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Sample records for radiation mass casualties

  1. Some considerations for mass casualty management in radiation emergencies.

    PubMed

    Hopmeier, Michael; Abrahams, Jonathan; Carr, Zhanat

    2010-06-01

    Radiation emergencies are rather new to humankind, as compared to other types of emergencies such as earthquakes, floods, or hurricanes. Fortunately, they are rare, but because of that, planning for response to large-scale radiation emergencies is least understood. Along with the specific technical aspects of response to radiation emergencies, there are some general guiding principles of responding to mass casualty events of any nature, as identified by the World Health Organization in its 2007 manual for mass casualty management systems. The paper brings forward such general considerations as applicable to radiation mass casualty events, including (1) clear lines of communication; (2) scalability of approach; (3) whole-of-health approach; (4) knowledge based approach; and (5) multisectoral approach. Additionally, some key considerations of planning for mass casualty management systems are discussed, namely, health systems surge capacity and networking, risk and resources mapping, and others. PMID:20445382

  2. The Internet's role in a biodosimetric response to a radiation mass casualty event.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, S L; Livingston, G K; Stricklin, D L; Abbott, M G; Wilkins, R C; Romm, H; Oestreicher, U; Yoshida, M A; Miura, T; Moquet, J E; Di Giorgio, M; Ferrarotto, C; Gross, G A; Christiansen, M E; Hart, C L; Christensen, D M

    2014-05-01

    Response to a large-scale radiological incident could require timely medical interventions to minimize radiation casualties. Proper medical care requires knowing the victim's radiation dose. When physical dosimetry is absent, radiation-specific chromosome aberration analysis can serve to estimate the absorbed dose in order to assist physicians in the medical management of radiation injuries. A mock exercise scenario was presented to six participating biodosimetry laboratories as one individual acutely exposed to Co under conditions suggesting whole-body exposure. The individual was not wearing a dosimeter and within 2-3 h of the incident began vomiting. The individual also had other medical symptoms indicating likelihood of a significant dose. Physicians managing the patient requested a dose estimate in order to develop a treatment plan. Participating laboratories in North and South America, Europe, and Asia were asked to evaluate more than 800 electronic images of metaphase cells from the patient to determine the dicentric yield and calculate a dose estimate with 95% confidence limits. All participants were blind to the physical dose until after submitting their estimates based on the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA). The exercise was successful since the mean biological dose estimate was 1.89 Gy whereas the actual physical dose was 2 Gy. This is well within the requirements for guidance of medical management. The exercise demonstrated that the most labor-intensive step in the entire process (visual evaluation of images) can be accelerated by taking advantage of world-wide expertise available on the Internet. PMID:24667387

  3. Radiation Injury Treatment Network (RITN): Healthcare professionals preparing for a mass casualty radiological or nuclear incident

    PubMed Central

    ROSS, JOEL R.; CASE, CULLEN; CONFER, DENNIS; WEISDORF, DANIEL J.; WEINSTOCK, DAVID; KRAWISZ, ROBERT; CHUTE, JOHN; WILHAUK, JULIE; NAVARRO, WILLIS; HARTZMAN, ROBERT; COLEMAN, C. NORMAN; HATCHETT, RICHARD; CHAO, NELSON

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe the history, composition, and activities of the Radiation Injury Treatment Network (RITN). The Radiation Injury Treatment Network® is a cooperative effort of the National Marrow Donor Program and the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. The goals of RITN are to educate hematologists, oncologists, and stem cell transplant practitioners about their potential involvement in the response to a radiation incident and provide treatment expertise. Injuries to the marrow system readily occur when a victim is exposed to ionising radiation. This focus therefore leverages the expertise of these specialists who are accustomed to providing the intensive supportive care required by patients with a suppressed marrow function. Following a radiological incident, RITN centres may be asked to: Accept patient transfers to their institutions; provide treatment expertise to practitioners caring for victims at other centres; travel to other centres to provide medical expertise; or provide data on victims treated at their centres. Moving forward, it is crucial that we develop a coordinated interdisciplinary approach in planning for and responding to radiological and nuclear incidents. The ongoing efforts of radiation biologists, radiation oncologists, and health physicists can and should complement the efforts of RITN and government agencies. Conclusion RITN serves as a vital partner in preparedness and response efforts for potential radiological and nuclear incidents. PMID:21801106

  4. The hematologist and radiation casualties.

    PubMed

    Dainiak, Nicholas; Waselenko, Jamie K; Armitage, James O; MacVittie, Thomas J; Farese, Ann M

    2003-01-01

    Since the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001, preparation by the health care system for an act of terrorism has been mandated by leaders of governments. Scenarios for terrorist acts involving radioactive material have been identified, and approaches to management (based on past experience from atomic weapons detonations and radiation accidents) have been developed. Because of their experience in managing patients with profound cytopenia and/or marrow aplasia, hematologists will be asked to play a significant role in evaluating and treating victims of mass accidental or deliberate exposure to radiation. This review provides a framework for understanding how radiation levels are quantified, how radiation alters the function of hematopoietic (and nonhematopoietic) cells and tissues, and how victims receiving a significant radiation dose can be identified and managed. In Section I, Dr. Nicholas Dainiak reviews four components of the Acute Radiation Syndrome: the hematopoietic, neurovascular, gastrointestinal and cutaneous subsyndromes. Clinical signs and symptoms are discussed for exposed individuals at the time of initial presentation (the prodromal phase) and during their course of disease (the manifest illness). In Section II, he presents clinical and laboratory methods to assess radiation doses, including time to onset and severity of vomiting, rate of decline in absolute blood lymphocyte count and the appearance of chromosome aberrations such as dicentrics and ring forms. Potential scenarios of a radiation terrorist event are reviewed, and methods for initial clinical assessment, triage, and early management of the acute radiation syndrome and its component subsyndromes are summarized. In Section III, Dr. Jamie Waselenko reviews the hematopoietic syndrome, and presents guidelines for the use of cytokine therapy, antibiotics, and supportive care that have been developed by the Strategic National Pharmaceutical Stockpile Working Group. Results of preclinical and

  5. Game-based mass casualty burn training.

    PubMed

    Kurenov, Sergei N; Cance, William W; Noel, Ben; Mozingo, David W

    2009-01-01

    An interactive, video game-based training module, Burn Center, was developed to simulate the real-life emergency events of a mass casualty disaster scenario, involving in 40 victims.The game contains two components - triage and resuscitation. The goal of the triage game is to correctly stabilize, sort, tag and transport burn victims during a mass casualty event at a busy theme park. After complete the triage component, the player will then take on the role of a burn care provider, balancing the clinical needs of multiple burn patients through a 36-hour resuscitation period, using familiar computer-simulated hospital devices. Once complete, players of Burn Center will come away with applicable skills and knowledge of burn care, for both field triage and initial resuscitation of the burn patients. PMID:19377134

  6. Oxygen supplies during a mass casualty situation.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Ray H; Previtera, Joseph E

    2008-02-01

    Mass casualty and pandemic events pose a substantial challenge to the resources available in our current health care system. The ability to provide adequate oxygen therapy is one of the systems that could be out-stripped in certain conditions. Natural disasters can disrupt manufacturing or delivery, and pandemic events can increase consumption beyond the available supply. Patients may require manual resuscitation, basic oxygen therapy, or positive-pressure ventilation during these scenarios. Available sources of oxygen include bulk liquid oxygen systems, compressed gas cylinders, portable liquid oxygen (LOX) systems, and oxygen concentrators. The last two are available in a variety of configurations, which include personal and home systems that are suitable for individual patients, and larger systems that can provide oxygen to multiple patients or entire institutions. Bulk oxygen systems are robust and are probably sustainable during periods of high consumption, but are at risk if manufacturing or delivery is disrupted. Compressed gas cylinders offer support during temporary periods of need but are not a solution for extended periods of therapy. Personal oxygen concentrators and LOX systems are limited in their application during mass casualty scenarios. Large-capacity oxygen concentrators and LOX systems may effectively provide support to alternative care sites or larger institutions. They may also be appropriate selections for governmental emergency-response scenarios. Careful consideration of the strengths and limitations of each of these options can reduce the impact of a mass casualty event. PMID:18218152

  7. Public experiences of mass casualty decontamination.

    PubMed

    Carter, Holly; Drury, John; Rubin, G James; Williams, Richard; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we analyze feedback from simulated casualties who took part in field exercises involving mass decontamination, to gain an understanding of how responder communication can affect people's experiences of and compliance with decontamination. We analyzed questionnaire data gathered from 402 volunteers using the framework approach, to provide an insight into the public's experiences of decontamination and how these experiences are shaped by the actions of emergency responders. Factors that affected casualties' experiences of the decontamination process included the need for greater practical information and better communication from responders, and the need for privacy. Results support previous findings from small-scale incidents that involved decontamination in showing that participants wanted better communication from responders during the process of decontamination, including more practical information, and that the failure of responders to communicate effectively with members of the public led to anxiety about the decontamination process. The similarity between the findings from the exercises described in this article and previous research into real incidents involving decontamination suggests that field exercises provide a useful way to examine the effect of responder communication strategies on the public's experiences of decontamination. Future exercises should examine in more detail the effect of various communication strategies on the public's experiences of decontamination. This will facilitate the development of evidence-based communication strategies intended to reduce anxiety about decontamination and increase compliance among members of the public during real-life incidents that involve mass decontamination. PMID:22823588

  8. Mass casualty incidents - time to engage.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ishay, Offir; Mitaritonno, Michele; Catena, Fausto; Sartelli, Massimo; Ansaloni, Luca; Kluger, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    Mass casualty incident continues to overwhelm medical systems worldwide. Preparedness for an MCI is a crucial requisite for the injured better outcome. The World Society of Emergency Surgery initiated a survey in regard to its senior member's personal and institutional preparedness for MCI. The results here in presented indicate that WSES should engage in a formatted and structured preparedness course for medical institutions and individuals."By all appearances it seems to be just another normal Saturday morning in the emergency department (ED). Patients occupy thirty out of the sixty beds; some awaits discharge, some awaits admission to the hospital. All of a sudden the squeaky voice of the red phone is tearing the air, the hard metal voice on the line is reporting of an explosion in the nearby train station, estimated number of casualties is 80. You ask for their estimated time of arrival, when you hear the first sirens of ambulances parking out of the ED; no answer was needed. PMID:26848306

  9. Modelling Mass Casualty Decontamination Systems Informed by Field Exercise Data

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Joseph R.; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS). The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing) of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit. PMID:23202768

  10. Ultrasound applications in mass casualties and extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Ma, O John; Norvell, Jeffrey G; Subramanian, Srikala

    2007-05-01

    A mass-casualty incident is one in which the number of patients with injuries exceeds the available medical resources to care for them in a timely manner. In such a situation, the numerous advantages of ultrasonography make it an ideal triage tool for helping clinicians rapidly screen patients. Experiences during the 1988 Armenian earthquake and the 1999 Turkish earthquake demonstrated the proficiency of ultrasound in providing rapid clinical data to the physicians caring for the mass-casualty patients. Wireless and satellite transmission of ultrasound images also has been shown to be feasible and may be applied to mass-casualty situations. In addition, ultrasound applications have been demonstrated to aid in the diagnosis of various conditions, including pneumothorax, in the International Space Station. Ultrasound's portability, reproducibility, accuracy, and ease of use will make it an important diagnostic instrument for future space missions. PMID:17446788

  11. Planning for a Mass Casualty Incident in Arkansas Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Harry; Liggin, Rebecca; Shirm, Steve; Nation, Brian; Dick, Rhonda

    2005-01-01

    School preparedness includes the possibility of a natural disaster, but recent events also confirm a need for preparedness and prevention efforts for intentional mass casualty incidents (MCIs). This survey examined the preparedness for the prevention and response for MCIs at public schools in Arkansas. This survey demonstrated that most school…

  12. Development and Validation of a Mass Casualty Conceptual Model

    PubMed Central

    Culley, Joan M.; Effken, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To develop and validate a conceptual model that provides a framework for the development and evaluation of information systems for mass casualty events. Design The model was designed based on extant literature and existing theoretical models. A purposeful sample of 18 experts validated the model. Open-ended questions, as well as a 7-point Likert scale, were used to measure expert consensus on the importance of each construct and its relationship in the model and the usefulness of the model to future research. Methods Computer-mediated applications were used to facilitate a modified Delphi technique through which a panel of experts provided validation for the conceptual model. Rounds of questions continued until consensus was reached, as measured by an interquartile range (no more than 1 scale point for each item); stability (change in the distribution of responses less than 15% between rounds); and percent agreement (70% or greater) for indicator questions. Findings Two rounds of the Delphi process were needed to satisfy the criteria for consensus or stability related to the constructs, relationships, and indicators in the model. The panel reached consensus or sufficient stability to retain all 10 constructs, 9 relationships, and 39 of 44 indicators. Experts viewed the model as useful (mean of 5.3 on a 7-point scale). Conclusions Validation of the model provides the first step in understanding the context in which mass casualty events take place and identifying variables that impact outcomes of care. Clinical Relevance This study provides a foundation for understanding the complexity of mass casualty care, the roles that nurses play in mass casualty events, and factors that must be considered in designing and evaluating information-communication systems to support effective triage under these conditions. PMID:20487188

  13. Assessment of Hospital Pharmacy Preparedness for Mass Casualty Events

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Nadia I.; Cocchio, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the preparedness of hospital pharmacies in New Jersey to provide pharmaceutical services in mass casualty scenarios. Methods: An electronic cross-sectional survey was developed to assess the general knowledge of available resources and attitudes toward the preparedness of the pharmacy department. Results: Out of 60 invitations to participate, 18 surveys (30%) were completed. Respondents practiced at community hospitals (12, 66.6%) with no trauma center designation (11, 67.4%) that served more than 500 licensed beds (five, 29.4%). Six respondents (35.3%) indicated that 75,000 to 100,000 patients visited their emergency departments annually. Seventeen sites (94.4%) reported the existence of an institutional disaster preparedness protocol; 10 (55.5%) indicated that there is a specific plan for the pharmacy department. Most respondents (10, 55.5%) were unsure whether their hospitals had an adequate supply of analgesics, rapid sequence intubation agents, vasopressors, antiemetics, respiratory medications, ophthalmics, oral antimicrobials, and chemical-weapon-specific antidotes. Five (27.7%) agreed that the pharmacy disaster plan included processes to ensure care for patients already hospitalized, and four (22.2%) agreed that the quantity of medication was adequate to treat patients and hospital employees if necessary. Medication stock and quantities were determined based on national or international guidelines at three (16.6%) institutions surveyed. Conclusion: This survey demonstrates a lack of general consensus regarding hospital pharmacy preparedness for mass casualty scenarios despite individualized institutional protocols for disaster preparedness. Standardized recommendations from government and/or professional pharmacy organizations should be developed to guide the preparation of hospital pharmacy departments for mass casualty scenarios. PMID:25859121

  14. A mass casualty incident involving children and chemical decontamination.

    PubMed

    Timm, Nathan; Reeves, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Mass casualty incidents involving contaminated children are a rare but ever-present possibility. In this article we outline one such event that resulted in 53 pediatric patients and 3 adults presenting to the emergency department of a children's hospital for decontamination and treatment. We pay special attention to the training that allowed this responses to occur. We also outline the institutional response with emphasis on incident command, communication, and resource utilization. Specific lessons learned are explored in detail. Finally, we set forth a series of recommendations to assist other institutions should they be called upon to care for and decontaminate pediatric patients. PMID:17517363

  15. Mass casualty care in an expeditionary environment: developing local knowledge and expertise in context.

    PubMed

    De Jong, Marla J; Benner, Richard; Benner, Patricia; Richard, Maggie L; Kenny, Deborah J; Kelley, Patricia; Bingham, Mona; Debisette, Annette Tyree

    2010-01-01

    To discover new experience-based clinical and care delivery knowledge learned in the Iraq and Afghanistan combat zones, 107 Air Force, Army, and Navy nurses were interviewed. Eight areas of experiential knowledge were identified in the new care delivery system that featured rapid transport, early trauma and surgical care, and expeditious aeromedical evacuation: (1) organizing for mass casualties, (2) uncertainty about incoming casualties, (3) developing systems to track patients, (4) resource utilization, (5) ripple effects of a mass casualty event, (6) enlarging the scope of nursing practice, (7) operating medical facilities under attack, and (8) nurse emotions related to mass casualties. PMID:20234239

  16. [Mass maritime casualty incidents in German waters: structures and resources].

    PubMed

    Castan, J; Paschen, H-R; Wirtz, S; Dörges, V; Wenderoth, S; Peters, J; Blunk, Y; Bielstein, A; Kerner, T

    2012-07-01

    The Central Command for Maritime Emergencies was founded in Germany in 2003 triggered by the fire on board of the cargo ship "Pallas" in 1998. Its mission is to coordinate and direct measures at or above state level in maritime emergency situations in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. A special task in this case is to provide firefighting and medical care. To face these challenges at sea emergency doctors and firemen have been specially trained. This form of organization provides a concept to counter mass casualty incidents and peril situations at sea. Since the foundation of the Central Command for Maritime Emergencies there have been 5 operations for firefighting units and 4 for medical response teams. Assignments and structure of the Central Command for Maritime Emergencies are unique in Europe. PMID:22699223

  17. Mass Casualty Incident Primary Triage Methods in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jin-Hong; Yang, Jun; Yang, Yu; Zheng, Jing-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the technical characteristics and application of mass casualty incident (MCI) primary triage (PT) methods applied in China. Data Sources: Chinese literature was searched by Chinese Academic Journal Network Publishing Database (founded in June 2014). The English literature was searched by PubMed (MEDLINE) (1950 to June 2014). We also searched Official Websites of Chinese Central Government's (http://www.gov.cn/), National Health and Family Planning Commission of China (http://www.nhfpc.gov.cn/), and China Earthquake Information (http://www.csi.ac.cn/). Study Selection: We included studies associated with mass casualty events related to China, the PT applied in China, guidelines and standards, and application and development of the carding PT method in China. Results: From 3976 potentially relevant articles, 22 met the inclusion criteria, 20 Chinese, and 2 English. These articles included 13 case reports, 3 retrospective analyses of MCI, two methods introductions, three national or sectoral criteria, and one simulated field testing and validation. There were a total of 19 kinds of MCI PT methods that have been reported in China from 1950 to 2014. In addition, there were 15 kinds of PT methods reported in the literature from the instance of the application. Conclusions: The national and sectoral current triage criteria are developed mainly for earthquake relief. Classification is not clear. Vague criteria (especially between moderate and severe injuries) operability are not practical. There are no triage methods and research for children and special populations. There is no data and evidence supported triage method. We should revise our existing classification and criteria so it is clearer and easier to be grasped in order to build a real, practical, and efficient PT method. PMID:26415807

  18. Mass casualty incident response and aeromedical evacuation in antarctica.

    PubMed

    Mills, Christopher N; Mills, Gregory H

    2011-02-01

    Antarctica is one of the most remote regions on Earth. Mass casualty incident (MCI) responses in Antarctica are prone to complications from multiple environmental and operational challenges. This review of the current status of MCI risks and response strategies for Antarctica focuses on aeromedical evacuation, a critical component of many possible MCI scenarios. Extreme cold and weather, a lack of medical resources and a multitude of disparate international bases all exert unique demands on MCI response planning. Increasing cruise ship traffic is also escalating the risk of MCI occurrence. To be successful, MCI response must be well coordinated and undertaken by trained rescuers, especially in the setting of Antarctica. Helicopter rescue or aeromedical evacuation of victims to off-continent facilities may be necessary. Currently, military forces have the greatest capacity for mass air evacuation. Specific risks that are likely to occur include structure collapses, vehicle incapacitations, vehicle crashes and fires. All of these events pose concomitant risks of hypothermia among both victims and rescuers. Antarctica's unique environment requires flexible yet robust MCI response planning among the many entities in operation on the continent. PMID:21691470

  19. Mass Casualty Incident Response and Aeromedical Evacuation in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Christopher N.; Mills, Gregory H.

    2011-01-01

    Antarctica is one of the most remote regions on Earth. Mass casualty incident (MCI) responses in Antarctica are prone to complications from multiple environmental and operational challenges. This review of the current status of MCI risks and response strategies for Antarctica focuses on aeromedical evacuation, a critical component of many possible MCI scenarios. Extreme cold and weather, a lack of medical resources and a multitude of disparate international bases all exert unique demands on MCI response planning. Increasing cruise ship traffic is also escalating the risk of MCI occurrence. To be successful, MCI response must be well coordinated and undertaken by trained rescuers, especially in the setting of Antarctica. Helicopter rescue or aeromedical evacuation of victims to off-continent facilities may be necessary. Currently, military forces have the greatest capacity for mass air evacuation. Specific risks that are likely to occur include structure collapses, vehicle incapacitations, vehicle crashes and fires. All of these events pose concomitant risks of hypothermia among both victims and rescuers. Antarctica’s unique environment requires flexible yet robust MCI response planning among the many entities in operation on the continent. PMID:21691470

  20. A pan-European study of capabilities to manage mass casualties from the release of chemical agents: the MASH project.

    PubMed

    Baker, David J; Murray, Virginia S G; Carli, Pierre A

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) Mass Casualties and Health (MASH) project that ran between 2008 and 2010 was designed to study the management of mass casualties from chemical and radiological releases and associated health implications. One area of study for this project concerned arrangements within EU Member States for the management of mass casualties following a chemical release. This was undertaken via a confidential online questionnaire that was sent to selected points of contact throughout the EU. Responses were obtained from 18 states from respondents holding senior positions in chemical planning and incident response. Information gathered shows a lack of uniformity within the EU about the organization of responses to chemical releases and the provision of medical care. This article presents the overall findings of the study demonstrating differences between countries on planning and organization, decontamination, prehospital emergency medical responses, clinical diagnoses, and therapy and aftercare. Although there may be an understandable reluctance from national respondents to share information on security and other grounds, the findings, nevertheless, revealed substantial differences between current planning and operational responses within the EU states for the management of mass chemical casualties. The existing international networks for response to radiation incidents are not yet matched by equivalent networks for chemical responses yet sufficient information was available from the study to identify potential deficiencies, identify common casualty management pathways, and to make recommendations for future operations within the EU. Improvements in awareness and training and the application of modern information and communications will help to remedy this situation. Specialized advanced life support and other medical care for chemical casualties appear lacking in some countries. A program of specialized training and action are required to apply the findings

  1. Mass Casualty Decontamination in the United States: An Online Survey of Current Practice.

    PubMed

    Power, Sarah; Symons, Charles; Carter, Holly; Jones, Emma; Amlôt, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Chilcott, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Mass casualty decontamination is a public health intervention that would be employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. The decontamination of large numbers of casualties is currently most often performed with water to remove contaminants from the skin surface. An online survey was conducted to explore US fire departments' decontamination practices and their preparedness for responding to incidents involving mass casualty decontamination. Survey respondents were asked to provide details of various aspects of their decontamination procedures, including expected response times to reach casualties, disrobing procedures, approaches to decontamination, characteristics of the decontamination showering process, provision for special populations, and any actions taken following decontamination. The aim of the survey was to identify any differences in the way in which decontamination guidance is implemented across US states. Results revealed that, in line with current guidance, many US fire departments routinely use the "ladder-pipe system" for conducting rapid, gross decontamination of casualties. The survey revealed significant variability in ladder-pipe construction, such as the position and number of fire hoses used. There was also variability in decontamination characteristics, such as water temperature and water pressure, detergent use, and shower duration. The results presented here provide important insights into the ways in which implementation of decontamination guidance can vary between US states. These inconsistencies are thought to reflect established perceived best practices and local adaptation of response plans to address practical and logistical constraints. These outcomes highlight the need for evidence-based national guidelines for conducting mass casualty decontamination. PMID:27442794

  2. Triage, monitoring, and treatment of mass casualty events involving chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear agents

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Aruna C.; Kumar, S.

    2010-01-01

    In a mass casualty situation due to chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) event, triage is absolutely required for categorizing the casualties in accordance with medical care priorities. Dealing with a CBRN event always starts at the local level. Even before the detection and analysis of agents can be undertaken, zoning, triage, decontamination, and treatment should be initiated promptly. While applying the triage system, the available medical resources and maximal utilization of medical assets should be taken into consideration by experienced triage officers who are most familiar with the natural course of the injury presented and have detailed information on medical assets. There are several triage systems that can be applied to CBRN casualties. With no one standardized system globally or nationally available, it is important for deploying a triage and decontamination system which is easy to follow and flexible to the available medical resources, casualty number, and severity of injury. PMID:21829319

  3. Self-care Decontamination within a Chemical Exposure Mass-casualty Incident.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Raymond G; Pearce, Laurie D R

    2015-06-01

    Growing awareness and concern for the increasing frequency of incidents involving hazardous materials (HazMat) across a broad spectrum of contaminants from chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) sources indicates a clear need to refine the capability to respond successfully to mass-casualty contamination incidents. Best results for decontamination from a chemical agent will be achieved if done within minutes following exposure, and delays in decontamination will increase the length of time a casualty is in contact with the contaminate. The findings presented in this report indicate that casualties involved in a HazMat/CBRN mass-casualty incident (MCI) in a typical community would not receive sufficient on-scene care because of operational delays that are integral to a standard HazMat/CBRN first response. This delay in response will mean that casualty care will shift away from the incident scene into already over-tasked health care facilities as casualties seek aid on their own. The self-care decontamination protocols recommended here present a viable option to ensure decontamination is completed in the field, at the incident scene, and that casualties are cared for more quickly and less traumatically than they would be otherwise. Introducing self-care decontamination procedures as a standard first response within the response community will improve the level of care significantly and provide essential, self-care decontamination to casualties. The process involves three distinct stages which should not be delayed; these are summarized by the acronym MADE: Move/Assist, Disrobe/Decontaminate, Evaluate/Evacuate. PMID:25915603

  4. Carbamate poisoning: treatment recommendations in the setting of a mass casualties event.

    PubMed

    Rosman, Yossi; Makarovsky, Igor; Bentur, Yedidia; Shrot, Shai; Dushnistky, Tsvika; Krivoy, Amir

    2009-11-01

    The threat of using chemical compounds by terrorists as weapons of mass casualties has been a rising concern in recent years. Carbamates, a group of reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, could be potentially involved in such toxic mass casualty events because they can cause cholinergic crisis that could lead to fatality, similar to that of organophosphate poisoning. The medical management of carbamate poisoning consists of supportive measures and specific antidotal treatment, that is, the anticholinergic compound atropine. The administration of oximes, acetylcholinesterase reactivators, in carbamate poisoning is controversial because of the potential toxicity of oximes in conjunction with carbamate especially in the case of the carbamate--"carbaryl" poisoning. However, recent data suggest that this concern may be unwarranted. In this article, we review the current data regarding the pros and cons of using oximes against carbamates poisoning in a mass casualties event scenario. We also propose a new decision-making algorithm for the medical first responders in a mass casualties event suspected to be caused by a cholinergic substance (organophosphate or carbamate). According to this algorithm, treatment should consist of atropine and oxime regardless of the exact toxic compound involved. We speculate that in a mass casualties event, the benefits of using oximes outweigh the low level of potential risk. PMID:19931761

  5. Panel 2.5: mass-casualty management and hospital care.

    PubMed

    Borra, Agostino; Perez, Luis Jorge; Min, Tin; Puavilai, Wilai; Seo, Norimasa; Tipsunthonsak, Nakhon

    2005-01-01

    This is a summary of the presentations and discussion of Panel 2.5, Mass-Casualty Management and Hospital Care of the Conference, Health Aspects of the Tsunami Disaster in Asia, convened by the World Health Organization in Phuket, Thailand, 04-06 May 2005. The topics discussed included issues related to mass-casualty management and hospital care as pertain to the responses to the damage created by the Tsunami. It is presented in the following major sections: (1) key questions; (2) recommendations; and (3) conclusions. Subsections of the conclusion section include: (1) lessons learned; (2) what was done well?; and (3) what could have been done better?. PMID:16496625

  6. Assessment of Biodosimetry Methods for a Mass-Casualty Radiological Incident: Medical Response and Management Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Julie M.; Prasanna, Pataje G. S.; Grace, Marcy B.; Wathen, Lynne; Wallace, Rodney L.; Koerner, John F.; Coleman, C. Norman

    2013-01-01

    Following a mass-casualty nuclear disaster, effective medical triage has the potential to save tens of thousands of lives. In order to best use the available scarce resources, there is an urgent need for biodosimetry tools to determine an individual’s radiation dose. Initial triage for radiation exposure will include location during the incident, symptoms, and physical examination. Stepwise triage will include point of care assessment of less than or greater than 2 Gy, followed by secondary assessment, possibly with high throughput screening, to further define an individual’s dose. Given the multisystem nature of radiation injury, it is unlikely that any single biodosimetry assay can be used as a stand-alone tool to meet the surge in capacity with the timeliness and accuracy needed. As part of the national preparedness and planning for a nuclear or radiological incident, we reviewed the primary literature to determine the capabilities and limitations of a number of biodosimetry assays currently available or under development for use in the initial and secondary triage of patients. Understanding the requirements from a response standpoint and the capability and logistics for the various assays will help inform future biodosimetry technology development and acquisition. Factors considered include: type of sample required, dose detection limit, time interval when the assay is feasible biologically, time for sample preparation and analysis, ease of use, logistical requirements, potential throughput, point-of-care capability, and the ability to support patient diagnosis and treatment within a therapeutically relevant time point. PMID:24162058

  7. Portable ultrasonography in mass casualty incidents: The CAVEAT examination

    PubMed Central

    Stawicki, Stanislaw Peter; Howard, James M; Pryor, John P; Bahner, David P; Whitmill, Melissa L; Dean, Anthony J

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonography used by practicing clinicians has been shown to be of utility in the evaluation of time-sensitive and critical illnesses in a range of environments, including pre-hospital triage, emergency department, and critical care settings. The increasing availability of light-weight, robust, user-friendly, and low-cost portable ultrasound equipment is particularly suited for use in the physically and temporally challenging environment of a multiple casualty incident (MCI). Currently established ultrasound applications used to identify potentially lethal thoracic or abdominal conditions offer a base upon which rapid, focused protocols using hand-carried emergency ultrasonography could be developed. Following a detailed review of the current use of portable ultrasonography in military and civilian MCI settings, we propose a protocol for sonographic evaluation of the chest, abdomen, vena cava, and extremities for acute triage. The protocol is two-tiered, based on the urgency and technical difficulty of the sonographic examination. In addition to utilization of well-established bedside abdominal and thoracic sonography applications, this protocol incorporates extremity assessment for long-bone fractures. Studies of the proposed protocol will need to be conducted to determine its utility in simulated and actual MCI settings. PMID:22474622

  8. Effect of Hospital Staff Surge Capacity on Preparedness for a Conventional Mass Casualty Event

    PubMed Central

    Welzel, Tyson B.; Koenig, Kristi L.; Bey, Tareg; Visser, Errol

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current medical staffing levels within the Hospital Referral System in the City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa, and analyze the surge capacity needs to prepare for the potential of a conventional mass casualty incident during a planned mass gathering. Methods: Query of all available medical databases of both state employees and private medical personnel within the greater Cape Town area to determine current staffing levels and distribution of personnel across public and private domains. Analysis of the adequacy of available staff to manage a mass casualty incident. Results: There are 594 advanced pre-hospital personnel in Cape Town (17/100,000 population) and 142 basic pre-hospital personnel (4.6/100,000). The total number of hospital and clinic-based medical practitioners is 3097 (88.6/100,000), consisting of 1914 general physicians; 54.7/100,000 and 1183 specialist physicians; 33.8/100,000. Vacancy rates for all medical practitioners range from 23.5% to 25.5%. This includes: nursing post vacancies (26%), basic emergency care practitioners (39.3%), advanced emergency care personnel (66.8%), pharmacy assistants (42.6%), and pharmacists (33.1%). Conclusion: There are sufficient numbers and types of personnel to provide the expected ordinary healthcare needs at mass gathering sites in Cape Town; however, qualified staff are likely insufficient to manage a concurrent mass casualty event. Considering that adequate correctly skilled and trained staff form the backbone of disaster surge capacity, it appears that Cape Town is currently under resourced to manage a mass casualty event. With the increasing size and frequency of mass gathering events worldwide, adequate disaster surge capacity is an issue of global relevance. PMID:20823971

  9. Army nurses' knowledge base for determining triage categories in a mass casualty.

    PubMed

    Robison, Jennifer L

    2002-10-01

    The timing, location, and participants in a mass casualty scenario cannot be predicted. Nurses may be involved in performing triage, yet there is no published documentation of military nurses' ability to triage. A prospective design was used to describe 82 Army nurses' knowledge base related to designating triage categories for patients during a mass causality, examining the relationships among their education and experience as evaluated by The Darnall Mass Casualty Triage Test and Demographic Data Form. The most significant areas associated with higher scores on the Triage Test were: completion of Advanced Cardiac Life Support, advanced certification as a Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists, Certified Emergency Nurse, or Critical Care Registered Nurse, and attendance to the Medical Management of Nuclear Weapons Course. An improved average score for nurses overall was also noted when compared with previous work with the Darnall MASCAL Triage Test. PMID:12392246

  10. Adolescent epidemic hysteria presenting as a mass casualty, toxic exposure incident

    SciTech Connect

    Selden, B.S.

    1989-08-01

    Discussed is a case of explosive epidemic hysteria presenting as a mass casualty, toxic inhalation incident. Fifteen adolescent female students were triaged from a school of 700 persons exposed to sewer gas and arrived simultaneously at the emergency department complaining of a variety of nonspecific symptoms without physical findings. These symptoms quickly remitted with reassurance and dispersion of the group. Factors important in the recognition and treatment of epidemic hysteria are presented.

  11. Resource planning for ambulance services in mass casualty incidents: a DES-based policy model.

    PubMed

    Rauner, Marion S; Schaffhauser-Linzatti, Michaela M; Niessner, Helmut

    2012-09-01

    Due to an increasing number of mass casualty incidents, which are generally complex and unique in nature, we suggest that decision makers consider operations research-based policy models to help prepare emergency staff for improved planning and scheduling at the emergency site. We thus develop a discrete-event simulation policy model, which is currently being applied by disaster-responsive ambulance services in Austria. By evaluating realistic scenarios, our policy model is shown to enhance the scheduling and outcomes at operative and online levels. The proposed scenarios range from small, simple, and urban to rather large, complex, remote mass casualty emergencies. Furthermore, the organization of an advanced medical post can be improved on a strategic level to increase rescue quality, including enhanced survival of injured victims. In particular, we consider a realistic mass casualty incident at a brewery relative to other exemplary disasters. Based on a variety of such situations, we derive general policy implications at both the macro (e.g., strategic rescue policy) and micro (e.g., operative and online scheduling strategies at the emergency site) levels. PMID:22653522

  12. K-plan for patient repatriation after mass casualty events abroad.

    PubMed

    Duchateau, François-Xavier; Verner, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    In addition to requests for individual aeromedical evacuation (AE), medical assistance companies also may respond to mass casualty incidents abroad. The purpose of this report was to evaluate the effectiveness of our primary casualty plan, based on experience involving a January 2010 bus crash in southern Egypt. The main evaluative criterion was time elapsed from the initial call until the return of victims to their home country. Three critically injured patients underwent an initial AE to Cairo for advanced trauma care. After stabilization, they arrived back in their home country 42 hours after the initial call. The remaining group of patients arrived 27 hours later, or a total of 69 hours after the first call. These findings suggest that the "K-Plan" standardized operating process may be effective for rapid and appropriate repatriation of numerous victims. Some specific issues, such as efficiently locating a large-capacity charter aircraft, require further improvement. PMID:22386102

  13. Mobilized progenitor cells as a bridging therapy for radiation casualties: a brief review of tocopherol succinate-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay K; Singh, Pankaj K; Wise, Stephen Y; Seed, Thomas M

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear detonation through either military or terrorist action would most likely lead to a mass-casualty scenario involving victims with varying degrees of exposure to ionizing radiation. As a result of radiation injury to the hematopoietic system, victims would suffer from a lack of red blood cells that deliver oxygen, immune cells that detect and eliminate infectious agents, and blood platelets that promote blood clot formation. In part, these symptoms are generally referred to as acute radiation syndrome (ARS). While some victims of moderate to high levels of radiation will be beyond saving, most will have received enough radiation to injure but not kill their bone marrow cells completely. Such people will recover from their injuries but face a 30-60day period during which they cannot fully fight infections and are prone to uncontrolled bleeding and anemia. To keep them alive until their hematopoietic system recovers, they must receive supportive care. Recently, using experimental animal models of ARS, transfusion of myeloid progenitor cells have been tried as a bridging therapy for radiation-exposed animals. Such cells have been shown to be effective in protecting animals exposed to lethal doses of radiation. These myeloid progenitors (along with of other hematopoietic progenitor cell types) can be mobilized out of the bone marrow into the blood for the reconstitution of hematopoiesis. This review discusses various approaches to the mobilization of progenitors using different mobilizing agents, and their utility as a bridging therapy for radiation casualties. We suggest that α-tocopherol succinate (TS) is an optimal mobilizing agent for progenitors. The extent of progenitor mobilization TS elicits in experimental mice is comparable to clinically used drugs such as recombinant granulocyte-colony stimulating factor rhG-CSF/Neupogen® and the bicyclam AMD3100 (plerixafor/Mozobil); therefore, we propose that TS be considered for further translational development

  14. Clinical Framework and Medical Countermeasure Use During an Anthrax Mass-Casualty Incident.

    PubMed

    Bower, William A; Hendricks, Katherine; Pillai, Satish; Guarnizo, Julie; Meaney-Delman, Dana

    2015-12-01

    In 2014, CDC published updated guidelines for the prevention and treatment of anthrax (Hendricks KA, Wright ME, Shadomy SV, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expert panel meetings on prevention and treatment of anthrax in adults. Emerg Infect Dis 2014;20[2]. Available at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/20/2/13-0687_article.htm). These guidelines provided recommended best practices for the diagnosis and treatment of persons with naturally occurring or bioterrorism-related anthrax in conventional medical settings. An aerosolized release of Bacillus anthracis spores over densely populated areas could become a mass-casualty incident. To prepare for this possibility, the U.S. government has stockpiled equipment and therapeutics (known as medical countermeasures [MCMs]) for anthrax prevention and treatment. However, previously developed, publicly available clinical recommendations have not addressed the use of MCMs or clinical management during an anthrax mass-casualty incident, when the number of patients is likely to exceed the ability of the health care infrastructure to provide conventional standards of care and supplies of MCMs might be inadequate to meet the demand required. To address this gap, in 2013, CDC conducted a series of systematic reviews of the scientific literature on anthrax to identify evidence that could help clinicians and public health authorities set guidelines for intravenous antimicrobial and antitoxin use, diagnosis of anthrax meningitis, and management of common anthrax-specific complications in the setting of a mass-casualty incident. Evidence from these reviews was presented to professionals with expertise in anthrax, critical care, and disaster medicine during a series of workgroup meetings that were held from August 2013 through March 2014. In March 2014, a meeting was held at which 102 subject matter experts discussed the evidence and adapted the existing best practices guidance to a clinical use framework for the

  15. Autonomous mobile platform for enhanced situational awareness in Mass Casualty Incidents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongyi; Schafer, James; Wang, Sili; Ganz, Aura

    2014-01-01

    To enhance the efficiency of the search and rescue process of a Mass Casualty Incident, we introduce a low cost autonomous mobile platform. The mobile platform motion is controlled by an Android Smartphone mounted on a robot. The pictures and video captured by the Smartphone camera can significantly enhance the situational awareness of the incident commander leading to a more efficient search and rescue process. Moreover, the active RFID readers mounted on the mobile platform can improve the localization accuracy of victims in the disaster site in areas where the paramedics are not present, reducing the triage and evacuation time. PMID:25570104

  16. The development and features of the Spanish prehospital advanced triage method (META) for mass casualty incidents.

    PubMed

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Garijo Gonzalo, Gracia; Martinez Monzon, Carlos; Pelaez Corres, Nieves; Rodriguez Soler, Alberto; Turegano Fuentes, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This text describes the process of development of the new Spanish Prehospital Advanced Triage Method (META) and explain its main features and contribution to prehospital triage systems in mass casualty incidents. The triage META is based in the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocols, patient's anatomical injuries and mechanism of injury. It is a triage method with four stages including early identification of patients with severe trauma that would benefit from a rapid evacuation to a surgical facility and introduces a new patient flow by-passing the advanced medical post to improve evacuation. The stages of triage META are: I) Stabilization triage that classifies patients according to severity to set priorities for initial emergency treatment; II) Identifying patients requiring urgent surgical treatment, this is done at the same time than stage I and creates a new flow of patients with high priority for evacuation; III) Implementation of Advanced Trauma Life Support protocols to patients previously classified according to stablished priority; and IV) Evacuation triage, stablishing evacuation priorities in case of lacks of appropriate transport resources. The triage META is to be applied only by prehospital providers with advanced knowledge and training in advanced trauma life support care and has been designed to be implemented as prehospital procedure in mass casualty incidents (MCI). PMID:27130042

  17. Oral and enteral resuscitation of burn shock the historical record and implications for mass casualty care.

    PubMed

    Kramer, George C; Michell, Michael W; Oliveira, Hermes; Brown, Tim La H; Herndon, David; Baker, R David; Muller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of a mass disaster, standard care methods for treatment of burn injury will often not be available for all victims. A method of fluid resuscitation for burns that has largely been forgotten by contemporary burn experts is enteral resuscitation. We identified 12 studies with over 700 patients treated with enteral resuscitation, defined as drinking or gastric infusion of salt solutions, from the literature. These studies suggest that enteral resuscitation can be an effective treatment for burn shock under conditions in which the standard IV therapy is unavailable or delayed, such as in mass disasters and combat casualties. Enteral resuscitation of burn shock was effective in patients with moderate (10-40% TBSA) and in some patients with more severe injuries. The data suggests that some hypovolemic burn and trauma patients can be treated exclusively with enteral resuscitation, and others might benefit from enteral resuscitation as an initial alternative and a supplement to IV therapy. A complication of enteral resuscitation was vomiting, which occurred less in children and much less when therapy was initiated within the first postburn hour. Enteral resuscitation is contra-indicated when the patient is in "peripheral circulatory collapse". The optimal enteral solution and regimen has not yet been defined, nor has its efficacy been tested against modern IV resuscitation. The oldest studies used glucose-free solutions of buffered isotonic and hypotonic saline. Studies that are more recent show benefit of adding glucose to electrolyte solutions similar to those used in the treatment of cholera. If IV therapy for mass casualty care is delayed due to logistical constraints, enteral resuscitation should be considered. PMID:20827301

  18. Oral and Enteral Resuscitation of Burn Shock The Historical Record and Implications for Mass Casualty Care

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, George C.; Michell, Michael W.; Oliveira, Hermes; Brown, Tim La H.; Herndon, David; Baker, R. David; Muller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of a mass disaster, standard care methods for treatment of burn injury will often not be available for all victims. A method of fluid resuscitation for burns that has largely been forgotten by contemporary burn experts is enteral resuscitation. We identified 12 studies with over 700 patients treated with enteral resuscitation, defined as drinking or gastric infusion of salt solutions, from the literature. These studies suggest that enteral resuscitation can be an effective treatment for burn shock under conditions in which the standard IV therapy is unavailable or delayed, such as in mass disasters and combat casualties. Enteral resuscitation of burn shock was effective in patients with moderate (10–40% TBSA) and in some patients with more severe injuries. The data suggests that some hypovolemic burn and trauma patients can be treated exclusively with enteral resuscitation, and others might benefit from enteral resuscitation as an initial alternative and a supplement to IV therapy. A complication of enteral resuscitation was vomiting, which occurred less in children and much less when therapy was initiated within the first postburn hour. Enteral resuscitation is contra-indicated when the patient is in “peripheral circulatory collapse”. The optimal enteral solution and regimen has not yet been defined, nor has its efficacy been tested against modern IV resuscitation. The oldest studies used glucose-free solutions of buffered isotonic and hypotonic saline. Studies that are more recent show benefit of adding glucose to electrolyte solutions similar to those used in the treatment of cholera. If IV therapy for mass casualty care is delayed due to logistical constraints, enteral resuscitation should be considered. PMID:20827301

  19. MASCAL: RFID Tracking of Patients, Staff and Equipment to Enhance Hospital Response to Mass Casualty Events

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Emory A.; Lenert, Leslie A.

    2005-01-01

    Most medical facilities practice managing the large numbers of seriously injured patients expected during catastrophic events. As the demands on the healthcare team increase, however, the challenges faced by managers escalate, workflow bottlenecks develop and system capacity decreases. This paper describes MASCAL, an integrated software–hardware system designed to enhance management of resources at a hospital during a mass casualty situation. MASCAL uses active 802.11b asset tags to track patients, equipment and staff during the response to a disaster. The system integrates tag position information with data from personnel databases, medical information systems, registration applications and the US Navy’s TACMEDCS triage application in a custom visual disaster management environment. MASCAL includes interfaces for a hospital command center, local area managers (emergency room, operating suites, radiology, etc.) and registration personnel. MASCAL is an operational system undergoing functional evaluation at the Naval Medical Center, San Diego, CA. PMID:16779042

  20. Regional Variation in Causes of Injuries among Terrorism Victims for Mass Casualty Events

    PubMed Central

    Regens, James L.; Schultheiss, Amy; Mould, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The efficient allocation of medical resources to prepare for and respond to mass casualty events (MCEs) attributable to intentional acts of terrorism is a major challenge confronting disaster planners and emergency personnel. This research article examines variation in regional patterns in the causes of injures associated with 77,258 successful terrorist attacks that occurred between 1970 and 2013 involving the use of explosives, firearms, and/or incendiaries. The objective of this research is to estimate regional variation in the use of different conventional weapons in successful terrorist attacks in each world region on variation in injury cause distributions. Indeed, we find that the distributions of the number of injuries attributable to specific weapons types (i.e., by cause) vary greatly among the 13 world regions identified within the Global Terrorism Database. PMID:26347857

  1. Challenges of the management of mass casualty: lessons learned from the Jos crisis of 2001

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Jos has witnessed a series of civil crises which have generated mass casualties that the Jos University Teaching Hospital has had to respond to from time to time. We review the challenges that we encountered in the management of the victims of the 2001 crisis. Methodology We reviewed the findings of our debriefing sessions following the sectarian crisis of September 2001 and identified the challenges and obstacles experienced during these periods. Results Communication was a major challenge, both within and outside the hospital. In the field, there was poor field triage and no prehospital care. Transportation and evacuation was hazardous, for both injured patients and medical personnel. This was worsened by the imposition of a curfew on the city and its environs. In the hospital, supplies such as fluids, emergency drugs, sterile dressings and instruments, splints, and other consumables, blood and food were soon exhausted. Record keeping was erratic. Staff began to show signs of physical and mental exhaustion as well as features of anxiety and stress. Tensions rose between different religious groups in the hospital and an attempt was made by rioters to attack the hospital. Patients suffered poor subsequent care following resuscitation and/or surgery and there was neglect of patients on admission prior to the crisis as well as non trauma medical emergencies. Conclusion Mass casualties from disasters that disrupt organized societal mechanisms for days can pose significant challenges to the best of institutional disaster response plans. In the situation that we experienced, our disaster plan was impractical initially because it failed to factor in such a prolongation of both crisis and response. We recommend that institutional disaster response plans should incorporate provisions for the challenges we have enumerated and factor in peculiarities that would emanate from the need for a prolonged response. PMID:24164778

  2. Mass-casualty Response to the Kiss Nightclub in Santa Maria, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dal Ponte, Silvana T; Dornelles, Carlos F D; Arquilla, Bonnie; Bloem, Christina; Roblin, Patricia

    2015-02-01

    On January 27, 2013, a fire at the Kiss Nightclub in Santa Maria, Brazil led to a mass-casualty incident affecting hundreds of college students. A total of 234 people died on scene, 145 were hospitalized, and another 623 people received treatment throughout the first week following the incident.1 Eight of the hospitalized people later died.1 The Military Police were the first on scene, followed by the state fire department, and then the municipal Mobile Prehospital Assistance (SAMU) ambulances. The number of victims was not communicated clearly to the various units arriving on scene, leading to insufficient rescue personnel and equipment. Incident command was established on scene, but the rescuers and police were still unable to control the chaos of multiple bystanders attempting to assist in the rescue efforts. The Municipal Sports Center (CDM) was designated as the location for dead bodies, where victim identification and communication with families occurred, as well as forensic evaluation, which determined the primary cause of death to be asphyxia. A command center was established at the Hospital de Caridade Astrogildo de Azevedo (HCAA) in Santa Maria to direct where patients should be admitted, recruit staff, and procure additional supplies, as needed. The victims suffered primarily from smoke inhalation and many required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. There was a shortage of ventilators; therefore, some had to be borrowed from local hospitals, neighboring cities, and distant areas in the state. A total of 54 patients1 were transferred to hospitals in the capital city of Porto Alegre (Brazil). The main issues with the response to the fire were scene control and communication. Areas for improvement were identified, namely the establishment of a disaster-response plan, as well as regularly scheduled training in disaster preparedness/response. These activities are the first steps to improving mass-casualty responses. PMID:25544145

  3. Predeployment mass casualty and clinical trauma training for US Army forward surgical teams.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Bruno M T; Ryan, Mark L; Ogilvie, Michael P; Gomez-Rodriguez, Juan Carlos; McAndrew, Patrick; Garcia, George D; Proctor, Kenneth G

    2010-07-01

    Since the beginning of the program in 2002, 84 Forward Surgical Teams (FSTs) have rotated through the Army Trauma Training Center (ATTC) at the University of Miami/Ryder Trauma Center including all those deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. The purpose of this study was to provide the latest updates of our experience with FSTs at the ATTC. Before deployment, each FST participates in a 2-week training rotation at the ATTC. The rotation is divided into 3 phases. Phase 1 is to refresh FST knowledge regarding the initial evaluation and management of the trauma patient. Phase 2 is the clinical phase and is conducted entirely at the Ryder Trauma Center. The training rotation culminates in phase 3, the Capstone exercise. During the Capstone portion of their training, the entire 20-person FST remains at the Ryder Trauma Center and is primarily responsible for the evaluation and resuscitation of all patients arriving over a 24-hour period. Subject awareness concerning their role within the team improved from 71% to 95%, indicating that functioning as a team in the context of the mass casualty training exercise along with clinical codes was beneficial. The clinical component of the rotation was considered by 47% to be the most valuable aspect of the training. Our experience strongly suggests that a multimodality approach is beneficial for preparing a team of individuals with minimal combat (or trauma) experience for the rigors of medical care and triage on the battlefield. The data provided by participants rotating through the ATTC show that through clinical exposure and simulation over a 2-week period, FST performance is optimized by defining provider roles and improving communication. The mass casualty training exercise is a vital component of predeployment training that participants feel is valuable in preparing them for the challenges that lay ahead. PMID:20613574

  4. Greetings: 50 years of Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission-Radiation Effects Research Foundation studies.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, I

    1998-05-12

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission was established in Hiroshima in 1947 and in Nagasaki in 1948 under the auspices of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to initiate a long-term and comprehensive epidemiological and genetic study of the atomic bomb survivors. It was replaced in 1975 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation which is a nonprofit Japanese foundation binationally managed and supported with equal funding by the governments of Japan and the United States. Thanks to the cooperation of the survivors and the contributions of a multitude of scientists, these studies flourish to this day in what must be the most successful long-term research collaboration between the two countries. Although these studies are necessarily limited to the effects of acute, whole-body, mixed gamma-neutron radiation from the atom bombs, their comprehensiveness and duration make them the most definitive descriptions of the late effects of radiation in humans. For this reason, the entire world relies heavily on these data to set radiation standards. As vital as the study results are, they still represent primarily the effects of radiation on older survivors. Another decade or two should correct this deficiency and allow us to measure definitively the human risk of heritable mutation from radiation. We look to the worldwide radiation and risk community as well as to the survivors who have contributed so much to what has been done already to accomplish this goal. PMID:9576897

  5. A burn mass casualty event due to boiler room explosion on a cruise ship: preparedness and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Akin; Namias, Nicholas; O'Keeffe, Terence; Pizano, Louis; Lynn, Mauricio; Prater-Varas, Robin; Quintana, Olga Delia; Borges, Leda; Ishii, Mary; Lee, Seong; Lopez, Peter; Lessner-Eisenberg, Sharon; Alvarez, Angel; Ellison, Tom; Sapnas, Katherine; Lefton, Jennifer; Ward, Charles Gillon

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to review our experience with a mass casualty incident resulting from a boiler room steam explosion aboard a cruise ship. Experience with major, moderate, and minor burns, steam inhalation, mass casualty response systems, and psychological sequelae will be discussed. Fifteen cruise ship employees were brought to the burn center after a boiler room explosion on a cruise ship. Eleven were triaged to the trauma resuscitation area and four to the surgical emergency room. Seven patients were intubated for respiratory distress or airway protection. Six patients had >80 per cent burns with steam inhalation, and all of these died. One of the 6 patients had 99 per cent burns with steam inhalation and died after withdrawal of support within the first several hours. All patients with major burns required escharotomy on arrival to trauma resuscitation. One patient died in the operating room, despite decompression by laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome and pericardiotomy via thoracotomy for cardiac tamponade. Four patients required crystalloid, 20,000 mls/m2-27,000 ml/m2 body surface area (BSA) in the first 48 hours to maintain blood pressure and urine output. Three of these four patients subsequently developed abdominal compartment syndrome and died in the first few days. The fourth patient of this group died after 26 days due to sepsis. Five patients had 13-20 per cent bums and four patients had less than 10 per cent burns. Two of the patients with 20 per cent burns developed edema of the vocal cords with mild hoarseness. They improved and recovered without intubation. The facility was prepared for the mass casualty event; having just completed a mass casualty drill several days earlier. Twenty-six beds were made available in 50 minutes for anticipated casualties. Fifteen physicians reported immediately to the trauma resuscitation area to assist in initial stabilization. The event occurred at shift change; thus, adequate support

  6. Factors influencing injury severity score regarding Thai military personnel injured in mass casualty incident April 10, 2010: lessons learned from armed conflict casualties: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Political conflicts in Bangkok, Thailand have caused mass casualties, especially the latest event April 10, 2010, in which many military personnel were injured. Most of them were transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital, the largest military hospital in Thailand. The current study aimed to assess factors influencing Injury Severity Score (ISS) regarding Thai military personnel injured in the mass casualty incident (MCI) April 10, 2010. Methods A total of 728 injured soldiers transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital were reviewed. Descriptive statistics was used to display characteristics of the injuries, relationship between mechanism of injury and injured body regions. Multiple logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (adjusted OR) of ISS comparing injured body region categories. Results In all, 153 subjects defined as major data category were enrolled in this study. Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury (90.2%). These victims displayed 276 injured body regions. The most common injured body region was the extremities (48.5%). A total of 18 patients (11.7%) had an ISS revealing more than 16 points. Three victims who died were expected to die due to high Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS). However, one with high TRISS survived. Factors influencing ISS were age (p = 0.04), abdomen injury (adjusted OR = 29.9; 95% CI, 5.8-153.5; P < 0.01), head & neck injury (adjusted OR = 13.8; 95% CI, 2.4-80.4; P < 0.01) and chest injury (adjusted OR = 9.9; 95% CI, 2.1-47.3; P < 0.01). Conclusions Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury among Thai military personnel injured in the MCI April 10, 2010. Age and injured body region such as head & neck, chest and abdomen significantly influenced ISS. These factors should be investigated for effective medical treatment and preparing protective equipment to prevent such injuries in the future. PMID:22214518

  7. [National preparedness for biological mass casualty event: between the devil and the deep blue sea].

    PubMed

    Eldad, Arieh

    2002-05-01

    Species of plants and animals, as well as nations of human beings were extinguished throughout the prehistory and history of this planet. One of the possible explanations for this phenomenon is a large scale epidemic of viral, bacterial or fungal infections. One well-documented example was the smallpox epidemic among native Indians of South America following the European invasion. Deliberate dissemination of disease was used as a weapon during the Middle Ages when corpses of plague casualties were thrown over the walls and into the besieged towns. The Book of Kings II, of the Bible, in chapter 19 recalls the story of 185,000 soldiers of Sennacherib that died in one night, near the walls of Jerusalem. The possibility of causing mass casualty by dissemination of infectious disease has driven countries and terrorist organizations to produce and store large quantities of bacteria or viruses. The death of thousands in the USA on September 11, 2001, demonstrated that terror has no moral prohibitions, only technical limitations. Terror organizations will not hesitate to use weapons for mass destruction to kill many, and if only few will die, it will still serve the purpose of these evil organizations: to strew panic, to destroy normal life and to increase fear and instability. Any government that faces decisions about how to be better prepared against biological warfare is pushed between the devil and the deep blue sea. On the one hand: the better we will be prepared, equipped with antibiotics and vaccines--the more lives of casualties we will be able to save. Better public education will help to reduce the damage, but, on the other hand--in order to cause more people to make the effort to equip themselves or to refresh their protective kit--we will have to increase their level of concern. In order to improve the medical education of all members of the medical teams we will have to start a broad and intense campaign, thereby taking the risk of increasing stress in the

  8. Hospital management of mass radiological casualties: reassessing exposures from contaminated victims of an exploded radiological dispersal device.

    PubMed

    Smith, James M; Ansari, Armin; Harper, Frederick T

    2005-11-01

    One of the key issues in the aftermath of an exploded radiological dispersal device from a terrorist event is that of the contaminated victim and the concern among healthcare providers for the harmful exposures they may receive in treating patients, especially if the patient has not been thoroughly decontaminated. This is critically important in the event of mass casualties from a nuclear or radiological incident because of the essential rapidity of acute medical decisions and that those who have life- or limb-threatening injuries may have treatment unduly delayed by a decontamination process that may be unnecessary for protecting the health and safety of the patient or the healthcare provider. To estimate potential contamination of those exposed in a radiological dispersal device event, results were used from explosive aerosolization tests of surrogate radionuclides detonated with high explosives at the Sandia National Laboratories. Computer modeling was also used to assess radiation dose rates to surgical personnel treating patients with blast injuries who are contaminated with any of a variety of common radionuclides. It is demonstrated that exceptional but plausible cases may require special precautions by the healthcare provider, even while managing life-threatening injuries of a contaminated victim from a radiological dispersal device event. PMID:16217195

  9. Hospital management of mass radiological casualties : reassessing exposures from contaminated victims of an exploded radiological dispersal device (RDD).

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, Armin; Harper, Frederick Taylor; Smith, James M.

    2005-04-01

    One of the key issues in the aftermath of an exploded radiological dispersal device from a terrorist event is that of the contaminated victim and the concern among healthcare providers for the harmful exposures they may receive in treating patients, especially if the patient has not been thoroughly decontaminated. This is critically important in the event of mass casualties from a nuclear or radiological incident because of the essential rapidity of acute medical decisions and that those who have life- or limb-threatening injuries may have treatment unduly delayed by a decontamination process that may be unnecessary for protecting the health and safety of the patient or the healthcare provider. To estimate potential contamination of those exposed in a radiological dispersal device event, results were used from explosive aerosolization tests of surrogate radionuclides detonated with high explosives at the Sandia National Laboratories. Computer modeling was also used to assess radiation dose rates to surgical personnel treating patients with blast injuries who are contaminated with any of a variety of common radionuclides. It is demonstrated that exceptional but plausible cases may require special precautions by the healthcare provider, even while managing life-threatening injuries of a contaminated victim from a radiological dispersal device event.

  10. Improving emergency medical dispatching with emphasis on mass-casualty incidents.

    PubMed

    Kleinoscheg, Gabriel; Burgsteiner, Harald; Bernroider, Martin; Kiechle, Günter; Obermayer, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Dispatching ambulances is a demanding and stressful task for dispatchers. This is especially true in case of mass-casualty incidents. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate if and to what extent the dispatch operation of the Red Cross Salzburg can be optimized on such occasions with a computerized system. The basic problem of a dynamic multi-vehicle Dial-a-Ride Problem with time windows was enhanced according to the requirements of the Red Cross Salzburg. The general objective was to minimize the total mileage covered by ambulances and the waiting time of patients. Furthermore, in case of emergencies suitable adaptions to a plan should be carried out automatically. Consequently, the problem is solved by using the Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search. Evaluation results indicate that the system outperforms a human dispatcher by between 2.5% and 36% within 1 minute of runtime concerning total costs. Moreover, the system's response time in case that a plan has to be updated is less than 1 minute on average. PMID:24825692

  11. Roles of a helicopter emergency medical service in mass casualty incidents.

    PubMed

    Stohler, S A; Jacobs, L M; Gabram, S G

    1991-01-01

    The Connecticut helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) has responded to 12 mass casualty incidents (MCI) in two years. Eight were drills and four were actual events. An MCI response plan was instituted prior to the onset of the HEMS program. All MCIs were reviewed to determine actual victims, knowledge of MCI prior to lift-off, and roles of the HEMS. The actual roles were compared with the pre-established roles. The four actual MCIs (building explosion, hotel fire, bus rollover and plane crash) were reviewed. Sixty-seven victims were involved. Prenotification occurred in one MCI. The roles of the HEMS in each MCI were: triage (n = 4), medical treatment (n = 4), transport (n = 3), augmented response (n = 1), and air surveillance (n = 0). The roles of HEMS response to MCI should be well-defined prior to an event. Air medical benefits include response within a large geographic area, highest level of prehospital medical care, identification of trauma receiving hospitals, and facilitation of transport. PMID:10108935

  12. Prehospital triage and communication performance in small mass casualty incidents: a gauge for disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G A; Calkins, A

    1999-03-01

    Because of their infrequency, disasters are difficult to train for. Emergency prehospital personnel frequently participate in small mass casualty incidents (MCIs) (3 to 50 victims). This study sought to examine prehospital performance in small MCIs in areas that are frequently mismanaged in disasters. Prospective data from the resource physician and retrospective data from tape recorded prehospital conversations were collected for a 9-month period. Clinical patient data, patient demographics, emergency medical services squad characteristics, and triage information were recorded. Forty-five consecutive MCIs were studied. Most of these were motor vehicle accidents. Prehospital providers included paid providers, nonpaid providers, and air and ground transport. The mean number of victims first identified (4.6%) was greatly different than the mean number of victims eventually transported from a scene (7.1%). Most patients were treated at a level 1 trauma center. Frequent errors included having multiple communicators on site (38%), misidentifying the number of victims (56%), and having unclear information for the resource physician (43%). Only 38% of events had prehospital triage information that was deemed appropriate in total. These results show that scene and triage errors are frequent in MCIs of small scale. This information can be used to assay a system's readiness for disasters. PMID:10102314

  13. Expedited electronic entry: a new way to manage mass-casualty radiology order workflow.

    PubMed

    Bookman, Kelly; Zane, Richard

    2013-08-01

    One of the important tenets of emergency preparedness is that planning for disaster response should resemble standard operating procedure whenever possible. Electronic order entry has become part of the standard operating procedures of most institutions but many of these systems are either too cumbersome for use during a surge or can even be rendered non-functional during a sudden patient surge such as a mass-casualty incident (MCI). Presented here is an experience with delayed radiology order entry during a recent MCI and the after action programming of the system based on this real experience. In response to the after action analysis of the MCI, a task force was assigned to solve the MCI radiology order entry problem and a solution to streamline disaster image ordering was devised. A "browse page" was created that lists every x-ray and every CT scan that might be needed in such an event with all required information defaulted to "Disaster." This created a way to order multiple images for any one patient, with 40% time saving over standard electronic order entry. This disaster radiology order entry solution is an example of the surge preparedness needed to promote patient safety and efficient care delivery as the widespread deployment of electronic health records and order entry continues across the United States. PMID:23731567

  14. Using baseline data to address the lack of hospital beds during mass-casualty incidents.

    PubMed

    Hadef, Hysham; Bartier, Jean-Claude; Delplancq, Herve; Dupeyron, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The management of victims during mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) is improving. In many countries, physicians and paramedics are well-trained to manage these incidents. A problem that has been encountered during MCIs is the lack of adequate numbers of hospital beds to accommodate the injured. In Europe, hospitals are crowded. One solution for the lack of beds is the creation of baseline data systems that could be consulted by medical personnel in all European countries. A MCI never has occurred in northeastern Europe, but such an event remains a possibility. This paper describes how the use of SAGEC 67, a free-access, information database concerning the availability of beds should help the participating countries, initially France, Germany, and Switzerland, respond to a MCI by dispatching each patient to an appropriate hospital and informing their families and physicians using their own language. Baseline data for more than 20 countries, and for hospitals, especially those in Germany, Switzerland, and France, were collected. Information about the number of beds and their availability hour-by-hour was included. In the case of MCIs, the baseline data program is opened and automatically connects to all of the countries. In case of a necessary hospital evacuation, the required beds immediately are occupied in one of these three countries. Questions and conversations among medical staff or family members can be accomplished between hospitals through computer, secured-line chatting that automatically translates into appropriate language. During the patient evacuation phase of a MCI, respondents acknowledged that a combination of local, state, and private resources and international cooperation eventually would be needed to meet the demand. Patient evacuation is optimized through the use of SAGEC 67, a free baseline database. PMID:18935955

  15. Epidemiology of Emergency Medical Services-Assessed Mass Casualty Incidents according to Causes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To effectively mitigate and reduce the burden of mass casualty incidents (MCIs), preparedness measures should be based on MCIs’ epidemiological characteristics. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and outcomes of emergency medical services (EMS)-assessed MCIs from multiple areas according to cause. Therefore, we extracted the records of all MCIs that involved ≥ 6 patients from an EMS database. All patients involved in EMS-assessed MCIs from six areas were eligible for this study, and their prehospital and hospital records were reviewed for a 1-year period. The EMS-assessed MCIs were categorized as being caused by fire accidents (FAs), road traffic accidents (RTAs), chemical and biological agents (CBs), and other mechanical causes (MECHs). A total of 362 EMS-assessed MCIs were identified, with a crude incidence rate of 0.6–5.0/100,000 population. Among these MCIs, 322 were caused by RTAs. The MCIs involved 2,578 patients, and 54.3% of these patients were women. We observed that the most common mechanism of injury varied according to MCI cause, and that a higher number of patients per incident was associated with a longer prehospital time. The highest hospital admission rate was observed for CBs (16 patients, 55.2%), and most patients in RTAs and MECHs experienced non-severe injuries. The total number of deaths was 32 (1.2%). An EMS-assessed MCI database was established using the EMS database and medical records review. Our findings indicate that RTA MCIs create a burden on EMS and emergency department resources, although CB MCIs create a burden on hospitals’ resources. PMID:26955248

  16. Epidemiology of Emergency Medical Services-Assessed Mass Casualty Incidents according to Causes.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Ok; Shin, Sang Do; Song, Kyoung Jun; Hong, Ki Jeong; Kim, Jungeun

    2016-03-01

    To effectively mitigate and reduce the burden of mass casualty incidents (MCIs), preparedness measures should be based on MCIs' epidemiological characteristics. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and outcomes of emergency medical services (EMS)-assessed MCIs from multiple areas according to cause. Therefore, we extracted the records of all MCIs that involved ≥ 6 patients from an EMS database. All patients involved in EMS-assessed MCIs from six areas were eligible for this study, and their prehospital and hospital records were reviewed for a 1-year period. The EMS-assessed MCIs were categorized as being caused by fire accidents (FAs), road traffic accidents (RTAs), chemical and biological agents (CBs), and other mechanical causes (MECHs). A total of 362 EMS-assessed MCIs were identified, with a crude incidence rate of 0.6-5.0/100,000 population. Among these MCIs, 322 were caused by RTAs. The MCIs involved 2,578 patients, and 54.3% of these patients were women. We observed that the most common mechanism of injury varied according to MCI cause, and that a higher number of patients per incident was associated with a longer prehospital time. The highest hospital admission rate was observed for CBs (16 patients, 55.2%), and most patients in RTAs and MECHs experienced non-severe injuries. The total number of deaths was 32 (1.2%). An EMS-assessed MCI database was established using the EMS database and medical records review. Our findings indicate that RTA MCIs create a burden on EMS and emergency department resources, although CB MCIs create a burden on hospitals' resources. PMID:26955248

  17. Clinical review: The role of the intensive care physician in mass casualty incidents: planning, organisation, and leadership

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, Peter J; Mandersloot, Gerlinde

    2008-01-01

    There is a long-standing, broad assumption that hospitals will ably receive and efficiently provide comprehensive care to victims following a mass casualty event. Unfortunately, the majority of medical major incident plans are insufficiently focused on strategies and procedures that extend beyond the pre-hospital and early-hospital phases of care. Recent events underscore two important lessons: (a) the role of intensive care specialists extends well beyond the intensive care unit during such events, and (b) non-intensive care hospital personnel must have the ability to provide basic critical care. The bombing of the London transport network, while highlighting some good practices in our major incident planning, also exposed weaknesses already described by others. Whilst this paper uses the events of the 7 July 2005 as its point of reference, the lessons learned and the changes incorporated in our planning have generic applications to mass casualty events. In the UK, the Department of Health convened an expert symposium in June 2007 to identify lessons learned from 7 July 2005 and disseminate them for the benefit of the wider medical community. The experiences of clinicians from critical care units in London made a large contribution to this process and are discussed in this paper. PMID:18492221

  18. A wireless first responder handheld device for rapid triage, patient assessment and documentation during mass casualty incidents.

    PubMed

    Killeen, James P; Chan, Theodore C; Buono, Colleen; Griswold, William G; Lenert, Leslie A

    2006-01-01

    Medical care at mass casualty incidents and disasters requires rapid patient triage and assessment, acute care and disposition often in the setting of overwhelming numbers of victims, limited time, and little resources. Current systems rely on a paper triage tag on which rescuers and medical providers mark the patient's triage status and record limited information on injuries and treatments administered in the field. In this manuscript, we describe the design, development and deployment of a wireless handheld device with an electronic medical record (EMR) for use by rescuers responding to mass casualty incidents (MCIs) and disasters. The components of this device, the WIISARD First Responder (WFR), includes a personal digital assistant (PDA) with 802.11 wireless transmission capabilities, microprocessor and non-volatile memory, and a unique EMR software that replicates the rapidity and ease of use of the standard paper triage tag. WFR also expands its functionality by recording real-time medical data electronically for simultaneous access by rescuers, mid-level providers and incident commanders on and off the disaster site. WFR is a part of the Wireless Information System for Medical Response in Disasters (WIISARD) architecture. PMID:17238377

  19. Mass-casualty victim "surge" management. Preparing for bombings and blast-related injuries with possibility of hazardous materials exposure.

    PubMed

    Severance, Harry W

    2002-01-01

    Bombings and other blast-related events place severe demands on pre-hospital and in-hospital systems. The resulting surge of victims can overwhelm the resources of any facility not prepared for such an event. The September 11 terrorist attacks underscore the urgency of our need for preparedness. The challenges become even more daunting when there is possible hazmat exposure as well; this means that adequate and rapid disposition of victims is even more critical in order to avoid contamination of hospitals systems or whole communities. Federal agencies have been designated and federal mandates have been issued to address mass casualty events, but federal or even regional systems cannot respond in time to address the massive and immediate needs generated by an explosion. Local communities must take the lead in developing incident command systems for initial management of such events. Hospital and pre-hospital providers play a key role in such planning. Ultimate management and disposition of large numbers of casualties, especially if contaminated, cannot follow standard patient management protocols; new protocols are needed. To avoid a total, overwhelming break down of in-hospital resources, hospitals need to assume a lead role in addressing such issues in their local communities. PMID:12970967

  20. Scientific framework for research on disaster and mass casualty incident in Korea: building consensus using Delphi method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chu Hyun; Park, Ju Ok; Park, Chang Bae; Kim, Seong Chun; Kim, Soo Jin; Hong, Ki Jeong

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the scientific framework for research on disaster and mass casualty incident (MCI) in Korea, especially Korean terminology, feasible definition, and epidemiologic indices. The two staged policy Delphi method was performed by instructors of National Disaster Life Support (NDLS®) with the constructed questionnaire containing items based on the literature review. The first-stage survey was conducted by 11 experts through two rounds of survey for making issue and option. The second-stage survey was conducted by 35 experts for making a generalized group based consensus. Experts were selected among instructors of National Disaster Life Support Course. Through two staged Delphi survey experts made consensus: 1) the Korean terminology "jaenan" with "disaster" and "dajung-sonsang-sago" with "MCI"; 2) the feasible definition of "disaster" as the events that have an effect on one or more municipal local government area (city-county-district) or results in ≥ 10 of death or ≥ 50 injured victims; 3) the feasible definition of MCI as the events that result in ≥ 6 casualties including death; 4) essential 31 epidemiologic indices. Experts could determine the scientific framework in Korea for research on disaster medicine, considering the distinct characteristics of Korea and current research trends. PMID:24431916

  1. Engaging Active Bystanders in Mass Casualty Events and Other Life-Threatening Emergencies: A Pilot Training Course Demonstration.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tracey O; Baker, Susan D; Roberts, Kathryn; Payne, Skip A

    2016-04-01

    Emerging research indicates the critical role members of the public can play in saving lives and reducing morbidity at the scene in the immediate aftermath of a disaster. It is anticipated that with training, more members of the public will be ready and able to assist should they be present at mass casualty events or other circumstances in which there are serious injuries or potential loss of life. This article describes a training course developed by multiple federal and nonfederal partners aimed at preparing the public to become "active bystanders" followed by a pilot demonstration project conducted by Medical Reserve Corps Units. The outcomes of the project indicated that the training was comprehensive and appropriate for members of the public with little or no first aid knowledge. National availability of the "Becoming an Active Bystander" training course is currently being planned. PMID:26841861

  2. Book review of "The Ethics of Coercion in Mass Casualty Medicine" by Griffin Trotter MD, PhD

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sonal

    2007-01-01

    Public health ethics is neither taught widely in medical schools or schools of public health in the US or around the world. It is not surprising that health care professionals are particularly challenged when faced with ethical questions which extend beyond safeguarding the interests of their individual patients to matters that affect overall public good. The perceived threat of terror after September 11 2007, the anthrax attacks and the Katrina debacle are recent circumstances which may result in coercion. These have piqued the interest of medical professionals and the general public on public health ethics. The Ethics of Coercion in Mass Casualty Medicine written by Griffin Trotter MD, PhD attempts to fill a timely void in this area by examining the ethics of coercion in times of public health disasters.

  3. Consensus on items and quantities of clinical equipment required to deal with a mass casualties big bang incident: a national Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Major short-notice or sudden impact incidents, which result in a large number of casualties, are rare events. However health services must be prepared to respond to such events appropriately. In the United Kingdom (UK), a mass casualties incident is when the normal response of several National Health Service organizations to a major incident, has to be supported with extraordinary measures. Having the right type and quantity of clinical equipment is essential, but planning for such emergencies is challenging. To date, the equipment stored for such events has been selected on the basis of local clinical judgment and has evolved without an explicit evidence-base. This has resulted in considerable variations in the types and quantities of clinical equipment being stored in different locations. This study aimed to develop an expert consensus opinion of the essential items and minimum quantities of clinical equipment that is required to treat 100 people at the scene of a big bang mass casualties event. Methods A three round modified Delphi study was conducted with 32 experts using a specifically developed web-based platform. Individuals were invited to participate if they had personal clinical experience of providing a pre-hospital emergency medical response to a mass casualties incident, or had responsibility in health emergency planning for mass casualties incidents and were in a position of authority within the sphere of emergency health planning. Each item’s importance was measured on a 5-point Likert scale. The quantity of items required was measured numerically. Data were analyzed using nonparametric statistics. Results Experts achieved consensus on a total of 134 items (54%) on completion of the study. Experts did not reach consensus on 114 (46%) items. Median quantities and interquartile ranges of the items, and their recommended quantities were identified and are presented. Conclusions This study is the first to produce an expert consensus on the

  4. The "RTR" medical response system for nuclear and radiological mass-casualty incidents: a functional TRiage-TReatment-TRansport medical response model.

    PubMed

    Hrdina, Chad M; Coleman, C Norman; Bogucki, Sandy; Bader, Judith L; Hayhurst, Robert E; Forsha, Joseph D; Marcozzi, David; Yeskey, Kevin; Knebel, Ann R

    2009-01-01

    Developing a mass-casualty medical response to the detonation of an improvised nuclear device (IND) or large radiological dispersal device (RDD) requires unique advanced planning due to the potential magnitude of the event, lack of warning, and radiation hazards. In order for medical care and resources to be collocated and matched to the requirements, a [US] Federal interagency medical response-planning group has developed a conceptual approach for responding to such nuclear and radiological incidents. The "RTR" system (comprising Radiation-specific TRiage, TReatment, TRansport sites) is designed to support medical care following a nuclear incident. Its purpose is to characterize, organize, and efficiently deploy appropriate materiel and personnel assets as close as physically possible to various categories of victims while preserving the safety of responders. The RTR system is not a medical triage system for individual patients. After an incident is characterized and safe perimeters are established, RTR sites should be determined in real-time that are based on the extent of destruction, environmental factors, residual radiation, available infrastructure, and transportation routes. Such RTR sites are divided into three types depending on their physical/situational relationship to the incident. The RTR1 sites are near the epicenter with residual radiation and include victims with blast injuries and other major traumatic injuries including radiation exposure; RTR2 sites are situated in relationship to the plume with varying amounts of residual radiation present, with most victims being ambulatory; and RTR3 sites are collection and transport sites with minimal or no radiation present or exposure risk and a victim population with a potential variety of injuries or radiation exposures. Medical Care sites are predetermined sites at which definitive medical care is given to those in immediate need of care. They include local/regional hospitals, medical centers, other

  5. Mass casualties and health care following the release of toxic chemicals or radioactive material--contribution of modern biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Göransson Nyberg, Ann; Stricklin, Daniela; Sellström, Åke

    2011-12-01

    Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons "at risk" of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or "worried well". We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking. PMID:22408587

  6. Mass Casualties and Health Care Following the Release of Toxic Chemicals or Radioactive Material—Contribution of Modern Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Göransson Nyberg, Ann; Stricklin, Daniela; Sellström, Åke

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons “at risk” of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or “worried well”. We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking. PMID:22408587

  7. Design and characterisation of a novel in vitro skin diffusion cell system for assessing mass casualty decontamination systems.

    PubMed

    Matar, H; Larner, J; Kansagra, S; Atkinson, K L; Skamarauskas, J T; Amlot, R; Chilcott, R P

    2014-06-01

    The efficient removal of contaminants from the outer surfaces of the body can provide an effective means of reducing adverse health effects associated with incidents involving the accidental or deliberate release of hazardous materials. Showering with water is frequently used by first responders as a rapid method of mass casualty decontamination (MCD). However, there is a paucity of data on the generic effectiveness and safety of aqueous decontamination systems. To address these issues, we have developed a new in vitro skin diffusion cell system to model the conditions of a common MCD procedure ("ladder pipe system"). The new diffusion cell design incorporates a showering nozzle, an air sampling port for measurement of vapour loss and/aerosolisation, adjustable (horizontal to vertical) skin orientation and a circulating manifold system (to maintain a specified flow rate, temperature and pressure of shower water). The dermal absorption characteristics of several simulants (Invisible Red S, curcumin and methyl salicylate) measured with the new in vitro model were in good agreement with previous in vitro and in vivo studies. Moreover, these initial studies have indicated that whilst flow rate and water temperature are important factors for MCD, the presence of clothing during showering may (under certain circumstances) cause transfer and spreading of contaminants to the skin surface. PMID:24412538

  8. Mass casualty following unprecedented tornadic events in the Southeast: natural disaster outcomes at a Level I trauma center.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Elizabeth H; Creel, Nathan; Lepard, Jacob; Maxwell, Robert A

    2012-07-01

    On April 27, 2011, an EF4 (enhanced Fujita scale) tornado struck a 48-mile path across northwest Georgia and southeast Tennessee. Traumatic injuries sustained during this tornado and others in one of the largest tornado outbreaks in history presented to the regional Level I trauma center, Erlanger Health System, in Chattanooga, TN. Patients were triaged per mass casualty protocols through an incident command center and triage officer. Medical staffing was increased to anticipate a large patient load. Records of patients admitted as a result of tornado-related injury were retrospectively reviewed and characterized by the injury patterns, demographics, procedures performed, length of stay, and complications. One hundred four adult patients were treated in the emergency department; of these, 28 (27%) patients required admission to the trauma service. Of those admitted, 16 (57%) were male with an age range of 21 to 87 years old and an average length of stay of 10.9 ± 11.8 days. Eleven (39%) patients required intensive care unit admissions. The most common injuries seen were those of soft tissue, bony fractures, and the chest. Interventions included tube thoracostomies, exploratory laparotomies, orthopedic fixations, soft tissue reconstructions, and craniotomy. All 28 patients admitted survived to discharge. Nineteen (68%) patients were discharged home, six (21%) went to a rehabilitation hospital, and three (11%) were transferred to skilled nursing facilities. Emergency preparedness and organization are key elements in effectively treating victims of natural disasters. Those victims who survive the initial tornadic event and present to a Level I trauma center have low mortality. Like in our experience, triage protocols need to be implemented to quickly and effectively manage mass injuries. PMID:22748536

  9. Mutation, radiation, and species survival: The genetics studies of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Lindee, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    This is an analysis of the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, an American agency which studied the effects of radiation on survivors of the atomic bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 1947-1975. Funded by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and directed by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, the ABCC was the largest and longest medical study of the estimated 300,000 survivors. The morphological genetics study dominated the ABCCs first decade. James Neel and his principal collaborator William J. Schull tracked more than 76,000 pregnancies. Their results (1956) suggested the bombs radiation had no detectable impact on the offspring of survivors. Though geneticists knew that radiation caused heritable mutations in experimental organisms such as Drosophila, and believed it caused mutations in humans, the Neel-Schull findings were not a surprise. The practical difficulties of the study, and the relatively small increase in abnormal births to be expected, made a finding of significant effects unlikely. The Neel-Schull approach reflected the scientific debate over genetic load, and the Muller-Dobzhansky classical-balance controversy. Yet the findings also reflected the post-war debate over atomic energy and weapons testing. Many extra-scientific forces militated against a finding of positive effects at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Negative findings were consistent with the needs of the Atomic Energy Commission, the State Department and the U.S. military. This dissertation explores how both the scientific debate about genetic load, and the political debate about atmospheric weapons testing, shaped this complex epidemiological study.

  10. Developing and organizing a trauma system and mass casualty management: some useful observations from the israeli trauma model.

    PubMed

    Borgohain, B; Khonglah, T

    2013-01-01

    A trauma system is a chain of arrangements and preparedness to provide quality response to injured from the site of injury to the appropriate hospital for the full range of care. Israel has a unique trauma system developed from the experience gained in peace and in war. The system is designed to fit the state's current health system, which is different from the European and American systems. An effective trauma system may potentially manage mass casualty incidence better. The aim of this paper is to discuss learning points to develop a trauma system based on the Israeli trauma model. After participating in a course on developing a trauma system organized by a top Israeli trauma center, a literature search on the topic on the Internet was done using relevant key words like trauma system and disaster management in Israel using the Google search engine in the pubmed, open access journals and websites of trauma organizations. Israel has a unique trauma system of organizing and managing an emergency event, characterized by a central national organization responsible for management, coordination and ongoing quality control. Because of its unique geopolitical situation, the armed forces has a significant role in the system. Investing adequate resources on continuous education, manpower training, motivation, team-work and creation of public volunteers through advocacy is important for capacity building to develop a trauma system. Wisdom, motivation and pragmatism of the Israeli model may be useful to streamline work in skeletal trauma services of developing countries having fewer resources to bring consistency and acceptable standards in trauma care. PMID:23634336

  11. Dynamic 3D visual analytic tools: a method for maintaining situational awareness during high tempo warfare or mass casualty operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.

    2010-04-01

    Maintaining Situational Awareness (SA) is crucial to the success of high tempo operations, such as war fighting and mass casualty events (bioterrorism, natural disasters). Modern computer and software applications attempt to provide command and control manager's situational awareness via the collection, integration, interrogation and display of vast amounts of analytic data in real-time from a multitude of data sources and formats [1]. At what point does the data volume and displays begin to erode the hierarchical distributive intelligence, command and control structure of the operation taking place? In many cases, people tasked with making decisions, have insufficient experience in SA of high tempo operations and become overwhelmed easily as vast amounts of data begin to be displayed in real-time as an operation unfolds. In these situations, where data is plentiful and the relevance of the data changes rapidly, there is a chance for individuals to target fixate on those data sources they are most familiar. If these individuals fall into this type of pitfall, they will exclude other data that might be just as important to the success of the operation. To counter these issues, it is important that the computer and software applications provide a means for prompting its users to take notice of adverse conditions or trends that are critical to the operation. This paper will discuss a new method of displaying data called a Crisis ViewTM, that monitors critical variables that are dynamically changing and allows preset thresholds to be created to prompt the user when decisions need to be made and when adverse or positive trends are detected. The new method will be explained in basic terms, with examples of its attributes and how it can be implemented.

  12. Developing and Organizing a Trauma System and Mass Casualty Management: Some Useful Observations from the Israeli Trauma Model

    PubMed Central

    Borgohain, B; Khonglah, T

    2013-01-01

    A trauma system is a chain of arrangements and preparedness to provide quality response to injured from the site of injury to the appropriate hospital for the full range of care. Israel has a unique trauma system developed from the experience gained in peace and in war. The system is designed to fit the state's current health system, which is different from the European and American systems. An effective trauma system may potentially manage mass casualty incidence better. The aim of this paper is to discuss learning points to develop a trauma system based on the Israeli trauma model. After participating in a course on developing a trauma system organized by a top Israeli trauma center, a literature search on the topic on the Internet was done using relevant key words like trauma system and disaster management in Israel using the Google search engine in the pubmed, open access journals and websites of trauma organizations. Israel has a unique trauma system of organizing and managing an emergency event, characterized by a central national organization responsible for management, coordination and ongoing quality control. Because of its unique geopolitical situation, the armed forces has a significant role in the system. Investing adequate resources on continuous education, manpower training, motivation, team-work and creation of public volunteers through advocacy is important for capacity building to develop a trauma system. Wisdom, motivation and pragmatism of the Israeli model may be useful to streamline work in skeletal trauma services of developing countries having fewer resources to bring consistency and acceptable standards in trauma care. PMID:23634336

  13. The Boston Marathon Bombings Mass Casualty Incident: One Emergency Department's Information Systems Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Landman, Adam; Teich, Jonathan M; Pruitt, Peter; Moore, Samantha E; Theriault, Jennifer; Dorisca, Elizabeth; Harris, Sheila; Crim, Heidi; Lurie, Nicole; Goralnick, Eric

    2015-07-01

    Emergency department (ED) information systems are designed to support efficient and safe emergency care. These same systems often play a critical role in disasters to facilitate real-time situation awareness, information management, and communication. In this article, we describe one ED's experiences with ED information systems during the April 2013 Boston Marathon bombings. During postevent debriefings, staff shared that our ED information systems and workflow did not optimally support this incident; we found challenges with our unidentified patient naming convention, real-time situational awareness of patient location, and documentation of assessments, orders, and procedures. As a result, before our next mass gathering event, we changed our unidentified patient naming convention to more clearly distinguish multiple, simultaneous, unidentified patients. We also made changes to the disaster registration workflow and enhanced roles and responsibilities for updating electronic systems. Health systems should conduct disaster drills using their ED information systems to identify inefficiencies before an actual incident. ED information systems may require enhancements to better support disasters. Newer technologies, such as radiofrequency identification, could further improve disaster information management and communication but require careful evaluation and implementation into daily ED workflow. PMID:24997562

  14. Duration and predictors of emergency surgical operations - basis for medical management of mass casualty incidents

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Hospitals have a critically important role in the management of mass causality incidents (MCI), yet there is little information to assist emergency planners. A significantly limiting factor of a hospital's capability to treat those affected is its surgical capacity. We therefore intended to provide data about the duration and predictors of life saving operations. Methods The data of 20,815 predominantly blunt trauma patients recorded in the Trauma Registry of the German-Trauma-Society was retrospectively analyzed to calculate the duration of life-saving operations as well as their predictors. Inclusion criteria were an ISS ≥ 16 and the performance of relevant ICPM-coded procedures within 6 h of admission. Results From 1,228 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria 1,793 operations could be identified as life-saving operations. Acute injuries to the abdomen accounted for 54.1% followed by head injuries (26.3%), pelvic injuries (11.5%), thoracic injuries (5.0%) and major amputations (3.1%). The mean cut to suture time was 130 min (IQR 65-165 min). Logistic regression revealed 8 variables associated with an emergency operation: AIS of abdomen ≥ 3 (OR 4,00), ISS ≥ 35 (OR 2,94), hemoglobin level ≤ 8 mg/dL (OR 1,40), pulse rate on hospital admission < 40 or > 120/min (OR 1,39), blood pressure on hospital admission < 90 mmHg (OR 1,35), prehospital infusion volume ≥ 2000 ml (OR 1,34), GCS ≤ 8 (OR 1,32) and anisocoria (OR 1,28) on-scene. Conclusions The mean operation time of 130 min calculated for emergency life-saving surgical operations provides a realistic guideline for the prospective treatment capacity which can be estimated and projected into an actual incident admission capacity. Knowledge of predictive factors for life-saving emergency operations helps to identify those patients that need most urgent operative treatment in case of blunt MCI. PMID:20149987

  15. [Organizational problems of disaster victim identification in mass casualties as exemplified by Tu 154-M and Airbus A310 passenger plane crashes].

    PubMed

    Volkov, A V; Kolkutin, V V; Klevno, V A; Shkol'nikov, B V; Kornienko, I V

    2008-01-01

    Managerial experience is described that was gained during the large-scale work on victim identification following mass casualties in the Tu 154-M and Airbus A310 passenger plane crashes. The authors emphasize the necessity to set up a specialized agency of constant readiness meeting modern requirements for the implementation of a system of measures for personality identification. This agency must incorporate relevant departments of the Ministries of Health, Defense, and Emergency Situations as well as investigative authorities and other organizations. PMID:19048869

  16. The grave is wide: the Hibakusha of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the legacy of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Gerald F

    2016-07-01

    Following the atomic bomb attacks on Japan in 1945, scientists from the United States and Japan joined together to study the Hibakusha - the bomb affected people in what was advertised as a bipartisan and cooperative effort. In reality, despite the best efforts of some very dedicated and earnest scientists, the early years of the collaboration were characterized by political friction, censorship, controversy, tension, hostility, and racism. The 70-year history, scientific output and cultural impact of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation are described in the context of the development of Occupied Japan. PMID:27158765

  17. Mass Casualty Decontamination in a Chemical or Radiological/Nuclear Incident with External Contamination: Guiding Principles and Research Needs

    PubMed Central

    Cibulsky, Susan M; Sokolowski, Danny; Lafontaine, Marc; Gagnon, Christine; Blain, Peter G.; Russell, David; Kreppel, Helmut; Biederbick, Walter; Shimazu, Takeshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Saito, Tomoya; Jourdain, Jean- René; Paquet, Francois; Li, Chunsheng; Akashi, Makoto; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Prosser, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous chemical, radiological, and nuclear materials threaten public health in scenarios of accidental or intentional release which can lead to external contamination of people.  Without intervention, the contamination could cause severe adverse health effects, through systemic absorption by the contaminated casualties as well as spread of contamination to other people, medical equipment, and facilities.  Timely decontamination can prevent or interrupt absorption into the body and minimize opportunities for spread of the contamination, thereby mitigating the health impact of the incident.  Although the specific physicochemical characteristics of the hazardous material(s) will determine the nature of an incident and its risks, some decontamination and medical challenges and recommended response strategies are common among chemical and radioactive material incidents.  Furthermore, the identity of the hazardous material released may not be known early in an incident.  Therefore, it may be beneficial to compare the evidence and harmonize approaches between chemical and radioactive contamination incidents.  Experts from the Global Health Security Initiative’s Chemical and Radiological/Nuclear Working Groups present here a succinct summary of guiding principles for planning and response based on current best practices, as well as research needs, to address the challenges of managing contaminated casualties in a chemical or radiological/nuclear incident. PMID:26635995

  18. Mass Casualty Decontamination in a Chemical or Radiological/Nuclear Incident with External Contamination: Guiding Principles and Research Needs.

    PubMed

    Cibulsky, Susan M; Sokolowski, Danny; Lafontaine, Marc; Gagnon, Christine; Blain, Peter G; Russell, David; Kreppel, Helmut; Biederbick, Walter; Shimazu, Takeshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Saito, Tomoya; Jourdain, Jean-René; Paquet, Francois; Li, Chunsheng; Akashi, Makoto; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Prosser, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous chemical, radiological, and nuclear materials threaten public health in scenarios of accidental or intentional release which can lead to external contamination of people.  Without intervention, the contamination could cause severe adverse health effects, through systemic absorption by the contaminated casualties as well as spread of contamination to other people, medical equipment, and facilities.  Timely decontamination can prevent or interrupt absorption into the body and minimize opportunities for spread of the contamination, thereby mitigating the health impact of the incident.  Although the specific physicochemical characteristics of the hazardous material(s) will determine the nature of an incident and its risks, some decontamination and medical challenges and recommended response strategies are common among chemical and radioactive material incidents.  Furthermore, the identity of the hazardous material released may not be known early in an incident.  Therefore, it may be beneficial to compare the evidence and harmonize approaches between chemical and radioactive contamination incidents.  Experts from the Global Health Security Initiative's Chemical and Radiological/Nuclear Working Groups present here a succinct summary of guiding principles for planning and response based on current best practices, as well as research needs, to address the challenges of managing contaminated casualties in a chemical or radiological/nuclear incident. PMID:26635995

  19. Development of the science of mass casualty incident management: reflection on the medical response to the Wenchuan earthquake and Hangzhou bus fire*

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei-feng; Jiang, Li-bing; Jiang, Guan-yu; Zhang, Mao; Ma, Yue-feng; He, Xiao-jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this paper, we review the previous classic research paradigms of a mass casualty incident (MCI) systematically and reflect the medical response to the Wenchuan earthquake and Hangzhou bus fire, in order to outline and develop an improved research paradigm for MCI management. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, China Wanfang, and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases for relevant studies. The following key words and medical subject headings were used: ‘mass casualty incident’, ‘MCI’, ‘research method’, ‘Wenchuan’, ‘earthquake’, ‘research paradigm’, ‘science of surge’, ‘surge’, ‘surge capacity’, and ‘vulnerability’. Searches were performed without year or language restriction. After searching the four literature databases using the above listed key words and medical subject headings, related articles containing research paradigms of MCI, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, July 5 bus fire, and science of surge and vulnerability were independently included by two authors. Results: The current progresses on MCI management include new golden hour, damage control philosophy, chain of survival, and three links theory. In addition, there are three evaluation methods (medical severity index (MSI), potential injury creating event (PICE) classification, and disaster severity scale (DSS)), which can dynamically assess the MCI situations and decisions for MCI responses and can be made based on the results of such evaluations. However, the three methods only offer a retrospective evaluation of MCI and thus fail to develop a real-time assessment of MCI responses. Therefore, they cannot be used as practical guidance for decision-making during MCI. Although the theory of surge science has made great improvements, we found that a very important factor has been ignored—vulnerability, based on reflecting on the MCI response to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and July 5 bus fire in Hangzhou. Conclusions: This new paradigm breaks through the

  20. Challenges of major incident management when excess resources are allocated: experiences from a mass casualty incident after roof collapse of a military command center.

    PubMed

    Romundstad, Luis; Sundnes, Knut Ole; Pillgram-Larsen, Johan; Røste, Geir K; Gilbert, Mads

    2004-01-01

    During a military exercise in northern Norway in March 2000, the snow-laden roof of a command center collapsed with 76 persons inside. Twenty-five persons were entrapped and/or buried under snow masses. There were three deaths. Seven patients had serious injuries, three had moderate injuries, and 16 had minor injuries. A military Convalescence Camp that had been set up in a Sports Hall 125 meters from the scene was reorganized as a causality clearing station. Officers from the Convalescence Camp initially organized search and rescue. In all, 417 persons took part in the rescue work with 36 ambulances, 17 helicopters, three ambulance airplanes and one transport plane available. Two ambulances, five helicopters and one transport aircraft were used. Four patients were evacuated to a civilian hospital and six to a field hospital. The stretcher and treatment teams initially could have been more effectively organized. As resources were ample, this was a mass casualty, not a disaster. Firm incident command prevented the influx of excess resources. PMID:15506256

  1. Mass casualty management of a large-scale bioterrorist event: an epidemiological approach that shapes triage decisions.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2002-05-01

    The threat of a BT event has catalyzed serious reflection on the troublesome issues that come with event management and triage. Such reflection has had the effect of multiplying the efforts to find solutions to what could become a catastrophic public health disaster. Management options are becoming more robust, as are reliable detection devices and rapid access to stockpiled antibiotics and vaccines. There is much to be done, however, especially in the organizing, warehousing, and granting/exercising authority for resource allocations. The introduction of these new options should encourage one to believe that, in time, evolving standards of care will make it possible to rethink the currently unthinkable consequences. Unfortunately the cost of such preparedness is high and out of reach of most governments. Most of the developing world has neither the will nor the means to plan for BT events and remains overwhelmed with basic public health concerns (i.e., water, food, sanitation, shelter) that must take priority. Therefore, developed countries will be expected to respond using international exogenous resources to mitigate the effects of such a disaster. As a result, the state capacity of the effected government will be severely compromised. If triage and management of casualties is further compromised, terrorists will have met their goals. One could argue that health sciences will continue for decades to play catch up with the advanced technology driving potential bioagent weaponry. If one lesson was learned from the review of the former Soviet Union's biological weapons program, it is that the unthinkable remains an option to terrorists who have comparable expertise. It is crucial to develop realistic strategies for a BT event. Triage planning (the process of establishing criteria for health care prioritization) permits society to see cases in the context of diverse moral perspectives, limited resources, and compelling health care demands. This includes a competent

  2. Medical response of a physician and two nurses to the mass-casualty event resulting in the Phi Phi Islands from the tsunami.

    PubMed

    Ammartyothin, Surasak; Ashkenasi, Issac; Schwartz, Dagan; Leiba, Adi; Nakash, Guy; Pelts, Rami; Goldberg, Avishay; Bar-Dayan, Yaron

    2006-01-01

    The Phi Phi Islands are isolated islands located about one hour by ship from the mainland in Krabi province of Thailand. There is a small medical facility where the director is the one physician that provides care to residents and tourists. This small medical facility faced an enormous mass casualty incident due to the 2004 Tsunami. The hospital was damaged by the Tsunami wave and was not functional, one crew member died and another was injured. Medical care and evacuation posed a unique problem in the Phi Phi Islands due to remoteness, limited medical resources, lack of effective communication with the main land and the large number of victims. An alternative medical facility was located in a nearby hotel. The crew included the medical director, two nurses, two additional staff members, 10 local volunteers, and hotel staff members. The medical crew had to treat 600-700 casualties in 24 hours. Most of the victims were mildly injured, but approximately 100 (15%) of the victims could not walk due to their injuries. The medical director, made a conscious decision to initially treat only circulation ("C") problems, by controlling external hemorrhages. This decision was driven by the lack of equipment and personnel to deal with airway ("A") and breathing ("B") problems. In the post-disaster debriefing, the Phi Phi Island hospital physician noted five major lessons concerning disaster management in such extreme situation in a small facility located in a remote area: (1) effective resistant communication facilities must be ensured; (2) clear, simple "evacuation plans" should be made in advance; (3) plans should be made to ensure automatic reinforcement of remote areas with evacuation vehicles, medical equipment and medical personnel; (4) efficient cooperation with medical volunteers must be planned and drilled; and (5) every team member of such a hospital must participate in an educational program and periodic drills should be done to improve the disaster and emergency

  3. Emergency imaging after a mass casualty incident: role of the radiology department during training for and activation of a disaster management plan.

    PubMed

    Berger, Ferco H; Körner, Markus; Bernstein, Mark P; Sodickson, Aaron D; Beenen, Ludo F; McLaughlin, Patrick D; Kool, Digna R; Bilow, Ronald M

    2016-01-01

    In the setting of mass casualty incidents (MCIs), hospitals need to divert from normal routine to delivering the best possible care to the largest number of victims. This should be accomplished by activating an established hospital disaster management plan (DMP) known to all staff through prior training drills. Over the recent decades, imaging has increasingly been used to evaluate critically ill patients. It can also be used to increase the accuracy of triaging MCI victims, since overtriage (falsely higher triage category) and undertriage (falsely lower triage category) can severely impact resource availability and mortality rates, respectively. This article emphasizes the importance of including the radiology department in hospital preparations for a MCI and highlights factors expected to influence performance during hospital DMP activation including issues pertinent to effective simulation, such as establishing proper learning objectives. After-action reviews including performance evaluation and debriefing on issues are invaluable following simulation drills and DMP activation, in order to improve subsequent preparedness. Historically, most hospital DMPs have not adequately included radiology department operations, and they have not or to a little extent been integrated in the DMP activation simulation. This article aims to increase awareness of the need for radiology department engagement in order to increase radiology department preparedness for DMP activation after a MCI occurs. PMID:26781837

  4. Clinical guidelines for responding to chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and trauma/burn mass casualty incidents: Quick reference guides for emergency department staff.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Joseph; Burich, David; Smith, Deborah; Hayes, Lynn; Paturas, James; Tomassoni, Anthony

    The word 'DISASTER' may be used as a mnemonic for listing the critical elements of emergency response. The National Disaster Life Support Education Foundation's (NDLSEC) DISASTER paradigm emphasises out-of-hospital emergency response and includes the following elements: (1) detect; (2) incident command system; (3) security and safety; (4) assessment; (5) support; (6) triage and treatment; (7) evacuate; and (8) recovery. This paper describes how the DISASTER paradigm was used to create a series of clinical guidelines to assist the preparedness effort of hospitals for mitigating chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear incidents or explosive devices resulting in trauma/burn mass casualty incidents (MCIs) and their initial response to these events. Descriptive information was obtained from observations and records associated with this project. The information contributed by a group of subject matter experts in disaster medicine, at the Yale New Haven Health System Center for Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Response was used to author the clinical guidelines. Akin to the paradigm developed by the NDLSEC for conducting on-scene activities, the clinical guidelines use the letters in the word 'disaster' as a mnemonic for recalling the main elements required for mitigating MCIs in the hospital emergency department. PMID:25416374

  5. Incidence and Mortality Rates of Disasters and Mass Casualty Incidents in Korea: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study, 2000-2009

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Jin; Shin, Sang Do; Lee, Seung Chul; Park, Ju Ok; Sung, Joohon

    2013-01-01

    The objective of study was to evaluate the incidence and mortality rates of disasters and mass casualty incidents (MCIs) over the past 10 yr in the administrative system of Korea administrative system and to examine their relationship with population characteristics. This was a population-based cross-sectional study. We calculated the nationwide incidence, as well as the crude mortality and injury incidence rates, of disasters and MCIs. The data were collected from the administrative database of the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) and from provincial fire departments from January 2000 to December 2009. A total of 47,169 events were collected from the NEMA administrative database. Of these events, 115 and 3,079 cases were defined as disasters and MCIs that occurred in Korea, respectively. The incidence of technical disasters/MCIs was approximately 12.7 times greater than that of natural disasters/MCIs. Over the past 10 yr, the crude mortality rates for disasters and MCIs were 2.36 deaths per 100,000 persons and 6.78 deaths per 100,000 persons, respectively. The crude injury incidence rates for disasters and MCIs were 25.47 injuries per 100,000 persons and 152 injuries per 100,000 persons, respectively. The incidence and mortality of disasters/MCIs in Korea seem to be low compared to that of trend around the world. PMID:23678255

  6. Tsunami Casualty Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, H.

    2007-12-01

    More than 4500 deaths by tsunamis were recorded in the decade of 1990. For example, the 1992 Flores Tsunami in Indonesia took away at least 1712 lives, and more than 2182 people were victimized by the 1998 Papua New Guinea Tsunami. Such staggering death toll has been totally overshadowed by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami that claimed more than 220,000 lives. Unlike hurricanes that are often evaluated by economic losses, death count is the primary measure for tsunami hazard. It is partly because tsunamis kill more people owing to its short lead- time for warning. Although exact death tallies are not available for most of the tsunami events, there exist gender and age discriminations in tsunami casualties. Significant gender difference in the victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami was attributed to women's social norms and role behavior, as well as cultural bias toward women's inability to swim. Here we develop a rational casualty model based on humans' limit to withstand the tsunami flows. The application to simple tsunami runup cases demonstrates that biological and physiological disadvantages also make a significant difference in casualty rate. It further demonstrates that the gender and age discriminations in casualties become most pronounced when tsunami is marginally strong and the difference tends to diminish as tsunami strength increases.

  7. MACRAD: A mass analysis code for radiators

    SciTech Connect

    Gallup, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    A computer code to estimate and optimize the mass of heat pipe radiators (MACRAD) is currently under development. A parametric approach is used in MACRAD, which allows the user to optimize radiator mass based on heat pipe length, length to diameter ratio, vapor to wick radius, radiator redundancy, etc. Full consideration of the heat pipe operating parameters, material properties, and shielding requirements is included in the code. Preliminary results obtained with MACRAD are discussed.

  8. Radiologic diagnosis of explosion casualties.

    PubMed

    Eastridge, Brian J; Blackbourne, Lorne; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B

    2008-01-01

    The threat of terrorist events on domestic soil remains an ever-present risk. Despite the notoriety of unconventional weapons, the mainstay in the armament of the terrorist organization is the conventional explosive. Conventional explosives are easily weaponized and readily obtainable, and the recipes are widely available over the Internet. According to the US Department of State and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, over one half of the global terrorist events involve explosions, averaging two explosive events per day worldwide in 2005 (Terrorism Research Center. Available at www.terrorism.com. Accessed April 1, 2007). The Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System: Emergency Medical Services at the Crossroads, published by the Institute of Medicine, states that explosions were the most common cause of injuries associated with terrorism (Institute of Medicine Report: The Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System: Emergency Medical Services at the Crossroads. Washington DC: National Academic Press, 2007). Explosive events have the potential to inflict numerous casualties with multiple injuries. The complexity of this scenario is exacerbated by the fact that few providers or medical facilities have experience with mass casualty events in which human and material resources can be rapidly overwhelmed. Care of explosive-related injury is based on same principles as that of standard trauma management paradigms. The basic difference between explosion-related injury and other injury mechanisms are the number of patients and multiplicity of injuries, which require a higher allocation of resources. With this caveat, the appropriate utilization of radiology resources has the potential to impact in-hospital diagnosis and triage and is an essential element in optimizing the management of the explosive-injured patients. PMID:19069034

  9. Predictive models of radiative neutrino masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julio, J.

    2016-06-01

    We discuss two models of radiative neutrino mass generation. The first model features one-loop Zee model with Z4 symmetry. The second model is the two-loop neutrino mass model with singly- and doubly-charged scalars. These two models fit neutrino oscillation data well and predict some interesting rates for lepton flavor violation processes.

  10. Radiative neutrino mass, dark matter, and leptogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Peihong; Sarkar, Utpal

    2008-05-15

    We propose an extension of the standard model, in which neutrinos are Dirac particles and their tiny masses originate from a one-loop radiative diagram. The new fields required by the neutrino mass generation also accommodate the explanation for the matter-antimatter asymmetry and dark matter in the Universe.

  11. Radiation Monitoring for the Masses.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Eric; Sorom, Rich; Wiles, Linda

    2016-01-01

    In response to the Fukushima-Daiichi incident, many commercial vendors have produced applications and equipment targeted at the average member of the public in order to enable them to make radiation measurements themselves at little to no cost. The authors have evaluated a small selection of these items in order to validate their performance when exposed to a calibrated 137Cs dose rate irradiator. The products fall into two primary categories: the first using the CMOS from the camera on ubiquitous smartphones and the second using an accessory that performs the radiation measurement. Presented here are the performance data of a selection and recommendations on how to interpret the produced values. PMID:26606063

  12. Solids mass flow indication with radiation

    DOEpatents

    Macko, Joseph E.; Estriplet, Isnard

    1985-06-04

    Method and apparatus for indicating mass flow of a solid particulate material through a rotary feeder. A radiation source and detector are positioned in a manner whereby radiation flux is directed through, and attenuated by, particulate material contained in rotating pockets. A Cesium-137 gamma source can be mounted within the shaft of the feeder, and one or more detectors can be mounted outside of the feeder housing. The detected signal is indicative of the mass of particulate material contained within a given pocket rotating within the feeder.

  13. The simplest models of radiative neutrino mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Sandy S. C.; McDonald, Kristian L.

    2014-04-01

    The complexity of radiative neutrino-mass models can be judged by: (i) whether they require the imposition of ad hoc symmetries, (ii) the number of new multiplets they introduce and (iii) the number of arbitrary parameters that appear. Considering models that do not employ new symmetries, the simplest models have two new multiplets and a minimal number of new parameters. With this in mind, we search for the simplest models of radiative neutrino mass. We are led to two models, containing a real scalar triplet and a charged scalar doublet (respectively), in addition to the charged singlet scalar considered by Zee [h+ (1, 1, 2)]. These models are essentially simplified versions of the Zee model and appear to be the simplest models of radiative neutrino mass. However, despite successfully generating nonzero masses, present-day data is sufficient to rule these simple models out. The Zee and Zee-Babu models therefore remain as the simplest viable models. Moving beyond the minimal cases, we find a new model of two-loop masses that employs the charged doublet Φ (1, 2, 3) and the doubly-charged scalar k++ (1, 1, 4). This is the sole remaining model that employs only three new noncolored multiplets.

  14. Flavour dependent gauged radiative neutrino mass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seungwon; Okada, Hiroshi; Yagyu, Kei

    2015-04-01

    We propose a one-loop induced radiative neutrino mass model with anomaly free flavour dependent gauge symmetry: μ minus τ symmetry U(1) μ- τ . A neutrino mass matrix satisfying current experimental data can be obtained by introducing a weak isospin singlet scalar boson that breaks U(1) μ- τ symmetry, an inert doublet scalar field, and three right-handed neutrinos in addition to the fields in the standard model. We find that a characteristic structure appears in the neutrino mass matrix: two-zero texture form which predicts three non-zero neutrino masses and three non-zero CP-phases from five well measured experimental inputs of two squared mass differences and three mixing angles. Furthermore, it is clarified that only the inverted mass hierarchy is allowed in our model. In a favored parameter set from the neutrino sector, the discrepancy in the muon anomalous magnetic moment between the experimental data and the the standard model prediction can be explained by the additional neutral gauge boson loop contribution with mass of order 100 MeV and new gauge coupling of order 10-3.

  15. 33 CFR 146.40 - Diving casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.40 Diving casualties. Diving related casualties are reported in accordance with 46 CFR 197.484 and 197.486. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diving casualties. 146.40...

  16. 33 CFR 146.40 - Diving casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.40 Diving casualties. Diving related casualties are reported in accordance with 46 CFR 197.484 and 197.486. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diving casualties. 146.40...

  17. 33 CFR 146.40 - Diving casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.40 Diving casualties. Diving related casualties are reported in accordance with 46 CFR 197.484 and 197.486. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diving casualties. 146.40...

  18. 33 CFR 146.40 - Diving casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.40 Diving casualties. Diving related casualties are reported in accordance with 46 CFR 197.484 and 197.486. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diving casualties. 146.40...

  19. 33 CFR 146.40 - Diving casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.40 Diving casualties. Diving related casualties are reported in accordance with 46 CFR 197.484 and 197.486. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diving casualties. 146.40...

  20. Predictive model of radiative neutrino masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K. S.; Julio, J.

    2014-03-01

    We present a simple and predictive model of radiative neutrino masses. It is a special case of the Zee model which introduces two Higgs doublets and a charged singlet. We impose a family-dependent Z4 symmetry acting on the leptons, which reduces the number of parameters describing neutrino oscillations to four. A variety of predictions follow: the hierarchy of neutrino masses must be inverted; the lightest neutrino mass is extremely small and calculable; one of the neutrino mixing angles is determined in terms of the other two; the phase parameters take CP-conserving values with δCP=π; and the effective mass in neutrinoless double beta decay lies in a narrow range, mββ=(17.6-18.5) meV. The ratio of vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets, tanβ, is determined to be either 1.9 or 0.19 from neutrino oscillation data. Flavor-conserving and flavor-changing couplings of the Higgs doublets are also determined from neutrino data. The nonstandard neutral Higgs bosons, if they are moderately heavy, would decay dominantly into μ and τ with prescribed branching ratios. Observable rates for the decays μ →eγ and τ→3μ are predicted if these scalars have masses in the range of 150-500 GeV.

  1. New development in radiative neutrino mass generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julio

    2014-10-01

    We present a simple and predictive model of radiative neutrino masses. It is a special case of the Zee model with a family-dependent Z4 symmetry acting on the leptons. A variety of predictions follow: The hierarchy of neutrino masses must be inverted; the lightest neutrino mass is extremely small and calculable; one of the neutrino mixing angles is determined in terms of the other two; the phase parameters take CP-conserving values with δCP = π and the effective mass in neutrinoless double beta decay lies in a narrow range, mββ =(17.6-18.5) meV. The ratio of vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets, tan β, is determined to be either 1.9 or 0.19 from neutrino oscillation data. Flavor-conserving and flavor-changing couplings of the Higgs doublets are also determined from neutrino data. The non-standard neutral Higgs bosons, if they are moderately heavy, decay significantly into μ and τ with prescribed branching ratios. Observable rates for the decays μ → eγ and τ → 3μ are predicted if these scalars have masses in the range of 150-500 GeV.

  2. Child pedestrian casualties and deprivation.

    PubMed

    Green, James; Muir, Helen; Maher, Mike

    2011-05-01

    The existence of an association between child pedestrian accidents and socio-economic deprivation in Great Britain is well established. The factors driving this association are complex and difficult to isolate. This study uses accident prediction models to investigate the links between child pedestrian casualties and a range of environmental and socio-economic factors commonly linked to deprived areas and people. Separate models are constructed relating to the areas in which the children become casualties, and the areas in which the children reside. Significant socio-economic factors include: single-parenthood, reliance on income support, and crime; and environmental factors include domestic garden area, junction density and pedestrian and vehicular flow density. The study found that factors pertaining to the local environment were more prevalent in the models considering accident locations, whilst socio-economic factors were of greater influence in the residency model. PMID:21376859

  3. Eye casualty services in London

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H B; Daniel, C S; Verma, S

    2013-01-01

    The combined pressures of the European Working Time Directive, 4 h waiting time target, and growing rates of unplanned hospital attendances have forced a major consolidation of eye casualty departments across the country, with the remaining units seeing a rapid increase in demand. We examine the effect of these changes on the provision of emergency eye care in Central London, and see what wider lessons can be learned. We surveyed the managers responsible for each of London's 8 out-of-hours eye casualty services, analysed data on attendance numbers, and conducted detailed interviews with lead clinicians. At London's two largest units, Moorfields Eye Hospital and the Western Eye Hospital, annual attendance numbers have been rising at 7.9% per year (to 76 034 patients in 2010/11) and 9.6% per year (to 31 128 patients in 2010/11), respectively. Using Moorfields as a case study, we discuss methods to increase capacity and efficiency in response to this demand, and also examine some of the unintended consequences of service consolidation including patients travelling long distances to geographically inappropriate units, and confusion over responsibility for out-of-hours inpatient cover. We describe a novel ‘referral pathway' developed to minimise unnecessary travelling and delay for patients, and propose a forum for the strategic planning of London's eye casualty services in the future. PMID:23370420

  4. Radiation Design of Ion Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, Ed; Cooper, John; Christian, Eric; Moore, Tom; Sturner, Steve; Paschalidis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    In the harsh radiation environment of Jupiter and with the JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE) mission including two Europa flybys where local intensities are approx. 150 krad/month behind 100 mils of Al shielding, so background from penetrating radiation can be a serious issue for detectors inside an Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS). This can especially be important for minor ion detection designs. Detectors of choice for time-of-flight (TOF) designs are microchannel plates (MCP) and some designs may include solid state detectors (SSD). The standard approach is to use shielding designs so background event rates are low enough that the detector max rates and lifetimes are first not exceeded and then the more stringent requirement that the desired measurement can successfully be made (i.e., desired signal is sufficiently greater than background noise after background subtraction is made). GEANT codes are typically used along with various electronic techniques, but such designs need to know how the detectors will respond to the simulated primary and secondary radiations produced within the instrument. We will be presenting some preliminary measurements made on the response of MCPs to energetic electrons (20 ke V to 1400 ke V) using a Miniature TOF (MTOF) device and the High Energy Facility at Goddard Space Flight Center which has a Van de Graaff accelerator.

  5. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident means— (a) Any casualty or accident involving...

  6. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident means— (a) Any casualty or accident involving...

  7. 33 CFR 173.55 - Report of casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Report of casualty or accident... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY VESSEL NUMBERING AND CASUALTY AND ACCIDENT REPORTING Casualty and Accident Reporting § 173.55 Report of casualty or accident. (a) The operator of a vessel shall submit the casualty...

  8. An Analysis of the Relationship between Casualty Risk Per Crash and Vehicle Mass and Footprint for Model Year 2000-2007 Light-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Tom

    2012-08-01

    NHTSA recently completed a logistic regression analysis (Kahane 2012) updating its 2003 and 2010 studies of the relationship between vehicle mass and US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT). The new study updates the previous analyses in several ways: updated FARS data for 2002 to 2008 involving MY00 to MY07 vehicles are used; induced exposure data from police reported crashes in several additional states are added; a new vehicle category for car-based crossover utility vehicles (CUVs) and minivans is created; crashes with other light-duty vehicles are divided into two groups based on the crash partner vehicle’s weight, and a category for all other fatal crashes is added; and new control variables for new safety technologies and designs, such as electronic stability controls (ESC), side airbags, and methods to meet voluntary agreement to improve light truck compatibility with cars, are included.

  9. Contribution of forensic autopsy to scene reconstruction in mass fire casualties: a case of alleged arson on a floor consisting of small compartments in a building.

    PubMed

    Michiue, Tomomi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Oritani, Shigeki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    A fire is an important cause of mass disasters, involving various forensic issues. Before dawn on an early morning, 16 male visitors in their twenties to sixties were killed in a possibly incendiary fire at a 'private video parlor' consisting of small compartments in a building. The main causes of death as determined by forensic autopsy were acute carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication for all of the 15 found-dead victims, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy following acute CO intoxication for a victim who died in hospital. Burns were mild (<20% of body surface) in most victims, except for three victims found between the entrance and the estimated fire-outbreak site; thus, identification was completed without difficulty, supported by DNA analysis. Blood carboxyhemoglobin saturation (COHb) was higher for victims found dead in the inner area. Blood cyanide levels were sublethal, moderately correlated to COHb, but were higher in victims found around the estimated fire-outbreak site. There was no evidence of thinner, alcohol or drug abuse, or an attack of disease as a possible cause of an accidental fire outbreak. These observations contribute to evidence-based reconstruction of the fire disaster, and suggest how deaths could have been prevented by appropriate disaster measures. PMID:25311374

  10. Human casualties in earthquakes: modelling and mitigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spence, R.J.S.; So, E.K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Earthquake risk modelling is needed for the planning of post-event emergency operations, for the development of insurance schemes, for the planning of mitigation measures in the existing building stock, and for the development of appropriate building regulations; in all of these applications estimates of casualty numbers are essential. But there are many questions about casualty estimation which are still poorly understood. These questions relate to the causes and nature of the injuries and deaths, and the extent to which they can be quantified. This paper looks at the evidence on these questions from recent studies. It then reviews casualty estimation models available, and finally compares the performance of some casualty models in making rapid post-event casualty estimates in recent earthquakes.

  11. Predicting casualties implied by TIPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendafiloski, G.; Wyss, M.; Wyss, B. M.

    2009-12-01

    When an earthquake is predicted, forecast, or expected with a higher than normal probability, losses are implied. We estimated the casualties (fatalities plus injured) that should be expected if earthquakes in TIPs (locations of Temporarily Increased Probability of earthquakes) defined by Kossobokov et al. (2009) should occur. We classified the predictions of losses into the categories red (more than 400 fatalities or more than 1,000 injured), yellow (between 100 and 400 fatalities), green (fewer than 100 fatalities), and gray (undetermined). TIPs in Central Chile, the Philippines, Papua, and Taiwan are in the red class, TIPs in Southern Sumatra, Nicaragua, Vanatu, and Honshu in the yellow class, and TIPs in Tonga, Loyalty Islands, Vanatu, S. Sandwich Islands, Banda Sea, and the Kuriles, are classified as green. TIPs where the losses depend moderately on the assumed point of major energy release were classified as yellow; TIPs such as in the Talaud Islands and in Tonga, where the losses depend very strongly on the location of the epicenter, were classified as gray. The accuracy of loss estimates after earthquakes with known hypocenter and magnitude are affected by uncertainties in transmission and soil properties, the composition of the building stock, the population present, and the method by which the numbers of casualties are calculated. In the case of TIPs, uncertainties in magnitude and location are added, thus we calculate losses for a range of these two parameters. Therefore, our calculations can only be considered order of magnitude estimates. Nevertheless, our predictions can come to within a factor of two of the observed numbers, as in the case of the M7.6 earthquake of October 2005 in Pakistan that resulted in 85,000 fatalities (Wyss, 2005). In subduction zones, the geometrical relationship between the earthquake source capable of a great earthquake and the population is clear because there is only one major fault plane available, thus the epicentral

  12. CBRNE TC3: A Hybrid Approach to Casualty Care in the CBRNE Environment.

    PubMed

    Strain, John W

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) guidelines for the Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom contingency operations has dramatically reduced preventable combat deaths. A study of these principles and their application to medical treatment in the chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosives (CBRNE), weapons of mass destruction (WMD) environment is presented as a potential readiness and force multiplier for units engaged in this area of operations. Preparing medical operators for support of WMD sampling and mitigation missions requires extensive preventive medicine and post-exposure and downrange trauma threat preparedness. Training and equipping CBRN operators with treatment skills and appropriate interventional material requires pre-implementation planning specific to WMD threats (e.g., anthrax, radiation, organophosphates, and contaminated trauma). A scenario-based study reveals the tactics, techniques, and procedures for training, resourcing, and fielding the CBRN operator of the future. PMID:23817878

  13. 46 CFR 4.05-1 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 4.05-1 Section 4.05-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-1 Notice of marine casualty. (a) Immediately after the addressing of...

  14. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  15. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  16. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  17. 46 CFR 4.05-1 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 4.05-1 Section 4.05-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-1 Notice of marine casualty. (a) Immediately after the addressing of...

  18. 48 CFR 552.270-7 - Fire and Casualty Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire and Casualty Damage... Fire and Casualty Damage. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Fire and Casualty Damage (JUN 2011) If the entire premises are destroyed by fire or other casualty, this lease...

  19. 48 CFR 552.270-7 - Fire and Casualty Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire and Casualty Damage... Fire and Casualty Damage. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Fire and Casualty Damage (JUN 2011) If the entire premises are destroyed by fire or other casualty, this lease...

  20. 19 CFR 158.27 - Accidental fire or other casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accidental fire or other casualty. 158.27 Section... Casualty, Loss, or Theft While in Customs Custody § 158.27 Accidental fire or other casualty. In the case of injury or destruction by accidental fire or other casualty, the following evidence shall...

  1. 19 CFR 158.27 - Accidental fire or other casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accidental fire or other casualty. 158.27 Section... Casualty, Loss, or Theft While in Customs Custody § 158.27 Accidental fire or other casualty. In the case of injury or destruction by accidental fire or other casualty, the following evidence shall...

  2. 33 CFR 173.55 - Report of casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Report of casualty or accident. 173.55 Section 173.55 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY VESSEL NUMBERING AND CASUALTY AND ACCIDENT REPORTING Casualty and Accident Reporting § 173.55 Report of casualty or...

  3. 46 CFR 28.80 - Report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accordance with paragraph (c) of this section, as soon as possible after the casualty, to the underwriter of... involved in the casualty; and (13) The monetary amount paid for an injury or a death. (d) A casualty to a... the casualty involves any of the following. (1) Loss of life. (2) An injury that requires...

  4. 48 CFR 552.270-7 - Fire and Casualty Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire and Casualty Damage... Fire and Casualty Damage. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Fire and Casualty Damage (JUN 2011) If the entire premises are destroyed by fire or other casualty, this lease...

  5. Understanding combat casualty care statistics.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, John B; Stansbury, Lynn G; Champion, Howard R; Wade, Charles; Bellamy, Ronald F

    2006-02-01

    Maintaining good hospital records during military conflicts can provide medical personnel and researchers with feedback to rapidly adjust treatment strategies and improve outcomes. But to convert the resulting raw data into meaningful conclusions requires clear terminology and well thought out equations, utilizing consistent numerators and denominators. Our objective was to arrive at terminology and equations that would produce the best insight into the effectiveness of care at different stages of treatment, either pre or post medical treatment facility care. We first clarified three essential terms: 1) the case fatality rate (CFR) as percentage of fatalities among all wounded; 2) killed in action (KIA) as percentage of immediate deaths among all seriously injured (not returning to duty); and 3) died of wounds (DOW) as percentage of deaths following admission to a medical treatment facility among all seriously injured (not returning to duty). These equations were then applied consistently across data from the WWII, Vietnam and the current Global War on Terrorism. Using this clear set of definitions we used the equations to ask two basic questions: What is the overall lethality of the battlefield? How effective is combat casualty care? To answer these questions with current data, the three services have collaboratively created a joint theater trauma registry (JTTR), cataloging all the serious injuries, procedures, and outcomes for the current war. These definitions and equations, consistently applied to the JTTR, will allow meaningful comparisons and help direct future research and appropriate application of personnel. PMID:16508502

  6. LDEF geometry/mass model for radiation analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colborn, B. L.; Armstrong, T. W.

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional geometry/mass model of LDEF is under development for ionizing radiation analyses. This model, together with ray tracing algorithms, is being programmed for use both as a stand alone code in determining three-dimensional shielding distributions at dosimetry locations and as a geometry module that can be interfaced with radiation transport codes.

  7. Hubble induced mass in radiation-dominated universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takesako, Tomohiro

    2012-05-01

    We reconsider the effective mass of a scalar field which interact with visible sector via Planck-suppressed coupling in supergravity framework. We focus on the radiation-dominated (RD) era after inflation. In this era, the effective mass is given by thermal average of interaction terms. To make our analysis clear, we rely on Kadanoff-Baym equations to evaluate the thermal average. We find that, in RD era, a scalar field acquires the effective mass of the order of H.

  8. Rapid Analysis of Mass Distribution of Radiation Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Radiation Shielding Evaluation Toolset (RADSET) is a computer program that rapidly calculates the spatial distribution of mass of an arbitrary structure for use in ray-tracing analysis of the radiation-shielding properties of the structure. RADSET was written to be used in conjunction with unmodified commercial computer-aided design (CAD) software that provides access to data on the structure and generates selected three-dimensional-appearing views of the structure. RADSET obtains raw geometric, material, and mass data on the structure from the CAD software. From these data, RADSET calculates the distribution(s) of the masses of specific materials about any user-specified point(s). The results of these mass-distribution calculations are imported back into the CAD computing environment, wherein the radiation-shielding calculations are performed.

  9. Simulated casualties and medics for emergency training.

    PubMed

    Chi, D M; Kokkevis, E; Ogunyemi, O; Bindiganavale, R; Hollick, M J; Clarke, J R; Webber, B L; Badler, N I

    1997-01-01

    The MediSim system extends virtual environment technology to allow medical personnel to interact with and train on simulated casualties. The casualty model employs a three-dimensional animated human body that displays appropriate physical and behavioral responses to injury and/or treatment. Medical corpsmen behaviors were developed to allow the actions of simulated medical personnel to conform to both military practice and medical protocols during patient assessment and stabilization. A trainee may initiate medic actions through a mouse and menu interface; a VR interface has also been created by Stansfield's research group at Sandia National Labs. PMID:10168943

  10. 46 CFR 122.260 - Reports of potential vessel casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.260 Reports of potential vessel casualty. (a) An owner... district rescue coordination center (RCC) cognizant over the area in which the vessel was last...

  11. 46 CFR 185.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 185.206 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.206 Written report of marine... of any marine casualty. This written report is in addition to the immediate notice required by...

  12. 46 CFR 122.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 122.206 Section 122... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.206 Written report of marine casualty. (a) The owner, master, agent,...

  13. 46 CFR 122.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 122.206 Section 122... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.206 Written report of marine casualty. (a) The owner, master, agent,...

  14. 46 CFR 122.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 122.206 Section 122... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.206 Written report of marine casualty. (a) The owner, master, agent,...

  15. 46 CFR 185.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 185.206 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.206 Written report of marine... of any marine casualty. This written report is in addition to the immediate notice required by...

  16. 46 CFR 185.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 185.206 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.206 Written report of marine... of any marine casualty. This written report is in addition to the immediate notice required by...

  17. 46 CFR 122.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 122.206 Section 122... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.206 Written report of marine casualty. (a) The owner, master, agent,...

  18. 46 CFR 185.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 185.206 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.206 Written report of marine... of any marine casualty. This written report is in addition to the immediate notice required by...

  19. 46 CFR 185.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 185.206 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.206 Written report of marine... of any marine casualty. This written report is in addition to the immediate notice required by...

  20. 46 CFR 122.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 122.206 Section 122... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.206 Written report of marine casualty. (a) The owner, master, agent,...

  1. Optimal shield mass distribution for space radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, M. P.

    1972-01-01

    Computational methods have been developed and successfully used for determining the optimum distribution of space radiation shielding on geometrically complex space vehicles. These methods have been incorporated in computer program SWORD for dose evaluation in complex geometry, and iteratively calculating the optimum distribution for (minimum) shield mass satisfying multiple acute and protected dose constraints associated with each of several body organs.

  2. Searching for radiative neutrino mass generation at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkas, Raymond R.

    2015-04-01

    In this talk (talk given at the International Conference on Massive Neutrinos, Singapore, 9-13 February 2015), I describe the general characteristics of radiative neutrino mass models that can be probed at the LHC. I then cover the specific constraints on a new, explicit model of this type.

  3. Consistency of WIMP Dark Matter as radiative neutrino mass messenger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merle, Alexander; Platscher, Moritz; Rojas, Nicolás; Valle, José W. F.; Vicente, Avelino

    2016-07-01

    The scotogenic scenario provides an attractive approach to both Dark Matter and neutrino mass generation, in which the same symmetry that stabilises Dark Matter also ensures the radiative seesaw origin of neutrino mass. However the simplest scenario may suffer from inconsistencies arising from the spontaneous breaking of the underlying ℤ 2 symmetry. Here we show that the singlet-triplet extension of the simplest model naturally avoids this problem due to the presence of scalar triplets neutral under the ℤ 2 which affect the evolution of the couplings in the scalar sector. The scenario offers good prospects for direct WIMP Dark Matter detection through the nuclear recoil method.

  4. Hospital preparedness for possible nonconventional casualties: an Israeli experience.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Shaul; Yoeli, Naomi; Paz, Gedalia; Barbash, Gabriel I; Varssano, David; Fertel, Nurit; Hassner, Avi; Drory, Margalit; Halpern, Pinchas

    2004-01-01

    Since 9/11, hospitals and health authorities have been preparing medical response in case of various mass terror attacks. The experience of Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center in treating suicide-bombing mass casualties served, in the time leading up to the war in Iraq, as a platform for launching a preparedness program for possible attacks with biological and chemical agents of mass destruction. Adapting Quarantelli's criteria on disaster mitigation to the "microinfrastructure" of the hospital, and including human behavior experts, we attempted to foster an interactive emergency management process that would deal with contingencies stemming from the potential hazards of chemical and biological (CB) weapons. The main objective of our work was to encourage an organization-wide communication network that could effectively address the contingent hazards unique to this unprecedented situation. A stratified assessment of needs, identification of unique dangers to first responders, and assignment of team-training sessions paved the way for program development. Empowerment through leadership and resilience training was introduced to emergency team leaders of all disciplines. Focal subject matters included proactive planning, problem-solving, informal horizontal and vertical communication, and coping through stress-management techniques. The outcome of this process was manifested in an "operation and people" orientation supporting a more effective and compatible emergency management. The aim of article is to describe this process and to point toward the need for a broad-spectrum view in such circumstances. Unlike military units, the civilian hospital staff at risk, expected to deal with CB casualties, requires adequate personal consideration to enable effective functioning. Issues remain to be addressed in the future. We believe that collaboration and sharing of knowledge, information, and expertise beyond the medical realm is imperative in assisting hospitals to expedite

  5. The Tactical Combat Casualty Care Casualty Card TCCC Guidelines ? Proposed Change 1301.

    PubMed

    Kotwal, Russ S; Butler, Frank K; Montgomery, Harold R; Brunstetter, Tyson J; Diaz, George Y; Kirkpatrick, James W; Summers, Nancy L; Shackelford, Stacy A; Holcomb, John B; Bailey, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing trauma care delivery is paramount to saving lives on the battlefield. During the past decade of conflict, trauma care performance improvement at combat support hospitals and forward surgical teams in Afghanistan and Iraq has increased through Joint Trauma System and DoD Trauma Registry data collection, analysis, and rapid evidence-based adjustments to clinical practice guidelines. Although casualties have benefitted greatly from a trauma system and registry that improves hospital care, still lacking is a comprehensive and integrated system for data collection and analysis to improve performance at the prehospital level of care. Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) based casualty cards, TCCC after action reports, and unit-based prehospital trauma registries need to be implemented globally and linked to the DoD Trauma Registry in a seamless manner that will optimize prehospital trauma care delivery. PMID:23877773

  6. Radiative fermion masses in local D-brane models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, C. P.; Krippendorf, Sven; Maharana, Anshuman; Quevedo, Fernando

    2011-05-01

    In the context of D-brane model building, we present a realistic framework for generating fermion masses that are forbidden by global symmetries. We show that the string theoretical Large volume scenario circumvents the standard lore that fermion masses generated by loop effects are too small in generic gravity mediated scenarios. We argue that the fact that in toric singularity models, the up quark masses have always a zero eigenvalue, corresponding to the lightest generation, is due to the presence of approximate global symmetries that we explicitly identify in del Pezzo singularities. These symmetries are broken by global effects and therefore proportional to inverse powers of the volume. We estimate the generic size of radiative corrections to fermion masses in different phenomenological manifestations of the Large volume scenario. Concrete realizations in terms of flavor violating soft-terms are estimated and contrasted with current bounds on flavour changing neutral currents. Contributions from generic extra Higgs-like fields set bounds on their masses close to the GUT scale to produce realistic fermion masses.

  7. Field deployable EEG monitor for nerve agent casualties.

    PubMed

    McDonnall, Daniel; Hiatt, Scott; Yatsenko, Dimitri; Guillory, K Shane

    2009-01-01

    Early recognition and aggressive management of seizure activity is important in the treatment of patients with nerve agent exposure. However, these patients can experience non-convulsive seizures that are difficult to identify without EEG monitoring. In this paper, we discuss the development and testing of a low-cost, field-deployable device that records and displays patient EEG trends over time. The device is optimized for early levels of care for military and mass casualty patients until they can be relocated to medical facilities with more comprehensive monitoring. The device also records pulse oximetry and acceleration information, and patient data are available for later analysis and improvement of treatment protocols. PMID:19964118

  8. Optimization of NTP System Truss to Reduce Radiation Shield Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharber, Luke L.; Kharofa, Adam; Caffrey, Jarvis A.

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of nuclear thermal propulsion are numerous and relevant to the current NASA mission goals involving but not limited to the crewed missions to mars and the moon. They do however also present new and unique challenges to the design and logistics of launching/operating spacecraft. One of these challenges, relevant to this discussion, is the significant mass of the shielding which is required to ensure an acceptable radiation environment for the spacecraft and crew. Efforts to reduce shielding mass are difficult to accomplish from material and geometric design points of the shield itself, however by increasing the distance between the nuclear engines and the main body of the spacecraft the required mass of the shielding is lessened considerably. The mass can be reduced significantly per unit length, though any additional mass added by the structure to create this distance serves to offset those savings, thus the design of a lightweight structure is ideal. The challenges of designing the truss are bounded by several limiting factors including; the loading conditions, the capabilities of the launch vehicle, and achieving the ideal truss length when factoring for the overall mass reduced. Determining the overall set of mass values for a truss of varying length is difficult since to maintain an optimally designed truss the geometry of the truss or its members must change. Thus the relation between truss mass and length for these loading scenarios is not linear, and instead has relation determined by the truss design. In order to establish a mass versus length trend for various truss designs to compare with the mass saved from the shield versus length, optimization software was used to find optimal geometric properties that still met the design requirements at established lengths. By solving for optimal designs at various lengths, mass trends could be determined. The initial design findings show a clear benefit to extending the engines as far from the main

  9. Mass growth of the first stars under radiative feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacy, Athena; Greif, Thomas H.; Bromm, Volker

    2012-09-01

    We perform 3-D cosmological simulations to examine the growth of metal-free, Population III (Pop III) stars under radiative feedback. We trace the evolution of gas and dark matter until the formation of the first minihalo, and follow the collapse of the minihalo's gas up to densities of n = 1012cm-3. We then implement the sink particle method while modeling the effect of Lyman-Werner (LW) and ionizing radiation emitted by the initial protostar over the next 5000 yr. A disk assembles around the first protostar, and radiative feedback does not prevent further fragmentation of the disk to form multiple Pop III stars. Feedback leads to heating of the dense gas to several thousand Kelvin, and this warm region expands outward at the gas sound speed. Once this region extends to the size of the disk, the disk mass declines while the accretion rate onto the protostars is reduced by an order of magnitude. The main sink will approach an asymptotic value of 30 Msolar by the time it reaches the main sequence. Such unexpectedly low Pop III masses may have important consequences for the occurrence of pair-instability supernovae in the early Universe as well as the Pop III chemical signature in the oldest stars observable today.

  10. Analysis of driver casualty risk for different work zone types.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jinxian; Meng, Qiang

    2011-09-01

    Using driver casualty data from the Fatality Analysis Report System, this study examines driver casualty risk and investigates the risk contributing factors in the construction, maintenance and utility work zones. The multiple t-tests results show that the driver casualty risk is statistically different depending on the work zone type. Moreover, construction work zones have the largest driver casualty risk, followed by maintenance and utility work zones. Three separate logistic regression models are developed to predict driver casualty risk for the three work zone types because of their unique features. Finally, the effects of risk factors on driver casualty risk for each work zone type are examined and compared. For all three work zone types, five significant risk factors including road alignment, truck involvement, most harmful event, vehicle age and notification time are associated with increased driver casualty risk while traffic control devices and restraint use are associated with reduced driver casualty risk. However, one finding is that three risk factors (light condition, gender and day of week) exhibit opposing effects on the driver casualty risk in different types of work zones. This may largely be due to different work zone features and driver behavior in different types of work zones. PMID:21658509

  11. How to Explain the Non-Zero Mass of Electromagnetic Radiation Consisting of Zero-Mass Photons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabovich, Alexander M.; Gabovich, Nadezhda A.

    2007-01-01

    The mass of electromagnetic radiation in a cavity is considered using the correct relativistic approach based on the concept of a scalar mass not dependent on the particle (system) velocity. It is shown that due to the non-additivity of mass in the special theory of relativity the ensemble of chaotically propagating mass-less photons in the cavity…

  12. Radiative and Kinetic Feedback by Low-Mass Primordial Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalen, Daniel; Hueckstaedt, Robert M.; McConkie, Thomas O.

    2010-03-01

    Ionizing UV radiation and supernova (SN) flows amidst clustered minihalos at high redshift regulated the rise of the first stellar populations in the universe. Previous studies have addressed the effects of very massive primordial stars on the collapse of nearby halos into new stars, but the absence of the odd-even nucleosynthetic signature of pair-instability SNe in ancient metal-poor stars suggests that Population III stars may have been less than 100 M sun. We extend our earlier survey of local UV feedback on star formation to 25-80 M sun stars and include kinetic feedback by SNe for 25-40 M sun stars. We find radiative feedback to be relatively uniform over this mass range, primarily because the larger fluxes of more massive stars are offset by their shorter lifetimes. Our models demonstrate that prior to the rise of global UV backgrounds, Lyman-Werner (LW) photons from nearby stars cannot prevent halos from forming new stars. These calculations also reveal that violent dynamical instabilities can erupt in the UV radiation front enveloping a primordial halo, but that they ultimately have no effect on the formation of a star. Finally, our simulations suggest that relic H II regions surrounding partially evaporated halos may expel LW backgrounds at lower redshifts, allowing stars to form that were previously suppressed. We provide fits to radiative and kinetic feedback on star formation for use in both semianalytic models and numerical simulations.

  13. Gauge U(1) dark symmetry and radiative light fermion masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kownacki, Corey; Ma, Ernest

    2016-09-01

    A gauge U (1) family symmetry is proposed, spanning the quarks and leptons as well as particles of the dark sector. The breaking of U (1) to Z2 divides the two sectors and generates one-loop radiative masses for the first two families of quarks and leptons, as well as all three neutrinos. We study the phenomenological implications of this new connection between family symmetry and dark matter. In particular, a scalar or pseudoscalar particle associated with this U (1) breaking may be identified with the 750 GeV diphoton resonance recently observed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  14. Radiative neutrino mass generation from WIMP dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lineros, Roberto A.

    2016-05-01

    The minimal seesaw extension of the Standard Model requires two electroweak singlet fermions in order to accommodate the neutrino oscillation parameters at tree level. Here we consider a next to minimal extension where light neutrino masses are generated radiatively by two electroweak fermions: one singlet and one triplet under SU(2). These should be odd under a parity symmetry and their mixing gives rise to a stable weakly interactive massive particle dark matter candidate. For mass in the GeV-TeV range, it reproduces the correct relic density, and provides an observable signal in nuclear recoil direct detection experiments. The fermion triplet component of the dark matter has gauge interactions, making it also detectable at present and near future collider experiments.

  15. Radiation Injury Treatment Network®: Preparedness Through a Coalition of Cancer Centers.

    PubMed

    Case, Cullen

    2016-08-01

    This article provides an overview of Radiation Injury Treatment Network® (RITN), its preparedness activities and capabilities, including training and educating over 11,500 hospital staff, coordinating over 500 exercises, developing treatment guidelines, developing standard operating procedures, and being recognized by the U.S. federal government as a national response asset. The RITN provides comprehensive evaluation and treatment for victims with marrow toxic injuries. Many of the casualties from the detonation of an improvised nuclear device (IND) (a.k.a. terrorist nuclear bomb) with only radiation injuries will be salvageable; however, they would require outpatient and/or inpatient care. Recognizing this, the U.S. National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP), U.S. Navy, and American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT) collaboratively developed RITN, which comprises medical centers with expertise in the management of bone marrow failure. The medical community will undoubtedly be taxed by the resulting medical surge from an IND despite the well-defined United States emergency medical system, the National Disaster Medical System; however, one area that is unique for radiological disasters is the care for casualties with acute radiation syndrome. Hematologists and oncologists purposefully expose their cancer patients to high doses of radiation and toxic chemicals for chemotherapy as they treat their patients, resulting in symptoms not unlike casualties with exposure to ionizing radiation from a radiological disaster. This makes the staff from cancer centers ideal for the specialized care that will be required for thousands of casualties following a mass casualty radiological incident. The RITN is a model for how a collaborative effort can fill a readiness gap-through its network of 76 hospitals, blood donor centers, and cord blood banks, the RITN is preparing to provide outpatient care and specialized supportive care to up to 63,000 radiological casualties

  16. Noninvasive detection of weapons of mass destruction using terahertz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Matthew B.; Heilweil, Edwin J.

    2003-08-01

    The growing and immediate threat of biological and chemical weapons has placed urgency on the development of chemical and biological warfare agent (CWA/BWA) screening devices. Specifically, the ability to detect CWA/BWA prior to deployment is paramount to mitigating the threat without exposing individuals to its effects. SPARTA, Inc. and NIST are currently investigating the feasibility of using far-infrared radiation, or terahertz (THz, 1 THz = 1012 Hz) radiation, to non-invasively detect biological and chemical agents, explosives and drugs/narcotics inside sealed containers. Small-to-medium sized molecules (3-100 atoms) in gas, liquid and solid phases consistently exhibit identifiable spectral features in the far-IR portion of the spectrum. Many compounds associated with weapons of mass destruction are made up of molecules of this size. The THz portion of the spectrum lies between visible light and radio waves, allowing for partial transmission of 0.3-10.0 THz (30-1000 μm, 10-330 cm-1) light through most common materials. Therefore, transmission measurements of THz light can potentially be used to non-invasively detect the presence of CWA/BWA, explosives and drugs in the pathway of a THz radiation beam.

  17. 46 CFR 197.484 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.484 Notice of casualty. (a) In addition to the requirements of subpart 4.05 of this chapter and 33 CFR 146.30, the person-in-charge shall notify the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, as soon as possible after a diving casualty occurs, if...

  18. 46 CFR 197.484 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.484 Notice of casualty. (a) In addition to the requirements of subpart 4.05 of this chapter and 33 CFR 146.30, the person-in-charge shall notify the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, as soon as possible after a diving casualty occurs, if...

  19. 46 CFR 197.484 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the requirements of subpart 4.05 of this chapter and 33 CFR 146.30, the person-in-charge shall notify... casualty involves any of the following: (1) Loss of life. (2) Diving-related injury to any person causing... casualty including presumed cause. (6) Nature and extent of the injury to persons. (c) The notice...

  20. 33 CFR 146.35 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements of 46 CFR 4.05-12. (b) The written report required by paragraph (a) of this section...) Describes the casualty, including the date and time; (3) Describes the nature and extent of injury to...-2692 for casualties resulting in property damage, personnel injury, or loss of life. (c) If filed...

  1. 46 CFR 197.484 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the requirements of subpart 4.05 of this chapter and 33 CFR 146.30, the person-in-charge shall notify... casualty involves any of the following: (1) Loss of life. (2) Diving-related injury to any person causing... casualty including presumed cause. (6) Nature and extent of the injury to persons. (c) The notice...

  2. 46 CFR 197.484 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.484 Notice of casualty. (a) In addition to the requirements of subpart 4.05 of this chapter and 33 CFR 146.30, the person-in-charge shall notify the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, as soon as possible after a diving casualty occurs, if...

  3. The Casualty Actuarial Society: Helping Universities Train Future Actuaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boa, J. Michael; Gorvett, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The Casualty Actuarial Society (CAS) believes that the most effective way to advance the actuarial profession is to work in partnership with universities. The CAS stands ready to assist universities in creating or enhancing courses and curricula associated with property/casualty actuarial science. CAS resources for university actuarial science…

  4. 46 CFR 109.415 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention of records after casualty. 109.415 Section 109.415 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Reports, Notifications, and Records Reports and Notifications § 109.415 Retention of records after casualty. (a) The owner,...

  5. 46 CFR 109.415 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....415 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS... casualty. (a) The owner, agent, master, or person in charge of a unit for which a report of casualty is... Charge, Marine Inspection, that records need not be retained on board. (b) The records which must...

  6. 26 CFR 1.165-7 - Casualty losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Casualty losses. 1.165-7 Section 1.165-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.165-7 Casualty...

  7. 26 CFR 1.165-7 - Casualty losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Casualty losses. 1.165-7 Section 1.165-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.165-7 Casualty...

  8. 26 CFR 1.165-7 - Casualty losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Casualty losses. 1.165-7 Section 1.165-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.165-7 Casualty...

  9. 26 CFR 1.165-7 - Casualty losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Casualty losses. 1.165-7 Section 1.165-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.165-7 Casualty...

  10. 26 CFR 1.165-7 - Casualty losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Casualty losses. 1.165-7 Section 1.165-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.165-7 Casualty...

  11. Rotating, radiating mass imbedded in a de Sitter universe

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study presents a new solution to the Einstein field equations for a rotating, radiating mass imbedded in a de Sitter universe, the Kerr de Sitter-Vaidya or KDV line element. Solutions presented were precursers to the new solution. One of these, the Vaidya-Mallett or VM metric is used as a starting point to derive the KDV metric by a method called complexification. The mathematical framework for the KDV metric is the Newman-Penrose formalism, a powerful tool that provides insight into the various properties of the space-time geometry and optical properties of the radiation field. Using this formalism, the metric can be expressed in tetrad form and the Newman-Penrose spin coefficient equations solved for tetrad components of the trace-free Ricci tensor, Ricci scalar, Maxwell tensor, and Weyl tensor. Using the tetrad components of the Weyl tensor, the Petrov type for the gravitational and electromagnetic fields are found. The new solution is shown to be a solution to the Einstein-Maxwell equations for a particular choice of energy-momentum tensor which is studied in detail.

  12. ON THE MASS RADIATED BY COALESCING BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Barausse, E.; Morozova, V.; Rezzolla, L.

    2012-10-10

    We derive an analytic phenomenological expression that predicts the final mass of the black hole (BH) remnant resulting from the merger of a generic binary system of BHs on quasi-circular orbits. Besides recovering the correct test-particle limit for extreme mass-ratio binaries, our formula reproduces well the results of all the numerical-relativity simulations published so far, both when applied at separations of a few gravitational radii and when applied at separations of tens of thousands of gravitational radii. These validations make our formula a useful tool in a variety of contexts ranging from gravitational-wave (GW) physics to cosmology. As representative examples, we first illustrate how it can be used to decrease the phase error of the effective-one-body waveforms during the ringdown phase. Second, we show that, when combined with the recently computed self-force correction to the binding energy of nonspinning BH binaries, it provides an estimate of the energy emitted during the merger and ringdown. Finally, we use it to calculate the energy radiated in GWs by massive BH binaries as a function of redshift, using different models for the seeds of the BH population.

  13. Operation Castle Cascade: managing multiple casualties from a simulated chemical weapons attack.

    PubMed

    Siegel, David; Younggren, Bradley N; Ness, Brian; Kvool, Valerie

    2003-05-01

    In the wake of the recent terrorist attack on the United States, there is an ever-increasing need for the defense against weapons of mass destruction. The use of explosive devices in combination with chemical agents could result in a community disaster with multiple traumatic and medical injuries. Military medical personnel may be the first called upon due to their unique training and equipment. Operation Castle Cascade was a large-scale exercise on a military instillation involving the apprehension of hostages and detonation of an explosive device containing dimethyl sulfate. We will provide details on the medical management of 50 patients with simulated chemical and traumatic injuries. Issues relating to on-site chemical identification, triage, decontamination, treatment, casualty collection, and transportation of casualties are addressed in this article. PMID:12775167

  14. Fast migration of low-mass planets in radiative discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierens, A.

    2015-12-01

    Low-mass planets are known to undergo Type I migration and this process must have played a key role during the evolution of planetary systems. Analytical formulae for the disc torque have been derived assuming that the planet evolves on a fixed circular orbit. However, recent work has shown that in isothermal discs, a migrating protoplanet may also experience dynamical corotation torques that scale with the planet drift rate. The aim of this study is to examine whether dynamical corotation torques can also affect the migration of low-mass planets in non-isothermal discs. We performed 2D radiative hydrodynamical simulations to examine the orbital evolution outcome of migrating protoplanets as a function of disc mass. We find that a protoplanet can enter a fast migration regime when it migrates in the direction set by the entropy-related horseshoe drag and when the Toomre stability parameter is less than a threshold value below which the horseshoe region contracts into a tadpole-like region. In that case, an underdense trapped region appears near the planet, with an entropy excess compared to the ambient disc. If the viscosity and thermal diffusivity are small enough so that the entropy excess is conserved during migration, the planet then experiences strong corotation torques arising from the material flowing across the planet orbit. During fast migration, we observe that a protoplanet can pass through the zero-torque line predicted by static torques. We also find that fast migration may help in disrupting the mean-motion resonances that are formed by convergent migration of embryos.

  15. 46 CFR 185.260 - Reports of potential vessel casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.260 Reports of potential... imperiled: (1) The Coast Guard district rescue coordination center (RCC) cognizant over the area in...

  16. 46 CFR 197.488 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... casualty is made under § 197.484 shall retain all records onboard that are maintained on the vessel or... until advised by the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, that records need not be retained onboard....

  17. 33 CFR 146.35 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting requirements of 46 CFR 4.05-12. (b) The written report required by paragraph (a) of this section... casualty; (5) Gives the name, address, and phone number of persons involved in or witnessing the...

  18. 33 CFR 146.35 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting requirements of 46 CFR 4.05-12. (b) The written report required by paragraph (a) of this section... casualty; (5) Gives the name, address, and phone number of persons involved in or witnessing the...

  19. 46 CFR 197.488 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... casualty is made under § 197.484 shall retain all records onboard that are maintained on the vessel or... until advised by the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, that records need not be retained onboard....

  20. 46 CFR 197.488 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... casualty is made under § 197.484 shall retain all records onboard that are maintained on the vessel or... until advised by the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, that records need not be retained onboard....

  1. 46 CFR 197.488 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... casualty is made under § 197.484 shall retain all records onboard that are maintained on the vessel or... until advised by the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, that records need not be retained onboard....

  2. 46 CFR 197.488 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... casualty is made under § 197.484 shall retain all records onboard that are maintained on the vessel or... until advised by the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, that records need not be retained onboard....

  3. Closing in on minimal dark matter and radiative neutrino masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; Simoes, C.; Wegman, D.

    2016-06-01

    We study one-loop radiative neutrino mass models in which one of the beyond-the-standard model fields is either a hypercharge-zero fermion quintet (minimal dark matter) or a hypercharge-zero scalar septet. By systematically classifying all possible one-loop such models we identify various processes that render the neutral component of these representations (dark matter) cosmologically unstable. Thus, our findings show that these scenarios are in general not reconcilable with dark matter stability unless tiny couplings or additional ad hoc symmetries are assumed, in contrast to minimal dark matter models where stability is entirely due to the standard model gauge symmetry. For some variants based on higher-order loops we find that α2 reaches a Landau pole at rather low scales, a couple orders of magnitude from the characteristic scale of the model itself. Thus, we argue that some of these variations although consistent with dark matter stability and phenomenological constraints are hard to reconcile with perturbativity criteria.

  4. Radiation disasters: role of the BMT team.

    PubMed

    Confer, Dennis L; Weisdorf, Daniel; Weinstock, David; Case, Cullen; Chao, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow transplant (BMT) teams do not generally consider themselves to be emergency responders. But the bone marrow is the most radiosensitive organ in the body, and early changes in peripheral blood counts remain the best indicator of major total-body radiation exposures. Following a mass casualty incident, such as that occasioned by a nuclear detonation, BMT teams should expect that they will be called upon for their expertise in managing severe myelosuppression. Numerous resources, including the Radiation Injury Treatment Network, are available to assist BMT teams in planning for such a role. PMID:22226106

  5. Impact of Radiation Hardness and Operating Temperatures of Silicon Carbide Electronics on Space Power System Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Tew, Roy C.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of silicon carbide (SiC) electronics operating temperatures on Power Management and Distribution (PMAD), or Power Conditioning (PC), subsystem radiator size and mass requirements was evaluated for three power output levels (100 kW(e) , 1 MW(e), and 10 MW(e)) for near term technology ( i.e. 1500 K turbine inlet temperature) Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) power systems with a High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) heat source. The study was conducted for assumed PC radiator temperatures ranging from 370 to 845 K and for three scenarios of electrical energy to heat conversion levels which needed to be rejected to space by means of the PC radiator. In addition, during part of the study the radiation hardness of the PC electronics was varied at a fixed separation distance to estimate its effect on the mass of the instrument rated reactor shadow shield. With both the PC radiator and the conical shadow shield representing major components of the overall power system the influence of the above on total power system mass was also determined. As expected, results show that the greatest actual mass savings achieved by the use of SiC electronics occur with high capacity power systems. Moreover, raising the PC radiator temperature above 600 K yields only small additional system mass savings. The effect of increased radiation hardness on total system mass is to reduce system mass by virtue of lowering the shield mass.

  6. Impact of radiation hardness and operating temperatures of silicon carbide electronics on space power system mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Tew, Roy C.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of silicon carbide (SiC) electronics operating temperatures on Power Management and Distribution (PMAD), or Power Conditioning (PC), subsystem radiator size and mass requirements was evaluated for three power output levels (100 kWe, 1 MWe, and 10 MWe) for near term technology (i.e. 1500 K turbine inlet temperature) Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) power systems with a High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) heat source. The study was conducted for assumed PC radiator temperatures ranging from 370 to 845 K and for three scenarios of electrical energy to heat conversion levels which needed to be rejected to space by means of the PC radiator. In addition, during part of the study the radiation hardness of the PC electronics was varied at a fixed separation distance to estimate its effect on the mass of the instrument rated reactor shadow shield. With both the PC radiator and the conical shadow shield representing major components of the overall power system the influence of the above on total power system mass was also determined. As expected, results show that the greatest actual mass savings achieved by the use of SiC electronics occur with high capacity power systems. Moreover, raising the PC radiator temperature above 600 K yields only small additional system mass savings. The effect of increased radiation hardness on total system mass is to reduce system mass by virtue of lowering the shield mass.

  7. 'Wellbeing': a collateral casualty of modernity?

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Sandra; Henderson, Gregor; Hanlon, Phil W

    2009-11-01

    In the now vast empirical and theoretical literature on wellbeing knowledge of the subject is provided mainly by psychology and economics, where understanding of the concept are framed in very different ways. We briefly rehearse these, before turning to some important critical points which can be made about this burgeoning research industry, including the tight connections between the meanings of the concept with the moral value systems of particular 'modern' societies. We then argue that both the 'science' of wellbeing and its critique are, despite their diversity, re-connected by and subsumed within the emerging environmental critique of modern consumer society. This places concerns for individual and social wellbeing within the broader context of global human problems and planetary wellbeing. A growing number of thinkers now suggest that Western society and culture are dominated by materialistic and individualistic values, made manifest at the political and social levels through the unending pursuit of economic growth, and at the individual level by the seemingly endless quest for consumer goods, regardless of global implications such as broader environmental harms. The escalating growth of such values is associated with a growing sense of individual alienation, social fragmentation and civic disengagement and with the decline of more spiritual, moral and ethical aspects of life. Taken together, these multiple discourses suggest that wellbeing can be understood as a collateral casualty of the economic, social and cultural changes associated with late modernity. However, increasing concerns for the environment have the potential to counter some of these trends, and in so doing could also contribute to our wellbeing as individuals and as social beings in a finite world. PMID:19765875

  8. Data quality for situational awareness during mass-casualty events.

    PubMed

    Demchak, Barry; Griswold, William G; Lenert, Leslie A

    2007-01-01

    Incident Command systems often achieve situational awareness through manual paper-tracking systems. Such systems often produce high latencies and in-complete data, resulting in inefficient and ineffective resource deployment. WIISARD (Wireless Internet Information System for Medical Response in Disasters) collects much more data than a paper-based system, dramatically reducing latency while increasing the kinds and quality of information available to incident commanders. Yet, the introduction of IT into a disaster setting is not problem-free. Notably, system component failures can delay the delivery of data. The type and extent of a failure can have varying effects on the usefulness of information displays. We describe a small, coherent set of customizble information overlays to address this problem, and we discuss reactions to these displays by medical commanders. PMID:18693821

  9. Traffic accidents involving fatigue driving and their extent of casualties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Zhang, Xun; Li, Yanyan

    2016-02-01

    The rapid progress of motorization has increased the number of traffic-related casualties. Although fatigue driving is a major cause of traffic accidents, the public remains not rather aware of its potential harmfulness. Fatigue driving has been termed as a "silent killer." Thus, a thorough study of traffic accidents and the risk factors associated with fatigue-related casualties is of utmost importance. In this study, we analyze traffic accident data for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. The study data were extracted from the traffic accident database of China's Public Security Department. A logistic regression model is used to assess the effect of driver characteristics, type of vehicles, road conditions, and environmental factors on fatigue-related traffic accident occurrence and severity. On the one hand, male drivers, trucks, driving during midnight to dawn, and morning rush hours are identified as risk factors of fatigue-related crashes but do not necessarily result in severe casualties. Driving at night without street-lights contributes to fatigue-related crashes and severe casualties. On the other hand, while factors such as less experienced drivers, unsafe vehicle status, slippery roads, driving at night with street-lights, and weekends do not have significant effect on fatigue-related crashes, yet accidents associated with these factors are likely to have severe casualties. The empirical results of the present study have important policy implications on the reduction of fatigue-related crashes as well as their severity. PMID:26625173

  10. Implications for modeling casualty sustainment during peacekeeping operations.

    PubMed

    Blood, Christopher G; Zhang, Jinjin; Walker, G Jay

    2002-10-01

    Projections of the casualties expected during peacekeeping operations allow medical planners to assess in advance the medical resources needed to support such operations. Data detailing fatalities incurred in previous peacekeeping operations were extracted from several U.N. sources. From these data, rates of killed-in-action were computed for the deployed forces. One hundred eighty-eight peacekeeping incidents in which casualties were sustained were also examined to derive wounded-in-action rates. The estimated mean wounded-in-action rate for these operations was 3.16 per 1,000 strength per year; the estimated wounded-in-action rate for individual operations ranged from 0.49 to 12.50. There were an average of 3.8 wounded and 0.86 killed in the 188 casualty incidents examined. Thirty-eight percent of the wounds were described as serious. The casualty incidence derived in this study can provide a basis for estimating the casualties likely in future peacekeeping operations. PMID:12392258

  11. Investigation of Advanced Resonant-Mass Gravitational Radiation Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhiqing

    1994-01-01

    The sensitivity of resonant-mass gravitational radiation detectors depends on both the antenna cross-section and the detector noise. The cross-section is determined by the sound velocity VS and density rho of the antenna material, as well as the antenna geometry. The principal detector noise sources are thermal Nyquist noise and noise due to the readout electromechanical amplifier. The cross-section is proportional to rho V_sp{S}{5} for a given frequency and antenna geometry while the thermal noise is inversely proportional to the antenna's mechanical quality factor Q for a given temperature. Materials with high VS could, in principle, provide about a hundred-fold increase in the antenna cross -section as compared to current generation detectors. In this dissertation we report the results of measurements of the temperature-dependent mechanical losses in several suitable high sound velocity materials. The results show that the signal-to-noise ratios of detectors made of these materials could be improved by a factor of 15 to 100 at 4 K as compared to current detectors with aluminum antennas. A spherical gravitational wave antenna is very promising for gravitational wave astronomy because of its large cross-section, isotropic sky coverage, and the capability it can provide for determining the wave direction. In this dissertation several aspects of spherical detectors, including the eigenfunctions and eigenfrequencies of the normal-modes of an elastic sphere, the energy cross-section, and the response functions that are used to obtain the noise-free solution to the inverse problem are discussed. Using the maximum likelihood estimation method the inverse problem in the presence of noise is solved. We also determine the false-alarm probability and the detection probability for a network of spherical detectors and estimate the detectable event rates for supernovae core collapses and binary coalescences. Six identical cylindrical detectors, with a suitable arrangement of

  12. [Model and enlightenment from rescue of August 2nd Kunshan explosion casualty].

    PubMed

    Tan, Q; Qiu, H B; Sun, B W; Shen, Y M; Nie, L J; Zhang, H W

    2016-01-01

    On August 2nd, 2014, a massive dust explosion occurred in a factory of Kunshan, resulting in a mass casualty involving 185 burn patients. They were transported to 20 medical institutions in Jiangsu province and Shanghai. More than one thousand of medical personnel of our country participated in this emergency rescue, and satisfactory results were achieved. In this paper, the characteristics of this accident were analyzed, the positive effects of interdisciplinary cooperation were affirmed, and the contingency plan, rescue process and pattern, and reserve, organization and management of talents during this rescue process were reviewed retrospectively. PMID:27426066

  13. Effect of radiator position and mass flux on the dryer room heat transfer rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirmanto, M.; Sulistyowati, E. D.; Okariawan, I. D. K.

    A room radiator as usually used in cold countries, is actually able to be used as a heat source to dry goods, especially in the rainy season where the sun seldom shines due to much rain and cloud. Experiments to investigate effects of radiator position and mass flux on heat transfer rate were performed. This study is to determine the best position of the radiator and the optimum mass flux. The radiator used was a finned radiator made of copper pipes and aluminum fins with an overall dimension of 220 mm × 50 mm × 310 mm. The prototype room was constructed using plywood and wood frame with an overall size of 1000 mm × 1000 mm × 1000 mm. The working fluid was heated water flowing inside the radiator and air circulating naturally inside the prototype room. The nominal mass fluxes employed were 800, 900 and 1000 kg/m2 s. The water was kept at 80 °C at the radiator entrance, while the initial air temperature inside the prototype room was 30 °C. Three positions of the radiator were examined. The results show that the effect of the mass flux on the forced and free convection heat transfer rate is insignificant but the radiator position strongly affects the heat transfer rate for both forced and free convection.

  14. The Role of Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics in Medical Countermeasures Against Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Andrew D.; Lanz, Christian; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation metabolomics can be defined as the global profiling of biological fluids to uncover latent, endogenous small molecules whose concentrations change in a dose-response manner following exposure to ionizing radiation. In response to the potential threat of nuclear or radiological terrorism, the Center for High-Throughput Minimally Invasive Radiation Biodosimetry (CMCR) was established to develop field-deployable biodosimeters based, in principle, on rapid analysis by mass spectrometry of readily and easily obtainable biofluids. In this review, we briefly summarize radiation biology and key events related to actual and potential nuclear disasters, discuss the important contributions the field of mass spectrometry has made to the field of radiation metabolomics, and summarize current discovery efforts to use mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to identify dose-responsive urinary constituents, and ultimately to build and deploy a noninvasive high-throughput biodosimeter. PMID:19890938

  15. Radiative Corrections to the Neutron Star Mass Inferred from QPO Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, M. A.; Kluźniak, W.; Yu, W.

    2011-12-01

    The frequencies of kHz QPOs are widely interpreted as being indicative of the values of characteristic frequencies related to orbital motion around neutron stars, e.g., the radial epicyclic frequency. In regions directly exposed to the radiation from the luminous neutron star these frequencies change with the luminosity. Including radiative corrections will change the neutron star mass value inferred from the QPO frequencies. Radiative forces may also be behind the puzzling phenomenon of parallel tracks.

  16. 49 CFR 850.25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the...) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.25 Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. (a) If the Board does...

  17. 49 CFR 850.25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the...) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.25 Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. (a) If the Board does...

  18. 46 CFR 4.40-25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. 4.40-25 Section 4.40-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety Board Marine Casualty Investigations § 4.40-25...

  19. 49 CFR 850.25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the...) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.25 Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. (a) If the Board does...

  20. 46 CFR 4.40-25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. 4.40-25 Section 4.40-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety Board Marine Casualty Investigations § 4.40-25...

  1. 49 CFR 850.25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the...) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.25 Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. (a) If the Board does...

  2. 33 CFR 174.107 - Contents of casualty or accident report form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contents of casualty or accident... System Requirements § 174.107 Contents of casualty or accident report form. Each form for reporting a vessel casualty or accident must contain the information required in § 173.57 of this chapter....

  3. 46 CFR 4.05-10 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 4.05-10 Section 4.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-10 Written report of...

  4. 46 CFR 4.05-5 - Substance of marine casualty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance of marine casualty notice. 4.05-5 Section 4.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-5 Substance of...

  5. 33 CFR 174.107 - Contents of casualty or accident report form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contents of casualty or accident... System Requirements § 174.107 Contents of casualty or accident report form. Each form for reporting a vessel casualty or accident must contain the information required in § 173.57 of this chapter....

  6. 46 CFR 196.07-1 - Notice and reporting of casualty and voyage records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Notice and Reporting of Casualty and Voyage Records § 196.07-1 Notice and reporting of casualty and voyage records. The requirements for providing notice and reporting of marine... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice and reporting of casualty and voyage records....

  7. 46 CFR 4.05-10 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 4.05-10 Section 4.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-10 Written report of...

  8. 46 CFR 4.05-5 - Substance of marine casualty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substance of marine casualty notice. 4.05-5 Section 4.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-5 Substance of...

  9. 46 CFR 4.05-10 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 4.05-10 Section 4.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-10 Written report of...

  10. 46 CFR 4.05-10 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 4.05-10 Section 4.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-10 Written report of...

  11. 46 CFR 4.05-5 - Substance of marine casualty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Substance of marine casualty notice. 4.05-5 Section 4.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-5 Substance of...

  12. 46 CFR 4.05-5 - Substance of marine casualty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substance of marine casualty notice. 4.05-5 Section 4.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-5 Substance of...

  13. 46 CFR 4.05-5 - Substance of marine casualty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Substance of marine casualty notice. 4.05-5 Section 4.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-5 Substance of...

  14. 46 CFR 4.05-10 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 4.05-10 Section 4.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-10 Written report of...

  15. 46 CFR 185.220 - Records of a voyage resulting in a marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records of a voyage resulting in a marine casualty. 185.220 Section 185.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.220 Records of a voyage resulting in a marine casualty....

  16. 46 CFR 185.220 - Records of a voyage resulting in a marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Records of a voyage resulting in a marine casualty. 185.220 Section 185.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.220 Records of a voyage resulting in a marine casualty....

  17. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a written report, in narrative form, when the diving installation is on a facility. The written report must...

  18. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a written report, in narrative form, when the diving installation is on a facility. The written report must...

  19. 46 CFR 122.202 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Administration (OSHA) in 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 1904. (c) Notice given as required by § 122... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 122.202 Section 122.202... THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS...

  20. 46 CFR 4.05-1 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Notice given as required by 33 CFR 160.215 satisfies the requirement of this section if the marine casualty involves a hazardous condition as defined by 33 CFR 160.204. (c) Except as otherwise required... by paragraph (a)(8) of this section, a report made pursuant to 33 CFR 153.203, 40 CFR 117.21, or...

  1. 46 CFR 122.202 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Administration (OSHA) in 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 1904. (c) Notice given as required by § 122... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 122.202 Section 122.202... THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS...

  2. 46 CFR 4.05-1 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Notice given as required by 33 CFR 160.215 satisfies the requirement of this section if the marine casualty involves a hazardous condition as defined by 33 CFR 160.203. (c) Except as otherwise required... by paragraph (a)(8) of this section, a report made pursuant to 33 CFR 153.203, 40 CFR 117.21, or...

  3. 46 CFR 122.202 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Administration (OSHA) in 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 1904. (c) Notice given as required by § 122... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 122.202 Section 122.202... THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS...

  4. 46 CFR 122.202 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration (OSHA) in 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 1904. (c) Notice given as required by § 122... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 122.202 Section 122.202... THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS...

  5. Battlefield Documentation of Tactical Combat Casualty Care in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Robinson, John B; Smith, Michael P; Gross, Kirby R; Sauer, Samual W; Geracci, James J; Day, Charlie D; Kotwal, Russ S

    2016-01-01

    Performance improvement is reliant on information and data, as you cannot improve what you do not measure. The US military went to war in 2001 without an integrated trauma care system to collect and analyze combat casualty care data. By 2006, the conflict in Afghanistan began appreciating the capture and consolidation of hospital care documentation into the Department of Defense Trauma Registry. In contrast, a paucity of documentation has existed for prehospital or tactical combat casualty care (TCCC). Using the 75th Ranger casualty documentation model established in 2005, the Joint Trauma System developed a casualty data collection system for prehospital care using the TCCC Card, the TCCC After Action Report (AAR), and the Prehospital Trauma Registry. In 2013, this system was mandated for use by US forces in Afghanistan. The Joint Trauma System also created and deployed a prehospital team to be an integral part of the Joint Theater Trauma System in Afghanistan. This prehospital team provided prehospital training and facilitated prehospital data capture. Described and analyzed in this report are prehospital data captured in Afghanistan from 2013 to 2014 using the TCCC Card and the TCCC AAR. PMID:27215873

  6. Primary Casualty Reception Ship: the hospital within--Operation Granby.

    PubMed

    Dewar, E P

    1992-01-01

    As the build-up of Operation Granby forces developed in the Gulf, casualty estimates indicated the need for a 100-bed hospital facility to care for the possible maritime casualties. RFA Argus, the Air Training Ship, was identified as the potential Primary Casualty Reception Ship (PCRS) and at the end of September 1990 plans were drawn up to convert the forward hangar into a two-storey 100-bed hospital in collective protection (COLPRO). In the three weeks prior to deployment, the hospital was designed, built, equipped and staffed. Argus arrived in the Gulf in mid-November as the PCRS with, all in COLPRO, a 10-bed intensive care unit (ICU), a 14-bed high dependency unit (HDU), a 76-bed low dependency unit (LDU) plus four operating tables in two theatres with full support services. The hospital was staffed by a medical team of 136 personnel and supported by the Air department with four casualty evacuation helicopters, an RN Party and the staff of the RFA. One hundred and five patients were treated of which 78 were returned to duty. Argu as PCRS spent longer in the northern Persian Gulf than any other ship, UK or US. PMID:1460595

  7. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a written report, in narrative form, when the diving installation is on a facility. The written report must...

  8. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a written report, in narrative form, when the diving installation is on a facility. The written report must...

  9. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a written report, in narrative form, when the diving installation is on a facility. The written report must...

  10. 46 CFR 4.05-1 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Notice given as required by 33 CFR 160.215 satisfies the requirement of this section if the marine casualty involves a hazardous condition as defined by 33 CFR 160.204. (c) Except as otherwise required... by paragraph (a)(8) of this section, a report made pursuant to 33 CFR 153.203, 40 CFR 117.21, or...

  11. 46 CFR 169.807 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of casualty. 169.807 Section 169.807 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS... to mariners, radiograms sent and received, the radio log, and crew, sailing school...

  12. 46 CFR 169.807 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of casualty. 169.807 Section 169.807 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS... to mariners, radiograms sent and received, the radio log, and crew, sailing school...

  13. 46 CFR 169.807 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice of casualty. 169.807 Section 169.807 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS... to mariners, radiograms sent and received, the radio log, and crew, sailing school...

  14. 46 CFR 169.807 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of casualty. 169.807 Section 169.807 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS... to mariners, radiograms sent and received, the radio log, and crew, sailing school...

  15. 46 CFR 169.807 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice of casualty. 169.807 Section 169.807 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS... to mariners, radiograms sent and received, the radio log, and crew, sailing school...

  16. Predictive model for radiatively induced neutrino masses and mixings with dark matter.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Michael; No, Jose M; Rivera, Maximiliano A

    2013-05-24

    A minimal extension of the standard model to naturally generate small neutrino masses and provide a dark matter candidate is proposed. The dark matter particle is part of a new scalar doublet field that plays a crucial role in radiatively generating neutrino masses. The symmetry that stabilizes the dark matter also suppresses neutrino masses to appear first at three-loop level. Without the need of right-handed neutrinos or other very heavy new fields, this offers an attractive explanation of the hierarchy between the electroweak and neutrino mass scales. The model has distinct verifiable predictions for the neutrino masses, flavor mixing angles, colliders, and dark matter signals. PMID:23745861

  17. Testing radiative neutrino mass models at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yi; Clarke, Jackson D.; Schmidt, Michael A.; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2015-02-01

    The Large Hadron Collider provides us new opportunities to search for the origin of neutrino mass. Beyond the minimal see-saw models a plethora of models exist which realise neutrino mass at tree- or loop-level, and it is important to be sure that these possibilities are satisfactorily covered by searches. The purpose of this paper is to advance a systematic approach to this problem. Majorana neutrino mass models can be organised by SM-gauge-invariant operators which violate lepton number by two units. In this paper we write down the minimal ultraviolet completions for all of the mass-dimension 7 operators. We predict vector-like quarks, vector-like leptons, scalar leptoquarks, a charged scalar, a scalar doublet, and a scalar quadruplet, whose properties are constrained by neutrino oscillation data. A detailed collider study is presented for and completions with a vector-like quark and a leptoquark . The existing LHC limits extracted from searches for vector-like fermions and sbottoms/stops are m χ ≳ 620 GeV and m ϕ ≳ 600 GeV.

  18. Effects of anisotropic conduction and heat pipe interaction on minimum mass space radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Karl W.; Lund, Kurt O.

    1991-01-01

    Equations are formulated for the two dimensional, anisotropic conduction of heat in space radiator fins. The transverse temperature field was obtained by the integral method, and the axial field by numerical integration. A shape factor, defined for the axial boundary condition, simplifies the analysis and renders the results applicable to general heat pipe/conduction fin interface designs. The thermal results are summarized in terms of the fin efficiency, a radiation/axial conductance number, and a transverse conductance surface Biot number. These relations, together with those for mass distribution between fins and heat pipes, were used in predicting the minimum radiator mass for fixed thermal properties and fin efficiency. This mass is found to decrease monotonically with increasing fin conductivity. Sensitivities of the minimum mass designs to the problem parameters are determined.

  19. Mass model of the LDEF satellite spacecraft and experiments for ionizing radiation analyses.

    PubMed

    Colborn, B L; Armstrong, T W

    1996-11-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) mass model of the LDEF spacecraft and selected experiments has been developed to allow the influence of material shielding on ionizing radiation measurements and analyses to be determined accurately. This computer model has been applied in a stand-alone mode to provide 3D shielding distributions around radiation dosimeters to aid data interpretation, and has been interfaced with radiation transport codes for a variety of different types of radiation predictions. This paper summarizes the methodology used, the level of detail incorporated, and some example model applications. PMID:11540514

  20. Verifiable associated processes from radiative lepton masses with dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Sean; Ma, Ernest; Zakeri, Mohammadreza

    2016-06-01

    If leptons do not couple directly to the one Higgs doublet of the standard model of particle interactions, they must still do so somehow indirectly to acquire mass, as proposed recently in several models where it happens in one loop through dark matter. We analyze the important consequences of this scenario in a specific model, including Higgs decay, muon anomalous magnetic moment, μ →e γ , μ →e e e , and the proposed dark sector.

  1. A NEW MECHANISM FOR MASS ACCRETION UNDER RADIATION PRESSURE IN MASSIVE STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Kei E. I.; Nakamoto, Taishi

    2010-05-01

    During the formation of a massive star, strong radiation pressure from the central star acts on the dust sublimation front and tends to halt the accretion flow. To overcome this strong radiation pressure, it has been considered that a strong ram pressure produced by a high-mass accretion rate of 10{sup -3} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} or more is needed. We reinvestigated the necessary condition to overcome the radiation pressure and found a new mechanism for overcoming it. Accumulated mass in a stagnant flow near the dust sublimation front helps the mass accretion by its weight. This mechanism relaxes the condition for the massive star formation. We call this mechanism the 'OMOSHI effect', where OMOSHI is an acronym for 'One Mechanism for Overcoming Stellar High radiation pressure by weIght'. Additionally, in Japanese, OMOSHI is a noun meaning a weight that is put on something to prevent it from moving. We investigate the generation of the OMOSHI effect using local one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. The radiation pressure and the gravitational force are connected through the gas pressure, and to sum up, the radiation pressure is balanced or overcome by the gravitational force. We also discuss the global structure and temporal variation of the accretion flow.

  2. Coupled Fluids-Radiation Analysis of a High-Mass Mars Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Grant; Allen, Gary; Tang, Chun; Brown, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The NEQAIR line-by-line radiation code has been incorporated into the DPLR Navier-Stokes flow solver such that the NEQAIR subroutines are now callable functions of DPLR. The coupled DPLR-NEQAIR code was applied to compute the convective and radiative heating rates over high-mass Mars entry vehicles. Two vehicle geometries were considered - a 15 m diameter 70-degree sphere cone configuration and a slender, mid-L/D vehicle with a diameter of 5 m called an Ellipsled. The entry masses ranged from 100 to 165 metric tons. Solutions were generated for entry velocities ranging from 6.5 to 9.1 km/s. The coupled fluids-radiation solutions were performed at the peak heating location along trajectories generated by the Traj trajectory analysis code. The impact of fluids-radiation coupling is a function of the level of radiative heating and the freestream density and velocity. For the high-mass Mars vehicles examined in this study, coupling effects were greatest for entry velocities above 8.5 km/s where the surface radiative heating was reduced by up 17%. Generally speaking, the Ellipsled geometry experiences a lower peak radiative heating rate but a higher peak turbulent convective heating rate than the MSL-based vehicle.

  3. A New Mechanism for Mass Accretion Under Radiation Pressure in Massive Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kei E. I.; Nakamoto, Taishi

    2010-05-01

    During the formation of a massive star, strong radiation pressure from the central star acts on the dust sublimation front and tends to halt the accretion flow. To overcome this strong radiation pressure, it has been considered that a strong ram pressure produced by a high-mass accretion rate of 10-3 M sun yr-1 or more is needed. We reinvestigated the necessary condition to overcome the radiation pressure and found a new mechanism for overcoming it. Accumulated mass in a stagnant flow near the dust sublimation front helps the mass accretion by its weight. This mechanism relaxes the condition for the massive star formation. We call this mechanism the "OMOSHI effect," where OMOSHI is an acronym for "One Mechanism for Overcoming Stellar High radiation pressure by weIght." Additionally, in Japanese, OMOSHI is a noun meaning a weight that is put on something to prevent it from moving. We investigate the generation of the OMOSHI effect using local one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. The radiation pressure and the gravitational force are connected through the gas pressure, and to sum up, the radiation pressure is balanced or overcome by the gravitational force. We also discuss the global structure and temporal variation of the accretion flow.

  4. Pre-Hawking radiation may allow for reconstruction of the mass distribution of the collapsing object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, De-Chang; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2016-07-01

    Hawking radiation explicitly depends only on the black hole's total mass, charge and angular momentum. It is therefore generally believed that one cannot reconstruct the information about the initial mass distribution of an object that made the black hole. However, instead of looking at radiation from a static black hole, we can study the whole time-dependent process of the gravitational collapse, and pre-Hawking radiation which is excited because of the time-dependent metric. We compare radiation emitted by a single collapsing shell with that emitted by two concentric shells of the equivalent total mass. We calculate the gravitational trajectory and the momentum energy tensor. We show that the flux of energy emitted during the collapse by a single shell is significantly different from the flux emitted by two concentric shells of the equivalent total mass. When the static black hole is formed, the fluxes become indistinguishable. This implies that an observer studying the flux of particles from a collapsing object could in principle reconstruct information not only about the total mass of the collapsing object, but also about the mass distribution.

  5. Radiative PQ breaking and the Higgs boson mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Eramo, Francesco; Hall, Lawrence J.; Pappadopulo, Duccio

    2015-06-01

    The small and negative value of the Standard Model Higgs quartic coupling at high scales can be understood in terms of anthropic selection on a landscape where large and negative values are favored: most universes have a very short-lived electroweak vacuum and typical observers are in universes close to the corresponding metastability boundary. We provide a simple example of such a landscape with a Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scale generated through dimensional transmutation and supersymmetry softly broken at an intermediate scale. Large and negative contributions to the Higgs quartic are typically generated on integrating out the saxion field. Cancellations among these contributions are forced by the anthropic requirement of a sufficiently long-lived electroweak vacuum, determining the multiverse distribution for the Higgs quartic in a similar way to that of the cosmological constant. This leads to a statistical prediction of the Higgs boson mass that, for a wide range of parameters, yields the observed value within the 1σ statistical uncertainty of ˜ 5 GeV originating from the multiverse distribution. The strong CP problem is solved and single-component axion dark matter is predicted, with an abundance that can be understood from environmental selection. A more general setting for the Higgs mass prediction is discussed.

  6. Management of Crush Syndrome Casualties after Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Vanholder, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    After direct impact of the trauma, crush syndrome is the second most frequent cause of death after mass disasters. However, since crush syndrome is quite rare in daily practice, mistakes are frequent in the treatment of these cases. This paper summarizes the etiopathogenesis of traumatic rhabdomyolysis and of crush syndrome-based acute kidney injury. The clinical and laboratory features, prophylaxis, and treatment of crush cases are described as well. The importance of early and energetic fluid resuscitation is underlined for prophylaxis of acute kidney injury. Since there is chaos, and an overwhelming number of victims, logistic drawbacks create a specific problem in the treatment of crush victims after mass disasters. Potential solutions for logistic hurdles and disaster preparedness scenarios have also been provided in this review article. PMID:23908797

  7. Integration of Tactical Emergency Casualty Care Into the National Tactical Emergency Medical Support Competency Domains.

    PubMed

    Pennardt, Andre; Kamin, Rich; Llewellyn, Craig; Shapiro, Geoff; Carmona, Philip A; Schwartz, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Tactical emergency medical support (TEMS) is a critical component of the out-of-hospital response to domestic high-threat incidents such as hostage scenarios, warrant service, active shooter or violent incidents, terrorist attacks, and other intentional mass casualty-producing acts. From its grass-roots inception in the form of medical support of select law enforcement special weapons and tactics (SWAT) units in the 1980s, the TEMS subspecialty of prehospital care has rapidly grown and evolved over the past 40 years. The National TEMS Initiative and Council (NTIC) competencies and training objectives are the only published recommendations of their kind and offer the opportunity for national standardization of TEMS training programs and a future accreditation process. Building on the previous work of the NTIC and the creation of acknowledged competency domains for TEMS and the acknowledged civilian translation of TCCC by the Committee for Tactical Emergency Casualty Care (C-TECC), the Joint Review Committee (JRC) has created an opportunity to bring forward the work in a form that could be operationally useful in an all-hazards and whole of community format. PMID:27450605

  8. OMOSHI Effect: A New Mechanism for Mass Accretion under the Radiation Pressure in Massive Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kei; Nakamoto, Taishi

    2009-08-01

    In a massive-star formation process, a high-mass accretion rate is considered to be needed to overcome the strong radiation pressure at the dust sublimation front. We examined the accretion structure near the dust sublimation front and found a new mechanism to overcome this radiation pressure. The weight of the accumulated mass in a stagnant flow near the dust sublimation front helps with the mass accretion. We call this mechanism the ``OMOSHI effect,'' where OMOSHI is an acronym for ``One Mechanism for Overcoming Stellar High radiation pressure by weight.'' OMOSHI is also a Japanese noun meaning a weight that is put on something to prevent it from moving. This mechanism relaxes the condition for the massive star formation.

  9. Radiative Feedback from Primordial Protostars and Final Mass of the First Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Naoki; Yorke, Harold W.

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution, we review our efforts toward understanding the typical mass-scale of primordial stars. Our direct numerical simulations show that, in both of Population III.1 and III.2 cases, strong UV stellar radiative feedback terminatesmass accretion onto a protostar.AnHII region formed around the protostar very dynamically expands throughout the gas accreting envelope, which cuts off the gas supply to a circumstellar disk. The disk is exposed to the stellar UV radiation and loses its mass by photoevaporation. The derived final masses are 43 Stellar Mass and 17 Stellar Mass in our fiducial Population III.1 and III.2 cases. Much more massive stars should form in other exceptional conditions. In atomic-cooling halos where H2 molecules are dissociated, for instance, a protostar grows via very rapid mass accretion with the rates M* approx. 0.1 - 1 Stellar Mass/yr. Our newstellar evolution calculations show that the protostar significantly inflates and never contracts to reach the ZAMS stage in this case. Such the "supergiant protostars" have very low UV luminosity, which results in weak radiative feedback against the accretion flow. In the early universe, supermassive stars formed through this process might provide massive seeds of supermassive black holes.

  10. Leptogenesis, radiative neutrino masses and inert Higgs triplet dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wen-Bin; Gu, Pei-Hong

    2016-05-01

    We extend the standard model by three types of inert fields including Majorana fermion singlets/triplets, real Higgs singlets/triplets and leptonic Higgs doublets. In the presence of a softly broken lepton number and an exactly conserved Z2 discrete symmetry, these inert fields together can mediate a one-loop diagram for a Majorana neutrino mass generation. The heavier inert fields can decay to realize a successful leptogenesis while the lightest inert field can provide a stable dark matter candidate. As an example, we demonstrate the leptogenesis by the inert Higgs doublet decays. We also perform a systematic study on the inert Higgs triplet dark matter scenario where the interference between the gauge and Higgs portal interactions can significantly affect the dark matter properties.

  11. Radiative Corrections for Lepton-Proton Scattering: When the Mass Matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasev, Andrei

    2015-04-01

    Radiative corrections procedures for electron-proton and muon-proton scattering are well established under the assumption that the leptons are considered in an ultra-relativistic approximation. MUSE experiment at PSI and COMPASS experiment at CERN entered the regions of kinematics where explicit dependence of radiative corrections on the lepton mass becomes important. MUSE will consider the scattering of muons with momenta of the order 100 MeV/c, therefore lepton mass corrections become important for the entire kinematic domain. COMPASS experiment uses scattering of 100 GeV/c muons, and the muon mass effects are especially relevant in the quasi-real photo production limit, Q2 --> 0. A dedicated Monte Carlo generator of radiative events is being developed for MUSE, which also includes effects of interference between the lepton and proton bremsstrahlung. Parts of the radiative corrections are expected to be suppressed for muons due to the larger muon mass. Two-photon exchange corrections are generally expected to be small, and should be similar for electrons and muons. We classify the radiative corrections into two categories, C-even and C-odd under the lepton charge reversal, and discuss their role separately for the above experiments.

  12. New U(1) gauge model of radiative lepton masses with sterile neutrino and dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Rathin; Borah, Debasish; Ma, Ernest

    2016-04-01

    An anomaly-free U(1) gauge extension of the standard model (SM) is presented. Only one Higgs doublet with a nonzero vacuum expectation is required as in the SM. New fermions and scalars as well as all SM particles transform nontrivially under this U(1), resulting in a model of three active neutrinos and one sterile neutrino, all acquiring radiative masses. Charged-lepton masses are also radiative as well as the mixing between active and sterile neutrinos. At the same time, a residual Z2 symmetry of the U(1) gauge symmetry remains exact, allowing for the existence of dark matter.

  13. Radiative corrections to the lightest neutral Higgs mass in warped supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Ray, Tirtha Sankar

    2008-10-01

    We compute radiative correction to the lightest neutral Higgs mass (m{sub h}) induced by the Kaluza-Klein (KK) towers of fermions and sfermions in a minimal supersymmetric scenario embeded in a 5-dimensional warped space. The Higgs is confined to the TeV brane. The KK spectra of matter supermultiplets is tied to the explanation of the fermion mass hierarchy problem. We demonstrate that for a reasonable choice of extra-dimensional parameters, the KK-induced radiative correction can enhance the upper limit on m{sub h} by as much as 100 GeV beyond the 4d limit of 135 GeV.

  14. The use of multiple intraosseous catheters in combat casualty resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Debjeet; Philbeck, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    During the current military engagements in Iraq and Afghanistan, establishing intravenous (IV) access for resuscitation of critically injured casualties remains a persistent challenge. Intraosseous (IO) access has emerged as a viable alternative in resuscitation. In this case report, a 19 year-old male soldier was severely wounded by a roadside bomb in Iraq. Given the heavy initial blood loss, anatomic location of the injuries and gross wound contamination, peripheral IV access could not be established. Instead, multiple IO catheters were used to initiate fluid resuscitation prior to transfer to a combat support hospital. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such extensive usage of IO catheters. Multiple IO catheters can be placed rapidly and safely and may help solve the challenge of establishing vascular access for resuscitation of critically injured casualties. PMID:19317188

  15. Exercise London: a disaster exercise involving numerous casualties

    PubMed Central

    Theoret, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    A large-scale disaster exercise was conducted to assess how one large community would handle such a situation — particularly, how it would deal with 150 casualties. The planning, undertaken by a subcommittee composed of representatives of all resource groups in the city, took more than a year. The deficiencies of the disaster plan detected during the exercise, which included a lack of trained personnel and various problems of communication, are now being corrected. PMID:1260617

  16. Implementing and preserving the advances in combat casualty care from Iraq and Afghanistan throughout the US Military.

    PubMed

    Butler, Frank K; Smith, David J; Carmona, Richard H

    2015-08-01

    Thirteen years of continuous combat operations have enabled the US Military and its coalition partners to make a number of major advances in casualty care. The coalition nations have developed a superb combat trauma system and achieved unprecedented casualty survival rates. There remains, however, a need to accelerate the translation of new battlefield trauma care information, training, and equipment to units and individuals deploying in support of combat operations. In addition, the US Military needs to ensure that these advances are sustained during peace intervals and that we continue to build upon our successes as we prepare for future conflicts. This article contains recommendations designed to accomplish those goals. For the proposed actions to benefit all branches of our armed services, the direction will need to come from the Office of the Secretary of Defense in partnership with the Joint Staff. Effective translation of military advances in prehospital trauma care may also increase survival for law enforcement officers wounded in the line of duty and for civilian victims of Active Shooter or terrorist-related mass-casualty incidents. PMID:26218704

  17. Investigation of work zone crash casualty patterns using association rules.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jinxian; Zhu, Jia-Zheng; Yan, Xuedong; Liu, Zhiyuan

    2016-07-01

    Investigation of the casualty crash characteristics and contributory factors is one of the high-priority issues in traffic safety analysis. In this paper, we propose a method based on association rules to analyze the characteristics and contributory factors of work zone crash casualties. A case study is conducted using the Michigan M-94/I-94/I-94BL/I-94BR work zone crash data from 2004 to 2008. The obtained association rules are divided into two parts including rules with high-lift, and rules with high-support for the further analysis. The results show that almost all the high-lift rules contain either environmental or occupant characteristics. The majority of association rules are centered on specific characteristics, such as drinking driving, the highway with more than 4 lanes, speed-limit over 40mph and not use of traffic control devices. It should be pointed out that some stronger associated rules were found in the high-support part. With the network visualization, the association rule method can provide more understandable results for investigating the patterns of work zone crash casualties. PMID:27038500

  18. PBH mass growth through radial accretion during the radiation dominated era

    SciTech Connect

    Lora-Clavijo, F.D.; Guzmán, F.S.; Cruz-Osorio, A. E-mail: guzman@ifm.umich.mx

    2013-12-01

    We model the radial accretion of radiation on Primordial Black Holes (PBH) by numerically solving Einstein's equations coupled to an ultrarelativistic ideal gas with equation of state p = ρ/3. We calculate the final mass of a black hole by the integration of the accreted radiation energy density during the leptonic era between t ∼ 10{sup −4}s to t ∼ 10{sup 2}s after the Big Bang. Our results indicate that small PBHs with initial masses between 10{sup −4} to 1M{sub ⊙} may grow up to hundreds of solar masses, and thus can be SMBH seeds. On the other hand, PBHs formed at t ∼ 1s with initial mass between 900 and ∼ 980M{sub ⊙}, by the time t ∼ 100s show masses of 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 6}M{sub ⊙} which are masses of seeds or already formed SMBHs. The fact that we consider only radial flow implies that our results work well as limiting cases, and it is expected that under more general scenarios the accretion rates may change significantly. Nevertheless we show that it is possible that SMBHs can be PBHs that grew due to the accretion of radiation.

  19. Radiation-tolerant, low-mass, high bandwidth, flexible printed circuit cables for particle physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, N. C.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Seidel, S.

    2016-09-01

    The design of meter long flexible printed circuit cables required for low-mass ultra-high speed signal transmission in the high radiation environment of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider is described. The design geometry is a differential embedded microstrip with 100 Ω nominal impedance. Minimal mass and maximal radiation hardness are pre-eminent considerations. Several dielectric materials are compared. To reduce mass, a cross hatched ground plane is applied. The long flexible printed circuit cables are characterized in bit error rate tests, attenuation versus frequency, mechanical response to temperature induced stress, and dimensional implications on radiation length. These tests are performed before and after irradiation with 1 MeV neutrons to 2×1016/cm2 and 800 MeV protons to 2×1016 1-MeV neutron equivalent/cm2. A 1.0 m Kapton cable with cross hatched ground plane, effective bandwidth of 4.976 gigabits per second, 0.0160% of a radiation length, and no detectable radiation-induced mechanical or electrical degradation is obtained.

  20. NORMALIZING THE THERMAL EFFECTS OF RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION: BODY MASS VERSUS TOTAL BODY SURFACE AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current guideline for exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) of 0.4 W/kg may have inadvertently been set to high. The guideline is based on the rate of RFR absorption normalized with respect to body mass. Based primarily on data for work stoppage in the rat, the 0.4 W/kg ...

  1. Equation of Motion of an Interstellar Bussard Ramjet with Radiation and Mass Losses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semay, Claude; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    An interstellar Bussard ramjet is a spaceship using the protons of the interstellar medium in a fusion engine to produce thrust. In recent papers, it was shown that the relativistic equation of motion of an ideal ramjet and that of a ramjet with radiation loss are analytical. When a mass loss appears, the limit speed of the ramjet is more strongly…

  2. Mesozoic mass extinctions and angiosperm radiation: does the molecular clock tell something new?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2012-03-01

    Angiosperms evolved rapidly in the late Mesozoic. Data from the genetic-based approach called ‘molecular clock’ permit an evaluation of the radiation of flowering plants through geological time and of the possible influences of Mesozoic mass extinctions. A total of 261 divergence ages of angiosperm families are considered. The radiation of flowering plants peaked in the Albian, early Campanian, and Maastrichtian. From the three late Mesozoic mass extinctions (Jurassic/Cretaceous, Cenomanian/Turonian, and Cretaceous/Palaeogene), only the Cretaceous/Palaeogene event coincided with a significant, abrupt, and long-term decline in angiosperm radiation. If their link will be further proven, this means that global-scale environmental perturbation precluded from many innovations in the development of plants. This decline was, however, not unprecedented in the history of the angiosperms. The implication of data from the molecular clock for evolutionary reconstructions is limited, primarily because this approach deals with only extant lineages.

  3. Geometry and mass model of ionizing radiation experiments on the LDEF satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colborn, B. L.; Armstrong, T. W.

    1992-01-01

    Extensive measurements related to ionizing radiation environments and effects were made on the LDEF satellite during its mission lifetime of almost 6 years. These data, together with the opportunity they provide for evaluating predictive models and analysis methods, should allow more accurate assessments of the space radiation environment and related effects for future missions in low Earth orbit. The LDEF radiation dosimetry data is influenced to varying degrees by material shielding effects due to the dosimeter itself, nearby components and experiments, and the spacecraft structure. A geometry and mass model is generated of LDEF, incorporating sufficient detail that it can be applied in determining the influence of material shielding on ionizing radiation measurements and predictions. This model can be used as an aid in data interpretation by unfolding shielding effects from the LDEF radiation dosimeter responses. Use of the LDEF geometry/mass model, in conjunction with predictions and comparisons with LDEF dosimetry data currently underway, will also allow more definitive evaluations of current radiation models for future mission applications.

  4. Geometry and mass model of ionizing radiation experiments on the LDEF satellite. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Colborn, B.L.; Armstrong, T.W.

    1992-04-01

    Extensive measurements related to ionizing radiation environments and effects were made on the LDEF satellite during its mission lifetime of almost 6 years. These data, together with the opportunity they provide for evaluating predictive models and analysis methods, should allow more accurate assessments of the space radiation environment and related effects for future missions in low Earth orbit. The LDEF radiation dosimetry data is influenced to varying degrees by material shielding effects due to the dosimeter itself, nearby components and experiments, and the spacecraft structure. A geometry and mass model is generated of LDEF, incorporating sufficient detail that it can be applied in determining the influence of material shielding on ionizing radiation measurements and predictions. This model can be used as an aid in data interpretation by unfolding shielding effects from the LDEF radiation dosimeter responses. Use of the LDEF geometry/mass model, in conjunction with predictions and comparisons with LDEF dosimetry data currently underway, will also allow more definitive evaluations of current radiation models for future mission applications.

  5. Tactical combat casualty care in the assault on Punta Paitilla Airfield.

    PubMed

    Mucciarone, James J; Llewellyn, Craig H; Wightman, John M

    2006-08-01

    Casualties incurred during the assault on Punta Paitilla Airfield during Operation Just Cause were evaluated through reviews of records and interviews with the participants. There were eight initial casualties. One-half of all subsequent casualties were wounded trying to move to these men while still under effective hostile fire. Consistent with other studies, the most common cause of death was internal hemorrhage; the second most common was catastrophic brain injury. Rapid control of external exsanguination was the technique most likely to prevent death. Tourniquets were applied to three lower extremities for two casualties, without sequelae. PMID:16933806

  6. Multi-Injury Casualty Stream Simulation in a Shipboard Combat Environment.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Edwin; Wing, Vern; Zouris, James; Vickers, Ross; Lawnick, Mary; Galarneau, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Accurate forecasts of casualty streams are essential for estimating personnel and materiel requirements for future naval combat engagements. The scarcity of recent naval combat data makes accurate forecasting difficult. Furthermore, current forecasts are based on single injuries only, even though empirical evidence indicates most battle casualties suffer multiple injuries. These anticipated single-injury casualty streams underestimate the needed medical resources. This article describes a method of simulating realistic multi-injury casualty streams in a maritime environment by combining available shipboard data with ground combat blast data. The simulations, based on the Military Combat Injury Scale, are expected to provide a better tool for medical logistics planning. PMID:26741479

  7. Radiative transitions in charm-strange meson from Nf = 2 twisted mass lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Wu, Ya-Jie

    2016-07-01

    We present an exploratory study on the radiative transition for the charm-strange meson: Ds∗→ D sγ using Nf = 2 twisted mass lattice quantum chromodynamics gauge configurations. The form factor for Ds meson is also determined. The simulation is performed on lattices with lattice spacings a = 0.067 fm and lattice size 323 × 64, and a = 0.085 fm and lattice size 243 × 48, respectively. Our numerical results for radiative decay width and the experimental data overlap within the margin of error.

  8. Paper and people: the work of the casualty reception clerk.

    PubMed

    Hughes, D

    1989-12-01

    This paper examines the exercise of discretion by casualty reception staff, focussing on the problems of accountability that arise when their judgements help shape the process of patient categorization that culminates in clinical diagnosis. Rules and guidelines which ostensibly relate to bureaucratic objectives, are applied in ways which reflect situational exigencies of reception work, and values embedded in organisational culture. But reception staff are reluctant to acknowledge the importance of their decisions, and, particularly where judgements relate to patient condition, present rule-use as a straightforward and certain activity in which interpretation plays little part. PMID:10304220

  9. Application of novel hyperspectral imaging technologies in combat casualty care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancio, Leopoldo C.

    2010-02-01

    Novel hyperspectral imaging (HSI) methods may play several important roles in Combat Casualty Care: (1) HSI of the skin may provide spatial data on hemoglobin saturation of oxygen, as a "window" into perfusion during shock. (2) HSI or similar technology could be incorporated into closed-loop, feedback-controlled resuscitation systems. (3) HSI may provide information about tissue viability and/or wound infection. (4) HSI in the near-infrared range may provide information on the tissue water content--greatly affected, e.g., by fluid resuscitation. Thus, further refinements in the speed and size of HSI systems are sought to make these capabilities available on the battlefield.

  10. Radiative origin of all quark and lepton masses through dark matter with flavor symmetry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ernest

    2014-03-01

    The fundamental issue of the origin of mass for all quarks and leptons (including Majorana neutrinos) is linked to dark matter, odd under an exactly conserved Z2 symmetry which may or may not be derivable from an U(1)D gauge symmetry. The observable sector interacts with a proposed dark sector which consists of heavy neutral singlet Dirac fermions and suitably chosen new scalars. Flavor symmetry is implemented in a renormalizable context with just the one Higgs doublet (ϕ(+), ϕ(0)) of the standard model in such a way that all observed fermions obtain their masses radiatively through dark matter. PMID:24655241

  11. Application of mass spectrometry based electronic nose and chemometrics for fingerprinting radiation treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Volatile compounds were isolated from apples and grapes employing solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and subsequently analyzed by GC/MS equipped with a transfer line without stationary phase. Single peak obtained was integrated to obtain total mass spectrum of the volatile fraction of samples. A data matrix having relative abundance of all mass-to-charge ratios was subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to identify radiation treatment. PCA results suggested that there is sufficient variability between control and irradiated samples to build classification models based on supervised techniques. LDA successfully aided in segregating control from irradiated samples at all doses (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 kGy). SPME-MS with chemometrics was successfully demonstrated as simple screening method for radiation treatment.

  12. Radiative model of neutrino mass with neutrino interacting MeV dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arhrib, Abdesslam; Bœhm, Céline; Ma, Ernest; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang

    2016-04-01

    We consider the radiative generation of neutrino mass through the interactions of neutrinos with MeV dark matter. We construct a realistic renormalizable model with one scalar doublet (in additional to the standard model doublet) and one complex singlet together with three light singlet Majorana fermions, all transforming under a dark U(1)D symmetry which breaks softly to Z2. We study in detail the scalar sector which supports this specific scenario and its rich phenomenology.

  13. On Computations for Thermal Radiation in MHD Channel Flow with Heat and Mass Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, T.; Awais, M.; Alsaedi, A.; Safdar, Ambreen

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the simultaneous effects of heat and mass transfer on the three-dimensional boundary layer flow of viscous fluid between two infinite parallel plates. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and thermal radiation effects are present. The governing problems are first modeled and then solved by homotopy analysis method (HAM). Influence of several embedded parameters on the velocity, concentration and temperature fields are described. PMID:24497968

  14. Simultaneous heat and mass transfer in polymer solutions exposed to intermittent infrared radiation heating

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.J.; Lin, J.D.

    1998-06-01

    Drying is one of the essential steps in a number of industrial applications, such as the preserving of food and the drying of paint, pulp, and paper. The quality of paper tubes is significantly affected by the heat and mass transfer process. The drying of polymer solution plays a crucial role in the manufacturer of photographic film, synthetic fibers, adhesives, and a variety of other polymeric products. During drying of wet materials, simultaneous heat and mass transfer occurs both inside the medium and in the boundary layer of the drying agent. Drying is one of the most energy-consuming processes in the industrial sector and can also be very time consuming as, for example, in conventional convective drying by hot air, while minimum cost and energy consumption and maximum product quality are among the main concerns in industry today. Here, a theoretical study is performed that describes heat transfer and moisture variation while a polymer solution is exposed to high-intensity infrared radiation flux and/or an airflow. While the intermittent heating is considered, the authors investigate the influences of various radiation and convection parameters on the transfer of heat and moisture variation of coated layers on an optically thick substrate. During the tempering stage in the intermittent heating process, the convective mass transfer is included to simulate the ambient air in reality. The effects of radiation and convection parameters on the transfer processes are presented in terms of the rate of water content removal, heat transfer, and moisture distributions. Numerical results show that the rate of water removal from the polymer solution is dominated by both the adsorbed radiative heat energy and the distributions of water mass fraction in the polymer solution.

  15. Radiatively induced Lorentz-violating operator of mass dimension five in QED

    SciTech Connect

    Mariz, T.

    2011-02-15

    The first higher derivative term of the photon sector of Lorentz-violating QED, with an operator of mass dimension d=5, is radiatively induced from the fermion sector, which contains a derivative term with the dimensionless coefficient g{sup {lambda}{mu}{nu}}. The calculation is performed perturbatively in the coefficient for Lorentz violation, and, due to the fact that the contributions are quadratically divergent, we adopt dimensional regularization.

  16. Imaging components for a robotic casualty evaluation system.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kenneth H; Lob, Shih-Chung; Lin, Ching-Fang; Lasser, Bob; Mun, Seong K

    2009-01-01

    Combat medics have a vital role in the protection of wounded soldiers in the battlespace. However, their duties expose them to great risks. Furthermore, these medics are a limited resource and must be carefully tasked in order to provide maximum benefit to their units. For these reasons, we are applying the American GNC Corporation's (AGNC) Coremicro(R) Robotic System for autonomous evaluation of battlefield casualties. These robots are intended to navigate to a casualty, determine his/her overall health status, and perform limited diagnostic imaging in order to assess the presence of injuries that would prevent or complicate extraction. In this paper, we describe development work on some of the key components of the proposed robotic system, namely the overall concept of operations (ConOps) and initial testing of infrared and ultrasound imaging cameras. When fully deployed, this system will act as a medical force multiplier, enabling improved care of wounded soldiers and protecting the health and safety of military medical personnel. PMID:19964740

  17. Low-mass, intrinsically-hard high temperature radiator. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    1990-07-15

    This paper reports on the investigation of layered ceramic/metal composites in the design of low-mass hardened radiators for space heat rejection systems. The investigation is part of the Strategic Defence Initiative. This effort evaluated the use of layered composites as a material to form thin-walled, vacuum leaktight heat pipes. The heat pipes would be incorporated into a large heat pipe radiator for waste heat rejection from a space nuclear power source. Composite materials evaluations were performed on combinations of refractory metals and ceramic powders. Fabrication experiments were performed to demonstrate weldability. Two titanium/titanium diboride composite tubes were successfully fabricated into potassium heat pipes and operated at temperatures in excess of 700C. Testing and analysis for composite tubes are described in the report. The study has verified the feasibility of using layered composites for forming thin-walled, light weight heat pipe tubes for use in hardened space radiators.

  18. Laser Desorption Postionization Mass Spectrometry of Antibiotic-Treated Bacterial Biofilms using Tunable Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gasper, Gerald L; Takahashi, Lynelle K; Zhou, Jia; Ahmed, Musahid; Moore, Jerry F; Hanley, Luke

    2010-08-04

    Laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) with 8.0 ? 12.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation is used to single photon ionize antibiotics andextracellular neutrals that are laser desorbed both neat and from intact bacterial biofilms. Neat antibiotics are optimally detected using 10.5 eV LDPI-MS, but can be ionized using 8.0 eV radiation, in agreement with prior work using 7.87 eV LDPI-MS. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation also postionizes laser desorbed neutrals of antibiotics and extracellular material from within intact bacterial biofilms. Different extracellular material is observed by LDPI-MS in response to rifampicin or trimethoprim antibiotic treatment. Once again, 10.5 eV LDPI-MS displays the optimum trade-off between improved sensitivity and minimum fragmentation. Higher energy photons at 12.5 eV produce significant parent ion signal, but fragment intensity and other low mass ions are also enhanced. No matrix is added to enhance desorption, which is performed at peak power densities insufficient to directly produce ions, thus allowing observation of true VUV postionization mass spectra of antibiotic treated biofilms.

  19. Identification and Quantitation of Biomarkers for Radiation-Induced Injury via Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jace W.; Scott, Alison J.; Tudor, Gregory; Xu, Pu-Ting; Jackson, Isabel L.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Booth, Catherine; MacVittie, Thomas J.; Ernst, Robert K.; Kane, Maureen A.

    2013-01-01

    Biomarker identification and validation for radiation exposure is a rapidly expanding field encompassing the need for well-defined animal models and advanced analytical techniques. The resources within the consortium, Medical Countermeasures Against Radiological Threats (MCART), provide a unique opportunity for accessing well-defined animal models that simulate the key sequelae of the acute radiation syndrome and the delayed effects of acute radiation exposure. Likewise, the use of mass spectrometry-based analytical techniques for biomarker discovery and validation enables a robust analytical platform that is amenable to a variety of sample matrices and considered the benchmark for bio-molecular identification and quantitation. Herein, we demonstrate the use of two targeted mass spectrometry approaches to link established MCART animal models to identified metabolite biomarkers. Circulating citrulline concentration was correlated to gross histological gastrointestinal tissue damage and retinoic acid production in lung tissue was established to be reduced at early and late time points post high dose irradiation. Going forward, the use of mass spectrometry-based metabolomics coupled to well-defined animal models provides the unique opportunity for comprehensive biomarker discovery. PMID:24276554

  20. Laser Desorption Postionization Mass Spectrometry of Antibiotic-Treated Bacterial Biofilms using Tunable Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Gasper, Gerald L.; Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Zhou, Jia; Ahmed, Musahid; Moore, Jerry F.; Hanley, Luke

    2010-01-01

    Laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) with 8.0 – 12.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation is used to single photon ionize antibiotics and extracellular neutrals that are laser desorbed both neat and from intact bacterial biofilms. Neat antibiotics are optimally detected using 10.5 eV LDPI-MS, but can be ionized using 8.0 eV radiation, in agreement with prior work using 7.87 eV LDPI-MS. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation also postionizes laser desorbed neutrals of antibiotics and extracellular material from within intact bacterial biofilms. Different extracellular material is observed by LDPI-MS in response to rifampicin or trimethoprim antibiotic treatment. Once again, 10.5 eV LDPI-MS displays the optimum trade-off between improved sensitivity and minimum fragmentation. Higher energy photons at 12.5 eV produce significant parent ion signal, but fragment intensity and other low mass ions are also enhanced. No matrix is added to enhance desorption, which is performed at peak power densities insufficient to directly produce ions, thus allowing observation of true VUV postionization mass spectra of antibiotic treated biofilms. PMID:20712373

  1. Losses of Energetic Electrons in Earth's Outer Radiation Belt During Unusual Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugaz, Noé; Huang, Chia-Lin; Schwadron, Nathan; Spence, Harlan; Farrugia, Charles; Winslow, Reka

    2016-07-01

    The most extreme changes in solar wind parameters important for the coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere (dynamic pressure, dawn-to-dusk electric field, Alfven Mach number, plasma beta, …) occur during the passage at Earth of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). While the response of Earth's radiation belts to CMEs and CME-driven shocks has been investigated in great details, few studies have focused on what makes some CMEs and their shocks especially effective in driving losses of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt. Here, we present specific examples of losses during the passage at Earth of a coronal mass ejection. In particular, we discuss the conditions which may result in the magnetopause to retreat earthward up to geosynchronous orbit, resulting in significant losses of energetic electrons due to magnetopause shadowing. We also present the result of a low-density magnetic ejecta which impacted Earth in January 2013. Combining interplanetary, magnetosheath, outer magnetosphere and radiation belt measurements by more than ten satellites, including the Van Allen Probes, THEMIS and Cluster, we show how a period of extremely low Mach number and dynamic pressure during the passage of the magnetic cloud resulted in dramatic losses in the outer radiation belt and a large-scale reorganization of the entire day-side magnetosphere.

  2. 33 CFR 173.81 - Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. 173.81 Section 173.81 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Issue of Certificate of Number § 173.81 Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. (a) In...

  3. 49 CFR 850.25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. 850.25 Section 850.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.25 Coast Guard...

  4. 33 CFR 173.81 - Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. 173.81 Section 173.81 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Issue of Certificate of Number § 173.81 Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. (a) In...

  5. 46 CFR 4.40-25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. 4.40-25 Section 4.40-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety...

  6. 33 CFR 173.81 - Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. 173.81 Section 173.81 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Issue of Certificate of Number § 173.81 Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. (a) In...

  7. 33 CFR 173.81 - Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. 173.81 Section 173.81 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Issue of Certificate of Number § 173.81 Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. (a) In...

  8. 46 CFR 4.40-25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. 4.40-25 Section 4.40-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety...

  9. 33 CFR 173.81 - Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. 173.81 Section 173.81 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Issue of Certificate of Number § 173.81 Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. (a) In...

  10. 46 CFR 4.40-25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. 4.40-25 Section 4.40-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety...

  11. 33 CFR 174.121 - Forwarding of casualty or accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accident reports. 174.121 Section 174.121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... § 174.121 Forwarding of casualty or accident reports. Within 30 days of the receipt of a casualty or accident report, each State that has an approved numbering system must forward a copy of that report to...

  12. 77 FR 8956 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Grange Mutual Casualty Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Supplement No. 7 to the Treasury Department Circular 570, 2011 Revision, published July 1, 2011, at 76 FR... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Grange Mutual Casualty Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Grange Mutual Casualty Company (NAIC 14060). Business Address: 671...

  13. 49 CFR 850.15 - Marine casualty investigation by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of practice for transportation accident hearings in 49 CFR part 845 shall apply. (b) The Board shall... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty investigation by the Board. 850.15... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS §...

  14. 46 CFR 4.40-15 - Marine casualty investigation by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...'s rules of practice for transportation accident hearings in 49 CFR part 845 shall apply. (b) The... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty investigation by the Board. 4.40-15... MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety Board Marine...

  15. 33 CFR 174.121 - Forwarding of casualty or accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accident reports. 174.121 Section 174.121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... § 174.121 Forwarding of casualty or accident reports. Within 30 days of the receipt of a casualty or accident report, each State that has an approved numbering system must forward a copy of that report to...

  16. 33 CFR 164.61 - Marine casualty reporting and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 4.03-1, the master or person in charge of the vessel shall: (a) Ensure compliance with 46 CFR... required by 46 CFR 4.05-15 are retained for: (1) 30 days after the casualty if the vessel remains in the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marine casualty reporting...

  17. 46 CFR 4.40-15 - Marine casualty investigation by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...'s rules of practice for transportation accident hearings in 49 CFR part 845 shall apply. (b) The... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine casualty investigation by the Board. 4.40-15... MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety Board Marine...

  18. 33 CFR 164.61 - Marine casualty reporting and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 4.03-1, the master or person in charge of the vessel shall: (a) Ensure compliance with 46 CFR... required by 46 CFR 4.05-15 are retained for: (1) 30 days after the casualty if the vessel remains in the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marine casualty reporting...

  19. 49 CFR 850.15 - Marine casualty investigation by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of practice for transportation accident hearings in 49 CFR part 845 shall apply. (b) The Board shall... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine casualty investigation by the Board. 850.15... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS §...

  20. 33 CFR 164.61 - Marine casualty reporting and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 4.03-1, the master or person in charge of the vessel shall: (a) Ensure compliance with 46 CFR... required by 46 CFR 4.05-15 are retained for: (1) 30 days after the casualty if the vessel remains in the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marine casualty reporting...

  1. 49 CFR 850.15 - Marine casualty investigation by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of practice for transportation accident hearings in 49 CFR part 845 shall apply. (b) The Board shall... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine casualty investigation by the Board. 850.15... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS §...

  2. Dynamic Universe Model predicts frequency shifting in electromagnetic radiation near gravitating masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naga Parameswara Gupta, Satyavarapu

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, Dynamic Universe Model studies the light rays and other electromagnetic radiation passing grazingly near any gravitating mass. This change in frequency will depend on relative direction of movement between mass and radiation. Change in frequency depends on relative direction between ray and the Gravitating mass. Here in this paper we will mathematically derive the results and show these predictions. Dynamic Universe Model uses a new type of Tensor. There are no differential or integral equations here. No singularities and body to body collisions in this model. Many papers were published in USA and CANADA. See Dynamic Universe Model Blog for further details and papers Dynamic Universe Model never reduces to General relativity on any condition. It uses a different type of mathematics based on Newtonian physics. This mathematics used here is simple and straightforward. As there are no differential equations present in Dynamic Universe Model, the set of equations give single solution in x y z Cartesian coordinates for every point mass for every time step Keywords: Dynamic Universe Model, Hubble Space telescope (HST), SITA simulations , singularity-free cosmology,

  3. Analysis of Mass Loss of a Polymeric Composite under Space Radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanshin, Rashid

    2016-07-01

    Polymeric materials find ever-widening application in space technique. This is tied with the simplicity of producing the polymeric-based composites with the predetermined set of properties. However, these materials in space become the sources of volatile products that increase density of spacecraft outer atmosphere that undermines on serviceability of the on-board equipment. Therefore, study of mass loss of spacecraft materials in service conditions is a vital task. Polymeric composites are often used as thermal control coatings (TCC), which are subjected to maximum radiation exposure in service. It is known that irradiation of a PC is accompanied by intense gas formation but evolution of volatile products (VP) through the material-vacuum surface is limited by diffusion. Well-developed surface together with little thickness of a TCC film facilitate migration of radiolysis products to free coating surface. In this case outgassing and destruction of material augment permeability of the film, accelerate migration processes and make them easier. This work is devoted to studying action of separate (electron, proton, and electromagnetic), paired, and the whole set of radiations on mass loss of a pattern material in vacuum. The primary focus was on studying and interpretation of synergistic effects appearing in the course of mass loss of the pattern materials EKOM-1 and EKOM-2 polymeric composites, the widely used spacecraft TCC. Irradiation was made by 20-50-keV electrons and 20-keV protons and electromagnetic radiation in vacuum chamber of the UV-1/2 test facility. It was found that parameters characterizing the synergistic effects of mass loss of the material for fixed conditions of electron-proton and combined radiations are the functions of irradiation time. To interpret the experimental data, a physical-mathematical model of mass loss of polymeric materials in vacuum was proposed. The obtained data can be explained by diffusion fluxes associated with the gradient of

  4. Astrophysical constraints on the radiative lifetime of neutrinos with mass between 10 and 100 eV/c-squared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, R.; Bowyer, S.; Jakobsen, P.

    1981-01-01

    Upper limits to astronomical photon backgrounds are used to derive constraints on the radiative lifetime of neutrinos. With the assumption that the radiative decay dominates the decay routes available, comparisons with predicted fluxes exclude radiative lifetimes between 10 to the 13th and 10 to the 22nd-23rd sec for neutrinos which decay to lighter neutrinos and 5-50 eV photons. For a secondary neutrino mass much less than the parent neutrino mass, this photon-energy range corresponds to a parent-neutrino-mass range of 10-100 eV/c-squared.

  5. Mathematical Analysis of Space Radiator Segmenting for Increased Reliability and Reduced Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft for long duration deep space missions will need to be designed to survive micrometeoroid bombardment of their surfaces some of which may actually be punctured. To avoid loss of the entire mission the damage due to such punctures must be limited to small, localized areas. This is especially true for power system radiators, which necessarily feature large surface areas to reject heat at relatively low temperature to the space environment by thermal radiation. It may be intuitively obvious that if a space radiator is composed of a large number of independently operating segments, such as heat pipes, a random micrometeoroid puncture will result only in the loss of the punctured segment, and not the entire radiator. Due to the redundancy achieved by independently operating segments, the wall thickness and consequently the weight of such segments can be drastically reduced. Probability theory is used to estimate the magnitude of such weight reductions as the number of segments is increased. An analysis of relevant parameter values required for minimum mass segmented radiators is also included.

  6. Gas Puff Radiation Performance As a Function of Radial Mass Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Philip L.; Krishnan, Mahadevan; Prasad, Rahul; Qi, Niansheng; Waisman, Eduardo; Failor, B. H.; Levine, J. S.; Sze, H.

    2002-12-01

    The basic concept of a z-pinch, that JxB forces implode a shell of mass, creating a hot dense plasma on-axis, is coming under closer scrutiny. Wire arrays may start with an initial cold mass in a near "ideal" shell, but in fact they appear to develop complex radial mass distributions well before the final x-ray output [1,2]. We consider here the situation for gas puff z-pinches. While the ideal of a gas "shell" has been the nominal objective for many years, detailed measurements of gas flow show that nozzles used for plasma radiation sources (PRS) also have complex radial distributions. In particular, there are significant data [3] showing that the best x-ray yield comes from the least shell-like distributions. Recent experiments on the Double Eagle generator with argon have further enhanced this view [4]. For those tests with a double "shell" nozzle, there was a factor of almost 4 increase in yield when the relative mass (outer:inner) in the two shells was changed from 2:1 to less than 1:1. We suggest the following explanation. A configuration with most of its mass at large radii is subject to severe disruption by instabilities during the implosion. A more continuous radial mass distribution with dρ/dr < 0 may mitigate instability development (via the "snowplow stabilization" [5] mechanism) and thus enhance the thermalization of the kinetic energy of the imploding mass. In addition, the appropriate balance of outer to inner mass maximizes the formation of a strong shock in the core of the pinch that heats the plasma and leads to x-ray emission.

  7. Study of mass loss of spacecraft polymeric thermal control coatings under electron and proton radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanshin, Rashid; Novikov, Lev; Galygin, Alexander

    Polymeric composites have a number of properties that give a possibility to apply them as spacecraft external coatings. In space environment, however, such materials become one of the main sources of volatile products that form the outer spacecraft atmosphere and are able to con-dense on contamination-sensitive surfaces of onboard equipment. Thermal control coatings oc-cupy a considerable part of a satellite surface and are mostly subjected to ionizing radiations ac-companying by outgassing. The main stages of the process are the following: formation of vola-tile radiolysis products, diffusion of the products to free material surface, and desorption. Radia-tion-induced destruction and outgassing of material increase its permeability and accelerate mi-gration processes in it. Experimental data of effect of radiation on mass loss of polymeric composites used as thermal control coatings was analyzed and interpreted in the work. As a particular case, it was shown that mass loss of a polymeric composite irradiated by protons is greater than by electrons if energies and flux densities of the particles are the same. It can be explained that volatile products, in the first case, generate within a thin near-surface layer of material which permeability increases together with the absorbed dose, and quickly escape in vacuum. In the second case, a bulk of volatile products emerges far enough from the free surface of material which permeability increases slower as compared with proton radiation. Therefore, migration time of volatile products to the free surface grows and quantity of chemical reactions which they are involved in increases. To analyze and interpret experimental data, a mathematical model describing mass loss of polymeric composites subject to its growth of permeability under radiation is proposed. Based upon analysis of experiments and numerical simulation results, thresholds of fluen-cies and flux densities of electron and proton were determined. Exceeding these

  8. A redundant resource: a pre-planned casualty clearing station for a FIFA 2010 Stadium in Durban.

    PubMed

    Hardcastle, Timothy C; Samlal, Sanjay; Naidoo, Rajen; Hendrikse, Steven; Gloster, Alex; Ramlal, Melvin; Ngema, Sibongiseni; Rowe, Michael

    2012-10-01

    This report details the background, planning, and establishment of a mass-casualty management area for the Durban Moses Mabhida Stadium at the Natal Mounted Rifles base, by the Department of Health and the eThekwini Fire and Rescue Service, for the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 2010 Soccer World Cup. The report discusses the use of the site during the seven matches played at that stadium, and details the aspects of mass-gathering major incident site planning for football (soccer). The area also was used as a treatment area for other single patient incidents outside of the stadium, but within the exclusion perimeter, and the 22 patients treated by the Casualty Clearing Station (CCS) team are described and briefly discussed. A site-specific patient presentation rate of 0.48 per 10,000 and transport-to-hospital rate (TTHR) of 0.09/10,000 are reported. Lessons learned and implications for future event planning are discussed in the light of the existing literature. PMID:22591650

  9. Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics Identifies Longitudinal Urinary Metabolite Profiles Predictive of Radiation-Induced Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cook, John A; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V R; Anver, Miriam R; Sowers, Anastasia L; Thetford, Angela; Krausz, Kristopher W; Gonzalez, Frank J; Mitchell, James B; Patterson, Andrew D

    2016-03-15

    Nonlethal exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) is a public concern due to its known carcinogenic effects. Although latency periods for IR-induced neoplasms are relatively long, the ability to detect cancer as early as possible is highly advantageous for effective therapeutic intervention. Therefore, we hypothesized that metabolites in the urine from mice exposed to total body radiation (TBI) would predict for the presence of cancer before a palpable mass was detected. In this study, we exposed mice to 0 or 5.4 Gy TBI, collected urine samples periodically over 1 year, and assayed urine metabolites by using mass spectrometry. Longitudinal data analysis within the first year post-TBI revealed that cancers, including hematopoietic, solid, and benign neoplasms, could be distinguished by unique urinary signatures as early as 3 months post-TBI. Furthermore, a distinction among different types of malignancies could be clearly delineated as early as 3 months post-TBI for hematopoietic neoplasms, 6 months for solid neoplasms, and by 1 year for benign neoplasms. Moreover, the feature profile for radiation-exposed mice 6 months post-TBI was found to be similar to nonirradiated control mice at 18 months, suggesting that TBI accelerates aging. These results demonstrate that urine feature profiles following TBI can identify cancers in mice prior to macroscopic detection, with important implications for the early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26880804

  10. Mass-Analyzed Threshold Ionization (MATI) Spectroscopy of Atoms and Molecules using VUV Synchrotron Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kostko, Oleg; Kim, Sang Kyu; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2009-01-28

    Mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation (Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) has been performed for Ar, N2, O2, N2O, H2O, C2H2, and C6H6. MATI allows for a better determination of ionization energies compared to those derived from photoionization efficiency curves traditionally used in synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. The separation of the long-lived Rydberg state from the directly-formed prompt ion, essential for a meaningful MATI spectrum, has been accomplished by employing an arrangement of ion optics coupled to unique electric-field pulsing schemes. For Ar, a number of resolved bands below the ionization energy are observed, and these are ascribed to high-n,l Rydberg states prepared in the MATI scheme. The first vibrational stateresolved MATI spectra of N2 and O2 are reported and spectral characteristics are discussed in comparison with previously-reported threshold photoelectron spectroscopic studies. While MATI performed with synchrotron radiation is intrinsically less sensitive compared to laser based sources, this work demonstrates that MATI spectroscopy performed with widely tunable VUV radiation is a complementary technique for studying the ionization spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules.

  11. A Casualty in the Class War: Canada's Medicare

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    “There's class warfare, all right, but it's my class, the rich class, that's making war, and we're winning.” (Warren Buffett, five years ago.) Last year's Occupy Wall Street movement suggested that people are finally catching on. Note, making war: Buffett meant that there was deliberate intent and agency behind the huge transfer of wealth, since 1980, from the 99% to the 1%. Nor is the war metaphorical. There are real casualties, even if no body bags. Sadly, much Canadian commentary on inequality is pitiably naïve or deliberately obfuscatory. The 1% have captured national governments. The astronomical cost of American elections excludes the 99%. In Canada, parliamentary government permits one man to rule as a de facto dictator. The 1% don't like medicare. PMID:23372577

  12. A Casualty in the Class War: Canada's Medicare.

    PubMed

    Evans, Robert G

    2012-02-01

    "There's class warfare, all right, but it's my class, the rich class, that's making war, and we're winning." (Warren Buffett, five years ago.) Last year's Occupy Wall Street movement suggested that people are finally catching on. Note, making war: Buffett meant that there was deliberate intent and agency behind the huge transfer of wealth, since 1980, from the 99% to the 1%. Nor is the war metaphorical. There are real casualties, even if no body bags. Sadly, much Canadian commentary on inequality is pitiably naïve or deliberately obfuscatory. The 1% have captured national governments. The astronomical cost of American elections excludes the 99%. In Canada, parliamentary government permits one man to rule as a de facto dictator. The 1% don't like medicare. PMID:23372577

  13. Meeting Radiation Protection Requirements and Reducing Spacecraft Mass - A Multifunctional Materials Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Reddell, Brandon; Rojdev, Kristina; Franklin, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Both crew and radio-sensitive systems, especially electronics must be protected from the effects of the space radiation environment. One method of mitigating this radiation exposure is to use passive-shielding materials. In previous vehicle designs such as the International Space Station (ISS), materials such as aluminum and polyethylene have been used as parasitic shielding to protect crew and electronics from exposure, but these designs add mass and decrease the amount of usable volume inside the vehicle. Thus, it is of interest to understand whether structural materials can also be designed to provide the radiation shielding capability needed for crew and electronics, while still providing weight savings and increased useable volume when compared against previous vehicle shielding designs. In this paper, we present calculations and analysis using the HZETRN (deterministic) and FLUKA (Monte Carlo) codes to investigate the radiation mitigation properties of these structural shielding materials, which includes graded-Z and composite materials. This work is also a follow-on to an earlier paper, that compared computational results for three radiation transport codes, HZETRN, HETC, and FLUKA, using the Feb. 1956 solar particle event (SPE) spectrum. In the following analysis, we consider the October 1989 Ground Level Enhanced (GLE) SPE as the input source term based on the Band function fitting method. Using HZETRN and FLUKA, parametric absorbed doses at the center of a hemispherical structure on the lunar surface are calculated for various thicknesses of graded-Z layups and an all-aluminum structure. HZETRN and FLUKA calculations are compared and are in reasonable (18% to 27%) agreement. Both codes are in agreement with respect to the predicted shielding material performance trends. The results from both HZETRN and FLUKA are analyzed and the radiation protection properties and potential weight savings of various materials and materials lay-ups are compared.

  14. Uncertainty in Modeling Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing from Size Parameterization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Chun; Chen, Siyu; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Qian, Yun; Kok, Jasper; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Huang, J.

    2013-11-05

    This study examines the uncertainties in simulating mass balance and radiative forcing of mineral dust due to biases in the aerosol size parameterization. Simulations are conducted quasi-globally (180oW-180oE and 60oS-70oN) using the WRF24 Chem model with three different approaches to represent aerosol size distribution (8-bin, 4-bin, and 3-mode). The biases in the 3-mode or 4-bin approaches against a relatively more accurate 8-bin approach in simulating dust mass balance and radiative forcing are identified. Compared to the 8-bin approach, the 4-bin approach simulates similar but coarser size distributions of dust particles in the atmosphere, while the 3-mode pproach retains more fine dust particles but fewer coarse dust particles due to its prescribed og of each mode. Although the 3-mode approach yields up to 10 days longer dust mass lifetime over the remote oceanic regions than the 8-bin approach, the three size approaches produce similar dust mass lifetime (3.2 days to 3.5 days) on quasi-global average, reflecting that the global dust mass lifetime is mainly determined by the dust mass lifetime near the dust source regions. With the same global dust emission (~6000 Tg yr-1), the 8-bin approach produces a dust mass loading of 39 Tg, while the 4-bin and 3-mode approaches produce 3% (40.2 Tg) and 25% (49.1 Tg) higher dust mass loading, respectively. The difference in dust mass loading between the 8-bin approach and the 4-bin or 3-mode approaches has large spatial variations, with generally smaller relative difference (<10%) near the surface over the dust source regions. The three size approaches also result in significantly different dry and wet deposition fluxes and number concentrations of dust. The difference in dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) (a factor of 3) among the three size approaches is much larger than their difference (25%) in dust mass loading. Compared to the 8-bin approach, the 4-bin approach yields stronger dust absorptivity, while the 3-mode

  15. Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolite Profiling in the Mouse Liver following Exposure to Ultraviolet B Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Min; Shon, Jong Cheol; Lee, Mee Youn; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Kim, Jeong Kee; Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Although many studies have been performed on the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the skin, only a limited number of reports have investigated these effects on non-skin tissue. This study aimed to describe the metabolite changes in the liver of hairless mice following chronic exposure to UVB radiation. We did not observe significant macroscopic changes or alterations in hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the liver of UVB-irradiated mice, compared with those for normal mice. In this study, we detected hepatic metabolite changes by UVB exposure and identified several amino acids, fatty acids, nucleosides, carbohydrates, phospholipids, lysophospholipids, and taurine-conjugated cholic acids as candidate biomarkers in response to UVB radiation in the mouse liver by using various mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolite profiling including ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF)-MS, gas chromatography-TOF-MS and nanomate LTQ-MS. Glutamine exhibited the most dramatic change with a 5-fold increase in quantity. The results from altering several types of metabolites suggest that chronic UVB irradiation may impact significantly on major hepatic metabolism processes, despite the fact that the liver is not directly exposed to UVB radiation. MS-based metabolomic approach for determining regulatory hepatic metabolites following UV irradiation will provide a better understanding of the relationship between internal organs and UV light. PMID:25275468

  16. Bright betatronlike x rays from radiation pressure acceleration of a mass-limited foil target.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tong-Pu; Pukhov, Alexander; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Liu, Feng; Shvets, Gennady

    2013-01-25

    By using multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we study the electromagnetic emission from radiation pressure acceleration of ultrathin mass-limited foils. When a circularly polarized laser pulse irradiates the foil, the laser radiation pressure pushes the foil forward as a whole. The outer wings of the pulse continue to propagate and act as a natural undulator. Electrons move together with ions longitudinally but oscillate around the latter transversely, forming a self-organized helical electron bunch. When the electron oscillation frequency coincides with the laser frequency as witnessed by the electron, betatronlike resonance occurs. The emitted x rays by the resonant electrons have high brightness, short durations, and broad band ranges which may have diverse applications. PMID:25166170

  17. Center of mass and spin for isolated sources of gravitational radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozameh, Carlos N.; Quiroga, Gonzalo D.

    2016-03-01

    We define the center of mass and spin of an isolated system in general relativity. The resulting relationships between these variables and the total linear and angular momentum of the gravitational system are remarkably similar to their Newtonian counterparts, though only variables at the null boundary of an asymptotically flat spacetime are used for their definition. We also derive equations of motion linking their time evolution to the emitted gravitational radiation. The results are then compared to other approaches. In particular, one obtains unexpected similarities as well as some differences with results obtained in the post-Newtonian literature. These equations of motion should be useful when describing the radiation emitted by compact sources, such as coalescing binaries capable of producing gravitational kicks, supernovas, or scattering of compact objects.

  18. Detection of Radiation-Exposure Biomarkers by Differential Mobility Prefiltered Mass Spectrometry (DMS-MS)

    PubMed Central

    Coy, Stephen L.; Krylov, Evgeny V.; Schneider, Bradley B.; Covey, Thomas R.; Brenner, David J.; Tyburski, John B.; Patterson, Andrew D.; Krausz, Kris W.; Fornace, Albert J.; Nazarov, Erkinjon G.

    2010-01-01

    Technology to enable rapid screening for radiation exposure has been identified as an important need, and, as a part of a NIH / NIAD effort in this direction, metabolomic biomarkers for radiation exposure have been identified in a recent series of papers. To reduce the time necessary to detect and measure these biomarkers, differential mobility spectrometry – mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) systems have been developed and tested. Differential mobility ion filters preselect specific ions and also suppress chemical noise created in typical atmospheric-pressure ionization sources (ESI, MALDI, and others). Differential-mobility-based ion selection is based on the field dependence of ion mobility, which, in turn, depends on ion characteristics that include conformation, charge distribution, molecular polarizability, and other properties, and on the transport gas composition which can be modified to enhance resolution. DMS-MS is able to resolve small-molecule biomarkers from nearly-isobaric interferences, and suppresses chemical noise generated in the ion source and in the mass spectrometer, improving selectivity and quantitative accuracy. Our planar DMS design is rapid, operating in a few milliseconds, and analyzes ions before fragmentation. Depending on MS inlet conditions, DMS-selected ions can be dissociated in the MS inlet expansion, before mass analysis, providing a capability similar to MS/MS with simpler instrumentation. This report presents selected DMS-MS experimental results, including resolution of complex test mixtures of isobaric compounds, separation of charge states, separation of isobaric biomarkers (citrate and isocitrate), and separation of nearly-isobaric biomarker anions in direct analysis of a bio-fluid sample from the radiation-treated group of a mouse-model study. These uses of DMS combined with moderate resolution MS instrumentation indicate the feasibility of field-deployable instrumentation for biomarker evaluation. PMID:20305793

  19. Development and application of a 3-D geometry/mass model for LDEF satellite ionizing radiation assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colborn, B. L.; Armstong, T. W.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional geometry and mass model of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) spacecraft and experiment trays was developed for use in predictions and data interpretation related to ionizing radiation measurements. The modeling approach, level of detail incorporated, example models for specific experiments and radiation dosimeters, and example applications of the model are described.

  20. Spectral and Structure Modeling of Low and High Mass Young Stars Using a Radiative Trasnfer Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson Rocha, Will; Pilling, Sergio

    The spectroscopy data from space telescopes (ISO, Spitzer, Herchel) shows that in addition to dust grains (e.g. silicates), there is also the presence of the frozen molecular species (astrophysical ices, such as H _{2}O, CO, CO _{2}, CH _{3}OH) in the circumstellar environments. In this work we present a study of the modeling of low and high mass young stellar objects (YSOs), where we highlight the importance in the use of the astrophysical ices processed by the radiation (UV, cosmic rays) comes from stars in formation process. This is important to characterize the physicochemical evolution of the ices distributed by the protostellar disk and its envelope in some situations. To perform this analysis, we gathered (i) observational data from Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) related with low mass protostar Elias29 and high mass protostar W33A, (ii) absorbance experimental data in the infrared spectral range used to determinate the optical constants of the materials observed around this objects and (iii) a powerful radiative transfer code to simulate the astrophysical environment (RADMC-3D, Dullemond et al, 2012). Briefly, the radiative transfer calculation of the YSOs was done employing the RADMC-3D code. The model outputs were the spectral energy distribution and theoretical images in different wavelengths of the studied objects. The functionality of this code is based on the Monte Carlo methodology in addition to Mie theory for interaction among radiation and matter. The observational data from different space telescopes was used as reference for comparison with the modeled data. The optical constants in the infrared, used as input in the models, were calculated directly from absorbance data obtained in the laboratory of both unprocessed and processed simulated interstellar samples by using NKABS code (Rocha & Pilling 2014). We show from this study that some absorption bands in the infrared, observed in the spectrum of Elias29 and W33A can arises after the ices

  1. PQ-symmetry for a small Dirac neutrino mass, dark radiation and cosmic neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Wan-Il

    2014-06-01

    We propose a supersymmetric scenario in which the small Yukawa couplings for the Dirac neutrino mass term are generated by the spontaneous-breaking of Pecci-Quinn symmetry. In this scenario, a right amount of dark matter relic density can be obtained by either right-handed sneutrino or axino LSP, and a sizable amount of axion dark radiation can be obtained. Interestingly, the decay of right-handed sneutrino NLSP to axino LSP is delayed to around the present epoch, and can leave an observable cosmological background of neutrinos at the energy scale of O(10−100) GeV.

  2. Estimating shaking-induced casualties and building damage for global earthquake events: a proposed modelling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    So, Emily; Spence, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Recent earthquakes such as the Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010 and the Qinghai earthquake on 14 April 2010 have highlighted the importance of rapid estimation of casualties after the event for humanitarian response. Both of these events resulted in surprisingly high death tolls, casualties and survivors made homeless. In the Mw = 7.0 Haiti earthquake, over 200,000 people perished with more than 300,000 reported injuries and 2 million made homeless. The Mw = 6.9 earthquake in Qinghai resulted in over 2,000 deaths with a further 11,000 people with serious or moderate injuries and 100,000 people have been left homeless in this mountainous region of China. In such events relief efforts can be significantly benefitted by the availability of rapid estimation and mapping of expected casualties. This paper contributes to ongoing global efforts to estimate probable earthquake casualties very rapidly after an earthquake has taken place. The analysis uses the assembled empirical damage and casualty data in the Cambridge Earthquake Impacts Database (CEQID) and explores data by event and across events to test the relationships of building and fatality distributions to the main explanatory variables of building type, building damage level and earthquake intensity. The prototype global casualty estimation model described here uses a semi-empirical approach that estimates damage rates for different classes of buildings present in the local building stock, and then relates fatality rates to the damage rates of each class of buildings. This approach accounts for the effect of the very different types of buildings (by climatic zone, urban or rural location, culture, income level etc), on casualties. The resulting casualty parameters were tested against the overall casualty data from several historical earthquakes in CEQID; a reasonable fit was found.

  3. Cosmology Favoring Extra Radiation and Sub-eV Mass Sterile Neutrinos as an Option

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.; Tamborra, Irene; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2010-10-29

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favor extra radiation in the Universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We use the WMAP 7-year data, small-scale cosmic microwave background observations from ACBAR, BICEP, and QuAD, the SDSS 7th data release, and measurement of the Hubble parameter from HST observations to derive credible regions for the assumed common mass scale m{sub s} and effective number N{sub s} of thermally excited sterile neutrino states. Our results are compatible with the existence of one or perhaps two sterile neutrinos, as suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE, if m{sub s} is in the sub-eV range.

  4. Mass Spectrometry of 3D-printed plastic parts under plasma and radiative heat environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, W. F.; Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Bates, E. M.; Birmingham, W.; Takeno, J.; Knop, S.

    2015-11-01

    We present the design and preliminary results of a mass spectrometry system used to assess vacuum compatibility of 3D-printed parts, developed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory of the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC). A decrease in outgassing was observed when electroplated parts were inserted in the test chamber vs. non electroplated ones. Outgassing will also be tested under different environments such as plasma and radiative heat. Heat will be generated by a titanium getter pump placed inside a 90 degree elbow, such that titanium does not coat the part. A mirror inside the elbow will be used to throttle the heat arriving at the part. Plasma exposure of 3D printed parts will be achieved by placing the parts in a separate chamber connected to the spectrometer by a vacuum line that is differentially pumped. The signals from the mass spectrometer will be analyzed to see how the vacuum conditions fluctuate under different plasma discharges.

  5. Normalizing the thermal effects of radiofrequency radiation: body mass versus total body surface area

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The current guideline for exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) of 0.4 W/kg may have inadvertently been set too high. The guideline is based on the rate of RFR absorption normalized with respect to body mass. Based primarily on data for work stoppage in the rat, the 0.4 W/kg guideline was calculated by the dividing the 4.0 W/kg dose by a safety factor of 10. However, if the RFR dose in the rat had been normalized with respect to surface area rather than body mass, the exposure guideline would be 2.3 W/sq m which translates, for a 80 kg adult, to an SAR of approximately 0.06 W/kg. Thus, the current RF exposure guideline may be several-fold greater than originally intended.

  6. Cosmology favoring extra radiation and sub-eV mass sterile neutrinos as an option.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G; Tamborra, Irene; Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2010-10-29

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favor extra radiation in the Universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We use the WMAP 7-year data, small-scale cosmic microwave background observations from ACBAR, BICEP, and QuAD, the SDSS 7th data release, and measurement of the Hubble parameter from HST observations to derive credible regions for the assumed common mass scale m{s} and effective number N{s} of thermally excited sterile neutrino states. Our results are compatible with the existence of one or perhaps two sterile neutrinos, as suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE, if m{s} is in the sub-eV range. PMID:21231094

  7. Building vulnerability and human casualty estimation for a pyroclastic flow: a model and its application to Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Robin J. S.; Baxter, Peter J.; Zuccaro, Giulio

    2004-05-01

    Pyroclastic flows clearly present a serious threat to life for the inhabitants of settlements on the slopes of volcanoes with a history of explosive eruptions; but it is increasingly realised that buildings can provide a measure of protection to occupants trapped by such flows. One important example is Vesuvius, whose eruption history includes many events which were lethal for the inhabitants of the neighbouring Vesuvian villages. Recent computational fluid dynamics computer modelling for Vesuvius [Todesco et al., Bull. Volcanol. 64 (2002) 155-177] has enabled a realistic picture of an explosive eruption to be modelled, tracing the time-dependent development of the physical parameters of a simulated flow at a large three-dimensional mesh of points, based on assumed conditions of temperature, mass-flow rate and particle size distribution at the vent. The output includes mapping of temperature, mixture density and mixture velocity over the whole adjacent terrain. But to date this information has not been used to assess the impacts of such flows on buildings and their occupants. In the project reported in this paper, estimates of the near-ground flow parameters were used to assess the impact of a particular simulated pyroclastic flow (modelled roughly on the 1631 eruption) on the buildings and population in four of the Vesuvian villages considered most at risk. The study had five components. First, a survey of buildings and the urban environment was conducted to identify the incidence of characteristics and elements likely to affect human vulnerability, and to classify the building stock. The survey emphasised particularly the number, location and type of openings characteristic of the major classes of the local building stock. In the second part of the study, this survey formed the basis for estimates of the probable impact of the pyroclastic flow on the envelope and internal air conditions of typical buildings. In the third part, a number of distinct ways in which

  8. Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

  9. Negative-mass mitigation of Coulomb repulsion for terahertz undulator radiation of electron bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Balal, N.; Magory, E.; Bandurkin, I. V.; Bratman, V. L.; Savilov, A. V.

    2015-10-19

    It is proposed to utilize the effect of negative mass for stabilization of the effective axial size of very dense and short electron bunches produced by photo-injector guns by using combined undulator and strong uniform magnetic fields. It has been shown that in the “abnormal” regime, an increase in the electron energy leads to a decrease in the axial velocity of the electron; due to the negative-mass effect, the Coulomb repulsion of electrons leads to their attraction and formation of a fairly stable and compact bunch “nucleus.” An undulator with a strong uniform magnetic field providing the negative-mass effect is designed for an experimental source of terahertz radiation. The use of the negative-mass regime in this experiment should result in a long-pulse coherent spontaneous undulator emission from a short dense moderately relativistic (5.5 MeV) photo-injector electron bunch with a high (up to 20%) efficiency and a narrow frequency spectrum.

  10. Normalizing the thermal effects of radiofrequency radiation: body mass versus total body surface area

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The current guideline for exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) was developed through assessment of the biological effects data collected primarily from the rat. The consensus that a lack of hazardous biological effects occurred below a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.0 W/kg led to the proposition of a 0.4 W/kg guideline with a built-in safety factor of 10. This paper demonstrates that if the RFR absorption rate in the rat had been normalized with respect to total body surface area rather than body mass, the exposure guideline would be 2.3 W/m2, which translates to an SAR of approximately 0.06 W/kg for an adult human. It is further shown that a given RFR absorption rate, normalized as a fraction of a species' heat loss per unit of surface area, is independent of body mass over a range of 0.03-100 kg; however, a normalization of the RFR absorption rate to heat loss per unit of body mass is highly dependent on the species' mass. Normalizing the rate of RFR absorption to the surface area of the rat indicates that the current RFR exposure guideline of 0.4 W/kg may be too high.

  11. Abelian gauge extension of the standard model: Dark matter and radiative neutrino mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Debasish; Adhikari, Rathin

    2012-05-01

    We study a simple extension of the standard model where the gauge group is extended by an additional U(1)X gauge symmetry. Neutrino mass arises both at tree level as well as radiatively by the anomaly-free addition of one singlet fermion NR and two triplet fermions Σ1R, Σ2R with suitable Higgs scalars. The spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking is achieved in a way that results in a residual Z2 symmetry and hence provides a stable cold dark matter candidate. We study the possible dark matter candidates in this model by incorporating the constraints from cosmology as well as direct detection experiments. We discuss both low- and high-mass (from GeV to the TeV scale) regimes of fermionic and scalar dark matter candidates in the model. We show that scalar dark matter relic density, although not significantly affected by the presence or absence of annihilation into U(1)X gauge boson pairs, is however affected by choice of U(1)X gauge charges. We discuss the neutrino mass phenomenology and its compatibility with the allowed dark matter mass ranges and we also comment on the implications of the model on Higgs signatures at colliders including those related to the fourth fermion generation.

  12. Negative-mass mitigation of Coulomb repulsion for terahertz undulator radiation of electron bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balal, N.; Bandurkin, I. V.; Bratman, V. L.; Magory, E.; Savilov, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    It is proposed to utilize the effect of negative mass for stabilization of the effective axial size of very dense and short electron bunches produced by photo-injector guns by using combined undulator and strong uniform magnetic fields. It has been shown that in the "abnormal" regime, an increase in the electron energy leads to a decrease in the axial velocity of the electron; due to the negative-mass effect, the Coulomb repulsion of electrons leads to their attraction and formation of a fairly stable and compact bunch "nucleus." An undulator with a strong uniform magnetic field providing the negative-mass effect is designed for an experimental source of terahertz radiation. The use of the negative-mass regime in this experiment should result in a long-pulse coherent spontaneous undulator emission from a short dense moderately relativistic (5.5 MeV) photo-injector electron bunch with a high (up to 20%) efficiency and a narrow frequency spectrum.

  13. Bone architectural and structural properties after 56Fe26+ radiation-induced changes in body mass.

    PubMed

    Willey, J S; Grilly, L G; Howard, S H; Pecaut, M J; Obenaus, A; Gridley, D S; Nelson, G A; Bateman, T A

    2008-08-01

    High-energy, high-charge (HZE) radiation, including iron ions ((56)Fe(26+)), is a component of the space environment. We recently observed a profound loss of trabecular bone in mice after whole-body HZE irradiation. The goal of this study was to examine morphology in bones that were excluded from a (56)Fe(26+) beam used to irradiate the body. Using 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats and excluding the hind limbs and pelvis, we irradiated animals with 0, 1, 2 and 4 Gy (56)Fe(26+) ions and killed them humanely after 9 months. Animals grew throughout the experiment. Trabecular bone volume, connectivity and thickness within the proximal tibiae were significantly lower than control in a dose-dependent manner. Irradiated animals generally had less body mass than controls, which largely accounted for the variability in bone parameters as determined by ANCOVA. Likewise, lower cortical parameters were associated with reduced mass. However, lesser trabecular thickness in the 4-Gy group could not be attributed to body mass alone. Indicators of bone metabolism were generally unchanged, suggesting stabilized turnover. Exposure to (56)Fe(26+) ions can alter trabecular microarchitecture in shielded bones. Reduced body mass seems to be correlated with these deficits of trabecular and cortical bone. PMID:18666808

  14. Care of the Burn Casualty in the Prolonged Field Care Environment.

    PubMed

    Studer, Nicholas M; Driscoll, Ian R; Daly, Ivonne M; Graybill, John C

    2015-01-01

    Burns are frequently encountered on the modern battlefield, with 5% - 20% of combat casualties expected to sustain some burn injury. Addressing immediate life-threatening conditions in accordance with the MARCH protocol (massive hemorrhage, airway, respirations, circulation, hypothermia/head injury) remains the top priority for burn casualties. Stopping the burning process, total burn surface area (TBSA) calculation, fluid resuscitation, covering the wounds, and hypothermia management are the next steps. If transport to definitive care is delayed and the prolonged field care stage is entered, the provider must be prepared to provide for the complex resuscitation and wound care needs of a critically ill burn casualty. PMID:26360361

  15. CONVERGENCE STUDIES OF MASS TRANSPORT IN DISKS WITH GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITIES. II. THE RADIATIVE COOLING CASE

    SciTech Connect

    Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Durisen, Richard H.; Michael, Scott; McConnell, Caitlin R.; Boley, Aaron C. E-mail: durisen@astro.indiana.edu E-mail: carmccon@indiana.edu

    2013-05-10

    We conduct a convergence study of a protoplanetary disk subject to gravitational instabilities (GIs) at a time of approximate balance between heating produced by the GIs and radiative cooling governed by realistic dust opacities. We examine cooling times, characterize GI-driven spiral waves and their resultant gravitational torques, and evaluate how accurately mass transport can be represented by an {alpha}-disk formulation. Four simulations, identical except for azimuthal resolution, are conducted with a grid-based three-dimensional hydrodynamics code. There are two regions in which behaviors differ as resolution increases. The inner region, which contains 75% of the disk mass and is optically thick, has long cooling times and is well converged in terms of various measures of structure and mass transport for the three highest resolutions. The longest cooling times coincide with radii where the Toomre Q has its minimum value. Torques are dominated in this region by two- and three-armed spirals. The effective {alpha} arising from gravitational stresses is typically a few Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} and is only roughly consistent with local balance of heating and cooling when time-averaged over many dynamic times and a wide range of radii. On the other hand, the outer disk region, which is mostly optically thin, has relatively short cooling times and does not show convergence as resolution increases. Treatment of unstable disks with optical depths near unity with realistic radiative transport is a difficult numerical problem requiring further study. We discuss possible implications of our results for numerical convergence of fragmentation criteria in disk simulations.

  16. Assessing surge capacity for radiation victims with marrow toxicity.

    PubMed

    Davids, Matthew S; Case, Cullen; Hornung, Raymond; Chao, Nelson J; Chute, John P; Coleman, C Norman; Weisdorf, Daniel; Confer, Dennis L; Weinstock, David M

    2010-10-01

    Hematologists/oncologists would provide essential care for victims of a catastrophic radiation incident, such as the detonation of an improvised nuclear device (IND). The US Radiation Injury Treatment Network (RITN) is a voluntary consortium of 37 academic medical centers, 8 blood donor centers, and 7 umbilical cord banks focused on preparedness for radiation incidents. The RITN conducted 2 tabletop exercises to evaluate response capability after a hypothetical IND detonation in a U.S. city. In the 2008 exercise, medical centers voluntarily accepted 1757 victims at their institutions, a small fraction of the number in need. In the 2009 exercise, each center was required to accept 300 victims. In response, the centers outlined multiple strategies to increase bed availability, extend staff and resources, and support family and friends accompanying transferred victims. The exercises highlighted shortcomings in current planning and future steps for improving surge capacity that are applicable to various mass casualty scenarios. PMID:20399880

  17. Marine casualty and pollution database (raw data only) (on CD-ROM). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Marine Casualty and Pollution Database provides details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by the US Coast Guard Marine Safety Officer. The database is an invaluable source of information to understand particulars and circumstances of marine accidents and pollution incidents. The CD-ROM contains forty data tables derived from marine casualty and pollution investigations conducted by investigators at US Coast Guard Marine Safety Offices throughout the United States. The data collection period began in 1973 and is ongoing. Also included on the CD-ROM are vessel and facility tables with specific information on vessel and facility constitution and operating details. The Coast Guard maintains a comprehensive database on approximately 460,000 US and foreign vessels and 32,000 facilities. Entity and attribute descriptions and suggested solutions to general marine pollution, vessel casualty, and personnel injury and death questions are outlined in the documentation.

  18. Advancing critical care: joint combat casualty research team and joint theater trauma system.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Elizabeth; Biever, Kimberlie

    2010-01-01

    Despite the severity and complexity of injuries, survival rates among combat casualties are equal to or better than those from civilian trauma. This article summarizes the evidence regarding innovations from the battlefield that contribute to these extraordinary survival rates, including preventing hemorrhage with the use of tourniquets and hemostatic dressings, damage control resuscitation, and the rapid evacuation of casualties via MEDEVAC and the US Air Force Critical Care Air Transport Teams. Care in the air for critically injured casualties with pulmonary injuries and traumatic brain injury is discussed to demonstrate the unique considerations required to ensure safe en route care. Innovations being studied to decrease sequelae associated with complex orthopedic and extremity trauma are also presented. The role and contributions of the Joint Combat Casualty Research Team and the Joint Theater Trauma System are also discussed. PMID:20683227

  19. Mass spectrometry data from proteomic analysis of human skin keratins after exposure to UV radiation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon Hwa; Matsushima, Keita; Miyamoto, Kohei; Oe, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    A mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic methodology was employed to monitor oxidative modifications in keratins, the main constituents of human skin (“Non-invasive proteomic analysis of human skin keratins: screening of methionine oxidation in keratins by mass spectrometry” [1], “UV irradiation-induced methionine oxidation in human skin keratins: mass spectrometry-based non-invasive proteomic analysis” [2]). Human skin proteins were obtained non-invasively by tape stripping and solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) buffer, followed by purification and digestion using the filter-aided sample preparation method. The tryptic peptides were then analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC)/electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS, tandem MS (MS/MS), and LC/ESI-selected reaction monitoring (SRM)/MS. The MS/MS data were generated to confirm amino acid sequences and oxidation sites of tryptic peptides D290VDGAYMTK298 (P1) and N258MQDMVEDYR267 (P2), which contain the most susceptible oxidation sites (Met259, Met262, and Met296 in K1 keratin) upon UVA irradiation [2]. Subsequently, quantitative determination of the relative oxidation levels of P1 and P1 [2] was achieved by LC/ESI-SRM/MS analyses of P1 and P2 together with their oxidized forms after exposure to UVA radiation or treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). PMID:26958637

  20. Dynamical mass ejection from binary neutron star mergers: Radiation-hydrodynamics study in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Kiuchi, Kenta; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru

    2015-03-01

    We perform radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of binary neutron-star mergers in numerical relativity on the Japanese "K" supercomputer, taking into account neutrino cooling and heating by an updated leakage-plus-transfer scheme for the first time. Neutron stars are modeled by three modern finite-temperature equations of state (EOS) developed by Hempel and his collaborators. We find that the properties of the dynamical ejecta of the merger such as total mass, average electron fraction, and thermal energy depend strongly on the EOS. Only for a soft EOS (the so-called SFHo), the ejecta mass exceeds 0.01 M⊙ . In this case, the distribution of the electron fraction of the ejecta becomes broad due to the shock heating during the merger. These properties are well-suited for the production of the solar-like r -process abundance. For the other stiff EOS (DD2 and TM1), for which a long-lived massive neutron star is formed after the merger, the ejecta mass is smaller than 0.01 M⊙, although broad electron-fraction distributions are achieved by the positron capture and the neutrino heating.

  1. Mass spectrometry data from proteomic analysis of human skin keratins after exposure to UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seon Hwa; Matsushima, Keita; Miyamoto, Kohei; Oe, Tomoyuki

    2016-06-01

    A mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic methodology was employed to monitor oxidative modifications in keratins, the main constituents of human skin ("Non-invasive proteomic analysis of human skin keratins: screening of methionine oxidation in keratins by mass spectrometry" [1], "UV irradiation-induced methionine oxidation in human skin keratins: mass spectrometry-based non-invasive proteomic analysis" [2]). Human skin proteins were obtained non-invasively by tape stripping and solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) buffer, followed by purification and digestion using the filter-aided sample preparation method. The tryptic peptides were then analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC)/electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS, tandem MS (MS/MS), and LC/ESI-selected reaction monitoring (SRM)/MS. The MS/MS data were generated to confirm amino acid sequences and oxidation sites of tryptic peptides D(290)VDGAYMTK(298) (P1) and N(258)MQDMVEDYR(267) (P2), which contain the most susceptible oxidation sites (Met(259), Met(262), and Met(296) in K1 keratin) upon UVA irradiation [2]. Subsequently, quantitative determination of the relative oxidation levels of P1 and P1 [2] was achieved by LC/ESI-SRM/MS analyses of P1 and P2 together with their oxidized forms after exposure to UVA radiation or treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). PMID:26958637

  2. Estimating the human recovery costs of seriously injured road crash casualties.

    PubMed

    Bambach, M R; Mitchell, R J

    2015-12-01

    Road crashes result in substantial trauma and costs to societies around the world. Robust costing methods are an important tool to estimate costs associated with road trauma, and are key inputs into policy development and cost-benefit analysis for road safety programmes and infrastructure projects. With an expanding focus on seriously injured road crash casualties, in addition to the long standing focus on fatalities, methods for costing seriously injured casualties are becoming increasingly important. Some road safety agencies are defining a seriously injured casualty as an individual that was admitted to hospital following a road crash, and as a result, hospital separation data provide substantial potential for estimating the costs associated with seriously injured road crash casualties. The aim of this study is to establish techniques for estimating the human recovery costs of (non-fatal) seriously injured road crash casualties directly from hospital separation data. An individuals' road crash-related hospitalisation record and their personal injury insurance claim were linked for road crashes that occurred in New South Wales, Australia. These records provided the means for estimating all of the costs to the casualty directly related to their recovery from their injuries. A total of 10,897 seriously injured road crash casualties were identified and four methods for estimating their recovery costs were examined, using either unit record or aggregated hospital separation data. The methods are shown to provide robust techniques for estimating the human recovery costs of seriously injured road crash casualties, that may prove useful for identifying, implementing and evaluating safety programmes intended to reduce the incidence of road crash-related serious injuries. PMID:26436488

  3. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Quigg

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  4. Infrared imaging-based combat casualty care system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, James E., Sr.

    1997-08-01

    A Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract was recently awarded to a start up company for the development of an infrared (IR) image based combat casualty care system. The company, Medical Thermal Diagnostics, or MTD, is developing a light weight, hands free, energy efficient uncooled IR imaging system based upon a Texas Instruments design which will allow emergency medical treatment of wounded soldiers in complete darkness without any type of light enhancement equipment. The principal investigator for this effort, Dr. Gene Luther, DVM, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, LSU School of Veterinary Medicine, will conduct the development and testing of this system with support from Thermalscan, Inc., a nondestructive testing company experienced in IR thermography applications. Initial research has been done with surgery on a cat for feasibility of the concept as well as forensic research on pigs as a close representation of human physiology to determine time of death. Further such studies will be done later as well as trauma studies. IR images of trauma injuries will be acquired by imaging emergency room patients to create an archive of emergency medical situations seen with an infrared imaging camera. This archived data will then be used to develop training material for medical personnel using the system. This system has potential beyond military applications. Firefighters and emergency medical technicians could directly benefit from the capability to triage and administer medical care to trauma victims in low or no light conditions.

  5. Outcome of sports injuries treated in a casualty department.

    PubMed Central

    Sandelin, J; Kiviluoto, O; Santavirta, S; Honkanen, R

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation analyses 2493 patients with a sports injury treated in a casualty department during a one-year period. Of the patients 73% were men, the age of the patients averaging 26 years and the mean follow-up time was 24 months. Soccer and indoor ball games caused 24% and 23% of the injuries respectively, these being followed by injuries in ice hockey in 14%. Track and field injuries scored low with 2% out of all injuries. Injuries to the lower extremity predominated. At follow-up, ligamentous injuries of the lower extremity were the major cause of discomfort. Further, in the group of patients with persistent discomfort 36% had suffered a fracture or a dislocation, 13% a contusion and 10% a wound. The mean period of sports incapacity after a sustained injury was 3 weeks. In track and field events the injury seldom disturbed training for more than one week, but in soccer, indoor ball games, skiing and skating the mean sports incapacity period varied between 6 and 3 weeks. Out of the total injured, 2% had to give up their sports activity completely. An injury of the lower extremity demanded on average 4 weeks' rest, an injury of the upper extremity and the trunk 2 weeks and injuries of the head and neck one week's rest. According to the present investigation sports injuries were in the majority of cases of a relatively benign nature and sick leave from work seldom exceeded 2 weeks. Images p103-a PMID:4027492

  6. Ultrasonography in the evaluation of hemoperitoneum in war casualties.

    PubMed

    Miletić, D; Fuckar, Z; Mraović, B; Dimec, D; Mozetic, V

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of emergent ultrasound examination in the detection of hemoperitoneum among war casualties, and to compare the results of this method in a specific war situation and civil conditions. Ninety-four wounded individuals with suspected blunt or penetrating abdominal trauma were treated at a level I war hospital (group W), and 242 civilians with multiple injuries with suspected blunt abdominal trauma were evaluated at the emergency center of a university hospital (group C). All examinations were performed in less than 5 minutes with a portable ultrasonographic scanner, and typical points were scanned (Morison's pouch, Douglas and perisplenic spaces, paracolic gutter). In group W, hemoperitoneum was identified correctly in 19 patients, with three false-negative and no false-positive findings, whereas group C presented 98 true-positive results, 13 false-negative results, and again no false-positive results. We observed that ultrasonography in specific war conditions showed sensitivity of 86%, specificity of 100%, accuracy as high as 97%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 96%, whereas in civil conditions the corresponding values were 88%, 100%, 95%, 100%, and 91%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of emergent ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of hemoperitoneum are approximately equal in war and civil conditions. PMID:10459274

  7. Radiative natural supersymmetry: Reconciling electroweak fine-tuning and the Higgs boson mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Howard; Barger, Vernon; Huang, Peisi; Mickelson, Dan; Mustafayev, Azar; Tata, Xerxes

    2013-06-01

    Models of natural supersymmetry seek to solve the little hierarchy problem by positing a spectrum of light Higgsinos ≲200-300GeV and light top squarks ≲600GeV along with very heavy squarks and TeV-scale gluinos. Such models have low electroweak fine-tuning and satisfy the LHC constraints. However, in the context of the minimal supersymmetric standard model, they predict too low a value of mh, are frequently in conflict with the measured b→sγ branching fraction, and the relic density of thermally produced Higgsino-like weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) falls well below dark matter measurements. We propose a framework dubbed radiative natural supersymmetry (RNS), which can be realized within the minimal supersymmetric standard model (avoiding the addition of extra exotic matter) and which maintains features such as gauge coupling unification and radiative electroweak symmetry breaking. The RNS model can be generated from supersymmetry (SUSY) grand unified theory type models with nonuniversal Higgs masses. Allowing for high-scale soft SUSY breaking Higgs mass mHu>m0 leads to automatic cancellations during renormalization group running and to radiatively-induced low fine-tuning at the electroweak scale. Coupled with large mixing in the top-squark sector, RNS allows for fine-tuning at the 3%-10% level with TeV-scale top squarks and a 125 GeV light Higgs scalar h. The model allows for at least a partial solution to the SUSY flavor, CP, and gravitino problems since first-/second-generation scalars (and the gravitino) may exist in the 10-30 TeV regime. We outline some possible signatures for RNS at the LHC, such as the appearance of low invariant mass opposite-sign isolated dileptons from gluino cascade decays. The smoking gun signature for RNS is the appearance of light Higgsinos at a linear e+e- collider. If the strong CP problem is solved by the Peccei-Quinn mechanism, then RNS naturally accommodates mixed axion-Higgsino cold dark matter, where the

  8. Experimental evidence for the K-LM radiative Auger effect in medium-mass atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herren, Ch.; Dousse, J.-Cl.

    1997-10-01

    High-resolution measurements of the Kα1,2 low-energy satellites were performed for the elements 42Mo, 44Ru, 46Pd, 48Cd, and 50Sn. The photoinduced x-ray spectra were measured using a high-resolution transmission-type bent-crystal spectrometer in modified DuMond slit geometry. Experimental evidence for the K-LM radiative Auger effect (RAE) in solid medium-mass atoms was found and particular groups of the K-LM RAE transitions were identified. The experimental intensity ratios I(K-LM RAE) / I(Kα1,2) as well as the relative intensity of the K-L3M4,5 transition group were extracted from the measured spectra. A comparison of the experimental results with relativistic Hartree-Fock theoretical predictions from Scofield shows a good agreement. The experimental energies of the K-LM RAE edges are compared with calculated Auger transition energies.

  9. Equation of motion of an interstellar Bussard ramjet with radiation and mass losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semay, Claude; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2008-11-01

    An interstellar Bussard ramjet is a spaceship using the protons of the interstellar medium in a fusion engine to produce thrust. In recent papers, it was shown that the relativistic equation of motion of an ideal ramjet and that of a ramjet with radiation loss are analytical. When a mass loss appears, the limit speed of the ramjet is more strongly reduced. However, the parametric equations in terms of the ramjet's speed for the position of the ramjet in the inertial frame of the interstellar medium, the time in this frame and the proper time indicated by the clocks on board the spaceship can still be obtained in an analytical form. The non-relativistic motion and the motion near the limit speed are studied.

  10. Hawking Radiation of Mass Generating Particles from Dyonic Reissner-Nordström Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakalli, I.; Övgün, A.

    2016-09-01

    The Hawking radiation is considered as a quantum tunneling process, which can be studied in the framework of the Hamilton-Jacobi method. In this study, we present the wave equation for a mass generating massive and charged scalar particle (boson). In sequel, we analyse the quantum tunneling of these bosons from a generic 4-dimensional spherically symmetric black hole. We apply the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism to derive the radial integral solution for the classically forbidden action which leads to the tunneling probability. To support our arguments, we take the dyonic Reissner-Nordström black hole as a test background. Comparing the tunneling probability obtained with the Boltzmann formula, we succeed in reading the standard Hawking temperature of the dyonic Reissner-Nordström black hole.

  11. Changing mass liner system for generation of soft X-radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, V.N.; Buyko, A.M.; Burenkov, O.M.; Garanin, S.F.; Startsev, A.I.; Yakubov, V.B.

    1994-12-31

    This report is issued in compliance with Clause F.4.2 of Contract 4769M0014-9Y ``Design study for X-ray generation``. In the first report (Clause F.4.1 of Contract) three systems were considered to solve the formulated problem. All of them were designed on the basis of employment of {O}400 mm disk explosive-magnetic generators (DEMG) as an energy source using a high-speed (25--30 cm/{micro}s) liner converging to the axis. The considered systems differs in modes of current pulse formation. For further effort the customer has chosen System 3 with the changing mass liner. In accordance with this fact this report discusses basic theoretical and computational results obtained to date for System 3. Further development of the theory of the considered system is suggested in the context of the series of experiments the ultimate goal of which is to generate soft X-radiation. Basic stages of the effort to generate soft X-radiation are discussed on the basis of the schedule given with consideration of some corrections which occurred when the system type had been selected.

  12. Radiation-hydrodynamic Model of High-Mass X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čechura, J.; Hadrava, P.

    2014-10-01

    The topic of circumstellar matter in the X-ray binaries and its spectroscopic diagnostics is addressed by method of generating synthetic Dopplerograms for direct comparison with observations. The presented results were obtained using our improved three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic model of the stellar wind in HMXBs. We use the model to simulate dynamics, anisotropy and other characteristics of the wind, e.g. the density distribution and ionization structure. We adopt parameters of Cygnus X-1 in our simulations and use the Doppler tomography to probe the structure of radiation-emitting material in the system. We introduce a data interpretation method of observed Doppler tomograms via direct comparison with synthetic Dopplerograms obtained from our model. We test the reliability of the model as well as set constrains on various physical parameters and processes, e.g. the accretion rate. We take into account the Coriolis force, the ionization structure of the medium, the gravity darkening, and we investigate the effects these phenomena have on the accretion process. E.g. the Coriolis force substantially influences the mass-loss of the donor and by that the accretion rate of the compact companion. Additionally, focusing of the stellar wind by the gravitational field of the compact companion leads to the formation of an unstable gaseous tail behind the companion. This tail shows signs of quasi-periodic oscillations and its existence presents us with other means to explain the switching mechanism among the various X-ray states.

  13. RADIATION PRESSURE AND MASS EJECTION IN {rho}-LIKE STATES OF GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, Joseph; Remillard, Ronald A.; Lee, Julia C.

    2012-05-01

    We present a unifying scenario to address the physical origin of the diversity of X-ray light curves within the {rho} variability class of the microquasar GRS 1915+105. This 'heartbeat' state is characterized by a bright flare that recurs every {approx}50-100 s, but the profile and duration of the flares vary significantly from observation to observation. Based on a comprehensive, phase-resolved study of heartbeats in the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer archive, we demonstrate that very different X-ray light curves do not require origins in different accretion processes. Indeed, our detailed comparison of the phase-resolved spectra of a double-peaked oscillation and a single-peaked oscillation shows that different cycles can have basically similar X-ray spectral evolution. We argue that all heartbeat oscillations can be understood as the result of a combination of a thermal-viscous radiation pressure instability, a local Eddington limit in the disk, and a sudden, radiation-pressure-driven evaporation or ejection event in the inner accretion disk. This ejection appears to be a universal, fundamental part of the {rho} state, and is largely responsible for a hard X-ray pulse seen in the light curve of all cycles. We suggest that the detailed shape of oscillations in the mass accretion rate through the disk is responsible for the phenomenological differences between different {rho}-type light curves, and we discuss how future time-dependent simulations of disk instabilities may provide new insights into the role of radiation pressure in the accretion flow.

  14. Lepton flavor violating decay of SM-like Higgs boson in a radiative neutrino mass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuc, T. T.; Hue, L. T.; Long, H. N.; Nguyen, T. Phong

    2016-06-01

    The lepton flavor violating decay of the Standard Model-like Higgs boson (LFVHD) is discussed in the framework of the radiative neutrino mass model built in [K. Nishiwaki, H. Okada, and Y. Orikasa, Phys. Rev. D 92, 093013 (2015)]. The branching ratio (BR) of the LFVHD is shown to reach 10-5 in the most interesting region of the parameter space shown in [K. Nishiwaki, H. Okada, and Y. Orikasa, Phys. Rev. D 92, 093013 (2015)]. The dominant contributions come from the singly charged Higgs mediations, namely, the coupling of h2± with exotic neutrinos. Furthermore, if the doubly charged Higgs boson is heavy enough to allow the mass of h2± around 1 TeV, the mentioned BR can reach 10-4 . In addition, we obtain that the large values of Br (h →μ τ ) lead to very small ones of Br (h →e τ ) , much smaller than the various sensitivities of current experiments.

  15. Laser ablation and ionisation by laser plasma radiation in the atmospheric-pressure mass spectrometry of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Pento, A V; Nikiforov, S M; Simanovsky, Ya O; Grechnikov, A A; Alimpiev, S S

    2013-01-31

    A new method was developed for the mass spectrometric analysis of organic and bioorganic compounds, which involves laser ablation with the ionisation of its products by laser-plasma radiation and enables analysing gaseous, liquid, and solid substances at atmospheric pressure without sample preparation. The capabilities of this method were demonstrated by the examples of fast pharmaceutical composition screening, real-time atmosphere composition analysis, and construction of the mass spectrometric images of organic compound distributions in biological materials. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  16. On-ground casualty risk reduction by structural design for demise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmens, Stijn; Funke, Quirin; Krag, Holger

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, awareness concerning the on-ground risk posed by un-controlled re-entering space systems has increased. On average over the past decade, an object with mass above 800 kg re-enters every week from which only a few, e.g. ESA's GOCE in 2013 and NASA's UARS in 2011, appeared prominent in international media. Space agencies and nations have discussed requirements to limit the on-ground risk for future missions. To meet the requirements, the amount of debris falling back on Earth has to be limited in number, mass and size. Design for demise (D4D) refers to all measures taken in the design of a space object to increase the potential for demise of the object and its components during re-entry. SCARAB (Spacecraft Atmospheric Re-entry and Break-Up) is ESA's high-fidelity tool which analyses the thermal and structural effects of atmospheric re-entry on spacecraft with a finite-element approach. For this study, a model of a representative satellite is developed in SCARAB to serve as test-bed for D4D analyses on a structural level. The model is used as starting point for different D4D approaches based on increasing the exposure of the satellite components to the aero-thermal environment, as a way to speed up the demise. Statistical bootstrapping is applied to the resulting on-ground fragment lists in order to compare the different re-entry scenarios and to determine the uncertainties of the results. Moreover, the bootstrap results can be used to analyse the casualty risk estimator from a theoretical point of view. The risk reductions for the analysed D4D techniques are presented with respect to the reference scenario for the modelled representative satellite.

  17. Epidemiology of child pedestrian casualty rates: can we assume spatial independence?

    PubMed

    Hewson, Paul J

    2005-07-01

    Child pedestrian injuries are often investigated by means of ecological studies, yet are clearly part of a complex spatial phenomena. Spatial dependence within such ecological analyses have rarely been assessed, yet the validity of basic statistical techniques rely on a number of independence assumptions. Recent work from Canada has highlighted the potential for modelling spatial dependence within data that was aggregated in terms of the number of road casualties who were resident in a given geographical area. Other jurisdictions aggregate data in terms of the number of casualties in the geographical area in which the collision took place. This paper contrasts child pedestrian casualty data from Devon County UK, which has been aggregated by both methods. A simple ecological model, with minimally useful covaraties relating to measures of child deprivation, provides evidence that data aggregated in terms of the casualty's home location cannot be assumed to be spatially independent and that for analysis of these data to be valid there must be some accounting for spatial auto-correlation within the model structure. Conversely, data aggregated in terms of the collision location (as is usual in the UK) was found to be spatially independent. Whilst the spatial model is clearly more complex it provided a superior fit to that seen with either collision aggregated or non-spatial models. Of more importance, the ecological level association between deprivation and casualty rate is much lower once the spatial structure is accounted for, highlighting the importance using appropriately structured models. PMID:15949456

  18. Dynamical mass ejection from the merger of asymmetric binary neutron stars: Radiation-hydrodynamics study in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Kiuchi, Kenta; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke

    2016-06-01

    We perform neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics simulations for the merger of asymmetric binary neutron stars in numerical relativity. Neutron stars are modeled by soft and moderately stiff finite-temperature equations of state (EOS). We find that the properties of the dynamical ejecta such as the total mass, neutron richness profile, and specific entropy profile depend on the mass ratio of the binary systems for a given EOS in a unique manner. For a soft EOS (SFHo), the total ejecta mass depends weakly on the mass ratio, but the average of electron number per baryon (Ye ) and specific entropy (s ) of the ejecta decreases significantly with the increase of the degree of mass asymmetry. For a stiff EOS (DD2), with the increase of the mass asymmetry degree, the total ejecta mass significantly increases while the average of Ye and s moderately decreases. We find again that only for the SFHo, the total ejecta mass exceeds 0.01 M⊙ irrespective of the mass ratio chosen in this paper. The ejecta have a variety of electron number per baryon with an average approximately between Ye˜0.2 and ˜0.3 irrespective of the EOS employed, which is well suited for the production of the rapid neutron capture process heavy elements (second and third peaks), although its averaged value decreases with the increase of the degree of mass asymmetry.

  19. Impact of Saturn Main Ring Mass on interpretation of Pioneer 11 and Cassini SOI Radiation Measurements Across the Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John F.; Sturner, Steven J.; Sittler, Edward C., Jr.; Kollmann, Peter; Roussos, Elias; Johnson, Robert E.

    2015-11-01

    The Pioneer 11 (1979) and Cassini Orbiter (2004) missions measured the energetic particle and gamma ray flux environments across the A, B, and outer C rings of Saturn. This radiation originates as secondary proton, neutron, electron, and gamma ray emissions from the interaction of high-energy (> 20 GeV) galactic cosmic ray protons and other ions with bulk ice material in the rings and is sensitive to the surface mass density of the rings. The Pioneer 11 analysis from the University of Chicago High Energy Telescope, published in 1985, was consistent with a average surface density of about 50 g/cm2, assuming pure water ice, and a total ring mass of 2.7x10-8 Saturn masses (MS). This independently-derived value confirmed the post-Voyager result of 3x10-8 MS from radio and stellar occultations, and from observed damping of density waves in the rings. Although some later ring models in the Cassini mission era (2004 - present) allow for a greater mass by an order of magnitude, the latest density wave analysis from Cassini indicates that the Pioneer-Voyager value may be correct. GEANT radiation transport simulations have been performed to update the ring radiation model and enable ongoing assessments of the Pioneer 11 HET and Cassini MIMI/LEMMS responses to this radiation. The O2 gas production by radiation chemistry within the ring material is also estimated as a function of ring mass for comparison to Cassini and earlier measurements of the ring atmosphere and ionosphere. More massive rings would produce more O2.

  20. Occupational safety data and casualty rates for the uranium fuel cycle. [Glossaries

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, F.R.; Hoy, H.C.

    1981-10-01

    Occupational casualty (injuries, illnesses, fatalities, and lost workdays) and production data are presented and used to calculate occupational casualty incidence rates for technologies that make up the uranium fuel cycle, including: mining, milling, conversion, and enrichment of uranium; fabrication of reactor fuel; transportation of uranium and fuel elements; generation of electric power; and transmission of electric power. Each technology is treated in a separate chapter. All data sources are referenced. All steps used to calculate normalized occupational casualty incidence rates from the data are presented. Rates given include fatalities, serious cases, and lost workdays per 100 man-years worked, per 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy output, and per other appropriate units of output.

  1. The neutral current sheet and its radiation pairs of side sources in coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shu-Chen

    Using the data observed with the soft X-ray telescope, hard X-ray telescope aboard on Yohkoh and the Nobeyama Radioheliograph on 1998 April 23, a comprehensive study on soft X-ray coronal mass ejection (SXRCME) and radio Type IV burst is carried out and some significant results are obtained as follows: A magnetic capacity belt (MCB) between two magnetic dipole sources (MDSs) was found and there were only a few activitation sources (ASs). During the MCB changed into a magnetic energy belt (MEB) by the ASs, activating energy and shining material both concentrated to the neutral current sheet (NCS) in the course of its formation. When two MDSs were put through by the MEB, the NCS formed and the SXRCME occurred. The matter ejected not only from the NCS, but also from the whole MEB. The expanding loop of the SXRCME had two foot points, both were just two MDSs. The head of the expanding loop always tended to the foot point of the weak source, because it was equilibrium point of magnetic pressures coming from two foot points. For this reason, its locus was neutral line. From this, the neutral line can also determine the position of NCS. Finally, the radiation pairs of side sources of NCS on the MEB are found.

  2. On-Ground Casualty Risk Reduction by Structural Design for Demise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmens, Stijn; Krag, Holger; Funke, Quirin

    In recent years, awareness concerning the risk posed by un-controlled re-entering spacecraft on ground has increased. Some re-entry events such as ESA's GOCE in 2013 and NASA's UARS appeared prominent in international media. Space agencies and nations, in cooperation within the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC), have established a requirements to limited the on-ground risk for future missions. To meet the requirements, the amount of debris falling back on Earth has to be limited in number, mass and size. Design for demise (D4D) refers to all measures taken in the design of a space object to increase the potential for demise of the object and its components during re-entry. SCARAB (Spacecraft Atmospheric Re-entry and Break-Up) is ESA's high-fidelity tool which analyses the thermal and structural effects of atmospheric re-entry on spacecraft in a finite-element approach. For this study, a model of a representative satellite is developed in Scarab to serve as test-bed for D4D analysis on a structural level. The model is used as starting point for different D4D approaches based on increasing the exposure of the satellite components to the aero-thermal environment, as a way to speed up the demise. Statistical bootstrapping is applied to the resulting on-ground fragment lists in order to compare the different re-entry scenarios and to determine the uncertainties of the results. Moreover, the bootstrap results can be used to analyse the casualty risk estimator from a theoretical point of view. The risk reductions for the analysed D4D techniques are presented w.r.t. the reference scenario for the modelled representative satellite.

  3. Quantitative Estimates of the Numbers of Casualties to be Expected due to Major Earthquakes Near Megacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, M.; Wenzel, F.

    2004-12-01

    Defining casualties as the sum of the fatalities plus injured, we use their mean number, as calculated by QUAKELOSS (developed by Extreme Situations Research Center, Moscow) as a measure of the extent of possible disasters due to earthquakes. Examples of cities we examined include Algiers, Cairo, Istanbul, Mumbai and Teheran, with populations ranging from about 3 to 20 million. With the assumption that the properties of the building stock has not changed with time since 1950, we find that the number of expected casualties will have increased about 5 to 10 fold by the year 2015. This increase is directly proportional to the increase of the population. For the assumed magnitude, we used M7 and M6.5 because shallow earthquakes in this range can occur in the seismogenic layer, without rupturing the surface. This means, they could occur anywhere in a seismically active area, not only along known faults. As a function of epicentral distance the fraction of casualties of the population decrease from about 6% at 20 km, to 3% at 30 km and 0.5% at 50 km, for an earthquake of M7. At 30 km distance, the assumed variation of the properties of the building stock from country to country give rise to variations of 1% to 5% for the estimate of the percent of the population that become casualties. As a function of earthquake size, the expected number of casualties drop by approximately an order of magnitude for an M6.5, compared to an M7, at 30 km distance. Because the computer code and database in QUAKELOSS are calibrated based on about 1000 earthquakes with fatalities, and verified by real-time loss estimates for about 60 cases, these results are probably of the correct order of magnitude. However, the results should not be taken as overly reliable, because (1) the probability calculations of the losses result in uncertainties of about a factor of two, (2) the method has been tested for medium size cities, not for megacities, and (3) many assumptions were made. Nevertheless, it is

  4. Influences of atmospheric conditions and air mass on the ratio of ultraviolet to total solar radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Riordan, C.J.; Hulstrom, R.L.; Myers, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    The technology to detoxify hazardous wastes using ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation is being investigated by the DOE/SERI Solar Thermal Technology Program. One of the elements of the technology evaluation is the assessment and characterization of UV solar radiation resources available for detoxification processes. This report describes the major atmospheric variables that determine the amount of UV solar radiation at the earth's surface, and how the ratio of UV-to-total solar radiation varies with atmospheric conditions. These ratios are calculated from broadband and spectral solar radiation measurements acquired at SERI, and obtained from the literature on modeled and measured UV solar radiation. The following sections discuss the atmospheric effects on UV solar radiation and provide UV-to-total solar radiation ratios from published studies, as well as measured values from SERI's data. A summary and conclusions are also given.

  5. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 420 - Impact Dispersion Areas and Casualty Expectancy Estimate for an Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... appendix also provides a method for performing an impact risk analysis that estimates the expected casualty... risk analysis in accordance with paragraph (e). (e) Impact Risk Analysis (1) An applicant shall... following summation of risk: ER19OC00.120 (viii) Alternative casualty expectancy (Ec) analysis. An...

  6. 49 CFR 1242.41 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-26-99 and 50-26-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-26... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.41 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-26-99 and... administration (account XX-26-01). freight cars...

  7. 49 CFR 1242.65 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-51-99 and 50-51-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-51... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.65 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-51... separation of administration (account XX-51-01). yard operations...

  8. 49 CFR 1242.54 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-27-99 and 50-27-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-27... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.54 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-27-99 and... administration (account XX-27-01). Operating Expenses—Transportation train operations...

  9. 49 CFR 1242.82 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-55-99 and 50-55-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-55... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.82 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-55... separation of administration (account XX-55-01). Operating Expenses general and administration...

  10. 49 CFR 1242.72 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-52-99 and 50-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-52... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.72 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-52... separation of administration (account XX-52-01). train and yard operations common...

  11. Mass loss and chemical structures of wheat and maize straws in response to ultraviolet-B radiation and soil contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Mao, Jingdong; Zhang, Congzhi; Chen, Lin; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2015-10-01

    The role of photodegradation, an abiotic process, has been largely overlooked during straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. We investigated the mass loss and chemical structures of straw decomposition in response to elevated UV-B radiation with or without soil contact over a 12-month litterbag experiment. Wheat and maize straw samples with and without soil contact were exposed to three radiation levels: a no-sunlight control, ambient solar UV-B, and artificially elevated UV-B radiation. A block control with soil contact was not included. Compared with the no-sunlight control, UV-B radiation increased the mass loss by 14-19% and the ambient radiation by 9-16% for wheat and maize straws without soil contact after 12 months. Elevated UV-B exposure decreased the decomposition rates of both wheat and maize straws when in contact with soil. Light exposure resulted in decreased O-alkyl carbons and increased alkyl carbons for both the wheat and maize straws compared with no-sunlight control. The difference in soil contact may influence the contribution of photodegradation to the overall straw decomposition process. These results indicate that we must take into account the effects of photodegradation when explaining the mechanisms of straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems.

  12. Mass loss and chemical structures of wheat and maize straws in response to ultraviolet-B radiation and soil contact

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Mao, Jingdong; Zhang, Congzhi; Chen, Lin; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2015-01-01

    The role of photodegradation, an abiotic process, has been largely overlooked during straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. We investigated the mass loss and chemical structures of straw decomposition in response to elevated UV-B radiation with or without soil contact over a 12-month litterbag experiment. Wheat and maize straw samples with and without soil contact were exposed to three radiation levels: a no-sunlight control, ambient solar UV-B, and artificially elevated UV-B radiation. A block control with soil contact was not included. Compared with the no-sunlight control, UV-B radiation increased the mass loss by 14–19% and the ambient radiation by 9–16% for wheat and maize straws without soil contact after 12 months. Elevated UV-B exposure decreased the decomposition rates of both wheat and maize straws when in contact with soil. Light exposure resulted in decreased O-alkyl carbons and increased alkyl carbons for both the wheat and maize straws compared with no-sunlight control. The difference in soil contact may influence the contribution of photodegradation to the overall straw decomposition process. These results indicate that we must take into account the effects of photodegradation when explaining the mechanisms of straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. PMID:26423726

  13. An Automated Method to Quantify Radiation Damage in Human Blood Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon K. Livingston, Mark S. Jenkins and Akio A. Awa

    2006-07-10

    Cytogenetic analysis of blood lymphocytes is a well established method to assess the absorbed dose in persons exposed to ionizing radiation. Because mature lymphocytes circulate throughout the body, the dose to these cells is believed to represent the average whole body exposure. Cytogenetic methods measure the incidence of structural aberrations in chromosomes as a means to quantify DNA damage which occurs when ionizing radiation interacts with human tissue. Methods to quantify DNA damage at the chromosomal level vary in complexity and tend to be laborious and time consuming. In a mass casualty scenario involving radiological/nuclear materials, the ability to rapidly triage individuals according to radiation dose is critically important. For high-throughput screening for dicentric chromosomes, many of the data collection steps can be optimized with motorized microscopes coupled to automated slide scanning platforms.

  14. Unsteady MHD boundary layer stagnation point flow with heat and mass transfer in nanofluid in the presence of mass fluid suction and thermal radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, A. M.; Ismail, Galal; Fathy, Rania

    2015-06-01

    The unsteady boundary layer stagnation point flow of heat and mass transfer in a nanofluid with magnetic field and thermal radiation is theoretically investigated. The resulting governing equations are nondimensionalized and are transformed using a similarity transformation and then solved numerically by the shooting method. Comparison with the previously published work is presented and the results are found to be in good agreement. The effects of unsteadiness parameter A , solid volume fraction , magnetic field M, radiation parameter R, Schmidit number Sc and suction parameter w on the fluid flow, heat and mass transfer characteristic are discussed. Dual similarity solutions for the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are obtained for some negative values of the unsteadiness parameter. It is found that the critical values of A for which the dual solution exists depend on the values of solid volume fraction parameter in the presence of the Schmidit number. Also, the magnetic field parameter as well as the mass fluid suction widen the range of A for which the solution exists. The results also indicate that momentum, thermal and concentration boundary layer thickness for the first solution are thinner than that of the second solution.

  15. Lymphocyte chromosomal aberration assay in radiation biodosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Agrawala, Paban K.; Adhikari, J. S.; Chaudhury, N. K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiations, whether medical, occupational or accidental, leads to deleterious biological consequences like mortality or carcinogenesis. It is considered that no dose of ionizing radiation exposure is safe. However, once the accurate absorbed dose is estimated, one can be given appropriate medical care and the severe consequences can be minimized. Though several accurate physical dose estimation modalities exist, it is essential to estimate the absorbed dose in biological system taking into account the individual variation in radiation response, so as to plan suitable medical care. Over the last several decades, lots of efforts have been taken to design a rapid and easy biological dosimeter requiring minimum invasive procedures. The metaphase chromosomal aberration assay in human lymphocytes, though is labor intensive and requires skilled individuals, still remains the gold standard for radiation biodosimetry. The current review aims at discussing the human lymphocyte metaphase chromosomal aberration assay and recent developments involving the application of molecular cytogenetic approaches and other technological advancements to make the assay more authentic and simple to use even in the events of mass radiation casualties. PMID:21829315

  16. Mass transfer effects on the unsteady mhd radiative- convective flow of a micropolar fluid past a vertical porous plate with variable heat and mass fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, M. Gnaneswara

    2013-03-01

    The problem of unsteady two-dimensional laminar flow of a viscous incompressible micropolar fluid past a vertical porous plate in the presence of a transverse magnetic field and thermal radiation with variable heat and mass fluxes is considered. The free stream velocity is subjected to exponentially increasing or decreasing small perturbations. A uniform magnetic field acts perpendicularly to a porous surface where a micropolar fluid is absorbed with a suction velocity varying with time. The Rosseland approximation is used to describe radiative heat transfer in the limit of optically thick fluids. The effects of the flow parameters and thermophysical properties on the velocity and temperature fields across the boundary layer are investigated. The effects of various parameters on the velocity, microrotation velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are given graphically, and the values of the skin friction and couple stress coefficients are presented.

  17. Molecular beam mass spectrometry with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, Amir; Ahmed, Musahid

    2012-01-01

    Tunable soft ionization coupled to mass spectroscopy is a powerful method to investigate isolated molecules, complexes and clusters and their spectroscopy and dynamics.[1-4] Fundamental studies of photoionization processes of biomolecules provide information about electronic structure of these systems. Furthermore determinations of ionization energies and other properties of biomolecules in the gas phase are not trivial, and these experiments provide a platform to generate these data. We have developed a thermal vaporization technique coupled with supersonic molecular beams that provides a gentle way to transport these species into the gas phase. Judicious combination of source gas and temperature allows for formation of dimers and higher clusters of the DNA bases. The focus of this particular work is on the effects of non-covalent interactions, i.e., hydrogen bonding, stacking, and electrostatic interactions, on the ionization energies and proton transfer of individual biomolecules, their complexes and upon micro-hydration by water.[1, 5-9] We have performed experimental and theoretical characterization of the photoionization dynamics of gas-phase uracil and 1,3-methyluracil dimers using molecular beams coupled with synchrotron radiation at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline[10] located at the Advanced Light Source and the experimental details are visualized here. This allowed us to observe the proton transfer in 1,3-dimethyluracil dimers, a system with pi stacking geometry and with no hydrogen bonds[1]. Molecular beams provide a very convenient and efficient way to isolate the sample of interest from environmental perturbations which in return allows accurate comparison with electronic structure calculations[11, 12]. By tuning the photon energy from the synchrotron, a photoionization efficiency (PIE) curve can be plotted which informs us about the cationic electronic states. These values can then be compared to theoretical models and calculations and in turn, explain

  18. 33 CFR 150.825 - Reporting a diving-related casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Reporting a diving-related casualty. Deaths and injuries related to diving within the safety zone of a deepwater port must be reported according to 46 CFR 197.484 and 197.486, rather than to §§ 150.815 and 150... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting a...

  19. 33 CFR 150.825 - Reporting a diving-related casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Reporting a diving-related casualty. Deaths and injuries related to diving within the safety zone of a deepwater port must be reported according to 46 CFR 197.484 and 197.486, rather than to §§ 150.815 and 150... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting a...

  20. Eating Order: A 13-Week Trust Model Class for Dieting Casualties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Elizabeth G.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic dieting distorts eating behaviors and causes weight escalation. Desperation about losing weight results in pursuit of extreme weight loss measures. Instead of offering yet another diet, nutrition educators can teach chronic dieters (dieting casualties) to develop eating competence. Eating Order, a 13-week class for chronic dieters based on…

  1. Rate of British psychiatric combat casualties compared to recent American wars.

    PubMed

    Price, H H

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines factors leading to the low rate of combat psychiatric casualties in the British recapture of the Falklands compared to the American experience in North Africa, Italy, Europe and South Pacific theatres during World War II, the Korean Conflict and Vietnam. The factors compared are those thought to affect rates seen in these past wars. The factors highlighted are psychiatric screening of evacuees, presence of psychiatric personnel in line units, intensity of combat and use of elite units. Factors also mentioned are presence of possible occult psychiatric casualties such as frostbite and malaria, amount of indirect fire and the offensive or defensive nature of the combat. A unique aspect of the Falklands War examined is the exclusive use of hospital ships to treat psychiatric casualties and the impact of the Geneva Convention rules regarding hospital ships on the classic treatment principles of proximity and expectancy. The types and numbers of various diagnoses are also presented. The British Campaign in the Falklands produced a remarkably low rate of psychiatric casualties. When viewed in light of American experience in recent wars, this low rate represents a concentration of optimal factors leading to healthy function in combat. The results of this war should not be used to predict a similar outcome in future combat as this particular constellation of factors may not recur. PMID:18214088

  2. 46 CFR 4.04-1 - Reports of potential vessel casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports of potential vessel casualty. 4.04-1 Section 4.04-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE... Guard district rescue coordination center (RCC) cognizant over the area the vessel was last operating...

  3. 26 CFR 20.2054-1 - Deduction for losses from casualties or theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deduction for losses from casualties or theft. 20.2054-1 Section 20.2054-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable...

  4. 26 CFR 20.2054-1 - Deduction for losses from casualties or theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Deduction for losses from casualties or theft. 20.2054-1 Section 20.2054-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable...

  5. 26 CFR 20.2054-1 - Deduction for losses from casualties or theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deduction for losses from casualties or theft. 20.2054-1 Section 20.2054-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable...

  6. 26 CFR 20.2054-1 - Deduction for losses from casualties or theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Deduction for losses from casualties or theft. 20.2054-1 Section 20.2054-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable...

  7. 26 CFR 20.2054-1 - Deduction for losses from casualties or theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Deduction for losses from casualties or theft. 20.2054-1 Section 20.2054-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable...

  8. 33 CFR 150.825 - Reporting a diving-related casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Reporting a diving-related casualty. Deaths and injuries related to diving within the safety zone of a deepwater port must be reported according to 46 CFR 197.484 and 197.486, rather than to §§ 150.815 and 150... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting a...

  9. 33 CFR 150.825 - Reporting a diving-related casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Reporting a diving-related casualty. Deaths and injuries related to diving within the safety zone of a deepwater port must be reported according to 46 CFR 197.484 and 197.486, rather than to §§ 150.815 and 150... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting a...

  10. 33 CFR 150.825 - Reporting a diving-related casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Reporting a diving-related casualty. Deaths and injuries related to diving within the safety zone of a deepwater port must be reported according to 46 CFR 197.484 and 197.486, rather than to §§ 150.815 and 150... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting a...

  11. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer lost by fire, theft... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid...

  12. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beer lost by fire, theft... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid...

  13. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beer lost by fire, theft... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid...

  14. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beer lost by fire, theft... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid...

  15. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beer lost by fire, theft... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid...

  16. 76 FR 53364 - Recreational Vessel Propeller Strike and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Casualty Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). D. Public... Department of Homeland Security ECOS Engine cut-off switches EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal... recreational vessel and propeller strike-related casualties. See 60 FR 25191 (May 11, 1995) (Request...

  17. 46 CFR 122.220 - Records of a voyage resulting in a marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records of a voyage resulting in a marine casualty. 122.220 Section 122.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER... order books, radiograms sent and received, radio logs, crew and passenger lists and counts, articles...

  18. The Battle of Bentonville: Caring for Casualties of the Civil War. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, John C.; Beck, Elaine

    At the First Battle of Manassas (Virginia) in 1861 many Union doctors fled the battlefield in fear. Those who remained found themselves without adequate medical supplies or ambulances for their patients. As the U.S. Civil War progressed and casualties mounted, military surgeons became more adept at caring for the wounded. By the Battle of…

  19. LISA-PF radiation monitor performance during the evolution of SEP events for the monitoring of test-mass charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimani, C.; Ao, X.; Fabi, M.; Laurenza, M.; Li, G.; Lobo, A.; Mateos, I.; Storini, M.; Verkhoglyadova, O.; Zank, G. P.

    2014-02-01

    Cosmic rays of solar and galactic origin at energies >100 MeV/n charge and induce spurious forces on free-floating test masses on board interferometers devoted to gravitational wave detection in space. LISA Pathfinder (LISA-PF), the technology testing mission for eLISA/NGO, will carry radiation monitors for on board test-mass charging monitoring. We present here the results of a simulation of radiation monitor performance during the evolution of solar energetic particle (SEP) events of different intensity. This simulation was carried out with the Fluka Monte Carlo package by taking into account for the first time both energy and spatial distributions of solar protons for the SEP events of 23 February 1956, 15 November 1960 and 7 May 1978. Input data for the Monte Carlo simulations was inferred from neutron monitor measurements. Conversely, for the SEP event of 13 December 2006 observed by the PAMELA experiment in space, we used the proton pitch angle distribution (PAD) computed from the Particle Acceleration and Transport in the Heliosphere (PATH) code. We plan to adopt this approach at the time of LISA-PF data analysis in order to optimize the correlation between radiation monitor observations and test-mass charging. The results of this work can be extended to the future space interferometers and other space missions carrying instruments for SEP detection.

  20. Development of Radiation-Tolerant, Low Mass, High Bandwidth Flexible Printed Circuit Cables for Particle Detection Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, Neil

    2016-03-01

    Design options for meter long flexible printed circuit cables required for low mass ultra-high speed signal transmission in the high radiation environment at the High Luminosity run of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are described. Two dielectric materials were considered in this study, Kapton and a Kapton/Teflon mixture. The design geometry is a differential embedded microstrip with nominal 100 Ω impedance. Minimal mass and maximal radiation hardness are pre-eminent considerations. The long flexible printed circuit cables are characterized in bit error rate tests (BERT), attenuation versus frequency, mechanical response to stress and temperature change, and RLC decomposition. These tests are performed before and after irradiation with 1 MeV neutrons to 2x1016/cm 2 and 800 MeV protons to 2x1016 1 MeV-neq/cm2. A 1.0 m Kapton cable, with bandwidth of 6.22 gigabits per second, 0.03% of a radiation length, and no radiation induced mechanical or electrical degradation is obtained.

  1. Calcified basal ganglionic mass 12 years after radiation therapy for medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtor, T.; Wollmann, R.L.; Brown, F.D.

    1984-04-01

    A patient treated 12 years previously with an operation and radiation therapy for a medulloblastoma developed weakness of the left hand and perivascular calcification involving the right internal capsule and caudate nucleus. These findings are considered possible long-term complications of the radiation therapy.

  2. Radiation-driven evolution of low-mass x-ray binaries and the formation of millisecond pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Tavani, M. California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Astronomy)

    1991-08-08

    Recent data on low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and millisecond pulsars (MSPs) pose a challenge to evolutionary theories which neglect the effects of disk and comparison irradiation. Here we discuss the main features of a radiation-driven (RD) evolutionary model that may be applicable to several LMXBs. According to this model, radiation from the accreting compact star in LMXBs vaporizes'' the accretion disk and the companion star by driving a self-sustained mass loss until a sudden accretion-turn off occurs. The main characteristics of the RD-evolution are: (1) lifetime of RD-LMXB's is of order 10{sup 7} years or less; (2) both the orbital period gap and the X-ray luminosity may be consequences of RD-evolution of LMXB's containing lower main sequence and degeneration companion stars; (3) the companion star may transfer mass to the primary even if it underfills its Roche lobe; (4) a class of recycled MSPs can continue to vaporize the low-mass companions by a strong pulsar wind even after the accretion turn-off; (5) the RD-evolutionary model resolves the apparent statistical descrepancy between the number of MSPs and their LMXB progenitors in the Galaxy. We discuss the implications of the discovery of single MSPs in low-density globular clusters and the recent measurements of short orbital timescales of four LMXBs. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Determination of the b-quark Mass and Nonperturbative parameters in Semileptonic and Radiative Penguin Decays at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Tackmann, Kerstin; collaboration, for the BABAR

    2008-01-23

    Knowing the mass of the b-quark is essential to the study of the structure and decays of B mesons as well as to future tests of the Higgs mechanism of mass generation. We present recent preliminary measurements of the b-quark mass and related nonperturbative parameters from moments of kinematic distributions in charmed and charmless semileptonic and radiative penguin B decays. Their determination from charmless semileptonic B decays is the first measurement in this mode. The data were collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -}-collider at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center at a center-of-momentum energy of 10:58 GeV.

  4. Conditions for statistical determination of the neutrino mass spectrum in radiative emission of neutrino pairs in atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ningqiang; Boyero Garcia, R.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Peralta Conde, A.; Taron, Josep

    2016-01-01

    The photon spectrum in macrocoherent atomic deexcitation via radiative emission of neutrino pairs has been proposed as a sensitive probe of the neutrino mass spectrum, capable of competing with conventional neutrino experiments. In this paper we revisit this interesting proposal in order to quantify the requirements for statistical determination of some of the properties of the neutrino spectrum, in particular, the neutrino mass scale and the mass ordering. Our results are shown as the product of the experimental lifetime, the target volume, and the number density of atoms which have to be set in a coherence state with a given electric field in the target, needed for determination of these properties with a given confidence level.

  5. New mass measurement method of aerosol particle using vibrating probe particle controlled by radiation pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariyama, Tatsuo; Takaya, Yasuhiro; Miyoshi, Takashi

    2005-11-01

    Aerosol particles with sub-micro meter size inhaled into respiratory systems cause serious damage to human body. In order to evaluate the health effects of the particles, classification methods of the particles with size and mass are needed. Several measurement methods of the particle size are established. However, conventional mass measurement methods are not enough to measure the particles with sub- pico gram. We propose a new mass measurement method of the aerosol particles based on laser trapping. In this method, an optically trapped silica particle is used as a measuring probe particle. The probe particle is trapped at a beam waist of the focused laser light and is forced to vibrate by deflecting the beam waist using AOD. The vibrating probe particle has a resonance frequency because it is governed by the spring-mass-damper system. When an aerosol particle is attached to the probe particle, the resonance frequency shifts according to the increase of the total mass. The mass of the aerosol particle can be measured from the shift of the resonance frequency. Experimentally, it is confirmed that the probe particle is governed by the spring-mass-damper system and has a resonance frequency. When a silica fine particle of 3pg in mass used as an aerosol particle is attached to the probe particle, the resonance frequency shift occurs as expected in the dynamic system and the fine particle mass can be measured based on the proposed method.

  6. Radiation Pressure Forces, the Anomalous Acceleration, and Center of Mass Motion for the TOPEX/POSEIDON Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubitschek, Daniel G.; Born, George H.

    2000-01-01

    Shortly after launch of the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) spacecraft (s/c), the Precision Orbit Determination (POD) Team at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Center for Space Research at the University of Texas, discovered residual along-track accelerations, which were unexpected. Here, we describe the analysis of radiation pressure forces acting on the T/P s/c for the purpose of understanding and providing an explanation for the anomalous accelerations. The radiation forces acting on the T/P solar army, which experiences warping due to temperature gradients between the front and back surfaces, are analyzed and the resulting along-track accelerations are determined. Characteristics similar to those of the anomalous acceleration are seen. This analysis led to the development of a new radiation form model, which includes solar array warping and a solar array deployment deflection of as large as 2 deg. As a result of this new model estimates of the empirical along-track acceleration are reduced in magnitude when compared to the GSFC tuned macromodel and are less dependent upon beta(prime), the location of the Sun relative to the orbit plane. If these results we believed to reflect the actual orientation of the T/P solar array then motion of the solar array must influence the location of the s/c center of mass. Preliminary estimates indicate that the center of mass can vary by as much as 3 cm in the radial component of the s/c's position due to rotation of the deflected, warped solar array panel .The altimeter measurements rely upon accurate knowledge of the center of mass location relative to the s/c frame of reference. Any radial motion of the center of mass directly affects the altimeter measurements.

  7. What do we need for airway management of adult casualties on the Primary Casualty Receiving Facility? A review of airway management on Role 3 Afloat.

    PubMed

    Mercer, S; Read, J; Sudheer, S; Risdall, J E; Connor, D

    2015-01-01

    The Primary Casualty Receiving Facility (PCRF) of the Royal Navy (RN) is currently based on Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) ARGUS and provides a functioning hospital with surgical teams and a CT scanner (Role 3) within the maritime environment. The case mix could include complex trauma, critically ill patients returning to theatre several times, as well as non-battle injury procedures. This paper describes how we have used national guidelines, evidence from recent military experience, and the Clinical Guidelines for Operations (CGOs) to review and rationalise the airway equipment that is available and that would be required for the PCRF in its current configuration, whilst maintaining capability in a deployed setting. PMID:26867417

  8. Metal/ceramic composite heat pipes for a low-mass, intrinsically-hard 875 K radiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Ernst, Donald M.; Nardone, Vincent C.

    1991-01-01

    Thermacore, Inc. of Lancaster, Pennsylvania has recently completed Phase I of a development program to investigate the use of layered metal/ceramic composites in the design of low-mass hardened radiators for space heat rejection systems. This effort evaluated the use of layered composites as a material to form thin-walled, vacuum leaktight heat pipes. The heat pipes would be incorporated into a large heat pipe radiator for waste heat rejection from a space nuclear power source. This approach forms an attractive alternative to carbon/carbon, or silicon-carbide fiber reinforced metal heat pipes by offering a combination of low mass and improved fabricability. Thermacore and United Technologies Research Center have jointly developed an approach for fabrication of layered composite thin-walled heat pipes for use in hardened space radiators. Potassium heat pipes with wall thicknesses as low a 0.3 mm have been built and tested. Wall thicknesses as low as 0.13 mm are believed to be achievable with this approach.

  9. Units related to radiation exposure and radioactivity in mass media: the Fukushima case study in Europe and Russia.

    PubMed

    Perko, T; Tomkiv, Y; Oughton, D H; Cantone, M C; Gallego, E; Prezelj, I; Byrkina, E

    2015-04-01

    Using an analysis of the way European newspapers covered the Fukushima nuclear accident, this article explores how the mass media transmit information about radiation risks from experts to the general public. The study applied a media content analysis method on a total of 1340 articles from 12 leading newspapers in 6 countries: Belgium (N = 260), Italy (N = 270), Norway (N = 133), Russia (N = 172), Slovenia (N = 190) and Spain (N = 315). All articles analysed were selected as being directly or indirectly related to the Fukushima accident by containing the word 'nuclear' and/or 'Fukushima' and were published between the 11th March and the 11th May 2011. The data presented here focus specifically on a cross-cultural comparison of the way the media use quantitative units. Results suggest that although experts are accustomed to communicating about radiological risks in technical language, often using quantitative units to describe the risks, mass media do not tend to use these units in their reporting. Although the study found a large variation in the measurement units used in different countries, it appeared that journalists in all the analysed countries preferred to describe radioactivity by comparing different radiation exposures, rather than reporting the actual measured units. The paper concludes with some practical guidelines for sound public communication about radiation risks. PMID:25389361

  10. The psychological impact of mass casualty incidents on first responders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paula M

    2016-01-01

    First responders are exposed to various types of disasters throughout their career. Because of their roles, they are often regarded as stronger people than individuals from other occupations. A systematic review of literature was conducted to determine if distinct characteristics exist that make first responders more susceptible to psychological trauma. Five categories of traits were found to put first responders at risk for psychological problems: personal, predisposing, peridisposing, postdisposing, and protective. To counteract the impact of psychological trauma, first responders need additional preincident psychological and resiliency training. Preparedness and awareness will help combat psychological impact from disasters and compassion fatigue. PMID:27438963

  11. Evaluation of a Scalable Information Analytics System for Enhanced Situational Awareness in Mass Casualty Events

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhuorui; Ciottone, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the utility of DIORAMA-II system which provides enhanced situational awareness within a disaster scene by using real-time visual analytics tools and a collaboration platform between the incident commander and the emergency responders. Our trials were conducted in different geographical areas (feature-rich and featureless regions) and in different lighting conditions (daytime and nighttime). DIORAMA-II obtained considerable time gain in efficiency compared to conventional paper based systems. DIORAMA-II time gain was reflected in reduction of both average triage time per patient (up to 34.3% average triage time reduction per patient) and average transport time per patient (up to 76.3% average transport time reduction per red patient and up to 66.3% average transport time reduction per yellow patient). In addition, DIORAMA-II ensured that no patients were left behind or transported in the incorrect order compared to the conventional method which resulted in patients being left behind and transported in the incorrect order. PMID:27433161

  12. 77 FR 52746 - Medical Countermeasures for a Burn Mass Casualty Incident

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ..., affiliation, address, email, and telephone number. Those without Internet access should contact Suzanne... participants will be sent technical system requirements after registration and will be sent connection access... Internet at http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/NewsEvents/WorkshopsConferences/default.htm . (Select...

  13. China eastern MD-11 mass casualty--expect the unexpected: a case report.

    PubMed

    Towne, L E

    1995-10-01

    On April 5, 1993, a China Eastern MD-11 underwent three violent pitch-up maneuvers, injuring over 100 passengers. The pilot made an emergency landing at 3:20 a.m. at Shemya, a tiny Aleutian Island with minimal medical facilities and personnel. The author describes their medical response, problems encountered and lessons learned. PMID:8526838

  14. Redefining the outcomes to resources ratio for burn patient triage in a mass casualty.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sandra; Jeng, James; Saffle, Jeffrey R; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2014-01-01

    Recent disasters highlight the need for predisaster planning, including the need for accurate triage. Data-driven triage tables, such as that generated from the 2002 National Burn Repository, are vital to optimize resource use during a disaster. The study purpose was to generate a burn resource disaster triage table based on current burn-treatment outcomes. Data from the NBR after the year 2000 were audited. Records that missed age, burn size, or survival status were excluded from analysis. Duplicate records, readmissions, transfers, and nonburn injuries were eliminated. Resource use was divided into expectant (predicted mortality >90%), low (mortality 50-90%), medium (mortality 10-50%), high (mortality <10%, admission 14-21 days), very high (mortality <10%, admission <14 days), and outpatient. Tables were created for all patient admissions and with/without inhalation injury. Of the 286,293 records, 210,683 were from the year 2000 or later. Expectant status for those aged >70 years began at 50% burn; a 20- to 29-year-old never reached expectant status. Inhalation injury lowered the expectant category to a burn size of 40% in >70-year-olds, and at >90% in 20- to 29-year-olds. The 0- to 1.9-year old group without inhalation injury never reached expectant status; with inhalation injury, expectant status was reached at >80% burn. Changes in the triage tables suggest that burn care has changed in the past 10 years. Inhalation injury significantly alters triage in a burn disaster. Use of these updated tables for triage in a disaster may improve our ability to allocate resources. PMID:24270085

  15. Bomb blast mass casualty incidents: initial triage and management of injuries.

    PubMed

    Goh, S H

    2009-01-01

    Bomb blast injuries are no longer confined to battlefields. With the ever present threat of terrorism, we should always be prepared for bomb blasts. Bomb blast injuries tend to affect air-containing organs more, as the blast wave tends to exert a shearing force on air-tissue interfaces. Commonly-injured organs include the tympanic membranes, the sinuses, the lungs and the bowel. Of these, blast lung injury is the most challenging to treat. The clinical picture is a mix of acute respiratory distress syndrome and air embolism, and the institution of positive pressure ventilation in the presence of low venous pressures could cause systemic arterial air embolism. The presence of a tympanic membrane perforation is not a reliable indicator of the presence of a blast injury in the other air-containing organs elsewhere. Radiological imaging of the head, chest and abdomen help with the early identification of blast lung injury, head injury, abdominal injury, eye and sinus injuries, as well as any penetration by foreign bodies. In addition, it must be borne in mind that bomb blasts could also be used to disperse radiological and chemical agents. PMID:19224092

  16. Chemical compositions and radiative properties of dust and anthropogenic air masses study in Taipei Basin, Taiwan, during spring of 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shih-Yu; Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chou, Charles C.-K.; Chen, Wei-Nai

    Asia is one of the major sources of not only mineral dust but also anthropogenic aerosols. Continental air masses associated with the East Asian winter monsoon always contain high contents of mineral dust and anthropogenic species and transported southeastward to Taiwan, which have significant influences on global atmospheric radiation transfer directly by scattering and absorbing solar radiation in each spring. However, few measurements for the long-range transported aerosol and its optical properties were announced in this area, between the Western Pacific and the southeastern coast of Mainland China. The overall objective of this work is to quantify the optical characteristics of different aerosol types in the Eastern Asian. In order to achieve this objective, meteorological parameters, concentrations of PM 10 and its soluble species, and optical property of atmospheric scattering coefficients were measured continuously with 1 h time-resolved from 11 February to 7 April 2004 in Taipei Basin (25°00'N, 121°32'E). In this work, the dramatic changes of meteorological parameters such as temperature and winds were used to determine the influenced period of each air mass. Continental, strong continental, marine, and stagnant air masses defined by the back-trajectory analysis and local meteorology were further characterized as long-range transport pollution, dust, clean marine, and local pollution aerosols, respectively, according to the diagnostic ratios. The aerosol mass scattering efficiency of continental pollution, dust, clean marine, and local pollution aerosols were ranged from 1.3 to 1.6, 0.7 to 1.0, 1.4 and 1.4 to 2.3 m 2 g -1, respectively. Overall, there are two distinct populations of aerosol mass scattering efficiencies, one for an aerosol chemical composition dominated by dust (<1.0 m 2 g -1) and the other for an aerosol chemical composition dominated by anthropogenic pollutants (1.3-2.3 m 2 g -1), which were similar to the previous measurements with

  17. Oxidative lipidomics of γ-radiation-induced lung injury: mass spectrometric characterization of cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Tyurina, Yulia Y; Tyurin, Vladimir A; Kapralova, Valentyna I; Wasserloos, Karla; Mosher, Mackenzie; Epperly, Michael W; Greenberger, Joel S; Pitt, Bruce R; Kagan, Valerian E

    2011-05-01

    Oxidative damage plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of γ-radiation-induced lung injury. Endothelium is a preferred target for early radiation-induced damage and apoptosis. Given the newly discovered role of oxidized phospholipids in apoptotic signaling, we performed oxidative lipidomics analysis of phospholipids in irradiated mouse lungs and cultured mouse lung endothelial cells. C57BL/6NHsd female mice were subjected to total-body irradiation (10 Gy, 15 Gy) and euthanized 24 h thereafter. Mouse lung endothelial cells were analyzed 48 h after γ irradiation (15 Gy). We found that radiation-induced apoptosis in vivo and in vitro was accompanied by non-random oxidation of phospholipids. Cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine were the major oxidized phospholipids, while more abundant phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine) remained non-oxidized. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis revealed the formation of cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine oxygenated molecular species in the irradiated lung and cells. Analysis of fatty acids after hydrolysis of cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine by phospholipase A(2) revealed the presence of mono-hydroperoxy and/or mono-hydroxy/mono-epoxy, mono-hydroperoxy/mono-oxo molecular species of linoleic acid. We speculate that cyt c-driven oxidations of cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine associated with the execution of apoptosis in pulmonary endothelial cells are important contributors to endothelium dysfunction in γ-radiation-induced lung injury. PMID:21338246

  18. Oxidative Lipidomics of γ-Radiation-Induced Lung Injury: Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Cardiolipin and Phosphatidylserine Peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Tyurin, Vladimir A.; Kapralova, Valentyna I.; Wasserloos, Karla; Mosher, Mackenzie; Epperly, Michael W.; Greenberger, Joel S.; Pitt, Bruce R.; Kagan, Valerian E.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative damage plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of γ-radiation-induced lung injury. Endothelium is a preferred target for early radiation-induced damage and apoptosis. Given the newly discovered role of oxidized phospholipids in apoptotic signaling, we performed oxidative lipidomics analysis of phospholipids in irradiated mouse lungs and cultured mouse lung endothelial cells. C57BL/6NHsd female mice were subjected to total-body irradiation (10 Gy, 15 Gy) and euthanized 24 h thereafter. Mouse lung endothelial cells were analyzed 48 h after γ irradiation (15 Gy). We found that radiation-induced apoptosis in vivo and in vitro was accompanied by non-random oxidation of phospholipids. Cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine were the major oxidized phospholipids, while more abundant phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine) remained non-oxidized. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis revealed the formation of cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine oxygenated molecular species in the irradiated lung and cells. Analysis of fatty acids after hydrolysis of cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine by phospholipase A2 revealed the presence of mono-hydroperoxy and/or mono-hydroxy/mono-epoxy, mono-hydroperoxy/mono-oxo molecular species of linoleic acid. We speculate that cyt c-driven oxidations of cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine associated with the execution of apoptosis in pulmonary endothelial cells are important contributors to endothelium dysfunction in γ-radiation-induced lung injury. PMID:21338246

  19. Radiative proton capture cross sections in the mass range 40-54

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Dipti; Dutta, Saumi; Gangopadhyay, G.; Bhattacharyya, Abhijit

    2016-07-01

    Proton capture cross sections in the energy range of astrophysical interest for mass region 40-54 have been calculated in the Hauser-Feshbach formalism with the reaction code talys1.6. The density-dependent M3Y effective nucleon-nucleon interaction folded with target radial matter densities from the relativistic mean field approach is used to obtain the semimicroscopic optical potential. A definite normalization of potential well depths has been used over the entire mass region. The (p ,γ ) rates of some reactions, important in the astrophysical scenario, are calculated using the potential in the relevant mass region.

  20. Solar Radiation Pressure Estimation and Analysis of a GEO Class of High Area-to-Mass Ratio Debris Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelecy, Tom; Payne, Tim; Thurston, Robin; Stansbery, Gene

    2007-01-01

    A population of deep space objects is thought to be high area-to-mass ratio (AMR) debris having origins from sources in the geosynchronous orbit (GEO) belt. The typical AMR values have been observed to range anywhere from 1's to 10's of m(sup 2)/kg, and hence, higher than average solar radiation pressure effects result in long-term migration of eccentricity (0.1-0.6) and inclination over time. However, the nature of the debris orientation-dependent dynamics also results time-varying solar radiation forces about the average which complicate the short-term orbit determination processing. The orbit determination results are presented for several of these debris objects, and highlight their unique and varied dynamic attributes. Estimation or the solar pressure dynamics over time scales suitable for resolving the shorter term dynamics improves the orbit estimation, and hence, the orbit predictions needed to conduct follow-up observations.

  1. Tactical combat casualty care in the Canadian Forces: lessons learned from the Afghan war.

    PubMed

    Savage, Erin; Forestier, Colleen; Withers, Nicholas; Tien, Homer; Pannell, Dylan

    2011-12-01

    Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) is intended to treat potentially preventable causes of death on the battlefield, but acknowledges that application of these treatments may place the provider and even the mission in jeopardy if performed at the wrong time. Therefore, TCCC classifies the tactical situation with respect to health care provision into 3 phases (care under fire, tactical field care and tactical evacuation) and only permits certain interventions to be performed in specific phases based on the danger to the provider and casualty. In the 6 years that the Canadian Forces (CF) have been involved in sustained combat operations in Kandahar, Afghanistan, more than 1000 CF members have been injured and more than 150 have been killed. As a result, the CF gained substantial experience delivering TCCC to wounded soldiers on the battlefield. The purpose of this paper is to review the principles of TCCC and some of the lessons learned about battlefield trauma care during this conflict. PMID:22099324

  2. Tactical Combat Casualty Care in the Canadian Forces: lessons learned from the Afghan war

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Erin; Forestier, Colleen; Withers, Nicholas; Tien, Homer; Pannell, Dylan

    2011-01-01

    Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) is intended to treat potentially preventable causes of death on the battlefield, but acknowledges that application of these treatments may place the provider and even the mission in jeopardy if performed at the wrong time. Therefore, TCCC classifies the tactical situation with respect to health care provision into 3 phases (care under fire, tactical field care and tactical evacuation) and only permits certain interventions to be performed in specific phases based on the danger to the provider and casualty. In the 6 years that the Canadian Forces (CF) have been involved in sustained combat operations in Kandahar, Afghanistan, more than 1000 CF members have been injured and more than 150 have been killed. As a result, the CF gained substantial experience delivering TCCC to wounded soldiers on the battlefield. The purpose of this paper is to review the principles of TCCC and some of the lessons learned about battlefield trauma care during this conflict. PMID:22099324

  3. Mathematical models for estimating earthquake casualties and damage cost through regression analysis using matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, J. D.; Bautista, L. A.; Baccay, E. B.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop mathematical models for estimating earthquake casualties such as death, number of injured persons, affected families and total cost of damage. To quantify the direct damages from earthquakes to human beings and properties given the magnitude, intensity, depth of focus, location of epicentre and time duration, the regression models were made. The researchers formulated models through regression analysis using matrices and used α = 0.01. The study considered thirty destructive earthquakes that hit the Philippines from the inclusive years 1968 to 2012. Relevant data about these said earthquakes were obtained from Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Data on damages and casualties were gathered from the records of National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council. The mathematical models made are as follows: This study will be of great value in emergency planning, initiating and updating programs for earthquake hazard reductionin the Philippines, which is an earthquake-prone country.

  4. Effects of Thermal Radiation on Unsteady Magnetohydrodynamic Flow of a Micropolar Fluid with Heat and Mass Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Qasim, Muhammad

    2010-11-01

    An analysis has been carried out to study the combined effects of heat and mass transfer on the unsteady flow of a micropolar fluid over a stretching sheet. The thermal radiation effects are presented. The arising nonlinear partial differential equations are first reduced to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations and then solved by the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Plots for various interesting parameters are presented and discussed. Numerical data for surface shear stress, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number in steady case are also tabulated. Comparison between the present and previous limiting results is given.

  5. Radiative symmetry breaking, fermion masses and mixing angles, and large Yukawa couplings in N - 1 SUSY-GUTS

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G.W.

    1992-12-01

    The effect of large third generation Yukawa couplings on radiative electroweak symmetry breaking in N = 1 SUSY-GUTS is reported. Limits on tan {beta}, and on the amount of fine tuning necessary for consistent symmetry breaking in the MSSM are derived. Predictions for fermion masses and mixing angles from GUT scale textures are also discussed. The effect of large Yukawa couplings on the running of the DHR texture is used to determine limits on the top quark valid for all values of tan {beta}.

  6. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta: a gap analysis of severely injured UK combat casualties.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Jonathan J; Ross, James D; Rasmussen, Todd E; Midwinter, Mark J; Jansen, Jan O

    2014-05-01

    The control of torso and junctional zone bleeding in combat casualties is particularly challenging because of its noncompressible nature. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has demonstrated promise in translational large animal and early clinical series as an effective resuscitation and hemorrhage control adjunct. However, it is unknown what proportion of combat casualties has an injury pattern and clinical course that is amenable to REBOA deployment. The prospective UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry was used to retrospectively identify all UK military personnel who has sustained a severe combat injury, defined as an Abbreviated Injury Scale of three or greater, in the course of 10 years. Patients were then divided into three groups based on Abbreviated Injury Scale injury pattern: no indications for REBOA, contraindications (mediastinal, cervical, and axillary hemorrhage), and indications (torso and pelvic hemorrhage). From a total of 1,317 patients, 925 (70.2%) had no indication, 148 (11.2%) had a contraindication, and 244 (18.5%) had an indication for REBOA. Within the group with indications for REBOA, there were 174 deaths: 79 at the point of wounding, 66 en route to hospital, and 29 in-hospital deaths. The median (interquartile range) time to death in patients dying en route was 75 (42-109) min, and the median prehospital time for casualties admitted to hospital was 61 (34-89) min. One-in-five severely injured UK combat casualties have a focus of hemorrhage in the abdomen or pelvic junctional region potentially amenable to REBOA deployment. The UK military should explore REBOA as a potential en route hemorrhage control and resuscitation adjunct. PMID:25133599

  7. ACCRETION ONTO INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLES REGULATED BY RADIATIVE FEEDBACK. I. PARAMETRIC STUDY FOR SPHERICALLY SYMMETRIC ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Kwang Ho; Ricotti, Massimo E-mail: ricotti@astro.umd.edu

    2011-09-20

    We study the effect of radiative feedback on accretion onto intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) using the hydrodynamical code ZEUS-MP with a radiative transfer algorithm. In this paper, the first of a series, we assume accretion from a uniformly dense gas with zero angular momentum and extremely low metallicity. Our one-dimensional (1D) and 2D simulations explore how X-ray and UV radiation emitted near the black hole regulates the gas supply from large scales. Both 1D and 2D simulations show similar accretion rates and periods between peaks in accretion, meaning that the hydro-instabilities that develop in 2D simulations do not affect the mean flow properties. We present a suite of simulations exploring accretion across a large parameter space, including different radiative efficiencies and radiation spectra, black hole masses, density, and temperature, T{sub {infinity}}, of the neighboring gas. In agreement with previous studies, we find regular oscillatory behavior of the accretion rate, with duty cycle {approx}6%, mean accretion rate 3% (T{sub {infinity}}/10{sup 4} K){sup 2.5} of the Bondi rate and peak accretion {approx}10 times the mean for T{sub {infinity}} ranging between 3000 K and 15, 000 K. We derive parametric formulae for the period between bursts, the mean accretion rate, and the peak luminosity of the bursts and thus provide a formulation of how feedback-regulated accretion operates. The temperature profile of the hot ionized gas is crucial in determining the accretion rate, while the period of the bursts is proportional to the mean size of the Stroemgren sphere, and we find qualitatively different modes of accretion in the high versus low density regimes. We also find that a softer radiation spectrum produces a higher mean accretion rate. However, it is still unclear what the effect of a significant time delay is between the accretion rate at our inner boundary and the output luminosity. Such a delay is expected in realistic cases with non

  8. Car driver casualty rates in Great Britain by type of car.

    PubMed

    Broughton, Jeremy

    2008-07-01

    Since 1989, the British STATS19 national road accident reporting system has included the Vehicle Registration Mark (VRM). This allows the basic vehicle record to be augmented with details such as the date of first registration and codes that specify the vehicle's make and model. In order to examine the influence of car type upon the driver casualty rate, this paper groups car models into six types, ranging from 'Minis and Superminis' to '4x4s and people carriers (pc)'. Exploratory analyses of data from accidents that occurred between 2001 and 2005 show that the driver casualty rate falls markedly with size of car. In car-car collisions, the rate also rises markedly with the size of the other car. The car's year of first registration also influences the casualty rate, and represents the influence of changes in the characteristics of new cars. Statistical models are fitted to identify the separate influences on a driver's risk of injury in a car-car collision of the type and registration year of the driver's car and the type and registration year of the other car in the collision. The analysis is extended to include collisions with other vehicles such as lorries and buses. PMID:18606288

  9. The Casualty Assistance Readiness Enhancement System: A Case Study in Rapid Prototyping and Design for Flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goerger, Simon R.; Wong, Ernest Y.; Henderson, Dale L.; Sperling, Brian K.; Bland, William

    Numerous government benefits are available to the surviving family of fallen U.S. military service members. Unfortunately, most of these entitlements require a considerable amount of paperwork to process correctly, necessitating a great deal of patience, attention to detail, and composure from families at a time when their grief is raw. Even though the U.S. Army appoints a Casualty Assistance Officer (CAO) to help surviving family members through this process, the soldiers serving as CAOs tend to be inexperienced and oftentimes find themselves challenged to provide accurate and thorough assistance. Consequently, some families do not receive all benefits in a timely manner, and some entitlements may be overlooked entirely. To help with the military's Casualty Program, we have developed the Casualty Assistance Readiness Enhancement System (CARES), an information system that improves how the Department of the Army cares for military families in arguably their greatest time of need. The tool and associated process reduced the time required to complete forms, reduced the potential for errors on repetitive information, assisted CAOs through the process, and provided electronic copies of completed forms.

  10. Earthquake casualty models within the USGS Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.; Earle, Paul; Porter, Keith A.; Hearne, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Since the launch of the USGS’s Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system in fall of 2007, the time needed for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to determine and comprehend the scope of any major earthquake disaster anywhere in the world has been dramatically reduced to less than 30 min. PAGER alerts consist of estimated shaking hazard from the ShakeMap system, estimates of population exposure at various shaking intensities, and a list of the most severely shaken cities in the epicentral area. These estimates help government, scientific, and relief agencies to guide their responses in the immediate aftermath of a significant earthquake. To account for wide variability and uncertainty associated with inventory, structural vulnerability and casualty data, PAGER employs three different global earthquake fatality/loss computation models. This article describes the development of the models and demonstrates the loss estimation capability for earthquakes that have occurred since 2007. The empirical model relies on country-specific earthquake loss data from past earthquakes and makes use of calibrated casualty rates for future prediction. The semi-empirical and analytical models are engineering-based and rely on complex datasets including building inventories, time-dependent population distributions within different occupancies, the vulnerability of regional building stocks, and casualty rates given structural collapse.

  11. Casualty Risk Assessment Controlled Re-Entry of EPS - Ariane 5ES - ATV Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, M.-H.; Laine, N.; Aussilhou, C.

    2012-01-01

    To fulfil its mission of compliance check to the French Space Operations Act, CNES has developed ELECTRA© tool in order to estimate casualty risk induced by a space activity (like rocket launch, controlled or un-controlled re-entry on Earth of a space object). This article describes the application of such a tool for the EPS controlled re-entry during the second Ariane 5E/S flight (Johannes Kepler mission has been launched in February 2011). EPS is the Ariane 5E/S upper composite which is de-orbited from a 260 km circular orbit after its main mission (release of the Automated Transfer Vehicle - ATV). After a brief description of the launcher, the ATV-mission and a description of all the failure cases taken into account in the mission design (which leads to "back-up scenarios" into the flight software program), the article will describe the steps which lead to the casualty risk assessment (in case of failure) with ELECTRA©. In particular, the presence on board of two propulsive means of de-orbiting (main engine of EPS, and 4 ACS longitudinal nozzles in case of main engine failure or exhaustion) leads to a low remaining casualty risk.

  12. Social vulnerability and the natural and built environment: a model of flood casualties in Texas.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Sammy; Brody, Samuel D; Peacock, Walter Gillis; Vedlitz, Arnold; Grover, Himanshu

    2008-12-01

    Studies on the impacts of hurricanes, tropical storms, and tornados indicate that poor communities of colour suffer disproportionately in human death and injury.(2) Few quantitative studies have been conducted on the degree to which flood events affect socially vulnerable populations. We address this research void by analysing 832 countywide flood events in Texas from 1997-2001. Specifically, we examine whether geographic localities characterised by high percentages of socially vulnerable populations experience significantly more casualties due to flood events, adjusting for characteristics of the natural and built environment. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models indicate that the odds of a flood casualty increase with the level of precipitation on the day of a flood event, flood duration, property damage caused by the flood, population density, and the presence of socially vulnerable populations. Odds decrease with the number of dams, the level of precipitation on the day before a recorded flood event, and the extent to which localities have enacted flood mitigation strategies. The study concludes with comments on hazard-resilient communities and protection of casualty-prone populations. PMID:18435768

  13. Provenancing of unidentified World War II casualties: Application of strontium and oxygen isotope analysis in tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Font, Laura; Jonker, Geert; van Aalderen, Patric A; Schiltmans, Els F; Davies, Gareth R

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 and 2012 two sets of unidentified human remains of two World War II soldiers were recovered in the area where the 1944-1945 Kapelsche Veer bridgehead battle took place in The Netherlands. Soldiers of four Allied nations: British Royal Marine Commandos, Free Norwegian Commandos, Free Poles and Canadians, fought against the German Army in this battle. The identification of these two casualties could not be achieved using dental record information of DNA analysis. The dental records of Missing in Action soldiers of the Allied nations did not match with the dental records of the two casualties. A DNA profile was determined for the casualty found in 2010, but no match was found. Due to the lack of information on the identification of the casualties provided by routine methods, an isotope study was conducted in teeth from the soldiers to constrain their provenance. The isotope study concluded that the tooth enamel isotope composition for both casualties matched with an origin from the United Kingdom. For one of the casualties a probable origin from the United Kingdom was confirmed, after the isotope study was conducted, by the recognition of a characteristic belt buckle derived from a Royal Marine money belt, only issued to British Royal Marines, found with the remains of the soldier. PMID:25577002

  14. Thermal radiation effects on magnetohydrodynamic flow past a semi-infinite vertical plate in the presence of mass diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboeldahab, E. M.; Azzam, G. E. A.

    2005-03-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed free-forced heat and mass convective steady incompressible laminar boundary layer flow of a gray optically thick electrically conducting viscous fluid past a semi-infinite vertical plate for high temperature and concentration differences is studied. A uniform magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the plate. The density of the fluid is assumed to reduce exponentially with temperature and concentration. The usual Boussinesq approximation is neglected because of the high temperature and concentration differences between the plate and the ambient fluid. The Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. The boundary layer equations governing the flow are reduced to ordinary differential equations, which are numerically solved by applying an efficient technique. The effects of the density-temperature parameter n, the density-concentration parameter m, the local magnetic parameter M-x, and the radiation parameter R are examined on the velocity, temperature, and con- centration distributions as well as the coefficients of skin-friction, heat flux, and mass flux.

  15. Mathematical simulation of convective-radiative heat transfer in a ventilated rectangular cavity with consideration of internal mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheremet, M. A.; Shishkin, N. I.

    2012-07-01

    Mathematical simulation of the nonstationary regimes of heat-and-mass transfer in a ventilated rectangular cavity with heat-conducting walls of finite thickness in the presence of a heat-generating element of constant temperature has been carried out with account for the radiative heat transfer in the Rosseland approximation. As mechanisms of energy transfer in this cavity, the combined convection and the thermal radiation in the gas space of the cavity and the heat conduction in the elements of its fencing solid shell were considered. The mathematical model formulated in the dimensionless stream function-vorticity vector-temperature-concentration variables was realized numerically with the use of the finite-difference method. The streamline, temperature-field, and concentration distributions reflecting the influence of the Rayleigh number (Ra = 104, 105, 106), the nonstationarity (0 < τ ≤ 1000), and the optical thickness of the medium (τλ = 50, 100, 200) on the regimes of the gas flow and the heat-and-mass transfer in the cavity have been obtained.

  16. MHD heat and mass transfer flow over a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet with radiation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat Yasin, Mohd Hafizi; Ishak, Anuar; Pop, Ioan

    2016-06-01

    The steady two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow past a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet with radiation effects is investigated. The similarity transformation is introduced to transform the governing partial differential equations into a system of ordinary differential equations before being solved numerically using a shooting method. The results are obtained for the skin friction coefficient, the local Nusselt number and the local Sherwood number as well as the velocity, temperature and the concentration profiles for some values of the governing parameters, namely, suction/injection parameter S, stretching/shrinking parameter λ, magnetic parameter M, radiation parameter R, heat source/sink Q and chemical rate parameter K. For the shrinking case, there exist two solutions for a certain range of parameters, but the solution is unique for the stretching case. The stability analysis verified that the upper branch solution is linearly stable and physically reliable while the lower branch solution is not. For the reliable solution, the skin friction coefficient increases in the present of magnetic field. The heat transfer rate at the surface decreases in the present of radiation.

  17. Low-mass neutron stars: universal relations, the nuclear symmetry energy and gravitational radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Hector O.; Sotani, Hajime; Berti, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    The lowest neutron star masses currently measured are in the range 1.0 - 1.1~M⊙, but these measurement have either large uncertainties or refer to isolated neutron stars. The recent claim of a precisely measured mass M/M⊙ = 1.174 ± 0.004 (Martinez et al. 2015) in a double neutron star system suggests that low-mass neutron stars may be an interesting target for gravitational-wave detectors. Furthermore, Sotani et al. (2014) recently found empirical formulas relating the mass and surface redshift of nonrotating neutron stars to the star's central density and to the parameter η ≡ (K0L2)1/3, where K0 is the incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter and L is the slope of the symmetry energy at saturation density. Motivated by these considerations, we extend the work by Sotani et al. (2014) to slowly rotating and tidally deformed neutron stars. We compute the moment of inertia, quadrupole moment, quadrupole ellipticity, tidal and rotational Love number and apsidal constant of slowly rotating neutron stars by integrating the Hartle-Thorne equations at second order in rotation, and we fit all of these quantities as functions of η and of the central density. These fits may be used to constrain η, either via observations of binary pulsars in the electromagnetic spectrum, or via near-future observations of inspiralling compact binaries in the gravitational-wave spectrum.

  18. Low-mass neutron stars: universal relations, the nuclear symmetry energy and gravitational radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Hector O.; Sotani, Hajime; Berti, Emanuele

    2016-07-01

    The lowest neutron star masses currently measured are in the range 1.0-1.1 M⊙, but these measurement have either large uncertainties or refer to isolated neutron stars. The recent claim of a precisely measured mass M/M⊙ = 1.174 ± 0.004 (Martinez et al. 2015) in a double neutron star system suggests that low-mass neutron stars may be an interesting target for gravitational-wave detectors. Furthermore, Sotani et al. recently found empirical formulas relating the mass and surface redshift of non-rotating neutron stars to the star's central density and to the parameter η ≡ (K0L2)1/3, where K0 is the incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter and L is the slope of the symmetry energy at saturation density. Motivated by these considerations, we extend the work by Sotani et al. to slowly rotating and tidally deformed neutron stars. We compute the moment of inertia, quadrupole moment, quadrupole ellipticity, tidal and rotational Love number and apsidal constant of slowly rotating neutron stars by integrating the Hartle-Thorne equations at second order in rotation, and we fit all of these quantities as functions of η and of the central density. These fits may be used to constrain η, either via observations of binary pulsars in the electromagnetic spectrum, or via near-future observations of inspiralling compact binaries in the gravitational-wave spectrum.

  19. Low-mass neutron stars: universal relations, the nuclear symmetry energy and gravitational radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O. Silva, Hector; Berti, Emanuele; Sotani, Hajime

    2016-03-01

    Compact objects such as neutron stars are ideal astrophysical laboratories to test our understanding of the fundamental interactions in the regime of supranuclear densities, unachievable by terrestrial experiments. Despite recent progress, the description of matter (i.e., the equation of state) at such densities is still debatable. This translates into uncertainties in the bulk properties of neutron stars, masses and radii for instance. Here we will consider low-mass neutron stars. Such stars are expected to carry important information on nuclear matter near the nuclear saturation point. It has recently been shown that the masses and surface redshifts of low-mass neutron stars smoothly depend on simple functions of the central density and of a characteristic parameter η associated with the choice of equation of state. Here we extend these results to slowly-rotating and tidally deformed stars and obtain empirical relations for various quantities, such as the moment of inertia, quadrupole moment and ellipticity, tidal and rotational Love numbers, and rotational apsidal constants. We discuss how these relations might be used to constrain the equation of state by future observations in the electromagnetic and gravitational-wave spectra.

  20. ORBITAL MIGRATION OF LOW-MASS PLANETS IN EVOLUTIONARY RADIATIVE MODELS: AVOIDING CATASTROPHIC INFALL

    SciTech Connect

    Lyra, Wladimir; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan E-mail: mordecai@amnh.or

    2010-06-01

    Outward migration of low-mass planets has recently been shown to be a possibility in non-barotropic disks. We examine the consequences of this result in evolutionary models of protoplanetary disks. Planet migration occurs toward equilibrium radii with zero torque. These radii themselves migrate inwards because of viscous accretion and photoevaporation. We show that as the surface density and temperature fall the planet orbital migration and disk depletion timescales eventually become comparable, with the precise timing depending on the mass of the planet. When this occurs, the planet decouples from the equilibrium radius. At this time, however, the gas surface density is already too low to drive substantial further migration. A higher mass planet, of 10 M {sub +}, can open a gap during the late evolution of the disk, and stops migrating. Low-mass planets, with 1 or 0.1 M {sub +}, released beyond 1 AU in our models avoid migrating into the star. Our results provide support for the reduced migration rates adopted in recent planet population synthesis models.

  1. Profiling mitochondrial proteins in radiation-induced genome-unstable cell lines with persistent oxidative stress by mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John H.; Jin, Shuangshuang; Morgan, William F.; Yang, Austin; Wan, Yunhu; Aypar, Umut; Peters, Jonathan S.; Springer, David L.

    2008-06-01

    Radiation-induced genome instability (RIGI) is a response to radiation exposure in which the progeny of surviving cells exhibit increased frequency of chromosomal changes many generations after the initial insult. Persistently elevated oxidative stress accompanying RIGI and the ability of free-radical scavengers, given before irradiation, to reduce the incidence of instability suggest that radiation induced alterations to mitochondrial function likely play a role in RIGI. To further elucidate this mechanism, we performed high-throughput quantitative mass spectrometry on samples enriched in mitochondrial proteins from three chromosomally-unstable GM10115 Chinese-hamster-ovary cell lines and their stable parental cell line. Out of several hundred identified proteins, sufficient data were collected on 74 mitochondrial proteins to test for statistically significant differences in their abundance between unstable and stable cell lines. Each of the unstable cell lines showed a distinct profile of statistically-significant differential abundant mitochondrial proteins. The LS-12 cell line was characterized by 8 downregulated proteins, whereas the CS-9 cell line exhibited 5 distinct up-regulated proteins. The unstable 115 cell line had two down-regulated proteins, one of which was also downregulated in LS-12, and one up-regulated protein relative to stable parental cells. The mitochondrial protein profiles for LS-12 and C-9 provide further evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the genome instability of these cell lines.

  2. Impact of Pretreatment Body Mass Index on Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, Ping-Ching; Chuang, Chi-Cheng; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Tsang, Ngan-Ming; Chang, Kai-Ping; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liao, Chun-Ta; Hong, Ji-Hong; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association of pretreatment body mass index (preT BMI) with outcomes of head-and-neck cancer in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: All 1,562 patients diagnosed with head-and-neck cancer and treated with curative-intent RT to a dose of 60 Gy or higher were retrospectively studied. Body weight was measured both at entry and at the end of RT. Cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), locoregional control (LRC), and distant metastasis (DM) were analyzed by preT BMI (<25 kg/m{sup 2} vs. {>=}25 kg/m{sup 2}). The median follow-up was 8.6 years. Results: Patients with lower preT BMI were statistically significantly associated with poorer CSS and OS than those with higher preT BMI. There was no significant difference between preT BMI groups in terms of LRC and DM. Body weight loss (BWL) during radiation did not influence survival outcomes. However, in the group with higher preT BMI, CSS, OS, and DM-free survival of patients with less BWL during radiation were statistically longer when compared with greater BWL. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that higher preT BMI positively influenced survival outcomes for patients with head-and-neck cancer. Patients with higher preT BMI who were able to maintain their weight during radiation had significantly better survival than patients with greater BWL.

  3. RADIATION-HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF THE FORMATION OF ORION-LIKE STAR CLUSTERS. II. THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION FROM WINDS, TURBULENCE, AND RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Krumholz, Mark R.; Klein, Richard I.; McKee, Christopher F.

    2012-07-20

    We report a series of simulations of the formation of a star cluster similar to the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), including both radiative transfer and protostellar outflows, and starting from both smooth and self-consistently turbulent initial conditions. Each simulation forms >150 stars and brown dwarfs, yielding a stellar mass distribution that ranges from <0.1 M{sub Sun} to >10 M{sub Sun }. We show that a simulation that begins with self-consistently turbulent density and velocity fields embedded in a larger turbulent volume, and that includes protostellar outflows, produces an initial mass function (IMF) that is consistent both with that of the ONC and the Galactic field, at least within the statistical power provided by the number of stars formed in our simulations. This is the first simulation published to date that reproduces the observed IMF in a cluster large enough to contain massive stars, and where the peak of the mass function is determined by a fully self-consistent calculation of gas thermodynamics rather than a hand-imposed equation of state. This simulation also produces a star formation rate that, while still somewhat too high, is much closer to observed values than if we omit either the larger turbulent volume or the outflows. Moreover, we show that the combination of outflows, self-consistently turbulent initial conditions, and turbulence continually fed by motions on scales larger than that of the protocluster yields an IMF that is in agreement with observations and invariant with time, resolving the 'overheating' problem in which simulations without these features have an IMF peak that shifts to progressively higher masses over time as more and more of the gas is heated, inconsistent with the observed invariance of the IMF. The simulation that matches the observed IMF also qualitatively reproduces the observed trend of stellar multiplicity strongly increasing with mass. We show that this simulation produces massive stars from distinct massive

  4. ORBITAL MIGRATION OF INTERACTING LOW-MASS PLANETS IN EVOLUTIONARY RADIATIVE TURBULENT MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, Brandon; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Lyra, Wladimir; Sandor, Zsolt E-mail: wlyra@amnh.org E-mail: zsolt.sandor@uibk.ac.at

    2012-05-01

    The torques exerted by a locally isothermal disk on an embedded planet lead to rapid inward migration. Recent work has shown that modeling the thermodynamics without the assumption of local isothermality reveals regions where the net torque on an embedded planet is positive, leading to outward migration of the planet. When a region with negative torque lies directly exterior to this, planets in the inner region migrate outward and planets in the outer region migrate inward, converging where the torque is zero. We incorporate the torques from an evolving non-isothermal disk into an N-body simulation to examine the behavior of planets or planetary embryos interacting in the convergence zone. We find that mutual interactions do not eject objects from the convergence zone. Small numbers of objects in a laminar disk settle into near resonant orbits that remain stable over the 10 Myr periods that we examine. However, either or both increasing the number of planets or including a correlated, stochastic force to represent turbulence drives orbit crossings and mergers in the convergence zone. These processes can build gas giant cores with masses of order 10 Earth masses from sub-Earth mass embryos in 2-3 Myr.

  5. Improved statistical determination of absolute neutrino masses via radiative emission of neutrino pairs from atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jue; Zhou, Shun

    2016-06-01

    The atomic transition from an excited state |e ⟩ to the ground state |g ⟩ by emitting a neutrino pair and a photon, i.e., |e ⟩→|g ⟩+|γ ⟩+|νi⟩+|ν¯j⟩ with i , j =1 , 2, 3, has been proposed by Yoshimura and his collaborators as an alternative way to determine the absolute scale m0 of neutrino masses. More recently, a statistical analysis of the fine structure of the photon spectrum from this atomic process has been performed [N. Song et al. Phys. Rev. D 93, 013020 (2016)] to quantitatively examine the experimental requirements for a realistic determination of absolute neutrino masses. In this paper, we show how to improve the statistical analysis and demonstrate that the previously required detection time can be reduced by one order of magnitude for the case of a 3 σ determination of m0˜0.01 eV with an accuracy better than 10%. Such an improvement is very encouraging for further investigations on measuring absolute neutrino masses through atomic processes.

  6. Left atrial mass 16 years after radiation therapy for mediastinal neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ensing, G.J.; Driscoll, D.J.; Smithson, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    Tumors involving the heart during childhood are rare. However, neuroblastoma, a common pediatric malignancy, has been described to involve the cardiovascular system in 3%-12% of patients dying with this tumor. Rarely is such involvement diagnosed ante mortem and never, to our knowledge, has a benign cardiac tumor been reported to present in childhood after successful eradication of neuroblastoma. We describe the identification and surgical resection of a nodular, hypertrophied, calcified, pedunculated left atrial mass in a 16-year-old boy who was complaining of exercise-associated presyncope and headaches 16 years after irradiation and chemotherapy for mediastinal neuroblastoma.

  7. The pre-hospital management of injury following mass toxic release; a comparison of military and civil approaches.

    PubMed

    Baker, D J

    1999-10-01

    Mass release of toxic substances may occur either accidentally or deliberately in both peace and war. Different approaches to the management of casualties from such an event have been developed by civil and military emergency medical teams, and reflect the different circumstances in which they operate. The nature and classification of toxic hazards is considered and the civil and military operational and medical responses compared. Both systems have different aspects that can contribute to early casualty management in a contaminated environment. PMID:10617335

  8. Structuring of material parameters in lithium niobate crystals with low-mass, high-energy ion radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peithmann, K.; Eversheim, P.-D.; Goetze, J.; Haaks, M.; Hattermann, H.; Haubrich, S.; Hinterberger, F.; Jentjens, L.; Mader, W.; Raeth, N. L.; Schmid, H.; Zamani-Meymian, M.-R.; Maier, K.

    2011-10-01

    Ferroelectric lithium niobate crystals offer a great potential for applications in modern optics. To provide powerful optical components, tailoring of key material parameters, especially of the refractive index n and the ferroelectric domain landscape, is required. Irradiation of lithium niobate crystals with accelerated ions causes strong structured modifications in the material. The effects induced by low-mass, high-energy ions (such as 3He with 41 MeV, which are not implanted, but transmit through the entire crystal volume) are reviewed. Irradiation yields large changes of the refractive index Δn, improved domain engineering capability within the material along the ion track, and waveguiding structures. The periodic modification of Δn as well as the formation of periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) (supported by radiation damage) is described. Two-step knock-on displacement processes, 3He→Nb and 3He→O causing thermal spikes, are identified as origin for the material modifications.

  9. Impact of semi-annihilation of ℤ{sub 3} symmetric dark matter with radiative neutrino masses

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Mayumi; Toma, Takashi

    2014-09-08

    We investigate a ℤ{sub 3} symmetric model with two-loop radiative neutrino masses. Dark matter in the model is either a Dirac fermion or a complex scalar as a result of an unbroken ℤ{sub 3} symmetry. In addition to standard annihilation processes, semi-annihilation of the dark matter contributes to the relic density. We study the effect of the semi-annihilation in the model and find that those contributions are important to obtain the observed relic density. The experimental signatures in dark matter searches are also discussed, where some of them are expected to be different from the signatures of dark matter in ℤ{sub 2} symmetric models.

  10. Radiation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Outside the protective cocoon of Earth's atmosphere, the universe is full of harmful radiation. Astronauts who live and work in space are exposed not only to ultraviolet rays but also to space radi...

  11. Family characteristics and posttraumatic stress disorder: a follow-up of Israeli combat stress reaction casualties.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Z; Mikulincer, M; Freid, B; Wosner, Y

    1987-09-01

    This study assessed the role of family status and family relationships in the course of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The sample consisted of 382 Israeli soldiers who suffered a combat stress reaction episode during the 1982 Lebanon War. Results showed that one year after the war married soldiers had higher rates of PTSD than did unmarried soldiers. Furthermore, higher rates of PTSD were associated with low expressiveness, low cohesiveness, and high conflict in the casualties' families. Theoretical, methodological, and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:3622749

  12. A Fault-Tolerant Radiation-Robust Mass Storage Concept for Highly Scaled Flash Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Cristian M.; Trinitis, Carsten; Appel, Nicolas; Langer, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Future spacemissions will require vast amounts of data to be stored and processed aboard spacecraft. While satisfying operational mission requirements, storage systems must guarantee data integrity and recover damaged data throughout the mission. NAND-flash memories have become popular for space-borne high performance mass memory scenarios, though future storage concepts will rely upon highly scaled flash or other memory technologies. With modern flash memory, single bit erasure coding and RAID based concepts are insufficient. Thus, a fully run-time configurable, high performance, dependable storage concept, requiring a minimal set of logic or software. The solution is based on composite erasure coding and can be adjusted for altered mission duration or changing environmental conditions.

  13. Radiation environment simulations at the Tevatron, studies of the beam profile and measurement of the Bc meson mass

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolas, Ludovic Y.

    2005-09-01

    The description of a computer simulation of the CDF detector at Fermilab and the adjacent accelerator parts is detailed, with MARS calculations of the radiation background in various elements of the model due to the collision of beams and machine-related losses. Three components of beam halo formation are simulated for the determination of the principal source of radiation background in CDF due to beam losses. The effect of a collimator as a protection for the detector is studied. The simulation results are compared with data taken by a CDF group. Studies of a 150 GeV Tevatron proton beam are performed to investigate the transverse diffusion growth and distribution. A technique of collimator scan is used to scrape the beam under various experimental conditions, and computer programs are written for the beam reconstruction. An average beam halo growth speed is given and the potential of beam tail reconstruction using the collimator scan is evaluated. A particle physics analysis is conducted in order to detect the B{sub c} {yields} J/{psi}{pi} decay signal with the CDF Run II detector in 360 pb{sup -1} of data. The cut variables and an optimization method to determine their values are presented along with a criterion for the detection threshold of the signal. The mass of the B{sub c} meson is measured with an evaluation of the significance of the signal.

  14. The High-Energy Radiation Environment of Planets around Low-Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya; Miles, Brittany; Barman, Travis; Peacock, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    Low-mass stars are the dominant planet hosts averaging about one planet per star. Many of these planets orbit in the canonical habitable zone (HZ) of the star where, if other conditions allowed, liquid water may exist on the surface.A planet’s habitability, including atmospheric retention, is strongly dependent on the star’s ultraviolet (UV) emission, which chemically modifies, ionizes, and even erodes the atmosphere over time including the photodissociation of important diagnostic molecules, e.g. H2O, CH4, and CO2. The UV spectral slope of a low-mass star can enhance atmospheric lifetimes, and increase the detectability of biologically generated gases. But, a different slope may lead to the formation of abiotic oxygen and ozone producing a false-positive biosignature for oxygenic photosynthesis. Realistic constraints on the incident UV flux over a planet’s lifetime are necessary to explore the cumulative effects on the evolution, composition, and fate of a HZ planetary atmosphere.NASA’s Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) provides a unique data set with which to study the broadband UV emission from many hundreds of M dwarfs. The GALEX satellite has imaged nearly 3/4 of the sky simultaneously in two UV bands: near-UV (NUV; 175-275 nm) and far-UV (FUV; 135-175 nm). With these data these, we are able to calculate the mean UV emission and its level of variability at these wavelengths over critical planet formation and evolution time scales to better understand the probable conditions in HZ planetary atmospheres.In the near future, dedicated CubeSats (miniaturized satellites for space research) to monitor M dwarf hosts of transiting exoplanets will provide the best opportunity to measure their UV variability, constrain the probabilities of detecting habitable (and inhabited) planets, and provide the correct context within which to interpret IR transmission and emission spectroscopy of transiting exoplanets.

  15. On mass shell renormalization of one loop radiative corrections in e/sup +/e/sup -/ yields W/sup +/W/sup -/

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyniak, P.; Sundaresan, M.K. . Dept. of Physics)

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, the one loop radiative corrections for the process e/sup +/e/sup -/ {yields} W/sup +/W/sup -/ are re-examined adopting the on-mass shell subtraction scheme. The main purpose of the paper is to present the details of this procedure. A complete computer program for the calculation of the radiative corrections based on this scheme is being developed to analyze the experimental data.

  16. Outer radiation belt dropout dynamics following the arrival of two interplanetary coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, L. R.; Da Silva, L. A.; Souza, V. M.; Sibeck, D. G.; Jauer, P. R.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Walsh, B. M.; Silveira, M. V. D.; Marchezi, J. P.; Rockenbach, M.; Lago, A. Dal; Mendes, O.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Koga, D.; Kanekal, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Wygant, J. R.; Kletzing, C. A.

    2016-02-01

    Magnetopause shadowing and wave-particle interactions are recognized as the two primary mechanisms for losses of electrons from the outer radiation belt. We investigate these mechanisms, using satellite observations both in interplanetary space and within the magnetosphere and particle drift modeling. Two interplanetary shocks/sheaths impinged upon the magnetopause causing a relativistic electron flux dropout. The magnetic cloud (MC) and interplanetary structure sunward of the MC had primarily northward magnetic field, perhaps leading to a concomitant lack of substorm activity and a 10 daylong quiescent period. The arrival of two shocks caused an unusual electron flux dropout. Test-particle simulations have shown ˜ 2 to 5 MeV energy, equatorially mirroring electrons with initial values of L≥5.5 can be lost to the magnetosheath via magnetopause shadowing alone. For electron losses at lower L-shells, coherent chorus wave-driven pitch angle scattering and ULF wave-driven radial transport have been shown to be viable mechanisms.

  17. Radiative feedback by low-mass stars in the first generation

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, Daniel James; Hueckstaedt, Robert; Mcconkie, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The survival of cosmological minihalos in both ionizing and Lyman-Werner (LW) UV fields from nearby and distant sources has attracted recent attention for its role in regulating the rise of stellar populations at high red-shifts. Numerical models suggest that the first stars form in isolation in small dark matter halos of {approx} 10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} M{sub {circle_dot}} at z {approx} 20-30 and that they are very massive, 25-500 M{sub {circle_dot}}. These stars form large H II regions 2.5-5 kpc in radius capable of engulfing nearby halos. With the rise of Population III stars throughout the cosmos also comes a global LW background that sterilizes mini-halos of H{sub 2}, delaying or preventing new star formation in them. At high redshifts, ionizaing radiation is therefore relatively local while LW photons can originate from many megaparsects away because their energies lie below the ionization limit of H.

  18. APEX-CHAMP+ high-J CO observations of low-mass young stellar objects. IV. Mechanical and radiative feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldız, U. A.; Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Karska, A.; Belloche, A.; Endo, A.; Frieswijk, W.; Güsten, R.; van Kempen, T. A.; Leurini, S.; Nagy, Z.; Pérez-Beaupuits, J. P.; Risacher, C.; van der Marel, N.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wyrowski, F.

    2015-04-01

    Context. During the embedded stage of star formation, bipolar molecular outflows and UV radiation from the protostar are important feedback processes. Both processes reflect the accretion onto the forming star and affect subsequent collapse or fragmentation of the cloud. Aims: Our aim is to quantify the feedback, mechanical and radiative, for a large sample of low-mass sources in a consistent manner. The outflow activity is compared to radiative feedback in the form of UV heating by the accreting protostar to search for correlations and evolutionary trends. Methods: Large-scale maps of 26 young stellar objects, which are part of the Herschel WISH key program are obtained using the CHAMP+ instrument on the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (12CO and 13CO 6-5; Eup ~ 100 K), and the HARP-B instrument on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (12CO and 13CO 3-2; Eup ~ 30 K). The maps have high spatial resolution, particularly the CO 6-5 maps taken with a 9″ beam, resolving the morphology of the outflows. The maps are used to determine outflow parameters and the results are compared with higher-J CO lines obtained with Herschel. Envelope models are used to quantify the amount of UV-heated gas and its temperature from 13CO 6-5 observations. Results: All sources in our sample show outflow activity, with the spatial extent decreasing from the Class 0 to the Class I stage. Consistent with previous studies, the outflow force, FCO, is larger for Class 0 sources than for Class I sources, even if their luminosities are comparable. The outflowing gas typically extends to much greater distances than the power-law envelope and therefore influences the surrounding cloud material directly. Comparison of the CO 6-5 results with HIFI H2O and PACS high-J CO lines, both tracing currently shocked gas, shows that the two components are linked, even though the transitions do not probe the same gas. The link does not extend down to CO 3-2. The conclusion is that CO 6-5 depends on the shock

  19. Magnetic inhibition of convection and the fundamental properties of low-mass stars. I. Stars with a radiative core

    SciTech Connect

    Feiden, Gregory A.; Chaboyer, Brian E-mail: brian.chaboyer@dartmouth.edu

    2013-12-20

    Magnetic fields are hypothesized to inflate the radii of low-mass stars—defined as less massive than 0.8 M {sub ☉}—in detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). We investigate this hypothesis using the recently introduced magnetic Dartmouth stellar evolution code. In particular, we focus on stars thought to have a radiative core and convective outer envelope by studying in detail three individual DEBs: UV Psc, YY Gem, and CU Cnc. Our results suggest that the stabilization of thermal convection by a magnetic field is a plausible explanation for the observed model-radius discrepancies. However, surface magnetic field strengths required by the models are significantly stronger than those estimated from observed coronal X-ray emission. Agreement between model predicted surface magnetic field strengths and those inferred from X-ray observations can be found by assuming that the magnetic field sources its energy from convection. This approach makes the transport of heat by convection less efficient and is akin to reduced convective mixing length methods used in other studies. Predictions for the metallicity and magnetic field strengths of the aforementioned systems are reported. We also develop an expression relating a reduction in the convective mixing length to a magnetic field strength in units of the equipartition value. Our results are compared with those from previous investigations to incorporate magnetic fields to explain the low-mass DEB radius inflation. Finally, we explore how the effects of magnetic fields might affect mass determinations using asteroseismic data and the implication of magnetic fields on exoplanet studies.

  20. Magnetic Inhibition of Convection and the Fundamental Properties of Low-mass Stars. I. Stars with a Radiative Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiden, Gregory A.; Chaboyer, Brian

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic fields are hypothesized to inflate the radii of low-mass stars—defined as less massive than 0.8 M ⊙—in detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). We investigate this hypothesis using the recently introduced magnetic Dartmouth stellar evolution code. In particular, we focus on stars thought to have a radiative core and convective outer envelope by studying in detail three individual DEBs: UV Psc, YY Gem, and CU Cnc. Our results suggest that the stabilization of thermal convection by a magnetic field is a plausible explanation for the observed model-radius discrepancies. However, surface magnetic field strengths required by the models are significantly stronger than those estimated from observed coronal X-ray emission. Agreement between model predicted surface magnetic field strengths and those inferred from X-ray observations can be found by assuming that the magnetic field sources its energy from convection. This approach makes the transport of heat by convection less efficient and is akin to reduced convective mixing length methods used in other studies. Predictions for the metallicity and magnetic field strengths of the aforementioned systems are reported. We also develop an expression relating a reduction in the convective mixing length to a magnetic field strength in units of the equipartition value. Our results are compared with those from previous investigations to incorporate magnetic fields to explain the low-mass DEB radius inflation. Finally, we explore how the effects of magnetic fields might affect mass determinations using asteroseismic data and the implication of magnetic fields on exoplanet studies.

  1. Military casualties in Baranja and east Slavonia during the first 9 months of the war in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Ropac, D; Milas, J

    1999-09-01

    The total number of Croatian Army soldiers killed in the period from the beginning of July 1991 until the end of March 1992 was 487. The number of severely wounded was 1,160, and 1,141 soldiers were slightly wounded. The ratio of the killed to wounded was 1:5, except in the municipality of Osijek, where it was 1:2.5. The number of casualties increased continually and culminated during November 1991, the period of fiercest fighting in this territory, followed by a gradual decrease. The most common mechanism of injury was explosives, which were responsible for almost half of all casualties (47.9%). An equal number of soldiers were killed by explosives and infantry weapons (46.4% and 44.9%, respectively). Casualties caused by motor vehicle crashes are not to be ignored, especially after the cease-fire agreement. Car crashes frequently resulted in death (from 4.5%-12.4%). PMID:10495635

  2. Radiation dose estimation and mass attenuation coefficients of cement samples used in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Damla, N; Cevik, U; Kobya, A I; Celik, A; Celik, N; Van Grieken, R

    2010-04-15

    Different cement samples commonly used in building construction in Turkey have been analyzed for natural radioactivity using gamma-ray spectrometry. The mean activity concentrations observed in the cement samples were 52, 40 and 324 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and world average limits. The radiological hazard parameters such as radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)), gamma index (I(gamma)) and alpha index (I(alpha)) indices as well as terrestrial absorbed dose and annual effective dose rate were calculated and compared with the international data. The Ra(eq) values of cement are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1), equivalent to a gamma dose of 1.5 mSv y(-1). Moreover, the mass attenuation coefficients were determined experimentally and calculated theoretically using XCOM in some cement samples. Also, chemical compositions analyses of the cement samples were investigated. PMID:20018450

  3. Radiative neutrino mass with ℤ 3 dark matter: from relic density to LHC signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ran; Han, Zhi-Long; Liao, Yi; Xie, Wan-Peng

    2016-05-01

    In this work we give a comprehensive analysis on the phenomenology of a specific ℤ 3 dark matter (DM) model in which neutrino mass is induced at two loops by interactions with a DM particle that can be a complex scalar or a Dirac fermion. Both the DM properties in relic density and direct detection and the LHC signatures are examined in great detail, and indirect detection for gamma-ray excess from the Galactic Center is also discussed briefly. On the DM side, both semi-annihilation and co-annihilation processes play a crucial role in alleviating the tension of parameter space between relic density and direct detection. On the collider side, new decay channels resulting from ℤ 3 particles lead to distinct signals at LHC. Currently the trilepton signal is expected to give the most stringent bound for both scalar and fermion DM candidates, and the signatures of fermion DM are very similar to those of electroweakinos in simplified supersymmetric models.

  4. Using the Design for Demise Philosophy to Reduce Casualty Risk Due to Reentering Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Recently the reentry of a number of vehicles has garnered public attention due to their risk of human casualty due to fragments surviving reentry. In order to minimize this risk for their vehicles, a number of NASA programs have actively sought to minimize the number of components likely to survive reentry at the end of their spacecraft's life in order to meet and/or exceed NASA safety standards for controlled and uncontrolled reentering vehicles. This philosophy, referred to as "Design for Demise" or D4D, has steadily been adopted, to at least some degree, by numerous programs. The result is that many programs are requesting evaluations of components at the early stages of vehicle design, as they strive to find ways to reduce the number surviving components while ensuring that the components meet the performance requirements of their mission. This paper will discuss some of the methods that have been employed to ensure that the consequences of the vehicle s end-of-life are considered at the beginning of the design process. In addition this paper will discuss the technical challenges overcome, as well as some of the more creative solutions which have been utilized to reduce casualty risk.

  5. When terror is routine: how Israeli nurses cope with multi-casualty terror.

    PubMed

    Riba, Shoshana; Reches, Hiba

    2002-01-01

    The wave of terror that has befallen the Israeli civilian population over the past two years, striking deep into the heart of towns and cities all over the country, presents a unique challenge for the health care system in general and nursing in particular. This article has a two-fold purpose: (a) to describe discussions that took place with four focus groups consisting of emergency room nurses who had recently cared for victims of terror, and (b) to delineate recommendations for policy enhancement based upon these discussions. Qualitative analysis of the data collected from focus group discussions revealed four stages of personal and professional involvement, each one eliciting a specific response from the nurses: call up to report for duty, waiting for casualties to arrive, caring for the victims, and closure of the event. Nurses identified numerous hardships and great anxiety along with a strong sense of professional fulfillment. Recommendations for policy include: incorporating stress management and debriefing skills in post-basic ER training, designing workshops and drills in trauma care for non-ER nurses who float into the ER in the wake of a multi-casualty act of terror, and developing leadership seminars for head nurses in the ER departments. PMID:12410636

  6. Healthcare-associated pneumonia among U.S. combat casualties, 2009 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Yun, Heather C; Weintrob, Amy C; Conger, Nicholas G; Li, Ping; Lu, Dan; Tribble, David R; Murray, Clinton K

    2015-01-01

    Although there is literature evaluating infectious complications associated with combat-related injuries from Iraq and Afghanistan, none have evaluated pneumonia specifically. Therefore, we assessed a series of pneumonia cases among wounded military personnel admitted to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, and then evacuated further to participating U.S. military hospitals. Of the 423 casualties evacuated to the United States, 36 developed pneumonia (8.5%) and 30 of these (83.3%) were ventilator-associated. Restricting to 162 subjects admitted to intensive care, 30 patients had pneumonia (18.5%). The median Injury Severity Score was higher among subjects with pneumonia (23.0 vs. 6.0; p < 0.01). There were 61 first-isolate respiratory specimens recovered from 31 pneumonia subjects, of which 56.1% were gram-negative, 18.2% were gram-positive, and 18.2% were fungal. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were most commonly recovered (10.6%, and 9.1%, respectively). Thirteen bacterial isolates (26.5%) were multidrug-resistant. Outcome data were available for 32 patients, of which 26 resolved their infection without progression, 5 resolved after initial progression, and 1 died. Overall, combat-injured casualties suffer a relatively high rate of pneumonia, particularly those requiring mechanical ventilation. Although gram-negative pathogens were common, S. aureus was most frequently isolated. Continued focus on pneumonia prevention strategies is necessary for improving combat care. PMID:25562865

  7. Management of Open Pneumothorax in Tactical Combat Casualty Care: TCCC Guidelines Change 13-02.

    PubMed

    Butler, Frank K; Dubose, Joseph J; Otten, Edward J; Bennett, Donald R; Gerhardt, Robert T; Kheirabadi, Bijan S; Gross, Kriby R; Cap, Andrew P; Littlejohn, Lanny F; Edgar, Erin P; Shackelford, Stacy A; Blackbourne, Lorne H; Kotwal, Russ S; Holcomb, John B; Bailey, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    During the recent United States Central Command (USCENTCOM) and Joint Trauma System (JTS) assessment of prehospital trauma care in Afghanistan, the deployed director of the Joint Theater Trauma System (JTTS), CAPT Donald R. Bennett, questioned why TCCC recommends treating a nonlethal injury (open pneumothorax) with an intervention (a nonvented chest seal) that could produce a lethal condition (tension pneumothorax). New research from the U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research (USAISR) has found that, in a model of open pneumothorax treated with a chest seal in which increments of air were added to the pleural space to simulate an air leak from an injured lung, use of a vented chest seal prevented the subsequent development of a tension pneumothorax, whereas use of a nonvented chest seal did not. The updated TCCC Guideline for the battlefield management of open pneumothorax is: ?All open and/ or sucking chest wounds should be treated by immediately applying a vented chest seal to cover the defect. If a vente chest seal is not available, use a non-vented chest seal. Monitor the casualty for the potential development of a subsequent tension pneumothorax. If the casualty develops increasing hypoxia, respiratory distress, or hypotension and a tension pneumothorax is suspected, treat by burping or removing the dressing or by needle decompression.? This recommendation was approved by the required two-thirds majority of the Committee on TCCC in June 2013. PMID:24048995

  8. The influence of car registration year on driver casualty rates in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Broughton, Jeremy

    2012-03-01

    A previous paper analysed data from the British national road accident reporting system to investigate the influence upon car driver casualty rates of the general type of car being driven and its year of first registration. A statistical model was fitted to accident data from 2001 to 2005, and this paper updates the principal results using accident data from 2003 to 2007. Attention focuses upon the role of year of first registration since this allows the influence of developments in car design upon occupant casualty numbers to be evaluated. Three additional topics are also examined with these accident data. Changes over time in frontal and side impacts are compared. Changes in the combined risk for the two drivers involved in a car-car collision are investigated, being the net result of changes in secondary safety and aggressivity. Finally, the results of the new model relating to occupant protection are related to an index that had been developed previously to analyse changes over time in the secondary safety of the car fleet. PMID:22269528

  9. On the uncertainties of photon mass energy-absorption coefficients and their ratios for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreo, Pedro; Burns, David T.; Salvat, Francesc

    2012-04-01

    A systematic analysis of the available data has been carried out for mass energy-absorption coefficients and their ratios for air, graphite and water for photon energies between 1 keV and 2 MeV, using representative kilovoltage x-ray spectra for mammography and diagnostic radiology below 100 kV, and for 192Ir and 60Co gamma-ray spectra. The aim of this work was to establish ‘an envelope of uncertainty’ based on the spread of the available data. Type A uncertainties were determined from the results of Monte Carlo (MC) calculations with the PENELOPE and EGSnrc systems, yielding mean values for µen/ρ with a given statistical standard uncertainty. Type B estimates were based on two groupings. The first grouping consisted of MC calculations based on a similar implementation but using different data and/or approximations. The second grouping was formed by various datasets, obtained by different authors or methods using the same or different basic data, and with different implementations (analytical, MC-based, or a combination of the two); these datasets were the compilations of NIST, Hubbell, Johns-Cunningham, Attix and Higgins, plus MC calculations with PENELOPE and EGSnrc. The combined standard uncertainty, uc, for the µen/ρ values for the mammography x-ray spectra is 2.5%, decreasing gradually to 1.6% for kilovoltage x-ray spectra up to 100 kV. For 60Co and 192Ir, uc is approximately 0.1%. The Type B uncertainty analysis for the ratios of µen/ρ values includes four methods of analysis and concludes that for the present data the assumption that the data interval represents 95% confidence limits is a good compromise. For the mammography x-ray spectra, the combined standard uncertainties of (µen/ρ)graphite,air and (µen/ρ)graphite,water are 1.5%, and 0.5% for (µen/ρ)water,air, decreasing gradually down to uc = 0.1% for the three µen/ρ ratios for the gamma-ray spectra. The present estimates are shown to coincide well with those of Hubbell (1977 Rad. Res

  10. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Technology in the Differential Diagnosis of Solid Breast Masses with Different Sizes: Which Features Are Most Efficient?

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Min; Zhang, Hui-Ping; Xing, Jin-Fang; Shi, Qiu-Sheng; Gu, Ji-Ying; Li, Fan; Chen, Hui-Li; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Fang, Yun; Du, Lian-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate diagnostic performance of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technology for solid breast masses with different sizes and determine which features are most efficient. Materials and Methods. 271 solid breast masses in 242 women were examined with ARFI, and their shear wave velocities (SWVs), Virtual Touch tissue imaging (VTI) patterns, and area ratios (ARs) were measured and compared with their histopathological outcomes. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were calculated to assess diagnostic performance of ARFI for small masses (6–14 mm) and big masses (15–30 mm). Results. SWV of mass was shown to be positively associated with mass size (P < 0.001). For small masses, area under ROC (Az) of AR was larger than that of SWV (P < 0.001) and VTI pattern (P < 0.001); no significant difference was found between Az of SWV and that of VTI pattern (P = 0.906). For big masses, Az of VTI pattern was less than that of SWV (P = 0.008) and AR (P = 0.002); no significant difference was identified between Az of SWV and that of AR (P = 0.584). Conclusions. For big masses, SWV and AR are both efficient measures; nevertheless, for small masses, AR seems to be the best feature. PMID:26258138

  11. One minute after the detonation of the atomic bomb: the erased effects of residual radiation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Government's official narrative denies the effects of residual radiation which appeared one minute after the atomic bomb detonations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This paper explores declassified documents from the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, the Atomic Bomb Casualties Commission, and others and shows that these documents actually suggested the existence of serious effects from residual radiation. PMID:20521423

  12. Spatial-temporal patterns in Mediterranean carnivore road casualties: Consequences for mitigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grilo, C.; Bissonette, J.A.; Santos-Reis, M.

    2009-01-01

    Many carnivores have been seriously impacted by the expansion of transportation systems and networks; however we know little about carnivore response to the extent and magnitude of road mortality, or which age classes may be disproportionately impacted. Recent research has demonstrated that wildlife-vehicle-collisions (WVC) involving carnivores are modulated by temporal and spatial factors. Thus, we investigated road mortality on a guild of small and medium-sized carnivores in southern Portugal using road-kill data obtained from a systematic 36 months monitoring period along highways (260 km) and national roads (314 km) by addressing the following questions: (a) which species and age class are most vulnerable to WVC? (b) are there temporal and/or spatial patterns in road-kill? and (c) which life-history and/or spatial factors influence the likelihood of collisions? We recorded a total of 806 carnivore casualties, which represented an average of 47 ind./100 km/year. Red fox and stone marten had the highest mortality rates. Our findings highlight three key messages: (1) the majority of road-killed individuals were adults of common species; (2) all carnivores, except genets, were more vulnerable during specific life-history phenological periods: higher casualties were observed when red fox and stone marten were provisioning young, Eurasian badger casualties occurred more frequently during dispersal, and higher Egyptian mongoose mortality occurred during the breeding period; and (3) modeling demonstrated that favorable habitat, curves in the road, and low human disturbance were major contributors to the deadliest road segments. Red fox carcasses were more likely to be found on road sections with passages distant from urban areas. Conversely, stone marten mortalities were found more often on national roads with high of cork oak woodland cover; Egyptian mongoose and genet road-kills were found more often on road segments close to curves. Based on our results, two key

  13. Slope Failure Prediction and Early Warning Awareness Education for Reducing Landslides Casualty in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koay, S. P.; Tay, L. T.; Fukuoka, H.; Koyama, T.; Sakai, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Lateh, H.

    2015-12-01

    Northeast monsoon causes heavy rain in east coast of Peninsular Malaysia from November to March, every year. During this monsoon period, besides the happening of flood along east coast, landslides also causes millions of Malaysian Ringgit economical losses. Hence, it is essential to study the prediction of slope failure to prevent the casualty of landslides happening. In our study, we introduce prediction method of the accumulated rainfall affecting the stability of the slope. If the curve, in the graph, which is presented by rainfall intensity versus accumulated rainfall, crosses over the critical line, the condition of the slope is considered in high risk where the data are calculated and sent from rain gauge in the site via internet. If the possibility of slope failure is going high, the alert message will be sent out to the authorities for decision making on road block or setting the warning light at the road side. Besides road block and warning light, we propose to disseminate short message, to pre-registered mobile phone user, to notify the public for easing the traffic jam and avoiding unnecessary public panic. Prediction is not enough to prevent the casualty. Early warning awareness of the public is very important to reduce the casualty of landslides happening. IT technology does not only play a main role in disseminating information, early warning awareness education, by using IT technology, should be conducted, in schools, to give early warning awareness on natural hazard since childhood. Knowing the pass history on landslides occurrence will gain experience on the landslides happening. Landslides historical events with coordinate information are stored in database. The public can browse these historical events via internet. By referring to such historical landslides events, the public may know where did landslides happen before and the possibility of slope failure occurrence again is considered high. Simulation of rainfall induced slope failure mechanism

  14. Study of the pi+pi-J//psi Mass Spectrum Via Initial State Radiation at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, Bernard; /

    2008-08-15

    We present an update of the study of the Y(4260) resonance, produced in the process e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {gamma}{sub ISR} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} J/{psi} using initial-state radiation events at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} storage rings. This study is based on 454 fb{sup -1} of data recorded with the BABAR detector at a center-of-mass energy in the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance region. From a fit with a single non-relativistic Breit-Wigner shape we obtain updated parameters for the Y(4260) resonance which are m{sub Y} = 4252 {+-} 6{sub -3}{sup +2} MeV/c{sup 2} and {Lambda}{sub Y} = 105 {+-} 18{sub -6}{sup +4} MeV/c{sup 2}; we also measure {Beta}({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} J/{psi}){Lambda}{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}} = (7.5 {+-} 0.9 {+-} 0.8) eV. We cannot confirm the recent BELLE observation of a broad structure around 4.05GeV/c{sup 2} in this decay mode.

  15. Determination of the ionization potentials of security-relevant substances with single photon ionization mass spectrometry using synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Schramm, E; Mühlberger, F; Mitschke, S; Reichardt, G; Schulte-Ladbeck, R; Pütz, M; Zimmermann, R

    2008-02-01

    Several ionization potentials (IPs) of security relevant substances were determined with single photon ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SPI-TOFMS) using monochromatized synchrotron radiation from the "Berliner Elektronenspeicherring-Gesellschaft für Synchrotronstrahlung" (BESSY). In detail, the IPs of nine explosives and related compounds, seven narcotics and narcotics precursors, and one chemical warfare agent (CWA) precursor were determined, whereas six IPs already known from the literature were verified correctly. From seven other substances, including one CWA precursor, the IP could not be determined as the molecule ion peak could not be detected. For these substances the appearance energy (AE) of a main fragment was determined. The analyzed security-relevant substances showed IPs significantly below the IPs of common matrix compounds such as nitrogen and oxygen. Therefore, it is possible to find photon energies in between, whereby the molecules of interest can be detected with SPI in very low concentrations due to the shielding of the matrix. All determined IPs except the one of the explosive EGDN were below 10.5 eV. Hence, laser-generated 118 nm photons can be applied for detecting almost all security-relevant substances by, e.g., SPI-TOFMS. PMID:18284801

  16. Daily variation in natural disaster casualties: information flows, safety, and opportunity costs in tornado versus hurricane strikes.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Sammy; Tavani, Daniele; Weiler, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    Casualties from natural disasters may depend on the day of the week they strike. With data from the Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database for the United States (SHELDUS), daily variation in hurricane and tornado casualties from 5,043 tornado and 2,455 hurricane time/place events is analyzed. Hurricane forecasts provide at-risk populations with considerable lead time. Such lead time allows strategic behavior in choosing protective measures under hurricane threat; opportunity costs in terms of lost income are higher during weekdays than during weekends. On the other hand, the lead time provided by tornadoes is near zero; hence tornados generate no opportunity costs. Tornado casualties are related to risk information flows, which are higher during workdays than during leisure periods, and are related to sheltering-in-place opportunities, which are better in permanent buildings like businesses and schools. Consistent with theoretical expectations, random effects negative binomial regression results indicate that tornado events occurring on the workdays of Monday through Thursday are significantly less lethal than tornados that occur on weekends. In direct contrast, and also consistent with theory, the expected count of hurricane casualties increases significantly with weekday occurrences. The policy implications of observed daily variation in tornado and hurricane events are considered. PMID:23126406

  17. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 420 - Impact Dispersion Areas and Casualty Expectancy Estimate for an Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Expectancy Estimate for an Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle D Appendix D to Part 420 Aeronautics and Space... Casualty Expectancy Estimate for an Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle (a) Introduction (1) This appendix... unguided suborbital launch vehicle would be launched. The appendix describes how to define an...

  18. 33 CFR 150.820 - When must a written report of casualty be submitted, and what must it contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must also include the information relating to alcohol and drug involvement specified by 46 CFR 4.05-12... CFR part 16. (c) If filed immediately after the event, the written report required by paragraph (a) of... casualty be submitted, and what must it contain? 150.820 Section 150.820 Navigation and Navigable...

  19. 33 CFR 150.820 - When must a written report of casualty be submitted, and what must it contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... must also include the information relating to alcohol and drug involvement specified by 46 CFR 4.05-12... CFR part 16. (c) If filed immediately after the event, the written report required by paragraph (a) of... casualty be submitted, and what must it contain? 150.820 Section 150.820 Navigation and Navigable...

  20. [The modern approaches to the principles of medical and surgical casualty estimation. The US and British experience].

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, V K; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B; Mironov, V G; Parfenov, V D

    2014-01-01

    The current article is dedicated to the principles of medical and surgical casualty estimation elaborated by the medical services of the US and Great Britain Armed Forces on the basis of their experience obtained during Afghanistan and Iraq operations. PMID:24734435

  1. First-order feasibility analysis of a space suit radiator concept based on estimation of water mass sublimation using Apollo mission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metts, Jonathan G.; Klaus, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal control of a space suit during extravehicular activity (EVA) is typically accomplished by sublimating water to provide system cooling. Spacecraft, on the other hand, primarily rely on radiators to dissipate heat. Integrating a radiator into a space suit has been proposed as an alternative design that does not require mass consumption for heat transfer. While providing cooling without water loss offers potential benefits for EVA application, it is not currently practical to rely on a directional, fixed-emissivity radiator to maintain thermal equilibrium of a spacesuit where the radiator orientation, environmental temperature, and crew member metabolic heat load fluctuate unpredictably. One approach that might make this feasible, however, is the use of electrochromic devices that are capable of infrared emissivity modulation and can be actively controlled across the entire suit surface to regulate net heat flux for the system. Integrating these devices onto the irregular, compliant space suit material requires that they be fabricated on a flexible substrate, such as Kapton film. An initial assessment of whether or not this candidate technology presents a feasible design option was conducted by first characterizing the mass of water loss from sublimation that could theoretically be saved if an electrochromic suit radiator was employed for thermal control. This is particularly important for lunar surface exploration, where the expense of transporting water from Earth is excessive, but the technology is potentially beneficial for other space missions as well. In order to define a baseline for this analysis by comparison to actual data, historical documents from the Apollo missions were mined for comprehensive, detailed metabolic data from each lunar surface outing, and related data from NASA's more recent "Advanced Lunar Walkback" tests were also analyzed. This metabolic database was then used to validate estimates for sublimator water consumption during surface

  2. Operation Desert Shield: Medical aspects of weapons of mass destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Knudson, G.B. )

    1991-06-01

    The authors concern over possible use of weapons of mass destruction against U.S. forces in the Middle East has increased because Iraq has violated the Geneva Protocol of 1925 and the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention, attempted to acquire nuclear capability and delivery systems, and is reported to be developing biological weapons. The Army Medical Department has had no experience, since World War I, in the management and treatment of mass casualties contaminated by chemical agents, and has never treated casualties resulting from the use of nuclear or biological weapons used against our soldiers. Management and diagnosis of casualties will be complicated by their possible exposure to a mixture of chemical warfare and biological warfare agents. Triage is an essential aspect in the management of mass casualties since the number of injured patients will exceed the maximum medical capability to treat each patient on arrival. All levels of medical support must be prepared to protect themselves, their equipment and supplies, and their patients from contamination. In contaminated operations on the integrated battlefield, it will be of utmost importance to incorporate flexibility and innovation to match the medical and tactical situation.

  3. Rapid and High-Throughput Detection and Quantitation of Radiation Biomarkers in Human and Nonhuman Primates by Differential Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhidan; Coy, Stephen L.; Pannkuk, Evan L.; Laiakis, Evagelia C.; Hall, Adam B.; Fornace, Albert J.; Vouros, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Radiation exposure is an important public health issue due to a range of accidental and intentional threats. Prompt and effective large-scale screening and appropriate use of medical countermeasures (MCM) to mitigate radiation injury requires rapid methods for determining the radiation dose. In a number of studies, metabolomics has identified small-molecule biomarkers responding to the radiation dose. Differential mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) has been used for similar compounds for high-throughput small-molecule detection and quantitation. In this study, we show that DMS-MS can detect and quantify two radiation biomarkers, trimethyl-L-lysine (TML) and hypoxanthine. Hypoxanthine is a human and nonhuman primate (NHP) radiation biomarker and metabolic intermediate, whereas TML is a radiation biomarker in humans but not in NHP, which is involved in carnitine synthesis. They have been analyzed by DMS-MS from urine samples after a simple strong cation exchange-solid phase extraction (SCX-SPE). The dramatic suppression of background and chemical noise provided by DMS-MS results in an approximately 10-fold reduction in time, including sample pretreatment time, compared with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). DMS-MS quantitation accuracy has been verified by validation testing for each biomarker. Human samples are not yet available, but for hypoxanthine, selected NHP urine samples (pre- and 7-d-post 10 Gy exposure) were analyzed, resulting in a mean change in concentration essentially identical to that obtained by LC-MS (fold-change 2.76 versus 2.59). These results confirm the potential of DMS-MS for field or clinical first-level rapid screening for radiation exposure.

  4. Combat casualty care in an air force theater hospital: perspectives of recently deployed cardiothoracic surgeons.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Jeffrey D; Pratt, Jerry W

    2008-01-01

    Current military operations have generated a large number of casualties and have led to the establishment of the first Air Force Theater Hospital since Vietnam. Located at Balad Airbase, Iraq, this hospital is a busy trauma center. Thoracic injuries are relatively infrequent but highly lethal. The cardiothoracic surgeon is uniquely trained to provide sophisticated surgical management to some of the most severely injured patients. The operative experiences of four recently deployed cardiothoracic surgeons are described. Mortality from combat injury in this conflict is lower than in prior wars. Body armor may prevent some fatal injuries. Several features of military medical care process are helping to improve our outcomes-specifically, the development of a trauma care system modeled on successful civilian centers, the expanded use of damage control concepts, and utilization of early transportation out of the theater of operations using Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATT). PMID:18420132

  5. Rehabilitation of the Combat Casualty: Lessons Learned from Past and Current Conflicts.

    PubMed

    Pasquina, Paul F; Shero, John C

    2016-01-01

    The field of rehabilitation is deeply rooted in military medicine, especially in promoting the restoration of function and community reintegration of injured service members returning from war. Since military operations began in Iraq and Afghanistan over a decade ago, rehabilitative care programs have been integral in supporting the Military Healthcare System in providing high quality comprehensive care for combat casualties and their families, particularly those with complex blast injuries resulting in conditions such as amputation and other limb dysfunction, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Fundamental to a successful rehabilitation program is the coordination of interdisciplinary care that not only crosses multiple medical specialties and disciplines, but also promotes ongoing education, research, quality improvement and readiness. This brief article is intended to highlight some of the most important lessons learned from current and past conflicts in delivering the highest quality rehabilitative care to our nation's heroes. PMID:27215872

  6. Radiation Dose-Rate Effects on Gene Expression in a Mouse Biodosimetry Model

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Sunirmal; Smilenov, Lubomir B.; Elliston, Carl D.; Amundson, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident or radiological terrorist attack, there will be a pressing need for biodosimetry to triage a large, potentially exposed population and to assign individuals to appropriate treatment. Exposures from fallout are likely, resulting in protracted dose delivery that would, in turn, impact the extent of injury. Biodosimetry approaches that can distinguish such low-dose-rate (LDR) exposures from acute exposures have not yet been developed. In this study, we used the C57BL/6 mouse model in an initial investigation of the impact of low-dose-rate delivery on the transcriptomic response in blood. While a large number of the same genes responded to LDR and acute radiation exposures, for many genes the magnitude of response was lower after LDR exposures. Some genes, however, were differentially expressed (P < 0.001, false discovery rate < 5%) in mice exposed to LDR compared with mice exposed to acute radiation. We identified a set of 164 genes that correctly classified 97% of the samples in this experiment as exposed to acute or LDR radiation using a support vector machine algorithm. Gene expression is a promising approach to radiation biodosimetry, enhanced greatly by this first demonstration of its potential for distinguishing between acute and LDR exposures. Further development of this aspect of radiation biodosimetry, either as part of a complete gene expression biodosimetry test or as an adjunct to other methods, could provide vital triage information in a mass radiological casualty event. PMID:26114327

  7. Radiation Dose-Rate Effects on Gene Expression in a Mouse Biodosimetry Model.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sunirmal; Smilenov, Lubomir B; Elliston, Carl D; Amundson, Sally A

    2015-07-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident or radiological terrorist attack, there will be a pressing need for biodosimetry to triage a large, potentially exposed population and to assign individuals to appropriate treatment. Exposures from fallout are likely, resulting in protracted dose delivery that would, in turn, impact the extent of injury. Biodosimetry approaches that can distinguish such low-dose-rate (LDR) exposures from acute exposures have not yet been developed. In this study, we used the C57BL/6 mouse model in an initial investigation of the impact of low-dose-rate delivery on the transcriptomic response in blood. While a large number of the same genes responded to LDR and acute radiation exposures, for many genes the magnitude of response was lower after LDR exposures. Some genes, however, were differentially expressed (P < 0.001, false discovery rate <5%) in mice exposed to LDR compared with mice exposed to acute radiation. We identified a set of 164 genes that correctly classified 97% of the samples in this experiment as exposed to acute or LDR radiation using a support vector machine algorithm. Gene expression is a promising approach to radiation biodosimetry, enhanced greatly by this first demonstration of its potential for distinguishing between acute and LDR exposures. Further development of this aspect of radiation biodosimetry, either as part of a complete gene expression biodosimetry test or as an adjunct to other methods, could provide vital triage information in a mass radiological casualty event. PMID:26114327

  8. Comparison of Mouse Urinary Metabolic Profiles after Exposure to the Inflammatory Stressors γ Radiation and Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Laiakis, Evagelia C.; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolomics on easily accessible biofluids has the potential to provide rapid identification and distinction between stressors and inflammatory states. In the event of a radiological event, individuals with underlying medical conditions could present with similar symptoms to radiation poisoning, prominently nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and fever. Metabolomics of radiation exposure in mice has provided valuable biomarkers, and in this study we aimed to identify biomarkers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure to compare and contrast with ionizing radiation. LPS treatment leads to a severe inflammatory response and a cytokine storm, events similar to radiation exposure, and LPS exposure can recapitulate many of the responses seen in sepsis. Urine from control mice, LPS-treated mice, and mice irradiated with 3, 8 and 15 Gy of γ rays was analyzed by LCMS, and markers were extracted using SIMCA-P+ and Random Forests. Markers were validated through tandem mass spectrometry against pure chemicals. Five metabolites, cytosine, cortisol, adenine, O-propanoylcarnitine and isethionic acid, showed increased excretion at 24 h after LPS treatment (P < 0.0001, 0.0393, 0.0393, <0.0001 and 0.0004, respectively). Of these, cytosine, adenine and O-propanoylcarnitine showed specificity to LPS treatment when compared to radiation. On the other hand, increased excretion of cortisol after LPS and radiation treatments indicated a rapid systemic response to inflammatory agents. Isethionic acid excretion, however, showed elevated levels not only after LPS treatment but also after a very high dose of radiation (15 Gy), while additional metabolites showed responsiveness to radiation but not LPS. Metabolomics therefore has the potential to distinguish between different inflammatory responses based on differential ion signatures. It can also provide quick and reliable assessment of medical conditions in a mass casualty radiological scenario and aid in effective triaging. PMID:22128784

  9. Overview of use of G-CSF and GM-CSF in the treatment of acute radiation injury.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Glen

    2014-06-01

    Depression of hematopoietic elements due to significant levels of whole-body or partial-body irradiation due to radiation-induced suppression of mitosis in the stem and progenitor cells can result in life-threatening injury. Successful administration of intensive care of patients experiencing acute radiation sickness (ARS; also called acute radiation syndrome) is dependent upon the ability to stimulate the recovery of surviving hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), assuming the non-hematopoietic injuries are also survivable with treatment. To date, there have been a number of studies involving radiation accidents where patients were treated with cytokines. Although the data overall seem to indicate that the period of neutropenia is shortened and survival prolonged, so far there is no statistically significant proof that cytokine administration actually decreases mortality in radiation-injured humans. Some studies have shown no improved survival when used in a mouse model; however, studies in canines and primates have shown improved survival. CSF therapy is considered a valuable adjunct to treatment with antibiotics and strict hygiene controls in certain irradiated patients. It appears that these drugs do shorten the periods of neutropenia in irradiated patients and must be considered part of the therapeutic armamentarium in the treatment of ARS in a mass casualty situation. Based on review of the human experience with G-CSF and GM-CSF, as well as some animal studies, current consensus opinions support the prompt administration of these materials to patients suffering significant bone marrow depression from exposure to ionizing radiation. PMID:24776902

  10. Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity Score System in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    PubMed

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Ney, Patrick H; Condliffe, Donald P; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P

    2016-08-01

    Radiation accidents or terrorist attacks can result in serious consequences for the civilian population and for military personnel responding to such emergencies. The early medical management situation requires quantitative indications for early initiation of cytokine therapy in individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and effective triage tools for first responders in mass-casualty radiological incidents. Previously established animal (Mus musculus, Macaca mulatta) total-body irradiation (γ-exposure) models have evaluated a panel of radiation-responsive proteins that, together with peripheral blood cell counts, create a multiparametic dose-predictive algorithm with a threshold for detection of ~1 Gy from 1 to 7 d after exposure as well as demonstrate the acute radiation syndrome severity score systems created similar to the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims developed by Fliedner and colleagues. The authors present a further demonstration of the acute radiation sickness severity score system in a mouse (CD2F1, males) TBI model (1-14 Gy, Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min) based on multiple biodosimetric endpoints. This includes the acute radiation sickness severity Observational Grading System, survival rate, weight changes, temperature, peripheral blood cell counts and radiation-responsive protein expression profile: Flt-3 ligand, interleukin 6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, thrombopoietin, erythropoietin, and serum amyloid A. Results show that use of the multiple-parameter severity score system facilitates identification of animals requiring enhanced monitoring after irradiation and that proteomics are a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposure, enhancing accuracy and discrimination index for acute radiation sickness response categories and early prediction of outcome. PMID:27356057

  11. Towards a quantitative, measurement-based estimate of the uncertainty in photon mass attenuation coefficients at radiation therapy energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, E. S. M.; Spencer, B.; McEwen, M. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, a quantitative estimate is derived for the uncertainty in the XCOM photon mass attenuation coefficients in the energy range of interest to external beam radiation therapy—i.e. 100 keV (orthovoltage) to 25 MeV—using direct comparisons of experimental data against Monte Carlo models and theoretical XCOM data. Two independent datasets are used. The first dataset is from our recent transmission measurements and the corresponding EGSnrc calculations (Ali et al 2012 Med. Phys. 39 5990-6003) for 10-30 MV photon beams from the research linac at the National Research Council Canada. The attenuators are graphite and lead, with a total of 140 data points and an experimental uncertainty of ˜0.5% (k = 1). An optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor that minimizes the discrepancies between measurements and calculations is used to deduce cross section uncertainty. The second dataset is from the aggregate of cross section measurements in the literature for graphite and lead (49 experiments, 288 data points). The dataset is compared to the sum of the XCOM data plus the IAEA photonuclear data. Again, an optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor is used to deduce the cross section uncertainty. Using the average result from the two datasets, the energy-independent cross section uncertainty estimate is 0.5% (68% confidence) and 0.7% (95% confidence). The potential for energy-dependent errors is discussed. Photon cross section uncertainty is shown to be smaller than the current qualitative ‘envelope of uncertainty’ of the order of 1-2%, as given by Hubbell (1999 Phys. Med. Biol 44 R1-22).

  12. Mass loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Leo

    1987-01-01

    Observational evidence for mass loss from cool stars is reviewed. Spectra line profiles are used for the derivation of mass-loss rates with the aid of the equation of continuity. This equation implies steady mass loss with spherical symmetry. Data from binary stars, Mira variables, and red giants in globular clusters are examined. Silicate emission is discussed as a useful indicator of mass loss in the middle infrared spectra. The use of thermal millimeter-wave radiation, Very Large Array (VLA) measurement of radio emission, and OH/IR masers are discussed as a tool for mass loss measurement. Evidence for nonsteady mass loss is also reviewed.

  13. The Importance of Physical Models for Deriving Dust Masses and Grain Size Distributions in Supernova Ejecta. I. Radiatively Heated Dust in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Recent far-infrared (IR) observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) have revealed significantly large amounts of newly condensed dust in their ejecta, comparable to the total mass of available refractory elements. The dust masses derived from these observations assume that all the grains of a given species radiate at the same temperature, regardless of the dust heating mechanism or grain radius. In this paper, we derive the dust mass in the ejecta of the Crab Nebula, using a physical model for the heating and radiation from the dust. We adopt a power-law distribution of grain sizes and two different dust compositions (silicates and amorphous carbon), and calculate the heating rate of each dust grain by the radiation from the pulsar wind nebula. We find that the grains attain a continuous range of temperatures, depending on their size and composition. The total mass derived from the best-fit models to the observed IR spectrum is 0.019-0.13 Solar Mass, depending on the assumed grain composition. We find that the power-law size distribution of dust grains is characterized by a power-law index of 3.5-4.0 and a maximum grain size larger than 0.1 micron. The grain sizes and composition are consistent with what is expected for dust grains formed in a Type IIP supernova (SN). Our derived dust mass is at least a factor of two less than the mass reported in previous studies of the Crab Nebula that assumed more simplified two-temperature models. These models also require a larger mass of refractory elements to be locked up in dust than was likely available in the ejecta. The results of this study show that a physical model resulting in a realistic distribution of dust temperatures can constrain the dust properties and affect the derived dust masses. Our study may also have important implications for deriving grain properties and mass estimates in other SNRs and for the ultimate question of whether SNe are major sources of dust in the Galactic interstellar medium and in

  14. RADIATION-HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF THE FORMATION OF ORION-LIKE STAR CLUSTERS. I. IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ORIGIN OF THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Krumholz, Mark R.; Klein, Richard I.; McKee, Christopher F.

    2011-10-20

    One model for the origin of typical Galactic star clusters such as the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) is that they form via the rapid, efficient collapse of a bound gas clump within a larger, gravitationally unbound giant molecular cloud. However, simulations in support of this scenario have thus far not included the radiation feedback produced by the stars; radiative simulations have been limited to significantly smaller or lower-density regions. Here we use the ORION AMR code to conduct the first ever radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the global collapse scenario for the formation of an ONC-like cluster. We show that radiative feedback has a dramatic effect on the evolution: once the first {approx}10%-20% of the gas mass is incorporated into stars, their radiative feedback raises the gas temperature high enough to suppress any further fragmentation. However, gas continues to accrete onto existing stars, and, as a result, the stellar mass distribution becomes increasingly top-heavy, eventually rendering it incompatible with the observed initial mass function (IMF). Systematic variation in the location of the IMF peak as star formation proceeds is incompatible with the observed invariance of the IMF between star clusters, unless some unknown mechanism synchronizes the IMFs in different clusters by ensuring that star formation is always truncated when the IMF peak reaches a particular value. We therefore conclude that the global collapse scenario, at least in its simplest form, is not compatible with the observed stellar IMF. We speculate that processes that slow down star formation, and thus reduce the accretion luminosity, may be able to resolve the problem.

  15. THE IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL MODELS FOR DERIVING DUST MASSES AND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN SUPERNOVA EJECTA. I. RADIATIVELY HEATED DUST IN THE CRAB NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli

    2013-09-01

    Recent far-infrared (IR) observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) have revealed significantly large amounts of newly condensed dust in their ejecta, comparable to the total mass of available refractory elements. The dust masses derived from these observations assume that all the grains of a given species radiate at the same temperature, regardless of the dust heating mechanism or grain radius. In this paper, we derive the dust mass in the ejecta of the Crab Nebula, using a physical model for the heating and radiation from the dust. We adopt a power-law distribution of grain sizes and two different dust compositions (silicates and amorphous carbon), and calculate the heating rate of each dust grain by the radiation from the pulsar wind nebula. We find that the grains attain a continuous range of temperatures, depending on their size and composition. The total mass derived from the best-fit models to the observed IR spectrum is 0.019-0.13 M{sub Sun }, depending on the assumed grain composition. We find that the power-law size distribution of dust grains is characterized by a power-law index of 3.5-4.0 and a maximum grain size larger than 0.1 {mu}m. The grain sizes and composition are consistent with what is expected for dust grains formed in a Type IIP supernova (SN). Our derived dust mass is at least a factor of two less than the mass reported in previous studies of the Crab Nebula that assumed more simplified two-temperature models. These models also require a larger mass of refractory elements to be locked up in dust than was likely available in the ejecta. The results of this study show that a physical model resulting in a realistic distribution of dust temperatures can constrain the dust properties and affect the derived dust masses. Our study may also have important implications for deriving grain properties and mass estimates in other SNRs and for the ultimate question of whether SNe are major sources of dust in the Galactic interstellar medium and in

  16. Quantifying the causal effects of 20mph zones on road casualties in London via doubly robust estimation.

    PubMed

    Li, Haojie; Graham, Daniel J

    2016-08-01

    This paper estimates the causal effect of 20mph zones on road casualties in London. Potential confounders in the key relationship of interest are included within outcome regression and propensity score models, and the models are then combined to form a doubly robust estimator. A total of 234 treated zones and 2844 potential control zones are included in the data sample. The propensity score model is used to select a viable control group which has common support in the covariate distributions. We compare the doubly robust estimates with those obtained using three other methods: inverse probability weighting, regression adjustment, and propensity score matching. The results indicate that 20mph zones have had a significant causal impact on road casualty reduction in both absolute and proportional terms. PMID:27173361

  17. The impact of an instant pregnancy test kit on the operations of a major hospital casualty department.

    PubMed

    Baber, R J; Bonifacio, M; Saunders, D M

    1988-05-01

    The records of all patients on whom a casualty department pregnancy test was performed during the first 4 months of 1986 were retrospectively examined and compared with the records of all patients who in the first 4 months of 1987 had had an instant pregnancy test performed in the same casualty department, to determine the impact of such a kit on diagnostic accuracy, operative procedures and related economic factors. It was demonstrated that instant pregnancy testing significantly improved the accuracy of provisional diagnoses and appeared to help in reducing the number of surgical procedures performed. Furthermore, it was shown that a combination of careful clinical assessment plus the appropriate application of an instant pregnancy test kit could result in a cost saving to the hospital of over $41,000 per annum. PMID:2976273

  18. Did the defeat of Saddam Hussein reduce suicide bombing casualties and attacks in Israel? A statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Schumm, Walter R

    2004-12-01

    It was hypothesized that one of the reasons for the U.S. invasion of Iraq was to stop the payments being made by Saddam Hussein to the families of suicide (homicide) bombers in Israel. The consequences of suicide (homicide) bombing attacks against Israel between March 2001 and August 2004 were evaluated as related to the time of the U.S. invasion of Iraq. On average per month during this period, there were fewer overall casualties after the invasion than before it. As many as nearly 1,100 casualties may have been prevented in Israel as a consequence of the U.S. invasion of Iraq, suggesting that at least one possible goal of the U.S. invasion may have been achieved, at least as averaged over the first 17 months after the invasion. PMID:15666913

  19. Contributions of natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing to mass loss of Northern Hemisphere mountain glaciers and quantifying their uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Nakano, Kazunari; Zhang, Yong; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanoue, Masahiro; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2016-01-01

    Observational evidence indicates that a number of glaciers have lost mass in the past. Given that glaciers are highly impacted by the surrounding climate, human-influenced global warming may be partly responsible for mass loss. However, previous research studies have been limited to analyzing the past several decades, and it remains unclear whether past glacier mass losses are within the range of natural internal climate variability. Here, we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to observed and reconstructed mass losses as well as multi-model general circulation model (GCM) simulations of mountain glacier mass to detect and attribute past glacier mass changes. An 8,800-year control simulation of glaciers enabled us to evaluate detectability. The results indicate that human-induced increases in greenhouse gases have contributed to the decreased area-weighted average masses of 85 analyzed glaciers. The effect was larger than the mass increase caused by natural forcing, although the contributions of natural and anthropogenic forcing to decreases in mass varied at the local scale. We also showed that the detection of anthropogenic or natural influences could not be fully attributed when natural internal climate variability was taken into account. PMID:27435236

  20. Contributions of natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing to mass loss of Northern Hemisphere mountain glaciers and quantifying their uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Nakano, Kazunari; Zhang, Yong; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanoue, Masahiro; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2016-07-01

    Observational evidence indicates that a number of glaciers have lost mass in the past. Given that glaciers are highly impacted by the surrounding climate, human-influenced global warming may be partly responsible for mass loss. However, previous research studies have been limited to analyzing the past several decades, and it remains unclear whether past glacier mass losses are within the range of natural internal climate variability. Here, we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to observed and reconstructed mass losses as well as multi-model general circulation model (GCM) simulations of mountain glacier mass to detect and attribute past glacier mass changes. An 8,800-year control simulation of glaciers enabled us to evaluate detectability. The results indicate that human-induced increases in greenhouse gases have contributed to the decreased area-weighted average masses of 85 analyzed glaciers. The effect was larger than the mass increase caused by natural forcing, although the contributions of natural and anthropogenic forcing to decreases in mass varied at the local scale. We also showed that the detection of anthropogenic or natural influences could not be fully attributed when natural internal climate variability was taken into account.