regression equations is much lower than is deemed necessary for a universal model of the lithium thionyl chloride cell. Each of the equations has some definite truth content, but is generally incapable of bridging the gap between different studies. The basic failure to come up with a unifying model for Li/SOCl{sub 2} batteries leaves only one benefit of the present analysis, namely to provide guidance for future investigations. Several recommendations are made based on the insight gained during the search for good data in the relevant literature.

Eisenmann, E.T.

1996-03-01

35

A description of the vapor phase in the lithium thionyl chloride battery  

E-print Network

A DESCRIPTION OF TIIE YAPOP, PHASE IN THF. LITHIUM THIONYI. CHLORIDE BATTERY A Thesis by RODOLFO MORALES, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AEzM University in partial fulfrHment of the requirement for the degree oi' MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering A DESCRIPTION OF THE VAPOR PHASE IN THE LITHIUM THIONYL CHLORIDE BATTERY A Thesis bv RODOLFO 'vIORALES, JR. Approved as to style and content by: Ralph E. White (Chairman of Committee) James...

Morales, Rodolfo

1988-01-01

36

Reduction of the spent nuclear fuel of a VVER-1000 reactor by lithium in a lithium chloride melt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers at FGUP GNTs RF NIIAR performed a series of experiments on the lithium reduction of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of a VVER-1000 reactor to a metal in a lithium chloride melt. The depletion of the nuclear fuel taken before experiments is about 30000 (MW day)/t, and the cooling time is 5 years. The experiments are performed on 5.8-kg samples of a prepared SNF powder. Data are obtained on a decrease in the heat release, the specific activity of the processed powder, and the distribution of actinides and the main fission products between a salt phase and a reduced SNF powder.

Bychkov, A. V.; Ishunin, V. S.; Kormilitsyn, M. V.

2010-08-01

37

Fault tree analysis of prismatic lithium thionyl chloride (Li\\/SOCl2) battery cells - phase 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses and presents the initial key findings of a fault tree analysis, which was conducted in phase 1 of a project to address the reliability of prismatic lithium thionyl chloride (Li\\/SOCl2) battery cells. These types of battery cells are typically used in a large range of battery products, from OEM applications to military applications (Levy and Bro, 1987;

John S. Bowers; Donald B. Hardy

2006-01-01

38

Sources of pressure in lithium thionyl chloride batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation of pressure in Li/SOCl2 batteries has been investigated. Hydrogen, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen are the principal gases evolved. Reaction of lithium metal with protic species in the liquid electrolyte produces hydrogen gas on open circuit and more rapidly on discharge. Sulfur dioxide is a product of electrochemical discharge. Nitrogen, trapped in lithium metal as dissolved gas or as lithium nitride is released during discharge. In addition, smaller amounts of gas, trapped in cathode pores and adsorbed on the surface of carbon, are evolved when discharge products are deposited in the cathode. Hydrogen pressure is very sensitive to the care used in drying the electrolyte and cathodes. Alternate cycles of evacuation and backfill with SO2 eliminate much of the moisture and trapped gas from the cell prior to filling with electrolyte.

McDonald, R. C.

1982-11-01

39

Zero-gravity growth of a sodium chloride-lithium fluoride eutectic mixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous and discontinuous lithium fluoride fibers embedded in a sodium chloride matrix were produced in space and on Earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convective current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and Earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of lithium fluoride fibers along the growth direction.

Yue, A. S.; Yeh, C. W.; Yue, B. K.

1982-01-01

40

In search of a phase response curve for lithium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Male rats were free-run, and one day later were exposed to a single, punctate dose of 5 mM LiCl/kg body weight by injection at one of eight equally spaced times throughout the 24-h period. For each of the six days following injection, a separate phase response curve was derived from core-temperature chronograms. Unlike the classical response induced by chronobiotics such as dexamethasone, alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine, and theophylline, statistically significant phase shifts for lithium were observed only on the first day following injection. These induced phase changes were not permanent, but instead were transient. By the sixth day of free-run, all experimental rats had drifted to the control acrophase; i.e., by the end of the experiment, most of the treated rats again had phase and confidence arcs not significantly different from their controls. The confidence arcs of the acrophases of the individual animals on the subsequent days post injection reveal that in this experiment, lithium was transiently dyschronogenic rather than definitively chronobiotic. The results suggest that punctate rather than chronic administration of lithium, followed by strict orthochronal administration of traditional zeitgebers, would be an effective way of restoring circadian synchrony in an internally desynchronized system. 122 refs.

Readey, M.A.; Groh, K.R.; Ehret, C.F.

1987-01-01

41

Lithium chloride inhibits the expression and secretion of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) regulates IGF availability for glucose homeostasis. The IGFBP-1 promoter shares common regulatory response elements with phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), the expression and activity of which is inhibited by lithium chloride, associated with an inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 activity, in the rat hepatoma cell line H4-II-E. We therefore determined the effect of lithium chloride on

M S Lewitt; K Brismar; J Ohlson; J Hartman

2001-01-01

42

Combined Treatment of Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Cell Line DU145 with Chemotherapeutic Agents and Lithium Chloride: Effect on Growth Arrest and/or Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Hormone-independent prostate cancer cell lines are resistant to antineoplastic drugs, this study sought to determine the usefulness of lithium chloride as an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3? to increase the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin, etoposide or vinblastine antineoplastic drugs on DU145 cells. Combination effect was assessed by using low and IC50 doses of drugs + lithium chloride. Subsequently, cell cycle analysis and p53 levels and its subcellular localization as a key regulator of cell cycle were assessed. Lithium chloride showed cytotoxic effect in a dose and time dependent manner (p<0.001). Both drugs doxorubicin and etoposide in combination with lithium chloride (LiCl) showed higher percent of cells in SubG1 compared to control (p<0.001). Combination of IC50 dose of doxorubicin and lithium chloride led to S phase arrest (p<0.001, compared to control, lithium chloride or doxorubicin alone). Moreover, G2/M arrest was significantly increased when low dose of doxorubicin and vinblastine were combined with lithium chloride (p<0.001, compared to control and lithium chloride alone). DU145 cells were highly sensitive to vinblastine and no significant changes were observed when combined with lithium chloride. The IC50 doses of all three drugs combined with lithium chloride demonstrated decreased cell percent in G1 phase compared to control or lithium chloride alone (p<0.001). Moreover, in the presence of lithium chloride there were increased levels of p53 in cytoplasm and nucleus (p<0.05). Our results suggest that combination of lithium chloride with chemotherapeutic agents may increases their cytotoxic effect on hormone non-responsive human prostate cancer cells. PMID:23408470

Hossein, Ghamartaj; Zavareh, Vajihe Azimian; Fard, Parissa Sahranavard

2012-01-01

43

Effect of Lithium Chloride on Proliferation and Bone Differentiation of Rat Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective(s) It is believed that the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation and proliferation are the results of activation of wnt signaling pathway. On the other hand, lithium chloride is reported to be able to activate this pathway. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lithium on in vitro proliferation and bone differentiation of marrow-derived MSC. Materials

Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad; Mahmood Talkhabi; Bahman Zeynali

2008-01-01

44

Conditioned Responses to a Taste Conditioned Stimulus Paired With Lithium Chloride Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experiments examined whether behavioral conditioned responses (CRs) develop to lithium chloride (LiCl)–paired tastes and whether these CRs are similar to the behaviors that follow administration of the drug. Rats were exposed to a saccharin solution via intraoral infusions before being injected with either LiCl or saline. CRs were assessed after conditioning when the saccharin conditioned stimulus was delivered

Cynthia L. Meachum; Ilene L. Bernstein

1990-01-01

45

Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (Active Lithium\\/Thionyl Chloride) batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin material candidates for ALTC (Active Lithium\\/Thionyl Chloride) batteries in 1.5M LiAlCl4\\/SOCl2 electrolyte have been investigated using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4

Francine S. Bovard; Wendy R. Cieslak

1987-01-01

46

Suppression of predatory behaviors in laboratory mice following lithium chloride injections or electric shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compared the relative effectiveness of electric-shock and lithium chloride (LiC1) injections in suppressing\\u000a cricket killing and eating by mice. Male ICR mice were tested for cricket killing and eating. Mice that attacked and ate a\\u000a cricket were punished (with electric shock or LiC1 injections) after killing and eating crickets. Control mice received saline\\u000a injections, delayed shock, or

Charles S. Klunder; Michael O’Boyle

1979-01-01

47

Evaluation of high-energy lithium thionyl chloride primary cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced commercial primary lithium cell (LiSoCl2) was evaluated in order to establish baseline data for improved lithium batteries for aerospace applications. The cell tested had nominal capacity of 6 Ah. Maximum energy density at low rates (less than C/30, where C is the cell capacity in amp-hrs and 30 corresponds to a 30 hr discharge time) was found to be near 300 Wh/kg. An equation which predicts the operating voltage of these cells as a function of current and state of charge is presented. Heat generation rates of these cells were determined as a function of current in a calorimeter. It was found that heat rates could be theoretically predicted with some degree of accuracy at currents less than 1 amp or the C/6 rate. No explosions were observed in the cells during the condition of overdischarge or reversal nor during high rate discharge. It was found, however, that the cells can vent when overdischarge currents are greater than C/30 and when discharge rates are greater than 1.5C.

Frank, H. A.

1980-01-01

48

Selective Reduction of Active Metal Chlorides from Molten LiCl-KCl using Lithium Drawdown  

SciTech Connect

In support of optimizing electrorefining technology for treating spent nuclear fuel, lithium drawdown has been investigated for separating actinides from molten salt electrolyte. Drawdown reaction selectivity is a major issue that needs to be investigated, since the goal is to remove actinides while leaving the fission products in the salt. A series of lithium drawdown tests with surrogate fission product chlorides was run to obtain selectivity data with non-radioactive salts, develop a predictive model, and draw conclusions about the viability of using this process with actinide-loadd salt. Results of tests with CsCl, LaCl3, CeCl3, and NdCl3 are reported here. An equilibrium model has been formulated and fit to the experimental data. Excellent fits to the data were achieved. Based on analysis and results obtained to date, it is concluded that clean separation between minor actinides and lanthanides will be difficult to achieve using lithium drawdown.

Michael F. Simpson; Daniel LaBrier; Michael Lineberry; Tae-Sic Yoo

2012-10-01

49

Development of a 300 Amp-hr high rate lithium thionyl chloride cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a high-rate lithium thionyl chloride cylindrical cell with parallel plate electrodes is discussed. The development was divided into three phases: phase 1, a 150 Amp/hour low rate (1 mA/sq cm) design; phase 2, a 25 Amp/hour high rate (5 mA/sq cm) design; and phase 3, a 300 Amp/hour high rate (5 mA/sq cm) design. The basic design is the same for all three cells. The electrodes are perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder. Multiple electrodes are bussed up the side of the cylinder, 180 deg apart allowing excellent anode and cathode utilization. It is a lithium limited design with excess electrolyte. The cathode is Shawinigan or Gulf Acetylene black with no catalyst. The electrolyte is 1.8 Molar lithium tetrachloroaluminate (LiAlCl4) in thionyl chloride. All cell cases are 304L Stainless Steel with a BS&B burst disc.

Boyle, Gerard H.

1991-01-01

50

Performance of (CoPC)n catalyst in active lithium-thionyl chloride cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study was conducted with anode limited D size cells to characterize the performance of an active lithium-thionyl chloride (Li/SOCl2) system using the polymeric cobalt phthalocyanine, (CoPC)n, catalyst in carbon cathodes. The author describes the results of this experiment with respect to initial voltage delays, operating voltages, and capacities. The effectiveness of the preconditioning methods evolved to alleviate passivation effects on storage are also discussed. The results clearly demonstrated the superior high rate capability of cells with the catalyst. The catalyst did not adversely impact the performance of cells after active storage for up to 6 months, while retaining its beneficial influences.

Shah, Pinakin M.

1990-01-01

51

Performances of 250 Amp-hr lithium/thionyl chloride cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 250 Ah lithium thionyl chloride battery is being developed for a booster rocket engine. Extensive cell testing is running to evaluate functional and safety performances. Some results are presented. The lithium/thionyl chloride batteries were selected for their high energy density (low weight) as compared to other sources. The temperature of a lower weight item will be more sensitive to variations of internal and external heat fluxes than a heavier one. The use of high energy density L/TC batteries is subjected to stringent thermal environments to have benefit of energy density and to stay safe in any conditions. The battery thermal environment and discharge rate have to be adjusted to obtain the right temperature range at cell level, to have the maximum performances. Voltage and capacity are very sensitive to temperature. This temperature is the cell internal actual temperature during discharge. This temperature is directed by external thermal environment and by cell internal heat dissipation, i.e., cell actual voltage.

Goualard, Jacques

1991-05-01

52

Lithium chloride treatment induces epithelial cell proliferation in xenografted human endometrium  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND In mouse endometrium, glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK3ß) is a key enzyme controlling nuclear localization of cyclin D1. We developed a functional model of xenografted human endometrium to test whether similar mechanisms are operative in the human by using Lithium chloride (LiCl), an inhibitor of GSK3ß. METHODS Human endometrial samples were obtained from normal volunteers, then implanted under the kidney capsule of nude mice, and treated with estradiol-17ß (E2) or LiCl. Xenografts were assessed for protein expression of MKI-67, mini-chromosome maintenance protein-2, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and cyclin D1. RESULTS Both E2 and LiCl induced a robust proliferative response in the epithelium. Only lithium treatment produced clear nuclear localization of cyclin D1 consistent with the proliferative response observed. Regenerated endometrium had detectable ER and PR expression. CONCLUSION Xenografted human endometrium provides a dynamic model of uterine biology. Administration of LiCl in the absence of E2 induced epithelial proliferation, supporting the hypothesis that human and murine endometrial proliferation may share key regulatory pathways. These data suggest a possible link between the increased menstrual disturbances in women with affective disorders taking lithium and the consequent potential for the development of endometrial proliferative disorder. PMID:19403565

Polotsky, Alex J.; Zhu, Liyin; Santoro, Nanette; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

2009-01-01

53

Using polyvinyl chloride dyed with bromocresol purple in radiation dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) dyed with bromocresol purple was investigated as a high-dose radiation dosimeter. The absorbance at 417nm depends linearly on the dose below 50kGy. The response depends neither on dose rate nor on the irradiation temperature. The effects of post-irradiation storage in the dark and in indirect sunlight are also discussed.

Munzer Kattan; Haroun al Kassiri; Yarob Daher

2011-01-01

54

Using polyvinyl chloride dyed with bromocresol purple in radiation dosimetry.  

PubMed

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) dyed with bromocresol purple was investigated as a high-dose radiation dosimeter. The absorbance at 417 nm depends linearly on the dose below 50 kGy. The response depends neither on dose rate nor on the irradiation temperature. The effects of post-irradiation storage in the dark and in indirect sunlight are also discussed. PMID:21109445

Kattan, Munzer; al Kassiri, Haroun; Daher, Yarob

2011-02-01

55

Incorporation mechanism for doping of metal ions into a passivating film at the lithium/thionyl chloride interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of iron and titanium ions on corrosion processes of lithium in thionyl chloride electrolytes have been studied. Laws for the growth of the passivating film on the type and concentration of doped ions have been established, and equations for these are suggested. A stepwise mechanism of dopant incorporation into passivating film structure is presented.

Danilov, V. G.; Shikin, V. I.

1993-05-01

56

A new bonded catalyst for safe lithium-thionyl chloride batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the research effort was to demonstrate that a new class of organometallic cathode catalysts, the TAAs, are stable in thionyl chloride and that they significantly improve the power performance of lithium-thionyl chloride primary batteries. A number of TAAs were evaluated and shown to be active catalysts. Included in this evaluation were TAAs which were covalently bonded to the supporting carbon electrode material; a covalently bonded catalyst has the potential advantage that it will not dissolve into the electrolyte and negatively affect anode performance. During the six month research program, the TAAS were shown to: significantly improve cathode performance in Li/SOCl2 cells; improve cathode capacity; improve cathode performance throughout long-term tests; and not affect anode performance. Further work is needed to develop data in cell studies on temperature range, shelf life, voltage delay effects, energy/power density as a function of rate, and factors affecting electrode capacity. Battery performance in stress tests to develop safety and cost data is also needed.

Walsh, F.; Hopewood, J.

1982-08-01

57

Growth, spectral and crystallization perfection studies of semi organic non linear optical crystal - L-alanine lithium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of L-alanine lithium chloride single crystals were successfully grown using slow evaporation solution growth technique at constant temperature (303K). The formation of the new crystal has been confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR studies. The crystalline perfection was analyzed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) rocking curve measurements. The powder second harmonic generation (SHG) has been confirmed by Nd: YAG laser. The results have been discussed in detail.

Redrothu, Hanumantharao; Kalainathan, S.; Bhagavannarayana, G.

2012-06-01

58

Alkali Halide Opacity in Brown Dwarf and Cool Stellar Atmospheres: A Study of Lithium Chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent thermochemical equilibrium calculations have revealed the important role played by lithium chloride in the lithium chemistry of cool dwarf atmospheres (K. Lodders 1999, ApJ 519, 793). Indeed, LiCl appears to be the dominant Li-bearing gas over an extended domain of the (P,T) diagram, typically for temperatures below 1500 K. LiCl has a large dipole moment in its ground electronic state which can give rise to intense rovibrational line spectra. In addition, LiCl can make dipole transitions to several low-lying unbound excited states, causing dissociation of the molecule. For these reasons, LiCl may be a significant source of line and continuum opacity in brown dwarf and cool stellar atmospheres. In this work, we report calculations of complete lists of line oscillator strengths and photodissociation cross sections for the low-lying electronic states of LiCl. We have performed single- and double-excitation configuration interaction calculations using the ALCHEMY ab initio package (Mc Lean et al. 1991, MOTECC 91, Elsevier, Leiden) and obtained the potential curves and the corresponding dipole transition moment functions between the X 1? ^+ ground state and the B 1? ^+ and A 1? excited states. The resulting line oscillator strengths and molecular photodissociation cross sections have been included in the PHOENIX stellar atmosphere code (Hauschildt & Baron 1999, J. Comput. App. Math. 102, 41). The new models, calculated using spherical geometry for all gravities considered, also incorporate our latest database of nearly 670 million molecular lines, and updated equations of state (EOS). This work was supported in part by NSF grants AST-9720704 and AST-0086246, NASA grants NAG5-8425, NAG5-9222, and NAG5-10551 as well as NASA/JPL grant 961582.

Kirby, K.; Weck, P. F.; Schweitzer, A.; Stancil, P. C.; Hauschildt, P. H.

2003-12-01

59

New Aptes Cross-linked Polymers from Poly(ethylene oxide)s and Cyanuric Chloride for Lithium Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new series of polymer electrolytes for use as membranes for lithium batteries are described. Electrolytes were made by polymerization between cyanuric chloride and diamino-terminated poly(ethylene oxide)s, followed by cross-linking via a sol-gel process. Thermal analysis and lithium conductivity of freestanding polymer films were studied. The effects of several variables on conductivity were investigated, such as length of backbone PEO chain, length of branching PEO chain, extent of branching, extent of cross-linking, salt content, and salt counterion. Polymer films with the highest percentage of PEO were found to be the most conductive, with a maximum lithium conductivity of 3.9 x 10(exp -5) S/cm at 25 C. Addition of plasticizer to the dry polymers increased conductivity by an order of magnitude.

Tigelaar, Dean M.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Kinder, James D.; Bennett, William R.

2005-01-01

60

Development of a moderate rate lithium/thionyl-chloride D'' cell  

SciTech Connect

We have designed a lithium/thionyl chloride D'' cell for efficient performance at the moderate rate of {approximately}500 mA (6.25 {Omega} load). The SNL-MR-D cell has 345 cm{sup 2} of active electrode area, 1.0 M LiAlCl{sub 4} electrolyte that may have SO{sub 2} additive, and a cathode blended of Shawinigan Acetylene Black, Cabot Black Pearls 2000, and Teflon binder. The average performance of cells built in-house and discharged at 25{degree}C and 6.25 {Omega} has been 14.9 Ah (50 Wh). We have aged the cells at 30{degree}C and 50{degree}C, and measured complex impedance and microcalorimetry during the aging period. The cells have been discharged after the aging period at 25{degree}C and 0{degree}C. This preliminary study has allowed us to establish an initial cell design and estimate the rate of capacity loss on storage or long-term usage. 13 refs., 6 figs.

Cieslak, W.R.; Street, H.K.

1990-01-01

61

Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin material candidates for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries in 1.5M LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte have been investigated using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4 PH, and 446), three Fe-Ni glass sealing alloys (Kovar, Alloy 52, and Niromet 426), a Ni-based alloy (Hastelloy B-2) and a zirconium-based alloy (Zircaloy), were compared to the reference materials Ni and 316L SS. All of the candidate materials showed some evidence of corrosion and, therefore, did not perform as well as the reference materials. The Hastelloy B-2 and Zircaloy are clearly unacceptable materials for this application. Of the remaining alternate materials, the 446 SS and Alloy 52 are the most promising candidates.

Bovard, Francine S.; Cieslak, Wendy R.

1987-09-01

62

Regioselective Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiation of 1-Chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzene: Role of Autocatalysis, Lithium Chloride Catalysis, and Reversibility  

PubMed Central

Ortholithiation of 1-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzene with lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in tetrahydrofuran at ?78 °C displays characteristics of reactions in which aggregation events are rate limiting. Metalation with lithium chloride-free LDA involves a rate-limiting deaggregation via dimer-based transition structures. The post-rate-limiting proton transfers are suggested to involve highly solvated triple ions. Autocatalysis by the resulting aryllithiums or catalysis by traces (<100 ppm) of LiCl divert the reaction through di- and trisolvated monomer-based pathways for metalation at the two and six positions, respectively. The regiochemistry is dictated by a combination of kinetically controlled metalations overlayed by an equilibration involving diisopropylamine that is shown to occur by the microscopic reverse of the monomer-based metalations. PMID:21500823

Hoepker, Alexander C.; Gupta, Lekha; Ma, Yun; Faggin, Marc F.; Collum, David B.

2011-01-01

63

Effect of lithium chloride on spectral, optical, thermal and mechanical behaviour of bis thiourea zinc acetate crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of pure bis thiourea zinc acetate (BTZA) and lithium chloride (LiCl) doped BTZA have been synthesized and grown successfully from aqueous solutions by slow evaporation technique. The single crystals thus grown were characterized by different techniques such as single crystal XRD, AAS, FT-IR, UV-Vis, TG/DTA and SHG test. The single crystal XRD study proved that the dopant has not changed the structure of the parent crystal. The AAS study confirmed the presence of lithium in the doped crystal. The FTIR study ascertained the metal coordination of lithium chloride doped BTZA through thiourea. The optical behavior of the doped crystal has been examined by UV spectral analysis. Thermal studies TGA & DTA of the doped crystal have been investigated and found that the doped crystal is thermally more stable than the pure crystal. The SHG test using Nd: YAG Laser confirmed the NLO activity of the pure and doped crystal. The obtained results are presented and discussed.

Ruby Nirmala, L.; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J.

2012-11-01

64

Effect of lithium chloride on spectral, optical, thermal and mechanical behaviour of bis thiourea zinc acetate crystals.  

PubMed

Single crystals of pure bis thiourea zinc acetate (BTZA) and lithium chloride (LiCl) doped BTZA have been synthesized and grown successfully from aqueous solutions by slow evaporation technique. The single crystals thus grown were characterized by different techniques such as single crystal XRD, AAS, FT-IR, UV-Vis, TG/DTA and SHG test. The single crystal XRD study proved that the dopant has not changed the structure of the parent crystal. The AAS study confirmed the presence of lithium in the doped crystal. The FTIR study ascertained the metal coordination of lithium chloride doped BTZA through thiourea. The optical behavior of the doped crystal has been examined by UV spectral analysis. Thermal studies TGA & DTA of the doped crystal have been investigated and found that the doped crystal is thermally more stable than the pure crystal. The SHG test using Nd: YAG Laser confirmed the NLO activity of the pure and doped crystal. The obtained results are presented and discussed. PMID:22868378

Ruby Nirmala, L; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J

2012-11-01

65

Factors Affecting the Plasticity of Sodium Chloride, Lithium Fluoride, and Magnesium Oxide Single Crystals. 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of the relative magnitude of the effects of various factors on the ductility of single crystals of sodium chloride (NaCl), lithium fluoride (LiF), and magnesium oxide (MgO). Specimen treatments included water-polishing, varying cleavage rate, annealing, quenching, X-irradiation, surface coating, aging, and combinations of some of these treatments. The mechanical behavior of the crystals was studied in flexure and in compression, the latter study being performed at both constant strain rate and constant load. Etch-pit studies were carried out to provide some pertinent information on the results of pretreatment on the dislocation concentration and distribution in the vicinity of the surface. The load deformation curves for these ionic single crystals show an initial region of very low slope which proved to be due to anelastic deformation. The extent of initial anelastic deformation is modified by specimen pretreatment in a way that suggests that this deformation is the result of expansion of cleaved-in dislocation loops, which can contract on the removal of the stress. The effects of the various pretreatments on the load and deflection at fracture are in accord with the prediction one might make with regard to their effect on the nucleation of fatal surface cracks. For NaCl, increases in ductility are always accompanied by increases in strength. The creep constants for NaCl are a function of treatments which affect the bulk structure but are not a function of treatments which only affect the surface.

Stearns, Carl A.; Pack, Ann E.; Lad, Robert A.

1959-01-01

66

Topical Application of Lithium Chloride on the Pulp Induces Dentin Regeneration  

PubMed Central

We herein describe a novel procedure for dentin regeneration that mimics the biological processes of tooth development in nature. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is an important regulator of the Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) expression. Our approach mimics the biological processes underlying tooth development in nature and focuses on the activation of canonical Wnt signaling to trigger the natural process of dentinogenesis. The coronal portion of the dentin and the underlying pulp was removed from the first molars. We applied lithium chloride (LiCl), an activator of canonical Wnt signaling, on the amputated pulp surface to achieve transdifferentiation toward odontoblasts from the surrounding pulpal cells. MicroCT and microscopic analyses demonstrated that the topical application of LiCl induced dentin repair, including the formation of a complete dentin bridge. LiCl-induced dentin is a tubular dentin in which the pulp cells are not embedded within the matrix, as in primary dentin. In contrast, a dentin bridge was not induced in the control group treated with pulp capping with material carriers alone, although osteodentin without tubular formation was induced at a comparatively deeper position from the pulp exposure site. We also evaluated the influence of LiCl on differentiation toward odontoblasts in vitro. In the mDP odontoblast cell line, LiCl activated the mRNA expression of Dspp, Axin2 and Kallikrein 4 (Klk4) and downregulated the Osteopontin (Osp) expression. These results provide a scientific basis for the biomimetic regeneration of dentin using LiCl as a new capping material to activate dentine regeneration. PMID:25812134

Ishimoto, Kazuya; Hayano, Satoru; Yanagita, Takeshi; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Itoh, Shinsuke; Ono, Mitsuaki; Kuboki, Takuo; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Yamashiro, Takashi

2015-01-01

67

Topical application of lithium chloride on the pulp induces dentin regeneration.  

PubMed

We herein describe a novel procedure for dentin regeneration that mimics the biological processes of tooth development in nature. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is an important regulator of the Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) expression. Our approach mimics the biological processes underlying tooth development in nature and focuses on the activation of canonical Wnt signaling to trigger the natural process of dentinogenesis. The coronal portion of the dentin and the underlying pulp was removed from the first molars. We applied lithium chloride (LiCl), an activator of canonical Wnt signaling, on the amputated pulp surface to achieve transdifferentiation toward odontoblasts from the surrounding pulpal cells. MicroCT and microscopic analyses demonstrated that the topical application of LiCl induced dentin repair, including the formation of a complete dentin bridge. LiCl-induced dentin is a tubular dentin in which the pulp cells are not embedded within the matrix, as in primary dentin. In contrast, a dentin bridge was not induced in the control group treated with pulp capping with material carriers alone, although osteodentin without tubular formation was induced at a comparatively deeper position from the pulp exposure site. We also evaluated the influence of LiCl on differentiation toward odontoblasts in vitro. In the mDP odontoblast cell line, LiCl activated the mRNA expression of Dspp, Axin2 and Kallikrein 4 (Klk4) and downregulated the Osteopontin (Osp) expression. These results provide a scientific basis for the biomimetic regeneration of dentin using LiCl as a new capping material to activate dentine regeneration. PMID:25812134

Ishimoto, Kazuya; Hayano, Satoru; Yanagita, Takeshi; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Itoh, Shinsuke; Ono, Mitsuaki; Kuboki, Takuo; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Yamashiro, Takashi

2015-01-01

68

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2009, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1.2 kt (1,300 st) of contained lithium, a 40-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium, and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2009, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 18.7 kt (20,600 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds.

Jaskula, B.W.

2010-01-01

69

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2012, estimated world lithium consumption was about 28 kt (31,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, an 8 percent increase from that of 2011. Estimated U.S. consumption was about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, the same as that of 2011. The United States was thought to rank fourth in consumption of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Rockwood Lithium Inc., produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

Jaskula, B.W.

2013-01-01

70

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2010, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1 kt (1,100 st) of contained lithium, a 23-percent decrease from 2009. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium. It remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2010, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 21 kt (22,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 12-percent increase from 2009.

Jaskula, B.W.

2011-01-01

71

Lrp5-independent activation of Wnt signaling by lithium chloride increases bone formation  

E-print Network

in these mice. SAMP6 mice have accelerated osteoporosis due to inadequate osteoblast renewal. Lithium lithium should determine whether it also improves bone mass in humans. anabolic osteoporosis therapy the Osteoporosis­Pseudoglioma syndrome (OPPG), an autosomal re- cessive disorder characterized by extremely low

72

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2011, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 25 kt (25,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 10-percent increase from 2010. U.S. consumption was estimated to have been about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, a 100-percent increase from 2010. The United States was estimated to be the fourth-ranked consumer of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

Jaskula, B.W.

2012-01-01

73

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2005, lithium consumption in the United States was at 2.5 kt of contained lithium, nearly 32% more than the estimate for 2004. World consumption was 14.1 kt of lithium contained in minerals and compounds in 2003. Exports from the US increased slightly compared with 2004. Due to strong demand for lithium compounds in 2005, both lithium carbonate plants in Chile were operating at or near capacity.

Ober, J.A.

2006-01-01

74

Adenosine triphosphate-magnesium chloride in radiation injury.  

PubMed

Although adenosine triphosphate-magnesium chloride (ATP-MgCl2) has demonstrated cytoprotective effects in a variety of adverse pathophysiologic conditions, its ability to alter radiation injury is unknown. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to assess the effects of ATP-MgCl2 on colorectal radiation injury after preoperative pelvic radiotherapy. Mixed-breed pigs (n = 36) received 4250 cGy preoperative external-beam pelvic radiotherapy (350 cGy fractions three times per week for 4 weeks). During radiotherapy, animals were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1) intravenous infusions of normal saline during radiotherapy, (2) intravenous ATP-MgCl2 (30 mumol/kg) during radiotherapy, or (3) intravenous ATP-MgCl2 (60 mumol/kg) during each radiotherapy session. After completion of radiotherapy and a 4-week rest period, animals underwent colorectal resection by either the two-layer hand-sewn (n = 18) or stapled end-to-end anastomosis technique (n = 18). Laser Doppler velocimetric readings were obtained to assess mural colonic blood flow after completion of anastomosis. A second laparotomy on postoperative day 5 or 11 was done to examine the following anastomotic parameters: (1) repeat laser Doppler velocimetry, (2) gross inflammatory scoring, (3) bursting pressure, (4) preoperative barium enema to identify leak or stenosis, (5) analysis of anastomotic hydroxyproline content, and (6) incidence of cutaneous injury in the radiation portals. ATP-MgCl2 administered intravenously at 60 mumol/kg led to (1) diminished colorectal seromuscular ischemia evidenced by laser Doppler velocimetric readings, (2) decreased skin and subcutaneous tissue injury in the treatment portals, (3) significantly decreased perianastomotic inflammatory reaction, and (4) increased early hydroxyproline content. There was no significant difference in the incidence of leakage or stenosis between the study groups, nor was the anastomotic bursting strength significantly different between the treatment groups. Therefore the administration of ATP-MgCl2 (60 mumol/kg) appears to offer significant cytoprotection from preoperative pelvic radiation therapy. PMID:1440247

Senagore, A J; Milsom, J W; Walshaw, R K; Mostoskey, U; Dunstan, R; Chaudry, I H

1992-11-01

75

A collisional-radiative study of lithium plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity of lithium plasma models to the underlying atomic data is investigated with the aim of providing improved diagnostic capabilities for magnetically confined plasmas. Collisional-radiative modeling is carried out with both the Los Alamos and ADAS suite of codes. The effects of plane-wave-Born (PWB), distorted-wave (DW) and non-perturbative R-matrix with pseudo states (RMPS) and time-dependent close-coupling (TDCC) electron impact atomic data on derived plasma quantities such as the ionization balance and radiated power are studied. Density and temperature regimes are identified where non-perturbative excitation and ionization rate coefficients must be used. The electron temperature and density ranges investigated are 0.2 eV ? Te ? 90 eV and 10^10 cm-3 ? ne ? 10^14 cm-3.

Fontes, C. J.; Loch, S. D.; Colgan, J.; Pindzola, M. S.; Ballance, C. P.; Griffin, D. C.

2003-10-01

76

Lithium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lithium industry can be divided into two sectors: ore concentrate producers and chemical producers. Ore concentrate producers mine lithium minerals. They beneficiate the ores to produce material for use in ceramics and glass manufacturing.

Ober, J.

1998-01-01

77

Lithium  

MedlinePLUS

Lithium is used to treat and prevent episodes of mania (frenzied, abnormally excited mood) in people with ... depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). Lithium is in a class of medications called antimanic ...

78

Lithium Chloride Enhances Cathepsin H Expression and BMP-4 Degradation in C3H10T1/2 Cells  

PubMed Central

The effect of canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling on chondrogenic differentiation induced by transfection of BMP4 expressing plasmid was analyzed. Lithium chloride (LiCl) which mimics canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling was added to cells transfected with BMP4 expressing plasmid. Although BMP4 mRNA expression was not affected by LiCl, LiCl decreased BMP4 protein accumulation. Gene expression analysis exhibited upregulation of cathepsin H by LiCl treatment. Gene silencing of cathepsin H enhanced BMP4 protein accumulation from BMP4 expressing cells. These results suggested that cathepsin H is regulated by Wnt/?-catenin signaling and plays an important role in the regulation of BMP4 biological activity. PMID:24312905

Kishimoto, Koshi N.; Itoi, Eiji

2013-01-01

79

Molecular Structure of Thionyl chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thionyl chloride is a slightly yellowish liquid with an intense odor and low viscosity. It reacts with lithium to produce lithium chloride and is a good solvent for most organic compounds. Other uses of thionyl chloride include as an intermediate for the production of pharmaceutically active ingredients, as an electrolyte in lithium batteries, and in crop protection.

2002-10-01

80

Radiation damage and defect behavior in ion-implanted, lithium counterdoped silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boron doped silicon n+p solar cells were counterdoped with lithium by ion implantation and the resuitant n+p cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons. The function of fluence and a Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) was studied to correlate defect behavior with cell performance. It was found that the lithium counterdoped cells exhibited significantly increased radiation resistance when compared to boron doped control cells. It is concluded that the annealing behavior is controlled by dissociation and recombination of defects. The DLTS studies show that counterdoping with lithium eliminates at least three deep level defects and results in three new defects. It is speculated that the increased radiation resistance of the counterdoped cells is due primarily to the interaction of lithium with oxygen, single vacanies and divacancies and that the lithium-oxygen interaction is the most effective in contributing to the increased radiation resistance.

Weinberg, I.; Mehta, S.; Swartz, C. K.

1984-01-01

81

Radiation and phase change of lithium fluoride in an annulus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one-dimensional thermal model is developed to evaluate the effect of radiation on the phase change of lithium-fluoride (LiF) in an annular canister under gravitational and microgravitational conditions. Specified heat flux at the outer wall of the canister models focused solar flux; adiabatic and convective conditions are considered for the inner wall. A two-band radiation model is used for the combined-mode heat transfer within the canister, and LiF optical properties relate metal surface properties in vacuum to those in LiF. For axial gravitational conditions, the liquid LiF remains in contact with the two bounding walls, whereas a void gap is used at the outer wall to model possible microgravitational conditions. For the adiabatic cases, exact integrals are obtained for the time required for complete melting of the LiF. Melting was found to occur primarily from the outer wall in the 1-g model, whereas it occurred primarily from the inner wall in the mu-g model. For the convective cases, partially melted steady-state conditions and fully melted conditions are determined to depend on the source flux level, with radiation extending the melting times.

Lund, Kurt O.

1993-01-01

82

Radiation hardness of the storage phosphor europium doped potassium chloride for radiation therapy dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: An important property of a reusable dosimeter is its radiation hardness, that is, its ability to retain its dosimetric merits after irradiation. The radiation hardness of europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu{sup 2+}), a storage phosphor material recently proposed for radiation therapy dosimetry, is examined in this study. Methods: Pellet-style KCl:Eu{sup 2+} dosimeters, 6 mm in diameter, and 1 mm thick, were fabricated in-house for this study. The pellets were exposed by a 6 MV photon beam or in a high dose rate {sup 137}Cs irradiator. Macroscopic properties, such as radiation sensitivity, dose response linearity, and signal stability, were studied with a laboratory photostimulated luminescence (PSL) readout system. Since phosphor performance is related to the state of the storage centers and the activator, Eu{sup 2+}, in the host lattice, spectroscopic and temporal measurements were carried out in order to explore radiation-induced changes at the microscopic level. Results: KCl:Eu{sup 2+} dosimeters retained approximately 90% of their initial signal strength after a 5000 Gy dose history. Dose response was initially supralinear over the dose range of 100-700 cGy but became linear after 60 Gy. Linearity did not change significantly in the 0-5000 Gy dose history spanned in this study. Annealing high dose history chips resulted in a return of supralinearity and a recovery of sensitivity. There were no significant changes in the PSL stimulation spectra, PSL emission spectra, photoluminescence spectra, or luminescence lifetime, indicating that the PSL signal process remains intact after irradiation but at a reduced efficiency due to reparable radiation-induced perturbations in the crystal lattice. Conclusions: Systematic studies of KCl:Eu{sup 2+} material are important for understanding how the material can be optimized for radiation therapy dosimetry purposes. The data presented here indicate that KCl:Eu{sup 2+} exhibits strong radiation hardness and lends support for further investigations of this novel material.

Driewer, Joseph P.; Chen, Haijian; Osvet, Andres; Low, Daniel A.; Li, H. Harold [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 and Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, E4431 Lafferre Hall, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstrasse 7, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

2011-08-15

83

Radiation hardness of the storage phosphor europium doped potassium chloride for radiation therapy dosimetry  

PubMed Central

Purpose: An important property of a reusable dosimeter is its radiation hardness, that is, its ability to retain its dosimetric merits after irradiation. The radiation hardness of europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu2+), a storage phosphor material recently proposed for radiation therapy dosimetry, is examined in this study. Methods: Pellet-style KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters, 6 mm in diameter, and 1 mm thick, were fabricated in-house for this study. The pellets were exposed by a 6 MV photon beam or in a high dose rate 137Cs irradiator. Macroscopic properties, such as radiation sensitivity, dose response linearity, and signal stability, were studied with a laboratory photostimulated luminescence (PSL) readout system. Since phosphor performance is related to the state of the storage centers and the activator, Eu2+, in the host lattice, spectroscopic and temporal measurements were carried out in order to explore radiation-induced changes at the microscopic level. Results: KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters retained approximately 90% of their initial signal strength after a 5000 Gy dose history. Dose response was initially supralinear over the dose range of 100–700 cGy but became linear after 60 Gy. Linearity did not change significantly in the 0–5000 Gy dose history spanned in this study. Annealing high dose history chips resulted in a return of supralinearity and a recovery of sensitivity. There were no significant changes in the PSL stimulation spectra, PSL emission spectra, photoluminescence spectra, or luminescence lifetime, indicating that the PSL signal process remains intact after irradiation but at a reduced efficiency due to reparable radiation-induced perturbations in the crystal lattice. Conclusions: Systematic studies of KCl:Eu2+ material are important for understanding how the material can be optimized for radiation therapy dosimetry purposes. The data presented here indicate that KCl:Eu2+ exhibits strong radiation hardness and lends support for further investigations of this novel material. PMID:21928642

Driewer, Joseph P.; Chen, Haijian; Osvet, Andres; Low, Daniel A.; Li, H. Harold

2011-01-01

84

Differential fate and functional outcome of lithium chloride primed adult neural progenitor cell transplants in a rat model of Huntington disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The ability to predetermine the fate of transplanted neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and specifically to direct their maturation\\u000a has the potential to enhance the efficiency of cell-transplantation therapy for neurodegenerative disease. We previously demonstrated\\u000a that transient exposure of subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived adult NPCs to lithium chloride during in vitro proliferation alters differential fate in vitro and increases the proportion of

Elena M Vazey; Bronwen Connor

2010-01-01

85

The 250AH/90A active lithium-thionyl chloride cell for Centaur-G application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high rate active Li/SOCl2 cell was designed for use in a 28 volt, 250 amp-hour space battery system. The lithium battery is being considered as a replacement of its heavier silver-zinc counterpart on board the Centaur-G booster rocket which is used to launch payloads from the Space Shuttle cargo bay into deep-space. Basically a feasibility study, this development effort is demonstrating the ability of the lithium cell to deliver up to 90 amps safely at power densities of approximately 25 watts per pound. Test data on 4 prototype units is showing an energy density of 85 watt-hours per pound and 9.0 watt-hours/cu in. The cells tested typically delivered 280 to 300 amp-hours under ambient temperature test conditions using alternating continuous loads of 90, 55, and 20 amperes throughout life. Data from four cells tested are presented to demonstrate the capability of Li/SOCl2 technology for a C/3 discharge rate in active and hermetic cell units.

Zolla, A. E.; Tura, D. D.

1987-01-01

86

Passive film formation on metals in thionyl-chloride electrolytes for lithium batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the anodic behavior of Pt, Mo, Ni, and stainless steel (SS) electrodes in 1.5M LiAlCl/SOCl solution in order to determine the mechanisms by which these metals resist corrosion. Polarization and complex impedance indicate that Pt and Mo behave as inert electrodes, while Ni and SS form passive films in this electrolyte. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the lack of oxidized metal species on the Pt and Mo surfaces following anodic polarization. XPS results also show that the Ni and SS do form passive layers, and identifies these layers as predominantly metal chlorides.

Cieslak, W. R.; Delnick, F. M.; Peebles, D. E.; Rogers, J. W., Jr.

87

Hydrochlorothiazide attenuates lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus independently of the sodium-chloride cotransporter.  

PubMed

Lithium is the most common cause of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (Li-NDI). Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combined with amiloride is the mainstay treatment in Li-NDI. The paradoxical antidiuretic action of HCTZ in Li-NDI is generally attributed to increased sodium and water uptake in proximal tubules as a compensation for increased volume loss due to HCTZ inhibition of the Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC), but alternative actions for HCTZ have been suggested. Here, we investigated whether HCTZ exerted an NCC-independent effect in Li-NDI. In polarized mouse cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells, HCTZ treatment attenuated the Li-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel abundance. In these cells, amiloride reduces cellular Li influx through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). HCTZ also reduced Li influx, but to a lower extent. HCTZ increased AQP2 abundance on top of that of amiloride and did not affect the ENaC-mediated transcellular voltage. MpkCCD cells did not express NCC mRNA or protein. These data indicated that in mpkCCD cells, HCTZ attenuated lithium-induced downregulation of AQP2 independently of NCC and ENaC. Treatment of Li-NDI NCC knockout mice with HCTZ revealed a significantly reduced urine volume, unchanged urine osmolality, and increased cortical AQP2 abundance compared with Li-treated NCC knockout mice. HCTZ treatment further resulted in reduced blood Li levels, creatinine clearance, and alkalinized urinary pH. Our in vitro and in vivo data indicate that part of the antidiuretic effect of HCTZ in Li-NDI is NCC independent and may involve a tubuloglomerular feedback response-mediated reduction in glomerular filtration rate due to proximal tubular carbonic anhydrase inhibition. PMID:24352504

Sinke, Anne P; Kortenoeven, Marleen L A; de Groot, Theun; Baumgarten, Ruben; Devuyst, Olivier; Wetzels, Jack F M; Loffing, Johannes; Deen, Peter M T

2014-03-01

88

Effects of heavy particle irradiation and diet on amphetamine- and lithium chloride-induced taste avoidance learning in rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rats were maintained on diets containing either 2% blueberry or strawberry extract or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to 1.5 Gy of 56Fe particles in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Three days following irradiation, the rats were tested for the effects of irradiation on the acquisition of an amphetamine- or lithium chloride-induced (LiCl) conditioned taste avoidance (CTA). The rats maintained on the control diet failed to show the acquisition of a CTA following injection of amphetamine. In contrast, the rats maintained on antioxidant diets (strawberry or blueberry extract) continued to show the development of an amphetamine-induced CTA following exposure to 56Fe particles. Neither irradiation nor diet had an effect on the acquisition of a LiCl-induced CTA. The results are interpreted as indicating that oxidative stress following exposure to 56Fe particles may be responsible for the disruption of the dopamine-mediated amphetamine-induced CTA in rats fed control diets; and that a reduction in oxidative stress produced by the antioxidant diets functions to reinstate the dopamine-mediated CTA. The failure of either irradiation or diet to influence LiCl-induced responding suggests that oxidative stress may not be involved in CTA learning following injection of LiCl.

Rabin, Bernard M.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Szprengiel, Aleksandra; Joseph, James A.

2002-01-01

89

Nano-web structures constructed with a cellulose acetate/lithium chloride/polyethylene oxide hybrid: modeling, fabrication and characterization.  

PubMed

Electrospun nano-web structures (ENWSs) were successfully fabricated from ionized binary solution of cellulose(Mn30)/polyethylene oxide(Mn200) (CA/PEO of 0.5-1.5). Final concentration of polymers was 12% (w/v) in the solution, and lithium chloride was used as ionizing agent. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to the optimize fabrication of ENWSs. Results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the solution properties and ENWSs morphology were strongly influenced by CA/PEO. An increase in PEO amount increased the viscosity which is a function of molecular weight, and as a result raised the entanglement of polymeric solution but decreased the surface tension that all support nanofibers fabrication. The size of nanofibers decreased with reducing PEO and LiCl concentration. Increasing the content of LiCl promoted the electrical conductivity (EC) value; however, junction zones were formed. The overall optimum region was found to be at combined level of 1.5% CA/PEO and 0.49% (w/v) LiCl. PMID:25439959

Broumand, Atefeh; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Mirzakhanlouei, Sasan; Davoodi, Driush; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali A

2015-01-22

90

Radiation damage in lithium-counterdoped n/p silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium counterdoped n+/p silicon solar cells were irradiated with 1 MV electrons and their post irradiation performance and low temperature annealing properties were compared to that of the 0.35 ohm cm control cells. Cells fabricated from float zone and Czochralski grown silicon were investigated. It was found that the float zone cells exhibited superior radiation resistance compared to the control cells, while no improvement was noted for the Czochralski grown cells. Room temperature and 60 C annealing studies were conducted. The annealing was found to be a combination of first and second order kinetics for short times. It was suggested that the principal annealing mechanism was migration of lithium to a radiation induced defect with subsequent neutralization of the defect by combination with lithium. The effects of base lithium gradient were investigated. It was found that cells with negative base lithium gradients exhibited poor radiation resistance and performance compared to those with positive or no lithium gradients; the latter being preferred for overall performance and radiation resistance.

Hermann, A. M.; Swartz, C. K.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Weinberg, I.

1980-01-01

91

Differential angiogenic properties of lithium chloride in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Wnt/?-catenin signaling induced by the Norrin/Frizzled-4 pathway has been shown to improve capillary repair following oxygen induced retinopathy (OIR) in the mouse, a model for retinopathy of prematurity. Here we investigated if treatment with the monovalent cation lithium that has been shown to augment Wnt/?-catenin signaling in vitro and in vivo has similar effects. In cultured human microvascular endothelial cells, LiCl as well as SB 216763, another small molecule that activates Wnt/?-catenin signaling, induced proliferation, survival and migration, which are all common parameters for angiogenic properties in vitro. Moreover, treatment with both agents caused an increase in the levels of ?-catenin and their translocation to nuclei while quercetin, an inhibitor of Wnt/?-catenin signaling, completely blocked the effects of LiCl on proliferation. In mice with OIR, intraperitonal or intravitreal treatment with LiCl markedly increased the retinal levels of ?-catenin, but did not improve capillary repair. In contrast, repair was significantly improved following intravitreal treatment with Norrin. The effects of LiCl on HDMEC in vitro have minor relevance for OIR in vivo, and the influence of the Norrin/Frizzled-4 pathway on capillary repair in OIR is not reproducible upon enhancing Wnt/?-catenin signaling by LiCl treatment strongly indicating the presence of additional and essential mechanisms. PMID:24751879

Zeilbeck, Ludwig F; Müller, Birgit; Knobloch, Verena; Tamm, Ernst R; Ohlmann, Andreas

2014-01-01

92

Neural Network Modeling of the Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery System  

SciTech Connect

Battery systems have traditionally relied on extensive build and test procedures for product realization. Analytical models have been developed to diminish this reliance, but have only been partially successful in consistently predicting the performance of battery systems. The complex set of interacting physical and chemical processes within battery systems has made the development of analytical models a significant challenge. Advanced simulation tools are needed to more accurately model battery systems which will reduce the time and cost required for product realization. Sandia has initiated an advanced model-based design strategy to battery systems, beginning with the performance of lithiumhhionyl chloride cells. As an alternative approach, we have begun development of cell performance modeling using non-phenomenological models for battery systems based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). ANNs are inductive models for simulating input/output mappings with certain advantages over phenomenological models, particularly for complex systems. Among these advantages is the ability to avoid making measurements of hard to determine physical parameters or having to understand cell processes sufficiently to write mathematical functions describing their behavior. For example, ANN models are also being studied for simulating complex physical processes within the Li/SOC12 cell, such as the time and temperature dependence of the anode interracial resistance. ANNs have been shown to provide a very robust and computationally efficient simulation tool for predicting voltage and capacity output for Li/SOC12 cells under a variety of operating conditions. The ANN modeling approach should be applicable to a wide variety of battery chemistries, including rechargeable systems.

Ingersoll, D.; Jungst, R.G.; O'Gorman, C.C.; Paez, T.L.

1998-10-29

93

Effect of lithium chloride and antineoplastic drugs on survival and cell cycle of androgen-dependent prostate cancer LNCap cells  

PubMed Central

Objective: Glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) has been reported to be required for androgen receptor (AR) activity. This study sought to determine the usefulness of lithium chloride (LiCl) as a highly selective inhibitor of GSK-3? to increase the sensitivity of LNCap cells to doxorubicin (Dox), etoposide (Eto), and vinblastine (Vin) drugs. Materials and Methods: Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Blue (MTT) assay was used to determine the cytotoxic effect to LiCl alone or in combination with low dose and IC50 doses of drugs. Subsequently, cell cycle analysis was performed by using flow cytometry. Results: LiCl showed cytotoxic effect in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P<0.001). Both Dox (100 or 280 nM) and Vin IC50 (5 nM) doses caused G2/M-phase arrest (P<0.001) compared with control. However, low dose (10 ?M) or IC50 (70 ?M) Eto doses showed G2/M or S-phase arrests, respectively (P<0.001). Combination of low dose or IC50 dose of Eto with LiCl showed increased apoptosis as revealed by high percent of cells in SubG1 (P<0.05, P<0.01, respectively). Moreover, Eto (10 ?M) led to decreased percent of cells in G2/M phase when combined with LiCl (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that LiCl increases apoptosis of (LNCap) Lymph Node Carcinoma of the Prostate cells in the presence of Eto, which is S- and G2-phase-specific drug. PMID:23248400

Azimian-Zavareh, Vajihe; Hossein, Ghamartaj; Janzamin, Ehsan

2012-01-01

94

Lithium chloride promotes the odontoblast differentiation of hair follicle neural crest cells by activating Wnt/?-catenin signaling.  

PubMed

The Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathway contributes to the maintenance of pluripotency and partial reprogramming of stem cells. Postnatal neural crest cells (NCCs) can differentiate into odontoblast-like cells due to their multi-potential property, but further endeavors need to be made to promote odontogenic differentiation of hair follicle neural crest cells (hfNCCs). This study investigated whether the Wnt pathway activator lithium chloride (LiCl) promotes odontoblast differentiation of hfNCCs. Change of proliferation, ?-catenin and pluripotency markers of hfNCCs were examined after treatment with LiCl. An in vitro odontoblast differentiation model of hfNCCs was built using dental cell conditioned media (DC-CM). The effects of LiCl on odontoblast differentiation of hfNCCs showed that proliferation and expression of ?-catenin in the cytosolic and nuclear compartments were increased in the LiCl-treated hfNCCs, and the pluripotency marks, Oct4, Klf4, Sox2 and Nanog, were more highly expressed in the LiCl-treated group than in the control group. The odontoblast markers such as DSP, DMP1 and Runx2, could be detected in hfNCCs induced by DC-CM, but in LiCl -treated group all three markers had stronger expression. Expression of ?-catenin in the nuclear of LiCl-treated hfNCCs induced by DC-CM was higher than in the other groups. The data indicate that the Wnt pathway activator LiCl can promote proliferation and odontoblast differentiation of hfNCCs, and chemical approaches are of benefit in obtaining more desirable seed cell types for cell-based therapies. PMID:25044369

Shan, Tengfei; Zhou, Cheng; Yang, Rong; Yan, Fei; Zhang, Ping; Fu, Yu; Jiang, Hongbing

2015-01-01

95

One-step synthesis of hematite nanospindles from choline chloride/urea deep eutectic solvent with highly powerful storage versus lithium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fe2O3 nanospindles assembled with nanoparticles as primary building blocks are directly synthesized by a versatile ionothermal strategy in the choline chloride/urea mixture-based deep eutectic solvent system. The proposed ionothermal protocol is attractive and environmental friendly because choline chloride and urea are both naturally biocompatible compounds. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the resultant Fe2O3 nanospindles show high capacity and good cycle stability (921.7 mAh g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 up to 50 cycles), as well as the excellent rate capability. The good electrochemical performance can be attributed to the nanospindle structure with high sufficient interfacial contact area between the active material and electrolyte, the short diffusion distance of Li ions. The environmentally benign strategy proposed in this study is expected to offer an attractive technique for the ionothermal synthesis of electrochemical energy storage materials.

Xiong, Q. Q.; Tu, J. P.; Ge, X.; Wang, X. L.; Gu, C. D.

2015-01-01

96

1,4-Addition of Lithium Diisopropylamide to Unsaturated Esters: Role of Rate-Limiting Deaggregation, Autocatalysis, Lithium Chloride Catalysis and Other Mixed Aggregation Effects  

PubMed Central

Lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in tetrahydrofuran at ?78 °C undergoes 1,4-addition to an unsaturated ester via a rate-limiting deaggregation of LDA dimer followed by a post-rate-limiting reaction with the substrate. Muted autocatalysis is traced to a lithium enolate-mediated deaggregation of the LDA dimer and the intervention of LDA-lithium enolate mixed aggregates displaying higher reactivities than LDA. Striking accelerations are elicited by <1.0 mol % LiCl. Rate and mechanistic studies reveal that the uncatalyzed and catalyzed pathways funnel through a common monosolvated-monomer-based intermediate. Four distinct classes of mixed aggregation effects are discussed. PMID:20961095

Ma, Yun; Hoepker, Alexander C.; Gupta, Lekha; Faggin, Marc F.; Collum, David B.

2010-01-01

97

Radiation Dosimeter Utilizing the Thermoluminescence of Lithium Fluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dosimeter, with little wavelength dependence and large useful energy range for electromagnetic radiation, which is simple to use and read, has been developed. It appears to have applications in personnel monitoring as well as radiation research.

J. R. Cameron; F. Daniels; Noye Johnson; G. Kenney

1961-01-01

98

The design and application of lithium drift silicon diodes as nuclear radiation detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of lithium-drifted silicon radiation detectors is described. Areas up to 8 cm2 and thicknesses up to 0.6 cm have been achieved. At - 20°C, a resolution of 8 kev full width half maximum was obtained on 661 kev beta particles using a 1 cm2 detector 0.1 cm thick. The performance of the detectors is discussed in relation to

P. E. Gibbons; N. G. Blamires

1965-01-01

99

Hydration structure in concentrated aqueous lithium chloride solutions: a reverse Monte Carlo based combination of molecular dynamics simulations and diffraction data.  

PubMed

We report on a comparison of three interaction potential models of water (SPC/E, TIP4P-2005, and SWM4-DP) for describing the structure of concentrated aqueous lithium chloride solutions. Classical molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out and total scattering structure factors, calculated from the particle configurations, were compared with experimental diffraction data. Later, reverse Monte Carlo structural modelling was applied for refining molecular dynamics results, so that particle configurations consistent with neutron and X-ray diffraction data could be prepared that, at the same time, were as close as possible to the final stage of the molecular dynamics simulations. Partial radial distribution functions, first neighbors, and angular correlations were analysed further from the best fitting particle configurations. It was found that none of the water potential models describe the structure perfectly; overall, the SWM4-DP model seems to be the most promising. At the highest concentrations the SPC/E model appears to provide the best approximation of the water structure, whereas the TIP4P-2005 model proved to be the most successful for estimating the lithium-oxygen partial radial distribution function at each concentration. PMID:23206015

Harsányi, I; Pusztai, L

2012-11-28

100

Hydration structure in concentrated aqueous lithium chloride solutions: A reverse Monte Carlo based combination of molecular dynamics simulations and diffraction data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a comparison of three interaction potential models of water (SPC/E, TIP4P-2005, and SWM4-DP) for describing the structure of concentrated aqueous lithium chloride solutions. Classical molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out and total scattering structure factors, calculated from the particle configurations, were compared with experimental diffraction data. Later, reverse Monte Carlo structural modelling was applied for refining molecular dynamics results, so that particle configurations consistent with neutron and X-ray diffraction data could be prepared that, at the same time, were as close as possible to the final stage of the molecular dynamics simulations. Partial radial distribution functions, first neighbors, and angular correlations were analysed further from the best fitting particle configurations. It was found that none of the water potential models describe the structure perfectly; overall, the SWM4-DP model seems to be the most promising. At the highest concentrations the SPC/E model appears to provide the best approximation of the water structure, whereas the TIP4P-2005 model proved to be the most successful for estimating the lithium-oxygen partial radial distribution function at each concentration.

Harsányi, I.; Pusztai, L.

2012-11-01

101

Lithium Chloride Inhibits Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration and Alleviates Injury-Induced Neointimal Hyperplasia via Induction of PGC-1?  

PubMed Central

The proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes importantly to the development of in-stent restenosis. Lithium has recently been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, but its actions in VSMCs and the direct molecular target responsible for its action remains unknown. On the other hand, PGC-1? is a transcriptional coactivator which negatively regulates the pathological activation of VSMCs. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to determine if lithium chloride (LiCl) retards VSMC proliferation and migration and if PGC-1? mediates the effects of lithium on VSMCs. We found that pretreatment of LiCl increased PGC-1? protein expression and nuclear translocation in a dose-dependent manner. MTT and EdU incorporation assays indicated that LiCl inhibited serum-induced VSMC proliferation. Similarly, deceleration of VSMC migration was confirmed by wound healing and transwell assays. LiCl also suppressed ROS generation and cell cycle progression. At the molecular level, LiCl reduced the protein expression levels or phosphorylation of key regulators involved in the cell cycle re-entry, adhesion, inflammation and motility. In addition, in vivo administration of LiCl alleviated the pathophysiological changes in balloon injury-induced neointima hyperplasia. More importantly, knockdown of PGC-1? by siRNA significantly attenuated the beneficial effects of LiCl on VSMCs both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that LiCl has great potentials in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases related to VSMC abnormal proliferation and migration. In addition, PGC-1? may serve as a promising drug target to regulate cardiovascular physiological homeostasis. PMID:23383200

Wang, Danfeng; Wu, Jun; Liang, Tingming; Liu, Chang

2013-01-01

102

ASSESSMENT OF LITHIUM USING THE IEHR EVALUATIVE PROCESS FOR ASSESSING HUMAN DEVELOPMENTAL AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF AGENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This document presents an evaluation of the reproductive and developmental effects of lithium and reviews toxicologic information on several specific lithium salts: ithium carbonate, lithium chloride, lithium citrate, and lithium hypochlorite. ithium (Li), an alkali metal, is a n...

103

Inactivation of Kupffer Cells by Gadolinium Chloride Protects Murine Liver From Radiation-Induced Apoptosis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether the inhibition of Kupffer cells before radiotherapy (RT) would protect hepatocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis. Materials and Methods: A single 30-Gy fraction was administered to the upper abdomen of Sprague-Dawley rats. The Kupffer cell inhibitor gadolinium chloride (GdCl3; 10 mg/kg body weight) was intravenously injected 24 h before RT. The rats were divided into four groups: group 1, sham RT plus saline (control group); group 2, sham RT plus GdCl3; group 3, RT plus saline; and group 4, RT plus GdCl3. Liver tissue was collected for measurement of apoptotic cytokine expression and evaluation of radiation-induced liver toxicity by analysis of liver enzyme activities, hepatocyte micronucleus formation, apoptosis, and histologic staining. Results: The expression of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was significantly attenuated in group 4 compared with group 3 at 2, 6, 24, and 48 h after injection (p <0.05). At early points after RT, the rats in group 4 exhibited significantly lower levels of liver enzyme activity, apoptotic response, and hepatocyte micronucleus formation compared with those in group 3. Conclusion: Selective inactivation of Kupffer cells with GdCl3 reduced radiation-induced cytokine production and protected the liver against acute radiation-induced damage.

Du Shisuo; Qiang Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zeng Zhaochong, E-mail: zeng.zhaochong@zs-hospital.sh.c [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ke Aiwu; Ji Yuan [Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhang Zhengyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zeng Haiying [Department of Pathology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Liu Zhongshan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

2010-03-15

104

Lithium niobate bulk crystallization promoted by CO2 laser radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystallization induced by laser radiation is a very promising technique to promote glass/ceramic transformation, being already used to produce crystalline patterns on glass surfaces. In this work, a SiO2-Li2O-Nb2O5 glass, prepared by the sol-gel route, was submitted to CO2 laser radiation and conventional heat-treatments in order to induce the LiNbO3 crystallization. The structure and morphology of the samples prepared by both routes was analyzed as a function of exposure time, radiation power and heat-treatment temperatures by XRD, Raman spectroscopy and SEM. The results reveal a correlation between the crystallization degree of LiNbO3 particles and glass matrix with the heat treatment type and experimental parameters. An heat-treatment at 650 °C/4 h was necessary to induce crystallization in heat treatments samples while 4 W/500 s was enough for laser radiation ones, corresponding a reduction time processing of ˜14 000 s.

Ferreira, N. M.; Costa, F. M.; Nogueira, R. N.; Graça, M. P. F.

2012-09-01

105

Numerical evaluation of radiative corrections in the lithium isoelectronic sequence  

SciTech Connect

A numerical evaluation of the radiative corrections for the energies of the 2s, 2p, and 1s states of the Li isoelectronic sequence has been carried out. The results are based on the ab initio QED calculations made previously by two of the authors. Those for the 2s-2p Lamb shift are almost all in agreement with experiment. The main effect of screening involves a renormalization of the valence electron wave function at the origin. As expected, the smaller effects, originating in interactions between two electrons, play a significant role only for the lower range of Z values. Subtler QED effects appear in the p-state (rather than s-state) energies and will become more apparent in other atoms such as B. 31 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

Devoto, A. (Universita di Cagliari (Italy) Sezione di Cagliari (Italy)); Feldman, G.; Fulton, T. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States))

1994-05-15

106

Lithium formate for EPR dosimetry: radiation-induced radical trapping at low temperatures.  

PubMed

Radiation-induced primary radicals in lithium formate. A material used in EPR dosimetry have been studied using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and ENDOR-Induced EPR (EIE) techniques. In this study, single crystals were X irradiated at 6-8 K and radical formation at these and higher temperatures were investigated. Periodic density functional theory calculations were used to assist in assigning the radical structures. Mainly two radicals are present at 6 K, the well-known CO2(•-) radical and a protonated electron-gain product. Hyperfine coupling tensors for proton and lithium interactions were obtained for these two radicals and show that the latter radical exists in four conformations with various degrees of bending at the radical center. Pairs of CO2(•-) radicals were also observed and the tensor for the electron-electron dipolar coupling was determined for the strongest coupled pair, which exhibited the largest spectral intensity. Upon warming, both the radical pairs and the reduction product decay, the latter apparently by a transient species. Above 200 K the EPR spectrum was mainly due to the CO2(•-) (mono) radicals, which were previously characterized as the dominant species present at room temperature and which account for the dosimetric EPR signal. PMID:24720752

Krivokapi?, André; Aalbergsjø, Siv G; De Cooman, Hendrik; Hole, Eli Olaug; Nelson, William H; Sagstuen, Einar

2014-05-01

107

Generation of ultraviolet radiation with wide angular tolerance in cesium lithium borate crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tangential phase-matching has been realised in cesium lithium borate (CLBO) crystal for the first time for the generation of fourth harmonic (266 nm) of Nd:YAG and third harmonic (226.7 nm) of a dye laser radiation by second harmonic generation and sum-frequency mixing with the angular tolerance as large as 22 mrad and 21 mrad respectively, over one of the interacting beams. An energy conversion efficiency of 15% for fourth harmonic generation is obtained with a 5.5 mm thick crystal and with the average pump powers only 170 and 70 mW. A set of Sellmeier dispersion equations for the CLBO crystal have also been formulated.

Bhar, Gopal C.; Kumbhakar, Pathik; Chaudhary, Anil K.

2000-09-01

108

Lithium chloride regulates the proliferation of stem-like cells in retinoblastoma cell lines: a potential role for the canonical Wnt signaling pathway  

PubMed Central

Purpose Cancer stem cells are found in many tumor types and are believed to lead to regrowth of tumor mass due to their chemoresistance and self-renewal capacity. We previously demonstrated small subpopulations of cells in retinoblastoma tissue and cell lines that display cancer stem cell-like activities, including expression of stem cell markers, Hoechst dye exclusion, slow cycling, and self-renewal ability. Identifying factors regulating stem cell proliferation will be important for selectively targeting stem cells and controlling tumor growth. Wingless and Int1 (Wnt) signaling is an essential cellular communication pathway that regulates proliferation and differentiation of non-neoplastic stem/progenitor cells in the retina and other tissues, but its role in cancer stem cells in the retinal tumor retinoblastoma is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the Wnt pathway activator lithium chloride (LiCl) regulates proliferation of retinoblastoma cancer stem-like cells. Methods The number of stem-like cells in Weri and Y79 retinoblastoma cell line cultures was measured by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) pulse-chase, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for stem cell marker genes. The cell lines were sorted into stem-like and non-stem-like populations by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), using an antibody against the stem cell marker ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G, member 2 (ABCG2). Activated Wnt signaling was measured in the sorted cells by western blotting and immunolocalization of the central mediator ?-catenin. Results LiCl increased the number of stem-like cells, measured by BrdU retention and elevated expression of the stem cell marker genes Nanog, octamer transcription factor 3 and 4 (Oct3/4), Musashi 1 (Msi1), and ABCG2. Sorted ABCG2-positive stem-like cells had higher levels of ?-catenin than ABCG2-negative non-stem cells, suggesting elevated canonical Wnt signaling. Furthermore, stem cell marker gene expression increased after small interfering RNA (siRNA) knock-down of the Wnt inhibitor secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2). Conclusions These results indicate that the cancer stem-like cell population in retinoblastoma is regulated by canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling, which identifies the Wnt pathway as a potential mechanism for the control of stem cell renewal and tumor formation in retinoblastoma tumors in vivo. PMID:20069066

Silva, Amanda K.; Yi, Hyun; Hayes, Sarah H.; Seigel, Gail M.

2010-01-01

109

Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride towards Technetium-99 Extraction - 13016  

SciTech Connect

A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning processes, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, the UREX process has been developed in the United States to co-extract hexavalent uranium (U) and hepta-valent technetium (Tc) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Tc-99 is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radio-toxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t{sub 1/2} = 2.13 x 10{sup 5} years), and as such, is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste-form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flowsheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for ultimate disposal. In addition, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste-forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macro-compounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, quaternary ammonium salts, and resorcin-arenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} by benzyl tributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand's matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e. diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using an external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed. (authors)

Paviet-Hartmann, Patricia; Horkley, Jared; Campbell, Keri [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Street, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Street, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Roman, Audrey [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Harry Reid Center, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Box 4009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States)] [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Harry Reid Center, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Box 4009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States); Nunez, Ana; Espartero, Amparo [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 40, 28040- Madrid (Spain)] [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 40, 28040- Madrid (Spain)

2013-07-01

110

Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride Towards Technetium-99 Extraction  

SciTech Connect

A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning process, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, low nitric acid concentration in the aqueous phase of a UREX based process will co-extract U(VI) and Tc(VII) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Technetium (Tc-99) is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radiotoxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t1/2 = 2.13 × 105 years), and as such, it is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flow sheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for ultimate disposal. Furthermore, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macrocompounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, and resorcinarenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO4- by benzyltributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand’s matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e., diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed.

Jared Horkley; Audrey Roman; Keri Campbell; Ana Nunez; Amparo Espartero

2013-02-01

111

Scorpion ethanol extract and valproic acid effects on hippocampal glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in a rat model of chronic-kindling epilepsy induced by lithium chloride-pilocarpine?  

PubMed Central

The present study analyzed the effects of ethanol extracts of scorpion on epilepsy prevention and hippocampal expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in a lithium chloride-pilocarpine epileptic rat model. Results were subsequently compared with valproic acid. Results showed gradually-increased hippocampal glial fibrillary acidic protein expression following model establishment; glial fibrillary acidic protein mRNA expression was significantly increased at 3 days, reached a peak at 7 days, and then gradually decreased thereafter. Ethanol extracts of scorpion doses of 580 and 1 160 mg/kg, as well as 120 mg/kg valproic acid, led to a decreased number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells and glial fibrillary acidic protein mRNA expression, as well as decreased seizure grades and frequency of spontaneously recurrent seizures. The effects of 1 160 mg/kg ethanol extracts of scorpion were equal to those of 120 mg/kg valproic acid. These results suggested that the anti-epileptic effect of ethanol extracts of scorpion were associated with decreased hippocampal glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in a rat model of lithium chloride-pilocarpine induced epilepsy.

Liang, Yi; Sun, Hongbin; Yu, Liang; He, Baoming; Xie, Yan

2012-01-01

112

Radiation damage to human erythrocytes. Relative contribution of hydroxyl and chloride radicals in N 2O-saturated buffers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The erythrocyte suspensions in Na-phosphate buffered isotonic NaCl solution (PBS) or Na-phosphate isotonic buffer (PB) (hematocrit 1%) were irradiated with the dose of 400 Gy under N 2O. Erythrocytes were incubated in the medium in which the cells were irradiated or in fresh PBS. The level of damage to cells was estimated on the basis of the course of post-radiation hemolysis and hemoglobin (Hb) oxidation. The medium in which the cells were irradiated and incubated influenced the course of the post-radiation hemolysis and Hb oxidation as well as some other parameters. We discussed the contribution of hydroxyl and chloride radicals in the initiation of erythrocyte damage and oxygen modification of these processes.

Krokosz, Anita; Komorowska, Magdalena A.; Szweda-Lewandowska, Zofia

2008-06-01

113

Natrix -Scoring Sheet 1. 0.01 M Mg Chloride, 0.05 M MES pH 5.6, 2.0 M Lithium Sulfate  

E-print Network

Acetate, 0.05 M MES pH 5.6, 2.5 M Ammonium Sulfate 3. 0.1 M Mg Acetate, 0.05 M MES pH 5.6, 20% MPD 4. 0 Chloride, 0.05 M MES pH 5.6, 5% PEG 8000 6. 0.1 M Ammonium Sulfate, 0.01 M Mg Chloride, 0.05 M MES pH 5 Sulfate 13. 0.015 M Mg Acetate, 0.05 M Na Cacodylate pH 6.0, 1.7 M Ammonium Sulfate 14. 0.1 M K Chloride

Hill, Chris

114

LITHIUM--2002 46.1 By Joyce A. Ober  

E-print Network

a series of evaporation ponds (Engineering and Mining Journal, 1970). During the course of 12 to 18 months, the concentration of the brine increases through solar evaporation to 6,000 ppm lithium. When the lithium chloride

115

Engineering experimental program on the effects of near-space radiation on lithium doped solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an experimental evaluation of the real-time degradation characteristics of lithium-diffused silicon solar cells are reported. A strontium-90 radioisotope was used for simulation of a typical earth-orbital electron environment. The experiment was performed in an ion pump vacuum chamber with samples maintained at -50, +20, +50, and +80 C. Samples were illuminated during the 6-month exposure run with solar cell 1-5 characteristics measured periodically in situ. This 6-month exposure corresponded to a 1 MeV equivalent fluence of approximately 10 to the 14th power electrons/sq cm. Several types of lithium cells were irradiatied and compared directly with conventional N/P cells. The best lithium cells compared favorably with N/P cells, particularly at the higher test temperatures. With a slight improvement of initial performance characteristics, lithium cells appear feasible for 5 to 10 year missions at synchronous altitude. Based on the reported results and those of other irradiation experiments, lithium cells would appear to be superior to N/P cells in proton-dominated earth-orbital environments. Another important conclusion of the effort was that illuminated/loaded cells degrade more rapidly than do dark/unloaded cells. The irradiation experiment provided data of high quality with a high degree of confidence because of the experimental and statistical analysis techniques utilized.

1971-01-01

116

Electrowinning of cerium group metals from fused chloride bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerium group metals, namely, misch metal, lanthanum and cerium have been electrowon from their vacuum-dehydrated chlorides\\u000a in fused sodium chloride-potassium chloride and lithium chloride-potassium chloride solvent. Temperature, cathode current\\u000a density and composition of bath were optimised for high current efficiency and metal yield. In the case of lanthanum, current\\u000a efficiency of 88% was achieved. The metals were free from inclusions

Sohan Singh; A L Pappachan

1980-01-01

117

Vinyl Chloride  

Cancer.gov

Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas that burns easily. It does not occur naturally and must be produced industrially for its commercial uses. Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC); PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials. Vinyl chloride is also produced as a combustion product in tobacco smoke.

118

Ultraviolet-B radiation enhancement in dielectric barrier discharge based xenon chloride exciplex source by air  

SciTech Connect

A single barrier dielectric barrier discharge tube of quartz with multi-strip Titanium-Gold (Ti-Au) coatings have been developed and utilized for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation production peaking at wavelength 308?nm. The observed radiation at this wavelength has been examined for the mixtures of the Xenon together with chlorine and air admixtures. The gas mixture composition, chlorine gas content, total gas pressure, and air pressure dependency of the UV intensity, has been analyzed. It is found that the larger concentration of Cl{sub 2} deteriorates the performance of the developed source and around 2% Cl{sub 2} in this source produced optimum results. Furthermore, an addition of air in the xenon and chlorine working gas environment leads to achieve same intensity of UV-B light but at lower working gas pressure where significant amount of gas is air.

Gulati, P., E-mail: pgulati1512@gmail.com [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-CEERI), Pilani, Rajasthan-333031 (India); Department of Physics, Banasthali University, P.O. Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan 304022 (India); Prakash, R.; Pal, U. N.; Kumar, M. [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-CEERI), Pilani, Rajasthan-333031 (India); Vyas, V. [Department of Physics, Banasthali University, P.O. Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan 304022 (India)

2014-07-07

119

The effect of mechanical strain on the radiation-coloration of potassium chloride  

E-print Network

structure of the sample, But, because of its small mass, it cannot displace an ion f'rom a lattice point. Instead, it will remove loosely bound electron? From ether atoms. Thus, free electrons and holes will be created within thc lattice structure... color produced by radiation is temporary, however, bleaching aftor a few hours at room temperature, oven if- kept in thc dark. On tho othor hand, a sample colored by the additive process will not bleach, even when exposed to light at room temperature...

Everett, James Eugene

1964-01-01

120

Hydrothermal Transformation of Microporous Lithium Zinc Phosphates; A Kinetic Study using in situ Synchrotron Radiation Powder Diffraction.  

SciTech Connect

The solution mediated phase transformation of a lithium zinc phosphate has been investigated. The zeolite type ABW phase, LiZnPO{sub 4}. H{sub 2}O, suspended in an aqueous solution of LiNO{sub 3}, transforms to the more dense phase, (delta tau) LiZnPO{sub 4} (crystobalite type structure). In situ time resolved powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation, has been utilized to obtain isothermal crystallization curves in the temperature range 179 {degrees} C to 210 {degrees} C. A power law was used for the kinetic analysis, giving an apparent activation energy for the reaction, Ea = 93.1 kJ/mole. The order of the power law varies from 2. 80 to 4.41 in the observed temperature range. This indicates a continuous change in the mechanism of the nucleation.

Jensen, T.R. [University of Odense (Denmark); Norby, P. [SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Hanson, J.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1997-12-31

121

The role of <100> edge dislocations in nucleating radiation-induced colloid particles in sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical program to investigate the role of dislocations in the nucleation of sodium colloids in irradiated rock salt has been outlined. As the first study in the investigation the interaction of radiation-produced defects with the <001> edge dislocation in rock salt, i.e., the edge dislocation in the principal slip system of NaCl, has been considered. The interaction potential between a symmetric defect and the <001> edge dislocation has been determined on the basis of anisotropic elasticity theory. The potential arises from the interaction between the long-range stress field of the dislocation and the displacements around the point defect. The corresponding flow lines, i.e., the lines along which the defects flow to the dislocation, have also been determined. In general, the flow lines are closed loops passing through the center of the dislocation. One of the novel features introduced by anisotropy is the possibility of open flow lines for certain elastic constant values. Along some of these open flow lines defects are attracted to the dislocation, whereas long others defects are repelled from the dislocation of common plane. 33 refs., 17 figs.

Teutonico, L.J.

1982-09-01

122

Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of 532 nm radiation in 25°-rotated, x-cut, near-stoichiometric, lithium tantalate fabricated by vapor transport equilibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of 532 nm radiation in 25°-rotated, x-cut, near-stoichiometric lithium tantalate has been performed. Using a face-normal topology for frequency conversion applications allows scalable surface area to avoid surface and volume damage in high-power interactions. First-order, quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation was achieved using near-stoichiometric lithium tantalate fabricated by vapor transport equilibration. These crystals supported 1 J of 1064 nm radiation and generated 21 mJ of 532 nm radiation from a 7 ns, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser within a factor of 4.2 of expectation.

Hum, D. S.; Route, R. K.; Fejer, M. M.

2007-04-01

123

(Data in metric tons of lithium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The only commercially active lithium mine operating in the United States was a  

E-print Network

domestic or South American lithium carbonate, lithium chloride, and lithium hydroxide. A U.S. recycling powders, 6%; air treatment, 5%; polymer production, 5%; primary aluminum production, 1%; and other uses and hydroxide 2825.20.0000 3.7% ad val. Lithium carbonate: U.S.P. grade 2836.91.0010 3.7% ad val. Other 2836

124

Pyrochemical reduction of uranium dioxide and plutonium dioxide by lithium metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium reduction process has been developed to apply a pyrochemical recycle process for oxide fuels. This process uses lithium metal as a reductant to convert oxides of actinide elements to metal. Lithium oxide generated in the reduction would be dissolved in a molten lithium chloride bath to enhance reduction. In this work, the solubility of Li2O in LiCl was

T. Usami; M. Kurata; T. Inoue; H. E Sims; S. A Beetham; J. A Jenkins

2002-01-01

125

Radiation-induced defects in manganese-doped lithium tetraborate phosphor.  

PubMed

Lithium tetraborate doped with manganese synthesised by solid-state sintering technique exhibits a dosimetric peak at 280°C. The high-temperature glow curve results in no fading for three months. The sensitivity of Li2B4O7:Mn is determined to be 0.9 times that of TLD-100. The infrared spectrum of this phosphor indicates the presence of bond vibrations corresponding to BO4 tetrahedral and BO3 triangles. The mechanism for thermoluminescence in this phosphor was proposed based on the thermoluminescence (TL) emission spectra, kinetic analysis of TL glow curves and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements on non-irradiated and gamma-irradiated phosphors. It was identified that oxygen vacancies and Boron oxygen hole centre (BOHC) are the electron and hole trap centres for TL in this phosphor. When the phosphor is heated, the electrons are released from the electron trap and recombine with the trapped holes. The excitation energy during the recombination is transferred to the nearby Mn(2+) ions, which emit light at 580 nm. PMID:24743763

Annalakshmi, O; Jose, M T; Madhusoodanan, U; Sridevi, J; Venkatraman, B; Amarendra, G; Mandal, A B

2015-01-01

126

Combined effects of 872 MHz radiofrequency radiation and ferrous chloride on reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate possible cooperative effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation and ferrous chloride (FeCl(2)) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage. In order to test intracellular ROS production as a possible underlying mechanism of DNA damage, we applied the fluorescent probe DCFH-DA. Integrity of DNA was quantified by alkaline comet assay. The exposures to 872 MHz RF radiation were conducted at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 5 W/kg using continuous waves (CW) or a modulated signal similar to that used in Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) phones. Four groups were included: (1) Sham exposure (control), (2) RF radiation, (3) Chemical treatment, (4) Chemical treatment, and RF radiation. In the ROS production experiments, human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells were exposed to RF radiation and 10 microg/ml FeCl(2) for 1 h. In the comet assay experiments, the exposure time was 3 h and an additional chemical (0.015% diethyl maleate) was used to make DNA damage level observable. The chemical treatments resulted in statistically significant responses, but no effects from either CW or modulated RF radiation were observed on ROS production, DNA damage or cell viability. PMID:20564172

Luukkonen, Jukka; Juutilainen, Jukka; Naarala, Jonne

2010-09-01

127

Chloride Test  

MedlinePLUS

... problem with your body's electrolyte balance or acid-base balance and to monitor treatment When to Get ... fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base balance . Chloride is present in all body fluids ...

128

A comparison of TLD Dosimeters: lithium fluoride:magnesium, titanium and lithium fluoride:magnesium, copper, phosphate, for measurement of radiation therapy doses  

Microsoft Academic Search

TLDs (ThermoLuminescent Dosimeters) are small pieces of crystalline material used in radiation therapy to verify the radiation dose cancer patients receive. University of Virginia Radiation Oncology clinic TLD results must be fully trustworthy so physicians can confidently monitor and determine a patient's treatment. A systematic investigation of major factors affecting TLD response and accuracy was carried out. The factors investigated

Gilbert Douglas Glennie

2003-01-01

129

Radiation grafting of methyl methacrylate onto polyethylene separators for lithium secondary batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-porous polyethylene separator was modified by radiation grafting of methyl methacrylate in order to improve its affinity with a liquid electrolyte. The degree of grafting (DOG) increased with the monomer concentration and grafting time. The morphological change of the modified separator was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The degree of crystallinity upon grafting was reduced due to the formation of an amorphous PMMA layer. The electrolyte uptake and the ionic conductivity of the separator increased with an increase in the DOG. The ionic conductivity reached 2.0 mS/cm for the grafted polyethylene separator with 127 wt% DOG.

Gwon, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hak; Sohn, Joon-Yong; An, Sung-Jun; Ihm, Young-Eon; Nho, Young-Chang

2008-08-01

130

Radiative Capture of Polarized Deuterons by Lithium -6 and the D-State of BERYLLIUM-8  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of angular distributions of the cross section, sigma(theta), in addition to vector and tensor analyzing powers have been obtained at E_{rm d}(lab) = 9.0 MeV and E_{rm d}(lab) = 2.0 MeV for the ^6Li( vec {rm d},gamma)^8Be reaction. The measured analyzing powers include A _{rm yy}(theta) and A_{rm y}(theta) at E_{rm d}(lab) = 2.0 MeV and A_{rm yy}( theta), A_{rm y }(theta) and T_{20 }(theta) at E_{rm d}(lab) = 9.0 MeV. Energy excitation functions of the differential cross section, sigma( theta), the vector analyzing power A _{rm y}(theta), and the tensor analyzing power A_{rm yy}(theta) at theta = 130^circ were also measured from E_{rm d}(lab) = 7.0 MeV to E_{rm d}(lab) = 14.0 MeV. Transition matrix element analyses of the angular distributions at E_{rm d} (lab) = 9.0 MeV and E_{rm d}(lab) = 2.0 MeV were performed. The results of the analyses show the presence of 13% to 21% E1 radiation in addition to the expected dominant E2 radiation at E _{rm d}(lab) = 9.0 MeV and a dominant E1 radiation contribution, instead of dominant E2 radiation, of 57% at E_{ rm d}(lab) = 2.0 MeV. The largest E1 component at both energies is the isospin forbidden E1 transition comprising 10% of the cross section at E _{rm d}(lab) = 9.0 MeV and 40% of the cross section at E_{rm d}(lab) = 2.0 MeV. The angular distributions at E_ {rm d}(lab) = 9.0 MeV were compared to a simple direct capture (DC) calculation. The dominant E2 direct capture calculation gave a reasonably good description of the tensor analyzing power A_{rm yy}(theta) but failed to reproduce the cross section sigma(theta) and the vector analyzing power A_{ rm y}(theta). This model leads to a D-state probability of P_{rm D} = 0.5% for the ground state of ^8Be. In addition, a multichannel resonating group model (MCRGM) calculation was also performed. The MCRGM used an effective nucleon-nucleon potential and the tensor force was used in calculating both the continuum and bound states. No D-state was contained in any of the fragments used in the calculation. This calculation provided a fairly good representation of the data and predicts a D-state probability of P _{rm D} = 0.3% for the ground state of ^8Be.

Williams, James Zandy, Jr.

131

Methylene Chloride Management Plan Review and Approval Authority  

E-print Network

Waste Management, Fire Protection, Radiation Safety, Insurance Services, Hazard Communication, AccidentMETHYLENE CHLORIDE MANAGEMENT PLAN #12;#12;Methylene Chloride Management Plan Review and Approval Date #12;ii Methylene Chloride Management Plan #12;Methylene Chloride Management Plan Table of Contents

Rubloff, Gary W.

132

Chloride channelopathies.  

PubMed

Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms. Impaired chloride transport can cause diseases as diverse as cystic fibrosis, myotonia, epilepsy, hyperekplexia, lysosomal storage disease, deafness, renal salt loss, kidney stones and osteopetrosis. These disorders are caused by mutations in genes belonging to non-related gene families, i.e. CLC chloride channels and transporters, ABC transporters, and GABA- and glycine receptors. Diseases due to mutations in TMEM16E and bestrophin 1 might be due to a loss of Ca++-activated Cl- channels, although this remains to be shown. PMID:19708126

Planells-Cases, Rosa; Jentsch, Thomas J

2009-03-01

133

Lithium ion conducting electrolytes  

DOEpatents

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

1996-04-09

134

Lithium ion conducting electrolytes  

DOEpatents

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

Angell, C. Austen (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tempe, AZ)

1996-01-01

135

Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal  

DOEpatents

A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01

136

Solid state tetrachloroaluminate storage battery having a transition metal chloride cathode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In accordance with this invention, it has been found that highly efficient, lightweight, thermally activated power sources can be fabricated by utilizing a transition metal chloride such as cupric chloride, ferric chloride, or molybdenum chloride as the cathode; and a lithium metal or lithium-aluminum or lithium-silicon alloy as the anode in combination with an alkali metal tetrachloroaluminate solid electrolyte. The power source may comprise a single cell or a stack of individual cells. A typical cell is a three layered pellet composed of a lithium alloy anode, a separating alkali metal tetrachloroaluminate solid electrolyte sandwiched between the anode and a cathode which, in turn, is composed of a mixture of the transition metal chloride and graphite. The cell is totally inert until raised to its operating temperature by any conventional heating means.

Vaughn, R. L.

1983-12-01

137

PREPARATION OF LOW-HALIDE METHYLLITHIUM (Lithium, methyl-)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caution! The fine lithium dispersion used in this preparation, once washed to remove the mineral oil coating, will ignite spontaneously if exposed to air. Also, the methyl chloride and ether used are very volatile and highly flammable. The entire preparation, including the disposal of any residual lithium, should be performed in an efficient hood with a safety shield in front

Michael J. Lusch; William V. Phillips; Ronald F. Sieloff; Glenn S. Nomura; Gregory S. Bisacchi; Robert V. Stevens

138

Effect of nickel chloride concentration and gamma radiation on the thermal properties of poly(vinyl alcohol)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of addition of nickel chloride (NiCl2), with different concentrations, to poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), has been investigated. Non-isothermal studies were carried out using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to obtain the activation energy of decomposition for PVA doped with NiCl2. TGA indicated that the PVA-NiCl2 samples decompose in one main break-down stage. The results indicated that the addition of NiCl2 with concentrations above 8% and up to 20% enhances the thermal stability of pure PVA. In addition, samples from pure PVA were irradiated with gamma doses at levels between 20 and 100 kGy. TGA was performed on both irradiated and non-irradiated PVA samples. The thermal activation energies of decomposition were found to be dependent on the gamma dose. Moreover, the variation of transition temperatures with either the NiCl2 concentration or the gamma dose has been determined using differential thermal analysis. The results indicated that the PVA samples were characterized by the appearance of an endothermic peak due to melting. Also, these melting temperatures were found to be dependent on the gamma dose.

Nouh, S. A.; Said, A. F.; Abdel-Megeed, K.; Hafez, F. M.

2006-01-01

139

Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production  

DOEpatents

A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

2014-03-25

140

Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

1993-01-01

141

Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

1993-10-12

142

Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of 532 nm radiation in 25 degrees -rotated, x-cut, near-stoichiometric, lithium tantalate fabricated by vapor transport equilibration.  

PubMed

Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of 532 nm radiation in 25 degrees -rotated, x-cut, near-stoichiometric lithium tantalate has been performed. Using a face-normal topology for frequency conversion applications allows scalable surface area to avoid surface and volume damage in high-power interactions. First-order, quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation was achieved using near-stoichiometric lithium tantalate fabricated by vapor transport equilibration. These crystals supported 1 J of 1064 nm radiation and generated 21 mJ of 532 nm radiation from a 7 ns, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser within a factor of 4.2 of expectation. PMID:17375168

Hum, D S; Route, R K; Fejer, M M

2007-04-15

143

Cathode for use in high energy primary thionyl chloride cell systems and high energy primary thionyl chloride cell systems including the cathode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cathode is provided for use in high energy primary lithium-thionyl chloride cell systems or calcium-thionyl chloride cell systems. The cathode comprises an expanded metallic current collector screen into which has been pasted a mixture of a low surface area conductive carbon black and a high surface area conductive carbon black previously mixed with a binder.

Walker, C. W., Jr.; Wade, W. L., Jr.; Binder, M.; Gilman, S.

1985-08-01

144

Determination of lithium in rocks by distillation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the quantitative extraction and recovery of lithium from rocks is based on a high temperature volatilization procedure. The sample is sintered with a calcium carbonate-calcium chloride mixture at 1200?? C. for 30 minutes in a platinum ignition tube, and the volatilization product is collected in a plug of Pyrex glass wool in a connecting Pyrex tube. The distillate, which consists of the alkali chlorides with a maximum of 5 to 20 mg. of calcium oxide and traces of a few other elements, is removed from the apparatus by dissolving in dilute hydrochloric acid and subjected to standard analytiaal procedures. The sinter residues contained less than 0.0005% lithium oxide. Lithium oxide was recovered from synthetic samples with an average error of 1.1%.

Fletcher, M.H.

1949-01-01

145

Lithium inhibition of bone mineralization and osteoid formation.  

PubMed Central

Lithium chloride administration to growing rats, which resulted in circulating lithium levels of 1.4 meq/liter, was attended by significant suppression of bone mineralization and organic matrix synthesis as assessed by tetracycline labeling and histological quantitation of osteoid, respectively. These effects of lithium were not associated with changes in animal behavior, nor were there any significant differences in blood levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, pH, or parathyroid hormone. The data suggest that lithium inhibition of bone mineralization is secondary to suppression of osteoid formation. Images PMID:659622

Baran, D T; Schwartz, M P; Bergfeld, M A; Teitelbaum, S L; Slatopolsky, E; Avioli, L V

1978-01-01

146

New liquid cathodes for lithium batteries. Part A: Halocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several halocarbons were selected for characterization as cathodes for lithium batteries after chemical stability testing with Li metal. Further testing comprised shock sensitivity with lithium, conductivity of halocarbon electrolytes, and the discharge behavior of assembled Li battery packs at 1ma/sq cm. Halocarbons were found to be much less shock sensitive with lithium than presently used sulfur oxychlorides. A literature search has revealed that they are also less toxic. The discharge capacity for 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (2.8 AH/g carbon) exceeded that of thionyl chloride (2.2 AH/g carbon). These results show promise for the use of halocarbons in safer lithium batteries.

Oneill, K. M.; James, S. D.; Smith, P. H.

1984-05-01

147

Lithium toxicity  

MedlinePLUS

Thundiyil JG, Olson KR. Lithium. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; ...

148

Accumulation of radiation defects and products of radiolysis in lithium orthosilicate pebbles with silicon dioxide additions under action of high absorbed doses and high temperature in air and inert atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the technological problems of a fusion reactor is the change in composition and structure of ceramic breeders (Li4SiO4 or Li2TiO3 pebbles) during long-term operation. In this study changes in the composition and microstructure of Li4SiO4 pebbles with 2.5 wt% silicon dioxide additions, fabricated by a melt-spraying process, were investigated after fast electron irradiation (E = 5 MeV, dose rate up to 88 MGy h-1) with high absorbed dose from 1.3 to 10.6 GGy at high temperature (543-573 K) in air and argon atmosphere. Three types of pebbles with different diameters and grain sizes were investigated. Products of radiolysis were studied by means of FTIR and XRD. TSL and ESR spectroscopy were used to detect radiation defects. SEM was used to investigate structure of pebbles. Experiments showed that Li4SiO4 pebbles with a diameter of 500 ?m had similar radiation stability as pebbles with diameter <50 ?m which were annealed at 1173 K for 128 h in argon and air atmosphere. As well as determined that lithium orthosilicate pebbles with size 500 (1243 K 168 h) and <50 ?m (1173 K 128 h) have a higher radiation stability in air and argon atmosphere than pebbles with size <50 ?m (1073 K 1 h). Degree of decomposition ?10.56 of the lithium orthosilicate pebbles at an absorbed dose of 10.56 GGy in air atmosphere is 1.5% and 0.15% at irradiation in dry argon. It has been suggested that changes of radiation stability of lithium orthosilicate pebbles in air atmosphere comparing with irradiated pebbles in argon atmosphere is effect of chemical reaction of lithium orthosilicate surface with air containing - H2O and CO2 in irradiation process. As well as it has been suggested that silicon dioxide - lithium metasilicate admixtures do not affect formation mechanism of radiation defect and products of radiolysis in lithium orthosilicate pebbles.

Zarins, A.; Supe, A.; Kizane, G.; Knitter, R.; Baumane, L.

2012-10-01

149

Construction-technological methods for increasing the strength of the lithium hydride radiation shield of spacecraft nuclear power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

UDC 629.7.015.4:629.7.064.54+629.7.064.55 The radiation shield of a spacecraft nuclear power system, besides performing its basic function to reduce ionizing radiation to an acceptable level, must also retain its carrying capacity under static and dynamical loading at the stage when the spacecraft is put into orbit and during prolonged operation of the power system. Thus the strength of the radiation shield,

A. G. Eremin; L. S. Korobkov; V. A. Fedorov; L. E. Shishenya

1993-01-01

150

Effect of UV and gamma radiation on Rn222 permeation through polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Application to the packaging of radium sources for the purpose of storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining of uranium and thorium, as well as the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy, have caused, during the 20th century, the production of waste with a varying concentration in long-lived radionucleides (particularly radium). This waste cannot be stored in traditional storage sites which will return to the public domain after 300 years, due to, on the one hand, the radium period (1620 years) and, on the other hand, the build-up of radon, its gaseous daughter. One solution, in order to optimize the packaging and storage of such products, could be to use successive barriers, made of polymer membranes, intended to limit radon emission. Laboratory tests have shown that polyvinyl chloride (PVC) greatly reduces radon emission from a radium source. However one should take into account the damage of the polymer in time, due to radioactive waste storage itself over long periods of time. Therefore, in order to check the durability of such barriers, PVC samples have been subjected to different accelerated ageing processes by exposure to ultra-violet (UV) radiations or gamma rays. We have determined the effect of such radiation of the samples using two approaches: — demonstration of structural changes using analytical method (Infra-red with Fourier Transform or IRTF), — study of variations in the radon permeation factor. In the first analysis, it seems that the UV irradiation, causes structural changes in the PVC as a function of the irradiation length of time. This leads first to an increase in the efficiency of the polymer as a "radon barrier", i.e. a reduction in its permeation factor (2.41 × 10 -12m 2s -1 for a non exposed membrane, against 3.30 × 10 -13m 2.s -1 for a membrane exposed during 284 hours, with an exposure rate of 62.5 W.m -2, thus a reduction by a factor 10 of the radon emission) then to a long-term weakness. The gamma irradiation (dose rate: 1.05 kGy.h -1, dose: 0.71 MGy) also causes a reduction in the permeation factor of PVC, but only by a factor 2.7.

Tomasella, E.; Labed, V.; Klein, D.; Robé, M. C.; Cetier, Ph.; Chambaudet, A.

1995-11-01

151

Performance of a Multifunctional Space Evaporator- Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR) is a nonventing thermal control subsystem that combines a Space Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) with a Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). The LCAR is a heat pump radiator that absorbs water vapor produced in the SWME. Because of the very low water vapor pressure at equilibrium with lithium chloride solution, the LCAR can absorb water vapor at a temperature considerably higher than the SWME, enabling heat rejection by thermal radiation from a relatively small area radiator. Prior SEAR prototypes used a flexible LCAR that was designed to be installed on the outer surface of a portable life support system (PLSS) backpack. This paper describes a SEAR subsystem that incorporates a very compact LCAR. The compact, multifunctional LCAR is built in the form of thin panels that can also serve as the PLSS structural shell. We designed and assembled a 2 sq ft prototype LCAR based on this design and measured its performance in thermal vacuum tests when supplied with water vapor by a SWME. These tests validated our models for SEAR performance and showed that there is enough area available on the PLSS backpack shell to enable heat rejection from the LCAR.

Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

2013-01-01

152

Performance of a Multifunctional Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR) is a nonventing thermal control subsystem that combines a Space Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) with a Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). The LCAR is a heat pump radiator that absorbs water vapor produced in the SWME. Because of the very low water vapor pressure at equilibrium with lithium chloride solution, the LCAR can absorb water vapor at a temperature considerably higher than the SWME, enabling heat rejection sufficient for most EVA activities by thermal radiation from a relatively small area radiator. Prior SEAR prototypes used a flexible LCAR that was designed to be installed on the outer surface of a portable life support system (PLSS) backpack. This paper describes a SEAR subsystem that incorporates a very compact LCAR. The compact, multifunctional LCAR is built in the form of thin panels that can also serve as the PLSS structural shell. We designed and assembled a 2 ft² prototype LCAR based on this design and measured its performance in thermal vacuum tests when supplied with water vapor by a SWME. These tests validated our models for SEAR performance and showed that there is enough area available on the PLSS backpack shell to enable rejection of metabolic heat from the LCAR. We used results of these tests to assess future performance potential and suggest approaches for integrating the SEAR system with future space suits.

Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

2014-01-01

153

The Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) satellite: radiation exposure in low-earth orbit and supporting laboratory studies of iron tetraphenylporphyrin chloride.  

PubMed

We report results from the exposure of the metalloporphyrin iron tetraphenylporphyrin chloride (FeTPPCl) to the outer space environment, measured in situ aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses nanosatellite. FeTPPCl was exposed for a period of 17 months (3700?h of direct solar exposure), which included broad-spectrum solar radiation (?122?nm to the near infrared). Motivated by the potential role of metalloporphyrins as molecular biomarkers, the exposure of thin-film samples of FeTPPCl to the space environment in low-Earth orbit was monitored in situ via ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy and reported telemetrically. The space data were complemented by laboratory exposure experiments that used a high-fidelity solar simulator covering the spectral range of the spaceflight measurements. We found that thin-film samples of FeTPPCl that were in contact with a humid headspace gas (0.8-2.3% relative humidity) were particularly susceptible to destruction upon irradiation, degrading up to 10 times faster than identical thin films in contact with dry headspace gases; this degradation may also be related to the presence of oxides of nitrogen in those cells. In the companion terrestrial experiments, simulated solar exposure of FeTPPCl films in contact with either Ar or CO2:O2:Ar (10:0.01:1000) headspace gas resulted in growth of a band in the films' infrared spectra at 1961?cm(-1). We concluded that the most likely carriers of this band are allene (C3H4) and chloropropadiene (C3H3Cl), putative molecular fragments of the destruction of the porphyrin ring. The thin films studied in space and in solar simulator-based experiments show qualitatively similar spectral evolution as a function of contacting gaseous species but display significant differences in the time dependence of those changes. The relevance of our findings to planetary science, biomarker research, and the photostability of organic materials in astrobiologically relevant environments is discussed. PMID:24512475

Cook, Amanda M; Mattioda, Andrew L; Ricco, Antonio J; Quinn, Richard C; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricca, Alessandra; Jones, Nykola C; Hoffmann, Søren V

2014-02-01

154

Attenuation of radiation- and drug-induced conditioned taste aversions following area postrema lesions in the rat  

SciTech Connect

The effects of lesions of the area postrema on the acquisition of radiation- and drug-induced (histamine and lithium chloride) conditioned taste aversions were investigated. The results indicated that area postrema lesions caused a significant attenuation of the aversion produced by pairing a novel sucrose solution with radiation (100 rad) or drug injection. Further, the area postrema lesions produced a similar level of attenuation of the taste aversion in all three treatment conditions. The results are discussed in terms of the implications of this finding for defining the mechanisms by which exposure to ionizing radiation can lead to the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion.

Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

1983-02-01

155

Lithium Local Pseudopotential Using  

E-print Network

Lithium Local Pseudopotential Using DFT Sergio Orozco Student Advisor: Chen Huang Faculty Mentor Lithium LPS Test Lithium LPS #12;Density Functional Theory (DFT) Successful quantum mechanical approach (1979) #12;Building LPS for Lithium Create a LPS using NLPS density for Lithium Test LPS by comparing

Petta, Jason

156

Europium- and lithium-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals that provide a linear emissive response with X-ray radiation exposure.  

PubMed

Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2-xO3; Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2-xO3; Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40-220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2-xO3; Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 ± 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 ?m sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605-617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precision XRAD 225Cx small-animal image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. For both 80 and 225 kVp energies, this radiotransparent device recorded scintillation intensities that tracked linearly with total radiation exposure, highlighting its capability to provide alternately accurate dosimetry measurements for both diagnostic imaging (80 kVp) and radiation therapy treatment (225 kVp). PMID:24696056

Stanton, Ian N; Belley, Matthew D; Nguyen, Giao; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Yifan; Kirsch, David G; Yoshizumi, Terry T; Therien, Michael J

2014-05-21

157

International Meeting on Lithium Batteries, Rome, Italy, April 27-29, 1982  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topics discussed include the mechanistic aspects of the reactivity of organic electrolytes with lithium, the electrochemistry of a nonaqueous lithium/sulfur cell, chromium oxides as cathodes for lithium cells, and the behavior of various cathode materials for nonaqueous lithium cells. Papers are presented on a reversible graphite-lithium negative electrode for electrochemical generators, on interfacial conduction in lithium iodide containing inert oxides, on the mechanism for ion conduction in alkali metal-polymer complexes, and on Li/SOCl2 cells for high temperature applications. Attention is also given to Raman spectroscopic studies of the structure of electrolytes used in the Li/SOCl2 battery, to surface films on lithium in acetonitrile-sulfur dioxide solutions, and to polarization of the lithium electrode in sulfuryl chloride solutions. For individual items see A83-49933 to A83-49949

1983-05-01

158

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

159

Lithium and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

Lithium and Pregnancy This sheet talks about the risks that exposure to lithium can have during pregnancy. With each pregnancy, all ... miscarriage has been reported. Can taking lithium during pregnancy cause birth defects? Yes, although not very often. ...

160

Europium- and lithium-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals that provide a linear emissive response with X-ray radiation exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40-220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2-xO3 Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 +/- 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 ?m sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605-617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precision XRAD 225Cx small-animal image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. For both 80 and 225 kVp energies, this radiotransparent device recorded scintillation intensities that tracked linearly with total radiation exposure, highlighting its capability to provide alternately accurate dosimetry measurements for both diagnostic imaging (80 kVp) and radiation therapy treatment (225 kVp).Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40-220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2-xO3 Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 +/- 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 ?m sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605-617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precisi

Stanton, Ian N.; Belley, Matthew D.; Nguyen, Giao; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Yifan; Kirsch, David G.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.; Therien, Michael J.

2014-04-01

161

Alloy formation processes at electrochemical intercalation of lithium into intermetallic compounds of magnesium with zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of alloy formation processes that occur during the electrochemical intercalation of lithium from lithium\\u000a chloride solutions in dimethylformamide into intermetallic compounds of magnesium with zinc (MgZn2, Mg2Zn3) and the corresponding individual metals is studied by chronopotentiometric and voltammetric methods. Lithium-containing\\u000a phases are formed in all samples studied; moreover, for MgZn2 and Mg2Zn3 electrodes, the phases formed are

V. V. Ozeryanskaya; V. E. Guterman

2007-01-01

162

Auger and radiative deexcitation of the 1s2l3l-prime configurations of lithium-like neon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray energies, Auger and radiative decay rates, and fluorescence yields have been computed in intermediate coupling for the various states of the 1s2s3s, 1s2s3p, 1s2p3p, 1s2p3s, and 1s2p3d configurations of Ne-10(7+). The results supplement recent experimental work on these transitions.

Chen, M. H.

1977-01-01

163

Lithium ion aqueous cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium ion aqueous cells were investigated using lithium intercalating compounds as anodes and cathodes. The aqueous electrolyte consisted of 4 to 5 molar solutions of either lithium perchlorate or lithium nitrate which contained lithium hydroxide in millimolar amounts to make the solutions slightly basic with a pH of about 8.5. Several electrode combinations were evaluated using lithium intercalating compounds such as lithium cobalt oxide and lithium manganese oxide as cathodes and lithium vanadium oxide, lithium manganese oxide, titanium disulfide, and molybdenum dioxide as the anodes. The cell employing manganese oxide as both the anode and cathode exhibited good charge-discharge characteristics with an open circuit potential of about one volt.

Plichta, Edward J.; Behl, Wishvender K.

1995-02-01

164

Lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and applications of lithium batteries. Topics include electrochemical aspects, cycling characteristics, performance evaluations, and applications in cardiac pacemaker devices. Batteries using organic compounds, chlorides, and metal sulfides are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01

165

Chemical form effects on the surface ionization of lithium halides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface ionization of lithium halides, i.e. fluoride, chloride, bromide and iodide, was studied using a mass spectrometer. In the measurements of ionization using rhenium filaments, it was found that the ionization efficiencies depend on the chemical forms of the samples. To analyze the mechanism of ionization, direct ionization by dissociative ionization is introduced in the present work. The ionization

Tatsuya Suzuki; Hideki Iwabuchi; Kazuko Takahashi; Masao Nomura; Makoto Okamoto; Yasuhiko Fujii

1995-01-01

166

MECHANISM OF DISCOLORATION OF IRRADIATED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation chemical process in polyvinyl chloride was studied by ; means of electron spin resonance, optical spectroscopy, and measurement of gas ; evolution. The chief technique was to irradiate sampies at - 196 deg C and then ; follow the change or changes with rising temperature. primary radicals, such as --; CHâ--CH--CHâ-- and -- CHCl -- CH-- CHCl--, were

Shun-Ichi Ohnishi; Yoshiharu Nakajima; Isamu Nitta

1962-01-01

167

Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the Lithium-fed  

E-print Network

the thermal/radiative benefits of bundled chan- nels. The theories capture experimental trends and predict thruster (MPDT) that utilizes lithium propellant and a multichannel hollow cathode (MCHC). These features of the fundamental physics of the MCHC with lithium vapor propellant in order to enhance the performance of the Li

Choueiri, Edgar

168

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1982-02-09

169

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1983-01-01

170

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

1980-07-18

171

NSTX Plasma Response to Lithium Coated Divertor  

SciTech Connect

NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

H.W. Kugel, M.G. Bell, J.P. Allain, R.E. Bell, S. Ding, S.P. Gerhardt, M.A. Jaworski, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, R. Maingi, R. Majeski, R. Maqueda, D.K. Mansfield, D. Mueller, R. Nygren, S.F. Paul, R. Raman, A.L. Roquemore, S.A. Sabbagh, H. Schneider, C.H. Skinner, V.A. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor, J.R. Timberlak, W.R. Wampler, L.E. Zakharov, S.J. Zweben, and the NSTX Research Team

2011-01-21

172

Structural considerations of intermetallic electrodes for lithium batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although metal alloys and intermetallic compounds have been researched extensively as possible negative electrodes for lithium batteries, only recently have efforts been made to monitor the phase transitions that occur during their reaction with lithium by in situ X-ray diffraction. These studies have lead to attempts to exploit those systems that show strong structural relationships between a parent structure and its lithiated products. In this paper, an overview of several systems is presented, particularly those that operate by lithium insertion/metal displacement reactions with a host metal array at room temperature. An analogy between these reactions and the high-temperature electrochemical reaction of sodium/nickel chloride cells, which is 100% efficient, is provided. On this basis, a prognosis for using intermetallic electrodes in lithium-ion cells is given.

Thackeray, M. M.; Vaughey, J. T.; Johnson, C. S.; Kropf, A. J.; Benedek, R.; Fransson, L. M. L.; Edstrom, K.

173

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

174

Lithium use in batteries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

Goonan, Thomas G.

2012-01-01

175

Purification of lithium salts by CSA continuous countercurrent ion exchange  

SciTech Connect

A Continuous Countercurrent Ion Exchange (CCIX) process was developed for extraction of low levels of sodium, potassium, iron, and nickel from strong solutions of lithium chloride and lithium hydroxide. This study was done on a two-inch diameter CSA, Inc. CCIX pilot unit. A standard 8% cross-linked cation exchange resin was used. The feed was either 2[und M] LiCl or 2[und M] LiOH. The trace levels of contaminants had a slightly higher affinity for the resin than lithium and extracted 90% or better. Residual lithium on the resin was scrubbed of with KOH to render a lithium loss of less than 1% in the waste. Contaminants were stripped from the resin with 3[und M] HCl. Zinc was one metal that was not extracted because it formed an anionic chloride complex. However zinc and certain other metals were extracted with high efficiency using strong-base type resin. Other resins are available for efficient extraction of many other metal contaminants, but the alkali metals, Na and K, were dependent on the CCIX common cation exchange system.

Higgins, I.R. (CSA, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

1986-12-01

176

An integrated model of the lithium/thionyl chloride battery  

SciTech Connect

The desire to reduce the time and cost of design engineering on new components or to validate existing designs in new applications is stimulating the development of modeling and simulation tools. The authors are applying a model-based design approach to low and moderate rate versions of the Li/SOCl{sub 2} D-size cell with success. Three types of models are being constructed and integrated to achieve maximum capability and flexibility in the final simulation tool. A phenomenology based electrochemical model links performance and the cell design, chemical processes, and material properties. An artificial neural network model improves computational efficiency and fills gaps in the simulation capability when fundamental cell parameters are too difficult to measure or the forms of the physical relationships are not understood. Finally, a PSpice-based model provides a simple way to test the cell under realistic electrical circuit conditions. Integration of these three parts allows a complete link to be made between fundamental battery design characteristics and the performance of the rest of the electrical subsystem.

Jungst, R.G.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Ingersoll, D.; O`Gorman, C.C.; Paez, T.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jain, M.; Weidner, J.W. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1998-06-08

177

Synthesis of lithium nitride for neutron production target of BNCT by in situ lithium deposition and ion implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To achieve high performance of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) device, Li3N/Li/Pd/Cu four layered Li target was designed and the structures of the synthesized four layered target were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. For the purpose of avoiding the radiation blistering and lithium evaporation, in situ vacuum deposition and nitridation techniques were established for in situ production and repairing maintenance of the lithium target. Following conclusions were derived: Uniform lithium layer of a few hundreds nanometer was formed on Pd/Cu multilayer surface by in situ vacuum deposition technique using metallic lithium as a source material. Lithium nitrides were formed by in situ nitridation reaction by the implantation of low-energy nitrogen ions on the deposited lithium layer surface. The chemical states of the nitridated zone were close to the stoichiometric lithium nitride, Li3N. This nitridated zone formed on surface of four layered lithium target is stable for a long time in air condition. The in situ nitridation is effective to protect lithium target from degradation by unfavorable reactions.

Ishiyama, S.; Baba, Y.; Fujii, R.; Nakamura, M.; Imahori, Y.

2012-12-01

178

Poly(acetylene) as a positive electrode in lithium sulfur oxyhalide cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conductive poly(acetylene) film was employed as the positive electrode in primary lithium/thionyl chloride and lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells. Neutral (CH)x, doped to the metallic state upon in situ exposure to LiAlCl4/sulfur oxyhalide electrolytes, acts as a catalytic surface rather than as the active electrochemical element. Sulfur oxyhalides were reduced on(CH)x film at high rates as on PTFE-bonded Shawinigan carbon black felt. Electrode capacity was limited by the inability of the electrolyte to permeate the (CH)x film and the formation of a surface passive filmby discharge products.

Calvert, Jeffrey M.; Weiner, Bryndyn; Smith, Jerry J.; Nowak, Robert J.

1989-03-01

179

Lithium inhibits the modulatory effects of morphine on susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizure in mice: involvement of a nitric oxide pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium has been reported to inhibit opioid-induced properties. The present study examined the effect of acute and chronic administration of lithium chloride (LiCl) on morphine's biphasic modulation of susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic seizure in mice. We also examined the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) pathway in lithium effect. Both acute (0.1 and 1 mg\\/kg) and chronic (same doses,

Hooman Honar; Kiarash Riazi; Houman Homayoun; Shadpour Demehri; Mehdi Dehghani; Kourosh Vafaie; Mohammad Reza Ebrahimkhani; Narges Rashidi; Seyed Ali Gaskari; Ahmad Reza Dehpour

2004-01-01

180

Molecular Structure of Barium Chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Barium Chloride was the byproduct of the discovery of radium by Madame Curie. When refining radium, the final separation resulted in barium chloride and radium chloride. Electrophoresis of barium chloride produces small-scale amounts of barium atom. This can be used for obtaining barium for commercial uses. Applications of barium chloride include stimulating the heart and other muscles for medicinal purposes, and also for softening water. Other uses of barium chloride include the manufacturing of barium salts, as pesticide, pigments, boiler detergent, in purifying sugar, as mordant in dyeing and printing textiles, and in the manufacture of caustic soda, polymers, and stabilizers.

2002-08-15

181

Lithium purification technique  

DOEpatents

A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

Keough, Robert F. (Richland, WA); Meadows, George E. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01

182

Lithium purification technique  

DOEpatents

A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

Keough, R.F.; Meadows, G.E.

1984-01-10

183

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: POLYVINYL CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes data on air emissions from the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry. PVC is manufactured by 20 companies at 35 plants. Each plant uses one or more of four possible polymerization processes: (1) suspension polymerization, (2) emulsion polymerization, (3) bulk p...

184

Lithium ion cell safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The safety characteristics of recent commercial lithium ion cells are examined in relation to their use for cellular phones. These are prismatic cells with an aluminum cell housing (can) and a 500-600 mA h capacity. They have one of two types of 4-V class cathodes, lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO 2) or lithium manganese oxide (LiMn 2O 4). This report provides results of the safety tests that we performed on lithium ion cells and outlines our views regarding their safety.

Tobishima, Shin-ichi; Takei, Koji; Sakurai, Yoji; Yamaki, Jun-ichi

185

Lithium nephrotoxicity revisited.  

PubMed

Lithium is widely used to treat bipolar disorder. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is the most common adverse effect of lithium and occurs in up to 40% of patients. Renal lithium toxicity is characterized by increased water and sodium diuresis, which can result in mild dehydration, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and renal tubular acidosis. The concentrating defect and natriuretic effect develop within weeks of lithium initiation. After years of lithium exposure, full-blown nephropathy can develop, which is characterized by decreased glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease. Here, we review the clinical and experimental evidence that the principal cell of the collecting duct is the primary target for the nephrotoxic effects of lithium, and that these effects are characterized by dysregulation of aquaporin 2. This dysregulation is believed to occur as a result of the accumulation of cytotoxic concentrations of lithium, which enters via the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) on the apical membrane and leads to the inhibition of signaling pathways that involve glycogen synthase kinase type 3beta. Experimental and clinical evidence demonstrates the efficacy of the ENaC inhibitor amiloride for the treatment of lithium-induced NDI; however, whether this agent can prevent the long-term adverse effects of lithium is not yet known. PMID:19384328

Grünfeld, Jean-Pierre; Rossier, Bernard C

2009-05-01

186

Lithium batteries: Future batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main characteristics and applications of lithium batteries are reviewed. Miniature batteries for quartz crystal watches have been developed and fabricated in Switzerland since 1970. High technology systems like lithium batteries are largely used for their low auto-discharge during storage and for their high energy density. Two kinds of lithium batteries can be distinguished concerning their place in the watch: integrated batteries; and batteries placed between motion parts and the bottom of the watchcase. Lithium batteries are also used in pocket calculators, electronic modules for integrated circuits, telephone, control systems, electronic games, bank cards, and heart stimulators.

Reiche, Harald

187

Loop diuretics reduce lithium reabsorption without affecting bicarbonate and phosphate reabsorption.  

PubMed

The effects of the loop diuretics ethacrynic acid and bumetanide on lithium, bicarbonate and phosphate reabsorption were compared in 16 anaesthetized, normovolaemic dogs. In six dogs, ethacrynic acid (3 mg kg-1 body wt) significantly reduced absolute lithium reabsorption from 29.3 +/- 4.1 to 19.0 +/- 3.4 mumol min-1, fractional lithium reabsorption from 0.65 +/- 0.04 to 0.37 +/- 0.04 and fractional chloride reabsorption from 1.00 +/- 0.00 to 0.65 +/- 0.02. Bicarbonate and phosphate reabsorption did not decrease significantly. In six other dogs, bumetanide (30 micrograms kg-1 body wt) gave similar results. Absolute lithium reabsorption significantly decreased from 34.0 +/- 2.2 to 18.1 +/- 2.6 mumol min-1 and fractional lithium reabsorption decreased from 0.50 +/- 0.03 to 0.25 +/- 0.03. Fractional chloride reabsorption decreased from 0.98 +/- 0.00 to 0.61 +/- 0.05, whereas bicarbonate and phosphate reabsorption were not significantly altered. Thus, both loop diuretics greatly reduced lithium reabsorption. We propose that loop diuretics inhibit passive lithium reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop by reducing the lumen-positive electrical potential that drives passive cation transport. PMID:2125801

Stokke, E S; Ostensen, J; Hartmann, A; Kiil, F

1990-09-01

188

Chloride Channels of Intracellular Membranes  

PubMed Central

Proteins implicated as intracellular chloride channels include the intracellular ClC proteins, the bestrophins, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, the CLICs, and the recently described Golgi pH regulator. This paper examines current hypotheses regarding roles of intracellular chloride channels and reviews the evidence supporting a role in intracellular chloride transport for each of these proteins. PMID:20100480

Edwards, John C.; Kahl, Christina R.

2010-01-01

189

Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

190

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide: A View of Lithium Ion Solvation  

E-print Network

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide: A View of Lithium Ion Solvation through a Glass-Bottom Boat BRETT L and reactivities, we were drawn to lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS; (Me3Si)2NLi) by its promi- nence principles of lithium ion coordination chemistry.2 Understanding how solvation influences organolithium

Collum, David B.

191

Lithium Irradiation Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The subject of tritium production in the Antiproton Source Collection lens was raised in the mid-1980s during the design phase of the pbar source. Interest in it has recurred during development of the proton lens and in recent investigations to determine the feasibility of liquid lithium collection lenses for the pbar source and a muon collider project. Calculations for tritium and beryllium 7 production on lithium suffer from a lack of information on medium and high energy cross section data. In addition, knowledge of the energy spectrum within the target vault is based upon calculations. Knowledge of the low energy spectrum, important for tritium production on lithium, is limited, if not non-existent. For Collider Run II, effort is to be applied to improve the performance of the solid lithium lens. Historically, examination of failed lithium lenses has not been pursued because they have been fairly radioactive and because they are thought to contain significant quantities of the radionuclides tritium and beryllium 7. The development of methods to examine failed lithium lenses may be desirable so that the specific causes of failure can be discovered. From such studies, design improvements can be incorporated with the goal of achieving lens performances goals related to Collider Run II. The purpose of the lithium irradiation experiment is to determine the production rates of radioisotopes tritium and beryllium 7 within the lithium lens in its operating in its operating environment.

Leveling, A.F.; /Fermilab

2000-08-22

192

Cathode material for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

2013-07-23

193

Chloride channels as drug targets  

PubMed Central

Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (?-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery. PMID:19153558

Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

2013-01-01

194

Chloride and Salinity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-07-15

195

Dioxanates of Cadmium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

DIOXANATES of cadmium chloride were precipitated from a solution of the anhydrous salts (certified purity) in acetal-free dioxane, prepared from Eastman Kodak technical 1,4-dioxane by the method of Eigenberger1. The crude dioxanate (that is, wet with dioxane) was placed in the bulb of the isotenoscope of Smith and Menzies2, and oil of paraffin, U.S.P., was employed as the levelling liquid.

Martin G. Chasanov; Cecil C. Lynch

1957-01-01

196

Extracellular sodium and chloride depletion enhances nonexocytotic noradrenaline release induced by energy deficiency in rat heart.  

PubMed

The effect of either extracellular sodium or extracellular chloride reduction on the release of endogenous noradrenaline and its deaminated metabolite dihydroxyphenylglycol (DOPEG) has been studied in the isolated perfused rat heart under conditions of ischaemia and cyanide intoxication. The overflow of noradrenaline and DOPEG was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography. The efflux of DOPEG, the predominant neuronal noradrenaline adrenaline metabolite, served as indicator of the free axoplasmic plasmic amine concentration. A calcium-free perfusion buffer was used to avoid exocytotic noradrenaline release. Sodium and chloride in the perfusion buffer were replaced by lithium and isethionate, respectively. (1) Reduction of extracellular sodium or chloride increased noradrenaline overflow in ischaemia. The release was suppressed by the uptake1 blocker cocaine indicating carrier-mediated outward transport of noradrenaline. (2) In cyanide intoxication sodium or chloride reduction accelerated the onset of DOPEG efflux reflecting increased axoplasmic noradrenaline concentrations. This was accompanied by increased noradrenaline release. The ratio of noradrenaline/DOPEG overflow was increased by reduced sodium or chloride, indicating facilitation of carrier-mediated noradrenaline net outward transport. (3) In the presence of unaltered energy metabolism overflow of both, noradrenaline and DOPEG, was not enhanced by sodium or chloride reduction. The results demonstrate that reduction of extracellular sodium or chloride has two effects on noradrenaline release from the sympathetic neuron with reduced energy supply. First, reduced sodium or chloride induces increased axoplasmic noradrenaline concentrations by interference with vesicular storage function. Second, both interventions enhance carrier-mediated noradrenaline release. PMID:2812038

Kurz, T; Schömig, A

1989-09-01

197

Radiation  

Cancer.gov

DCEG researchers carry out a broad-based research program designed to identify, understand, and quantify the risk of cancer in populations exposed to medical, occupational, or environmental radiation. They study ionizing radiation exposures (e.g., x-rays,

198

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

2008-01-01

199

Determination of lithium isotopes at natural abundance levels by atomic absorption spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The relationships of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li hollow cathode lamp emissions are used to determine lithium isotopic composition in the natural abundance range of geologic materials. Absorption was found to have a nonlinear dependence upon total lithium concentration and isotopic composition. A method using nonlinear equations to describe the relationship of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li lamp radiation is proposed as a means of calculating isotopic composition that is independent of total lithium concentration.

Meier, A.L.

1982-01-01

200

Lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and applications of lithium batteries. Topics include electrochemical aspects, cycling characteristics, performance evaluations, and applications in cardiac pacemaker devices. Batteries using organic compounds, chlorides, and metal sulfides are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-03-01

201

Lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and applications of lithium batteries. Topics include electrochemical aspects, cycling characteristics, performance evaluations, and applications in cardiac pacemaker devices. Batteries using organic compounds, chlorides, and metal sulfides are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-12-01

202

Lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and applications of lithium batteries. Topics include electrochemical aspects, cycling characteristics, performance evaluations, and applications in cardiac pacemaker devices. Batteries using organic compounds, chlorides, and metal sulfides are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-02-01

203

Lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and applications of lithium batteries. Topics include electrochemical aspects, cycling characteristics, performance evaluations, and applications in cardiac pacemaker devices. Batteries using organic compounds, chlorides, and metal sulfides are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-10-01

204

Fewer metabolites of dietary choline reach the blood of rats after treatment with lithium  

SciTech Connect

The authors studies the effect of lithium treatment upon the appearance in blood, liver and intestine of metabolites formed from dietary choline. Rats were treated for 9 days with 2 mEq/kg lithium carbonate or water. Animals were fasted overnight, and on the 10th day were fed with a solution containing radiolabeled choline chloride. The lithium treated groups also received 2.0 mEq/kg lithium as part of this solution. After an oral dose of 1 ml of a 1 mM choline solution, the lithium-treated animals had significantly lower levels of choline derived radiolabel in blood than did controls at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes (47%, 51%, 59% and 74%, respectively). They observed similar decreases of the accumulation in blood, at 180 minutes after the dose, of choline-derived radiolabel when choline was administered at lower or higher concentrations. After an oral treatment containing 0.1, 1 or 10 mM choline, lithium treated animals accumulated 69%, 66% and 72% as much radiolabel in serum as did controls. Most of the radiolabel found in blood at 180 minutes was in metabolites of choline which are formed within liver. The diminished accumulation of radiolabel in serum after lithium treatment was not due to increased accumulation of label by erythrocytes, liver or gut wall. They suggest that lithium influences the release by liver of betaine and phosphatidylcholine. 36 references, 5 figures.

Pomfret, E.A.; O'Connor, S.C.; Zola, T.H.; Zeisel, S.H.

1988-01-01

205

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi2-yHyO.xM'O2.(1-x)Li1-zHzMO2 in which 0lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi2-yHy.xM'O2.(1-x)Li1-zHzMO2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi2M'O3.(1-x)LiMO2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

2010-06-08

206

Enhancing ionic conductivity in lithium amide for improved energy storage materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-stoichiometry and bulk cation transport have been identified as key factors in the release and uptake of hydrogen in the Li–N–H system. Amide halide phases have been synthesized that have ionic conductivities several orders of magnitude greater than lithium amide, a faster rate of hydrogen release and elimination of the by-product, ammonia. Here we report the effect of both anion- and cation-doping on the hydrogen desorption properties of lithium amide, focusing in particular on how the presence of chloride anions and magnesium cations affects and controls the structure of the amide and imide compounds at the sub-nanometre level. Reducing the chloride content resulted in new low-chloride rhombohedral phases that contain around half of the chloride present in earlier amide chlorides, but maintained the enhancements seen in hydrogen desorption properties when compared to the halide-free system. These materials may also have potential in a range of other energy applications such as all solid state lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, and CO2 capture and storage membranes. Invited talk at the 7th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology IWAMSN2014, 2–6 November 2014, Ha Long, Vietnam.

Davies, Rosalind A.; Hewett, David R.; Anderson, Paul A.

2015-03-01

207

Molecular Structure of Ferric chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ferric chloride is a corrosive chemical, thus, it is used to deodorize sewage and industrial waste by partially reducing to ferrous chloride. It is also employed as an engraving reagent on metal surfaces. Other applications include its use as a flocculating agent in water treatment. Ferric chloride is a hazardous chemical that irritates the skin and eyes and is toxic if ingested, however it can be used as a reagent in pharmaceutical preparations.

2002-08-27

208

Lithium-methomyl induced seizures in rats: A new model of status epilepticus?  

SciTech Connect

Behavioral, electroencephalographic (EEG) and neuropathological effects of methomyl, a carbamate insecticide reversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity, were studied in naive or lithium chloride (24 h, 3 mEq/kg, s.c.) pretreated male Wistar rats. In naive animals, methomyl with equal potency produced motor limbic seizures and fatal status epilepticus. Thus, the CD50 values (50% convulsant dose) for these seizure endpoints were almost equal to the LD50 (50% lethal dose) of methomyl (13 mg/kg). Lithium pretreated rats were much more susceptible to convulsant, but not lethal effect of methomyl. CD50 values of methomyl for motor limbic seizures and status epilepticus were reduced by lithium pretreatment to 3.7 mg/kg (a 3.5-fold decrease) and 5.2 mg/kg (a 2.5-fold decrease), respectively. In contrast, lithium pretreatment resulted in only 1.3-fold decrease of LD50 value of methomyl (9.9 mg/kg). Moreover, lithium-methomyl treated animals developed a long-lasting status epilepticus, which was not associated with imminent lethality observed in methomyl-only treated rats. Scopolamine (10 mg/kg) or diazepam (10 mg/kg) protected all lithium-methomyl treated rats from convulsions and lethality. Cortical and hippocampal EEG recordings revealed typical epileptic discharges that were consistent with behavioral seizures observed in lithium-methomyl treated rats. In addition, convulsions induced by lithium-methomyl treatment were associated with widespread neurodegeneration of limbic structures. Our observations indicate that lithium pretreatment results in separation between convulsant and lethal effects of methomyl in rats. As such, seizures induced by lithium-methomyl administration may be an alternative to lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus, which is associated with high lethality.

Kaminski, Rafal M. [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland)]. E-mail: kaminskr@mail.nih.gov; Blaszczak, Piotr [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Dekundy, Andrzej [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Parada-Turska, Jolanta [Department of Rheumatology and Connective Tissue Diseases, Medical University, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-090 Lublin (Poland); Calderazzo, Lineu [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Laboratory of Experimental Neurology, Escola Paulista de Medicina, R. Botucatu 862, BR-04023 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Cavalheiro, Esper A. [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Laboratory of Experimental Neurology, Escola Paulista de Medicina, R. Botucatu 862, BR-04023 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Turski, Waldemar A. [Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-090 Lublin (Poland)

2007-03-15

209

Lithium drifted germanium system  

Microsoft Academic Search

General characteristics of the lithium-drifted germanium photodiode-Dewar-preamplifier system and particular operating instructions for the device are given. Information is included on solving operational problems.

E. J. Fjarlie

1969-01-01

210

Solid state lithium cell  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a solid state lithium cell comprising layers of a cathode-active material, a solid electrolyte, and an anode-active material consisting of lithium metal, which are arranged in this order, which is characterized in that said cathode-active material is a solid solution composed of lead iodide and at least one element selected from the group consisting of bismuth, antimony, thallium, indium and gallium and iodides thereof.

Imai, A.; Matake, S.

1983-09-13

211

Lithium battery management system  

DOEpatents

Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

Dougherty, Thomas J. (Waukesha, WI)

2012-05-08

212

Aluminum-lithium for aerospace  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum-lithium alloys were developed primarily to reduce the weight of aircraft and aerospace structures. Lithium is the lightest metallic element, and each 1% of lithium added to aluminum reduces alloy density by about 3% and increases modulus by about 5%. Though lithium has a solubility limit of 4.2% in aluminum, the amount of lithium ranges between 1 and 3% in commercial alloys. Aluminum-lithium alloys are most often selected for aerospace components because of their low density, high strength, and high specific modulus. However, other applications now exploit their excellent fatigue resistance and cryogenic toughness.

Fielding, P.S.; Wolf, G.J. [Reynolds Metals Co., Richmond, VA (United States)

1996-10-01

213

Solid-state lithium battery  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

2014-11-04

214

Solubility of some alkali and alkaline earth chlorides in water at moderate temperatures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Solubilities for the binary systems, salt-H2O, of the chlorides of lithium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium from near 0??C to the saturated boiling point are reported. The experimental data and coefficients of an equation for a smoothed curve describing each system are listed in the tables. The data are improvements on those previously reported in the literature, having a precision on the average of ??0.09%.

Clynne, M.A.; Potter, R.W., II

1979-01-01

215

Molecular Structure of Picryl chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Picryl chloride is ranked as one of the 100 most commonly found explosive and shock sensitive materials. It is made by reacting 2,4,6 trinitrophenol with thionyl chloride. This highly reactive compound is known to be hazardous and toxic, and to cause liver injury in mice. It is often used as a sensitization agent in mice when their cells undergo hypersensitivity studies.

2002-09-20

216

Hydrogen bonding. Part 20. Infrared study of the high temperature ?-form of choline chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared spectral studies of ?-choline chloride at 95°C clearly demonstrate the presence of O?H … Cl hydrogen bonding. This observation contradicts an earlier conclusion, based on X-ray structural studies, that such hydrogen bonding could not occur in this high-temperature form of choline chloride. A moderate reinterpretation of the X-ray data may reconcile these contradictory conclusions. Unlike ?-choline chloride, ?-choline chloride does not show C?H … Cl hydrogen bonding. It is possible that loss of C?H … Cl hydrogen bonding is a factor in the marked difference in radiation sensitivity of the ?- and ?-forms.

Harmon, Kenneth M.; Avci, Günsel F.

1986-02-01

217

Benzalkonium Chloride and Glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Abstract Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology. PMID:24205938

Kaufman, Paul L.; Kiland, Julie A.

2014-01-01

218

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements...

2010-01-01

219

21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride...o)(12) of this chapter, with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. (d) Prior sanctions for...

2013-04-01

220

21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride...o)(12) of this chapter, with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. (d) Prior sanctions for...

2014-04-01

221

21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride...o)(12) of this chapter, with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. (d) Prior sanctions for...

2011-04-01

222

21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride...o)(12) of this chapter, with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. (d) Prior sanctions for...

2012-04-01

223

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2011-01-01

224

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2013-01-01

225

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2012-01-01

226

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2014-01-01

227

21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2010-04-01

228

21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2011-04-01

229

21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2014-04-01

230

21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2012-04-01

231

21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2013-04-01

232

21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is...

2013-04-01

233

21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is...

2014-04-01

234

21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is...

2012-04-01

235

21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is...

2010-04-01

236

21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is...

2011-04-01

237

75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China Determination On the...revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to...Publication 4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation...

2010-06-15

238

75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States...concerning the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China...revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely...

2010-04-15

239

Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lithium, which has the chemical symbol Li and an atomic number of 3, is the first metal in the periodic table. Lithium has many uses, the most prominent being in batteries for cell phones, laptops, and electric and hybrid vehicles. Worldwide sources of lithium are broken down by ore-deposit type as follows: closed-basin brines, 58%; pegmatites and related granites, 26%; lithium-enriched clays, 7%; oilfield brines, 3%; geothermal brines, 3%; and lithium-enriched zeolites, 3% (2013 statistics). There are over 39 million tons of lithium resources worldwide. Of this resource, the USGS estimates there to be approximately 13 million tons of current economically recoverable lithium reserves. To help predict where future lithium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where identified resources are concentrated in the Earth’s crust, and they use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered resources also exist.

Bradley, Dwight; Jaskula, Brian

2014-01-01

240

Lithium As Plasma Facing Component for Magnetic Fusion Research  

SciTech Connect

The use of lithium in magnetic fusion confinement experiments started in the 1990's in order to improve tokamak plasma performance as a low-recycling plasma-facing component (PFC). Lithium is the lightest alkali metal and it is highly chemically reactive with relevant ion species in fusion plasmas including hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, carbon, and oxygen. Because of the reactive properties, lithium can provide strong pumping for those ions. It was indeed a spectacular success in TFTR where a very small amount (~ 0.02 gram) of lithium coating of the PFCs resulted in the fusion power output to improve by nearly a factor of two. The plasma confinement also improved by a factor of two. This success was attributed to the reduced recycling of cold gas surrounding the fusion plasma due to highly reactive lithium on the wall. The plasma confinement and performance improvements have since been confirmed in a large number of fusion devices with various magnetic configurations including CDX-U/LTX (US), CPD (Japan), HT-7 (China), EAST (China), FTU (Italy), NSTX (US), T-10, T-11M (Russia), TJ-II (Spain), and RFX (Italy). Additionally, lithium was shown to broaden the plasma pressure profile in NSTX, which is advantageous in achieving high performance H-mode operation for tokamak reactors. It is also noted that even with significant applications (up to 1,000 grams in NSTX) of lithium on PFCs, very little contamination (< 0.1%) of lithium fraction in main fusion plasma core was observed even during high confinement modes. The lithium therefore appears to be a highly desirable material to be used as a plasma PFC material from the magnetic fusion plasma performance and operational point of view. An exciting development in recent years is the growing realization of lithium as a potential solution to solve the exceptionally challenging need to handle the fusion reactor divertor heat flux, which could reach 60 MW/m2 . By placing the liquid lithium (LL) surface in the path of the main divertor heat flux (divertor strike point), the lithium is evaporated from the surface. The evaporated lithium is quickly ionized by the plasma and the ionized lithium ions can provide a strongly radiative layer of plasma ("radiative mantle"), thus could significantly reduce the heat flux to the divertor strike point surfaces, thus protecting the divertor surface. The protective effects of LL have been observed in many experiments and test stands. As a possible reactor divertor candidate, a closed LL divertor system is described. Finally, it is noted that the lithium applications as a PFC can be quite flexible and broad. The lithium application should be quite compatible with various divertor configurations, and it can be also applied to protecting the presently envisioned tungsten based solid PFC surfaces such as the ones for ITER. Lithium based PFCs therefore have the exciting prospect of providing a cost effective flexible means to improve the fusion reactor performance, while providing a practical solution to the highly challenging divertor heat handling issue confronting the steadystate magnetic fusion reactors.

Masayuki Ono

2012-09-10

241

Beneficial synergistic effects of microdose lithium with pyrroloquinoline quinone in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complicated, neurodegenerative disorder involving multifactorial pathogeneses and still lacks effective clinical treatment. Recent studies show that lithium exerts disease-modifying effects against AD. However, the intolerant side effects at conventional effective dosage limit the clinical use of lithium in treating AD. To explore a novel AD treatment strategy with microdose lithium, we designed and synthesized a new chemical, tri-lithium pyrroloquinoline quinone (Li3PQQ), to study the synergistic effects of low-dose lithium and pyrroloquinoline quinone, a native compound with powerful antioxidation and mitochondrial amelioration. The results showed that Li3PQQ at a relative low dose (6 and 12 mg/kg) exhibited more powerful effects in restoring the impairment of learning and memory, facilitating hippocampal long-term potentiation, and reducing cerebral amyloid deposition and phosphorylated tau level in APP/PS1 transgenic mice than that of lithium chloride at both low and high dose (5 and 100 mg/kg). We further found that Li3PQQ inhibited the activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3 and increased the activity of ?-amyloid-binding alcohol dehydrogenase, which might underlie the beneficial effects of Li3PQQ on APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Our study demonstrated the efficacy of a novel AD therapeutic strategy targeting at multiple disease-causing mechanisms through the synergistic effects of microdose lithium and pyrroloquinoline quinone. PMID:25018109

Zhao, Lei; Gong, Neng; Liu, Meng; Pan, Xiaoli; Sang, Shaoming; Sun, Xiaojing; Yu, Zhe; Fang, Qi; Zhao, Na; Fei, Guoqiang; Jin, Lirong; Zhong, Chunjiu; Xu, Tianle

2014-12-01

242

Biogenic amines and the effect of short term lithium administration on open field activity in rats.  

PubMed

Experiments were performed to examine whether the effects of short-term lithium administration on cerebral biogenic amine metabolism might be related to its action on open field activity. Rats received intragastric injections of lithium chloride (1.5 mEq/kg) twice daily for 5 days. This lead to a decrease in exploratory behavior in the open field. Administration of imipramine, which blocks the efffects of short-term lithium administration on norepinephrine turnover and uptake in the brain, failed to influence the effect of lithium on exploratory activity. Parachlorophenylalanine, which inhibits cerebral serotonin synthesis and depletes brain catecholamines, prevented the behavioral effect of lithium. Injection of pargyline, which inhibits cerebral monoamine oxidase activity, counteracted the effect of lithium on exploratory behavior and also influenced the emotionality of the animals in the open field. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that cerebral monoamine levels and monoamine oxidase activity play a role in the effect of short-term lithium administration on open field activity in rats. PMID:125430

Smith, D F

1975-01-01

243

Corrosive gas generation potential from chloride salt radiolysis in plutonium environments  

SciTech Connect

The specific goal of this project was to evaluate the magnitude and practical significance of radiation effects involving mixtures of chloride salts and plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) sealed in stainless steel containers and stored for up to 50 yr, after stabilization at 950 C and packaging according to US Department of Energy (DOE) standards. The potential for generating chemically aggressive molecular chlorine (and hydrogen chloride by interaction with adsorbed water or hydrogen gas) by radiolysis of chloride ions was studied. To evaluate the risks, an annotated bibliography on chloride salt radiolysis was created with emphasis on effects of plutonium alpha radiation. The authors present data from the material identification and surveillance (MIS) project obtained from examination and analysis of representative PuO{sub 2} items from various DOE sites, including the headspace gas analysis data of sealed mixtures of PuO{sub 2} and chloride salts following long-term storage.

Tandon, L.; Allen, T.H.; Mason, R.E.; Penneman, R.A.

1999-07-01

244

Photooxidative degradation of carboxylated poly(vinyl chloride)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films of poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, and carboxylated poly(vinyl chloride), C-PVC, containing 1.8% of carboxyl groups\\u000a were exposed to high energy ultraviolet radiation (? = 254 nm) in laboratory conditions. The photochemical reactions in irradiated\\u000a samples were studied by FTIR and UV–Vis spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography and gravimetric estimation of insoluble\\u000a gel. It was found that photodegradation and photocrosslinking in C-PVC is accelerated,

Halina Kaczmarek; Agnieszka Felczak; Dagmara Bajer

2009-01-01

245

Lithium Dinitramide as an Additive in Lithium Power Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium dinitramide, LiN(NO2)2 has shown promise as an additive to nonaqueous electrolytes in rechargeable and non-rechargeable lithium-ion-based electrochemical power cells. Such non-aqueous electrolytes consist of lithium salts dissolved in mixtures of organic ethers, esters, carbonates, or acetals. The benefits of adding lithium dinitramide (which is also a lithium salt) include lower irreversible loss of capacity on the first charge/discharge cycle, higher cycle life, lower self-discharge, greater flexibility in selection of electrolyte solvents, and greater charge capacity. The need for a suitable electrolyte additive arises as follows: The metallic lithium in the anode of a lithium-ion-based power cell is so highly reactive that in addition to the desired main electrochemical reaction, it engages in side reactions that cause formation of resistive films and dendrites, which degrade performance as quantified in terms of charge capacity, cycle life, shelf life, first-cycle irreversible capacity loss, specific power, and specific energy. The incidence of side reactions can be reduced through the formation of a solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) a thin film that prevents direct contact between the lithium anode material and the electrolyte. Ideally, an SEI should chemically protect the anode and the electrolyte from each other while exhibiting high conductivity for lithium ions and little or no conductivity for electrons. A suitable additive can act as an SEI promoter. Heretofore, most SEI promotion was thought to derive from organic molecules in electrolyte solutions. In contrast, lithium dinitramide is inorganic. Dinitramide compounds are known as oxidizers in rocket-fuel chemistry and until now, were not known as SEI promoters in battery chemistry. Although the exact reason for the improvement afforded by the addition of lithium dinitramide is not clear, it has been hypothesized that lithium dinitramide competes with other electrolyte constituents to react with lithium on the surface of the anode to form a beneficial SEI. Apparently, nitrides and oxides that result from reduction of lithium dinitramide on the anode produce a thin, robust SEI different from the SEIs formed from organic SEI promoters. The SEI formed from lithium dinitramide is more electronically insulating than is the film formed in the presence of an otherwise identical electrolyte that does not include lithium dinitramide. SEI promotion with lithium dinitramide is useful in batteries with metallic lithium and lithium alloy anodes.

Gorkovenko, Alexander A.

2007-01-01

246

Brugada syndrome unmasked by lithium.  

PubMed

A 38-year-old man was brought by emergency medical service after resuscitation following cardiac arrest. The patient was found pulseless with a wide complex tachycardia. The patient had bipolar disorder and was on lithium, lamotrigine, and ziprasidone. His electrolytes and lithium levels were normal. An electrocardiogram (EKG) was performed the next day and showed type 1 Brugada pattern. Lithium was held. Electrophysiologists made a diagnosis of drug-unmasked Brugada syndrome. Lithium can unmask Brugada syndrome through its ability to block sodium channels, even at subtherapeutic concentrations. Physicians need to be aware of this potentially fatal drug effect and should monitor EKGs of patients on lithium. PMID:20016437

Chandra, Preeti A; Chandra, Abhinav B

2009-12-01

247

Purification of lithium salts by CSA continuous countercurrent ion exchange. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A Continuous Countercurrent Ion Exchange (CCIX) process was developed for extraction of low levels of sodium, potassium, iron, and nickel from strong solutions of lithium chloride and lithium hydroxide. This study was done on a two-inch diameter CSA, Inc. CCIX pilot unit. A standard 8% cross-linked cation exchange resin was used. The feed was either 2{und M} LiCl or 2{und M} LiOH. The trace levels of contaminants had a slightly higher affinity for the resin than lithium and extracted 90% or better. Residual lithium on the resin was scrubbed of with KOH to render a lithium loss of less than 1% in the waste. Contaminants were stripped from the resin with 3{und M} HCl. Zinc was one metal that was not extracted because it formed an anionic chloride complex. However zinc and certain other metals were extracted with high efficiency using strong-base type resin. Other resins are available for efficient extraction of many other metal contaminants, but the alkali metals, Na and K, were dependent on the CCIX common cation exchange system.

Higgins, I.R. [CSA, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1986-12-01

248

Recent Liquid Lithium Limiter Experiments in CDX-U  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments in the Current Drive eXperiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) provide a first-ever test of large area liquid lithium surfaces as a tokamak first wall, to gain engineering experience with a liquid metal first wall, and to investigate whether very low recycling plasma regimes can be accessed with lithium walls. The CDX-U is a compact (R=34 cm, a=22 cm, B{sub toroidal} = 2 kG, I{sub P} =100 kA, T{sub e}(0) {approx} 100 eV, n{sub e}(0) {approx} 5 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) spherical torus at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. A toroidal liquid lithium pool limiter with an area of 2000 cm{sup 2} (half the total plasma limiting surface) has been installed in CDX-U. Tokamak discharges which used the liquid lithium pool limiter required a fourfold lower loop voltage to sustain the plasma current, and a factor of 5-8 increase in gas fueling to achieve a comparable density, indicating that recycling is strongly reduced. Modeling of the discharges demonstrated that the lithium limited discharges are consistent with Z{sub effective} < 1.2 (compared to 2.4 for the pre-lithium discharges), a broadened current channel, and a 25% increase in the core electron temperature. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that edge oxygen and carbon radiation are strongly reduced.

R. Majeski; S. Jardin; R. Kaita; T. Gray; P. Marfuta; J. Spaleta; J. Timberlake; L. Zakharov; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Seraydarian; V. Soukhanovskii; R. Maingi; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; D. Rodgers; S. Angelini

2005-05-03

249

Liquid Lithium Limiter Experiments in CDX-U  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade provide a first-ever test of large area liquid lithium surfaces as a tokamak first wall, to gain engineering experience with a liquid metal first wall, and to investigate whether very low recycling plasma regimes can be accessed with lithium walls. The CDX-U is a compact (R = 34 cm, a = 22 cm, B{sub toroidal} = 2 kG, I{sub P} = 100 kA, T{sub e}(0) = 100 eV, n{sub e}(0) {approx} 5 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) spherical torus at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. A toroidal liquid lithium tray limiter with an area of 2000 cm{sup 2} (half the total plasma limiting surface) has been installed in CDX-U. Tokamak discharges which used the liquid lithium limiter required a fourfold lower loop voltage to sustain the plasma current, and a factor of 5-8 increase in gas fueling to achieve a comparable density, indicating that recycling is strongly reduced. Modeling of the discharges demonstrated that the lithium-limited discharges are consistent with Z{sub effective} < 1.2 (compared to 2.4 for the pre-lithium discharges), a broadened current channel, and a 25% increase in the core electron temperature. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that edge oxygen and carbon radiation are strongly reduced.

R. Majeski; S. Jardin; R. Kaita; T. Gray; P. Marfuta; J. Spaleta; J. Timberlake; L. Zakharov; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Seraydarian; V. Soukhanovskii; R. Maingi; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; D. Rodgers

2004-10-28

250

Large lithium loop experience  

SciTech Connect

An engineering design and operating experience of a large, isothermal, lithium-coolant test loop are presented. This liquid metal coolant loop is called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) and has operated safely and reliably for over 6500 hours through September 1981. The loop is used for full-scale testing of components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Main system parameters include coolant temperatures to 430/sup 0/C and flow to 0.038 m/sup 3//s (600 gal/min). Performance of the main pump, vacuum system, and control system is discussed. Unique test capabilities of the ELS are also discussed.

Kolowith, R.; Owen, T.J.; Berg, J.D.; Atwood, J.M.

1981-10-01

251

Lithium Ion Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

1997-01-01

252

Pyroelectric field assisted ion migration induced by ultraviolet laser irradiation and its impact on ferroelectric domain inversion in lithium niobate crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of UV laser irradiation on the distribution of lithium ions in ferroelectric lithium niobate single crystals has been numerically modelled. Strongly absorbed UV radiation at wavelengths of 244-305 nm produces steep temperature gradients which cause lithium ions to migrate and result in a local variation of the lithium concentration. In addition to the diffusion, here the pyroelectric effect is also taken into account which predicts a complex distribution of lithium concentration along the c-axis of the crystal: two separated lithium deficient regions on the surface and in depth. The modelling on the local lithium concentration and the subsequent variation of the coercive field are used to explain experimental results on the domain inversion of such UV treated lithium niobate crystals.

Ying, C. Y. J.; Daniell, G. J.; Steigerwald, H.; Soergel, E.; Mailis, S.

2013-08-01

253

Pyroelectric field assisted ion migration induced by ultraviolet laser irradiation and its impact on ferroelectric domain inversion in lithium niobate crystals  

SciTech Connect

The impact of UV laser irradiation on the distribution of lithium ions in ferroelectric lithium niobate single crystals has been numerically modelled. Strongly absorbed UV radiation at wavelengths of 244–305 nm produces steep temperature gradients which cause lithium ions to migrate and result in a local variation of the lithium concentration. In addition to the diffusion, here the pyroelectric effect is also taken into account which predicts a complex distribution of lithium concentration along the c-axis of the crystal: two separated lithium deficient regions on the surface and in depth. The modelling on the local lithium concentration and the subsequent variation of the coercive field are used to explain experimental results on the domain inversion of such UV treated lithium niobate crystals.

Ying, C. Y. J.; Mailis, S. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)] [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Daniell, G. J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Steigerwald, H.; Soergel, E. [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Wegelerstrasse 8, 53115 Bonn (Germany)] [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Wegelerstrasse 8, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

2013-08-28

254

Lithium batteries. October 1984-September 1987 (Citations from the Compendex data base). Report for October 1984-September 1987  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and applications of lithium batteries. Topics include electrochemical aspects, cycling characteristics, performance evaluations, and applications in cardiac pacemaker devices. Batteries utilizing organic compounds, chlorides, and metal sulfides are discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 343 citations, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1988-09-01

255

Lithium batteries. October 1987-September 1988 (Citations from the Compendex data base). Report for October 1987-September 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and applications of lithium batteries. Topics include electrochemical aspects, cycling characteristics, performance evaluations, and applications in cardiac pacemaker devices. Batteries utilizing organic compounds, chlorides, and metal sulfides are discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 140 citations, all of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1988-09-01

256

Lithium batteries. October 1987-September 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for October 1987-September 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and applications of lithium batteries. Topics include electrochemical aspects, cycling characteristics, performance evaluations, and applications in cardiac pacemaker devices. Batteries utilizing organic compounds, chlorides, and metal sulfides are discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 240 citations, 100 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-09-01

257

A review of hazards associated with primary lithium and lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary lithium batteries contain hazardous materials such as lithium metal and flammable solvents, which can lead to exothermic activity and runaway reactions above a defined temperature. Lithium-ion batteries operating outside the safe envelope can also lead to formation of lithium metal and thermal runaway. Despite protection by battery safety mechanisms, fires originating from primary lithium and lithium-ion batteries are a

Diego Lisbona; Timothy Snee

258

Micro-and nanoscale domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate  

E-print Network

Micro- and nanoscale domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate Vladimir Ya. Shur investigation of the domain evolution in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate during backswitched electric sources based on quasi-phase matching.11 Lithium niobate LiNbO3 (LN) and lithium tantalate LiTaO3 (LT

Byer, Robert L.

259

Electromagnetically Restrained Lithium Blanket APEX Interim Report November, 1999  

E-print Network

's toroidal plasma discharge, absorbing plasma particles, neutrons and other radiations while breeding tritium lithium metal has the advantages of a) high abundance, b) superior tritium breeding, c) low chemical their motion, if a closed path exists for electric current to flow in response to their motion-induced electric

California at Los Angeles, University of

260

Lithium-Fed Hollow Cathode Theory Leonard D. Cassady  

E-print Network

mechanisms. It was found that thermal radiation dominates at low current, thermionic cooling dominates of magnetoplasmadynamic thruster (MPDT) that uti- lizes lithium propellant and a multichannel hollow cathode (MCHC). A MCHC is a single cathode that consists of several parallel SCHCs through which the propellant flows

Choueiri, Edgar

261

Lithium treatment prevents neurocognitive deficit resulting from cranial irradiation.  

PubMed

Curative cancer treatment regimens often require cranial irradiation, resulting in lifelong neurocognitive deficiency in cancer survivors. This deficiency is in part related to radiation-induced apoptosis and decreased neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus. We show that lithium treatment protects irradiated hippocampal neurons from apoptosis and improves cognitive performance of irradiated mice. The molecular mechanism of this effect is mediated through multiple pathways, including Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) and Bcl-2/Bax. Lithium treatment of the cultured mouse hippocampal neurons HT-22 induced activation of Akt (1.5-fold), inhibition of GSK-3beta (2.2-fold), and an increase in Bcl-2 protein expression (2-fold). These effects were sustained when cells were treated with lithium in combination with ionizing radiation. In addition, this combined treatment led to decreased expression (40%) of the apoptotic protein Bax. The additional genes regulated by lithium were identified by microarray, such as decorin and Birc1f. In summary, we propose lithium treatment as a novel therapy for prevention of deleterious neurocognitive consequences of cranial irradiation. PMID:17145862

Yazlovitskaya, Eugenia M; Edwards, Eric; Thotala, Dinesh; Fu, Allie; Osusky, Kate L; Whetsell, William O; Boone, Braden; Shinohara, Eric T; Hallahan, Dennis E

2006-12-01

262

Modeling Chloride Penetration in Saturated Concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is established for chloride penetration in saturated concrete. The model takes into account various influential parameters such as water-to-cement ratio, curing time, types of cement, and aggregate content. Two material models are developed for binding capacity and chloride diffusivity, which have a dominant effect on the chloride diffusion process. The chloride binding capacity is modeled by means

Yunping Xi; Zdene?k P. Baz?ant

1999-01-01

263

Effect of lithium salts addition on the ionic liquid based extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos.  

PubMed

In this study, an ionic liquids (ILs) based extraction approach has been successfully applied to the extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos, and the effect of lithium chloride was also investigated. The results indicated that the oil yields can be increased by the ILs, and the extraction time can be reduced significantly (from 4h to 2h), compared with the conventional water distillation. The addition of lithium chloride showed different effect according to the structures of ILs, and the oil yields may be related with the structure of cation, while the chemical compositions of essential oil may be related with the anion. The reduction of extraction time and remarkable higher efficiency (5.41-62.17% improved) by combination of lithium salt and proper ILs supports the suitability of the proposed approach. PMID:25459951

Li, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Sha-Sha; Jie-Xing; Qin, Xue-Mei

2015-01-01

264

Chronic Lithium Treatment Robustly Protects Neurons in the Central Nervous System against Excitotoxicity by Inhibiting N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor-Mediated Calcium Influx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of manic depressive illness. The precise mechanisms underlying its clinical efficacy remain unknown. We found that long-term exposure to lithium chloride dramatically protects cultured rat cerebellar, cerebral cortical, and hippocampal neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, which involves apoptosis mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. This neuroprotection is longlasting, occurs at therapeutically relevant

Shigeyuki Nonaka; Christopher J. Hough; De-Maw Chuang

1998-01-01

265

Lithium Lens Interlocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium lens in the antiproton source target vault is protected by an interlock system, which is located in relay racks R5 and R6 near the southwest corner of the Target Hall (building APO). The interlock system consists of crates of commercial signal conditioner and alarm modules built by Acromag, Inc and interlock Master Modules built by Fermilab: Twenty analog

J. Krider

1985-01-01

266

Novel lithium-polymer electrolytes for lithium battery  

SciTech Connect

Five different but novel superacid-based lithium salts were synthesized and characterized. The electrochemical stability of these salts was studied by cyclic voltammetry and the process ability was carried out by chemical techniques. Solid polymer electrolytes of these salts with different compositions were prepared with polyethylene oxide and polyacrylonitrile under anhydrous conditions and their conductivities were measured at room temperature. High voltage composite cathode films of lithium cobalt oxide were prepared with aluminum and stainless steel grid materials. Lithium/polymer electrolyte/lithium cobalt oxide cells of about 4 mAh capacity were fabricated and were used to conduct charge and discharge studies to evaluate these novel lithium salts based polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries. The initial discharge studies on these cells showed a maximum of 71% discharge efficiency with good voltage regulation.

Venkatasetty, H.V. [H.V. Setty Enterprises Inc., Burnsville, MN (United States)

1996-11-01

267

77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final...outbound international mailing of lithium batteries and devices containing lithium batteries. This prohibition also extends to the...

2012-05-14

268

Advances in lithium-ion batteries  

E-print Network

current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature byof view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer,lithium ion batteries. The chapter on aging summarizes the effects of the chemistry on the battery

Kerr, John B.

2003-01-01

269

Main Directions and Recent Test Modeling Results of Lithium Capillary-Pore Systems as Plasma Facing Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present the most promising principal solution of the divertor problem appears to be the use of liquid metals and primarily of lithium Capillary-Pore Systems (CPS) as of plasma facing materials. A solid CPS filled with liquid lithium will have a high resistance to surface and volume damage because of neutron radiation effects, melting, splashing and thermal stress-induced cracking in

V A Evtikhin; I E Lyublinski; A V Vertkov; E A Azizov; S V Mirnov; V B Lazarev; S M Sotnikov; V M Safronov; A S Prokhorov; V M Korzhavin

2004-01-01

270

Thin-film lithium and lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research over the last decade at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has led to the development of solid-state thin-film lithium and lithium-ion batteries. The batteries, which are less than 15 ?m thick, have important applications in a variety of consumer and medical products, and they are useful research tools in characterizing the properties of lithium intercalation compounds in thin-film form. The

J. B. Bates; N. J. Dudney; B. Neudecker; A. Ueda; C. D. Evans

2000-01-01

271

CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING  

SciTech Connect

Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

2007-11-30

272

Multifunctional Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for non-venting thermal control for spacesuits was built by integrating two previously developed technologies, namely NASA's Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare's flexible version of the Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). This SEAR system was tested in relevant thermal vacuum conditions. These tests show that a 1 sq m radiator having about three times as much absorption media as in the test article would be required to support a 7 hour spacewalk. The serial flow arrangement of the LCAR of the flexible version proved to be inefficient for venting non-condensable gas (NCG). A different LCAR packaging arrangement was conceived wherein the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) housing would be made with a high-strength carbon fiber composite honeycomb, the cells of which would be filled with the chemical absorption media. This new packaging reduce the mass and volume impact of the SEAR on the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) compared to the flexible design. A 0.2 sq m panel with flight-like honeycomb geometry is being constructed and will be tested in thermal and thermal vacuum conditions. Design analyses forecast improved system performance and improved NCG control. A flight-like regeneration system also is also being built and tested. Design analyses for the structurally integrated prototype as well as the earlier test data show that SEAR is not only practical for spacesuits but also has useful applications in spacecraft thermal control.

Bue, Grant C.; Hodgson, Ed; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

2013-01-01

273

The history of lithium therapy  

PubMed Central

The use of lithium in psychiatry goes back to the mid-19th century. Early work, however, was soon forgotten, and John Cade is credited with reintroducing lithium to psychiatry for mania in 1949. Mogens Schou undertook a randomly controlled trial for mania in 1954, and in the course of that study became curious about lithium as a prophylactic for depressive illness. In 1970, the United States became the 50th country to admit lithium to the marketplace. Meanwhile, interest in lithium for the prophylaxis of depression was growing apace and today the agent is widely prescribed for that indication, even though it has not been accepted by the Food and Drug Administration. Lithium was almost derailed by a small group of opponents from the Maudsley Hospital and its status today is threatened by the “mood stabilizers.” PMID:19538681

Shorter, Edward

2013-01-01

274

Experimental lithium system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m/sup 3/ lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion.

Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

1985-04-01

275

Laser microstructuring and annealing processes for lithium manganese oxide cathodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is expected that cathodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIB) composed out of nano-composite materials lead to an increase in power density of the LIB due to large electrochemically active surface areas but cathodes made of lithium manganese oxides (Li-Mn-O) suffer from structural instabilities due to their sensitivity to the average manganese oxidation state. Therefore, thin films in the Li-Mn-O system were synthesized by non-reactive radiofrequency magnetron sputtering of a spinel lithium manganese oxide target. For the enhancement of the power density and cycle stability, large area direct laser patterning using UV-laser radiation with a wavelength of 248 nm was performed. Subsequent laser annealing processes were investigated in a second step in order to set up a spinel-like phase using 940 nm laser radiation at a temperature of 680 °C. The interaction processes between UV-laser radiation and the material was investigated using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The changes in phase, structure and grain shape of the thin films due to the annealing process were recorded using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The structured cathodes were cycled using standard electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode. Different surface structures were investigated and a significant increase in cycling stability was found. Surface chemistry of an as-deposited as well as an electrochemically cycled thin film was investigated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Pröll, J.; Kohler, R.; Torge, M.; Ulrich, S.; Ziebert, C.; Bruns, M.; Seifert, H. J.; Pfleging, W.

2011-09-01

276

Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries  

PubMed Central

Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

2012-01-01

277

Will advanced lithium-alloy anodes have a chance in lithium-ion batteries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high packing density of lithium is a significant advantage of lithium insertion into metallic matrices that can be achieved in lithium alloys compared with lithium intercalation into carbonaceous materials. Moreover, the operating voltage of lithium-alloy anodes may be chosen well-above the potential of metallic lithium and the solvent co-intercalation has not been observed at lithium-alloy electrodes. On the other

J. O. Besenhard; J. Yang; M. Winter

1997-01-01

278

Contamination of lithium heparin blood by K2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA): an experimental evaluation  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The contamination of serum or lithium heparin blood with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) salts may affect accuracy of some critical analytes and jeopardize patient safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lithium heparin sample contamination with different amounts of K2EDTA. Materials and methods: Fifteen volunteers were enrolled among the laboratory staff. Two lithium heparin tubes and one K2EDTA tube were collected from each subject. The lithium-heparin tubes of each subject were pooled and divided in 5 aliquots. The whole blood of K2EDTA tube was then added in scalar amount to autologous heparinised aliquots, to obtained different degrees of K2EDTA blood volume contamination (0%; 5%; 13%; 29%; 43%). The following clinical chemistry parameters were then measured in centrifuged aliquots: alanine aminotranspherase (ALT), bilirubin (total), calcium, chloride, creatinine, iron, lactate dehydrogenase (LD), lipase, magnesium, phosphate, potassium, sodium. Results: A significant variation starting from 5% K2EDTA contamination was observed for calcium, chloride, iron, LD, magnesium (all decreased) and potassium (increased). The variation of phosphate and sodium (both increased) was significant after 13% and 29% K2EDTA contamination, respectively. The values of ALT, bilirubin, creatinine and lipase remained unchanged up to 43% K2EDTA contamination. When variations were compared with desirable quality specifications, the bias was significant for calcium, chloride, LD, magnesium and potassium (from 5% K2EDTA contamination), sodium, phosphate and iron (from 29% K2EDTA contamination). Conclusions: The concentration of calcium, magnesium, potassium, chloride and LD appears to be dramatically biased by even modest K2EDTA contamination (i.e., 5%). The values of iron, phosphate, and sodium are still reliable up to 29% K2EDTA contamination, whereas ALT, bilirubin, creatinine and lipase appear overall less vulnerable towards K2EDTA contamination. PMID:25351354

Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Brocco, Giorgio; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Lippi, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

279

Advanced calcium-thionyl chloride high-power battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a breakthrough was made in the development of two advanced Ca-TC systems which have much better electric storage properties than the state-of-the-art Ca-SOC cell. This was done by replacing the CaX2 (X=AlCl4) electrolyte by SrX2 (type A), or BaX2 (type B). The project's goals are to gain a better understanding of the electrochemistry of the advanced systems and to establish their safety and performance. In this phase, the cell performance was improved significantly. An improved C-size A7 type cell delivers 4.4 Ah at 0.9 A rate and room temperature which is 50 percent more than similar size commercial lithium cells have. The SAFT LSH14 lithium-thionyl chloride and the Duracell L028SH lithium-SO2 cells have at this rate only 2.9 and 2.7 Ah respectively. During one year of storage at room temperature the heat generation rate of 150 sq cm C-size A7 type cells decreased to a level of 60 to 70 microwatts. A cell lost 0.3 Ah after this storage period. The effect of several parameters on the corrosion rate of calcium in TC solutions was studied. Preliminary results indicate: SO2 decreases corrosion, there is no stress corrosion due to twisting of Ca foils, the native oxide layer helps in preventing corrosion, Ca foils as received contain only about 90 percent metallic calcium. The role native calcium oxide layer plays depends on the type of electrolyte used.

Peled, Emanuel

1989-07-01

280

Chin rub CRs may reflect conditioned sickness elicited by a lithium-paired sucrose solution.  

PubMed

Rats were given a single conditioning trial in which 20% sucrose solution was paired with an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of lithium chloride (127.2 mg/kg), d-amphetamine (3 mg/kg) or physiological saline. Thirty min before a subsequent 10-min taste reactivity (TR) test and a 1-h conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) test the rats were injected IP with either the antiemetic agent, trimethobenzamide (5 mg/kg) [corrected] or with physiological saline solution. The lithium-paired, but not the amphetamine- or saline-paired, sucrose solution elicited the aversive TR responses of chin rubs, paw pushes and gapes. Trimethobenzamide suppressed the aversive TR response of chin rubs in the lithium-conditioned group, but not in a group given unconditionally aversive quinine solution. The CTA test was not sensitive to the antiemetic properties of trimethobenzamide, although the drug enhanced sucrose preference overall. The results suggest that chin rub responses may measure conditioned sickness. PMID:1667827

Parker, L A; MacLeod, K B

1991-12-01

281

An XAFS Study of Tantalum Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride\\/ aluminum Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tantalum chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride\\/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs). Anhydrous Ta2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic solution than in the acidic solution and the X-ray absorption data shows that the coordination shell of chlorides around the tantalum is larger in the basic solution. In the

D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

2011-01-01

282

Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 by lithium correlates with reduced tauopathy and degeneration in vivo  

PubMed Central

Neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated, aggregated tau are a common pathological feature of tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease. Abnormal phosphorylation of tau by kinases or phosphatases has been proposed as a pathogenic mechanism in tangle formation. To investigate whether kinase inhibition can reduce tauopathy and the degeneration associated with it in vivo, transgenic mice overexpressing mutant human tau were treated with the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitor lithium chloride. Treatment resulted in significant inhibition of GSK-3 activity. Lithium administration also resulted in significantly lower levels of phosphorylation at several epitopes of tau known to be hyperphosphorylated in Alzheimer's disease and significantly reduced levels of aggregated, insoluble tau. Administration of a second GSK-3 inhibitor also correlated with reduced insoluble tau levels, supporting the idea that lithium exerts its effect through GSK-3 inhibition. Levels of aggregated tau correlated strongly with degree of axonal degeneration, and lithium-chloride-treated mice showed less degeneration if administration was started during early stages of tangle development. These results support the idea that kinases are involved in tauopathy progression and that kinase inhibitors may be effective therapeutically. PMID:15867159

Noble, Wendy; Planel, Emmanuel; Zehr, Cindy; Olm, Vicki; Meyerson, Jordana; Suleman, Farhana; Gaynor, Kate; Wang, Lili; LaFrancois, John; Feinstein, Boris; Burns, Mark; Krishnamurthy, Pavan; Wen, Yi; Bhat, Ratan; Lewis, Jada; Dickson, Dennis; Duff, Karen

2005-01-01

283

Lithium Research Status and PlansLithium Research Status and Plans Charles H. Skinner, PPPL  

E-print Network

Lithium Research Status and PlansLithium Research Status and Plans Charles H. Skinner, PPPL Robert February 3-5, 2010 #12;NSTX PAC-27 ­ Lithium Research Status and Plans 2/15February 3-5, 2010 NSTX lithium research is an integral part of a program to develop lithium as a PFC concept for magnetic fusion NSTX w

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

284

CHEMILUMINESCENT MONITOR FOR VINYL CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

A monitor for vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) in ambient air was constructed using commercially available components of a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a chemiluminescence ozone analyzer slightly modified to make it suitable for use as a GC detector. The specificity for VCM is...

285

History of Vinyl Chloride Polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1926 Semon tried to dehydrohalogenate high molecular weight poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) in a high boiling solvent to get an unsaturated polymer which might bond rubber to metal. Unexpectedly, he obtained plasticized PVC, a flexible product inert both electrically and chemically. This discovery opened the door to the commercialization of PVC, a plastic with an annual United States production now

Waldo L. Semon; G. Allan Stahl

1981-01-01

286

New treatment option: 223Ra chloride, the first approved unsealed ?-emitting radiopharmaceutical.  

PubMed

A 66-year-old man with prostate cancer presented with intractable pain associated with multifocal bone metastases. After receiving 180 µCi (1.35 µCi/kg) of (223)Ra chloride, radiation survey measured 0.2 mR/h at 1 m, and the patient was discharged to home. He will return monthly for the next 5 months for repeat (223)Ra chloride administrations. (223)Ra chloride is the first Food and Drug Administration-approved unsealed ?-emitting radiopharmaceutical. PMID:23867617

Colletti, Patrick M

2013-09-01

287

Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Chloride Sweat Test  

MedlinePLUS

... the Flu Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test Print A A A ...

288

Solid lithium-ion electrolyte  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

1998-01-01

289

Solid lithium-ion electrolyte  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

1998-02-10

290

Advanced lithium ion battery charger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lithium ion battery charger has been developed for four and eight cell batteries or multiples thereof. This charger has the advantage over those using commercial lithium ion charging chips in that the individual cells are allowed to be taper charged at their upper charging voltage rather than be cutoff when all cells of the string have reached the upper

V. L. Teofilo; L. V. Merritt; R. P. Hollandsworth

1997-01-01

291

Environment assisted degradation mechanisms in aluminum-lithium alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Section 1 of this report records the progress achieved on NASA-LaRC Grant NAG-1-745 (Environment Assisted Degradation Mechanisms in Al-Li Alloys), and is based on research conducted during the period April 1 to November 30, 1987. A discussion of work proposed for the project's second year is included. Section 2 provides an overview of the need for research on the mechanisms of environmental-mechanical degradation of advanced aerospace alloys based on aluminum and lithium. This research is to provide NASA with the basis necessary to permit metallurgical optimization of alloy performance and engineering design with respect to damage tolerance, long term durability and reliability. Section 3 reports on damage localization mechanisms in aqueous chloride corrosion fatigue of aluminum-lithium alloys. Section 4 reports on progress made on measurements and mechanisms of localized aqueous corrosion in aluminum-lithium alloys. Section 5 provides a detailed technical proposal for research on environmental degradation of Al-Li alloys, and the effect of hydrogen in this.

Gangloff, Richard P.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Swanson, Robert E.

1988-01-01

292

Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride  

DOEpatents

Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

2014-02-11

293

Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride  

DOEpatents

Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

Spormann, Alfred M. (Stanford, CA); Muller, Jochen A. (Baltimore, MD); Rosner, Bettina M. (Berlin, DE); Von Abendroth, Gregory (Nannhein, DE); Meshulam-Simon, Galit (Los Altos, CA); McCarty, Perry L (Stanford, CA)

2011-11-22

294

High-Capacity Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal control systems for space suits and spacecraft will need to meet critical requirements for water conservation and adaptability to highly variable thermal environments. This paper describes a Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) that has been designed to meet performance requirements for future life support systems. A SEAR system comprises a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR) for heat rejection coupled with a space water membrane evaporator (SWME) for heat acquisition. SEAR systems provide heat pumping to minimize radiator size, thermal storage to accommodate variable environmental conditions, and water absorption to minimize use of expendables. We have built and tested a flightlike, high-capacity LCAR, demonstrated its performance in thermal vacuum tests, and explored the feasibility of an ISS demonstration test of a SEAR system. The new LCAR design provides the same cooling capability as prior LCAR prototypes while enabling over 30% more heat absorbing capacity. Studies show that it should be feasible to demonstrate SEAR operation in flight by coupling with an existing EMU on the space station.

Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

2014-01-01

295

High-Capacity Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal control systems for space suits and spacecraft will need to meet critical requirements for water conservation and multifunctional operation. This paper describes a Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) that has been designed to meet performance requirements for future life support systems. A SEAR system comprises a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR) for heat rejection coupled with a space water membrane evaporator (SWME) for heat acquisition. SEAR systems provide heat pumping to minimize radiator size, thermal storage to accommodate variable environmental conditions, and water absorption to minimize use of expendables. We have built and tested a flight-like, high-capacity LCAR, demonstrated its performance in thermal vacuum tests, and explored the feasibility of an ISS demonstration test of a SEAR system. The new LCAR design provides the same cooling capability as prior LCAR prototypes while enabling over 30% more heat absorbing capacity. Studies show that it should be feasible to demonstrate SEAR operation in flight by coupling with an existing EMU on the space station.

Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

2015-01-01

296

Lithium/bromine cell systems  

SciTech Connect

Bromine is attractive as a cathode material because cells with a high energy density and high cell voltage are theoretically possible. The addition of small amounts of certain salts or organic compounds results in bromine solutions of sufficient conductivity for cathode applications. However, given these highly conductive bromine cathodes, lithium/bromine cells are limited in rate and practical available capacity by the high resistivity of the discharge product. The rate of resistance increase for the best bromine cells in this study is more than one order of magnitude greater than that observed for corresponding lithium/iodine cells. Lithium/bromine cells can function at pacemaker rates and they may be superior to cells used in early pacemakers. However, the authors have not found the lithium/bromine cells described to be superior to existing lithium/iodine cells available for cardiac pacemakers. 17 refs.

Howard, W.G.; Skarstad, P.M.; Hayes, T.G.; Owens, B.B.

1980-01-01

297

21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13 . 6H2 0, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1)...

2010-04-01

298

Worker exposure to vinyl chloride and poly(vinyl chloride).  

PubMed Central

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in early 1974 began industrial hygiene studies of vinyl chloride exposed workers. Three VC monomer plants, three VC polymerization plants, and seven PVC fabrication plants were surveyed. V polymerization plant workers and workers in one job category in VC monomer plants were exposed to average levels above 1 ppm. The highest average exposure was 22 ppm. NIOSH health hazard evaluation studies since these initial surveys have primarily shown nondetectable levels of vinyl chloride. A NIOSH control technology study in 1977 showed that exposure levels in VC polymerization plants had been drastically reduced but exposure levels above 1 ppm were still found in several cases. PMID:7333231

Jones, J H

1981-01-01

299

Solvent and temperature effects on the reduction and amination reactions of electrophiles by lithium dialkylaminoborohydrides.  

PubMed

The influence of temperature and solvent effects on the reduction and amination mechanisms of iodomethane by lithium N,N-diisopropylaminoborohydride (iPr-LAB) was examined in varying concentrations of THF and dioxane. The reactions of benzyl chloride and trimethylsilyl chloride with iPr-LAB in THF were also studied. The amination of iodomethane is favored over reduction at low and room temperatures in pure THF and with increasing the amount of dioxane in THF. At higher temperatures, the reduction reaction appears to compete with the amination. In dioxane solvent, however, iodomethane yields exclusively the amination product regardless of temperature. On the other hand, reduction by iPr-LAB to the aminoborane is the only product observed in THF when benzyl chloride and trimethylsilyl chloride are used. To understand the solvent effects on the product distribution, ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to examine the mechanisms of reduction and amination of chloromethane and bromomethane by lithium dimethylaminoborohydride (LAB) in THF and dioxane. The results of these calculations show that the relative reaction barrier heights are significantly affected by the nature of the coordinated solvent molecule and thus lend support to the experimental observations. PMID:17253818

Pasumansky, Lubov; Collins, Christopher J; Pratt, Lawrence M; Nguyên, Ngân Van; Ramachandran, B; Singaram, Bakthan

2007-02-01

300

Seebeck Coefficient of Lithium and Lithium-Tin Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments into the viability of lithium as a first wall material in a fusion device have shown that it offers great benefits in reducing recycling of hydrogenic species at the wall, increasing energy confinement times, and gettering impurities. However, concerns have been raised about its practicality in regions of high heat fluxes, and one of the greatest is whether or not a lithium divertor concept can function at high steady state temperatures without significant evaporation of the lithium. Lithium-tin alloys might offer a solution by suppressing evaporation, but their performance in a TEMHD driven device such as the LIMIT device under development at UIUC is directly dependent on their thermoelectric properties, namely their unknown Seebeck coefficient. In support of the use of lithium-tin alloys in such a device, experiments are performed to recover the Seebeck coefficient of several different compositions of lithium-tin alloys. Experiments previously performed at the University of Illinois of the Seebeck coefficient of lithium [1] were confirmed and expanded upon by this study. Values of ranging from 12 +/-1 uV/K at 82C to 28 +/-1 uV/K at 240C were obtained.[4pt] [1] V. Surla et al. Journal of Nuclear Materials 415 (2011) 18-22.

Kirsch, L.; Fiflis, P.; Andruczyk, D.; Curreli, D.; Ruzic, D. N.

2012-10-01

301

An XAFS Study of Tantalum Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride/ aluminum Chloride  

SciTech Connect

Tantalum chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs). Anhydrous Ta2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic solution than in the acidic solution and the X-ray absorption data shows that the coordination shell of chlorides around the tantalum is larger in the basic solution. In the acidic solution, tantalum has five chlorides in its coordination shell while in the basic solution; the tantalum is coordinated by seven chlorides. This indicates that the Lewis acidity of the tantalum chloride causes the Ta to coordinate differently in the acidic and the basic solutions.

D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

2011-12-31

302

Lithium niobate explosion monitor  

DOEpatents

Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

Bundy, Charles H. (Clearwater, FL); Graham, Robert A. (Los Lunas, NM); Kuehn, Stephen F. (Albuquerque, NM); Precit, Richard R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rogers, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01

303

Lithium niobate explosion monitor  

DOEpatents

Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

1990-01-09

304

Lithium electric dipole polarizability  

SciTech Connect

The electric dipole polarizability of the lithium atom in the ground state is calculated including relativistic and quantum electrodynamics corrections. The obtained result {alpha}{sub E}=164.0740(5) a.u. is in good agreement with the less accurate experimental value of 164.19(1.08) a.u. The small uncertainty of about 3 parts per 10{sup 6} comes from the approximate treatment of quantum electrodynamics corrections. Our theoretical result can be considered as a benchmark for more general atomic structure methods and may serve as a reference value for the relative measurement of polarizabilities of the other alkali-metal atoms.

Puchalski, M.; KePdziera, D.; Pachucki, K. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, PL-60-780 Poznan (Poland); Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 7, PL-87-100 Torun (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

2011-11-15

305

Halo Star Lithium Depletion  

SciTech Connect

The depletion of lithium during the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence phases of stellar evolution plays a crucial role in the comparison of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis with the abundances observed in halo stars. Previous work has indicated a wide range of possible depletion factors, ranging from minimal in standard (nonrotating) stellar models to as much as an order of magnitude in models that include rotational mixing. Recent progress in the study of the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars permits the construction of theoretical models capable of reproducing the angular momentum evolution of low-mass open cluster stars. The distribution of initial angular momenta can be inferred from stellar rotation data in young open clusters. In this paper we report on the application of these models to the study of lithium depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A range of initial angular momenta produces a range of lithium depletion factors on the main sequence. Using the distribution of initial conditions inferred from young open clusters leads to a well-defined halo lithium plateau with modest scatter and a small population of outliers. The mass-dependent angular momentum loss law inferred from open cluster studies produces a nearly flat plateau, unlike previous models that exhibited a downward curvature for hotter temperatures in the 7Li-Teff plane. The overall depletion factor for the plateau stars is sensitive primarily to the solar initial angular momentum used in the calibration for the mixing diffusion coefficients. Uncertainties remain in the treatment of the internal angular momentum transport in the models, and the potential impact of these uncertainties on our results is discussed. The 6Li/7Li depletion ratio is also examined. We find that the dispersion in the plateau and the 6Li/7Li depletion ratio scale with the absolute 7Li depletion in the plateau, and we use observational data to set bounds on the 7Li depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A maximum of 0.4 dex depletion is set by the observed dispersion and 6Li/7Li depletion ratio, and a minimum of 0.2 dex depletion is required by both the presence of highly overdepleted halo stars and consistency with the solar and open cluster 7Li data. The cosmological implications of these bounds on the primordial abundance of 7Li are discussed. (c) (c) 1999. The American Astronomical Society.

Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

1999-12-10

306

Plasma Response to Lithium-Coated Plasma-Facing Components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment  

SciTech Connect

Experiments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have shown beneficial effects on the performance of divertor plasmas as a result of applying lithium coatings on the graphite and carbonfiber- composite plasma-facing components. These coatings have mostly been applied by a pair of lithium evaporators mounted at the top of the vacuum vessel which inject collimated streams of lithium vapor towards the lower divertor. In NBI-heated, deuterium H-mode plasmas run immediately after the application of lithium, performance modifications included decreases in the plasma density, particularly in the edge, and inductive flux consumption, and increases in the electron and ion temperatures and the energy confinement time. Reductions in the number and amplitude of ELMs were observed, including complete ELM suppression for periods up to 1.2 s, apparently as a result of altering the stability of the edge. However, in the plasmas where ELMs were suppressed, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities, although not of lithium itself which remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. The impurity buildup could be inhibited by repetitively triggering ELMs with the application of brief pulses of an n = 3 radial field perturbation. The reduction in the edge density by lithium also inhibited parasitic losses through the scrape-off layer of ICRF power coupled to the plasma, enabling the waves to heat electrons in the core of H-mode plasmas produced by NBI. Lithium has also been introduced by injecting a stream of chemically stabilized, fine lithium powder directly into the scrape-off layer of NBI-heated plasmas. The lithium was ionized in the SOL and appeared to flow along the magnetic field to the divertor plates. This method of coating produced similar effects to the evaporated lithium but at lower amounts.

M.G. Bell, H.W. Kugel, R. Kaita, L.E. Zakharov, H. Schneider, B.P. LeBlanc, D. Mansfield, R.E. Bell, R. Maingi, S. Ding, S.M. Kaye, S.F. Paul, S.P. Gerhardt, J.M. Canik, J.C. Hosea, G. Taylor and the NSTX Research Team

2009-08-20

307

Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 ?? 1010 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park. ?? 1985.

Norton, D.R.; Friedman, I.

1985-01-01

308

A lithium superionic conductor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10-2?S?cm-1) only at 50-80?°C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li10GeP2S12 that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12?mS?cm-1 at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window).

Kamaya, Noriaki; Homma, Kenji; Yamakawa, Yuichiro; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kato, Yuki; Hama, Shigenori; Kawamoto, Koji; Mitsui, Akio

2011-09-01

309

Fluid consumption in lithium-treated rats: roles of stimulus novelty and context novelty.  

PubMed

In 5 experiments thirsty rats received an injection of lithium chloride or of saline, and their consumption of fluid was monitored at 5-min intervals for 30 min. The novelty of the fluid and the novelty of the test context was varied. In Experiment 1 a novel fluid (a sucrose solution) was offered in a novel context; in Experiment 2 the fluid was novel and the context was familiar (the home cage); in Experiment 3 the fluid was familiar and the context was novel; and in Experiment 4 both fluid and context were familiar. Lithium influenced fluid consumption in those designs that included at least one novel feature (Experiments 1, 2, and 3, but not in Experiment 4). Consumption was initially enhanced (with respect to the controls) when the context was novel, but was suppressed when the fluid was novel. In Experiment 5, the flavor was over-ingested after lithium treatment when it was presented in a short (5 min) test conducted in a novel place, but was rejected in a subsequent consumption in the home cages. It is argued that the effect of lithium depends on two factors: enhanced attention to salient cues that modifies the exploratory responses evoked by a novel context; rapid conditioning of an aversion when the fluid consumed is novel. Implications for the use of fluid consumption as an index of lithium-induced nausea are considered. PMID:22835651

Rodríguez, Marcial; García, Zoé; Cobo, Pablo; Hall, Geoffrey

2012-10-01

310

Performance Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Cells for Mars Sample Return Athena Rover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In contrast to the primary batteries (lithium thionyl chloride) on the Sojourner Mars Rover and the upcoming 2001 Mars Rover, the Mars Sample Return (MSR) Athena Rover will utilize rechargeable lithium ion batteries, following the footsteps of MSP 2001 Lander. The MSR Athena Rover will contain a rechargeable lithium ion battery of 16 V and a total energy of 150 Wh. The mass and volume of the projected power system will be a maximum of 3 kg and 2 liters, respectively. Each battery consists of twelve cells (6-7 Ah), combined in three parallel strings of four cells (16 V) each, such that the capability of the Rover shall be maintained even in the event of one string failure. In addition to the usual requirements of high specific energy and energy density and long cycle life (100 cycles), the battery is required to operate at wide range of temperatures, especially at sub-zero temperatures down to -20 C. In this paper, we report various performance characterization tests carried out on lithium ion cells, fabricated by different manufacturers under a NASA/DoD lithium ion battery consortium.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Ewell, R.; Surampudi, S.; Marsh, R.

1999-01-01

311

Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes  

DOEpatents

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tulsa, OK)

1996-01-01

312

Lithium System Operation Dan Lev and David Stein  

E-print Network

Lithium System Operation Dan Lev and David Stein March 1, 2011 (or Lithium tank for dummies) 1 #12 for Ordering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 9 Lithium Handling 52 9.1 Glove Box for Ordering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 9.2 Lithium Cleaning

313

Lithium Reagents DOI: 10.1002/anie.200603038  

E-print Network

Lithium Reagents DOI: 10.1002/anie.200603038 Lithium Diisopropylamide: Solution Kinetics Keywords: kinetics · lithium diisopropylamide · metalation · solvent effects · synthesis design D. B: lithium diiso- propylamide (LDA). LDA has played a profound role in organic synthesis, serving as the base

Collum, David B.

314

77 FR 68069 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION...and secondary lithium cells or lithium batteries internationally, or to and from an APO...that prohibited the mailing of lithium batteries and cells internationally and when...

2012-11-15

315

A Lithium Superionic Sulfide Cathode for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries  

SciTech Connect

This work presents a facile synthesis approach for core-shell structured Li2S nanoparticles, which have Li2S as the core and Li3PS4 as the shell. This material functions as lithium superionic sulfide (LSS) cathode for long-lasting, energy-efficient lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The LSS has an ionic conductivity of 10-7 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 6 orders of magnitude higher than that of bulk Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high lithium-ion conductivity of LSS imparts an excellent cycling performance to all-solid Li-S batteries, which also promises safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

Lin, Zhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Zengcai [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

316

UNDERSTANDING DEGRADATION AND LITHIUM DIFFUSION IN LITHIUM ION BATTERY ELECTRODES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium-ion batteries with higher capacity and longer cycle life than that available today are required as secondary energy sources for a wide range of emerging applications. In particular, the cycling performance of several candidate materials for lithium-ion battery electrodes is insufficient because of the fast capacity fading and short cycle life, which is mainly a result of mechanical degradation.\\u000aThis

Juchuan Li

2012-01-01

317

Cyanoethylated compounds as additives in lithium/lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01

318

Liquid Lithium Limiter Effects on Tokamak Plasmas and Plasma-Liquid Surface Interactions  

SciTech Connect

We present results from the first experiments with a large area liquid lithium limiter in a magnetic fusion device, and its effect on improving plasma performance by reducing particle recycling. Using large area liquid metal surfaces in any major fusion device is unlikely before a test on a smaller scale. This has motivated its demonstration in the CDX-U spherical torus with a unique, fully toroidal lithium limiter. The highest current discharges were obtained with a liquid lithium limiter. There was a reduction in recycling, as indicated by a significant decrease in the deuterium-alpha emission and oxygen radiation. How these results might extrapolate to reactors is suggested in recycling/retention experiments with liquid lithium surfaces under high-flux deuterium and helium plasma bombardment in PISCES-B. Data on deuterium atoms retained in liquid lithium indicate retention of all incident ions until full volumetric conversion to lithium deuteride. The PISCES-B results also show a material loss mechanism that lowers the maximum operating temperature compared to that for the liquid surface equilibrium vapor pressure. This may restrict the lithium temperature in reactors.

R. Kaita; R. Majeski; R. Doerner; G. Antar; M. Baldwin; R. Conn; P. Efthimion; M. Finkenthal; D. Hoffman; B. Jones; S. Krashenninikov; H. Kugel; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; J. Menard; T. Munsat; D. Stutman; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; V. Soukhanovskii; D. Whyte; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov

2002-10-15

319

Method for manufacturing nuclear radiation detector with deep diffused junction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germanium radiation detectors are manufactured by diffusing lithium into high purity p-type germanium. The diffusion is most readily accomplished from a lithium-lead-bismuth alloy at approximately 430°C and is monitored by a quartz half cell containing a standard composition of this alloy. Detectors having n-type cores may be constructed by converting high purity p-type germanium to n-type by a lithium diffusion

Hall

1977-01-01

320

Reversible Lithium Neurotoxicity: Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Objective: Lithium neurotoxicity may be reversible or irreversible. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity has been defined as cases of lithium neurotoxicity in which patients recovered without any permanent neurologic sequelae, even after 2 months of an episode of lithium toxicity. Cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity differ in clinical presentation from those of irreversible lithium neurotoxicity and have important implications in clinical practice. This review aims to study the clinical presentation of cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity. Data Sources: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), 1950 to November 2010; PsycINFO, 1967 to November 2010; and SCOPUS (EMBASE), 1950 to November 2010. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched by using the OvidSP interface. Study Selection: A combination of the following search terms was used: lithium AND adverse effects AND central nervous system OR neurologic manifestation. Publications cited include articles concerned with reversible lithium neurotoxicity. Data Extraction: The age, sex, clinical features, diagnostic categories, lithium doses, serum lithium levels, precipitating factors, and preventive measures of 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity were extracted. Data Synthesis: Among the 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity, patients ranged in age from 10 to 80 years and a greater number were female (P?=?.008). Most patients had affective disorders, schizoaffective disorders, and/or depression (P?lithium levels were less than or equal to 1.5 mEq/L (P?lithium, underlying brain pathology, abnormal tissue levels, specific diagnostic categories, and elderly populations were some of the precipitating factors reported for reversible lithium neurotoxicity. The preventive measures were also described. Conclusions: Reversible lithium neurotoxicity presents with a certain clinical profile and precipitating factors for which there are appropriate preventive measures. This recognition will help in early diagnosis and prompt treatment of lithium neurotoxicity. PMID:22690368

Netto, Ivan

2012-01-01

321

LITHIUM--2003 45.1 By Joyce A. Ober  

E-print Network

, such as lithium hydroxide monohydrate, lithium metal, and organic lithium compounds. Lithium is sold as brines and minerals are consumed in the production of ceramics, glass, and primary aluminum. The consumption.S. lithium operations included a lithium hydroxide plant in Silver Peak; a butyllithium plant in New

322

An XAFS Study of Niobium chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride\\/ aluminum chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Niobium chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride\\/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Although anhydrous Nb2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic melt than in the acidic melt, the EXAFS data shows that the coordination shell around the niobium does not change in the different ionic liquids. Both the acidic

D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

2011-01-01

323

Lithium-iodine pacemaker cell  

SciTech Connect

The lithium-iodine pacemaker cell is described as supplied by several manufacturers. The features of each design are discussed along with their effect on energy density, self-discharge and shape of the discharge curve. Differences in performance characteristics are related to morphology of the lithium iodine electrolyte and to the form of the cathode. A new, high-drain cell is mentioned which can supply 60 /mu/a/cm/sup 2/. 10 refs.

Schneider, A.A.; Snyder, S.E.; DeVan, T.; Harney, M.J.; Harney, D.E.

1980-01-01

324

Lithium isotope separation by laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lithium isotope separation was performed using a laser isotope separation method. It was found that the lithium atoms with a natural isotopic abundance enhanced its6Li concentration up to over 90% by tuning the laser wavelength to the2P1\\/2 of6Li. Too high power, however, leads to a loss of enrichment due to the power broadening effect which was analysed by the

T. Arisawa; Y. Maruyama; Y. Suzuki; K. Shiba

1982-01-01

325

Air breathing lithium power cells  

DOEpatents

A cell suitable for use in a battery according to one embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; a stabilized zirconia electrolyte for selective oxygen anion transport; a molten salt electrolyte; and a lithium-based anode. A cell suitable for use in a battery according to another embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; an electrolyte; a membrane selective to molecular oxygen; and a lithium-based anode.

Farmer, Joseph C.

2014-07-15

326

Lithium Diffusion in Graphitic Carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphitic carbon is currently considered the state-of-the-art material for the negative electrode in lithium-ion cells, mainly due to its high reversibility and low operating potential. However, carbon anodes exhibit mediocre charge\\/discharge rate performance, which contributes to severe transport-induced surface-structural damage upon prolonged cycling, and limits the lifetime of the cell. Lithium bulk diffusion in graphitic carbon is not yet completely

Kristin Persson; Vijay A. Sethuraman; Laurence J. Hardwick; Yoyo Hinuma; Ying Shirley Meng; Anton van der Ven; Venkat Srinivasan; Robert Kostecki; Gerbrand Ceder

2011-01-01

327

Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

Summerfield, John

2013-01-01

328

A neutral lithium beam source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low energy neutral lithium beam source with energy about 6 keV and a neutral beam equivalent current of 20 ?A\\/cm2 has been developed in ASIPP in order to measure the density gradient and the fluctuations in the edge plasma of the HT-6M tokamak. In the source, lithium ions are extracted from a solid emitter (?-eucryptite), focused in a two-tube

Xiaodong Zhang; Zhengmin Wang; Liqun Hu

1994-01-01

329

Dendrite preventing separator for secondary lithium batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dendrites are prevented from shorting a secondary lithium battery by use of a first porous separator, such as porous polypropylene, adjacent to the lithium anode that is unreactive with lithium and a second porous fluoropolymer separator between the cathode and the first separator, such as polytetrafluoroethylene, that is reactive with lithium. As the tip of a lithium dendrite contacts the second separator, an exothermic reaction occurs locally between the lithium dendrite and the fluoropolymer separator. This results in the prevention of the dendrite propagation to the cathode.

Shen, David H. (inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (inventor); Halpert, Gerald (inventor)

1993-01-01

330

Dendrite preventing separator for secondary lithium batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dendrites are prevented from shorting a secondary lithium battery by use of a first porous separator such as porous polypropylene adjacent the lithium anode that is unreactive with lithium and a second porous fluoropolymer separator between the cathode and the first separator such as polytetrafluoroethylene that is reactive with lithium. As the tip of a lithium dendrite contacts the second separator, an exothermic reaction occurs locally between the lithium dendrite and the fluoropolymer separator. This results in the prevention of the dendrite propagation to the cathode.

Shen, David H. (inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (inventor); Halpert, Gerald (inventor)

1995-01-01

331

Secondary lithium batteries for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Secondary lithium cells which use a LiAsF6-2-Me-THF electrolyte and a TiS2 intercalatable cathode exhibit encouraging cycle life at ambient temperature. Electrochemical and surface analytical studies indicate that the electrolyte is unstable in the presence of metallic lithium, leading to the formation of a lithium passivating film composed of lithium arsenic oxyfluorides and lithium fluorsilicates. The lithium cyclability remains as the most important problem to solve. Different electrolyte solvents, such as sulfolane, exhibit promising characteristics but lead to new compatibility problems with the other cell component materials.

Carter, B.; Khanna, S. K.; Yen, S. P. S.; Shen, D.; Somoano, R. B.

1981-01-01

332

Development of lithium deposition techniques for TFTR  

SciTech Connect

The ability to increase the quantity of lithium deposition into TFTR beyond that of the Pellet Injector while minimizing perturbations to the plasma provides interesting experimental and operational options. Two additional lithium deposition tools were developed for possible application during the 1996 Experimental Schedule: a solid lithium target probe for real-time deposition, and a lithium effusion oven for deposition between discharges. The lithium effusion oven was operated in TFTR to deposit lithium on the Inner Limiter in the absence of plasma. This resulted in the third highest power TFTR discharge.

Kugel, H.W.; Gorman, J.; Johnson, D.; Labik, G.; Lemunyan, G.; Mansfield, D.; Timberlake, J.; Vocaturo, M.

1997-10-01

333

Lithium peroxide primary element  

SciTech Connect

In a galvanic primary element of the system Li/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, the aqueous cathode depolarizer H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is fixated as a polyurethane gel. It can thereby be controlled and caused to react with the anode metal in accordance with the current drain requirements. This is accomplished using a ram to press the gel toward a conductor which covers the lithium anode, which may take the form of a metal grid and/or a gas diffusion electrode. The oxygen which forms in the working layer through catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide creates a gas bubble when the current is interrupted or the ram is stopped, thereby interrupting the further supply of hydrogen peroxide to the catalyst.

Winsel, A.

1982-05-04

334

An XAFS Study of Niobium chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride  

SciTech Connect

Niobium chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Although anhydrous Nb2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic melt than in the acidic melt, the EXAFS data shows that the coordination shell around the niobium does not change in the different ionic liquids. Both the acidic and basic melts show a coordination of five chlorides in the first shell. This indicates that in this series of ionic liquids, the Nb2Cl10 breaks up into two NbCl5 entities in both the acidic and the basic melts.

D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

2011-12-31

335

Lithium depletion and the rotational history of exoplanet host stars  

E-print Network

Israelian et al. (2004) reported that exoplanet host stars are lithium depleted compared to solar-type stars without detected massive planets, a result recently confirmed by Gonzalez (2008). We investigate whether enhanced lithium depletion in exoplanet host stars may result from their rotational history. We have developed rotational evolution models for slow and fast solar-type rotators from the pre-main sequence (PMS) to the age of the Sun and compare them to the distribution of rotational periods observed for solar-type stars between 1 Myr and 5 Gyr. We show that slow rotators develop a high degree of differential rotation between the radiative core and the convective envelope, while fast rotators evolve with little core-envelope decoupling. We suggest that strong differential rotation at the base of the convective envelope is responsible for enhanced lithium depletion in slow rotators. We conclude that lithium-depleted exoplanet host stars were slow rotators on the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) and argue that slow rotation results from a long lasting star-disk interaction during the PMS. Altogether, this suggests that long-lived disks (> 5 Myr) may be a necessary condition for massive planet formation/migration.

Jerome Bouvier

2008-09-03

336

Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition  

DOEpatents

A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

1981-10-08

337

Observation of a cascaded process in intracavity terahertz optical parametric oscillators based on lithium niobate.  

PubMed

Cascaded difference frequency generation has been observed in intracavity optical parametric oscillators based on bulk lithium niobate and producing nanosecond pulses of terahertz radiation. Two idler waves are generated, namely: the primary idler wave associated with the parametric down conversion process itself; and a secondary idler wave, due to difference frequency generation. Experimental investigations of the frequency, temporal evolution, propagation direction, intensity, phase matching and oscillation threshold of the generated down-converted waves are reported. The overall generation efficiency for the terahertz radiation is enhanced, thereby overcoming the Manley-Rowe limit. Advantages of the present approach over schemes based on periodically poled lithium niobate are identified. PMID:23938637

Thomson, C L; Dunn, M H

2013-07-29

338

Molecular Structure of Sodium chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium chloride, or simply (table) salt, is found in the mineral Halite (rock salt) but also in seawater, sweat, etc. It is used in industry and in our everyday life, for seasoning and perserving food or for winter road maintenance. Seawater contains a lot of salt, on average of 2.6% NaCl, or 26 million metric tons per cubic kilometer. In rock salt the NaCl content typically ranges between 95% and 99% NaCl, and mechanically evaporated salt and solar salt normally exceed 99% NaCl.

2002-08-15

339

Chloride Transporting CLC Proteins1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the early 1980s, Chris Miller and colleagues described a curious "double-barreled" chloride channel from the electric organ of Torpedo fish reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers (Miller and White, 1980). Single-channel openings occurred in "bursts" separated by long closures. A single burst was characterized by the presence of two open conductance levels of equal size and the gating (i.e., openings and closings) during a burst could be almost perfectly described as a superposition of two identical and independent conductances that switched between open and closed states with voltage-dependent rates ? and ? (Hanke and Miller, 1983) (Fig. 8.1).

Pusch, Michael

340

Metal chloride cathode for a battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of fabricating a rechargeable battery is disclosed which includes a positive electrode which contains a chloride of a selected metal when the electrode is in its active state. The improvement comprises fabricating the positive electrode by: providing a porous matrix composed of a metal; providing a solution of the chloride of the selected metal; and impregnating the matrix with the chloride from the solution.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

1991-05-01

341

Metal chloride cathode for a battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of fabricating a rechargeable battery is disclosed which includes a positive electrode which contains a chloride of a selected metal when the electrode is in its active state. The improvement comprises fabricating the positive electrode by: providing a porous matrix composed of a metal; providing a solution of the chloride of the selected metal; and impregnating the matrix with the chloride from the solution.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Bankston, C. Perry (inventor)

1991-01-01

342

Lithium Ion Solvation: Amine and Unsaturated Hydrocarbon Solvates of Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS)  

E-print Network

Lithium Ion Solvation: Amine and Unsaturated Hydrocarbon Solvates of Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide, and 13C NMR spectroscopic studies of 6Li-15N labeled lithium hexamethyldisilazide ([6Li,15N]- Li ligand structure and lithium amide aggregation state is a complex and sensitive function of amine alkyl

Collum, David B.

343

SOLID STATE NMR STUDY SUPPORTING THE LITHIUM VACANCY DEFECT MODEL IN CONGRUENT LITHIUM  

E-print Network

@ Pergamon SOLID STATE NMR STUDY SUPPORTING THE LITHIUM VACANCY DEFECT MODEL IN CONGRUENT LITHIUM performed on powdered and single crystal lithium niobate of defectivecongruent composition (48.4%LirO;51.6% NbrOr) using a magnetic field strength of 7.05 Tesla with the aim to distinguish between a lithium

Bluemel, Janet

344

Real-time observation of lithium fibers growth inside a nanoscale lithium-ion battery  

E-print Network

Real-time observation of lithium fibers growth inside a nanoscale lithium-ion battery Hessam.1063/1.3643035] Lithium-ion batteries are of great interest due to their high energy density, however, various safety properties, many applications are pos- sible.10,11 One is the electrolyte of the lithium-ion batteries, where

Endres. William J.

345

Plasma Performance Improvements with Liquid Lithium Limiters in CDX-U  

SciTech Connect

The use of flowing liquid lithium as a first wall for a reactor has potentially attractive physics and engineering features. The Current Drive experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has begun experiments with a fully toroidal liquid lithium limiter. CDX-U is a compact [R = 34 cm, a = 22 cm, Btoroidal = 2 kG, IP =100 kA, T(subscript)e(0) {approx} 100 eV, n(subscript)e(0) {approx} 5 x 10{sup 19} m-3] short-pulse (<25 msec) spherical tokamak with extensive diagnostics. The limiter, which consists of a shallow circular stainless steel tray of radius 34 cm and width 10 cm, can be filled with lithium to a depth of a few millimeters, and forms the lower limiting surface for the discharge. Heating elements beneath the tray are used to liquefy the lithium prior to the experiment. The total area of the tray is approximately 2000 cm{sup 2}. The tokamak edge plasma, when operated in contact with the lithium-filled tray, shows evidence of reduced impurities and recycling. The reduction in re cycling and impurities is largest when the lithium is liquefied by heating to 250 degrees Celsius. Discharges which are limited by the liquid lithium tray show evidence of performance enhancement. Radiated power is reduced and there is spectroscopic evidence for increases in the core electron temperature. Furthermore, the use of a liquid lithium limiter reduces the need for conditioning discharges prior to high current operation. The future development path for liquid lithium limiter systems in CDX-U is also discussed.

R. Majeski; M. Boaz; D. Hoffman; B. Jones; R. Kaita; H. Kugel; T. Munsat; J. Spaleta; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Timberlake; L. Zakharov; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R.W. Conn; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; R. Maingi; and M. Ulrickson

2002-07-12

346

Production of chlorine from chloride salts  

DOEpatents

A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

Rohrmann, Charles A. (Kennewick, WA)

1981-01-01

347

75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject...

2010-04-20

348

Protective Role of Lithium in Ameliorating the Aluminium-induced Oxidative Stress and Histological Changes in Rat Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to investigate the effects of lithium (Li) supplementation on aluminium (Al) induced changes in\\u000a antioxidant defence system and histoarchitecture of cerebrum and cerebellum in rats. Al was administered in the form of aluminium\\u000a chloride (100 mg\\/kg b.wt.\\/day, orally) and Li was given in the form of Li carbonate through diet (1.1 g\\/kg diet, daily) for\\u000a a period

Punita Bhalla; D. K. Dhawan

2009-01-01

349

Characteristics of carbon-coated graphite prepared from mixture of graphite and polyvinylchloride as anode materials for lithium ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carbon-coated graphite is investigated as the negative electrode for Li-ion batteries. The carbon-coated graphite particles are prepared by simple heat-treatment of mixtures of graphite and poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, at 800–1000°C in an argon flow. The carbon coating reduces significantly the initial irreversible capacity of the graphite in a propylene carbonate-based electrolyte, by suppressing the solvated lithium ion intercalation, and

Heon-Young Lee; Jung-Kyun Baek; Serk-Won Jang; Sung-Man Lee; Seung-Tae Hong; Ki-Young Lee; Myung-Hwan Kim

2001-01-01

350

Potentiometric titration of chloride in plant tissue extracts using the chloride ion electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of the chloride specific ion electrode to determine chloride in plants was evaluted. Direct potentiometric determination of chloride by the electrode resulted in unreproducible and extremely high chloride values. However, use of this electrode to indicate the end point in titration of the tissue?extract mixture with AgNO3 gave results nearly identical to those obtained by the Mohr procedure. The

R. L. LaCroix; D. R. Keeney; L. M. Walsh

1970-01-01

351

Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method  

DOEpatents

A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

352

Enrofloxacin hydro­chloride dihydrate  

PubMed Central

The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H23FN3O3 +·Cl?·2H2O [systematic name: 4-(3-carb­oxy-1-cyclo­propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-di­hydro­quin­o­lin-7-yl)-1-ethyl­piperazin-1-ium chloride dihydrate], consists of two independent monocations of the protonated enrofloxacin, two chloride anions and four water mol­ecules. In the cations, the piperazinium rings adopt chair conformations and the dihedral angles between the cyclo­propyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring system are 56.55?(2) and 51.11?(2)°. An intra­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bond is observed in each cation. In the crystal, the components are connected via O—H?Cl, N—H?Cl and O—H?O hydrogen bonds, and a ?–? inter­action between the benzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.6726?(13)?Å], resulting in a three-dimensional array. PMID:24826167

Miranda-Calderón, Jorge E.; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Sumano, Héctor

2014-01-01

353

Michael Thackery on Lithium-air Batteries  

ScienceCinema

Michael Thackery, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

Michael Thackery

2010-01-08

354

Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries  

ScienceCinema

Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

Khalil Amine

2010-01-08

355

Preventing lithium intoxication. Guide for physicians.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To raise awareness of risk factors for, and symptoms of, lithium intoxication. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The literature was searched via MEDLINE from January 1970 to December 1999 using the MeSH headings Lithium, Lithium Carbonate, Drug Toxicity, and Aging. Articles were selected based on clinical relevance and design. Most were case reports, case series, or reviews. MAIN MESSAGE: A case study illustrates both risk factors predisposing patients to lithium intoxication and the symptoms of lithium intoxication. Lithium intoxication can be avoided by conservative dosing, care in combining drug therapies, regular clinical observation, monitoring drug plasma concentrations, and educating patients and caregivers to recognize early signs of intoxication. CONCLUSION: Knowing about lithium intoxication and how to avoid it is most important for family physicians who regularly treat patients receiving lithium. PMID:11561336

Delva, N. J.; Hawken, E. R.

2001-01-01

356

Michael Thackery on Lithium-air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Michael Thackery, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

Michael Thackery

2009-09-14

357

Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

Khalil Amine

2009-09-14

358

Astrophysics: A lithium-rich stellar explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of explosions known as novae to the lithium content of the Milky Way is uncertain. Radioactive beryllium, which transforms into lithium, has been detected for the first time in one such explosion. See Letter p.381

Hernanz, Margarita

2015-02-01

359

Performance of lithium-ion battery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium cobalt oxide is used for the positive electrode. Sanyo's unique highly crystallized graphite as a negative electrode material provides the lithium ion batteries with a high energy density with excellent overall performance characteristics compared to other battery systems

J. A. Carcone

1994-01-01

360

Chloride Analysis of RFSA Second Campaign Dissolver Solution  

SciTech Connect

The dissolver solution from the second RFSA campaign was analyzed for chloride using the recently-developed turbidimetric method. Prior to chloride removal in head end, the solution contained 1625 ppm chloride. After chloride removal with Hg(I) and prior to feeding to solvent extraction, the solution contained only 75 ppm chloride. This report discusses those analysis results.

Holcomb, H.P.

2001-05-17

361

XAFS Studies of Ni Ta and Nb Chlorides in the Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl Imidazolium Chloride / Aluminum Chloride  

SciTech Connect

The structures of anhydrous nickel, niobium, and tantalum chlorides have been investigated in situ in acidic and basic ionic liquids (ILs) of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (EMIC)/AlCl{sub 3} with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The coordination of NiCl{sub 2} changes from tetrahedral in basic solution to octahedral in acidic solution. The NiCl{sub 2} is a strong Lewis acid in that it can induce the AlCl{sub 3} to share its chlorides in the highly acidic IL, forming a structure with six near Cl{sup -} ions and eight further distant Al ions which share the chloride ions surrounding the Ni{sup 2+}. When Nb{sub 2}Cl{sub 10}, a dimer, is added to the acidic or basic solution, the dimer breaks apart and forms two species. In the acid solution, two trigonal bipyramids are formed with five equal chloride distances, while in the basic solution, a square pyramid with four chlorides forming a square base and one shorter axial chloride bond. Ta{sub 2}Cl{sub 10} is also a dimer and divides into half in the acidic solution and forms two trigonal bipyramids. In the basic solution, the dimer breaks apart but the species formed is sufficiently acidic that it attracts two additional chloride ions and forms a seven coordinated tantalum species.

W OGrady; D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek

2011-12-31

362

Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

Lucht, Brett L

2014-12-12

363

Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

2014-05-13

364

Investigation of Zeff and impurity behaviour in lithium coating experiments with full metallic first wall in HT-7 tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The control of the impurity level in magnetically confined plasmas is a critical issue for future fusion devices. All the graphite tiles have been replaced by molybdenum tiles as limiter materials in the 2011 spring campaign in order to further reduce the recycling and hydrogen content of the plasma. A lithium coating technique has been applied as an important wall conditioning method to the HT-7 tokamak. The effective ion charge Zeff and impurity behavior with full metallic first walls of high-Z materials and lower hydrogen recycling have been investigated in a series of lithium coating experiments in this paper. Plasma performance and impurity behavior without wall coatings are studied in the early stage of the campaign. Comparison of Zeff with different plasma-facing components has been made. A typical lithium coating experiment has been analyzed in order to understand the effect of lithium coating. The evolution of main impurity line radiation, Zeff and the H/(H + D) ratio is analyzed in detail as lithium coating is repeated, indicating that lithium coating is a very effective tool to control impurity level and reduce hydrogen recycling. Furthermore, a boronization is conducted at the end of this campaign in order to make comparison with lithium coating. Experimental results show that lithium coating has much more advantages in edge recycling control, though it does not reduce impurity level as effectively as boronization.

Chen, Yingjie; Wu, Zhenwei; Liu, Xiaoju; Wang, Dongsheng; Duan, Yanmin; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Ling; Huang, Juan; Sun, Zhen; Jie, Yinxian; Zhao, Junyu

2015-02-01

365

Conductive lithium storage electrode  

DOEpatents

A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z(A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).s- ub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Seoul, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Cambridge, MA); Andersson, Anna M. (Uppsala, SE)

2008-03-18

366

Conductive lithium storage electrode  

DOEpatents

A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Incheon, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Mountain View, CA); Andersson, Anna M. (Vasteras, SE)

2012-04-03

367

Purification of mercury contaminated lithium hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of this investigation was to determine an economical method of preparing pure lithium hydroxide from a mercury-contaminated lithium hydroxide monohydrate salt presently produced as a waste product. Pure lithium hydroxide has application for chemical removal of carbon dioxide from air and general open market sale if the mercury contamination is reduced to approximately one part per billion. Because

B. R. Bronfin; D. M. Jenkins; E. E. Jr. Wright

1960-01-01

368

FTU results with a liquid lithium limiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the end of 2005 most of the plasma-wall interaction experiments on FTU have been focused on the possible use of liquid lithium as the plasma facing material. Liquid lithium limiter is an active method to deposit, during the plasma discharge, a lithium film on the walls with prolonged beneficial effects. Reliable operation with very clean plasmas, very low wall

G. Mazzitelli; M. L. Apicella; D. Frigione; G. Maddaluno; M. Marinucci; C. Mazzotta; V. Pericoli Ridolfini; M. Romanelli; G. Szepesi; O. Tudisco

2011-01-01

369

First experiments with lithium limiter on FTU  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid lithium limiter (LLL) with capillary porous system has been tested for the first time on the high field medium size tokamak, FTU. Lithium acts as a first wall material in the liquid phase and as a conditioning technique by depositing a lithium film on the walls (lithization). Thermal loads exceeding 5MW\\/m2 have been so far applied to the

M. L. Apicella; G. Mazzitelli; V. Pericoli Ridolfini; V. Lazarev; A. Alekseyev; A. Vertkov; R. Zagórski; FTU Teama

2007-01-01

370

Recent advances in lithium battery technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portable electronics such as cellular telephones and laptop computers have produced a surge in battery development and the introduction of rechargeable lithium battery systems. The most dramatic improvement in rechargeable battery technology was the introduction of the lithium-ion battery in 1990. Today, the sale of lithium-ion systems dominates the rechargeable battery market. The cell voltage for any battery system is

Melvin H. Miles

2001-01-01

371

Lithium-based polymer electrolyte electrochemical cell  

SciTech Connect

A primary or secondary electrochemical cell is described comprising: an anode containing lithium when in a charged state; a gelled electrolyte system comprising polyacrylonitrile (PAN), plasticizer including [gamma]-butyrolactone ([gamma]-BL) and a lithium electrolyte salt; and a cathode comprising a cathode active material selected from the group consisting of transition metal oxides and a lithium transition metal oxide intercalation compound.

Chua, D.L.; Hsiuping Lin.

1993-08-31

372

Magnetism in lithium-oxygen discharge product.  

PubMed

Nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium-oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium-oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium-oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules. PMID:23670967

Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S; Greeley, Jeffrey; Ferguson, Glen A; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A; Amine, Kahlil

2013-07-01

373

Magnetism in Lithium–Oxygen Discharge Product  

SciTech Connect

Nonaqueous lithium–oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium–oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium–oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium– oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

2013-05-13

374

Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries  

DOEpatents

An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

2014-12-30

375

Heterogeneous lithium niobate photonics on silicon substrates  

E-print Network

Heterogeneous lithium niobate photonics on silicon substrates Payam Rabiei,1,* Jichi Ma,1 Saeed-confined lithium niobate photonic devices and circuits on silicon substrates is reported based on wafer bonding high- performance lithium niobate microring optical resonators and Mach- Zehnder optical modulators

Fathpour, Sasan

376

Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

Kumar, Binod (Dayton, OH); Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G. (Fairborn, OH)

2000-01-01

377

Air pollution and plants: hydrogen chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of plants is discussed in relation to both hydrogen chloride and chlorine. At the present time, the burning of chloride containing plastics is a major source of HCl. It has been assumed that the origin of the gaseous form of natural atmospheric Clâ results from volcanic activity. However, the high concentrations of Clâ necessary to injure vegetation are

1972-01-01

378

Process for synthesis of beryllium chloride dietherate  

DOEpatents

A low temperature method of producing beryllium chloride dietherate through the addition of hydrogen chloride gas to a mixture of beryllium metal in ether in a reaction vessel is described. A reflux condenser provides an exit for hydrogen produced form the reaction. A distillation condenser later replaces the reflux condenser for purifying the resultant product.

Bergeron, Charles (Baton Rouge, LA); Bullard, John E. (Kendall Park, NJ); Morgan, Evan (Lynchburg, VA)

1991-01-01

379

Metabolism of chloride in halophilic prokaryotes.  

PubMed

While much understanding has been achieved on the intracellular sodium and potassium concentrations of halophilic and halotolerant microorganisms and on their regulation, we know little on the metabolism of anions. Archaea of the family Halobacteriaceae contain molar concentrations of chloride, which is pumped into the cells by cotransport with sodium ions and/or using the light-driven primary chloride pump halorhodopsin. Most halophilic and halotolerant representatives of the bacterial domain contain low intracellular ion concentrations, with organic osmotic solutes providing osmotic balance. However, some species show a specific requirement for chloride. In Halobacillus halophilus certain functions, such as growth, endospore germination, motility and flagellar synthesis, and glycine betaine transport are chloride dependent. In this organism the expression of a large number of proteins is chloride regulated. Other moderately halophilic Bacteria such as Halomonas elongata do not show a specific demand for chloride. A very high requirement for chloride was demonstrated in two groups of Bacteria that accumulate inorganic salts intracellularly rather than using organic osmotic solutes: the anaerobic Halanaerobiales and the aerobic extremely halophilic Salinibacter ruber. It is thus becoming increasingly clear that chloride has specific functions in haloadaptation in different groups of halophilic microorganisms. PMID:12728360

Müller, Volker; Oren, Aharon

2003-08-01

380

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries  

DOEpatents

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

2004-01-13

381

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries  

DOEpatents

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0

Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

2006-11-14

382

The Primordial Lithium Problem  

E-print Network

Big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) theory, together with the precise WMAP cosmic baryon density, makes tight predictions for the abundances of the lightest elements. Deuterium and 4He measurements agree well with expectations, but 7Li observations lie a factor 3-4 below the BBN+WMAP prediction. This 4-5\\sigma\\ mismatch constitutes the cosmic "lithium problem," with disparate solutions possible. (1) Astrophysical systematics in the observations could exist but are increasingly constrained. (2) Nuclear physics experiments provide a wealth of well-measured cross-section data, but 7Be destruction could be enhanced by unknown or poorly-measured resonances, such as 7Be + 3He -> 10C^* -> p + 9B. (3) Physics beyond the Standard Model can alter the 7Li abundance, though D and 4He must remain unperturbed; we discuss such scenarios, highlighting decaying Supersymmetric particles and time-varying fundamental constants. Present and planned experiments could reveal which (if any) of these is the solution to the problem.

Brian D. Fields

2012-03-15

383

Sodium-metal chloride batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1992-02-01

384

Sodium-metal chloride batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1992-01-01

385

21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 ...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be...

2010-04-01

386

49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...114 and 120) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...

2014-10-01

387

49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...114 and 120) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...

2012-10-01

388

Lithium ion rechargeable systems studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium ion systems, although relatively new, have attracted much interest worldwide. Their high energy density, long cycle life and relative safety, compared with metallic lithium rechargeable systems, make them prime candidates for powering portable electronic equipment. Although lithium ion cells are presently used in a few consumer devices, e.g., portable phones, camcorders, and laptop computers, there is room for considerable improvement in their performance. Specific areas that need to be addressed include: (1) carbon anode-increase reversible capacity, and minimize passivation; (2) cathode-extend cycle life, improve rate capability, and increase capacity. There are several programs ongoing at Sandia National Laboratories which are investigating means of achieving the stated objectives in these specific areas. This paper will review these programs.

Levy, Samuel C.; Lasasse, Robert R.; Cygan, Randall T.; Voigt, James A.

389

Tritium behavior in lithium ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tritium is the principal fuel for future fusion power reactors. Unfortunately, tritium is not available naturally and so must be produced through transmutation of lithium. The current approach to fusion reactor breeder blanket design is to place lithium-containing ceramics in a blanket module that surrounds the fusion plasma. These materials have performed well in numerous in-pile experiments, showing good thermal stability and good tritium release characteristics. Tritium release is particularly facile when an argon or helium purge gas containing hydrogen, typically at levels of about 0.1%, is used. However, the addition of hydrogen to the purge gas imposes a penalty when it comes to recovery of the tritium produced in the blanket. Optimizing tritium release while minimizing the amount of hydrogen necessary in the purge gas requires a detailed understanding of the tritium release process, especially the interactions of hydrogen with the surface of the lithium ceramic.

Johnson, C. E.

390

Lithium ion rechargeable systems studies  

SciTech Connect

Lithium ion systems, although relatively new, have attracted much interest worldwide. Their high energy density, long cycle life and relative safety, compared with metallic lithium rechargeable systems, make them prime candidates for powering portable electronic equipment. Although lithium ion cells are presently used in a few consumer devices, e.g., portable phones, camcorders, and laptop computers, there is room for considerable improvement in their performance. Specific areas that need to be addressed include: (1) carbon anode--increase reversible capacity, and minimize passivation; (2) cathode--extend cycle life, improve rate capability, and increase capacity. There are several programs ongoing at Sandia National Laboratories which are investigating means of achieving the stated objectives in these specific areas. This paper will review these programs.

Levy, S.C.; Lasasse, R.R.; Cygan, R.T.; Voigt, J.A.

1995-02-01

391

Lithium-6 from Solar Flares  

E-print Network

By introducing a hitherto ignored Li-6 producing process, due to accelerated He-3 reactions with He-4, we show that accelerated particle interactions in solar flares produce much more Li-6 than Li-7. By normalizing our calculations to gamma-ray data we demonstrate that the Li-6 produced in solar flares, combined with photospheric Li-7, can account for the recently determined solar wind lithium isotopic ratio, obtained from measurements in lunar soil, provided that the bulk of the flare produced lithium is evacuated by the solar wind. Further research in this area could provide unique information on a variety of problems, including solar atmospheric transport and mixing, solar convection and the lithium depletion issue, and solar wind and solar particle acceleration.

R. Ramaty; V. Tatischeff; J. P. Thibaud; B. Kozlovsky; N. Mandzhavidze

2000-03-23

392

Chloride penetration into concrete structures in the marine atmosphere zone – Relationship between deposition of chlorides on the wet candle and chlorides accumulated into concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between chlorides from marine aerosol and chlorides accumulated into concrete is discussed in this paper. The experimental programme comprised an environmental characterisation, with climatic and chloride deposition data, and a study of chloride penetration into concrete based on natural exposure of specimens in a marine atmosphere zone. Results show that salt concentration in marine aerosol strongly decreases in

G. R. Meira; C. Andrade; I. J. Padaratz; C. Alonso; J BORBAJR

2007-01-01

393

Recovery and recycling of lithium value from spent lithium titanate (Li2TiO3) pebbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first generation fusion reactors the fusion of deuterium (D) and tritium (T) is considered to produce energy to meet the future energy demand. Deuterium is available in nature whereas, tritium is not. Lithium-6 (Li6) isotope has the ability to produce tritium in the n, ? nuclear reaction with neutrons. Thus lithium-based ceramics enriched by Li6 isotope are considered for the tritium generation for its use in future fusion reactors. Lithium titanate is one such Li-based ceramic material being considered for its some attractive properties viz., high thermal and chemical stability, high thermal conductivity, and low tritium solubility. It is reported in the literature, that the burn up of these pebbles in the fusion reactor will be limited to only 15-17 atomic percentage. At the end of life, the pebbles will contain more than 45% unused Li6 isotope. Due to the high cost of enriched Li6 and the waste disposal considerations, it is necessary to recover the unused Li from the spent lithium titanate pebbles. Till date, only the feasibilities of different processes are reported, but no process details are available. Experiments were carried out for the recovery of Li from simulated Li2TiO3 pebbles and to reuse of lithium in lithium titanate pebble fabrication. The details of the experiments and results are discussed in this paper. Simulated lithium titanate (Li2TiO3) pebbles. The objective of the study is to develop a process which can be used to recover lithium value form the spent Li2TiO3 pebbles from future fusion reactor. The Li2TiO3 pebbles used in the study were synthesized and fabricated by the solid state reaction process developed by Mandal et al. described in details somewhere else [1,2]. Spherical Li2TiO3 pebbles of size 1.0 mm were used and the properties of the Li2TiO3 pebbles used in the study are shown in Table 1. Hydrochloric acid (HCl), of 99.8% purity, purchased from Merck and Loba Chemicals, Mumbai, India. To leach lithium from Li2TiO3 Hydrochloric acid was used. The reasons to use hydrochloric acid are discussed below. Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) analytical grade, procured form Merck Chemicals, Mumbai, India. To precipitate lithium as lithium carbonate from lithium hydroxide solution sodium carbonate was used. Distilled water. Distilled was used in the experiments, primarily to dilute hydrochloric acid to the desired molar solution. Leaching agent. Concentration of the leaching agent. Temperature. Speed of agitation. Solid to liquid ratio, and Particle Size. In the experimental work spherical Li2TiO3 pebbles of size 1.0 was used as mentioned above. To study the effect of particle size on the recovery of lithium from fine Li2TiO3 particles of size range 100-200 ?m were used. These fines were obtained by pulverizing 1.0 mm Li2TiO3 pebbles in a planetary ball mill and classified standard sieves.It is reported that both HNO3 and HCl give relatively more recovery of lithium compared to H2SO4[11-13]. Though the handling of HCl is difficulties due to the chloride corrosion, it is preferred to HNO3 because the deposal of nitrate waste which will generate due to the latter's use viz. sodium nitrate is a problem as per the norms of pollution control standard [11,12].The leaching of Li2TiO3 pebbles were carried out in a 1000 ml three necked and flat bottom glass reactor. The flux was fitted with a reflux condenser to reduce the loss of solution by evaporation and a thermometer. The solid was suspended in the solution by stirring the solution using a magnetic stirrer. The flux was kept on a hot plate with a temperature controller to heat the slurry at constant temperature. The temperature of the solution was controlled within ±3 °C and the temperature of the slurry was noted at an interval of 5 min and the average temperature of each run is determined by time average of the noted readings.A known of volume of HCl solution with known concentration was added to the flux. After the desired stirring speed and reaction temperature were attained, the solid sample of 5 g was added to the solution in reactor. 5 ml solu

Mandal, D.

2013-09-01

394

Enrichment of mushrooms: an interesting strategy for the acquisition of lithium.  

PubMed

The capability of Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom to accumulate lithium (Li) and the accessibility of this Li compared with lithium carbonate (Li(2)CO(3)), often used as psychiatric medicine, were investigated. Mushrooms were produced on a substrate-based on coffee husk, with different added concentrations of lithium chloride (LiCl). Biological efficiency (BE), the crude protein content, the concentration of Li and other elements present in mushrooms were determined. The sequential extraction and in vitro test were used to verify the accessibility and the degree of solubility of this element. Li concentration in mushrooms was directly influenced by increasing LiCl concentration in the substrate (P<0.05). The BE was not affected by different concentrations of LiCl. Li present in enriched mushrooms showed greater accessibility than in Li(2)CO(3). Therefore, P. ostreatus mushrooms, enriched with lithium can be an alternative source of Li, as well as being a food with high nutritional value. PMID:23107736

de Assunção, Laélia Soares; da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Vieira, Patrícia Aparecida Fontes; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

2012-09-15

395

Spatial periphery of lithium isotopes  

SciTech Connect

The spatial structure of lithium isotopes is studied with the aid of the charge-exchange and (t, p) reactions on lithium nuclei. It is shown that an excited isobaric-analog state of {sup 6}Li (0{sup +}, 3.56MeV) has a halo structure formed by a proton and a neutron, that, in the {sup 9}Li nucleus, there is virtually no neutron halo, and that {sup 11}Li is a Borromean nucleus formed by a {sup 9}Li core and a two-neutron halo manifesting itself in cigar-like and dineutron configurations.

Galanina, L. I., E-mail: galan_lidiya@mail.ru; Zelenskaja, N. S. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

2013-12-15

396

Lithium-cupric sulfide cell  

SciTech Connect

Lithium cells have become the primary power source for cardiac pacemakers due to their reliability and longevity at low current drain rates. A lithium-cupric sulfide cell was developed which makes maximum use of the shape of a pacemaker's battery compartment. The cell has a stable voltage throughout 90% of its lifetime. It then drops to a second stable voltage before depletion. The voltage drop creates a small decrease in pacemaker rate, which alerts the physician to replace the pacemaker. No loss of capacity due to self-discharge as been seen to date, and cells have proven to be safe under extreme conditions. 2 refs.

Cuesta, A.J.; Bump, D.D.

1980-01-01

397

Lithium synthesis in microquasar accretion.  

PubMed

We study the synthesis of lithium isotopes in the hot tori formed around stellar mass black holes by accretion of the companion star. We find that sizable amounts of both stable isotopes 6Li and 7Li can be produced, the exact figures varying with the characteristics of the torus and reaching as much as 10(-2) M? for each isotope. This mass output is enough to contaminate the entire Galaxy at a level comparable with the original, pregalactic amount of lithium and to overcome other sources such as cosmic-ray spallation or stellar nucleosynthesis. PMID:23030150

Iocco, Fabio; Pato, Miguel

2012-07-13

398

Papain incorporated chitin dressings for wound debridement sterilized by gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wound debridement is essential for the removal of necrotic or nonviable tissue from the wound surface to create an environment conducive to healing. Nonsurgical enzymatic debridement is an attractive method due to its effectiveness and ease of use. Papain is a proteolytic enzyme derived from the fruit of Carica papaya and is capable of breaking down a variety of necrotic tissue substrates. The present study was focused on the use of gamma radiation for sterilization of papain dressing with wound debriding activity. Membranes with papain were prepared using 0.5% chitin in lithium chloride/dimethylacetamide solvent and sterilized by gamma radiation. Fluid absorption capacity of chitin-papain membranes without glycerol was 14.30±6.57% in 6 h. Incorporation of glycerol resulted in significant (p<0.001) increase in the absorption capacity. Moisture vapour transmission rate of the membranes was 4285.77±455.61 g/m2/24 h at 24 h. Gamma irradiation at 25 kGy was found suitable for sterilization of the dressings. Infrared (IR) spectral scanning has shown that papain was stable on gamma irradiation at 25-35 kGy. The irradiated chitin-papain membranes were impermeable to different bacterial strains and also exhibited strong bactericidal action against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The fluid handling characteristics and the antimicrobial properties of chitin-papain membranes sterilized by gamma radiation were found suitable for use as wound dressing with debriding activity.

Singh, Durgeshwer; Singh, Rita

2012-11-01

399

Solid solution lithium alloy cermet anodes  

DOEpatents

A metal-ceramic composite ("cermet") has been produced by a chemical reaction between a lithium compound and another metal. The cermet has advantageous physical properties, high surface area relative to lithium metal or its alloys, and is easily formed into a desired shape. An example is the formation of a lithium-magnesium nitride cermet by reaction of lithium nitride with magnesium. The reaction results in magnesium nitride grains coated with a layer of lithium. The nitride is inert when used in a battery. It supports the metal in a high surface area form, while stabilizing the electrode with respect to dendrite formation. By using an excess of magnesium metal in the reaction process, a cermet of magnesium nitride is produced, coated with a lithium-magnesium alloy of any desired composition. This alloy inhibits dendrite formation by causing lithium deposited on its surface to diffuse under a chemical potential into the bulk of the alloy.

Richardson, Thomas J.

2013-07-09

400

Liquid Lithium Experiments in CDX-U  

SciTech Connect

The initial results of experiments involving the use of liquid lithium as a plasma facing component in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) are reported. Studies of the interaction of a steady-state plasma with liquid lithium in the Plasma Interaction with Surface and Components Experimental Simulator (PISCES-B) are also summarized. In CDX-U a solid or liquid lithium covered rail limiter was introduced as the primary limiting surface for spherical torus discharges. Deuterium recycling was observed to be reduced, but so far not eliminated, for glow discharge-cleaned lithium surfaces. Some lithium influx was observed during tokamak operation. The PISCES-B results indicate that the rates of plasma erosion of lithium can exceed predictions by an order of magnitude at elevated temperatures. Plans to extend the CDX-U experiments to large area liquid lithium toroidal belt limiters are also described.

R. Majeski; R. Doerner; R. Kaita; G. Antar; J. Timberlake; et al

2000-11-15

401

Liquid electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of advances in electrolytes have occurred in the past 4 years, which have contributed to increased safety, wider temperature range of operation, better cycling and other enhancements to lithium-ion batteries. The changes to basic electrolyte solutions that have occurred to accomplish these advances are discussed in detail. The solvent components that have led to better low-temperature operation are

George E Blomgren

2003-01-01

402

Chemical Distribution and Bonding of Lithium in Intercalated Graphite: Identification with Optimized Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Direct mapping of the lithium spatial distribution and the chemical state provides critical information on structure-correlated lithium transport in electrode materials for lithium batteries. Nevertheless, probing lithium, the lightest solid element in the periodic table, poses an extreme challenge with traditional X-ray or electron scattering techniques due to its weak scattering power and vulnerability to radiation damage. Here, we report nanoscale maps of the lithium spatial distribution in electrochemically lithiated graphite using electron energy loss spectroscopy in the transmission electron microscope under optimized experimental conditions. The electronic structure of the discharged graphite was obtained from the near-edge fine structure of the Li and C K-edges and ab initio calculations. A 2.7 eV chemical shift of the Li K-edge, along with changes in the density of states, reveals the ionic nature of the intercalated lithium with significant charge transfer to the graphene sheets. Direct mapping of lithium in graphite revealed nanoscale inhomogeneities (nonstoichiometric regions), which are correlated with local phase separation and structural disorder (i.e., lattice distortion and dislocations) as observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The surface solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer was also imaged and determined to have a thickness of 10-50 nm, covering both edge and basal planes with LiF as its primary inorganic component. The Li K-edge spectroscopy and mapping, combined with electron microscopy-based structural analysis provide a comprehensive view of the structure-correlated lithium intercalation in graphite and of the formation of the SEI layer.

Zhu, Y.; Wang, F.; Graetz, J.; Moreno, M.S.; Ma, C.; Wu, L.; Volkov, V.

2011-02-01

403

Suppressed gross erosion of high-temperature lithium films under high-flux deuterium bombardment  

E-print Network

P1-030 Suppressed gross erosion of high-temperature lithium films under high-flux deuterium. For Ne plasmas, Li erosion rates inferred from measurements of Li-I radiation are consistent with theoretical values from BCA sputtering, thermal sputtering, and Langmuir law evaporation. Measured Li erosion

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

404

High power continuous-wave green light generation by quasiphase matching in Mg stoichiometric lithium tantalate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-pass second-harmonic generation of 7W continuous wave of 542nm radiation with 35.4% efficiency was achieved by quasiphase matching in periodically poled Mg-doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate at room temperature. The effects of laser beam quality and linewidth on the second-harmonic generation efficiency were investigated using a Yb-doped fiber laser.

Tovstonog, Sergey V.; Kurimura, Sunao; Kitamura, Kenji

2007-01-01

405

LITHIUM--2000 47.1 By Joyce A. Ober  

E-print Network

are consumed in the production of ceramics, glass, and primary aluminum, although the use of organic lithium's other lithium operations included a lithium hydroxide plant in Silver Peak; a butyllithium plant in New lithium aluminum silicate ore) deposit in Kings Mountain, NC. FMC Corp., Lithium Division, produced a full

406

Lithium-boron anodes in nitrate thermal battery cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermally activated electrochemical cell utilizes a lithium-boron anode and a molten nitrate electrolyte selected from the group consisting of lithium nitrate, a mixture of lithium nitrate and sodium nitrate, a mixture of lithium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and a mixture of lithium nitrate and sodium nitrate with potassium nitrate, to provide improved cell electrical performance. The electrolyte is contained

G. E. McManis; A. N. Fletcher; M. H. Miles

1985-01-01

407

High rate rechargeable lithium cells employing lithium ion conducting solid electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented on high temperature solid state cells employing 50:50 weight percent lithium germanium vanadium oxide-lithium iodide. The incorporation of lithium iodide in lithium germanium vanadium oxide resulted in higher pellet conductivities and improved the high rate performance of the solid state cells. The cells were comprised of a lithium-aluminum or lithium-silicon alloy as the anode and a CVD thin film of titanium disulfide as the cathode. The cells exhibited an open circuit potential of about 2.1 V at 300 C and could be discharged at current densities up to 0.5 ampere per square centimeter.

Plichta, Edward J.; Behl, Wishvender K.

1995-02-01

408

Methylene chloride poisoning in a cabinet worker.  

PubMed Central

More than a million workers are at risk for methylene chloride exposure. Aerosol sprays and paint stripping may also cause significant nonoccupational exposures. After methylene chloride inhalation, significant amounts of carbon monoxide are formed in vivo as a metabolic by-product. Poisoning predominantly affects the central nervous system and results from both carboxyhemoglobin formation and direct solvent-related narcosis. In this report, we describe a case of methylene chloride intoxication probably complicated by exogenous carbon monoxide exposure. The worker's presentation of intermittent headaches was consistent with both methylene chloride intoxication and carbon monoxide poisoning. The exposures and symptoms were corroborated by elevated carboxyhemoglobin saturations and a workplace inspection that documented significant exposures to both methylene chloride and carbon monoxide. When both carbon monoxide and methylene chloride are inhaled, additional carboxyhemoglobin formation is expected. Preventive efforts should include education, air monitoring, and periodic carboxyhemoglobin determinations. Methylene chloride should never be used in enclosed or poorly ventilated areas because of the well-documented dangers of loss of consciousness and death. Images Figure 1 PMID:10464079

Mahmud, M; Kales, S N

1999-01-01

409

Development of encapsulated lithium hydride thermal energy storage for space power systems  

SciTech Connect

Inclusion of thermal energy storage in a pulsed space power supply will reduce the mass of the heat rejection system. In this mode, waste heat generated during the brief high-power burst operation is placed in the thermal store; later, the heat in the store is dissipated to space via the radiator over the much longer nonoperational period of the orbit. Thus, the radiator required is of significantly smaller capacity. Scoping analysis indicates that use of lithium hydride as the thermal storage medium results in system mass reduction benefits for burst periods as long as 800 s. A candidate design for the thermal energy storage component utilizes lithium hydride encapsulated in either 304L stainless steel or molybdenum in a packed-bed configuration with a lithium or sodium-potassium (NaK) heat transport fluid. Key issues associated with the system design include phase-change induced stresses in the shell, lithium hydride and shell compatibility, lithium hydride dissociation and hydrogen loss from the system, void presence and movement associated with the melt-freeze process, and heat transfer limitations on obtaining the desired energy storage density. 58 refs., 40 figs., 11 tabs.

Morris, D.G.; Foote, J.P.; Olszewski, M.

1987-12-01

410

Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construct a chloride deposition map in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR), a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia. We examined geographic (related to coastal distance), orographic, and atmospheric factors that may influence chloride deposition, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, elevation, as well as terrain aspect and slope, appear to be significant factors controlling chloride deposition in the study area. Coastal distance accounts for 70% of spatial variability in bulk chloride deposition, with elevation, terrain aspect and slope an additional 15%. The results are incorporated into a de-trended residual kriging model (ASOADeK) to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution bulk chloride deposition and concentration maps. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 20-30% in the western MLR, and 40-50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a useful basis for examining catchment chloride balance for the CMB application in the study area.

Guan, H.; Love, A. J.; Simmons, C. T.; Makhnin, O.; Kayaalp, A. S.

2010-05-01

411

Kinetics of chloridization of nickel-bearing lateritic iron ore by hydrogen chloride gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The selective chloridization of nickel in a lateritic iron ore by gaseous HCl is based on the principle of relative thermal stability of iron and nickel chlorides. This aspect has been discussed with differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetric (TG) data of the hydrated chlorides of iron and nickel. The kinetics of chloridization of nickel in a lateritic nickel ore from Orissa, India, have been studied by using both pure HCl (g) and the HCl (g) + N2 mixture. The sharp decrease in the rate of chloridization of nickel at temperatures above 250 °C is attributed to the rapid decomposition of molten ferric chloride hydrate (FeCl3 · 3H2O), which blocks the pores of the reactant solid. Therefore, kinetics of chloridization follow both the pore-blocking model (logarithmic rate law) and diffusion-controlled mechanisms. Very low values of apparent activation energy and effective diffusivity derived from the rate constants of the diffusion-controlled process suggest that diffusion of HCl (g) takes place either in a dissolved state in the molten ferric chloride (at 100 °C to 150 °C) or through cracks and fissures formed on the surface due to rapid decomposition of ferric chloride at 200 °C to 250 °C. Because of the complexity of the reaction system, the rate of chloridization of nickel is almost independent of grain size.

Kanungo, S. B.; Mishra, S. K.

1997-06-01

412

Performance and safety testing of lithium batteries for the Expendable, Mobile, ASW Training Target (EMATT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The developmental EMATT (expendable, mobile, ASW training target) may use a high-energy (lithium/sulfuryl chloride) battery system. Safety problems with the original battery cell design were experienced during early performance and safety testing. After redesign of the battery cell, performance and safety tests were made under specified abuse conditions, as well as under simulated launch conditions. The test results showed that the power system now meets all safety requirements, and that the EMATT vehicle is safe to deploy for its engineering development phase.

Hallal, P. B.; Bis, R. F.

1986-08-01

413

Semiconductor nuclear radiation detector studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to a problem that arose with regard to the availability of germanium for lithium-drifted germanium detectors (Ge(Li) detectors), a comprehensive program was undertaken aimed toward the development of a method for the rapid specification of germanium quality for nuclear radiation detector use, and the determination of factors affecting germanium quality. Measurements on a large number of germanium crystals,

A. H. Sher

1974-01-01

414

Lithium isotopes in population II dwarfs  

E-print Network

We investigate the history of $^6$Li and $^7$Li in population II dwarfs during the pre main sequence and main sequence. The evolution is followed using the CESAM code and taking into account the most recent physics. The effective temperature ranges from $\\approx$ 4700 K to $\\approx$ 6400 K and therefore concerns objects on the so-called Spite plateau and cooler. We find the $^7$Li pre main sequence depletion is unable to account for the observations in the halo whatever the effective temperature. This supports microscopic diffusion and an additional non standard mixing process both acting during the main sequence. On the contrary the models $^6$Li pre main sequence depletion appears too strong and is marginally compatible with recent detections. During the main sequence we introduce the effects of tachocline diffusion. This process is a rotationnally induced mixing acting at the top of the radiative core. We show that the differences in the early rotation history cannot result in scattered lithium abundances on the Spite plateau. Moreover the tachocline mixing process predicts $^7$Li abundances in good agreement with the observations. We briefly address the question of turn off $^7$Li poor stars. A modest accretion of lithium free matter would be enough to explain their low abundance in this element. We expect the scatter in $^7$Li abundances is correlated to variations in [Fe/O] ratio for dwarfs cooler than 5500 K. Finally the tachocline mixing is robust with respect to the recent $^6$Li observations around the turn-off. We similarly suggest the [Fe/O] should be higher in objects with $^6$Li and effective temperature below 6000 K.

Laurent Piau

2005-11-18

415

Lithium Ephedrate-Mediated Addition of a Lithium Acetylide to a Ketone: Solution Structures and Relative Reactivities of Mixed  

E-print Network

Lithium Ephedrate-Mediated Addition of a Lithium Acetylide to a Ketone: Solution Structures-1301 ReceiVed April 30, 1997. ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed NoVember 26, 1997 Abstract: Addition of lithiumLi and 13C NMR spectroscopies reveal lithium cyclopropylacetylide in THF to be a dimer

Collum, David B.

416

Anode material for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Belharouak, Ilias (Bolingbrook, IL); Amine, Khalil (Oak Brook, IL)

2011-04-05

417

Anode material for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Belharouak, Ilias (Westmont, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

2012-01-31

418

Anode material for lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell system. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plastized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Belharouak, Ilias (Bolingbrook, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

2008-06-24

419

Lithium-loaded liquid scintillators  

DOEpatents

The invention is directed to a liquid scintillating composition containing (i) one or more non-polar organic solvents; (ii) (lithium-6)-containing nanoparticles having a size of up to 10 nm and surface-capped by hydrophobic molecules; and (iii) one or more fluorophores. The invention is also directed to a liquid scintillator containing the above composition.

Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Kesanli, Banu (Mersin, TR); Neal, John S. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-05-15

420

Gelled Electrolytes For Lithium Batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gelled polymer electrolyte consists of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), LiBF4, and propylene carbonate (PC). Thin films of electrolyte found to exhibit stable bulk conductivities of order of 10 to the negative 3rd power S/cm at room temperature. Used in thinfilm rechargeable lithium batteries having energy densities near 150 W h/kg.

Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Attia, Alan; Halpert, Gerald

1993-01-01

421

Advanced lithium ion battery charger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirements for state-of-charge and voltage control for lithium ion batteries are reviewed. Strategies for controlling the state-of-charge of the individual Li-ion cells that comprise a battery are described. The design and test results for several of these charge control strategies are presented

M. J. Isaacson; R. P. Hollandsworth; P. J. Giampaoli; F. A. Linkowsky; A. Salim; V. L. Teofilo

2000-01-01

422

Lithium Loaded Glass Fiber Neutron Detector Tests  

SciTech Connect

Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world and, thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. Reported here are the results of tests of the lithium-loaded glass fibers option. This testing measured the neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a small system manufactured by Nucsafe (Oak Ridge, TN).

Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Stromswold, David C.

2009-11-12

423

Phenomics of Cardiac Chloride Channels  

PubMed Central

Forward genetic studies have identified several chloride (Cl?) channel genes, including CFTR, ClC-2, ClC-3, CLCA, Bestrophin, and Ano1, in the heart. Recent reverse genetic studies using gene targeting and transgenic techniques to delineate the functional role of cardiac Cl? channels have shown that Cl? channels may contribute to cardiac arrhythmogenesis, myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure, and cardioprotection against ischemia reperfusion. The study of physiological or pathophysiological phenotypes of cardiac Cl? channels, however, is complicated by the compensatory changes in the animals in response to the targeted genetic manipulation. Alternatively, tissue-specific conditional or inducible knockout or knockin animal models may be more valuable in the phenotypic studies of specific Cl? channels by limiting the effect of compensation on the phenotype. The integrated function of Cl? channels may involve multiprotein complexes of the Cl? channel subproteome. Similar phenotypes can be attained from alternative protein pathways within cellular networks, which are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The phenomics approach, which characterizes phenotypes as a whole phenome and systematically studies the molecular changes that give rise to particular phenotypes achieved by modifying the genotype under the scope of genome/proteome/phenome, may provide more complete understanding of the integrated function of each cardiac Cl? channel in the context of health and disease. PMID:23720326

Duan, Dayue Darrel

2014-01-01

424

Primary lithium cell life studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One solution for providing a truly independent power source is to package, within the critical subsystem element, a primary battery that can remain dormant for time periods as long as the mission life, which can be 10-15 years, maximum. When primary power from the spacecraft solar array/battery system is interrupted, the backup battery system, which is connected through a diode to the power input line, would automatically support the load to avoid a power interruption to the critical load for a time period long enough to ensure that ground control could access the satellite and correct the anomaly by sending appropriate commands to the spacecraft. Critical subsystems identified for the application are telemetry and command circuits, volatile computer memory, attitude control circuits, and some critical payloads. Due to volume packaging and weight restrictions that exist on most spacecraft, coupled with the long storage periods required, lithium cell technology was selected for the backup power source. Because of the high energy density (200-400 Wh/kg), long shelf life, and load capability, soluble cathode primary lithium technology was chosen. The most important lithium cell properties that require detail characterization for this application are capacity loss, shelf life, and the voltage delay mechanism. These are functions of storage time and temperature. During storage, a passive film builds up on the lithium electrode. The film protects the lithium electrode from progressive capacity decay but requires time to break down when a load is applied. This phenomenon results in a depressed voltage during the period of film breakdown which can last from fractions of a second to minutes.

Capulli, John; Donley, Sam; Deligiannis, Frank; Shen, David

1990-01-01

425

Sulfate and chloride concentrations in Texas aquifers.  

PubMed

Median sulfate and chloride concentrations in groundwater were calculated for 244 Texas counties from measurements at 8236 water wells. The data were mapped and analyzed with a geographic information system (GIS). Concentration clusters for both solutes were highest in north-central, west, and south Texas. Thirty-four counties had median sulfate levels above the secondary standard of 250 mg/L, and 31 counties registered median chloride concentrations above 250 mg/L. County median concentrations ranged from < 1.5 to 1,953 mg/L for sulfate, and from 6 to 1,275 mg/L for chloride. Various factors contribute to high sulfate and chloride levels in Texas aquifers, including mineral constitutents of aquifers, seepage of saline water from nearby formations, coastal saltwater intrusion, irrigation return flow, and oil/gas production. Ten counties in central and northeast Texas lack data and warrant additional monitoring. PMID:11345739

Hudak, P F

2000-08-01

426

The hidden hand of chloride in hypertension.  

PubMed

Among the environmental factors that affect blood pressure, dietary sodium chloride has been studied the most, and there is general consensus that increased sodium chloride intake increases blood pressure. There is accruing evidence that chloride may have a role in blood pressure regulation which may perhaps be even more important than that of Na(+). Though more than 85 % of Na(+) is consumed as sodium chloride, there is evidence that Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations do not go necessarily hand in hand since they may originate from different sources. Hence, elucidating the role of Cl(-) as an independent player in blood pressure regulation will have clinical and public health implications in addition to advancing our understanding of electrolyte-mediated blood pressure regulation. In this review, we describe the evidence that support an independent role for Cl(-) on hypertension and cardiovascular health. PMID:25619794

McCallum, Linsay; Lip, Stefanie; Padmanabhan, Sandosh

2015-03-01

427

29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with legible signs bearing the legend: Cancer-Suspect Agent Area Authorized Personnel...with legible signs bearing the legend: Cancer-Suspect Agent in This Area Protective... Contaminated With Vinyl Chloride Cancer-Suspect Agent (4) Containers...

2010-07-01

428

21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the ammonia-soda (Solvay) process and as a joint product from natural salt brines, or it may be prepared by substitution reactions with other calcium and chloride salts. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

2010-04-01

429

21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the ammonia-soda (Solvay) process and as a joint product from natural salt brines, or it may be prepared by substitution reactions with other calcium and chloride salts. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

2011-04-01

430

21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the ammonia-soda (Solvay) process and as a joint product from natural salt brines, or it may be prepared by substitution reactions with other calcium and chloride salts. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

2014-04-01

431

21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the ammonia-soda (Solvay) process and as a joint product from natural salt brines, or it may be prepared by substitution reactions with other calcium and chloride salts. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

2013-04-01

432

21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the ammonia-soda (Solvay) process and as a joint product from natural salt brines, or it may be prepared by substitution reactions with other calcium and chloride salts. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

2012-04-01

433

21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is produced by one of the following...hexa-decyl-ammonium chloride. (b) The food additive described in paragraph...

2011-04-01

434

21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is produced by one of the following...hexa-decyl-ammonium chloride. (b) The food additive described in paragraph...

2010-04-01

435

21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is produced by one of the following...hexa-decyl-ammonium chloride. (b) The food additive described in paragraph...

2013-04-01

436

21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is produced by one of the following...hexa-decyl-ammonium chloride. (b) The food additive described in paragraph...

2012-04-01

437

21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is produced by one of the following...hexa-decyl-ammonium chloride. (b) The food additive described in paragraph...

2014-04-01

438

40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. 721.10201 Section...10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical substance...as cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide (PMN P-04-269...Requirements as specified in § 721.63 (a)(1),...

2012-07-01

439

40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. 721.10201 Section...10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical substance...as cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide (PMN P-04-269...Requirements as specified in § 721.63 (a)(1),...

2014-07-01

440

40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. 721.10201 Section...10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical substance...as cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide (PMN P-04-269...Requirements as specified in § 721.63 (a)(1),...

2013-07-01

441

40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721.10031 Section...10031 Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance...subject to reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN...

2010-07-01

442

40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721.10031 Section 721... Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance...as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02-214; CAS...half- or full-face) and High Efficiency...

2012-07-01

443

40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721.10031 Section 721... Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance...as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02-214; CAS...half- or full-face) and High Efficiency...

2014-07-01

444

40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721.10031 Section 721... Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance...as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02-214; CAS...half- or full-face) and High Efficiency...

2011-07-01

445

40 CFR 721.10031 - Lithium potassium titanium oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Lithium potassium titanium oxide. 721.10031 Section 721... Lithium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance...as lithium potassium titanium oxide (PMN P-02-214; CAS...half- or full-face) and High Efficiency...

2013-07-01

446

40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721.10332 Section...Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN P-03-824) is subject...

2014-07-01

447

40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721.10332 Section...Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN P-03-824) is subject...

2013-07-01

448

40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721.10332 Section...Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN P-03-824) is subject...

2012-07-01

449

Lithium Diisopropylamide: Oligomer Structures at Low Ligand Concentrations  

E-print Network

Lithium Diisopropylamide: Oligomer Structures at Low Ligand Concentrations Jennifer L. Rutherford-dimensional 6Li and 15N NMR spectroscopic studies of lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) solvated ligand concentrations are discussed. Introduction Spectroscopic studies of lithium amides at low ligand

Collum, David B.

450

76 FR 53056 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION...limits for the outbound mailing of lithium batteries. This is consistent with recent amendments...subject line of ``International Lithium Batteries.'' Faxed comments are not...

2011-08-25

451

78 FR 19024 - Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum On Thursday...convene a forum titled, ``Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation.'' The forum will...into three topic areas: Lithium ion battery design, development, and use;...

2013-03-28

452

Model Reformulation and Design of Lithium-ion Batteries  

E-print Network

987 94 Model Reformulation and Design of Lithium-ion Batteries V.R. Subramanian1,*, V. Boovaragavan Prediction......................................997 Optimal Design of Lithium-ion Batteries Lithium-ion batteries, product design, Bayesian estimation, Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation

Subramanian, Venkat

453

Ab initio screening of lithium diffusion rates in transition metal oxide cathodes for lithium ion batteries  

E-print Network

A screening metric for diffusion limitations in lithium ion battery cathodes is derived using transition state theory and common materials properties. The metric relies on net activation barrier for lithium diffusion. ...

Moore, Charles J. (Charles Jacob)

2012-01-01

454

Copper chloride cathode for a secondary battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Higher energy and power densities are achieved in a secondary battery based on molten sodium and a solid, ceramic separator such as a beta alumina and a molten catholyte such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a copper chloride cathode. The higher cell voltage of copper chloride provides higher energy densities and the higher power density results from increased conductivity resulting from formation of copper as discharge proceeds.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (inventor); Bankston, Clyde P. (inventor)

1990-01-01

455

The 5-(4-Ethynylophenoxy) isophthalic chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sulfone-ester polymers containing pendent ethynyl groups and a direct and multistep process for preparing them are disclosed. The multistep process involves the conversion of a pendent bromo group to the ethynyl group while the direct route involves reating hydroxy-terminated sulfone oligomer or polymers with a stoichiometric amount of 5-(4-ethynylphenoxy) isophthaloyl chloride. The 5-(4-ethynylphenoxy) isophthaloyl chloride and the process for preparing it are also disclosed.

Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B. J. (inventors)

1986-01-01

456

Methyl chloride via oxhydrochlorination of methane  

SciTech Connect

Dow Corning is developing a route from methane to methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination (OHC) chemistry with joint support from the Gas Research Institute and the Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center. Dow Corning is the world`s largest producer of methyl chloride and uses it as an intermediate in the production of silicone materials. Other uses include production of higher hydrocarbons, methyl cellulose, quaternary ammonium salts and herbicides. The objective of this project is to demonstrate and develop a route to methyl chloride with reduced variable cost by using methane instead of methanol raw materials. Methyl chloride is currently produced from methanol, but U.S. demand is typically higher than available domestic supply, resulting in fluctuating prices. OHC technology utilizes domestic natural gas as a feedstock, which allows a lower-cost source of methyl chloride which is independent of methanol. In addition to other uses of methyl chloride, OHC could be a key step in a gas-to-liquid fuels process. These uses could divert significant methanol demand to methane. A stable and selective catalyst has been developed in the laboratory and evaluated in a purpose-built demonstration unit. Materials of construction issues have been resolved and the unit has been run under a range of conditions to evaluate catalyst performance and stability. Many technological advances have been made, especially in the areas of catalyst development, online FTIR analysis of the product stream, and recovery of methyl chloride product via an absorber/stripper system. Significant technological hurdles still remain including heat transfer, catalysts scaleup, orthogonality in modeling, and scaleable absorption data. Economics of the oxyhydrochlorination process have been evaluated an found to be unfavorable due to high capital and utility costs. Future efforts will focus on improved methane conversion at high methyl chloride selectivity.

Jarvis, R.F. Jr.

1997-12-31

457

Simulation of the bis-(penicillamine) enkephalin in ammonium chloride solution: a comparison with sodium chloride.  

PubMed

In order to quantify specific ion effects, a simulation study of bis(penicllamine) enkephalin, also known as DPDPE, has been performed in aqueous ammonium chloride solution and has been compared to a previous simulation of DPDPE in aqueous sodium chloride solution. Global thermodynamics have been calculated for a model system and the solution environment around DPDPE has been characterized. Associations of ions with DPDPE have been investigated. The observed differences between sodium chloride solution and ammonium chloride solution suggest that individual cations affect the solvation and peptide binding properties of a given anion. PMID:12548623

Marlow, Gail E; Pettitt, B Montgomery

2003-02-01

458

Structure of complexes between aluminum chloride and other chlorides, 2: Alkali-(chloroaluminates). Gaseous complexes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural chemistry of complexes between aluminum chloride and other metal chlorides is important both for practice and theory. Condensed-phase as well as vapor-phase complexes are of interest. Structural information on such complexes is reviewed. The first emphasis is given to the molten state because of its practical importance. Aluminum chloride forms volatile complexes with other metal chlorides and these vapor-phase complexes are dealt with in the second part. Finally, the variations in molecular shape and geometrical parameters are summarized.

Hargittai, M.

1980-01-01

459

Fiber-optic oxygen sensor using molybdenum chloride cluster luminescence  

E-print Network

Fiber-optic oxygen sensor using molybdenum chloride cluster luminescence Ruby N. Ghosh,a) Gregory L molybdenum chloride clusters. Measurements of the probe operating in a 0%­21% gaseous oxygen environment have of molybdenum atoms with eight face bridging chlorides and four axial chlorides, which are shared among

Ghosh, Ruby N.

460

Vinyl chloride loss during laboratory holding time  

SciTech Connect

Because vinyl chloride is a potent human carcinogen, it`s important that analytical results from groundwater samples accurately reflect levels of exposure. This study investigated the current allowable sample holding time of 14 days to determine if vinyl chloride is lost from samples during this time. In addition to lab spiked samples, groundwater was collected from a well known to contain vinyl chloride. A statistically significant (a = 0.05) decrease in vinyl chloride concentrations was observed over the 14-day holding time. The most significant loss was seen for those samples held the maximum length of time (14 days). No differences in degradation pattern were noted between analytical detectors used (PID versus Hall) or sample type (lab versus field). There also was a loss of vinyl chloride observed during the sampling and handling process. Analytical variability at low concentrations and the establishment of health-based guidelines near the analytical detection limit require that multiple samples be collected from a single location when highly accurate results are required. These findings have implications for the accurate generation of public health exposure assessments and the implementation of health-based recommendations at sites with vinyl chloride groundwater contamination.

Soule, R.G.; Jones, D.B.A.; Symonik, D.M.; Gerbec, B.A.; Turgeon, D.W. [Minnesota Dept. of Health, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1995-12-31

461

Molecular Dynamics Study of Lithium Diffusion in Lithium-Manganese Spinel Cathode Materials  

SciTech Connect

A series of molecular dynamics computer simulations of the self-diffusion of lithium in pure and several doped lithium-manganese spinel materials has been completed. The theoretical approach is part of an effort to understand the mechanisms and rates of lithium diffusion, and to evaluate the structural control of the cathode materials upon lithium intercalation (charge-discharge) process. The molecular dynamics approach employs a fully ionic forcefield that accounts for electrostatic, repulsive, and dispersion interactions among all ions.

Cygan, R.T.; Westrich, H.R.; Dought, D.H.

1998-01-01

462

Lithium borate cluster salts as novel redox shuttles for overcharge protection of lithium-ion cells.  

SciTech Connect

Redox shuttle is a promising mechanism for intrinsic overcharge protection in lithium-ion cells and batteries. Two lithium borate cluster salts are reported to function as both the main salt for a nonaqueous electrolyte and the redox shuttle for overcharge protection. Lithium borate cluster salts with a tunable redox potential are promising candidates for overcharge protection for most positive electrodes in state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells.

Chen, Z.; Liu, J.; Jansen, A. N.; Casteel, B.; Amine, K.; GirishKumar, G.; Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.

2010-01-01

463

First results of lithium experiments on EAST and HT7  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium as first wall materials was successively performed on EAST and HT-7 superconducting tokamaks. In the last 2years, lithium coating were carried out by means of ICRF, DC-GDC and HF-GDC on EAST and HT-7, and liquid lithium limiters with free lithium surface and CPS configuration were successively applied on HT-7. Both techniques of lithium coating and liquid lithium limiter were

G. Z. Zuo; J. S. Hu; J. G. Li; N. C. Luo; L. E. Zakharov; L. Zhang; A. Ti

2011-01-01

464

Lithium: Sources, Production, Uses, and Recovery Outlook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The demand for lithium has increased significantly during the last decade as it has become key for the development of industrial products, especially batteries for electronic devices and electric vehicles. This article reviews sources, extraction and production, uses, and recovery and recycling, all of which are important aspects when evaluating lithium as a key resource. First, it describes the estimated reserves and lithium production from brine and pegmatites, including the material and energy requirements. Then, it continues with a description about the current uses of lithium focusing on its application in batteries and concludes with a description of the opportunities for recovery and recycling and the future demand forecast. The article concludes that the demand of lithium for electronic vehicles will increase from 30% to almost 60% by 2020. Thus, in the next years, the recovery and recycling of lithium from batteries is decisive to ensure the long-term viability of the metal.

Talens Peiró, Laura; Villalba Méndez, Gara; Ayres, Robert U.

2013-08-01

465

Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes For Lithium Cells And Batteries  

DOEpatents

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

2004-01-20

466

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries  

DOEpatents

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Oakbrook, IL)

2008-12-23

467

Dielectric and pyroelectric properties of ultrathin, monocrystalline lithium tantalate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrathin, self-supporting lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) wafers have been fabricated out of a single crystal with a minimum thickness of about 0.4 ?m using ion-beam milling. The most decisive parameters (pyroelectric coefficient, relative permittivity, and dielectric loss factor) for their use in pyroelectric radiation detectors were studied in dependence on film thickness and temperature. The potential performance of pyroelectric materials was evaluated using appropriate figures of merit. In addition, the dielectric and pyroelectric properties of stoichiometric LiTaO3 were investigated and compared to congruent LiTaO3 bulk material conventionally used for pyroelectric detectors.

Schossig, Marco; Norkus, Volkmar; Gerlach, Gerald

2014-03-01

468

Evaluation of lithium as a toxicant and the modifying effect of sodium  

SciTech Connect

Routine compliance tests conducted for a groundwater treatment facility at the Y-12 Plant on the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), TN, showed that the effluent was acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae. An evaluation of suspected contaminants revealed that increased toxicity coincided with increased concentrations of lithium. Lithium is a light, strong metal that is used in DOE operations, including fusion weapons and fission reactors. Little has been published about lithium toxicity. Toxicity tests were conducted with fathead minnows and C. dubia using lithium chloride and lithium tetraborate. Dilute mineral water (DMW) or the receiving stream water (East Fork Poplar Creek) was used as the dilution water in the toxicity evaluation. A concentration of 1 mg Li/L in DMW reduced the survival of both test species; 0.5 mg Li/L in DMW reduced C. dubia reproduction and minnow growth. Sodium appears to influence the toxicity of Li; the metal was six times more toxic in the low-sodium DMW than in stream water containing 30 mg Na/L. Tests with LiCl in combination with NaCl and NA{sub 2}SO{sub 4} demonstrated that the presence of sodium reduced the toxicity of Li to C. dubia. In laboratory tests with a snail (Elimia clavaeformis) common on the ORR, the feeding rate declined in 0.15 mg Li/L. Because Li has also been demonstrated to be toxic to several plant species, tests with LiCi were also conducted using buttercrunch lettuce (Lactuca saliva). The EC{sub 50} for seed growth after 8 d incubation was 37.5 mg Li/L. These findings are significant because of widespread industrial use and potential accumulation of Li in soils.

Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.; O`Reilly, S.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31

469

Liquid electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of advances in electrolytes have occurred in the past 4 years, which have contributed to increased safety, wider temperature range of operation, better cycling and other enhancements to lithium-ion batteries. The changes to basic electrolyte solutions that have occurred to accomplish these advances are discussed in detail. The solvent components that have led to better low-temperature operation are also considered. Also, additives that have resulted in better structure of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) are presented as well as proposed methods of operation of these additives. Other additives that have lessened the flammability of the electrolyte when exposed to air and also caused lowering of the heat of reaction with the oxidized positive electrode are discussed. Finally, additives that act to open current-interrupter devices by releasing a gas under overcharge conditions and those that act to cycle between electrodes to alleviate overcharging are presented. As a class, these new electrolytes are often called "functional electrolytes". Possibilities for further progress in this most important area are presented. Another area of active work in the recent past has been the reemergence of ambient-temperature molten salt electrolytes applied to alkali metal and lithium-ion batteries. This revival of an older field is due to the discovery of new salt types that have a higher voltage window (particularly to positive potentials) and also have greatly increased hydrolytic stability compared to previous ionic liquids. While practical batteries have not yet emerged from these studies, the increase in the number of active researchers and publications in the area demonstrates the interest and potentialities of the field. Progress in the field is briefly reviewed. Finally, recent results on the mechanisms for capacity loss on shelf and cycling in lithium-ion cells are reviewed. Progress towards further market penetration by lithium-ion cells hinges on improved understanding of the failure mechanisms of the cells, so that crucial problems can be addressed.

Blomgren, George E.

470

Supporting Information Solution Structures of Lithium Enolates of Cyclopentanone, Cyclohexanone,  

E-print Network

Spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 HMPA Titration of the Lithium Enolate of Cyclopentanone (1-Li) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 HMPA Titration of the Lithium Enolate of Cyclohexanone (2-Li) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 HMPA Titration

Reich, Hans J.

471

Coaxial nuclear radiation detector with deep junction and radial field gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germanium radiation detectors are manufactured by diffusion lithium into high purity p-type germanium. The diffusion is most readily accomplished from a lithium-lead-bismuth alloy at approximately 430° and is monitored by a quartz half cell containing a standard composition of this alloy. Detectors having n-type cores may be constructed by converting high purity p-type germanium to n-type by a lithium diffusion

Hall

1979-01-01

472

Mercerized linters cellulose: characterization and acetylation in N, N-dimethylacetamide\\/lithium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linters cellulose was subjected to different treatments (mercerization and ionized air) before acetylation with acetic anhydride, in homogeneous medium, using DMAc\\/LiCl as solvent system. Before derivatization, the treated fibres were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, alpha-cellulose content, Inverse Gas Chromatography and viscosimetry. It was shown that except a decrease in the dispersive surface energy, the treatments induced small

Beatriz A. P. Ass; Mohamed N. Belgacem; Elisabete Frollini

2006-01-01

473

Study of an aqueous lithium chloride desiccant system: air dehumidification and desiccant regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desiccant systems have been proposed as energy saving alternatives to vapor compression air conditioning for handling the latent load. Use of liquid desiccants offers several design and performance advantages over solid desiccants, especially when solar energy is used for regeneration. For liquid–gas contact, packed towers with low pressure drop provide good heat and mass transfer characteristics for compact designs. This

Nelson Fumo; D. Y. Goswami

2002-01-01

474

Antiviral effect of lithium chloride on infection of cells by porcine parvovirus.  

PubMed

Porcine parvovirus (PPV) causes reproductive failure in pigs, which leads to economic losses to the industry. As reported previously, LiCl efficiently impairs the replication of a variety of viruses, including the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and pseudorabies herpesvirus. We demonstrate for the first time that inhibition of PPV replication in swine testis (ST) cells by LiCl is dose-dependent, and that the antiviral effect of LiCl occurred in the early phase of PPV replication. These results indicate that LiCl might be an effective anti-PPV drug to control PPV disease. Further studies are required to explore the mechanism of the antiviral effect of LiCl on PPV infection in vivo. PMID:25663217

Chen, Ye; Yan, Huichao; Zheng, Hao; Shi, Yuzhen; Sun, Lingsuang; Wang, Chong; Sun, Jingchen

2015-04-01

475

Lithium chloride induces mesenchymal?to?epithelial reverting transition in primary colon cancer cell cultures.  

PubMed

Epithelial?to?mesenchymal transition (EMT) confers stem cell?like phenotype and more motile properties to carcinoma cells. During EMT, the expression of E?cadherin decreases, resulting in loss of cell?cell adhesion and increased migration. Expression of Twist1 and other pleiotropic transcription factors, such as Snail, is known to activate EMT. We established primary colon cancer cell cultures from samples of operated patients and validated cultures by cytogenetic and molecular biology approaches. Western blot assay, quantitative real?time PCR and immunofluorescence were performed to investigate the expression of E?cadherin, vimentin, ??catenin, cytokeratin?20 and ?18, Twist1, Snail, CD44, cyclooxygenase?2 (COX2), Sox2, Oct4 and Nanog. Moreover, cell differentiation was induced by incubation with LiCl?containing medium for 10 days. We observed that these primary colorectal cancer (CRC) cells lost expression of the E?cadherin epithelial marker, which was instead expressed in cancer and normal colon mucosa of the same patient, while overexpressed vimentin (mesenchymal marker), Twist1, Snail (EMT markers) and COX2. Cytokeratin?18 was expressed both in tissues and cell cultures. Expression of stem cell markers, such as CD44, Oct4 and Nanog, were also observed. Following differentiation with the glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) inhibitor LiCl, the cells began to express E?cadherin and, at once, Twist1 and Snail expression was strongly downregulated, suggesting a MET?reverting process. In conclusion, we established primary colon mesenchymal cancer cell cultures expressing mesenchymal and epithelial biomarkers together with high level of EMT transcription factors. We propose that they could represent a good model for studying EMT and its reverting mechanism, the mesenchymal?to?epithelial transition (MET). Our observation indicates that LiCl, a GSK3? inhibitor, induces MET in vitro, suggesting that LiCl and GSK3? could represent, respectively, interesting drug, and target for CRC therapy. PMID:25738332

Costabile, Valeria; Duraturo, Francesca; Delrio, Paolo; Rega, Daniela; Pace, Ugo; Liccardo, Raffaella; Rossi, Giovanni Battista; Genesio, Rita; Nitsch, Lucio; Izzo, Paola; De Rosa, Marina

2015-05-01

476

Passivation of metals in thionyl-chloride electrolytes for lithium batteries: Summary abstract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical methods have indicated that Ni and SS form passive films in SOCl2 electrolytes. The presence of a passive film has been verified by XPS, while the content of the films confirms that they were formed in situ, not prior to immersion in the electrolyte. In contrast, the electrochemical experiments have shown that both Pt and Mo behave kinetically as film-free inert electrodes, a result which has been confirmed by XPS.

Peebles, D. E.; Rogers, J. W., Jr.; Cieslak, W. R.; Delnick, F. M.

1986-10-01

477

Lithium chloride - Expanded graphite composite sorbent for solar powered ice maker  

SciTech Connect

Consolidated composite material made from expanded graphite (EG) powder impregnated with LiCl salt is proposed for use in solar powered adsorption ice makers. Laboratory experiments were done to test the adsorption and desorption performance of the sorbent under different temperature conditions suitable for solar energy utilization. More than 75% of the reaction between LiCl and ammonia was completed after 30 min of synthesis at evaporation temperatures of -10 and -5 C and adsorption temperature between 25 and 35 C. Under the same period, it was possible to obtain 80% conversion in the desorption phase, when the generation temperatures ranged between 75 and 80 C, and the condensation temperature varied from 25 to 35 C. The highest average specific cooling power during the synthesis phase was 117 W per kg of the block. The calculated theoretical coefficient of performance (COP) under different cycle conditions was nearly constant at 0.47. Moreover, the new composite sorbent showed higher Specific Cooling Capacity (SCC), compared to activated carbon (AC)/methanol pair. Experiments done with blocks with different proportion of EG, showed that the proportion of EG influence the cooling capacity per unit mass of salt and had almost no influence on the cooling capacity per unit mass of the block. Moreover, the reaction enthalpy ({delta}H) and entropy ({delta}S) were calculated from experimental data obtained experimentally, and confirmed previous reported values. (author)

Kiplagat, J.K.; Wang, R.Z.; Li, T.X. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Oliveira, R.G. [Centro de Tecnologia de Alegrete, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Av. Tiaraju, 810, Alegrete (Brazil)

2010-09-15

478

Lithium chloride induces mesenchymal-to-epithelial reverting transition in primary colon cancer cell cultures  

PubMed Central

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) confers stem cell-like phenotype and more motile properties to carcinoma cells. During EMT, the expression of E-cadherin decreases, resulting in loss of cell-cell adhesion and increased migration. Expression of Twist1 and other pleiotropic transcription factors, such as Snail, is known to activate EMT. We established primary colon cancer cell cultures from samples of operated patients and validated cultures by cytogenetic and molecular biology approaches. Western blot assay, quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence were performed to investigate the expression of E-cadherin, vimentin, ?-catenin, cytokeratin-20 and -18, Twist1, Snail, CD44, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), Sox2, Oct4 and Nanog. Moreover, cell differentiation was induced by incubation with LiCl-containing medium for 10 days. We observed that these primary colorectal cancer (CRC) cells lost expression of the E-cadherin epithelial marker, which was instead expressed in cancer and normal colon mucosa of the same patient, while overexpressed vimentin (mesenchymal marker), Twist1, Snail (EMT markers) and COX2. Cytokeratin-18 was expressed both in tissues and cell cultures. Expression of stem cell markers, such as CD44, Oct4 and Nanog, were also observed. Following differentiation with the glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) inhibitor LiCl, the cells began to express E-cadherin and, at once, Twist1 and Snail expression was strongly downregulated, suggesting a MET-reverting process. In conclusion, we established primary colon mesenchymal cancer cell cultures expressing mesenchymal and epithelial biomarkers together with high level of EMT transcription factors. We propose that they could represent a good model for studying EMT and its reverting mechanism, the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). Our observation indicates that LiCl, a GSK3? inhibitor, induces MET in vitro, suggesting that LiCl and GSK3? could represent, respectively, interesting drug, and target for CRC therapy. PMID:25738332

COSTABILE, VALERIA; DURATURO, FRANCESCA; DELRIO, PAOLO; REGA, DANIELA; PACE, UGO; LICCARDO, RAFFAELLA; ROSSI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA; GENESIO, RITA; NITSCH, LUCIO; IZZO, PAOLA; DE ROSA, MARINA

2015-01-01

479

Electrode materials and lithium battery systems  

DOEpatents

A material comprising a lithium titanate comprising a plurality of primary particles and secondary particles, wherein the average primary particle size is about 1 nm to about 500 nm and the average secondary particle size is about 1 .mu.m to about 4 .mu.m. In some embodiments the lithium titanate is carbon-coated. Also provided are methods of preparing lithium titanates, and devices using such materials.

Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Belharouak, Ilias (Westmont, IL); Liu, Jun (Naperville, IL)

2011-06-28

480

Lithium ion batteries for medical devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium-ion batteries are being developed for nonimplantable and implantable medical devices. The high voltage, energy density and unique characteristics of this battery system are, in some cases, an enabling technology for the medical device. In other cases, the lithium-ion system provides additional convenience to the patients who use these devices. Especially for implantable medical devices, lithium-ion batteries must be designed

David M. Spillman; Esther S. Takeuchi

1999-01-01