Science.gov

Sample records for radiation meter type

  1. Radiation dose rate meter

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, S.; Siebentritt, C.R.

    1981-07-28

    A combined dose rate meter and charger unit therefor which does not require the use of batteries but on the other hand produces a charging potential by means of a piezoelectric cylinder which is struck by a manually triggered hammer mechanism. A tubular type electrometer is mounted in a portable housing which additionally includes a geiger-muller (Gm) counter tube and electronic circuitry coupled to the electrometer for providing multi-mode operation. In one mode of operation, an rc circuit of predetermined time constant is connected to a storage capacitor which serves as a timed power source for the gm tube, providing a measurement in terms of dose rate which is indicated by the electrometer. In another mode, the electrometer indicates individual counts.

  2. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, L.H.

    1994-08-16

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  3. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1995-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  4. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1994-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  5. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, L.H.

    1995-10-17

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  6. Radiation rate meter development

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, L.H.

    1989-01-01

    We are still in a very preliminary stage of examining the potentials of a new series of instruments which may be inexpensive and versatile enough to complement, or conceivably even replace, electroscope dosimeters in Civil Defense and other situations requiring radiation monitoring by the general public. These instruments were developed to provide a qualitative signal so simple to interpret that anyone can tell immediately whether they are in a dangerous radiation field, and whether they are moving into a hotter area or a cooler area. A second goal in the development has been to produce the simplest possible device at minimum cost, without compromise in effectiveness. In the simplest implementation the device is essentially a very inexpensive version of the much older Personal Radiation Monitor (PRM).

  7. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Muzakkir, Amir; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr-1). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr-1 determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  8. Inherent limitations of nondestructive chlorophyll meters: a comparison of two types of meters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monje, O. A.; Bugbee, B.

    1992-01-01

    Two types of nondestructive chlorophyll meters were compared with a standard, destructive chlorophyll measurement technique. The nondestructive chlorophyll meters were 1) a custom built, single-wavelength meter, and 2) the recently introduced, dual-wavelengh, chlorophyll meter from Minolta (model SPAD-502). Data from both meters were closely correlated with destructive measurements of chlorophyll (r2 = 0.90 and 0.93; respectively) for leaves with chlorophyll concentrations ranging from 100 to 600 mg m-2, but both meters consistently overestimated chlorophyll outside this range. Although the dual-wavelength meter was slightly more accurate than the single-wavelength meter (higher r2), the light-scattering properties of leaf cells and the nonhomogeneous distribution of chlorophyll in leaves appear to limit the ability of all meters to estimate in vivo chlorophyll concentration.

  9. Inherent limitations of nondestructive chlorophyll meters: a comparison of two types of meters.

    PubMed

    Monje, O A; Bugbee, B

    1992-01-01

    Two types of nondestructive chlorophyll meters were compared with a standard, destructive chlorophyll measurement technique. The nondestructive chlorophyll meters were 1) a custom built, single-wavelength meter, and 2) the recently introduced, dual-wavelengh, chlorophyll meter from Minolta (model SPAD-502). Data from both meters were closely correlated with destructive measurements of chlorophyll (r2 = 0.90 and 0.93; respectively) for leaves with chlorophyll concentrations ranging from 100 to 600 mg m-2, but both meters consistently overestimated chlorophyll outside this range. Although the dual-wavelength meter was slightly more accurate than the single-wavelength meter (higher r2), the light-scattering properties of leaf cells and the nonhomogeneous distribution of chlorophyll in leaves appear to limit the ability of all meters to estimate in vivo chlorophyll concentration. PMID:11537728

  10. Suppression of radiated emission in fiscal taxi meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong; Yang, Pei-pei; Su, Xing; Zhang, Da-jian; Wang, Ke-xi; Hou, Ming-feng

    2011-12-01

    This paper is based upon National Standards for EMC. For the problem that the intensity of electromagnetic radiation in the meter with the THG at 36MHz is seriously more than National Standards, by studying the theory of radiation emission and analyzing the formation mechanism of electromagnetic radiation interference, it proposes three restrain measures: 1.the improvement of the Crystal oscillator's grounding measure; 2.adding a RC filter circuit to the Crystal oscillator circuit; 3.the improvement of the tax's communication cable, solving the problem that radiation harassment the taxi meter seriously exceeds. The experimental result demonstrates that the radiation intensity of tax meter improved with the general measures meet the requirements of the national standard, making more than 32000 taxes in Tianjin install this green meter, protecting the safety of staff and normal operation of the surrounding equipment.

  11. Compensated count-rate circuit for radiation survey meter

    DOEpatents

    Todd, R.A.

    1980-05-12

    A count-rate compensating circuit is provided which may be used in a portable Geiger-Mueller (G-M) survey meter to ideally compensate for couting loss errors in the G-M tube detector. In a G-M survey meter, wherein the pulse rate from the G-M tube is converted into a pulse rate current applied to a current meter calibrated to indicate dose rate, the compensation circuit generates and controls a reference voltage in response to the rate of pulses from the detector. This reference voltage is gated to the current-generating circuit at a rate identical to the rate of pulses coming from the detector so that the current flowing through the meter is varied in accordance with both the frequency and amplitude of the reference voltage pulses applied thereto so that the count rate is compensated ideally to indicate a true count rate within 1% up to a 50% duty cycle for the detector. A positive feedback circuit is used to control the reference voltage so that the meter output tracks true count rate indicative of the radiation dose rate.

  12. Compensated count-rate circuit for radiation survey meter

    DOEpatents

    Todd, Richard A.

    1981-01-01

    A count-rate compensating circuit is provided which may be used in a portable Geiger-Mueller (G-M) survey meter to ideally compensate for counting loss errors in the G-M tube detector. In a G-M survey meter, wherein the pulse rate from the G-M tube is converted into a pulse rate current applied to a current meter calibrated to indicate dose rate, the compensated circuit generates and controls a reference voltage in response to the rate of pulses from the detector. This reference voltage is gated to the current-generating circuit at a rate identical to the rate of pulses coming from the detector so that the current flowing through the meter is varied in accordance with both the frequency and amplitude of the reference voltage pulses applied thereto so that the count rate is compensated ideally to indicate a true count rate within 1% up to a 50% duty cycle for the detector. A positive feedback circuit is used to control the reference voltage so that the meter output tracks true count rate indicative of the radiation dose rate.

  13. Calibration and maintenance of vertical-axis type current meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smoot, George F.; Novak, Charles E.

    1968-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the procedures used in the manufacture and calibration of current meters and to present in detail information pertinent to their proper maintenance and repair. Recent intensive studies on the calibration of current meters and the effects of wear of the component parts on the performance of the meters have led to the adoption of new procedures for the manufacture, calibration, maintenance, and repair of meters. This chapter, therefore, updates the provisional manual 'Care and Rating of Current Meters' (1957) by including these new procedures.

  14. Design and calibration of a novel transient radiative heat flux meter for a spacecraft thermal test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Chunchen; Hu, Peng; Cheng, Xiaofang

    2016-06-01

    Radiative heat flux measurement is significantly important for a spacecraft thermal test. To satisfy the requirements of both high accuracy and fast response, a novel transient radiative heat flux meter was developed. Its thermal receiver consists of a central thermal receiver and two thermal guarded annular plates, which ensure the temperature distribution of the central thermal receiver to be uniform enough for reasonably applying lumped heat capacity method in a transient radiative heat flux measurement. This novel transient radiative heat flux meter design can also take accurate measurements regardless of spacecraft surface temperature and incident radiation spectrum. The measurement principle was elaborated and the coefficients were calibrated. Experimental results from testing a blackbody furnace and an Xenon lamp show that this novel transient radiative heat flux meter can be used to measure transient radiative heat flux up to 1400 W/m2 with high accuracy and the response time of less than 10 s.

  15. Design and calibration of a novel transient radiative heat flux meter for a spacecraft thermal test.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Chunchen; Hu, Peng; Cheng, Xiaofang

    2016-06-01

    Radiative heat flux measurement is significantly important for a spacecraft thermal test. To satisfy the requirements of both high accuracy and fast response, a novel transient radiative heat flux meter was developed. Its thermal receiver consists of a central thermal receiver and two thermal guarded annular plates, which ensure the temperature distribution of the central thermal receiver to be uniform enough for reasonably applying lumped heat capacity method in a transient radiative heat flux measurement. This novel transient radiative heat flux meter design can also take accurate measurements regardless of spacecraft surface temperature and incident radiation spectrum. The measurement principle was elaborated and the coefficients were calibrated. Experimental results from testing a blackbody furnace and an Xenon lamp show that this novel transient radiative heat flux meter can be used to measure transient radiative heat flux up to 1400 W/m(2) with high accuracy and the response time of less than 10 s. PMID:27370482

  16. Reflection-Type Oil-Film Skin-Friction Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1993-01-01

    Oil-film skin-friction meter for both flight and wind-tunnel applications uses internal reflection and is self-contained, compact unit. Contained in palm-sized housing, in which source of light, mirrors, and sensor mounted rigidly in alignment. Entire unit mounted rigidly under skin of aircraft or wind tunnel, eliminating any relative vibration between optical elements and skin of aircraft or wind tunnel. Meter primarily applicable to flight and wind-tunnel tests, also used in chemical-processing plants.

  17. Radiation dose-rate meter using an energy-sensitive counter

    DOEpatents

    Kopp, Manfred K.

    1988-01-01

    A radiation dose-rate meter is provided which uses an energy-sensitive detector and combines charge quantization and pulse-rate measurement to monitor radiation dose rates. The charge from each detected photon is quantized by level-sensitive comparators so that the resulting total output pulse rate is proportional to the dose-rate.

  18. Comparative investigation of three dose rate meters for their viability in pulsed radiation fields.

    PubMed

    Gotz, M; Karsch, L; Pawelke, J

    2015-06-01

    Pulsed radiation fields, characterized by microsecond pulse duration and correspondingly high pulse dose rates, are increasingly used in therapeutic, diagnostic and research applications. Yet, dose rate meters which are used to monitor radiation protection areas or to inspect radiation shielding are mostly designed, characterized and tested for continuous fields and show severe deficiencies in highly pulsed fields. Despite general awareness of the problem, knowledge of the specific limitations of individual instruments is very limited, complicating reliable measurements. We present here the results of testing three commercial dose rate meters, the RamION ionization chamber, the LB 1236-H proportional counter and the 6150AD-b scintillation counter, for their response in pulsed radiation fields of varied pulse dose and duration. Of these three the RamION proved reliable, operating in a pulsed radiation field within its specifications, while the other two instruments were only able to measure very limited pulse doses and pulse dose rates reliably. PMID:25978117

  19. Effects of simulated ice on the performance of price type-AA current meter rotors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.

    1994-01-01

    Slush ice readily adheres to the standard metal rotor of the winter Price type-AA current meter and affects the ability of the meter to measure the flow velocity accurately. Tests conducted at the U.S. Geological Survey Hydraulics Laboratory at Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, attempt to quantify the effects of slush ice on the performance of standard Price type-AA meter metal rotors. Test data obtained for rotors filled with simulated slush are compared with data for solid-cup polymer and standard hollow-cup metal rotors. Partial filling of the cups only marginally affects rotor performance at velocities greater than 15.24 centimeters per second. However, when cups are filled or over-filled with simulated slush, rotor performance is noticeably affected. Errors associated with slush over-filling and filling of cups are also significant when flows are angled vertically.

  20. Improving the accuracy of electronic moisture meters for runner-type peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Runner-type peanut kernel moisture content (MC) is measured periodically during curing and post harvest processing with electronic moisture meters for marketing and quality control. MC is predicted for 250 g samples of kernels with a mathematical function from measurements of various physical prope...

  1. DNA Radiation Environments Program: Fall 1989 2-meter box experiments and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T.

    1991-05-01

    This effort, sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency under the Radiation Environments Program, was carried out to obtain measured data for benchmarking MASH, the Monte Carlo Adjoint Code System. MASH was developed to replace the Vehicle Code System, VCS, that has been used by the Department of Defense and NATO for calculating neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields and shielding protection factors inside armored vehicles and structures from nuclear weapon radiation. Free-field data were obtained at distances of 170- and 400-meters from the APR while in-box measurements were made at 400 meters only. The box, included to obtain neutron and gamma-ray reduction factors, was a 2-meter cube configuration having 0.1016-m-thick steel walls. Calculated data were obtained using MASH by analysts from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Science Applications International Corporation. Calculated (C) results were compared with experimental (E) data in terms of C/E ratios. Free-field and in-box neutron kerma generally agreed within {+-}20%, although some C/E comparisons fell outside this range depending upon the detector against which the calculated data were compared. For those cases where the C/E ratio is marginal or unacceptable, problems in the detector systems were acknowledged to be principal cause of the discrepancy. Generally poor agreement ({approx}25-35%) was achieved among the C/E ratios for the free-field gamma-ray kerma at the 170- and 400-m locations while excellent (10%, or better) C/E values were obtained for the in-box conditions. The discrepancy for the free-field comparison was attributed to the failure by the analysts to include a tree line adjacent to the measurement site in the calculational geometry. C/E values for the neutron and gamma-ray reduction factors ranged from 1% to 23% depending on the detector. 4 refs., 2 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. An evaluation of the Kearny Fallout Meter (KFM), a radiation detector constructed from commonly available household materials.

    PubMed

    McDonald, J T; West, W G; Kearfott, K J

    2004-11-01

    A radiation detector constructed of common household materials was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by Cresson H. Kearny and has been referred to as the Kearny Fallout Meter (KFM). Developed during the height of the Cold War, the KFM was intended to place a radiation meter capable of measuring fallout from nuclear weapons in the hands of every U.S. citizen. Instructions for the construction of the meter, as well as information about radiation health effects, were developed in the form of multi-page newspaper insert. Subsequently, the sensitivity of the meter was refined by a high school teacher, Dr. Paul S. Lombardi, for use in demonstrations about radiation. The meter is currently being marketed for survivalists in light of potential radiation terrorist concerns. The KFM and Lombardi's variation of it are constructed and evaluated for this work. Calibrated tests of the response and variations in response are reported. A critique of the multi-page manual is made. In addition, the suitability of using such a detector, in terms of actual ease of construction and practical sensitivity, is discussed for its use in demonstrations and introductory classes on nuclear topics. PMID:15551780

  3. Calibration and use of continuous heat-type automated seepage meters for submarine groundwater discharge measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwashote, B. M.; Burnett, W. C.; Chanton, J.; Santos, I. R.; Dimova, N.; Swarzenski, P. W.

    2010-03-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) assessments were conducted both in the laboratory and at a field site in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, using a continuous heat-type automated seepage meter (seepmeter). The functioning of the seepmeter is based on measurements of a temperature gradient in the water between downstream and upstream positions in its flow pipe. The device has the potential of providing long-term, high-resolution measurements of SGD. Using a simple inexpensive laboratory set-up, we have shown that connecting an extension cable to the seepmeter has a negligible effect on its measuring capability. Similarly, the observed influence of very low temperature (≤3 °C) on seepmeter measurements can be accounted for by conducting calibrations at such temperatures prior to field deployments. Compared to manual volumetric measurements, calibration experiments showed that at higher water flow rates (>28 cm day -1 or cm 3 cm -2 day -1) an analog flowmeter overestimated flow rates by ≥7%. This was apparently due to flow resistance, turbulence and formation of air bubbles in the seepmeter water flow tubes. Salinity had no significant effect on the performance of the seepmeter. Calibration results from fresh water and sea water showed close agreement at a 95% confidence level significance between the data sets from the two media ( R2 = 0.98). Comparatively, the seepmeter SGD measurements provided data that are comparable to manually-operated seepage meters, the radon geochemical tracer approach, and an electromagnetic (EM) seepage meter.

  4. Calibration and use of continuous heat-type automated seepage meters for submarine groundwater discharge measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mwashote, B.M.; Burnett, W.C.; Chanton, J.; Santos, I.R.; Dimova, N.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) assessments were conducted both in the laboratory and at a field site in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, using a continuous heat-type automated seepage meter (seepmeter). The functioning of the seepmeter is based on measurements of a temperature gradient in the water between downstream and upstream positions in its flow pipe. The device has the potential of providing long-term, high-resolution measurements of SGD. Using a simple inexpensive laboratory set-up, we have shown that connecting an extension cable to the seepmeter has a negligible effect on its measuring capability. Similarly, the observed influence of very low temperature (???3 ??C) on seepmeter measurements can be accounted for by conducting calibrations at such temperatures prior to field deployments. Compared to manual volumetric measurements, calibration experiments showed that at higher water flow rates (>28 cm day-1 or cm3 cm-2 day-1) an analog flowmeter overestimated flow rates by ???7%. This was apparently due to flow resistance, turbulence and formation of air bubbles in the seepmeter water flow tubes. Salinity had no significant effect on the performance of the seepmeter. Calibration results from fresh water and sea water showed close agreement at a 95% confidence level significance between the data sets from the two media (R2 = 0.98). Comparatively, the seepmeter SGD measurements provided data that are comparable to manually-operated seepage meters, the radon geochemical tracer approach, and an electromagnetic (EM) seepage meter. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Heat exchange model in absorption chamber of water-direct-absorption-typed laser energy meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng Wei, Ji; Qun Sun, Li; Zhang, Kai; Hu, XiaoYang; Zhou, Shan

    2015-04-01

    The interaction between laser and water flow is very complicated in the absorption chamber of a high energy laser (HEL) energy meter which directly uses water as an absorbing medium. Therefore, the heat exchange model cannot be studied through traditional methods, but it is the most important factor to improve heat exchange efficiency in the absorption chamber. After the exchanges of heat and mass were deeply analyzed, experimental study and numerical fitting were brought out. The original testing data of laser power and water flow temperature at one moment were utilized to calculate those at the next moment, and then the calculated temperature curve was compared with the measured one. If the two curves matched well, the corresponding coefficient was obtained. Meanwhile, numerous experiments were performed to study the effects of laser power, duration, focal spot scale, and water flow rate on heat exchange coefficient. In addition, the relationship between water phase change and heat exchange was analyzed. The heat exchange coefficient was increased by optimizing the construction of the absorption chamber or increasing water flow rate. The results provide the reference for design of water-direct-absorption-typed HEL energy meters, as well as for analysis of the interaction between other similar lasers and water flow.

  6. Research on the method of establishing the total radiation meter calibration device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jianqiang; Xia, Ming; Xia, Junwen; Zhang, Dong

    2015-10-01

    Pyranometer is an instrument used to measure the solar radiation, according to pyranometer differs as installation state, can be respectively measured total solar radiation, reflected radiation, or with the help of shading device for measuring scattering radiation. Pyranometer uses the principle of thermoelectric effect, inductive element adopts winding plating type multi junction thermopile, its surface is coated with black coating with high absorption rate. Hot junction in the induction surface, while the cold junction is located in the body, the cold and hot junction produce thermoelectric potential. In the linear range, the output signal is proportional to the solar irradiance. Traceability to national meteorological station, as the unit of the national legal metrology organizations, the responsibility is to transfer value of the sun and the earth radiation value about the national meteorological industry. Using the method of comparison, with indoor calibration of solar simulator, at the same location, standard pyranometer and measured pyranometer were alternately measured radiation irradiance, depending on the irradiation sensitivity standard pyranometer were calculated the radiation sensitivity of measured pyranometer. This paper is mainly about the design and calibration method of the pyranometer indoor device. The uncertainty of the calibration result is also evaluated.

  7. Properties of Special Types of Radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, S R

    1921-01-01

    This report discusses the general performance characteristics of three special classes of radiators: those with flat plate water tubes, fin and tube types, and types that whistle in an air stream. Curves and tables show the performance of representative radiators of each class and compare the flat plate and whistling types. Empirical equations are given for estimating the performance of flat plate radiators of various dimensions. This report also contains a brief discussion, with curves, showing the effect of yawing on the properties of a radiator.

  8. Solar Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The instrument pictured is an inexpensive solar meter which is finding wide acceptance among architects, engineers and others engaged in construction of solar energy facilities. It detects the amount of solar energy available at a building site, information necessary to design the most efficient type of solar system for a particular location. Incorporating technology developed by NASA's Lewis Research Center, the device is based upon the solar cell, which provides power for spacecraft by converting the sun's energy to electricity. The meter is produced by Dodge Products, Inc., Houston, Texas, a company formed to bring the technology to the commercial marketplace.

  9. RADIATION ENVIRONMENT OF GROWTH CHAMBERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radiation measurements with different types of meters in several controlled environment facilities have been compiled to demonstrate the problems associated with insuring uniform radiation levels in separate facilities. Data are provided for a quantum meter, three photometers, a ...

  10. Dynamic tests during cow milking with different types of milk meters.

    PubMed

    Amirante, P; Bianchi, P; Montel, G L

    2005-01-01

    This study is related to the POM - Measure 2 - Project B15 'Veterinary services computerization and technical support to livestock farms', in which innovative plants solutions has been introduced to recognize the single animal to measure the quantity of produced milk, to centralize and automate the management, in different cow and sheep and goats breedings in Puglia and Basilicata regions. The experimentation has foreseen dynamic tests, during the real milking of the cows, in an apulian plant in which different measurers of the quantity of milk have been installed: weigh jar, electronic weighing 'bascule' milk-meter, electronic proportional milk-meter. In a mechanical point of view, the vacuum level and the vacuum fluctuations in three different milk pipe sections have been valued: at short milk tube, downstream from the claw, prior to the milk meter. Comparing the results, authors deduced that the electronic milkmeters, like the electronic proportional milk meter, allows inferior vacuum degree variations and less mechanical solicitations in cow udder; such situation is particularly evident with higher milk flow. The study also underlines that the vacuum drops during milking can be very critical if not immediately compensate with a suitable planning and periodic revision of the plants. PMID:20437372

  11. A reflection-type oil-film skin-friction meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, P. R.; Weinstein, L. M.

    1991-09-01

    Unlike many conventional methods of measuring skin-friction, the oil-film method is absolute in nature, requires no calibration, and, in principle, can be universally applied. In all existing forms of the meter, however, interferometry is used to make measurements of the oil film. Here, the technique has been simplified by completely eliminating interferometry. This has been achieved by making direct and dynamic measurements of the oil-film slope by directing a reflected beam of light off the top of the oil film to a small position sensing photodiode. The reflection method has been verified in incompressible flat plate turbulent boundary-layers. The standard of deviation of the measurements is about 10 percent of the mean. The present version of the meter is compact and simple.

  12. A reflection-type oil-film skin-friction meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, P. R.; Weinstein, L. M.

    1991-01-01

    Unlike many conventional methods of measuring skin-friction, the oil-film method is absolute in nature, requires no calibration, and, in principle, can be universally applied. In all existing forms of the meter, however, interferometry is used to make measurements of the oil film. Here, the technique has been simplified by completely eliminating interferometry. This has been achieved by making direct and dynamic measurements of the oil-film slope by directing a reflected beam of light off the top of the oil film to a small position sensing photodiode. The reflection method has been verified in incompressible flat plate turbulent boundary-layers. The standard of deviation of the measurements is about 10 percent of the mean. The present version of the meter is compact and simple.

  13. Sagnac interferometer as a speed-meter-type, quantum-nondemolition gravitational-wave detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanbei

    2003-06-01

    According to quantum measurement theory, “speed meters”—devices that measure the momentum, or speed, of free test masses—are immune to the standard quantum limit (SQL). It is shown that a Sagnac-interferometer gravitational-wave detector is a speed meter and therefore in principle it can beat the SQL by large amounts over a wide band of frequencies. It is shown, further, that, when one ignores optical losses, a signal-recycled Sagnac interferometer with Fabry-Perot arm cavities has precisely the same performance, for the same circulating light power, as the Michelson speed-meter interferometer recently invented and studied by Purdue and the author. The influence of optical losses is not studied, but it is plausible that they be fairly unimportant for the Sagnac interferometer, as for other speed meters. With squeezed vacuum (squeeze factor e-2R=0.1) injected into its dark port, the recycled Sagnac interferometer can beat the SQL by a factor (10)≃3 over the frequency band 10 Hz≲f≲150 Hz using the same circulating power Ic˜820 kW as is to be used by the (quantum limited) second-generation Advanced LIGO interferometers—if other noise sources are made sufficiently small. It is concluded that the Sagnac optical configuration, with signal recycling and squeezed-vacuum injection, is an attractive candidate for third-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors (LIGO-III and EURO).

  14. The response of the RO-2 survey meter to mixed radiation fields

    SciTech Connect

    Shonka, J.J. ); Tschaeche, A.N.; Tomblison, M.R.; Gibeault, G.L.; Moon, U.Y.; McCoy, G.C.; Schrader, B.J. )

    1989-12-01

    Reactor fuel reprocessing can sometimes result in radiation fields originating from nearly-pure Ru-106/Rh-106 (E{sub max} = 3.5 MeV), and field measurements are often made where beta-to-gamma ratios exceed 100-to-1. If the range of the high energy beta particles exceeds the density-thickness of the side wall and/or end window of the radiation detector, a significant fraction of the beta radiation can easily be interpreted as gamma radiation. The magnitude of the error increases as the beta-to-gamma radio increases. Calculations and measurements are presented which show the magnitude of the resulting errors. To address this problem, a modification kit was developed for the Eberline RO-2A which increased the density-thickness of both the sidewall and slide to 1040 mg/cm{sup 2}. In this paper experimental results showing the effectiveness of the modification are discussed.

  15. Interaction of soft x-ray laser pulse radiation with aluminum surface: Nano-meter size surface modification

    SciTech Connect

    Ishino, Masahiko; Faenov, Anatoly; Tanaka, Momoko; Hasegawa, Noboru; Nishikino, Masaharu; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Pikuz, Tatiana; Inogamov, Nail; Zhakhovsky, Vasily; Skobelev, Igor; Fortov, Vladimir; Khohlov, Viktor; Shepelev, Vadim; Ohba, Toshiyuki; Kaihori, Takeshi; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Imazono, Takashi; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2012-07-11

    Interaction of soft x-ray laser radiation with material and caused modification of the exposed surface has both physical and practical interests. We irradiated the focusing soft x-ray laser (SXRL) pulses having a wavelength of 13.9 nm and the duration of 7 ps to aluminum (Al) surface. After the SXRL irradiation process, the irradiated Al surface was observed with a scanning electron microscope. The surface modifications caused by SXRL single pulse exposure were clearly seen. In addition, it was found that the conical structures having around 100 nm in diameters were formed in the shallow features. The nano-meter size modified structures at Al surface induced by SXRL pulse is interesting as the newly surface structure. Hence, the SXRL beam would be a candidate for a tool of micromachining. We also provide a thermomechanical modeling of SXRL interaction with Al briefly to explain the surface modification.

  16. On the use of volumetric strain meters to infer additional characteristics of short-period seismic radiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherdt, R.D.; Johnston, M.J.S.; Glassmoyer, G.

    1989-01-01

    Volumetric strain meters (Sacks-Evertson design) are installed at 15 sites along the San Andreas fault system, to monitor long-term strain changes for earthquake prediction. Deployment of portable broadband, high-resolution digital recorders (GEOS) at several of the sites extends the detection band for volumetric strain to periods shorter than 5 ?? 10-2 sec and permits the simultaneous observation of seismic radiation fields using conventional short-period pendulum seismometers. Recordings of local and regional earthquakes indicate that dilatometers respond to P energy but not direct shear energy and that straingrams can be used to resolve superimposed reflect P and S waves for inference of wave characteristics not permitted by either sensor alone. Simultaneous measurements of incident P- and S-wave amplitudes are used to introduce a technique for single-station estimates of wave field inhomogeneity, free-surface reflection coefficients and local material P velocity. -from Authors

  17. DNA Radiation Environments Program Spring 1991 2-meter box experiments and analyses. [DEfense Nuclear Agency (DNA)

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T. ); Whitaker, S.Y. )

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the Spring 1991 2-m Box experiments that were performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) at Aberdeen Proving Ground. These studies were sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) under the Radiation Environments Program to obtain measured data for benchmarking the Adjoint Monte Carlo Code System, MASH, Version 1.0. The MASH code system was developed for the Department of Defense and NATO for calculating neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields and shielding protection factors for armored vehicles and military structures against nuclear weapon radiation. In the 2-m Box experiments, neutron and gamma-ray dose rates and reduction factors were measured in the free-field and as a function of position on an anthropomorphic phantom that was placed outside and inside a borated polyethylene lined steel-walled 2-m box. The data were acquired at a distance of 400-m from the APRF reactor. The purpose of these experiments was to measure the neutron and gamma-ray dose rates as a function of detector location on the phantom for cases when the phantom was in the free-field and inside of the box. Neutron measurements were made using a BD-100R bubble detector and gamma-ray measurements were made using thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). Calculated and measured data were compared in terms of the C/M ratio. The calculated and measured neutron and gamma-ray dose rates and reduction factors agreed on the average within the [plus minus]20% limits mandated by DNA and demonstrate the capability of the MASH code system in reproducing measured data in nominally shielded assemblies.

  18. DNA Radiation Environments Program Spring 1991 2-meter box experiments and analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T.; Whitaker, S.Y.

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the Spring 1991 2-m Box experiments that were performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) at Aberdeen Proving Ground. These studies were sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) under the Radiation Environments Program to obtain measured data for benchmarking the Adjoint Monte Carlo Code System, MASH, Version 1.0. The MASH code system was developed for the Department of Defense and NATO for calculating neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields and shielding protection factors for armored vehicles and military structures against nuclear weapon radiation. In the 2-m Box experiments, neutron and gamma-ray dose rates and reduction factors were measured in the free-field and as a function of position on an anthropomorphic phantom that was placed outside and inside a borated polyethylene lined steel-walled 2-m box. The data were acquired at a distance of 400-m from the APRF reactor. The purpose of these experiments was to measure the neutron and gamma-ray dose rates as a function of detector location on the phantom for cases when the phantom was in the free-field and inside of the box. Neutron measurements were made using a BD-100R bubble detector and gamma-ray measurements were made using thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). Calculated and measured data were compared in terms of the C/M ratio. The calculated and measured neutron and gamma-ray dose rates and reduction factors agreed on the average within the {plus_minus}20% limits mandated by DNA and demonstrate the capability of the MASH code system in reproducing measured data in nominally shielded assemblies.

  19. DNA Radiation Environments Program - Spring 1990 2-meter box experiments and analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T; Whitaker, S.Y.

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes the Spring 1990 2-m Box Experiments performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. These studies were sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) under the Radiation Environments Program to obtain measured data for benchmarking the Adjoint Monte Carlo Code System, MASH, Version 1.0. MASH was developed as the Department of Defense and NATO code system for calculating neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields and shielding protection factors for armored vehicles and military structures against nuclear weapon radiation. In the experiments, neutron and gamma-ray dose and reduction factors were measured in the free-field and as a function of position on an anthropomorphic phantom that was placed outside and inside the steel-walled 2-m box. The data were acquired at a distance of 400-m from the APRF reactor. The measurements were performed by APRF, Bubble Technology Industries, the Defence Research Establishment Ottawa, Establishment Technique Central de l`Armement, and Harry Diamond Laboratory. Calculations were carried out by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Science Applications International Corporation. The purpose of these experiments was to measure the neutron and gamma-ray dose as a function of detector location on the phantom for cases when the phantom was standing in the free-field and inside of the box. Neutron measurements were made using a BD-IOOR bubble detector and gamma-ray measurements were made using thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). Calculated and measured data were compared in terms of the C/M ratio. DNA mandated that C/M values of {plus_minus}20% define the acceptable limits for the comparison of the dose and reduction factor data and for qualifying the MASH code in replicating integral parameters.

  20. DNA Radiation Environments Program - Spring 1990 2-meter box experiments and analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T ); Whitaker, S.Y. )

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes the Spring 1990 2-m Box Experiments performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. These studies were sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) under the Radiation Environments Program to obtain measured data for benchmarking the Adjoint Monte Carlo Code System, MASH, Version 1.0. MASH was developed as the Department of Defense and NATO code system for calculating neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields and shielding protection factors for armored vehicles and military structures against nuclear weapon radiation. In the experiments, neutron and gamma-ray dose and reduction factors were measured in the free-field and as a function of position on an anthropomorphic phantom that was placed outside and inside the steel-walled 2-m box. The data were acquired at a distance of 400-m from the APRF reactor. The measurements were performed by APRF, Bubble Technology Industries, the Defence Research Establishment Ottawa, Establishment Technique Central de l'Armement, and Harry Diamond Laboratory. Calculations were carried out by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Science Applications International Corporation. The purpose of these experiments was to measure the neutron and gamma-ray dose as a function of detector location on the phantom for cases when the phantom was standing in the free-field and inside of the box. Neutron measurements were made using a BD-IOOR bubble detector and gamma-ray measurements were made using thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). Calculated and measured data were compared in terms of the C/M ratio. DNA mandated that C/M values of {plus minus}20% define the acceptable limits for the comparison of the dose and reduction factor data and for qualifying the MASH code in replicating integral parameters.

  1. Radiation Transport in Type IA Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, R

    1999-11-16

    It has been said more than once that the critical link between explosion models and observations is the ability to accurately simulate cooling and radiation transport in the expanding ejecta of Type Ia supernovae. It is perhaps frustrating to some of the theorists who study explosion mechanisms, and to some of the observers too, that more definitive conclusions have not been reached about the agreement, or lack thereof, between various Type Ia supernova models and the data. Although claims of superlative accuracy in transport simulations are sometimes made, I will argue here that there are outstanding issues of critical importance and in need of addressing before radiation transport calculations are accurate enough to discriminate between subtly different explosion models.

  2. IEEE Committee on Man and Radiation--COMAR technical information statement radiofrequency safety and utility Smart Meters.

    PubMed

    Bushberg, Jerrold T; Foster, Kenneth R; Hatfield, James B; Thansandote, Arthur; Tell, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    This Technical Information Statement describes Smart Meter technology as used with modern electric power metering systems and focuses on the radio frequency (RF) emissions associated with their operation relative to human RF exposure limits. Smart Meters typically employ low power (-1 W or less) transmitters that wirelessly send electric energy usage data to the utility company several times per day in the form of brief, pulsed emissions in the unlicensed frequency bands of 902-928 MHz and 2.4-2.48 GHz or on other nearby frequencies. Most Smart Meters operate as wireless mesh networks where each Smart Meter can communicate with other neighboring meters to relay data to a data collection point in the region. This communication process includes RF emissions from Smart Meters representing energy usage as well as the relaying of data from other meters and emissions associated with maintaining the meter's hierarchy within the wireless network. As a consequence, most Smart Meters emit RF pulses throughout the day, more at certain times and less at others. However, the duty cycle associated with all of these emissions is very small, typically less than 1%, and most of the time far less than 1%, meaning that most Smart Meters actually transmit RF fields for only a few minutes per day at most. The low peak power of Smart Meters and the very low duty cycles lead to the fact that accessible RF fields near Smart Meters are far below both U.S. and international RF safety limits whether judged on the basis of instantaneous peak power densities or time-averaged exposures. This conclusion holds for Smart Meters alone or installed in large banks of meters. PMID:25627954

  3. Plugging meter

    DOEpatents

    Nagai, Akinori

    1979-01-01

    A plugging meter for automatically measuring the impurity concentration in a liquid metal is designed to have parallel passages including a cooling passage provided with a plugging orifice and with a flow meter, and a by-pass passage connected in series to a main passage having another flow meter, so that the plugging points may be obtained from the outputs of both flow meters. The plugging meter has a program signal generator, a flow-rate ratio setter and a comparator, and is adapted to change the temperature of the plugging orifice in accordance with a predetermined pattern or gradient, by means of a signal representative of the temperature of plugging orifice and a flow-rate ratio signal obtained from the outputs of both flow meters. This plugging meter affords an automatic and accurate measurement of a multi-plugging phenomenon taking place at the plugging orifice.

  4. Tumor vascular disruption using various radiation types

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of disrupting a tumor’s vascular structure with various radiation types and radionuclides is investigated. Calculated absorbed dose profiles for photons and 4He ions suggest that low-energy beta-gamma and alpha emitting radionuclides can deposit sufficient absorbed dose to disrupt a tumor’s vascular structure while minimizing the dose outside the blood vessel. Candidate radionuclides uniformly distributed in microspheres are theoretically investigated with respect to their vascular disruption potential and to offer an alternative to 90Y microsphere therapy. Requisite activities of candidate low-energy beta-gamma and alpha emitting radionuclides to facilitate vascular disruption are calculated. PMID:24749005

  5. Technology for radiation efficiency measurement of high-power halogen tungsten lamp used in calibration of high-energy laser energy meter.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ji Feng; Hu, Xiao Yang; Sun, Li Qun; Zhang, Kai; Chang, Yan

    2015-03-20

    The calibration method using a high-power halogen tungsten lamp as a calibration source has many advantages such as strong equivalence and high power, so it is very fit for the calibration of high-energy laser energy meters. However, high-power halogen tungsten lamps after power-off still reserve much residual energy and continually radiate energy, which is difficult to be measured. Two measuring systems were found to solve the problems. One system is composed of an integrating sphere and two optical spectrometers, which can accurately characterize the radiative spectra and power-time variation of the halogen tungsten lamp. This measuring system was then calibrated using a normal halogen tungsten lamp made of the same material as the high-power halogen tungsten lamp. In this way, the radiation efficiency of the halogen tungsten lamp after power-off can be quantitatively measured. In the other measuring system, a wide-spectrum power meter was installed far away from the halogen tungsten lamp; thus, the lamp can be regarded as a point light source. The radiation efficiency of residual energy from the halogen tungsten lamp was computed on the basis of geometrical relations. The results show that the halogen tungsten lamp's radiation efficiency was improved with power-on time but did not change under constant power-on time/energy. All the tested halogen tungsten lamps reached 89.3% of radiation efficiency at 50 s after power-on. After power-off, the residual energy in the halogen tungsten lamp gradually dropped to less than 10% of the initial radiation power, and the radiation efficiency changed with time. The final total radiation energy was decided by the halogen tungsten lamp's radiation efficiency, the radiation efficiency of residual energy, and the total power consumption. The measuring uncertainty of total radiation energy was 2.4% (here, the confidence factor is two). PMID:25968513

  6. Comparison of broad band time series recorded parallel by FGI type interferometric water level and Lippmann type pendulum tilt meters at Conrad observatory, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruotsalainen, Hannu; Papp, Gabor; Leonhardt, Roman; Ban, Dora; Szücs, Eszter; Benedek, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) the progenitor of Finnish Geospatial Research Institute of NLS designed and built a 5.5m long prototype of interferometric water level tiltmeter (iWT) in early 2014. Geodetic and Geophysical Institute (GGI), Sopron, Hungary bought the instrument and started tilt measurement in August 2014 at the Conrad observatory (COBS), Austria to monitor geodynamical phenomena like microseisms, free oscillations of the Earth, earth tides, mass loading effects and crustal deformations in cooperation with Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and the FGI. On the July 16 2015 a Lippmann-type 2D tilt sensor (LTS) was also installed by GGI on the 6 m long pier where iWT was set up previously. This situation opens a possibility to do broad band (from secular to seismic variations up to 15 Hz) geophysical signal analysis comparing the responses of long (several meters) and short (a few decimeters) base instruments implementing different physical principles (relative height change of a level surface and inclination change of the plumb line). The characteristics of the sensors are studied by the evaluation of the spectra of recorded signals dominated by microseisms. The iWT has internal interferometric calibration and it can be compared to Lippmanns tilt meter one. Both instruments show good long term ( > 1 day) stability when earth tides and ocean and air mass loading tilts are modelled.

  7. Introduction of water chemistry regimes with ethanolamine metering at nuclear power plants equipped with VVER-type reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutikov, A. V.; Ivanov, V. N.; Tyapkov, V. F.; Yerpylyova, S. F.; Bykova, V. V.

    2008-05-01

    The results of introduction of water chemistry with ethanolamine metering in the feedwater at unit No. 2 of the Balakovo NPP are presented. Along with the data obtained in the course of operational monitoring of the working medium of the secondary coolant circuit, the results of studying of contamination of the tube system of steam generators are presented and analyzed.

  8. Saturation meter

    DOEpatents

    Gregurech, S.

    1984-08-01

    A saturation meter for use in a pressurized water reactor plant comprising a differential pressure transducer having a first and second pressure sensing means and an alarm. The alarm is connected to the transducer and is preset to activate at a level of saturation prior to the formation of a steam void in the reactor vessel.

  9. Cloud types and the tropical Earth radiation budget, revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhuria, Harbans L.; Kyle, H. Lee

    1989-01-01

    Nimbus-7 cloud and Earth radiation budget data are compared in a study of the effects of clouds on the tropical radiation budget. The data consist of daily averages over fixed 500 sq km target areas, and the months of July 1979 and January 1980 were chosen to show the effect of seasonal changes. Six climate regions, consisting of 14 to 24 target areas each, were picked for intensive analysis because they exemplified the range in the tropical cloud/net radiation interactions. The normal analysis was to consider net radiation as the independent variable and examine how cloud cover, cloud type, albedo and emitted radiation varied with the net radiation. Two recurring themes keep repeating on a local, regional, and zonal basis: the net radiation is strongly influenced by the average cloud type and amount present, but most net radiation values could be produced by several combinations of cloud types and amount. The regions of highest net radiation (greater than 125 W/sq m) tend to have medium to heavy cloud cover. In these cases, thin medium altitude clouds predominate. Their cloud tops are normally too warm to be classified as cirrus by the Nimbus cloud algorithm. A common feature in the tropical oceans are large regions where the total regional cloud cover varies from 20 to 90 percent, but with little regional difference in the net radiation. The monsoon and rain areas are high net radiation regions.

  10. Capacitance Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Anders Precision Instrument Co.'s original meter could not measure dissipation leakage in capacitors. Seeking to add that capability, the company planned an advanced model. Before starting work, company president, Thomas Anderson, sought technical assistance from NASA's NERAC (New England Research Application Center). Anderson wanted a survey of the status and capabilities of NASA's electronic measuring devices. NERAC performed a search of six databases, including NASA's and provided a comprehensive report on state of the art worldwide.

  11. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOEpatents

    McFarland, Andrew R.; Rodgers, John C.; Ortiz, Carlos A.; Nelson, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

  12. An Improved Measurement Method for the Strength of Radiation of Reflective Beam in an Industrial Optical Sensor Based on Laser Displacement Meter.

    PubMed

    Bae, Youngchul

    2016-01-01

    An optical sensor such as a laser range finder (LRF) or laser displacement meter (LDM) uses reflected and returned laser beam from a target. The optical sensor has been mainly used to measure the distance between a launch position and the target. However, optical sensor based LRF and LDM have numerous and various errors such as statistical errors, drift errors, cyclic errors, alignment errors and slope errors. Among these errors, an alignment error that contains measurement error for the strength of radiation of returned laser beam from the target is the most serious error in industrial optical sensors. It is caused by the dependence of the measurement offset upon the strength of radiation of returned beam incident upon the focusing lens from the target. In this paper, in order to solve these problems, we propose a novel method for the measurement of the output of direct current (DC) voltage that is proportional to the strength of radiation of returned laser beam in the received avalanche photo diode (APD) circuit. We implemented a measuring circuit that is able to provide an exact measurement of reflected laser beam. By using the proposed method, we can measure the intensity or strength of radiation of laser beam in real time and with a high degree of precision. PMID:27223291

  13. An Improved Measurement Method for the Strength of Radiation of Reflective Beam in an Industrial Optical Sensor Based on Laser Displacement Meter

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Youngchul

    2016-01-01

    An optical sensor such as a laser range finder (LRF) or laser displacement meter (LDM) uses reflected and returned laser beam from a target. The optical sensor has been mainly used to measure the distance between a launch position and the target. However, optical sensor based LRF and LDM have numerous and various errors such as statistical errors, drift errors, cyclic errors, alignment errors and slope errors. Among these errors, an alignment error that contains measurement error for the strength of radiation of returned laser beam from the target is the most serious error in industrial optical sensors. It is caused by the dependence of the measurement offset upon the strength of radiation of returned beam incident upon the focusing lens from the target. In this paper, in order to solve these problems, we propose a novel method for the measurement of the output of direct current (DC) voltage that is proportional to the strength of radiation of returned laser beam in the received avalanche photo diode (APD) circuit. We implemented a measuring circuit that is able to provide an exact measurement of reflected laser beam. By using the proposed method, we can measure the intensity or strength of radiation of laser beam in real time and with a high degree of precision. PMID:27223291

  14. Sun meter

    DOEpatents

    Younskevicius, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive device for measuring the radiation energy of the sun impinging on the device. The measurement of the energy over an extended period of time is accomplished without moving parts or tracking mechanisms.

  15. Comparison of air kerma area product and air kerma meter calibrations for X-ray radiation qualities used in diagnostic radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourdakis, C. J.; Csete, I.; Daures, J.; Jarvinen, H.; Mihailescu, L.-C.; Sochor, V.; Novak, L.; Pedersen, M.; Kosunen, A.; Toroi, P.; Denoziere, M.; Büermann, L.; Megzifene, A.; Einarsson, G.; Ferrari, P.; dePooter, J.; Bjerke, H.; Brodecki, M.; Cardoso, J.; Bercea, S.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Compel, J.; Glavič-Cindro, D.; Ginjaume, M.; Persson, L.; Grindborg, J.-E.

    2015-01-01

    The EURAMET #1177 project, identified as EURAMET RI(I) - S9 comparison, was the first EURAMET wide scale supplementary comparison in the field of diagnostic radiology for air kerma area product, PKA, and air kerma, K. It was conducted with the goal of testing the measurement and calibration capabilities for PKA and K, as well as of supporting the relevant CMCs of the participating laboratories. Two commercial KAP meters and an ionization chamber were selected as transfer instruments and circulated between the 22 European participants. The measurements were performed from April 2011 until July 2012. The stability and the performance of the transfer instruments were tested by the pilot laboratory (IRCL/GAEC-EIM) and few other laboratories as well. The test results revealed that the energy (radiation quality), Q, irradiation area, A, and air kerma rate, dot K dependences of response of the transfer KAP meters influence the comparison of the results when different measurement conditions were pertained and therefore, appropriate correction factors were obtained and applied to the reported calibration results of the laboratories, when necessary. The comparison reference values (CRVs) for each instrument were determined as the weighted mean of the calibration coefficients of the three participating primary laboratories. The relative standard uncertainty of the CRVs were in the range of (0.4 - 1.6)% depending on the transfer instruments and beam qualities. The comparison result as the ratio of the corrected calibration coefficient of participant and the respective CRV, and its uncertainty were calculated for all beam qualities and transfer instruments. The informative degrees of equivalence (DoE) were calculated for the refrence RQR 5 beam quality. In case of air kema area product measurements the results for the RADCAL PDC KAP meter were used. The 216 KAP meter calibration results of the two different transfer instruments in terms of air kerma area product were consistent

  16. Sound radiation characteristics of a box-type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran Lin, Tian; Pan, Jie

    2009-09-01

    The finite element and boundary element methods are employed in this study to investigate the sound radiation characteristics of a box-type structure. It has been shown [T.R. Lin, J. Pan, Vibration characteristics of a box-type structure, Journal of Vibration and Acoustics, Transactions of ASME 131 (2009) 031004-1-031004-9] that modes of natural vibration of a box-type structure can be classified into six groups according to the symmetry properties of the three panel pairs forming the box. In this paper, we demonstrate that such properties also reveal information about sound radiation effectiveness of each group of modes. The changes of radiation efficiencies and directivity patterns with the wavenumber ratio (the ratio between the acoustic and the plate bending wavenumbers) are examined for typical modes from each group. Similar characteristics of modal radiation efficiencies between a box structure and a corresponding simply supported panel are observed. The change of sound radiation patterns as a function of the wavenumber ratio is also illustrated. It is found that the sound radiation directivity of each box mode can be correlated to that of elementary sound sources (monopole, dipole, etc.) at frequencies well below the critical frequency of the plates of the box. The sound radiation pattern on the box surface also closely related to the vibration amplitude distribution of the box structure at frequencies above the critical frequency. In the medium frequency range, the radiated sound field is dominated by the edge vibration pattern of the box. The radiation efficiency of all box modes reaches a peak at frequencies above the critical frequency, and gradually approaches unity at higher frequencies.

  17. Radiation effects on science instruments in Grand Tour type missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    The extent of the radiation effects problem is delineated, along with the status of protective designs for 15 representative science instruments. Designs for protecting science instruments from radiation damage is discussed for the various instruments to be employed in the Grand Tour type missions. A literature search effort was undertaken to collect science instrument components damage/interference effects data on the various sensitive components such as Si detectors, vidicon tubes, etc. A small experimental effort is underway to provide verification of the radiation effects predictions.

  18. Cloud Radiative Effect in dependence on Cloud Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aebi, Christine; Gröbner, Julian; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Vuilleumier, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    Radiative transfer of energy in the atmosphere and the influence of clouds on the radiation budget remain the greatest sources of uncertainty in the simulation of climate change. Small changes in cloudiness and radiation can have large impacts on the Earth's climate. In order to assess the opposing effects of clouds on the radiation budget and the corresponding changes, frequent and more precise radiation and cloud observations are necessary. The role of clouds on the surface radiation budget is studied in order to quantify the longwave, shortwave and the total cloud radiative forcing in dependence on the atmospheric composition and cloud type. The study is performed for three different sites in Switzerland at three different altitude levels: Payerne (490 m asl), Davos (1'560 m asl) and Jungfraujoch (3'580 m asl). On the basis of data of visible all-sky camera systems at the three aforementioned stations in Switzerland, up to six different cloud types are distinguished (Cirrus-Cirrostratus, Cirrocumulus-Altocumulus, Stratus-Altostratus, Cumulus, Stratocumulus and Cumulonimbus-Nimbostratus). These cloud types are classified with a modified algorithm of Heinle et al. (2010). This cloud type classifying algorithm is based on a set of statistical features describing the color (spectral features) and the texture of an image (textural features) (Wacker et al. (2015)). The calculation of the fractional cloud cover information is based on spectral information of the all-sky camera data. The radiation data are taken from measurements with pyranometers and pyrgeometers at the different stations. A climatology of a whole year of the shortwave, longwave and total cloud radiative effect and its sensitivity to integrated water vapor, cloud cover and cloud type will be calculated for the three above-mentioned stations in Switzerland. For the calculation of the shortwave and longwave cloud radiative effect the corresponding cloud-free reference models developed at PMOD/WRC will be

  19. Auroral Kilometric Radiation and Type III Solar Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romantsova, T. V.; Mogilevsky, M. M.; Skalsky, A. A.; Hanasz, J.

    2009-04-01

    Simultaneous wave observations onboard the ISEE-1 and ISEE-3 spacecraft show that onsets of the Auroral Kilometric Radiation frequently coincide with an arrival of type III solar burst (Calvert, 1981). It was supposed that solar burst stimulates maser instability in auroral region and AKR consequently . We present statistical and case studies of events when both type III solar radio bursts and Auroral Kilometric Radiation are recorded simultaneously. AKR was observed onboard the INTERBALL-2 spacecraft orbiting around the Earth by the POLRAD experiment. Wave measurements carried out onboard the Wind, INTEBALL-TAIL and Geotail spacecraft are used to identify unambiguously the type III solar radio bursts. The origin of close relation between onsets of both solar radiation and AKR is discussed and interpreted. Acknowledgements. This work is supported by grant RFBR 06-02-72560.

  20. Auroral kilometric radiation triggered by type II solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1985-01-01

    The previously-reported triggering of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) during type III solar radio bursts was attributed to the incoming radio waves rather than other aspects of the burst's causative solar flare. This conclusion has now been confirmed by ISEE-1 and ISEE-3 observations showing AKR which seems to have been triggered also by a subsequent type II solar radio burst, up to eleven hours after the flare.

  1. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  2. Analysis of the Fall-1989 two-meter box test bed experiments performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. O.; Drischler, J. D.; Barnes, J. M.

    This report summarizes the results of a benchmark analysis of the Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding Code System (MASH) against a series of experiments performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The series of experiments was performed in the Fall of 1989 and involved experimentalists from APRF; the Defense Research Establishment Ottawa, Canada (DREO); Bubble Technology Industries, Canada, (BTI); and the Establishment Technique Central de l'Armement, France (ETCA). The 'benchmark' analysis of MASH is designed to determine the capability of MASH to reproduce the measured neutron and gamma ray integral and differential (spectral) data. Results of the 'benchmark' analysis are to be used in the recommendations to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Panel 7 Ad Hoc Group of Shielding Experts for replacing the Vehicle Code System (VCS) with MASH as the reference code of choice for armored vehicle nuclear vulnerability calculations.

  3. Improved cavity-type absolute total-radiation radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. M., Sr.; Plamondon, J. A., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Conical cavity-type absolute radiometer measures the intensity of radiant energy to an accuracy of one to two percent in a vacuum of ten to the minus fifth torr or lower. There is a uniform response over the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared range, and it requires no calibration or comparison with a radiation standard.

  4. Prediction of Type II Burst Radiation for Large CME Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Schmidt, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Type IIs are associated with shocks in the corona and solar wind, either driven by CMEs or else blast waves. Recent quantitative theories for type II radiation show that the amount of radiation depends on the speed and spatial extent of the 3D shock, as well as on the background plasma, magnetic field configuration, and the number of superthermal electrons available for acceleration by the shock. In principle, then, Type II bursts may provide 1-3 day warnings of large and fast CMEs that might produce space weather at Earth. In this paper we couple the advanced 3D MHD BATS-R-US code of Toth, Gombosi, and colleagues with our new ``bolt-on'' theory for type II emission. The modeling includes initialization with coronal and active region magnetic fields reconstructed from solar magnetograms, coronal densities determined by 1 AU data, and CMEs modelled using STEREO coronagraph data. Two events with type IIs and strong CMEs are analyzed: 15 February 2011 and 7 March 2012. We demonstrate impressive accuracy in time, frequency, and intensity for both type II bursts. This strongly supports the type II theory, implies real understanding of the physics involved, and supports the near-term development of a capability to predict and track these events for space weather prediction.

  5. Your Glucose Meter

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Your Glucose Meter Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español Basic Facts 7 Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter Glucose meters test ...

  6. Critical ingredients of Type Ia supernova radiative-transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Blondin, Stéphane; Khokhlov, Alexei

    2014-07-01

    We explore the physics of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves and spectra using the 1D non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) time-dependent radiative-transfer code CMFGEN. Rather than adjusting ejecta properties to match observations, we select as input one `standard' 1D Chandrasekhar-mass delayed-detonation hydrodynamical model, and then explore the sensitivity of radiation and gas properties of the ejecta on radiative-transfer modelling assumptions. The correct computation of SN Ia radiation is not exclusively a solution to an `opacity problem', characterized by the treatment of a large number of lines. We demonstrate that the key is to identify and treat important atomic processes consistently. This is not limited to treating line blanketing in non-LTE. We show that including forbidden-line transitions of metals, and in particular Co, is increasingly important for the temperature and ionization of the gas beyond maximum light. Non-thermal ionization and excitation are also critical since they affect the colour evolution and the ΔM15 decline rate of our model. While impacting little the bolometric luminosity, a more complete treatment of decay routes leads to enhanced line blanketing, e.g. associated with 48Ti in the U and B bands. Overall, we find that SN Ia radiation properties are influenced in a complicated way by the atomic data we employ, so that obtaining converged results is a real challenge. Nonetheless, with our fully fledged CMFGEN model, we obtain good agreement with the golden standard Type Ia SN 2005cf in the optical and near-IR, from 5 to 60 d after explosion, suggesting that assuming spherical symmetry is not detrimental to SN Ia radiative-transfer modelling at these times. Multi-D effects no doubt matter, but they are perhaps less important than accurately treating the non-LTE processes that are crucial to obtain reliable temperature and ionization structures.

  7. System for determining the type of nuclear radiation from detector output pulse shape

    DOEpatents

    Miller, W.H.; Berliner, R.R.

    1994-09-13

    A radiation detection system determines the type of nuclear radiation received in a detector by producing a correlation value representative of the statistical cross correlation between the shape of the detector signal and pulse shape data previously stored in memory and characteristic of respective types of radiation. The correlation value is indicative of the type of radiation. The energy of the radiation is determined from the detector signal and is used to produce a spectrum of radiation energies according to radiation type for indicating the nature of the material producing the radiation. 2 figs.

  8. System for determining the type of nuclear radiation from detector output pulse shape

    DOEpatents

    Miller, William H.; Berliner, Ronald R.

    1994-01-01

    A radiation detection system determines the type of nuclear radiation received in a detector by producing a correlation value representative of the statistical cross correlation between the shape of the detector signal and pulse shape data previously stored in memory and characteristic of respective types of radiation. The correlation value is indicative of the type of radiation. The energy of the radiation is determined from the detector signal and is used to produce a spectrum of radiation energies according to radiation type for indicating the nature of the material producing the radiation.

  9. Portable peak flow meters.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, J P

    1997-02-01

    There are several portable peak flow meters available. These instruments vary in construction and performance. Guidelines are recommended for minimum performance and testing of portable peak flow meters, with the aim of establishing a procedure for standardizing all peak flow meters. Future studies to clarify the usefulness of mechanical test apparatus and clinical trials of peak flow meters are also recommended. PMID:9098706

  10. Simple solar radiation modelling for different cloud types and climatologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badescu, Viorel; Dumitrescu, Alexandru

    2016-04-01

    The instantaneous Cloud Fraction Coverage (iCFC) and Cloud Type (iCTY) products of the Climate Monitoring Satellite Application Facility are used to develop simple relationships between solar global irradiance and cloud amount and types. Radiometric measurements from five Romanian weather stations are used. Solar radiation relationships are proposed for clear sky, overcast sky and cloudy sky. A procedure to average the iCTY data is proposed, and eight classes of averaged iCTY values are considered. Two procedures are used to define the overcast sky and two cloudy sky solar radiation models are considered. Overcast skies consisting of stratiform clouds (CTY classes 8 to 14) are the most challenging when solar radiation modelling is considered. The overcast sky models have lower accuracy at high irradiance values. The best cloudy sky model has relative root mean square error values ranging between 17.6 % (for CTY classes 1 to 4) and 67.6 % (for CTY classes 12 to 14). For most CTY classes, the model performs worse at intermediate irradiance values.

  11. Reflection type skin friction meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R. (Inventor); Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A housing block is provided having an upper surface conforming to the test surface of a model or aircraft. An oil film is supplied upstream of a transparent wedge window located in this upper surface by an oil pump system located external to the housing block. A light source located within the housing block supplies a light beam which passes through this transparent window and is reflected back through the transparent window by the upper surface of the oil film to a photo-sensitive position sensor located within the housing. This position sensor allows the slope history of the oil film caused by and aerodynamic flow to be determined. The skin friction is determined from this slope history. Internally located mirrors augment and sensitize the reflected beam as necessary before reaching the position sensor. In addition, a filter may be provided before this sensor to filter the beam.

  12. PIC code KARAT simulation of different types of polarization radiation generated by relativistic electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artyomov, K. P.; Ryzhov, V. V.; Naumenko, G. A.; Shevelev, M. V.

    2012-05-01

    Different types of polarization radiation generated by a relativistic electron beam are simulated using fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) code KARAT. The simulation results for diffraction radiation, transition radiation, Smith-Purcell radiation and Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation are in a good agreement with experimental data and analytical models. Modern PIC simulation is a good tool to check and predict experimental results.

  13. The Dielectric Bolometer, A New Type of Thermal Radiation Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanel, R. A.

    1960-01-01

    Thermal detectors for the infrared, such as thermocouples and bolometers, are limited in their ultimate sensitivity predominantly by Johnson noise rather than temperature noise. Low noise figures are hard to achieve since Johnson noise preponderates temperature noise, which is the only essential noise for thermal detectors. The dielectric constants of some materials are sufficiently temperature dependent to make a new type of bolometer feasible. The basic theory of a dielectric bolometer, as shown here, promises noise figures below 3 decibels even at chopper frequencies well above the 1/tau value of the detector. Ferroelectrics such as barium-strontium titanate and others seem to be well suited for radiation-cooled dielectric bolometers.

  14. A novel flattop current regulated energy discharge type pulsed power supply and magnet yielding 4. 4 kGauss-meter for 6 milliseconds

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A.T.

    1989-07-01

    Most energy discharge power supplies obtain their bursts of power from the energy stored in charged capacitors when it is suddenly released into a load. This note describes the design of a similar small 800 Joules energy discharge type power supply and magnet. The magnet gap is 2 in.{times}2 in.{times}25-1/2 in. long and produces about 4.4 kGauss-meters at a rate of 12 pulses per minute. Each pulse is current regulated at the top for a duration of 6 msec. and varies less than 0.6% of set value. Current regulation at flattop is obtained by switching a resistor in and out of the discharge circuit with an IGBT at a rate of about 5 kHz. Most energy discharge systems produce half sine wave pulses, and current regulation is obtained by controlling the charge voltage at the energy storage capacitor, resulting only in a controlled peak current value of the half sine wave pulse. The current value at the top changes substantially during 6 msec. depending on the operating frequency.

  15. A Matter of Meter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Writing verse is a learning experience. Arranging words, sounds and syllables can turn everyday language into metered language (language that can be measured), and metered language is the definition of verse. This article discusses the use of meter in helping students establish sets of syllables and lines that can be counted, enabling them to…

  16. Gravitational radiation in Bianchi Type V cosmological models

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of the theory of embedding gravitational radiation fields in expanding universes pioneered by Hawking. The problem of embedding such fields in the expanding Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker dust-filled universe, considered by Hawking, is reexamined in a new formalism which permits an easy analysis, in particular, of the relationship between the boundary conditions and the satisfaction, by the Weyl tensor, of the conventional peeling-off behavior. Since gravity wave detectors are expected to pick up plane-fronted gravitational waves, the main thrust of this paper concerns the development of a formulation of Bianchi Type V cosmological models which enables the embedding of such plane-fronted waves to be carried out. This is worked out explicitly in the case of a perfect fluid, with pressure proportional to energy density, and with the histories of the fluid particles orthogonal to the surfaces of homogeneity. 18 references.

  17. Direct-reading inductance meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolbly, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Meter indicates from 30 nH to 3 micro H. Reference inductor of 15 micro H is made by winding 50 turns of Number 26 Formvar wire on Micrometal type 50-2 (or equivalent) core. Circuit eliminates requirement for complex instrument compensation prior to taking coil inductance measurement and thus is as easy to operate as common ohmmeter.

  18. Real life experience with multipath ultrasonic gas flow meters

    SciTech Connect

    Sakariassen, R.

    1996-12-31

    Multipath ultrasonic gas flow meters are to be considered as newcomers among flow meters for large, high pressure gas flows. Although the advantages of this type of meters are many and obvious, the metering community is still hesitating to go for it mainly because of lack of experience. The objective of this paper is to present the experience of Statoil after more than six years experience with multipath ultrasonic gas flow meters. Their experience includes laboratory testing and operation in the field for a variety of designs and dimensions. This paper presents the accuracy achieved by such meters including comparison between ultrasonic meters and orifice metering systems in operation, the unique possibilities that this type of meter offers for on-line verification of performance and installation effects. Of particular interest should be noted that in the vicinity of low-noise control valves, such meters could stop functioning completely if no precautions are taken.

  19. Net metering programs

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y H

    1996-12-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest from the renewable energy industry and environmental groups in net metering. The reason for this interest is that net metering is a simple, low-cost, and easily administered method to encourage direct customer investment in renewable energy technologies. The renewable energy industry supports net metering because it removes an economic disincentive for potential customers by increasing the value of the electricity generated by renewable energy technologies. Environmental groups support net metering because it promotes clean energy production. The concept of net metering programs is to allow the electric meters of customers with generating facilities to turn backwards when their generators are producing more energy than the customers` demand. Net metering allows customers to use their generation to offset their consumption over the entire billing period, not just instantaneously. This offset would enable customers with generating facilities to receive retail prices for more of the electricity they generate. Without a net metering program, utilities usually install a second meter to measure any electricity that flows back to the utility grid and purchase it at a rate that is much lower than the retail prices. There are various net metering programs in the country. Most are available to customer-owned small generating facilities only, some further restrict the eligibility to renewable energy technologies. This Topical Issues Brief discusses how these net metering programs have been implemented by different utilities an states, what the rationales are behind may net metering programs, and what the potential impact of net metering may be on the deployment of renewable energy technologies.

  20. Recent re-measurement of neutron and gamma-ray spectra 1080 meters from the APRD (Army Pulse Radiation Division) critical facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robitaille, H. A.; Hoffarth, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Previously reported measurements of long-range air-transported neutron and gamma-ray spectra from the fast-critical facility at the US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground have been supplemented recently at the 1080-meter position. The results of these determinations are presented herein and compared to several recent calculations from other research establishments. In addition, a summary of all dosimetric measurements obtained in the period 1979-1982 are appended, as are new determinations of APRD soil composition. Integral quantities such as neutron and gamma-ray kermas are very well predicted by the latest calculations, however there still exist significant spectral differences. At short ranges calculated neutron spectra are somewhat softer than experimental measurements, but at the farthest range of 1080 meters agreement is surprisingly good. Gamma-ray spectra remain well-calculated at all ranges.

  1. The effects of meter orientation downstream of a short radius elbow on electromagnetic flow meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justensen, Jared C.

    Electromagnetic flowmeters (known as magnetic flow meters) are a widely used type of flowmeter. The accuracy of magnetic flow meters are a function of several factors, not the least of which is the flow condition inside the pipe. It has been shown that disturbances in the velocity profile affects the accuracy of a magnetic flow meter (Luntta, 1998). Accordingly, manufacturers of magnetic flow meters give installation guidelines. These guidelines help prevent the user from installing the meter in a pipe configuration that is likely to cause the meter to produce inaccurate results. Although most manufacturers provide recommendations about the amount of straight pipe that is necessary upstream of the meter, little is said about the orientation of the meter in relation to upstream disturbances. This study examines the performance of magnetic flow meters when positioned at two different orientations: EIP (electrodes in plane with an upstream 90-degree short radius elbow) and EOP (electrodes out of plane). Four different meters were included in the study in which a baseline straight pipe test was first performed using over fifty diameters of straight pipe upstream of each meter. The straight pipe test was used to determine the baseline accuracy of each of the meters over a velocity range that is typical for the size and function of the meters. Meters were then installed at five different locations downstream from a 90-degree short-radius elbow. At each location the meters were tested in two orientations at five different flow rates. The intent of the research is to show that the orientation of a magnetic flow meter affects the meter's ability to produce accurate flow readings when it is installed downstream of a flow disturbance. The results from this research showed a significant shift in measurement accuracy when the meter was in EIP and EOP orientations. All of the meters in the study produced accuracy readings at one point of another that were outside the specified

  2. Electro-optical equivalent calibration technology for high-energy laser energy meters.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ji Feng; Chang, Yan; Sun, Li Qun; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Xiao Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Electro-optical equivalent calibration with high calibration power and high equivalence is particularly well-suited to the calibration of high-energy laser energy meters. A large amount of energy is reserved during this process, however, which continues to radiate after power-off. This study measured the radiation efficiency of a halogen tungsten lamp during power-on and after power-off in order to calculate the total energy irradiated by a lamp until the high-energy laser energy meter reaches thermal equilibrium. A calibration system was designed based on the measurement results, and the calibration equivalence of the system was analyzed in detail. Results show that measurement precision is significantly affected by the absorption factor of the absorption chamber and by heat loss in the energy meter. Calibration precision is successfully improved by enhancing the equivalent power and reducing power-on time. The electro-optical equivalent calibration system, measurement uncertainty of which was evaluated as 2.4% (k = 2), was used to calibrate a graphite-cone-absorption-cavity absolute energy meter, yielding a calibration coefficient of 1.009 and measurement uncertainty of 3.5% (k = 2). A water-absorption-type high-energy laser energy meter with measurement uncertainty of 4.8% (k = 2) was considered the reference standard, and compared to the energy meter calibrated in this study, yielded a correction factor of 0.995 (standard deviation of 1.4%). PMID:27131714

  3. Electro-optical equivalent calibration technology for high-energy laser energy meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ji Feng; Chang, Yan; Sun, Li Qun; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Xiao Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Electro-optical equivalent calibration with high calibration power and high equivalence is particularly well-suited to the calibration of high-energy laser energy meters. A large amount of energy is reserved during this process, however, which continues to radiate after power-off. This study measured the radiation efficiency of a halogen tungsten lamp during power-on and after power-off in order to calculate the total energy irradiated by a lamp until the high-energy laser energy meter reaches thermal equilibrium. A calibration system was designed based on the measurement results, and the calibration equivalence of the system was analyzed in detail. Results show that measurement precision is significantly affected by the absorption factor of the absorption chamber and by heat loss in the energy meter. Calibration precision is successfully improved by enhancing the equivalent power and reducing power-on time. The electro-optical equivalent calibration system, measurement uncertainty of which was evaluated as 2.4% (k = 2), was used to calibrate a graphite-cone-absorption-cavity absolute energy meter, yielding a calibration coefficient of 1.009 and measurement uncertainty of 3.5% (k = 2). A water-absorption-type high-energy laser energy meter with measurement uncertainty of 4.8% (k = 2) was considered the reference standard, and compared to the energy meter calibrated in this study, yielded a correction factor of 0.995 (standard deviation of 1.4%).

  4. Gamma Radiation Induced Calibration Shift for Four Cryogenic Thermometer Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courts, S. Scott; Yeager, C. J.

    2004-06-01

    Cryogenic temperature sensors utilized in space environments are exposed to ionizing radiation with the total dose dependent upon the length of the mission. Based upon their minimal size and robust packaging, four models of cryogenic Resistance Thermometer Devices (RTDs) manufactured by Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. were tested to determine their reliability for space applications with regard to radiation. Samples of Cernox™ RTDs (CX-1050-SD), ruthenium oxide RTDs (models RX-102A-AA and RX-103A-AA), and silicon diode thermometers (model DT-670-SD) were irradiated at room temperature by a cesium-137 gamma source to total doses ranging from 5 Gy to 10 kGy. This paper presents the resulting temperature shifts induced by the gamma radiation as a function of total dose over the 1.4 K to 325 K temperature range. These data show that 1) Cernox™ RTDs exhibit high radiation hardness to 10 kGy from 1.4 K to 325 K, 2) ruthenium oxide RTDs show moderate radiation hardness to 10 kGy below 10 K, and 3) silicon diodes temperature sensors exhibit some radiation tolerance to low levels of radiation (especially below 70 K), but quickly shift calibration at radiation levels above 300 Gy, especially above 100 K.

  5. Electromagnetic Radiation from Vortex Flow in Type-II Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Bulaevskii, L. N.; Chudnovsky, E. M.

    2006-11-10

    We show that a moving vortex lattice, as it comes to a crystal edge, radiates into a free space the harmonics of the washboard frequency, {omega}{sub 0}=2{pi}v/a, up to a superconducting gap, {delta}/({Dirac_h}/2{pi}). Here v is the velocity of the vortex lattice and a is the intervortex spacing. We compute radiation power and show that this effect can be used for the generation of terahertz radiation and for characterization of moving vortex lattices.

  6. DC attenuation meter

    DOEpatents

    Hargrove, Douglas L.

    2004-09-14

    A portable, hand-held meter used to measure direct current (DC) attenuation in low impedance electrical signal cables and signal attenuators. A DC voltage is applied to the signal input of the cable and feedback to the control circuit through the signal cable and attenuators. The control circuit adjusts the applied voltage to the cable until the feedback voltage equals the reference voltage. The "units" of applied voltage required at the cable input is the system attenuation value of the cable and attenuators, which makes this meter unique. The meter may be used to calibrate data signal cables, attenuators, and cable-attenuator assemblies.

  7. Groundwater-Seepage Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walthall, Harry G.; Reay, William G.

    1993-01-01

    Instrument measures seepage of groundwater into inland or coastal body of water. Positioned at depth as great as 40 meters, and measures flow at low rate and low pressure differential. Auxiliary pressure meter provides data for correlation of flow of groundwater with tides and sea states. Seepage meter operates independently for several weeks. Its sampling rate adjusted to suit hydrologic conditions; to measure more frequently when conditions changing rapidly. Used in water-quality management and for biological and geological research. Potential industrial uses include measurement of seepage of caustic and corrosive liquids.

  8. Performance of ice meter and weight assemblies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, V.R.; Futrell, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of three ice meters and weight assemblies used by the U.S. Geological Survey and Environment Canada were compared in a towing tank. Each meter was rated individually on a rod suspension and then rerated on a cable suspension, with the appropriate weight assembly. Vertical and veer cable angles were measured along with meter yaw angle. The effect of the weight assembly on the rod-suspension rating for each meter was illustrated by computing a correction coefficient which ranged between 0.88 and 1.10 depending on the weight system used and the fluid velocity. A sluch-n-all type weight assembly least affected the meter rating and was the most stable in all flow conditions. (USGS)

  9. Space Age Meter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Julie

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the history and evolution of measurement standards from 3000 BC to the modern metric system. Traces measurement techniques from comparisons with the human body to use of atomic clocks and lasers to establish the length of a meter. (JM)

  10. Peak flow meter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A peak flow meter is commonly used by a person with asthma to measure the amount of air that can be ... become narrow or blocked due to asthma, peak flow values will drop because the person cannot blow ...

  11. Ride-Quality Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Dempsey, T. K.; Clevenson, S. A.; Stephens, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Single- and combined-Axis discomfort are corrected by effects of noise and vibration to yield measure of total discomfort experienced by rider. Three modules transform mathematically-weighted rms accelerations, which represent physical vibration characteristics, into subjective discomfort units. Portable "ride-quality" meter measures passenger discomfort and acceptability of vehicle interior noise and vibration. Meter especially suited for determining vehicle comfort and design tradeoffs and for comparing ride quality of vehicles.

  12. DIGITAL Q METER

    DOEpatents

    Briscoe, W.L.

    1962-02-13

    A digital Q meter is described for measuring the Q of mechanical or electrical devices. The meter comprises in combination a transducer coupled to an input amplifier, and an upper and lower level discriminator coupled to the amplifier and having their outputs coupled to an anticoincidence gate. The output of the gate is connected to a scaler. The lower level discriminator is adjusted to a threshold level of 36.8 percent of the operating threshold level of the upper level discriminator. (AEC)

  13. Arrival Metering Precision Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Hunt, Sarah; Gomez, Ashley; Bienert, Nancy; Omar, Faisal; Kraut, Joshua; Brasil, Connie; Wu, Minghong, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the background, method and results of the Arrival Metering Precision Study (AMPS) conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center in May 2014. The simulation study measured delivery accuracy, flight efficiency, controller workload, and acceptability of time-based metering operations to a meter fix at the terminal area boundary for different resolution levels of metering delay times displayed to the air traffic controllers and different levels of airspeed information made available to the Time-Based Flow Management (TBFM) system computing the delay. The results show that the resolution of the delay countdown timer (DCT) on the controllers display has a significant impact on the delivery accuracy at the meter fix. Using the 10 seconds rounded and 1 minute rounded DCT resolutions resulted in more accurate delivery than 1 minute truncated and were preferred by the controllers. Using the speeds the controllers entered into the fourth line of the data tag to update the delay computation in TBFM in high and low altitude sectors increased air traffic control efficiency and reduced fuel burn for arriving aircraft during time based metering.

  14. Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-15

    The report provides an overview of the development of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI). Metering has historically served as the cash register for the utility industry. It measured the amount of energy used and supported the billing of customers for that usage. However, utilities are starting to look at meters in a whole different way, viewing them as the point of contact with customers in supporting a number of operational imperatives. The combination of smart meters and advanced communications has opened up a variety of methods for utilities to reduce operating costs while offering new services to customers. A concise look is given at what's driving interest in AMI, the components of AMI, and the creation of a business case for AMI. Topics covered include: an overview of AMI including the history of metering and development of smart meters; a description of the key technologies involved in AMI; a description of key government initiatives to support AMI; an evaluation of the current market position of AMI; an analysis of business case development for AMI; and, profiles of 21 key AMI vendors.

  15. 26. CURRENT METERS WITH FOLDING SCALE (MEASURED IN INCHES) IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. CURRENT METERS WITH FOLDING SCALE (MEASURED IN INCHES) IN FOREGROUND: GURLEY MODEL NO. 665 AT CENTER, GURLEY MODEL NO. 625 'PYGMY' CURRENT METER AT LEFT, AND WES MINIATURE PRICE-TYPE CURRENT METER AT RIGHT. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  16. 25. CURRENT METERS: GURLEY MODEL NO. 665 AT CENTER, GURLEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CURRENT METERS: GURLEY MODEL NO. 665 AT CENTER, GURLEY MODEL NO. 625 'PYGMY' CURRENT METER AT LEFT, AND WES MINIATURE PRICE-TYPE CURRENT METER AT RIGHT. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  17. Radiation in controlled environments: influence of lamp type and filter material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Bugbee, B.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation in controlled environments was characterized using fluorescent and various high-intensity-discharge (HID) lamps, including metal halide, low-pressure sodium, and high-pressure sodium as the radiation source. The effects of water, glass, or Plexiglas filters on radiation were determined. Photosynthetic photon flux (PPF, 400 to 700 nm), spectra (400 to 1000 nm), shortwave radiation (285-2800 nm), and total radiation (300 to 100,000 nm) were measured, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400 to 700 nm) and longwave radiation (2800 to 100,000 nm) were calculated. Measurement of PPF alone was not an adequate characterization of the radiation environment. Total radiant flux varied among lamp types at equal PPF. HID lamps provided a lower percentage of longwave radiation than fluorescent lamps, but, when HID lamps provided PPF levels greater than that possible with fluorescent lamps, the amount of longwave radiation was high. Water was the most effective longwave radiation filter. Glass and Plexiglas similarly filtered longwave more than shortwave radiation, but transmission of nonphotosynthetic shortwave radiation was less with Plexiglas than glass. The filter materials tested would not be expected to influence photomorphogenesis because radiation in the action spectrum of phytochrome was not altered, but this may not be the only pigment involved.

  18. Calculation of tubular radiators of the automobile type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, L

    1926-01-01

    We propose to show how to calculate the cooling capacity of all radiators through which the air flows in separate treamlets, whether enclosed in actual tubes or not and whatever cross-sectional shape the tubes may have. The first part will give the fundamental principles for calculating velocity of air in the tubes and the heat exchange by radiation, conduction and convection, and show, by examples, the agreement of the calculation with experiments. In the second part, the effect of the dimensions and conditions of operation on the heat exchange will be systematically investigated.

  19. A wire scanning type position monitor for an undulator radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Ando, Masami; Xia, Shaojian; Shiwaku, Hideaki

    1995-02-01

    A scanning wire position monitor for insertion devices was designed and installed in an x-ray undulator beam line. It consists of a graphite wire, a copper mesh for electric shielding, and a motor-driven linear guide. The wire of the monitor was tested under the undulator radiation thermal load. It has been found that the signal level of the monitor was proportional to the radiation power density on the wire. Even when the wire crossed the beam during the x-ray experiment, no detectable influence on the experiment was observed.

  20. Effect of vertical motion on current meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kallio, Nicholas A.

    1966-01-01

    The effect of vertical motion on the performance of current meters at various stream velocities was evaluated to determine whether accurate discharge measurements can be made from a bobbing boat. Three types of current meters--Ott, Price, and vane types--were tested under conditions simulating a bobbing boat. A known frequency and amplitude of vertical motion were imparted to the current meter, and the related effect on the measured stream velocity was determined. One test of the Price meter was made under actual conditions, using a boat and standard measuring gear. The results of the test under actual conditions verified those obtained by simulating the vertical movements of a boat. The tests show that for stream velocities below 2.5 feet per second the accuracy of all three meters is significantly affected when the meters are subjected to certain conditions of vertical motion that can occur during actual field operations. Both the rate of vertical motion and the frequency of vertical oscillation affect the registration of the meter. The results of these tests, presented in the form of graphs and tables, can be used as a guide to determine whether wind and stream flow are within an acceptable range for a reliable discharge measurement from a boat.

  1. A statistical study of solar type III bursts and auroral kilometric radiation onsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1985-10-01

    Simultaneous occurrences of type III solar radio bursts and auroral kilometric radiation were observed by Calvert (1981) using ISEE 1 spectrograms. Calvert presented evidence suggesting that the incoming type III burst stimulates the onset of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR). This paper presents a statistical study of the correlation between type III bursts and auroral kilometric radiation. A superposed epoch analysis was performed on as many as 186 type III events. The type III bursts were detected by the ISEE 3 spacecraft on the sunward side of the earth. At the same time the IMP 8 spacecraft was used to detect onsets of kilometric radiation on the nightside of the earth. For each event the intensities measured by ISEE 3 (type III intensities) were subtracted from the intensities measured by IMP 8 (type III and possible AKR intensities). The resulting intensities for each event were then added to determine if kilometric radiation was preferentially observed following a type III burst. This analysis was performed at frequencies of 100, 178, and 500 kHz. The results of this study show that a statistically significant correlation exists between incoming type III bursts from the sun and kilometric radiation from the earth.

  2. A statistical study of solar Type-3 bursts and auroral kilometric radiation onsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1985-03-01

    Simultaneous occurrences of Type-3 solar radio bursts and auroral kilometric radiation were observed by Calvert using ISEE-1 spectrograms. He presented evidence suggesting that the incoming Type-3 burst stimulates the onset of auroral kilometric radiation. This paper presents a statistical study of the correlation between Type-3 bursts and auroral kilometric radiation. A superposed epoch analysis was performed on as many as 186 Type-3 events. The Type-3 bursts were detected by the ISEE-3 spacecraft on the sunward side of the Earth. At the same time the IMP-8 spacecraft was used to detect onsets of kilometric radiation on the nightside of the Earth. For each event, the intensities measured by ISEE-3 (Type-3 intensities) were subtracted from the intensities measured by IMP-8 (Type 3 and possible AKR intensities). The resulting intensities for each event were then added to determine if kilometric radiation was preferentially observed following a Type-3 burst. This analysis was performed at frequencies of 100 kHz, 178 kHz and 500 kHz. The results of this study show that a statistically significant correlation exists between incoming Type-3 bursts from the Sun and kilometric radiation from the Earth.

  3. The Impact of Cloud Type on Surface Radiation and Road Pavement Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C. L.; Anderson, A.; Chapman, M.; Drobot, S.

    2012-12-01

    Forecast systems provide decision support for end-users ranging from the solar energy industry to municipalities concerned with winter road maintenance. The racing community also relies on racetrack pavement temperature forecast systems because tire friction decreases as temperature increases, affecting vehicle performance. Race crews perform vehicle maintenance (e.g., tire pressure and suspension adjustments) to maximize traction given a forecasted racetrack temperature. Many forecast systems suffer from inaccurate radiation forecasts resulting in part from a lack of information relating radiation to cloud types. This research seeks to improve the forecasts by determining how cloud type impacts the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface. Cloud type information was obtained from the Naval Research Laboratory Cloud Classifier algorithm and radiation data were obtained from a Davis Weather Station. A theoretical maximum solar radiation distribution was calculated. Cloud type-radiation distribution analyses from Salisbury, North Carolina during May-June 2012 indicated that low clouds allowed approximately 20% of the maximum possible radiation to reach the surface, mid level clouds 32%, high clouds 40% and cumuliform types 34%. A categorical regression analysis revealed 33% of the variation in solar radiation on cloudy case days can be explained by cloud type. Inclusion of clear case days with apparent variability lowered this to 7% suggesting another influence on radiation. A similar bulk statistical analysis is in progress on a much larger data set obtained from the Oklahoma Mesonet. This work lays the foundation for use of satellite cloud type information in order to improve the output of forecast systems. Distribution of mean solar radiation measured at the surface for all nine case studies, sorted by cloud type height characteristics, where n represents the sample size.

  4. Calibration of water-velocity meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaehrle, William R.; Bowie, James E.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior, as part of its responsibility to appraise the quantity of water resources in the United States, maintains facilities for the calibration of water-velocity meters at the Gulf Coast Hydroscience Center's Hydraulic Laboratory Facility, NSTL, Mississippi. These meters are used in hydrologic studies by the Geological Survey, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Department of Energy, state agencies, universities, and others in the public and private sector. This paper describes calibration facilities, types of water-velocity meters calibrated, and calibration standards, methods and results.

  5. High-resolution results from the LBL 55-meter SGM (Spherical Grating Monochromator) at SSRL (Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory) near the K-edge of carbon and nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Heimann, P.A.; McKinney, W.; Howells, M.; van Zee, R.D.; Medhurst, L.J.; Lauritzen, T.; Chin, J.; Meneghetti, J.; Gath, W.; Hogrefe, H.; Shirley, D.A. ); Senf, F. . Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.)

    1989-07-01

    The performance of a 55-meter Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) is described. A resolution of 60 MeV has been achieved at 400 eV, inferred from the linewidths of the nitrogen 1s-{pi}* resonance. With 0.5 eV resolution, a photon flux of 4 {times} 10{sup 10} photons/sec has been observed at 440 eV. An initial experiment has studied the core-shell resonances of gas-phase ethylene, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. Vibrational fine structure was resolved both for the carbon 1s-{pi}* and carbon 1s-Rydberg excitations. Comparison with the vibrational frequencies of ground state ethylene implies that the {nu}{sub 1} (C-H stretch) and {nu}{sub 2} (C-C stretch) or {nu}{sub 3} (H-C-H bend) are excited. It is suggested that the lower Rydberg orbitals, 3s and 3p{sigma}, have molecular, anti-bonding character. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Solitons and second harmonic radiation in type III bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Freund, H. P.

    1978-01-01

    The emission at the second harmonic of the plasma frequency from self-consistent Langmuir solitons is calculated. The theory predicts, in a natural way, the observed transition from the region where the intensity is linearly proportional to the electron flux to the region where the radio intensity is proportional to the square of the electron flux. A detailed comparison of the radiation observed at the second harmonic for the burst of 18:10 UT March 31, 1976, with the one expected on the assumption of radiation from solitons, using the correlated in situ measurements of the electric fields at the second harmonic, and their spatial structure, provides strong evidence that, for the first time, Langmuir solitons have been observed in space.

  7. Neutron dose equivalent meter

    DOEpatents

    Olsher, Richard H.; Hsu, Hsiao-Hua; Casson, William H.; Vasilik, Dennis G.; Kleck, Jeffrey H.; Beverding, Anthony

    1996-01-01

    A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

  8. Radiation and Smoking Effects on Lung Cancer Incidence by Histological Types Among Atomic Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, Hiromi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2014-01-01

    While the risk of lung cancer associated separately with smoking and radiation exposure has been widely reported, it is not clear how smoking and radiation together contribute to the risk of specific lung cancer histological types. With individual smoking histories and radiation dose estimates, we characterized the joint effects of radiation and smoking on type-specific lung cancer rates among the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Among 105,404 cohort subjects followed between 1958 and 1999, 1,803 first primary lung cancer incident cases were diagnosed and classified by histological type. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks under several interaction models. Adenocarcinoma (636 cases), squamous-cell carcinoma (330) and small-cell carcinoma (194) made up 90% of the cases with known histology. Both smoking and radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of each major lung cancer histological type. Smoking-associated excess relative risks were significantly larger for small-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinoma. The gender-averaged excess relative risks per 1 Gy of radiation (for never-smokers at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) were estimated as 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.1–4.6) for small-cell carcinoma, 0.75 (0.3–1.3) for adenocarcinoma, and 0.27 (0–1.5) for squamous-cell carcinoma. Under a model allowing radiation effects to vary with levels of smoking, the nature of the joint effect of smoking and radiation showed a similar pattern for different histological types in which the radiation-associated excess relative risk tended to be larger for moderate smokers than for heavy smokers. However, in contrast to analyses of all lung cancers as a group, such complicated interactions did not describe the data significantly better than either simple additive or multiplicative interaction models for any of the type-specific analyses. PMID:22862780

  9. Radiation and smoking effects on lung cancer incidence by histological types among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Hiromi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2012-09-01

    While the risk of lung cancer associated separately with smoking and radiation exposure has been widely reported, it is not clear how smoking and radiation together contribute to the risk of specific lung cancer histological types. With individual smoking histories and radiation dose estimates, we characterized the joint effects of radiation and smoking on type-specific lung cancer rates among the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Among 105,404 cohort subjects followed between 1958 and 1999, 1,803 first primary lung cancer incident cases were diagnosed and classified by histological type. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks under several interaction models. Adenocarcinoma (636 cases), squamous-cell carcinoma (330) and small-cell carcinoma (194) made up 90% of the cases with known histology. Both smoking and radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of each major lung cancer histological type. Smoking-associated excess relative risks were significantly larger for small-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinoma. The gender-averaged excess relative risks per 1 Gy of radiation (for never-smokers at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) were estimated as 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.1-4.6) for small-cell carcinoma, 0.75 (0.3-1.3) for adenocarcinoma, and 0.27 (0-1.5) for squamous-cell carcinoma. Under a model allowing radiation effects to vary with levels of smoking, the nature of the joint effect of smoking and radiation showed a similar pattern for different histological types in which the radiation-associated excess relative risk tended to be larger for moderate smokers than for heavy smokers. However, in contrast to analyses of all lung cancers as a group, such complicated interactions did not describe the data significantly better than either simple additive or multiplicative interaction models for any of the type-specific analyses. PMID:22862780

  10. What to Know about Brachytherapy (A Type of Internal Radiation Therapy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... destroy cancer cells. ■ ■ Depending on the type of implant you receive, the radiation source may stay in ... or days. Or if you receive a permanent implant, it will not be taken out. U.S. DEPARTMENT ...

  11. Quantifying Diurnal Cloud Radiative Effects by Cloud Type in the Tropical Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Long, Charles N.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2015-06-01

    Cloud radiative effects are examined using long-term datasets collected at the three Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facilities in the tropical western Pacific. We quantify the surface radiation budget, cloud populations, and cloud radiative effects by partitioning the data by cloud type, time of day, and as a function of large scale modes of variability such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase and wet/dry seasons at Darwin. The novel facet of our analysis is that we break aggregate cloud radiative effects down by cloud type across the diurnal cycle. The Nauru cloud populations and subsequently the surface radiation budget are strongly impacted by ENSO variability whereas the cloud populations over Manus only shift slightly in response to changes in ENSO phase. The Darwin site exhibits large seasonal monsoon related variations. We show that while deeper convective clouds have a strong conditional influence on the radiation reaching the surface, their limited frequency reduces their aggregate radiative impact. The largest source of shortwave cloud radiative effects at all three sites comes from low clouds. We use the observations to demonstrate that potential model biases in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle and mean cloud frequency would lead to larger errors in the surface energy budget compared to biases in the timing of the diurnal cycle of cloud frequency. Our results provide solid benchmarks to evaluate model simulations of cloud radiative effects in the tropics.

  12. Intelligent utility meter system

    SciTech Connect

    Frew, L.H.; Fuller, M.L.

    1989-02-07

    An intelligent utility meter system installation is described for measuring A.C. electric energy having repetitive A.C. cycles, comprising: (1) an ''outside'' principal meter unit including: (a) means for sampling current and voltage and for calculating power consumption at least 300 times per second; the sampling occurring asynchronously and not in any fixed time relationship with respect to the A.C. electricity cycles; (b) the outside unit further including means for determining the total kilowatt hours used, and the present billing status; and (c) alphanumeric display means for displaying power being used, total kilowatt hours and present billing status; (2) a remote ''inside'' unit including: (a) alphanumeric means for displaying the information displayed by the ''outside'' unit; (b) means for selectively retaining a desired continuously updated display; and (c) means for reading a credit card and automatically changing the billing status information within the intelligent utility meter as credit card information is read; and (3) the system including means for determining both the magnitude and direction of the electric power passing through the meter system.

  13. Transformer and Meter Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoms, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Numerically-controlled 5-axis machine tool uses transformer and meter to determine and indicate whether tool is in home position, but lacks built-in test mode to check them. Tester makes possible test, and repair of components at machine rather then replace them when operation seems suspect.

  14. Rhythmic Meter Munchies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an activity which allows students to construct various rhythm patterns in 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4 meter by using M&Ms and pretzels as an extrinsic motivation. Rhythmic notation is a foundation for learning music concepts. Engaging students in representative modules helps them to learn and recognize note values and…

  15. Proton radiation damage in high-resistivity n-type silicon CCDs

    SciTech Connect

    Bebek, C.J.; Groom, D.E.; Holland, S.E.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.F.; Lee, J.; Levi, M.E.; Palaio, N.P.; Turko, B.T.; Uslenghi, M.C.; Wagner, M.T.; Wang, G.

    2001-12-20

    A new type of p-channel CCD constructed on high-resistivity n-type silicon was exposed to 12 MeV protons at doses up to 1x1011 protons/cm2. The charge transfer efficiency was measured as a function of radiation dose and temperature. We previously reported that these CCDs are significantly more tolerant to radiation damage than conventional n-channel devices. In the work reported here, we used pocket pumping techniques and charge transfer efficiency measurements to determine the identity and concentrations of radiation induced traps present in the damaged devices.

  16. Effects of cloud types on cloud-radiation interaction over the Asian monsoon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Bipasha Paul; Sathiyamoorthy, V.; Pal, P. K.; Joshi, P. C.

    2009-08-01

    This paper quantifies the sensitivity of radiation budget quantities to different cloud types over the Asian monsoon region using the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. Multiple regression was used to estimate the radiative effects of individual cloud type. It was observed that the regression performed better when the solution was constrained with clear sky fluxes, which is evident by an improvement in R 2 statistics. The sensitivity coefficients calculated for the Asian monsoon region reveal that, while the LWCRCF and SWCRF will be most vulnerable to changes in cloud cover of deep convective clouds, NETCRF will be susceptible to changes in the nimbostratus clouds. Although the cloud radiative forcing of individual cloud types are found to be similar in sign to previous global findings, their magnitudes are found to vary. It is seen that cirrus clouds play an important role in governing the radiative behavior of this region.

  17. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density <5 microcycle/(Hz)1/2 and to be capable of determining the power spectral density of the phase difference over the frequency range from 1 mHz to 1 Hz. Such a phase meter could also be used on Earth to perform similar measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  18. Observations of nonthermal radiation from late-type stars

    SciTech Connect

    Bookbinder, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Statistical properties of the x-ray and radioemission from the coronae of a sample of late-type stars were studied. The sample consisted of a large, nearly volume-limited, population of K and M dwarfs. From the analyses, conclusions are drawn regarding stellar dynamos, evolution of low-mass binary systems, and the nature of the coronal heating mechanism in low-mass stars. Statistical behavior of the x-ray emission from the complete Einstein survey 243 late-type stars within 25 pc is first examined, focusing on the stellar age and color dependences. Optically selected, nearly volume limited subsamples reasonably free of known biases are used to show that, relative to the young disk stars, old disk stars have levels of coronal emission almost an order of magnitude smaller. There is also a steady, but small, decrease of coronal activity with decreasing mass. A subset of these stars present in the x-ray survey was selected for observations of radio wavelengths. Combined with previously reported radio observations of M dwarfs and the x-ray data, it is shown that these observations can provide a new characterization of the coronal activity of late-type stars.

  19. Radiation budget and soil heat fluxes in different Arctic tundra vegetation types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juszak, Inge; Iturrate Garcia, Maitane; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Schaepman, Michael E.; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela

    2016-04-01

    While solar radiation is one of the primary energy sources for warming and thawing permafrost soil, the amount of shortwave radiation reaching the soil is reduced by vegetation shading. Climate change has led to greening, shrub expansion and encroachment in many Arctic tundra regions and further changes are anticipated. These vegetation changes feed back to the atmosphere and permafrost as they modify the surface energy budget. However, canopy transmittance of solar radiation has rarely been measured or modelled for a variety of tundra vegetation types. We assessed the radiation budget of the most common vegetation types at the Kytalyk field site in North-East Siberia (70.8°N, 147.5°E) with field measurements and 3D radiative transfer modelling and linked it to soil heat fluxes. Our results show that Arctic tundra vegetation types differ in canopy albedo and transmittance as well as in soil heat flux and active layer thickness. Tussock sedges transmitted on average 56% of the incoming light and dwarf shrubs 27%. For wet sedges we found that the litter layer was very important as it reduced the average transmittance to only 6%. Model output indicated that both, albedo and transmittance, also depend on the spatial aggregation of vegetation types. We found that permafrost thaw was more strongly related to soil properties than to canopy shading. The presented radiative transfer model allows quantifying effects of the vegetation layer on the surface radiation budget in permafrost areas. The parametrised model can account for diverse vegetation types and variation of properties within types. Our results highlight small scale radiation budget and permafrost thaw variability which are indicated and partly caused by vegetation. As changes in species composition and biomass increase can influence thaw rates, small scale patterns should be considered in assessments of climate-vegetation-permafrost feedbacks.

  20. Flow metering valve

    DOEpatents

    Blaedel, Kenneth L.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for metering fluids at high pressures of about 20,000 to 60,000 psi is disclosed. The apparatus includes first and second plates which are positioned adjacent each other to form a valve chamber. The plates are made of materials which have substantially equal elastic properties. One plate has a planar surface area, and the other a recessed surface area defined by periphery and central lips. When the two plates are positioned in adjacent contacting relationship, a valve chamber is formed between the planar surface area and the recessed surface area. Fluid is introduced into the chamber and exits therefrom when a deformation occurs at positions where they no longer form a valve seat. This permits the metering of fluids at high pressures and at slow variable rates. Fluid then exits from the chamber until an applied external force becomes large enough to bring the valve seats back into contact.

  1. Flow metering valve

    DOEpatents

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1983-11-03

    An apparatus for metering fluids at high pressures of about 20,000 to 60,000 psi is disclosed. The apparatus includes first and second plates which are positioned adjacent each other to form a valve chamber. The plates are made of materials which have substantially equal elastic properties. One plate has a planar surface area, and the other a recessed surface area defined by periphery and central lips. When the two plates are positioned in adjacent contacting relationship, a valve chamber is formed between the planar surface area and the recessed surface area. Fluid is introduced into the chamber and exits therefrom when a deformation occurs at positions where they no longer form a valve seat. This permits the metering of fluids at high pressures and at slow variable rates. Fluid then exits from the chamber until an applied external force becomes large enough to bring the valve seats back into contact.

  2. Simple Schlieren Light Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, David B.; Franke, John M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Leighty, Bradley D.

    1992-01-01

    Simple light-meter circuit used to position knife edge of schlieren optical system to block exactly half light. Enables operator to check quickly position of knife edge between tunnel runs to ascertain whether or not in alignment. Permanent measuring system made part of each schlieren system. If placed in unused area of image plane, or in monitoring beam from mirror knife edge, provides real-time assessment of alignment of schlieren system.

  3. Aerosol types and radiative forcing estimates over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhawar, Rohini L.; Lee, Woo-Seop; Rahul, P. R. C.

    2016-09-01

    Using the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite data sets along with the CSIRO-MK 3.6.0 model simulations, we analyzed the aerosol optical depth (AOD) variability during March-May (MAM), June-August (JJA) along with their annual mean variability over East Asia for the period 2006-2012. The CALIPSO measurements correlated well with the MODIS measurements and the CSIRO-MK 3.6.0 model simulations over the spatial distribution patterns of the aerosols, but CALIPSO underestimated the magnitudes of the AOD. Maximum smoke aerosol loading is observed to occur during JJA, as a result of wind transport from Southern China while dust loading dominated during MAM via the transport from desert region. The vertical distribution profiles revealed that there is uniform distribution of smoke aerosols during both MAM and JJA, only differing at the altitude at which they peak; while the dust aerosols during MAM showed a significant distribution from the surface to 10 km altitude and JJA was marked with lower dust loading at the same altitudes. Both dust and smoke aerosols warm the atmosphere in MAM but due to the absorbing nature of smoke aerosols, they cause considerable cooling at the surface which is double when compared to the dust aerosols. The top of the atmosphere aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) due to smoke and dust aerosols is positive in MAM which indicates warming over East Asia. During MAM a consistent declining trend of the surface ARF due to smoke aerosols persisted over the last three decades as conspicuously evidenced from model analysis; the decline is ∼10 W/m2 from 1980 to 2012.

  4. 77 FR 40586 - Draft NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter Upgradeability Test Framework; Request for Comments AGENCY: National... Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter Upgradeability Test Framework (Draft NISTIR 7823). This draft document... process for the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) Smart Meters. The target audience for Draft...

  5. Overview on association of different types of leukemias with radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Gluzman, D F; Sklyarenko, L M; Zavelevich, M P; Koval, S V; Ivanivska, T S; Rodionova, N K

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is associated with increasing risk of various types of hematological malignancies. The results of major studies on association of leukemias and radiation exposure of large populations in Japan and in Ukraine are analyzed. The patterns of different types of leukemia in 295 Chernobyl clean-up workers diagnosed according to the criteria of up-to-date World Health Organization classification within 10-25 years following Chernobyl catastrophe are summarized. In fact, a broad spectrum of radiation-related hematological malignancies has been revealed both in Life Span Study in Japan and in study of Chernobyl clean-up workers in Ukraine. The importance of the precise diagnosis of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues according to up-to-date classifications for elucidating the role of radiation as a causative factor of leukemias is emphasized. Such studies are of high importance since according to the recent findings, radiation-associated excess risks of several types of leukemias seem to persist throughout the follow-up period up to 55 years after the radiation exposure. PMID:26112933

  6. Acoustic velocity meter systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius

    1985-01-01

    Acoustic velocity meter (AVM) systems operate on the principles that the point-to-point upstream traveltime of an acoustic pulse is longer than the downstream traveltime and that this difference in traveltime can be accurately measured by electronic devices. An AVM system is capable of recording water velocity (and discharge) under a wide range of conditions, but some constraints apply: 1. Accuracy is reduced and performance is degraded if the acoustic path is not a continuous straight line. The path can be bent by reflection if it is too close to a stream boundary or by refraction if it passes through density gradients resulting from variations in either water temperature or salinity. For paths of less than 100 m, a temperature gradient of 0.1' per meter causes signal bending less than 0.6 meter at midchannel, and satisfactory velocity results can be obtained. Reflection from stream boundaries can cause signal cancellation if boundaries are too close to signal path. 2. Signal strength is attenuated by particles or bubbles that absorb, spread, or scatter sound. The concentration of particles or bubbles that can be tolerated is a function of the path length and frequency of the acoustic signal. 3. Changes in streamline orientation can affect system accuracy if the variability is random. 4. Errors relating to signal resolution are much larger for a single threshold detection scheme than for multiple threshold schemes. This report provides methods for computing the effect of various conditions on the accuracy of a record obtained from an AVM. The equipment must be adapted to the site. Field reconnaissance and preinstallation analysis to detect possible problems are critical for proper installation and operation of an AVM system.

  7. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1999-02-02

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  8. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  9. Direct reading inductance meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolby, R. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A direct reading inductance meter comprised of a crystal oscillator and an LC tuned oscillator is presented. The oscillators function respectively to generate a reference frequency, f(r), and to generate an initial frequency, f(0), which when mixed produce a difference equal to zero. Upon connecting an inductor of small unknown value in the LC circuit to change its resonant frequency to f(x), a difference frequency (f(r)-f(x)) is produced that is very nearly a linear function of the inductance of the inductor. The difference frequency is measured and displayed on a linear scale in units of inductance.

  10. Smad, but not MAPK, pathway mediates the expression of type I collagen in radiation induced fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, Hiroyuki; Hamanaka, Ryoji; Nakamura, Miki; Sumiyoshi, Hideaki; Matsuo, Noritaka; Yoshioka, Hidekatsu

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine how radiation affects the expression level and signal pathway of collagen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta}1 mRNA is elevated earlier than those of collagen genes after irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smad pathway mediates the expression of collagen in radiation induced fibrosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPK pathways are not affected in the expression of collagen after irradiation. -- Abstract: Radiation induced fibrosis occurs following a therapeutic or accidental radiation exposure in normal tissues. Tissue fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of collagen and other extracellular matrix components. This study investigated how ionizing radiation affects the expression level and signal pathway of type I collagen. Real time RT-RCR showed that both {alpha}1and {alpha}2 chain of type I collagen mRNA were elevated from 48 h after irradiation with 10 Gy in NIH3T3 cells. The relative luciferase activities of both genes and type I collagen marker were elevated at 72 h. TGF-{beta}1 mRNA was elevated earlier than those of type I collagen genes. A Western blot analysis showed the elevation of Smad phosphorylation at 72 h. Conversely, treatment with TGF-{beta} receptor inhibitor inhibited the mRNA and relative luciferase activity of type I collagen. The phosphorylation of Smad was repressed with the inhibitor, and the luciferase activity was cancelled using a mutant construct of Smad binding site of {alpha}2(I) collagen gene. However, the MAPK pathways, p38, ERK1/2 and JNK, were not affected with specific inhibitors or siRNA. The data showed that the Smad pathway mediated the expression of type I collagen in radiation induced fibrosis.

  11. Prospective Study Validating Inter- and Intraobserver Variability of Tissue Compliance Meter in Breast Tissue of Healthy Volunteers: Potential Implications for Patients With Radiation-Induced Fibrosis of the Breast

    SciTech Connect

    Wernicke, A. Gabriella; Parashar, Bhupesh; Kulidzhanov, Fridon; Riley, Lillian; Christos, Paul J.; Fischer, Andrew; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, K.S. Clifford

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: Accurate detection of radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) is crucial in management of breast cancer survivors. Tissue compliance meter (TCM) has been validated in musculature. We validate TCM in healthy breast tissue with respect to interobserver and intraobserver variability before applying it in RIF. Methods and Materials: Three medical professionals obtained three consecutive TCM measurements in each of the four quadrants of the right and left breasts of 40 women with no breast disease or surgical intervention. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) assessed interobserver variability. The paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were used to assess intraobserver variability within each rater. Results: The median age was 45 years (range, 24-68 years). The median bra size was 35C (range, 32A-40DD). Of the participants, 27 were white (67%), 4 black (10%), 5 Asian (13%), and 4 Hispanic (10%). ICCs indicated excellent interrater reliability (low interobserver variability) among the three raters, by breast and quadrant (all ICC {>=}0.99). The paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficient both indicated low intraobserver variability within each rater (right vs. left breast), stratified by quadrant (all r{>=} 0.94, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The interobserver and intraobserver variability is small using TCM in healthy mammary tissue. We are now embarking on a prospective study using TCM in women with breast cancer at risk of developing RIF that may guide early detection, timely therapeutic intervention, and assessment of success of therapy for RIF.

  12. A model survey meter using undoped poly (ether sulfone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Hidehito; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Kanayama, Masaya; Sato, Nobuhiro; Kitamura, Hisashi; Takahashi, Sentaro

    2015-04-01

    The large region surrounding the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has necessitated the use of numerous radiation survey meters with large, robust substrates. The survey meters require efficient scintillation materials that do not require doping and have dimensional stability, such as poly (ether sulfone) (PES) resins. Here, we demonstrate the performance of a model survey meter that uses large PES plates with polished, mirrored surfaces and rough, scattering surfaces. Light collection efficiencies from plates having one or more of these surfaces were quantitatively Characterised with 36Cl-, 60Co-, 137Cs-radioactive sources. The count rates of plates having a combination of mirrored/scattering-surfaces are >1.6 times that for plates having two mirrored surfaces. In addition, a significant amount of radiation-induced light generated in the PES is trapped inside the plate because of its relatively high refractive index. The results indicate that large, undoped PES plates can be used in radiation survey meters.

  13. Turbine meters for liquid measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Wass, D.J.; Allen, C.R.

    1995-12-01

    Liquid turbine meters operate in response to fundamental engineering principles, Operation with a single moving part produces excellent longevity and reliability. Liquid turbine meters display wide rangeability, high accuracy, excellent repeatability, low pressure drop and moderate cost. Liquid turbine meters may be applied to many different fluids with different physical properties and corrosive tendencies. The marriage of liquid turbine meters to electronic instruments allows instantaneous flow calculations and produces the flexibility to display data, store data, transmit data in the most convenient form. Liquid turbine meters should be the first flow measurement instrument considered for liquid measurement applications.

  14. Plant chlorophyll content meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiering, Bruce A. (Inventor); Carter, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A plant chlorophyll content meter is described which collects light reflected from a target plant and separates the collected light into two different wavelength bands. These wavelength bands, or channels, are described as having center wavelengths of 700 nm and 840 nm. The light collected in these two channels are processed using photo detectors and amplifiers. An analog to digital converter is described which provides a digital representation of the level of light collected by the lens and falling within the two channels. A controller provided in the meter device compares the level of light reflected from a target plant with a level of light detected from a light source, such as light reflected by a target having 100% reflectance, or transmitted through a diffusion receptor. The percent of reflection in the two separate wavelength bands from a target plant are compared to provide a ratio which indicates a relative level of plant physiological stress. A method of compensating for electronic drift is described where a sample is taken when a collection lens is covered to prevent light from entering the device. This compensation method allows for a more accurate reading by reducing error contributions due to electronic drift from environmental conditions at the location where a hand-held unit is used.

  15. Advanced metering techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to facilitate energy-efficiency improvements at federal facilities. This is accomplished by a balanced program of technology development, facility assessment, and use of cost-sharing procurement mechanisms. Technology development focuses upon the tools and procedures used to identify and evaluate efficiency improvements. For facility assessment, FEMP provides metering equipment and trained analysts to federal agencies exhibiting a commitment to improve energy-use efficiency. To assist in implementing energy-efficiency measures, FEMP helps federal agencies with identifying efficiency opportunities and in implementing energy-efficiency and demand-side management programs at federal sites. As the lead laboratory for FEMP, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provides technical assistance to federal agencies to better understand and characterize energy systems. The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked PNL to provide technical assistance to characterize and modernize energy systems at FORSCOM installations. As part of that technical assistance, PNL performed an in-depth examination of automatic meter-reading system technologies currently available. The operating characteristics and relative merits of all the major systems were reviewed in the context of applicability to federal installations. That review is documented in this report.

  16. Field intercomparisons of electromagnetic current meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guza, R. T.; Clifton, M. C.; Rezvani, F.

    1988-08-01

    In order to assess the performance of current meters within and near the surf zone, data from biaxial electromagnetic current meters with spherical and open frame probe geometries were intercompared. One bottom-mounted flow meter of each type was deployed in a mean depth of 7.0 m for 17 days, and two sensors of each type were deployed in a mean depth of 2.0 m for 5 days. Sensors in the shallow deployment were frequently in the surf zone. Hourly averaged mean flows measured by different sensor types are highly correlated, averaging above 0.98. The largest difference between measured mean flows is a constant bias, typically about 3.0 cm/s, which is roughly equal to the estimated accuracy of the sensor offset calibrations. Root-mean-square deviations from this constant bias are less than 2.0 cm/s, and are contributed to by errors in both gain calibration and sensor orientation. Comparisons of measured (surface gravity wave) oscillatory currents were made both between current meter types and with velocities inferred from the application of linear theory to pressure sensor data. Correlations between time series of UTrms (the rms total oscillatory velocity for a 1-hour record) were all above 0.99 in 7.0-m depth and averaged 0.95 for the shallow deployment. The average UTrms ratio (over all hour-long records) was within 1.0 ±0.07 for all current meter pairs in both deployments, which is consistent with the estimated 5% uncertainties in the flow meter gain calibration. Typical fluctuations of the UTrms ratio of any spherical and open frame sensor pair about its mean ratio, indicative of flow meter gain distortions probably associated with variations in the hydrodynamic environment, were less than 0.04 for any one deployment. Ratios of UTrms from both deployments taken together suggest that the open frame sensor overresponds, relative to the spherical probe, by about 5% at low (about 10.0 cm/s) total (mean + UTrms) speeds, and underresponds by about 5% at higher total

  17. The stimulation of auroral kilometric radiation by type III solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1981-01-01

    It has been found that the onset of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) frequently coincides with the arrival of type III solar radio bursts. Although the AKR onsets are usually abrupt and appear to be spontaneous, they sometimes develop from a discrete frequency near the leading edge of a type III burst or sometimes occur at progressively lower frequencies following that edge. From this, and the absence of the related solar electrons in specific cases, it was concluded that the incoming type III waves were sometimes responsible for stimulating auroral kilometric radiation. It was estimated that intense, isolated type III bursts were capable of stimulating AKR roughly one third of the time, and that at least ten percent of the observed AKR onsets could be attributed to these and weaker bursts, including some barely detectable by the ISEE plasma wave receivers.

  18. Effects of exposure to different types of radiation on behaviors mediated by peripheral or central systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Erat, S.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on behavior may result from effects on peripheral or on central systems. For behavioral endpoints that are mediated by peripheral systems (e.g., radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion or vomiting), the behavioral effects of exposure to heavy particles (56Fe, 600 MeV/n) are qualitatively similar to the effects of exposure to gamma radiation (60Co) and to fission spectrum neutrons. For these endpoints, the only differences between the different types of radiation are in terms of relative behavioral effectiveness. For behavioral endpoints that are mediated by central systems (e.g., amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning), the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles are not seen following exposure to lower LET gamma rays or fission spectrum neutrons. These results indicate that the effects of exposure to heavy particles on behavioral endpoints cannot necessarily be extrapolated from studies using gamma rays, but require the use of heavy particles.

  19. Bianchi type-I magnetized radiating cosmological model in self creation theory of gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Vimal Chand; Jain, Nikhil

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated Bianchi type-I cosmological model in the presence of magnetized field with disordered radiation in Barber's second self-creation theory of gravitation. To obtain exact solution we assume that the component of shear tensor is proportional to expansion ( θ). Some geometrical and physical properties of the model have also been discussed.

  20. Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi Type VIh universes with stiff perfect fluid and radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.

    1995-03-01

    Families of inhomogeneous models filled with a stiff perfect fluid and radiation have been derived in which there is no flow of total momentum. The models are generalizations of those of Bianchi Type VIh and are discussed for some particular forms of the arbitrary functions appearing in them.

  1. GAS METERING PUMP

    DOEpatents

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  2. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  3. KVP meter errors induced by plastic wrap

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferies, D.; Morris, J.W.; White, V.P. )

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether erroneous kVp meter readings, induced by plastic wrap, affected the actual kVp (output) of a dental X-ray machine. To evaluate the effect of plastic wrap on dental X-ray machine kVp meters, a radiation output device was used to measure output in mR/ma.s. An intraoral dental X-ray unit (S.S. White Model {number sign}90W) was used to make the exposures. First, the kVp meter was not covered with plastic wrap and output readings were recorded at various kVp settings with the milliamperage and time held constant. Secondly, the same kVp settings were selected before the plastic wrap was placed. Milliamperage and time were again held to the same constant. The X-ray console was then covered with plastic wrap prior to measuring the output for each kVp. The wrap possessed a static charge. This charge induced erroneous kVp meter readings. Out-put readings at the various induced kVp settings were then recorded. A kVp of 50 with no wrap present resulted in the same output as a kVp of 50 induced to read 40 or 60 kVp by the presence of wrap. Similar results were obtained at other kVp settings. This indicates that the plastic wrap influences only the kVp meter needle and not the actual kilovoltage of the X-ray machine. Dental X-ray machine operators should select kVp meter readings prior to placing plastic wrap and should not adjust initial settings if the meter is deflected later by the presence of wrap. The use of such a procedure will result in proper exposures, fewer retakes, and less patient radiation. If plastic wrap leads to consistent exposure errors, clinicians may wish to use a 0.5% sodium hypochlorite disinfectant as an alternative to the barrier technique.

  4. Two laboratory methods for the calibration of GPS speed meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yin; Sun, Qiao; Du, Lei; Yu, Mei; Bai, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The set-ups of two calibration systems are presented to investigate calibration methods of GPS speed meters. The GPS speed meter calibrated is a special type of high accuracy speed meter for vehicles which uses Doppler demodulation of GPS signals to calculate the measured speed of a moving target. Three experiments are performed: including simulated calibration, field-test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical speed meter. The experiments are conducted at specific speeds in the range of 40-180 km h-1 with the same GPS speed meter as the device under calibration. The evaluation of measurement results validates both methods for calibrating GPS speed meters. The relative deviations between the measurement results of the GPS-based high accuracy speed meter and those of the optical speed meter are analyzed, and the equivalent uncertainty of the comparison is evaluated. The comparison results justify the utilization of GPS speed meters as reference equipment if no fewer than seven satellites are available. This study contributes to the widespread use of GPS-based high accuracy speed meters as legal reference equipment in traffic speed metrology.

  5. Effects of pulsating flow on current meter performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.

    1995-01-01

    Summarized are laboratory tests for current meter response to pulsating flows. Included are results for mechanical and electromagnetic water-current meters that are commonly used for stream gaging. Most of the vertical-axis and horizontal-axis types of mechanical meters that were tested significantly underregistered the mean flow velocity when the magnitude of the pulsating portion of the flow velocity was greater than half the mean velocity but less than the mean velocity. Errors for all meters tested were largest at the lowest mean flow velocity, 0.076 m/s.

  6. How to use your peak flow meter

    MedlinePlus

    Peak flow meter - how to use; Asthma - peak flow meter; Reactive airway disease - peak flow meter; Bronchial asthma - peak flow meter ... your airways are narrowed and blocked due to asthma, your peak flow values drop. You can check ...

  7. 28. LEUPOLD AND STEVENS MIDGET CURRENT METER, WITH FOLDING SCALE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. LEUPOLD AND STEVENS MIDGET CURRENT METER, WITH FOLDING SCALE AT TOP, AND THREE VARIATIONS OF WES MINIATURE PRICE-TYPE CURRENT METERS BELOW. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  8. Ulysses-Wind stereoscopic study of type III radiation pattern over a large latitude range.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnin, X.; Maksimovic, M.; Hoang, S.

    2006-12-01

    Type III radio bursts are generated by suprathermal electrons, accelerated from solar active region and travelling outwards along open magnetic field lines to lower densities in the interplanetary medium (IPM). Along their path in the IPM, these electrons trigger radio emission at the fundamental (F) and/or harmonic (H) of the local plasma frequency fp. We have selected 278 type III bursts observed simultaneously by Wind and Ulysses spacecraft (s/c) during all the year 2001. Deriving radio sources trajectory by diffrent ways, we have deduced some type III characteristics and derived apparent radiation pattern at low frequencies over a large latitude range. First results confirm that radiation pattern shifts east when frequency decreases (Hoang et al. 1997). It brings new evidence of strong refraction effects in local density gradients.

  9. Overview of the Liulin type instruments for space radiation measurement and their scientific results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachev, T. P.; Semkova, J. V.; Tomov, B. T.; Matviichuk, Yu. N.; Dimitrov, P. G.; Koleva, R. T.; Malchev, St.; Bankov, N. G.; Shurshakov, V. A.; Benghin, V. V.; Yarmanova, E. N.; Ivanova, O. A.; Häder, D.-P.; Lebert, M.; Schuster, M. T.; Reitz, G.; Horneck, G.; Uchihori, Y.; Kitamura, H.; Ploc, O.; Cubancak, J.; Nikolaev, I.

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is recognized to be one of the main health concerns for humans in the space radiation environment. Estimation of space radiation effects on health requires the accurate knowledge of the accumulated absorbed dose, which depends on the global space radiation distribution, solar cycle and local shielding generated by the 3D mass distribution of the space vehicle. This paper presents an overview of the spectrometer-dosimeters of the Liulin type, which were developed in the late 1980s and have been in use since then. Two major measurement systems have been developed by our team. The first one is based on one silicon detector and is known as a Liulin-type deposited energy spectrometer (DES) (Dachev et al., 2002, 2003), while the second one is a dosimetric telescope (DT) with two or three silicon detectors. The Liulin-type instruments were calibrated using a number of radioactive sources and particle accelerators. The main results of the calibrations are presented in the paper. In the last section of the paper some of the most significant scientific results obtained in space and on aircraft, balloon and rocket flights since 1989 are presented.

  10. Overview of the Liulin type instruments for space radiation measurement and their scientific results.

    PubMed

    Dachev, T P; Semkova, J V; Tomov, B T; Matviichuk, Yu N; Dimitrov, P G; Koleva, R T; Malchev, St; Bankov, N G; Shurshakov, V A; Benghin, V V; Yarmanova, E N; Ivanova, O A; Häder, D-P; Lebert, M; Schuster, M T; Reitz, G; Horneck, G; Uchihori, Y; Kitamura, H; Ploc, O; Cubancak, J; Nikolaev, I

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is recognized to be one of the main health concerns for humans in the space radiation environment. Estimation of space radiation effects on health requires the accurate knowledge of the accumulated absorbed dose, which depends on the global space radiation distribution, solar cycle and local shielding generated by the 3D mass distribution of the space vehicle. This paper presents an overview of the spectrometer-dosimeters of the Liulin type, which were developed in the late 1980s and have been in use since then. Two major measurement systems have been developed by our team. The first one is based on one silicon detector and is known as a Liulin-type deposited energy spectrometer (DES) (Dachev et al., 2002, 2003), while the second one is a dosimetric telescope (DT) with two or three silicon detectors. The Liulin-type instruments were calibrated using a number of radioactive sources and particle accelerators. The main results of the calibrations are presented in the paper. In the last section of the paper some of the most significant scientific results obtained in space and on aircraft, balloon and rocket flights since 1989 are presented. PMID:26177624

  11. Major vegetation types, climatological data, and solar radiation calculations for Colorado's Brush Creek valley

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Lambeth, R.; Allwine, K.J.

    1987-04-01

    In this report we present information on the vegetative cover, climate, and solar radiation for the Brush Creek valley. A brief vegetative survey was made on October 3, 1984, to identify the vegetation types in the lowest 8 km of the valley; the reader is cautioned that this included only a small part of the Brush Creek valley. The intent was to identify the principal vegetation types, with no attempt to use available scientific sampling techniques to determine accurate relative frequencies of the vegetation types. Nevertheless, the site survey has allowed us to identify the major species of vegetation, and to make reasonably accurate differentiations of both major vegetation types on valley surfaces (the valley floor, two sidewalls, and ridgetops) and the relative abundance of major vegetation types on each surface.

  12. Wavelength meter having elliptical wedge

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.; Feldman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    A wavelength meter is disclosed which can determine the wavelength of a laser beam from a laser source within an accuracy range of two parts in 10.sup.8. The wavelength meter has wedge having an elliptically shaped face to the optical path of the laser source and includes interferometer plates which form a vacuum housing.

  13. Wavelength meter having elliptical wedge

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.; Feldman, M.

    1992-12-01

    A wavelength meter is disclosed which can determine the wavelength of a laser beam from a laser source within an accuracy range of two parts in 10[sup 8]. The wavelength meter has wedge having an elliptically shaped face to the optical path of the laser source and includes interferometer plates which form a vacuum housing. 7 figs.

  14. The Metering Guide for Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qayoumi, Mohammed H.

    This volume provides a guide to management of utilities metering in educational facilities, especially colleges and universities. Chapter 1 gives an overview of why utility measurement, specifically the metering of energy consumption, is important in facilities management. Chapter 2 defines the basic units of measurement for both electric and…

  15. Calibration of GPS based high accuracy speed meter for vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yin; Sun, Qiao; Du, Lei; Yu, Mei; Bai, Jie

    2015-02-01

    GPS based high accuracy speed meter for vehicles is a special type of GPS speed meter which uses Doppler Demodulation of GPS signals to calculate the speed of a moving target. It is increasingly used as reference equipment in the field of traffic speed measurement, but acknowledged standard calibration methods are still lacking. To solve this problem, this paper presents the set-ups of simulated calibration, field test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical sensor based non-contact speed meter. All the experiments were carried out on particular speed values in the range of (40-180) km/h with the same GPS speed meter. The speed measurement errors of simulated calibration fall in the range of +/-0.1 km/h or +/-0.1%, with uncertainties smaller than 0.02% (k=2). The errors of replay calibration fall in the range of +/-0.1% with uncertainties smaller than 0.10% (k=2). The calibration results justify the effectiveness of the two methods. The relative deviations of the GPS speed meter from the optical sensor based noncontact speed meter fall in the range of +/-0.3%, which validates the use of GPS speed meter as reference instruments. The results of this research can provide technical basis for the establishment of internationally standard calibration methods of GPS speed meters, and thus ensures the legal status of GPS speed meters as reference equipment in the field of traffic speed metrology.

  16. Newton’s second law, radiation reaction and type II Einstein-Maxwell fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Ezra T.

    2011-12-01

    Considering perturbations of the Reissner-Nordström metric while keeping the perturbations in the class of type II Einstein-Maxwell metrics, we perform a spherical harmonic expansion of all the variables up to the quadrupole term. This leads to rather surprising results. Referring to the source of the metric as a type II particle (analogous to referring to a Schwarzschild-Reissner-Nordström or Kerr-Newman particle), we see immediately that the Bondi momentum of the particle takes the classical form of mass times velocity plus an electromagnetic radiation reaction term, while the Bondi mass loss equation becomes the classical gravitational and electromagnetic (electric and magnetic) dipole and quadrupole radiation. The Bondi momentum loss equation turns into Newton’s second law of motion containing the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac radiation reaction force plus a momentum recoil (rocket) force, while the reality condition on the Bondi mass aspect yields the conservation of angular momentum. Two things must be pointed out: (1) these results, (equations of motion, etc) take place, not in the spacetime of the type II metric but in an auxiliary space referred to as {H}-space, whose physical meaning is rather obscure and (2) this analysis of the type II field equations is a very special case of a similar analysis of the general asymptotically flat Einstein-Maxwell equations. Although the final results are similar (though not the same), the analysis uses different equations (specifically, the type II field equations) and is vastly simpler than the general case. Without a great deal of the technical structures needed in the general case, one can see rather easily where the basic results reside in the type II field equations.

  17. Radiation Effects of n-type, Low Resistivity, Spiral Silicon Drift Detector Hybrid Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen W.; De Geronimo G.; Carini, G.A.; Gaskin, J.A.; Keister, J.W.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Ramsey, B.D.; Siddons, D.P.; Smith, G.C.; Verbitskaya, E.

    2011-11-15

    We have developed a new thin-window, n-type, low-resistivity, spiral silicon drift detector (SDD) array - to be used as an extraterrestrial X-ray spectrometer (in varying environments) for NASA. To achieve low-energy response, a thin SDD entrance window was produced using a previously developed method. These thin-window devices were also produced on lower resistivity, thinner, n-type, silicon material, effectively ensuring their radiation hardness in anticipation of operation in potentially harsh radiation environments (such as found around the Jupiter system). Using the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility beam line RERS1, we irradiated a set of suitable diodes up to 5 Mrad and the latest iteration of our ASICs up to 12 Mrad. Then we irradiated two hybrid detectors consisting of newly, such-produced in-house (BNL) SDD chips bonded with ASICs with doses of 0.25 Mrad and 1 Mrad. Also we irradiated another hybrid detector consisting of previously produced (by KETEK) on n-type, high-resistivity SDD chip bonded with BNL's ASICs with a dose of 1 Mrad. The measurement results of radiated diodes (up to 5 Mrad), ASICs (up to 12 Mrad) and hybrid detectors (up to 1 Mrad) are presented here.

  18. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  19. Calibration services for medical applications of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    DeWerd, L.A.

    1993-12-31

    Calibration services for the medical community applications of radiation involve measuring radiation precisely and having traceability to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Radiation therapy applications involve the use of ionization chambers and electrometers for external beams and well-type ionization chamber systems as well as radioactive sources for brachytherapy. Diagnostic x-ray applications involve ionization chamber systems and devices to measure other parameters of the x-ray machine, such as non-invasive kVp meters. Calibration laboratories have been established to provide radiation calibration services while maintaining traceability to NIST. New radiation applications of the medical community spur investigation to provide the future calibration needs.

  20. Dependence of the radiative forcing of the climate system on fossil fuel type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez, L. I.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change mitigation strategies are greatly directed towards the reduction of CO2 emissions and other greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion to limit warming to 2º C in this century. For example, the Clean Power Plan aims to reduce CO2 emissions from the power sector by 32% of 2005 levels by 2030 by increasing power plant efficiency but also by switching from coal-fired power plants to natural gas-fired power plants. It is important to understand the impact of such fuel switching on climate change. While all fossil fuels emit CO2, they also emit other pollutants with varying effects on climate, health and agriculture. First, The emission of CO2 per joule of energy produced varies significantly between coal, oil and natural gas. Second, the complexity that the co-emitted pollutants add to the perturbations in the climate system necessitates the detangling of radiative forcing for each type of fossil fuel. The historical (1850-2011) net radiative forcing of climate as a function of fuel type (coal, oil, natural gas and biofuel) is reconstructed. The results reveal the significant dependence of the CO2 and the non-CO2 forcing on fuel type. The CO2 forcing per joule of energy is largest for coal. Radiative forcing from the co-emitted pollutants (black carbon, methane, nitrogen oxides, organic carbon, sulfate aerosols) changes the global mean CO2 forcing attributed to coal and oil significantly. For natural gas, the CO2-only radiative forcing from gas is increased by about 60% when the co-emitted pollutants are included.

  1. Spaceflight-relevant types of ionizing radiation and cortical bone: Potential LET effect?

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Shane A J; Bandstra, Eric R; Travis, Neil D; Nelson, Gregory A; Bourland, J Daniel; Pecaut, Michael J; Gridley, Daila S; Willey, Jeffrey S; Bateman, Ted A

    2008-01-01

    Extended exposure to microgravity conditions results in significant bone loss. Coupled with radiation exposure, this phenomenon may place astronauts at a greater risk for mission-critical fractures. In a previous study, we identified a profound and prolonged loss of trabecular bone (29-39%) in mice following exposure to an acute, 2 Gy dose of radiation simulating both solar and cosmic sources. However, because skeletal strength depends on trabecular and cortical bone, accurate assessment of strength requires analysis of both bone compartments. The objective of the present study was to examine various properties of cortical bone in mice following exposure to multiple types of spaceflight-relevant radiation. Nine-week old, female C57BL/6 mice were sacrificed 110 days after exposure to a single, whole body, 2 Gy dose of gamma, proton, carbon, or iron radiation. Femora were evaluated with biomechanical testing, microcomputed tomography, quantitative histomorphometry, percent mineral content, and micro-hardness analysis. Compared to non-irradiated controls, there were significant differences compared to carbon or iron radiation for only fracture force, medullary area and mineral content. A greater differential effect based on linear energy transfer (LET) level may be present: high-LET (carbon or iron) particle irradiation was associated with a decline in structural properties (maximum force, fracture force, medullary area, and cortical porosity) and mineral composition compared to low-LET radiation (gamma and proton). Bone loss following irradiation appears to be largely specific to trabecular bone and may indicate unique biological microenvironments and microdosimetry conditions. However, the limited time points examined and non-haversian skeletal structure of the mice employed highlight the need for further investigation. PMID:19122806

  2. Atomic structure of cascades of atomic displacements in metals and alloys after different types of radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivchenko, V. A.

    2016-02-01

    Using the methods of field ion microscopy, we studied radiation induced defects on an atomically clean surface and within a subsurface volume of platinum initiated by the interaction of neutron (E > 0.1MeV) and Ar+ beams (E = 30 keV). It is shown that the interaction of fast neutrons (E > 0.1 MeV) F = 6.7-1021 m-2, F = 3.5-1022 m-2 with matter leads to the formation in the amount of platinum such as radiation damage which occur after ion irradiation by beams of charged Ar+ ions with E = 30 keV, F = 1020 ion/m2. They are observed at a depth of about 1.5-2 nm irradiated under the surface of Pt by ions Ar+. Thus, we have carried out modeling of neutron impact with matter when replacing the neutron beam by an ion beam that causes the same radiation damage in the bulk of the material. Experimental results on atomic-spatial investigation of radiative defect formation in surface layers of materials, initiated by neutron bombardment (of Pt, E > 0.1 MeV) and ion implantation (in Cu3Au: E = 40 keV, F = 1020 ion/m2, j = 10-3 A/cm2), are considered. Quantitative estimates obtained for the size, shape, and volume fraction of cascades of atomic displacements formed under various types of irradiation in the surface layers of the materials. It is showing that the average size of radiation clusters after irradiation of platinum to a fast neutron fluence of 6.7-1022 m-2 (E > 0.1 MeV) is about 3.2 nm. The experimentally established average size of a radiation cluster (disordered zone) in the alloy after ion bombardment is 4×4×1.5 nm.

  3. Spaceflight-relevant types of ionizing radiation and cortical bone: Potential LET effect?

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Shane A.J.; Bandstra, Eric R.; Travis, Neil D.; Nelson, Gregory A.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Pecaut, Michael J.; Gridley, Daila S.; Willey, Jeffrey S.; Bateman, Ted A.

    2008-01-01

    Extended exposure to microgravity conditions results in significant bone loss. Coupled with radiation exposure, this phenomenon may place astronauts at a greater risk for mission-critical fractures. In a previous study, we identified a profound and prolonged loss of trabecular bone (29−39%) in mice following exposure to an acute, 2 Gy dose of radiation simulating both solar and cosmic sources. However, because skeletal strength depends on trabecular and cortical bone, accurate assessment of strength requires analysis of both bone compartments. The objective of the present study was to examine various properties of cortical bone in mice following exposure to multiple types of spaceflight-relevant radiation. Nine-week old, female C57BL/6 mice were sacrificed 110 days after exposure to a single, whole body, 2 Gy dose of gamma, proton, carbon, or iron radiation. Femora were evaluated with biomechanical testing, microcomputed tomography, quantitative histomorphometry, percent mineral content, and micro-hardness analysis. Compared to non-irradiated controls, there were significant differences compared to carbon or iron radiation for only fracture force, medullary area and mineral content. A greater differential effect based on linear energy transfer (LET) level may be present: high-LET (carbon or iron) particle irradiation was associated with a decline in structural properties (maximum force, fracture force, medullary area, and cortical porosity) and mineral composition compared to low-LET radiation (gamma and proton). Bone loss following irradiation appears to be largely specific to trabecular bone and may indicate unique biological microenvironments and microdosimetry conditions. However, the limited time points examined and non-haversian skeletal structure of the mice employed highlight the need for further investigation. PMID:19122806

  4. Spaceflight-relevant types of ionizing radiation and cortical bone: Potential LET effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Shane A. J.; Bandstra, Eric R.; Travis, Neil D.; Nelson, Gregory A.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Pecaut, Michael J.; Gridley, Daila S.; Willey, Jeffrey S.; Bateman, Ted A.

    2008-12-01

    Extended exposure to microgravity conditions results in significant bone loss. Coupled with radiation exposure, this phenomenon may place astronauts at a greater risk for mission-critical fractures. In a previous study, we identified a profound and prolonged loss of trabecular bone (29-39%) in mice following exposure to an acute, 2 Gy dose of radiation simulating both solar and cosmic sources. However, because skeletal strength depends on trabecular and cortical bone, accurate assessment of strength requires analysis of both bone compartments. The objective of the present study was to examine various properties of cortical bone in mice following exposure to multiple types of spaceflight-relevant radiation. Nine-week old, female C57BL/6 mice were sacrificed 110 days after exposure to a single, whole body, 2 Gy dose of gamma, proton, carbon, or iron radiation. Femora were evaluated with biomechanical testing, microcomputed tomography, quantitative histomorphometry, percent mineral content, and micro-hardness analysis. Compared to non-irradiated controls, there were significant differences compared to carbon or iron radiation for only fracture force, medullary area and mineral content. A greater differential effect based on linear energy transfer (LET) level may be present: high-LET (carbon or iron) particle irradiation was associated with a decline in structural properties (maximum force, fracture force, medullary area, and cortical porosity) and mineral composition compared to low-LET radiation (gamma and proton). Bone loss following irradiation appears to be largely specific to trabecular bone and may indicate unique biological microenvironments and microdosimetry conditions. However, the limited time points examined and non-haversian skeletal structure of the mice employed highlight the need for further investigation.

  5. The impact of vegetation type on the shortwave radiation balance of the Arctic tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juszak, Inge; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Profound changes in vegetation composition in the Arctic tundra have been observed and are predicted in a warmer future climate. Shrub expansion may positively feed back to climate warming by decreasing the shortwave albedo. On the other hand, permafrost protection through soil shading by shrubs has been discussed in literature. Several studies compared the average radiation balance across vegetation zones. However, variation within vegetation zones may be as important as differences between vegetation zones. The lowland tundra ecosystem at the Kytalyk research site (NE Siberia) is dominated by two vegetation types (dwarf shrub (Betula nana) and wet sedge (Eriophorum angustifolium)) organised in patches at a scale of about 10m. We investigated the shortwave radiation balance of both types separately and related it to the 11 year data set of the fluxtower with a mixed footprint. In addition to canopy albedo, we measured canopy transmittance below dwarf shrubs and wet sedges to quantify the often discussed effect of soil shading. Our results show that at our field site, wet sedge vegetation is shading the soil more efficiently than dwarf shrubs due to multi-year standing litter. While we measured an average transmission of 36% of the incoming shortwave radiation below dwarf shrubs, the transmission of wet sedge was 28%. Wet sedge summer albedo was on average 16% higher than dwarf shrub albedo. Additionally, the snow melted 10 days later in the sedge patches, leading to large albedo differences in the second half of May 2014. Our analysis shows, that cloud cover is the second most important control on albedo and transmittance of both vegetation types. Clouds reduced the summer albedo of both vegetation types across all zenith angles. On average, the growing season albedo was about 11% higher on clear sky days as compared to overcast days whereas the transmittance was about 23% lower. As cloud cover is expected to change with climate change, field studies of the cloud

  6. Resistance of Clostridium perfringens Type A Spores to γ-Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Midura, T. F.; Kempe, L. L.; Graikoski, J. T.; Milone, N. A.

    1965-01-01

    The radiation resistance of the spores of a classical strain and of an atypical, heat-resistant strain of Clostridium perfringens was determined. Spores were produced in Ellner's and in a Trypticase broth medium. Approximately 106 viable spores per milliliter were suspended in 0.06 m phosphate buffer and irradiated with γ rays from cobalt-60; the survivors were counted in Tryptone-yeast extract-agar by the Prickett-tube technique. Radiation D values for spores of the atypical strain in phosphate buffer and in cooked-meat broth were 0.23 and 0.30 Mrad, respectively, and the D value of the classical strain was 0.25 Mrad in phosphate buffer. Spores of the classical and atypical strains of C. perfringens type A are characterized by differences in heat resistance; yet, all strains tested demonstrated similar radiation resistance. Also, the spores were more resistant to ionizing radiation in cooked-meat broth than in phosphate buffer. PMID:14325887

  7. Multidimensional radiative transfer calculations of the light curves and spectra of Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasen, D.; Thomas, R. C.; Röpke, F.; Woosley, S. E.

    2008-07-01

    The explosion of a white dwarf star in a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) explosion leads to the burning and ejection of stellar material at a few percent of the speed of light. The spectacle we observe in the months that follow is from the leaking of radiation from this glowing mass of radioactive debris. The modeling of SN Ia light curves and spectra represents a complex problem in time-dependent radiative transfer. Here we discuss numerical methods, in particular Monte Carlo methods, for calculating 3D multi-wavelength radiative transport on massively parallel machines. Our approach involves a newly developed domain decomposition technique in which the memory load is distributed over multiple processors and photon packets are communicated from node to node. We present results for 2-dimensional models that explore white dwarf explosions over a range of explosion paradigms and ignition conditions. These models give insight into how variations in the initial conditions of the explosion affect the light curve we finally observe. We conclude with an outlook (and some initial results) for large scale 3D radiation transport calculations of SNe Ia in an era of petascale computing.

  8. Prediction of the radiation situation during conditioned radioactive waste storage in hangar-type storage facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosnovskii, S. V.; Bulka, S. K.

    2014-02-01

    An original technology for the conditioning of solidified radioactive waste was developed by the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant (NPP) staff. The technology provides for waste placement inside NZK-150-1.5P containers with their further storage at light hangar-type storage facilities. A number of technical solutions were developed that allow for reducing the gamma-radiation dose rate from the package formed. A methodology for prediction of the radiation situation around hangars, depending on the radiation characteristics of irrecoverable shielding containers (ISCs) located in the peripheral row of a storage facility, was developed with the purpose of assuring safe storage. Based on empirical data, the field background gamma-radiation dose rate at an area as a function of the average dose rate at the hangar surface and the average dose rate close packages, placed in the peripheral row of the storage facility, was calculated. The application of the developed methodology made it possible to reduce by ten times the expenditures for the conditioning and holding of solidified radioactive waste (SRW) while unconditionally providing storage safety.

  9. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOEpatents

    McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.

    1994-08-16

    The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.

  10. SLOW RADIATION-DRIVEN WIND SOLUTIONS OF A-TYPE SUPERGIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Cure, M.; Cidale, L.; Granada, A.

    2011-08-10

    The theory of radiation-driven winds succeeded in describing terminal velocities and mass-loss rates of massive stars. However, for A-type supergiants the standard m-CAK solution predicts values of mass loss and terminal velocity higher than the observed values. Based on the existence of a slow wind solution in fast rotating massive stars, we explore numerically the parameter space of radiation-driven flows to search for new wind solutions in slowly rotating stars that could explain the origin of these discrepancies. We solve the one-dimensional hydrodynamical equation of rotating radiation-driven winds at different stellar latitudes and explore the influence of ionization changes throughout the wind in the velocity profile. We have found that for particular sets of stellar and line-force parameters, a new slow solution exists over the entire star when the rotational speed is slow or even zero. In the case of slow rotating A-type supergiant stars, the presence of this novel slow solution at all latitudes leads to mass losses and wind terminal velocities which are in agreement with the observed values. The theoretical wind-momentum-luminosity relationship derived with these slow solutions shows very good agreement with the empirical relationship. In addition, the ratio between the terminal and escape velocities, which provides a simple way to predict stellar wind energy and momentum input into the interstellar medium, is also properly traced.

  11. What's a Peak Flow Meter?

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... the meter reads (this is known as a reading). Repeat three times and note the highest recorded ...

  12. Angular velocity and acceleration meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melamed, L.

    1972-01-01

    Meter uses a liquid crystalline film which changes coloration due to shear-stresses produced by a rotating disk. Device is advantageous in that it is not subject to bearing failure or electrical burnouts as are conventional devices.

  13. Healthcare Energy Metering Guidance (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    This brochure is intended to help facility and energy managers plan and prioritize investments in energy metering. It offers healthcare-specific examples of metering applications, benefits, and steps that other health systems can reproduce. It reflects collaborative input from the U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories and the health system members of the DOE Hospital Energy Alliance's Benchmarking and Measurement Project Team.

  14. [Development of ultrasonic power meter].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongxin; Hu, Changming; Zheng, Yan; Xu, Honglei; Zhou, Wohua; Wu, Ziwen; Yu, Liudan; Hao, Jiandong; Luo, Yifan

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the design and development of an ultrasonic power meter which is consist of an electronic balance, a practice target, an acoustic enclosures and a blocking. The electronic balance mounted on the blocking is linked with the practice target by connecting rod. By adjusting the blocking makes the practice target suspended above ultrasound probe, and then the ultrasonic power can be measured. After initial tests, the ultrasonic power meter performanced with good stability and high precision. PMID:25330604

  15. A new measurement method for separating airborne and structureborne noise radiated by aircraft type panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgary, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical basis for and experimental validation of a measurement method for separating airborne and structure borne noise radiated by aircraft type panels are presented. An extension of the two microphone, cross spectral, acoustic intensity method combined with existing theory of sound radiation of thin shell structures of various designs, is restricted to the frequency range below the coincidence frequency of the structure. Consequently, the method lends itself to low frequency noise problems such as propeller harmonics. Both an aluminum sheet and two built up aircraft panel designs (two aluminum panels with frames and stringers) with and without added damping were measured. Results indicate that the method is quick, reliable, inexpensive, and can be applied to thin shell structures of various designs.

  16. Modest increased sensitivity to radiation oncogenesis in ATM heterozygous versus wild-type mammalian cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smilenov, L. B.; Brenner, D. J.; Hall, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    Subpopulations that are genetically predisposed to radiation-induced cancer could have significant public health consequences. Individuals homozygous for null mutations at the ataxia telangiectasia gene are indeed highly radiosensitive, but their numbers are very small. Ataxia Telangiectasia heterozygotes (1-2% of the population) have been associated with somewhat increased radiosensitivity for some end points, but none directly related to carcinogenesis. Here, intralitter comparisons between wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts and mouse embryo fibroblasts carrying ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) null mutation indicate that the heterozygous cells are more sensitive to radiation oncogenesis than their normal, litter-matched, counterparts. From these data we suggest that Ataxia Telangiectasia heterozygotes could indeed represent a societally-significant radiosensitive human subpopulation.

  17. The BIANCA model/code of radiation-induced cell death: application to human cells exposed to different radiation types.

    PubMed

    Ballarini, Francesca; Altieri, Saverio; Bortolussi, Silva; Carante, Mario; Giroletti, Elio; Protti, Nicoletta

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a biophysical model of radiation-induced cell death, implemented as a Monte Carlo code called BIophysical ANalysis of Cell death and chromosome Aberrations (BIANCA), based on the assumption that some chromosome aberrations (dicentrics, rings, and large deletions, called ‘‘lethal aberrations’’) lead to clonogenic inactivation. In turn, chromosome aberrations are assumed to derive from clustered, and thus severe, DNA lesions (called ‘‘cluster lesions,’’ or CL) interacting at the micrometer scale; the CL yield and the threshold distance governing CL interaction are the only model parameters. After a pilot study on V79 hamster cells exposed to protons and carbon ions, in the present work the model was extended and applied to AG1522 human cells exposed to photons, He ions, and heavier ions including carbon and neon. The agreement with experimental survival data taken from the literature supported the assumptions. In particular, the inactivation of AG1522 cells was explained by lethal aberrations not only for X-rays, as already reported by others, but also for the aforementioned radiation types. Furthermore, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that the critical initial lesions leading to cell death are DNA cluster lesions having yields in the order of *2 CL Gy-1 cell-1 at low LET and*20 CL Gy-1 cell-1 at high LET, and that the processing of these lesions is modulated by proximity effects at the micrometer scale related to interphase chromatin organization. The model was then applied to calculate the fraction of inactivated cells, as well as the yields of lethal aberrations and cluster lesions, as a function of LET; the results showed a maximum around 130 keV/lm, and such maximum was much higher for cluster lesions and lethal aberrations than for cell inactivation. PMID:24659413

  18. Mass meters for liquid measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Apple, C.

    1995-12-01

    Flowmeters that are capable of providing a direct mass flow measurement include: Coriolis, thermal, gyroscopic and angular momentum. However, Coriolis meters are the only commercially viable device that can cover the breadth of measurements required by the petroleum industry. In addition to providing a direct mass flow measurement, Coriolis meters are extremely accurate, typically {+-}0.1 % to {+-}0.2 %. The advantage of measuring mass is that the mass of a fluid is unaffected by changes in process temperature and pressure. Whereas, volume measurements must be corrected to standard conditions of temperature and pressure for accounting purposes. Although measuring a product on a mass basis would be the simplest approach, most petroleum products are accounted for on a volume basis. This is primarily because only volumetric flowmeters were available prior to the introduction of industrial quality Coriolis meter in the early 1980`s. Due to the lack of means to perform a mass measurement, the petroleum industry has standardized on volume measurement. Systems and procedures are currently in place for performing and verifying volume measurements. Therefore, the petroleum industry will be slow in moving to mass measurement. Coriolis meters are currently gaining acceptance in the petroleum industry for the metering of light hydrocarbons, which are difficult to properly account for on a volume basis. However, due to the many advantages that Coriolis meters provide, they will become a preferred flow measurement device for all areas of petroleum measurement.

  19. Distinct impact of different types of aerosols on surface solar radiation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xin; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Zhou, Lijing; Wang, Yang; Liu, Xiaohong

    2016-06-01

    Observations of surface direct solar radiation (DSR) and visibility, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), together with the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) taken from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer, were investigated to gain insight into the impact of aerosol pollution on surface solar radiation in China. The surface DSR decreased during 2004-2014 compared with 1993~2003 over eastern China, but no clear reduction was observed in remote regions with cleaner air. Significant correlations of visibility, PM2.5, and regionally averaged AOT with the surface DSR over eastern China indicate that aerosol pollution greatly affects the energy available at the surface. The net loss of surface solar radiation also reduces the surface ground temperature over eastern China. However, the slope of the linear variation of the radiation with respect to atmospheric visibility is distinctly different at different stations, implying that the main aerosol type varies regionally. The largest slope value occurs at Zhengzhou and indicates that the aerosol absorption in central China is the highest, and lower slope values suggest relatively weakly absorbing types of aerosols at other locations. The spatial distribution of the linear slopes agrees well with the geographical distribution of the absorbing aerosols derived from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations and Ozone Monitoring Instrument over China. The regional correlation between a larger slope value and higher absorbance properties of aerosols indicates that the net effects of aerosols on the surface solar energy and corresponding climatic effects are dependent on both aerosol amount and optical properties.

  20. Smart data acquisition system for utilities metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ileana, I.; Risteiu, M.; Tulbure, A.; Rusu, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper approaches the task of automatically reading and recognition of registered data on the utility meters of the users and is a part of a more complex project of our team concerning the remote data acquisition from industrial processes. A huge amount of utility meters in our country is of mechanical type without remote acquiring facilities and as an intermediate solution we propose an intelligent optical acquisition system which will store the read values in desktop and mobile devices. The main requirements of such a system are: portability, data reading accuracy, fast processing and energy independence. The paper analyses several solutions (including Artificial Neural Networks approach) tested by our team and present the experimental results and our conclusions.

  1. Secure Metering Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blundo, Carlo; Cimato, Stelvio; Masucci, Barbara

    The current trend on the Internet suggests that the majority of revenues of web sites come from the advertising potential of the World Wide Web. Advertising is arguably the type of commercial information exchange of the greatest economic importance in the real world. Indeed, advertising is what funds most other forms of information exchange, including radio stations, television stations, cable networks, magazines, and newspapers. According to the figures provided by the Internet Advertising Bureau [24] and Price Waterhouse Coopers [43], advertising revenue results for the first 9 months of 2004 totaled slightly over 7.0 billion dollars.

  2. Insert metering plates for gas turbine nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven S.; Itzel, Gary; Chopra, Sanjay; Abuaf, Nesim; Correia, Victor H.

    2004-05-11

    The invention comprises a metering plate which is assembled to an impingement insert for use in the nozzle of a gas turbine. The metering plate can have one or more metering holes and is used to balance the cooling flow within the nozzle. A metering plate with multiple holes reduces static pressure variations which result from the cooling airflow through the metering plate. The metering plate can be assembled to the insert before or after the insert is inserted into the nozzle.

  3. Seasonal Variation in Exposure Level of Types A and B Ultraviolet Radiation: An Environmental Skin Carcinogen

    PubMed Central

    Rafieepour, A; Ghamari, F; Mohammadbeigi, A; Asghari, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main source of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the sun, affecting organs such as the skin, eyes, and immune system. According to American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH) reports, the amount of UVR reaching the Earth's surface is increasing yearly and is responsible for an increase in solar radiation-related diseases. Aims: To investigate the amount of UVR reaching the Earth's surface and understand the risk of UVR on disease among outdoor laborers in one of the central provinces of Iran. Materials and Methods: Arak city was divided into two geographic areas, and the weekly measurement of UVR was done in three locations) asphalt, grass and rooftop). To measure UVR, Hanger UV spectrometer, standard deviation (SD8-A), and SD8-B detectors were used. Amounts of UVR for a consecutive year and varying weather conditions were measured. Finally, values obtained were compared to ACGIH standards. Results: The minimum and maximum levels of UV type A radiation occurred in April 1.27 (0.724) W/m2 and September 7.147 (4.128) W/m2, these figures for UV type B were in March–April 0.005 (0.003) and September 0.083 (0.077). The maximum UVR is received between 11 and 15 o’clock. Conclusions: In the central cities of Iran, the minimum and maximum UV type A and B is received in March–April and in September, respectively. Based on the results, the angular position of the sun in the sky, cloud cover, and height from ground level affected the amount of UVR received, but the geographic locations studied did not. PMID:25861533

  4. The performance of demand meters under varying load conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Arseneau, R. . Inst. for National Measurement Standards)

    1993-10-01

    The influence of load variations on the performance of four different types of demand meters was studied using a computer controlled test system capable of reproducing load profile data recorded in the field. Results of the tested meters are compared with computer calculated demand values based on readings of a fast responding reference multimeter. Differences in readings in the range of [minus]9.3% to +5.3% were observed during the tests of the four demand meters. For the load profiles considered, demand calculations based on cone minute sub-intervals resulted in values closer to the true peak demand than calculations with five minute sub-intervals.

  5. Calibration, performance and type testing of personal dosemeters used in ionising-radiation applications in Greece.

    PubMed

    Boziari, A; Hourdakis, C J

    2007-01-01

    Active Personal Dosemeters (APDs) are widely used in real-time personal dosimetry. Their performance, operational characteristics and limitations, as well as their calibration should be routinely checked to assure satisfactory operation and safe use. This study summarises the results of such type tests and calibrations performed in almost 4750 dosemeters at Ionising Radiation Calibration Laboratory (HIRCL) of Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). About 13.8% of the pencil type and 4.3% of the electronic dosemeters were found to be out of limits of acceptable performance. For the pencil type dosemeters, the mean calibration factor (CF+/-SD) for high- and low-dose categories was found to be 1.014+/-0.102 (range 0.793-1.458) and 0.995+/-0.059 (range 0.794-1.311), respectively. Of these >85% of them had reproducibility better than 90%, while <1% showed remarkable non-linearity and approximately 10% of them failed to retain the dose reading within the limits after 24 h. For the electronic dosemeters, the mean CF was 1.034+/-0.046 (range 0.967-1.238). The majority of them showed good reproducibility and linearity results while, after irradiation, the dose readings were not shifted through time. The energy response varies with the dosemeter type, reaching in one dosemeter type down to 50%. Both electronic and pencil did not showed electronic equilibrium problems. PMID:17185312

  6. Cytogenetic evidence that DNA topoisomerase II is not involved in radiation induced chromsome-type aberrations.

    PubMed

    Mosesso, P; Pepe, G; Ottavianelli, A; Schinoppi, A; Cinelli, S

    2015-11-01

    ICRF-187 (Cardioxane™, Chiron) is a catalytic inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II (Topo II), proposed to act by blocking Topo II-mediated DNA cleavage without stabilizing DNA-Topo II-"cleavable complexes". In this study ICRF-187 was used to evaluate the potential involvement of DNA topoisomerase II in the formation of the radiation-induced chromosome-type aberrations in the G0 phase of the cell cycle in human lymphocytes from three healthy male donors. This is based on many evidences that DNA topoisomerases are involved in DNA recombination, mainly of illegitimate type (non-homologous) both in vitro and in vivo. The results obtained clearly indicated that ICRF-187 did not induce per se any chromosomal damage. When challenged with the non-catalytic Topo II poison VP-16 (etoposide), which acts by stabilizing the "cleavable complex" generating "protein concealed" DSB's and thus chromosomal aberrations, it completely abolished the significant induction of chromosome-type aberrations and formation of dicentric chromosomes. This indicates that ICRF-187 acts effectively as catalytic inhibitor of Topo II. On the other hand, when X-ray treatments were challenged with ICRF-187 using experimental conditions as for VP-16 treatments, no modification of the incidence of chromosome-type aberrations and dicentric chromosomes was observed. On this basis, we conclude that Topo II is not involved in the formation of X-ray-induced chromosome-type aberrations and dicentric chromosomes in human lymphocytes in the G0 phase of the cell cycle. PMID:26520368

  7. Detection of smoldering combustion of coal with an odor meter

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    A commercially available odor meter was evaluated as a detector of smoldering coal combustion, and compared with incipient carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) detection and a commercially available ionization-type smoke detector. Ten smoldering coal combustion experiments were conducted. For eight of the experiments, Pittsburgh seam coal with an average particle diameter of approximately 5 cm was heated by embedded electrical strip heaters. For two of the experiments mine size Pittsburgh seam coal was heated. Heating rates of 0.5, 0.8, and 1.1. kw were selected to provide experimental conditions characteristic of very slow and moderately fast heating for coal sample mass between 3 and 10 kg. It was found that the odor meter and smoke detector alarm had a good correlation, with the odor meter alarm occurring prior to the smoke alarm in four of the ten experiments. The odor meter gave an increase in its output signal above ambient equivalent to detecting 1 ppm of H{sub 2}S (ten times the odor threshold of H{sub 2}S) as an alarm value. This observed odor meter response occurred prior to the electrochemical detection of H{sub 2}S for five of the six experiments for which it was evaluated. In all six experiments for which the smoke optical density was evaluated, it was less than 0.023 m{sup -1} prior to the odor meter reaching alarm. In each of the eight experiments with 5 cm diameter coal particles the CO exceeded 5 ppm at odor meter alarm, while for the two experiments with mine size coal the CO was less than 3 ppm at odor meter alarm. The odor meter, as tested, is not a significant improvement over smoke and CO detectors. Because the odor meter responds to a variety of chemical compounds, with suitable modification and increased sensitivity it may be useful for detection of mine fires and thereby enhance mine safety.

  8. Shortwave radiative forcing and efficiency of key aerosol types using AERONET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, O. E.; Díaz, J. P.; Expósito, F. J.; Díaz, A. M.; Dubovik, O.; Derimian, Y.; Dubuisson, P.; Roger, J.-C.

    2011-12-01

    The shortwave radiative forcing (ΔF) and the radiative forcing efficiency (ΔFeff) of natural and anthropogenic aerosols have been analyzed using estimates of radiation both at the top (TOA) and at the bottom of atmosphere (BOA) modeled based on AERONET aerosol retrievals. In this study we have considered six main types of atmospheric aerosols: desert mineral dust, biomass burning, urban-industrial, continental background, oceanic and free troposphere. The ΔF averages obtained vary from -148 ± 44 Wm-2 (aerosol optical depth, AOD, at 0.55 μm, 0.85 ± 0.45) at the BOA for the mixture of desert mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols in Central Africa and -42 ± 22 Wm-2 (AOD = 0.86 ± 0.51) at the TOA for the pure mineral dust also in this region up to -6 ± 3 Wm-2 and -4 ± 2 Wm-2 (AOD = 0.03 ± 0.02) at the BOA and the TOA, respectively, for free troposphere conditions. This last result may be taken as reference on a global scale. Furthermore, we observe that the more absorbing aerosols are overall more efficient at the BOA in contrast to at the TOA, where they backscatter less solar energy into the space. The analysis of the radiative balance at the TOA shows that, together with the amount of aerosols and their absorptive capacity, it is essential to consider the surface albedo of the region on which they are. Thus, we document that in regions with high surface reflectivity (deserts and snow conditions) atmospheric aerosols lead to a warming of the Earth-atmosphere system, contributing to the greenhouse gas effect.

  9. Shortwave radiative forcing and efficiency of key aerosol types using AERONET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, O. E.; Díaz, J. P.; Expósito, F. J.; Díaz, A. M.; Dubovik, O.; Derimian, Y.; Dubuisson, P.; Roger, J.-C.

    2012-06-01

    The shortwave radiative forcing (ΔF) and the radiative forcing efficiency (ΔFeff) of natural and anthropogenic aerosols have been analyzed using estimates of radiation both at the Top (TOA) and at the Bottom Of Atmosphere (BOA) modeled based on AERONET aerosol retrievals. Six main types of atmospheric aerosols have been compared (desert mineral dust, biomass burning, urban-industrial, continental background, oceanic and free troposphere) in similar observational conditions (i.e., for solar zenith angles between 55° and 65°) in order to compare the nearly same solar geometry. The instantaneous ΔF averages obtained vary from -122 ± 37 Wm-2 (aerosol optical depth, AOD, at 0.55 μm, 0.85 ± 0.45) at the BOA for the mixture of desert mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols in West Africa and -42 ± 22 Wm-2 (AOD = 0.9 ± 0.5) at the TOA for the pure mineral dust also in this region up to -6 ± 3 Wm-2 and -4 ± 2 Wm-2 (AOD = 0.03 ± 0.02) at the BOA and the TOA, respectively, for free troposphere conditions. This last result may be taken as reference on a global scale. Furthermore, we observe that the more absorbing aerosols are overall more efficient at the BOA in contrast to at the TOA, where they backscatter less solar energy into the space. The analysis of the radiative balance at the TOA shows that, together with the amount of aerosols and their absorptive capacity, it is essential to consider the surface albedo of the region on which they are. Thus, we document that in regions with high surface reflectivity (deserts and snow conditions) atmospheric aerosols lead to a warming of the Earth-atmosphere system.

  10. Performance of a flight-type laminar radiator with a Brayton power system. [for space electric power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintula, T. C.; Prok, G. M.; Smith, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    A space-type laminar flow radiator was designed and integrated with a 2- to 15-kilowatt Brayton electrical power generating system. The design, fabrication, and testing of this radiator are presented. Test results include performance under steady state and transient conditions. Included in the transient results is performance in a simulated low earth orbit. Results show that the computer design is conservative. Orbital transients show that a further reduction in radiator area over that determined from steady state conditions is possible. Radiator efficiency was always greater than 83 percent.

  11. Phenylbutyrate Sensitizes Human Glioblastoma Cells Lacking Wild-Type P53 Function to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Carlos A. Feng, Felix Y.; Herman, Joseph M.; Nyati, Mukesh K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ljungman, Mats

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors induce growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in cancer cells. Phenylbutyrate (PB) is a HDAC inhibitor used clinically for treatment of urea cycle disorders. Because of its low cytotoxicity, cerebrospinal fluid penetration, and high oral bioavailability, we investigated PB as a potential radiation sensitizer in human glioblastoma cell lines. Methods and Materials: Four glioblastoma cell lines were selected for this study. Phenylbutyrate was used at a concentration of 2 mM, which is achievable in humans. Western blots were used to assess levels of acetylated histone H3 in tumor cells after treatment with PB. Flow cytometry was used for cell cycle analysis. Clonogenic assays were performed to assess the effect of PB on radiation sensitivity. We used shRNA against p53 to study the role of p53 in radiosensitization. Results: Treatment with PB alone resulted in hyperacetylation of histones, confirmed by Western blot analysis. The PB alone resulted in cytostatic effects in three cell lines. There was no evidence of G{sub 1} arrest, increase in sub-G{sub 1} fraction or p21 protein induction. Clonogenic assays showed radiosensitization in two lines harboring p53 mutations, with enhancement ratios ({+-} SE) of 1.5 ({+-} 0.2) and 1.3 ({+-} 0.1), respectively. There was no radiopotentiating effect in two cell lines with wild-type p53, but knockdown of wild-type p53 resulted in radiosensitization by PB. Conclusions: Phenylbutyrate can produce p21-independent cytostasis, and enhances radiation sensitivity in p53 mutant human glioblastoma cells in vitro. This suggests the potential application of combined PB and radiotherapy in glioblastoma harboring mutant p53.

  12. LINEAR COUNT-RATE METER

    DOEpatents

    Henry, J.J.

    1961-09-01

    A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.

  13. Low Cost Digital Vibration Meter

    PubMed Central

    Payne, W. Vance; Geist, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the development of a low cost, digital Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) vibration meter that reports an approximation to the RMS acceleration of the vibration to which the vibration meter is subjected. The major mechanical element of this vibration meter is a cantilever beam, which is on the order of 500 µm in length, with a piezoresistor deposited at its base. Vibration of the device in the plane perpendicular to the cantilever beam causes it to bend, which produces a measurable change in the resistance of a piezoresistor. These changes in resistance along with a unique signal-processing scheme are used to determine an approximation to the RMS acceleration sensed by the device. PMID:27110459

  14. Seepage meters and Bernoulli's revenge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinn, E.A.; Reich, C.D.; Hickey, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of seepage data from a network of 50 permanently deployed submarine seepage meters, specially constructed from fiberglass, indicates that the devices artificially advect (Bernoulli effect) shallow ground water. Reverse flow into the rock was not observed even when adjacent piezometers installed 2-m to 20-m below the rock-water interface indicated negative groundwater heads. Quantitative testing of five different designs, including conventional end-of-oil-drum designs, indicates that meters presenting positive relief on the sea floor are subject to the Bernoulli effect when placed in areas where there are waves and/or currents. Advection does not appear to be caused by flexing of the collection bags.

  15. Note: Ultrasonic liquid flow meter for small pipes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Zong, Guanghua

    2012-02-01

    An ultrasonic flow meter for small pipes is presented. For metal pipe diameter smaller than 10 mm, clamp-on ultrasonic contrapropagation flow meters may encounter difficulties if cross talk or the short acoustic path contributes to large uncertainty in transit time measurement. Axial inline flow meters can avoid these problems, but they may introduce other problems if the transducer port is not properly positioned. Three types of pipe connecting tees are compared using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. CFD shows the 45° tee has more uniform velocity distribution over the measuring section. A prototype flow meter using the 45° tee was designed and tested. The zero flow experiment shows the flow meter has a maximum of 0.002 m∕s shift over 24 h. The flow meter is calibrated by only 1 meter factor. After calibration, inaccuracy lower than 0.1% of reading was achieved in the laboratory, for a measuring range from 15 to 150 g∕s (0.29 to 2.99 m∕s; Re = 2688 to 26,876). PMID:22380141

  16. Note: Ultrasonic liquid flow meter for small pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Zong, Guanghua

    2012-02-01

    An ultrasonic flow meter for small pipes is presented. For metal pipe diameter smaller than 10 mm, clamp-on ultrasonic contrapropagation flow meters may encounter difficulties if cross talk or the short acoustic path contributes to large uncertainty in transit time measurement. Axial inline flow meters can avoid these problems, but they may introduce other problems if the transducer port is not properly positioned. Three types of pipe connecting tees are compared using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. CFD shows the 45° tee has more uniform velocity distribution over the measuring section. A prototype flow meter using the 45° tee was designed and tested. The zero flow experiment shows the flow meter has a maximum of 0.002 m/s shift over 24 h. The flow meter is calibrated by only 1 meter factor. After calibration, inaccuracy lower than 0.1% of reading was achieved in the laboratory, for a measuring range from 15 to 150 g/s (0.29 to 2.99 m/s; Re = 2688 to 26 876).

  17. Effects of gamma radiation on Clostridium botulinum type E under various parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Y.H.

    1986-01-01

    Spores of Clostridium botulinum type E strain Eklund (Eklund) was irradiated with gamma radiation and its recovery was tested on the tryptone-peptone-glucose-yeast extract-agar (TPGYA) containing various levels of NaCl and Na-thioglycollate. The presence of 0.5% or more NaCl in the media decreased the viable counts, while Na-thioglycollate of up to 0.15% did not affect the recovery of both irradiated and non-irradiated spores. Eklund spores were also irradiated under air (21% O/sub 2/), N/sub 2/O and N/sub 2/, with or without the additive of one of the following agents (additive/concentration): disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), 0.01 M; t-butanol, 0.1 M; NaCl, 0.01 M; catalyze, 10 mg/ml and DL-cysteine, 0.1 mM. Radiation process was most effective in destroying the spores when carried out under air (21% O/sub 2/), followed by N/sub 2/O and N/sub 2/. Among the additives tested, EDTA was the most efficient protector followed by t-butanol when irradiation process was carried under N/sub 2/O and N/sub 2/ gas environment. Catalase and DL-cysteine sensitized the spores when irradiated under N/sub 2/O and N/sub 2/, while NaCl only sensitized under N/sub 2/. Spores kept frozen at -75/sup 0/C for 30 days but thawed prior to irradiation were more sensitive to radiation damage than freshly prepared spores. Radiation resistance of the spores increased when 15% glycerol was added to the phosphate bugger (0.06 M, pH 7.0) and used as suspending media. When the concentration of the spore increased from 10/sup 6//ml to 10/sup 11//ml, the radiosensitivities also increased. Seven strains of C. botulinum type E were screened for plasmids by agarose gel electrophoresis.

  18. Geometrical correction factors for heat flux meters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Papell, S. S.

    1974-01-01

    General formulas are derived for determining gage averaging errors of strip-type heat flux meters used in the measurement of one-dimensional heat flux distributions. The local averaging error e(x) is defined as the difference between the measured value of the heat flux and the local value which occurs at the center of the gage. In terms of e(x), a correction procedure is presented which allows a better estimate for the true value of the local heat flux. For many practical problems, it is possible to use relatively large gages to obtain acceptable heat flux measurements.

  19. Radiative Transfer Modeling of Warm Transition Region Winds in F- and G-type Supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobel, A.; Avrett, E. H.; Aufdenberg, J. P.

    2004-12-01

    We present FUSE spectra of upper transition region emission lines of O VI in the dynamic atmosphere of the short-period classic Cepheid Beta Dor (F-G Ia). The far-UV O VI 1032 & 1037 Å lines indicate a heating mechanism in the outer atmospheres of strongly pulsating F- and G-type supergiants sustaining hot plasmas at kinetic gas temperatures between 100 kK and 300 kK. Our observation of prominent upper transition region emission lines in Beta Dor contrasts with the very low X-ray luminosities of Cepheid variables that signal only weak coronal plasmas. On the other hand, FUSE and HST-STIS observations of the non-variable yellow (hybrid) supergiants Alpha Aqr (G2 Ib) and Beta Aqr (G0 Ib), having large X-ray fluxes, reveal supersonic warm wind velocities of 140 km/s and 90 km/s, respectively, in lower transition region emission lines of C III 977 Å and Si III 1206 Å. Our semi-empiric radiative transfer models show that these optically thick winds occur at kinetic gas temperatures well above 70 kK, much larger than assumed for the chromospheres of cool supergiants. Remarkably, these emission lines reveal peculiar shapes reminiscent of P-Cygni type line profiles observed in UV spectra of hot supergiants. Both hybrid supergiants lack the strongly oscillating photospheres of Cepheids, suggesting that their transition region wind acceleration and heating do not result from a pure mechanical driving mechanism due to atmospheric pulsations. We present detailed semi-empiric radiative transfer models of the thermal and dynamic structures of the outer atmospheres of these luminous F- and G-type supergiants based on the FUSE and HST-STIS spectra. We investigate if warm accelerating winds observed in high ions of cool supergiants can (partly) be driven by radiation pressure. This research is based on data obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, collected at the STScI, operated by AURA Inc., under contract NAS5-26555. Financial support has been provided by STSc

  20. Metering technology enters new phase

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.

    1995-08-01

    Automated metering technology (AMT) is emerging from the limited function of automatic meter-reading to collect useful information that can be used to improve customer service and increase profitability. Specifically, AMT: eliminates monthly usage estimating for customers in hard-to-read areas; eliminates meter reading direct labor costs; provides 24-hour-a-day access to residential, industrial and commercial customers, eliminating intrusion on private property; provides the utility with a load (usage) profile for each customer; provides real-time pricing; provides real-time alarms for outages and meter-tampering. In the competitive environment of deregulation, linking utilities and their customers through two-way communications will be one of the keys to offering the kinds of services and products that will differentiate utilities and satisfy customers. Data collected using AMT can be used to develop customer profiles, enabling the utility to offer customized service packages to individual customers. AMT tends to reduce complaints about bills and increase customer satisfaction.

  1. A Redesigned DFA Moisture Meter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The DFA moisture meter has been internationally recognized as the standard for determining moisture content of dried fruit in general and is AOAC Official Method 972.2 for measuring moisture in prunes and raisins since 1972. The device has remained virtually unchanged since its inception, with its o...

  2. Inactivation of Feline Calicivirus and Adenovirus Type 40 by UV Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Thurston-Enriquez, Jeanette A.; Haas, Charles N.; Jacangelo, Joseph; Riley, Kelley; Gerba, Charles P.

    2003-01-01

    Little information regarding the effectiveness of UV radiation on the inactivation of caliciviruses and enteric adenoviruses is available. Analysis of human calicivirus resistance to disinfectants is hampered by the lack of animal or cell culture methods that can determine the viruses' infectivity. The inactivation kinetics of enteric adenovirus type 40 (AD40), coliphage MS-2, and feline calicivirus (FCV), closely related to the human caliciviruses based on nucleic acid organization and capsid architecture, were determined after exposure to low-pressure UV radiation in buffered demand-free (BDF) water at room temperature. In addition, UV disinfection experiments were also carried out in treated groundwater with FCV and AD40. AD40 was more resistant than either FCV or coliphage MS-2 in both BDF water and groundwater. The doses of UV required to achieve 99% inactivation of AD40, coliphage MS-2, and FCV in BDF water were 109, 55, and 16 mJ/cm2, respectively. The doses of UV required to achieve 99% inactivation of AD40, coliphage MS-2, and FCV in groundwater were slightly lower than those in BDF water. FCV was inactivated by 99% by 13 mJ/cm2 in treated groundwater. A dose of 103 mJ/cm2 was required for 99% inactivation of AD40 in treated groundwater. The results of this study indicate that if FCV is an adequate surrogate for human caliciviruses, then their inactivation by UV radiation is similar to those of other single-stranded RNA enteric viruses, such as poliovirus. In addition, AD40 appears to be more resistant to UV disinfection than previously reported. PMID:12514044

  3. Computational model of collisional-radiative nonequilibrium plasma in an air-driven type laser propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, Yousuke; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2010-05-06

    A thrust power of a gas-driven laser-propulsion system is obtained through interaction with a propellant gas heated by a laser energy. Therefore, understanding the nonequilibrium nature of laser-produced plasma is essential for increasing available thrust force and for improving energy conversion efficiency from a laser to a propellant gas. In this work, a time-dependent collisional-radiative model for air plasma has been developed to study the effects of nonequilibrium atomic and molecular processes on population densities for an air-driven type laser propulsion. Many elementary processes are considered in the number density range of 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 3}<=N<=10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3} and the temperature range of 300 K<=T<=40,000 K. We then compute the unsteady nature of pulsively heated air plasma. When the ionization relaxation time is the same order as the time scale of a heating pulse, the effects of unsteady ionization are important for estimating air plasma states. From parametric computations, we determine the appropriate conditions for the collisional-radiative steady state, local thermodynamic equilibrium, and corona equilibrium models in that density and temperature range.

  4. Radiative transfer and type Ia supernovae spectra analysis in the context of supernovae factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongard, Sebastien

    This co-supervised dissertation was conducted in collaboration between The University of Oklahoma City (USA) and University Claude Bernard of Lyon (France). It addresses the radiative transfer issue in type Ia supernovae expanding envelopes, in the context of the SupernovaFactory. We used the multi-purpose radiative transfer code phoenix, developed by P. Hauschildt, F. Allard and E. Baron to produce a grid of synthetic spectra sampling dates from 10 to 25 days after explosion and bolometric magnitudes from -18.0 to -19.7. We also developed an adaptive grid scheme in order to stabilize phoenix convergence. We showed the spectrum formation in SNeIa around maximum light to be a multi- layered process involving regions from 5000 km per s to 20000 km per s, interacting not only through scattering but also through pure emission. This new understanding allowed us to introduce a new spectral indicators we called RSiSu, which can be used to measure SNeIa blue magnitudes with a precision comparable to the stretch factor. This makes it possible to independently constraint the evolutionary effect on SNeIa that are of crucial importance for high z surveys.

  5. Development of radiation hard edgeless detectors with current terminating structure on p-type silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbitskaya, E.; Eremin, V.; Ruggiero, G.

    2011-12-01

    The development of edgeless Si detectors was stimulated by the tasks of the total pp cross-section study in the TOTEM experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. For this, the dead region at the detector diced side should be reduced below 50 μm. This requirement is successfully realized in edgeless Si detectors with current terminating structure (CTS), which are now operating at LHC. The development of the experiment and future LHC upgrade need the elaboration of radiation hard version of edgeless Si detectors. The current investigation represents an extension in understanding on edgeless detectors operation and development of a new issue - edgeless detectors with CTS on p-type Si.

  6. Search for Neutrino Radiation from Collapsing Stars and the Sensitivity of Experiments to the Different Types of Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadykin, V. L.; Ryazhskaya, O. G.

    2013-11-01

    The experiments running to search for neutrino radiation from collapsing stars up to now traditionally take one's bearings for the detection of the ˜ ν e p -> e^ + n reaction and, accordingly, for the use of the hadrogenate targets. The observation of neutrino radiation from SN1987A showed that it is important to have in the composition of the targets beside the hadrogen also other nuclei suitable to neutrino radiation detection. In particular the presence of iron nuclei in the LSD provided for the sensational detection of νe flux at 2:52 UT on February 23 1987 when other more powerful detectors with their hadrogenate targets could not respond to this type of neutrino. The sensitivity of present searching experiments to different types of neutrino radiation from collapsing stars is discussed in the paper.

  7. PRESCILA: a new, lightweight neutron rem meter.

    PubMed

    Olsher, Richard H; Seagraves, David T; Eisele, Shawna L; Bjork, Christopher W; Martinez, William A; Romero, Leonard L; Mallett, Michael W; Duran, Michael A; Hurlbut, Charles R

    2004-06-01

    Conventional neutron rem meters currently in use are based on 1960's technology that relies on a large neutron moderator assembly surrounding a thermal detector to achieve a rem-like response function over a limited energy range. Such rem meters present an ergonomic challenge, being heavy and bulky, and have caused injuries during radiation protection surveys. Another defect of traditional rem meters is a poor high-energy response above 10 MeV, which makes them unsuitable for applications at high-energy accelerator facilities. Proton Recoil Scintillator-Los Alamos (PRESCILA) was developed as a low-weight (2 kg) alternative capable of extended energy response, high sensitivity, and moderate gamma rejection. An array of ZnS(Ag) based scintillators is located inside and around a Lucite light guide, which couples the scintillation light to a sideview bialkali photomultiplier tube. The use of both fast and thermal scintillators allows the energy response function to be optimized for a wide range of operational spectra. The light guide and the borated polyethylene frame provide moderation for the thermal scintillator element. The scintillators represent greatly improved versions of the Hornyak and Stedman designs from the 1950's, and were developed in collaboration with Eljen Technology. The inherent pulse height advantage of proton recoils over electron tracks in the phosphor grains eliminates the need for pulse shape discrimination and makes it possible to use the PRESCILA probe with standard pulse height discrimination provided by off-the-shelf health physics counters. PRESCILA prototype probes have been extensively tested at both Los Alamos and the German Bureau of Standards, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. Test results are presented for energy response, directional dependence, linearity, sensitivity, and gamma rejection. Initial field tests have been conducted at Los Alamos and these results are also given. It is concluded that PRESCILA offers a viable

  8. Type I interferons induced by radiation therapy mediate recruitment and effector function of CD8(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Joanne Y H; Gerber, Scott A; Murphy, Shawn P; Lord, Edith M

    2014-03-01

    The need for an intact immune system for cancer radiation therapy to be effective suggests that radiation not only acts directly on the tumor but also indirectly, through the activation of host immune components. Recent studies demonstrated that endogenous type I interferons (type I IFNs) play a role in radiation-mediated anti-tumor immunity by enhancing the ability of dendritic cells to cross-prime CD8(+) T cells. However, it is still unclear to what extent endogenous type I IFNs contribute to the recruitment and function of CD8(+) T cells. Little is also known about the effects of type I IFNs on myeloid cells. In the current study, we demonstrate that type I and type II IFNs (IFN-γ) are both required for the increased production of CXCL10 (IP-10) chemokine by myeloid cells within the tumor after radiation treatment. Radiation-induced intratumoral IP-10 levels in turn correlate with tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cell numbers. Moreover, type I IFNs promote potent tumor-reactive CD8(+) T cells by directly affecting the phenotype, effector molecule production, and enhancing cytolytic activity. Using a unique inducible expression system to increase local levels of IFN-α exogenously, we show here that the capacity of radiation therapy to result in tumor control can be enhanced. Our preclinical approach to study the effects of local increase in IFN-α levels can be used to further optimize the combination therapy strategy in terms of dosing and scheduling, which may lead to better clinical outcome. PMID:24357146

  9. A compact laparoscope type radiation source for the pin-point cancer treatment using a femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, N.; Muramatsu, H.; Ueda, M.; Yanagimoto, C.; Miyazawa, M.; Kajiwara, E.

    2012-02-01

    Focusing a femto-second laser (1 mJ/pulse repetition 1 kHz) on a special tape, a strong radiation consisting of the electron beam of ~ 200 keV and X-rays of ~ 6.4 keV (5 %) has been generated. It has been verified that the radiation source is sufficient to kill the tumor cells and the DNA laddering structure in the in-vivo test is obtained. More test implanting the tumor under the skin of mouse and irradiating the laser-generated radiation, we have shown the radiation has a clear powerful therapeutic capability. For about 80 % of mice irradiated, their tumor disappeared. For further clinical test use, a compact laparoscope-type unit mounted on an articulated arm has been constructed and it can generate the necessary amount of the radiation dose.

  10. Scattering Meters For Light In The Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Willard H.

    1984-09-01

    To solve radiative transfer problems in seawater, we need two inherent properties, the volume scattering function (VSF) and the absorption. The traditional direct way to obtain these quantities uses a transmissometer and a scattering meter. However, there are prob-lems with the small sample size and errors in obtaining absorption by integration of the VSF. An indirect method also shows promise. One measures the radiance field and then inverts the equations of radiative transfer to obtain the inherent properties from the apparent. The only serious shortcoming is that radiance must be a function of only one position coordinate (plus two angles). (This coordinate is depth in the case of sunlight, or distance from an isotropic lamp otherwise.) We discuss two practical implementations of this indirect approach. One would measure the radiance field with a set of fisheye cameras (following R. Smith's precedent). This very thorough method produces lots of data and requires extensive calibration and number crunching. A proposed alternate radiometer would measure certain spherical moments of the radiance field, the moments being selected to facilitate recovery of the inherent properties [Appl. Opt. 22, 2313 (Aug 83)]. This scheme would produce fewer data, but it permits recovery of absorption and moments of the VSF in (nearly) real time. Similar direct and indirect approaches apply to the measurement of very small-angle scattering, from a milliradian to a few degrees, the sort of angles that blur vision. The indirect method infers small-angle scattering from the loss of contrast in images of bar charts. In this case, the indirect method is clearly superior for the same reasons that bar charts and other test patterns are widely used (instead of point spread functions) to evaluate the performance of television and various optical systems. We built a seawater MTF meter on this principle before 1970, and its features are briefly reviewed.

  11. Increase in nitric oxide and cyclic GMP of rat cerebellum by radio frequency burst-type electromagnetic field radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Miura, M; Takayama, K; Okada, J

    1993-01-01

    1. Using rat cerebellum supernatant, the effects of radio frequency (RF) burst-type electromagnetic (EM) field radiation on the production of cyclic GMP were examined under various conditions. The radiation was generated by a generator coil, and set at a 10 MHz radiation frequency, a 50% burst time, a 10 kHz burst rate and a 5 V peak-to-peak generator voltage. 2. When the cerebellum supernatant was incubated with both exogenous L-arginine (nitric oxide (NO) donor) and NADPH, and irradiated by an RF burst-type EM field, the production of cyclic GMP was increased significantly from a level of 21-22 nmol min-1 (g tissue)-1 to 25-26 nmol min-1 (g tissue)-1. By contrast, such an effect was not found when the cerebellum supernatant was irradiated by an RF volley-type EM field. 3. When neither L-arginine nor NADPH were added to the cerebellum supernatant, the production of cyclic GMP was lowered to a level of 6 nmol min-1 (g tissue)-1 and the radiation effect was not found. When the cerebellum supernatant was chelated with EDTA, the production of cyclic GMP was lowered to a level of 7 nmol min-1 (g tissue)-1 and the radiation effect was not found. 4. Incubation with Methylene Blue, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, lowered the production of cyclic GMP to a level of 10-12 nmol min-1 (g tissue)-1, and the radiation effect did not occur. On incubation with a NO synthase inhibitor, either NG-methyl-L-arginine or N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the production of cyclic GMP was lowered to a level of 10-12 nmol min-1 (g tissue)-1 or 5-9 nmol min-1 (g tissue)-1 respectively, and the radiation effect was not observed. 5. Using electrochemical NO probes, the production of NO in the cerebellum supernatant was detected. The concentration of NO increased gradually after the onset of the EM field radiation. The radiation effect persisted, and reached a maximum after the cessation of the radiation. 6. In an in vivo study, the arterioles of the frog web were dilated by the radiation

  12. Federal Building Metering Guidance (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(e), Metering of Energy Use)

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-01

    Guidance defines which federal buildings are appropriate to meter, provides metering prioritization recommendations for agencies with limited resources, and discusses the requirement for agencies to submit metering implementation plans to the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. Government Program Briefing: Smart Metering

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Peterson, K.

    2011-09-01

    This document is adapted and updated from a memo delivered to the City Council of New Orleans, the office of the Mayor of New Orleans, the Chairperson of the Citizen Stakeholders Group (New Orleans Energy Task Force) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Project Officer in March 2008. This briefing piece provides an overview of the benefits, costs, and challenges of smart metering.

  14. A color sensor wavelength meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durfee, Dallin; Jackson, Jarom; Otterstrom, Nils; Jones, Tyler; Archibald, James

    2016-05-01

    We will discuss a laser wavelength meter based on a commercial color sensor chip consisting of an array of photodiodes with different absorptive color filters. By comparing the relative amplitudes of light on the photodiodes, the wavelength of light can be determined with picometer-level precision and with picometer-scale calibration drift over a period longer than a month. This work was supported by NSF Grant Number PHY-1205736.

  15. MAGIC-type polymer gel for three-dimensional dosimetry: intensity-modulated radiation therapy verification.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Helen; Karlsson, Anna; Bäck, Sven A J; Olsson, Lars E; Haraldsson, Pia; Engström, Per; Nyström, Håkan

    2003-06-01

    A new type of polymer gel dosimeter, which responds well to absorbed dose even when manufactured in the presence of normal levels of oxygen, was recently described by Fong et al. [Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 3105-3113 (2001)] and referred to by the acronym MAGIC. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using this new type of gel for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) verification. Gel manufacturing was carried out in room atmosphere under normal levels of oxygen. IMRT inverse treatment planning was performed using the Helios software. The gel was irradiated using a linear accelerator equipped with a dynamic multileaf collimator, and intensity modulation was achieved using sliding window technique. The response to absorbed dose was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging. Measured and calculated dose distributions were compared with regard to in-plane isodoses and dose volume histograms. In addition, the spatial and dosimetric accuracy was evaluated using the gamma formalism. Good agreement between calculated and measured data was obtained. In the isocenter plane, the 70% and 90% isodoses acquired using the different methods are mostly within 2 mm, with up to 3 mm disagreement at isolated points. For the planning target volume (PTV), the calculated mean relative dose was 96.8 +/- 2.5% (1 SD) and the measured relative mean dose was 98.6 +/- 2.2%. Corresponding data for an organ at risk was 34.4 +/- 0.9% and 32.7 +/- 0.7%, respectively. The gamma criterion (3 mm spatial/3% dose deviation) was fulfilled for 94% of the pixels in the target region. Discrepancies were found in hot spots the upper and lower parts of the PTV, where the measured dose was up to 11% higher than calculated. This was attributed to sub optimal scatter kernels used in the treatment planning system dose calculations. Our results indicate great potential for IMRT verification using MAGIC-type polymer gel. PMID:12852552

  16. Laboratory and bedside evaluation of portable glucose meters.

    PubMed

    Nichols, J H; Howard, C; Loman, K; Miller, C; Nyberg, D; Chan, D W

    1995-02-01

    A two-phase, laboratory and bedside, evaluation of blood glucose meters was conducted in this study. Four meters, the AccuData Easy (Boehringer-Mannheim, Indianapolis, IN), HemoCue Glucose (HemoCue, Mission Viejo, CA), LifeScan One Touch II (LifeScan, Milpitas, CA), and Miles Encore QA (Miles, Elkhart, IN) systems, were compared to the Nova Stat Profile 5 (Nova, Waltham, MA) as the laboratory reference. Precision, linearity, correlation to the laboratory method, interference from hematocrit, data management, and operator preference were examined. None of the meters were found to satisfy all of the study's evaluation criteria. Therefore, institutions must weigh which criteria are most important to their individual settings. Although the HemoCue Glucose was found to be technically superior, this meter had no data management capabilities. The Encore QA had greater variance and low bias, whereas the AccuData Easy had bias affected by hematocrit and glucose concentration, and the One Touch II had a negative hematocrit bias and limited linear range when compared to the Nova. Only meters meeting both minimal analytical performance and computerization requirements, the One Touch II and AccuData Easy, were selected for further evaluation. At the bedside, the One Touch II demonstrated performance consistent with the lab evaluation, whereas the AccuData Easy showed greater imprecision in the low glucose range and a correlation that varied with sample type: capillary, venous, or arterial blood. This evaluation indicates that the clinician must interpret near-patient glucose results with respect to meter limitations. FDA approval and marketing statistics, alone, are insufficient to judge the performance of the meters in routine institutional use. Independent method validation, under actual operating conditions, is a better means of predicting future performance of the meters. PMID:7856571

  17. Radiation-induced lung fibrosis in a tumor-bearing mouse model is associated with enhanced Type-2 immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Yacheng; Mei, Zijie; Zhang, Shimin; Yang, Jie; Li, Xin; Yao, Ye; Xie, Conghua

    2016-01-01

    Lung fibrosis may be associated with Type-2 polarized inflammation. Herein, we aim to investigate whether radiation can initiate a Type-2 immune response and contribute to the progression of pulmonary fibrosis in tumor-bearing animals. We developed a tumor-bearing mouse model with Lewis lung cancer to receive either radiation therapy alone or radiation combined with Th1 immunomodulator unmethylated cytosine-phosphorothioate-guanine containing oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN). The Type-2 immune phenotype in tumors and the histological grade of lung fibrosis were evaluated in mice sacrificed three weeks after irradiation. Mouse lung tissues were analyzed for hydroxyproline and the expression of Type-1/Type-2 key transcription factors (T-bet/GATA-3). The concentration of Type-1/Type-2 cytokines in serum was measured by cytometric bead array. Lung fibrosis was observed to be more serious in tumor-bearing mice than in normal mice post-irradiation. The fibrosis score in irradiated tumor-bearing mice on Day 21 was 4.33 ± 0.82, which was higher than that of normal mice (2.00 ± 0.63; P < 0.05). Hydroxyproline and GATA-3 expression were increased in the lung tissues of tumor-bearing mice following irradiation. CpG-ODN attenuated fibrosis by markedly decreasing GATA-3 expression. Serum IL-13 and IL-5 were elevated, whereas INF-γ and IL-12 expression were decreased in irradiated tumor-bearing mice. These changes were reversed after CpG-ODN treatment. Thus, Type-2 immunity in tumors appeared to affect the outcome of radiation damage and might be of interest for future studies on developing approaches in which Type-1–related immunotherapy and radiotherapy are used in combination. PMID:26703457

  18. 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model specification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arundel, Samantha T.; Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Phillips, Lori A.; Roche, Brittany L.; Constance, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    In January 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center began producing the 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model data product. This new product was developed to provide high resolution bare-earth digital elevation models from light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data and other elevation data collected over the conterminous United States (lower 48 States), Hawaii, and potentially Alaska and the U.S. territories. The 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model consists of hydroflattened, topographic bare-earth raster digital elevation models, with a 1-meter x 1-meter cell size, and is available in 10,000-meter x 10,000-meter square blocks with a 6-meter overlap. This report details the specifications required for the production of the 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model.

  19. Cross-cultural differences in meter perception.

    PubMed

    Kalender, Beste; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2013-03-01

    We examined the influence of incidental exposure to varied metrical patterns from different musical cultures on the perception of complex metrical structures from an unfamiliar musical culture. Adults who were familiar with Western music only (i.e., simple meters) and those who also had limited familiarity with non-Western music were tested on their perception of metrical organization in unfamiliar (Turkish) music with simple and complex meters. Adults who were familiar with Western music detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with simple meter but not in Turkish music with complex meter. Adults with some exposure to non-Western music that was unmetered or metrically complex detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with both simple and complex meters, but they performed better on patterns with a simple meter. The implication is that familiarity with varied metrical structures, including those with a non-isochronous tactus, enhances sensitivity to the metrical organization of unfamiliar music. PMID:22367155

  20. STING-Dependent Cytosolic DNA Sensing Promotes Radiation-Induced Type I Interferon-Dependent Antitumor Immunity in Immunogenic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Deng, Liufu; Liang, Hua; Xu, Meng; Yang, Xuanming; Burnette, Byron; Arina, Ainhoa; Li, Xiao-Dong; Mauceri, Helena; Beckett, Michael; Darga, Thomas; Huang, Xiaona; Gajewski, Thomas F; Chen, Zhijian J; Fu, Yang-Xin; Weichselbaum, Ralph R

    2014-11-20

    Ionizing radiation-mediated tumor regression depends on type I interferon (IFN) and the adaptive immune response, but several pathways control I IFN induction. Here, we demonstrate that adaptor protein STING, but not MyD88, is required for type I IFN-dependent antitumor effects of radiation. In dendritic cells (DCs), STING was required for IFN-? induction in response to irradiated-tumor cells. The cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) mediated sensing of irradiated-tumor cells in DCs. Moreover, STING was essential for radiation-induced adaptive immune responses, which relied on type I IFN signaling on DCs. Exogenous IFN-? treatment rescued the cross-priming by cGAS or STING-deficient DCs. Accordingly, activation of STING by a second messenger cGAMP administration enhanced antitumor immunity induced by radiation. Thus radiation-mediated antitumor immunity in immunogenic tumors requires a functional cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway and suggests that cGAMP treatment might provide a new strategy to improve radiotherapy. PMID:25517616

  1. Temperature dependent radiative and non-radiative recombination dynamics in CdSe-CdTe and CdTe-CdSe type II hetero nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Scott, Riccardo; Kickhöfel, Sebastian; Schoeps, Oliver; Antanovich, Artsiom; Prudnikau, Anatol; Chuvilin, Andrey; Woggon, Ulrike; Artemyev, Mikhail; Achtstein, Alexander W

    2016-01-28

    We investigate the temperature-dependent decay kinetics of type II CdSe-CdTe and CdTe-CdSe core-lateral shell nanoplatelets. From a kinetic analysis of the photoluminescence (PL) decay and a measurement of the temperature dependent quantum yield we deduce the temperature dependence of the non-radiative and radiative lifetimes of hetero nanoplates. In line with the predictions of the giant oscillator strength effect in 2D we observe a strong increase of the radiative lifetime with temperature. This is attributed to an increase of the homogeneous transition linewidth with temperature. Comparing core only and hetero platelets we observe a significant prolongation of the radiative lifetime in type II platelets by two orders in magnitude while the quantum yield is barely affected. In a careful analysis of the PL decay transients we compare different recombination models, including electron hole pairs and exciton decay, being relevant for the applicability of those structures in photonic applications like solar cells or lasers. We conclude that the observed biexponential PL decay behavior in hetero platelets is predominately due to spatially indirect excitons being present at the hetero junction and not ionized e-h pair recombination. PMID:26743562

  2. 10 CFR 451.7 - Metering requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Metering requirements. 451.7 Section 451.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.7 Metering requirements... renewable energy facility must be measured by a standard metering device that— (a) Meets generally...

  3. 10 CFR 451.7 - Metering requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metering requirements. 451.7 Section 451.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.7 Metering requirements... renewable energy facility must be measured by a standard metering device that— (a) Meets generally...

  4. 10 CFR 451.7 - Metering requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metering requirements. 451.7 Section 451.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.7 Metering requirements... renewable energy facility must be measured by a standard metering device that— (a) Meets generally...

  5. 10 CFR 451.7 - Metering requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metering requirements. 451.7 Section 451.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.7 Metering requirements... renewable energy facility must be measured by a standard metering device that— (a) Meets generally...

  6. 10 CFR 451.7 - Metering requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metering requirements. 451.7 Section 451.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.7 Metering requirements... renewable energy facility must be measured by a standard metering device that— (a) Meets generally...

  7. Embedded solution for a microwave moisture meter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter is based on the free-space transmission measurement technique and uses low-intensity microwaves to measure the attenuation and p...

  8. 78 FR 20628 - Wireless Metering Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wireless Metering Challenge AGENCY: Office of Energy... (EERE) requests comments on the draft version of the Wireless Power Meter Challenge Specification. This... development of new technologies in the wireless electric metering space. DATES: Comments on the Wireless...

  9. A coupled radiation transport-thermal analysis of the radiation shield for an SP-100 type reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barattino, William J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; McDaniel, Patrick J.

    A coupled radiation transport-thermal analysis of the radiation shield for an SP-100 reactor was performed using finite element codes developed at the University of New Mexico and Sandia National Laboratories. For a fast reactor operating at 1.66 MWt, the energy deposited and resulting temperature distribution were determined for a shield consisting of tungsten and lithium hydride pressed into a stainless steel honeycomb matrix. While temperature feedback was shown to have a minor effect on energy deposition, the shielding configuration was found to have a major influence in meeting thermal requirements of the lithium hydride. It was shown that a shield optimized only for radiation protection will fail because of LiH melting. However, with minor modifications in the shield layering and material selection, the thermal integrity of the shield can be preserved. A shield design of graphite, depleted lithium hydride, tungsten, and natural lithium hydride was shown to satisfy neutron and gamma fluence requirements, and maximum temperature limits, and to minimize cracking in the LiH portion of the shield.

  10. Comparison of density determination of liquid samples by density meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, C.; Wolf, H.; Vámossy, C.; Lorefice, S.; Lenard, E.; Spohr, I.; Mares, G.; Perkin, M.; Parlic-Risovic, T.; Grue, L.-L.; Tammik, K.; van Andel, I.; Zelenka, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrostatic density determinations of liquids as reference material are mainly performed by National Metrology Institutes to provide means for calibrating or checking liquid density measuring instruments such as oscillation-type density meters. These density meters are used by most of the metrology institutes for their calibration and scientific work. The aim of this project was to compare the results of the liquid density determination by oscillating density meters of the participating laboratories. The results were linked to CCM.D.K-2 partly via Project EURAMET.M.D.K-2 (1019) "Comparison of liquid density standards" by hydrostatic weighing piloted by BEV in 2008. In this comparison pentadecane, water and of oil with a high viscosity were measured at atmospheric pressure using oscillation type density meter. The temperature range was from 15 °C to 40 °C. The measurement results were in some cases discrepant. Further studies, comparisons are essential to explore the capability and uncertainty of the density meters Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  11. Radiation properties of two types of luminous textile devices containing plastic optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selm, Bärbel; Rothmaier, Markus

    2007-05-01

    Luminous textiles have the potential to satisfy a need for thin and flexible light diffusers for treatment of intraoral cancerous tissue. Plastic optical fibers (POF) with diameters of 250 microns and smaller are used to make the textiles luminous. Usually light is supplied to the optical fiber at both ends. On the textile surface light emission occurs in a woven structure via damaged straight POFs, whereas the embroidered structure radiates the light out of macroscopically bent POFs. We compared the optical properties of these two types of textile diffusers using red light laser for the embroidery and light emitting diode (LED) for the woven structure as light sources, and found efficiencies for the luminous areas of the two samples of 19 % (woven) and 32 % (embroidery), respectively. It was shown that the efficiency can be greatly improved using an aluminium backing. Additional scattering layers lower the fluence rate by around 30 %. To analyse the homogeneity we took a photo of the illuminated surface using a 3CCD camera and found, for both textiles, a slightly skewed distribution of the dark and bright pixels. The interquartile range of brightness distribution of the embroidery is more than double as the woven structure.

  12. How Coriolis meter design affects field performance

    SciTech Connect

    Levien, A.; Dudiak, A.

    1995-12-31

    Although many possibilities exist for the design of Coriolis flowmeters, a common set of fundamental physical principles affect practical meter design. Design criteria such as tube geometry, alloy section, operating frequencies, stress levels, and tubing wall thickness have varying impacts on meter performance. Additionally, field conditions such as changing temperature, pressure, pipeline stress and vibration affect measurement performance. The challenge created in Coriolis flow meter design is to maximize the sensitivity of the meter Coriolis forces, while minimizing the impact of outside environmental influences. Data are presented on the physical principles that affect Coriolis flowmeters, and how the various aspects of meter design influence field performance.

  13. Holocene carbon dynamics and radiative forcing of three different types of peatlands in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathijssen, Paul; Väliranta, Minna; Lohila, Annalea; Minkkinen, Kari; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Korrensalo, Aino

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands contain approximately a third of all soil carbon globally and as they exchange carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) copiously with the atmosphere, changes in peatland carbon budgets have a large impact on the global carbon balance and the concentration of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. There has been a growing interest in reconstructing and linking peatland carbon dynamics to past climate variations, because quantitative reconstructions can be used as a basis for future carbon balance predictions. In order to increase our understanding on peatland development and response patterns we quantitatively reconstructed Holocene carbon dynamics of three different peatlands in Finland: a subarctic fen, a boreal peatland complex and a boreal managed pine bog. Several cores from each peatland were investigated. The peatlands showed distinct successional pathways, which were sometimes triggered by fires. Successional stages were partly reflected in carbon accumulation patterns. Sometimes variations in carbon accumulation rates coincided with autogenic changes in peat type and vegetation, but accumulation rates were also related to the large-scale Holocene climate phases. However, Holocene climate changes as such did not seem to result in changes in the peat plant species composition. The mid-Holocene warm and dry climate conditions reduced the carbon accumulation in the subarctic fen and in the fen part of the boreal peatland complex, but when the peatland was in bog phase this effect was not visible. Some bog cores showed a clear increase in carbon accumulation after fen-bog transition, but the pattern was not unanimous. In addition to carbon accumulation, we estimated past CH4 emissions for each peatland respectively by applying different methods and by utilising the established current vegetation-CH4 emission relationship. The reconstructions showed that CH4 emissions always decreased during bog stages, but that the CH4 emissions played a major role in the

  14. N.A.C.A. Recording Air Speed Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, F H

    1921-01-01

    A new type of air speed meter is described which was designed by the technical staff of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The instrument consists essentially of a tight metal diaphragm of high natural period which is acted upon by the pressure difference of a pitot-static head. The resulting deflection of this diaphragm is recorded optically on a moving film.

  15. Identification of aerosol types over Indo-Gangetic Basin: implications to optical properties and associated radiative forcing.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, S; Srivastava, A K; Singh, A K; Singh, Sachchidanand

    2015-08-01

    The aerosols in the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) are a mixture of sulfate, dust, black carbon, and other soluble and insoluble components. It is a challenge not only to identify these various aerosol types, but also to assess the optical and radiative implications of these components. In the present study, appropriate thresholds for fine-mode fraction and single-scattering albedo have been used to first identify the aerosol types over IGB. Four major aerosol types may be identified as polluted dust (PD), polluted continental (PC), black carbon-enriched (BCE), and organic carbon-enriched (OCE). Further, the implications of these different types of aerosols on optical properties and radiative forcing have been studied. The aerosol products derived from CIMEL sun/sky radiometer measurements, deployed under Aerosol Robotic Network program of NASA, USA were used from four different sites Karachi, Lahore, Jaipur, and Kanpur, spread over Pakistan and Northern India. PD is the most dominant aerosol type at Karachi and Jaipur, contributing more than 50% of all the aerosol types. OCE, on the other hand, contributes only about 12-15% at all the stations except at Kanpur where its contribution is ∼38%. The spectral dependence of AOD was relatively low for PD aerosol type, with the lowest AE values (<0.5); whereas, large spectral dependence in AOD was observed for the remaining aerosol types, with the highest AE values (>1.0). SSA was found to be the highest for OCE (>0.9) and the lowest for BCE (<0.9) type aerosols, with drastically different spectral variability. The direct aerosol radiative forcing at the surface and in the atmosphere was found to be the maximum at Lahore among all the four stations in the IGB. PMID:25893625

  16. COMPARISON OF RECORDING CURRENT METERS USED FOR MEASURING VELOCITIES IN SHALLOW WATERS OF SAN FRANCISCO BAY, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gartner, Jeffrey W.; Oltmann, Richard N.

    1985-01-01

    The authors determine the feasibility of collecting reliable current-meter data in shallow water under natural conditions. The study involved field testing four types of recording current meters (different speed sensors) and comparing data recorded by the meters under different field conditions. Speeds recorded by the current meters at slack water and during maximum flows were compared during calm and windy conditions at various tide levels.

  17. Perceptions of Radiation Oncologists and Urologists on Sources and Type of Evidence to Inform Prostate Cancer Treatment Decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Leona C.; Delpe, Sophia; Shah, Nilay D.; Ziegenfuss, Jeanette Y.; Tilburt, Jon C.; Karnes, R. Jeffrey; Nguyen, Paul L.; Gross, Cary P.; Yu, James B.; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Sun, Maxine; Ranasinghe, Weranja K.B.; Kim, Simon P.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To perform a national survey of radiation oncologists and urologists about the type of resources used and the level of evidence needed to change clinical practice in localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: From a random sample, 1422 physicians were mailed a survey assessing the types of information used and what level of evidence could alter their clinical practice in prostate cancer. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify differences in physician characteristics for each outcome. Results: Survey response rates were similar for radiation oncologists and urologists (44% vs 46%; P=.46). Specialty-specific journals represented the most commonly used resource for informing the clinical practice for radiation oncologists (65%) and urologists (70%). Relative to radiation oncologists, urologists were less likely to report utilizing top-tier medical journals (25% vs 39%; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.50; P=.01) or cancer journals (22% vs 51%; adjusted OR 0.50; P<.001) but more likely to rely on clinical guidelines (46% vs 38%; adjusted OR 1.6; P=.006). Both radiation oncologists and urologists most commonly reported large randomized, clinical trials as the level of evidence to change treatment recommendations for localized prostate cancer (85% vs 77%; P=.009). Conclusions: Both specialties rely on their own specialty-specific journals and view randomized, clinical trials as the level of evidence needed to change clinical practice. Our study provides a context on meaningful ways of disseminating evidence for localized prostate cancer.

  18. 15 meter multiple mirror telescope design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.; Woolf, N. J.

    1986-01-01

    Taking as a starting point the existing Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT), a concept for a larger and more advanced instrument has been developed. It makes use of four 7.5-m diameter paraboloidal glass primaries of the honeycomb sandwich type being developed by the University of Arizona. These are mounted quite close together in a square configuration, with their axes coaligned. Separate optical configurations are provided, for optical and infrared applications. To minimze telescope emissivity in the thermal infrared at the combined focus, all the beam combining and streering optics that follow the tertiary mirrors are enclosed in a large central dewar and cooled with liquid nitrogen. The diffraction-limited resolution at the combined focus of 0.11 arcsec at 10 micrometers wavelength is equivalent to that of a 20.5 meter filled aperture. Diffraction-limited resolution should be routinely achievable at 10 and 20 micrometers, if active correction of large-scale wavefront errors is implemented.

  19. Discussion series on PURPA related topics: metering

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgeon, J I

    1980-08-01

    Time-differentiated metering of electricity consumption and demand is required in both rate-structure experimentation and the implementation of most time-of-use rate designs. Time-differentiated metering takes three major forms: multi-register watthour meters, magnetic-tape recording meters, and remote automatic meter-reading systems. The majority of projects selected magnetic-tape meters for their flexibility with respect to rate structure, load-survey capabilities, and ready availability. The small-scale, experimental nature of the projects reduced the significance of the large difference in per-unit cost and operational/maintenance complexity between this form of metering and the multi-register form. Magnetic-tape meters are not likely candidates for system-wide implementation of time-differentiated metering. Automatic remote-meter-reading systems were not adequately available during the project years; those projects attempting to use these were unable to bring them to full operational status before project termination, due to the many problems of design, quality control, and equipment acquisition encountered. Delays in acquisition and problems of quality control also followed the selection of magnetic-tape meters and multi-register meters by a number of the projects. Though less complex than automatic remote-reading systems, these technologies are still new and more complex than standard watthour metering. Thus, both equipment vendors and utilities encountered numerous problems in getting properly functioning meters to the service entrances on time. A variety of factors contributed to installation delays, including unforeseen space limitations, incompatible wiring, problems of task organization, and customer reluctance.

  20. Centaurus A galaxy, type EO peculiar elliptical, also radio source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Centaurus A galaxy, type EO peculiar elliptical, also radio source. CTIO 4-meter telescope, 1975. NGC 5128, a Type EO peculiar elliptical galaxy in the constellation Centaurus. This galaxy is one of the most luminous and massive galaxies known and is a strong source of both radio and X-ray radiation. Current theories suggest that the nucleus is experiencing giant explosions involving millions of stars and that the dark band across the galactic disk is material being ejected outward. Cerro Toloto 4-meter telescope photo. Photo credit: National Optical Astronomy Observatories

  1. Two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations of superluminous interacting supernovae of Type IIn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasis, Alkiviadis; Dessart, Luc; Audit, Edouard

    2016-05-01

    Some interacting supernovae (SNe) of Type IIn show a sizeable continuum polarization suggestive of a large-scale asymmetry in the circumstellar medium (CSM) and/or the SN ejecta. Here, we extend the recent work of Dessart et al. on superluminous SNe IIn and perform axially-symmetric (i.e. 2D) multigroup radiation hydrodynamics simulations to explore the impact of an imposed large-scale density asymmetry. When the CSM is asymmetric, the latitudinal variation of the radial optical depth τ introduces a strong flux redistribution from the higher density CSM regions, where the shock luminosity is larger, towards the lower density CSM regions where photons escape more freely - this redistribution ceases when τ ≲ 1. Along directions where the CSM density is larger, the shock deceleration is stronger and its progression slower, producing a non-spherical cold-dense shell (CDS). For an oblate CSM density distribution, the photosphere (CDS) has an oblate (prolate) morphology when τ ≳ 1. When the CSM is symmetric and the ejecta asymmetric, the flux redistribution within the CSM now tends to damp the latitudinal variation of the luminosity at the shock. It then requires a larger ejecta asymmetry to produce a sizeable latitudinal variation in the emergent flux. When the interaction is between a SN ejecta and a relic disc, the luminosity boost at early times scales with the disc opening angle - forming a superluminous SN IIn this way requires an unrealistically thick disc. In contrast, interaction with a disc of modest thickness/mass can yield a power that rivals radioactive decay of a standard SN II at nebular times.

  2. Evidence of Dopant Type-Inversion and Other Radiation Damage Effects of the CDF Silicon Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Ballarin, Roberto

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this document is to study the effect of radiation damage on the silicon sensors. The reflection of the effect of radiation can be observed in two fundamental parameters of the detector: the bias current and the bias voltage. The leakage current directly affects the noise, while the bias voltage is required to collect the maximum signal deposited by the charged particle.

  3. Adding chemo after radiation treatment improves survival for adults with a type of brain tumor

    Cancer.gov

    Adults with low-grade gliomas, a form of brain tumor, who received chemotherapy following completion of radiation therapy lived longer than patients who received radiation therapy alone, according to long-term follow-up results from a NIH-supported random

  4. Radiation-induced Sarcomas Occurring in Desmoid-type Fibromatosis Are Not Always Derived From the Primary Tumor.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, Arie J; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Wijers-Koster, Pauline; Coffin, Cheryl M; Lazar, Alexander J; Nout, Remi A; Rubin, Brian P; Gelderblom, Hans; Bovée, Judith V M G

    2015-12-01

    Desmoid-type fibromatosis is a rare, highly infiltrative, locally destructive neoplasm that does not metastasize, but recurs often after primary surgery. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is the pathogenic mechanism, caused by an activating mutation in exon 3 of CTNNB1 (85% of the sporadic patients). Radiotherapy is a frequent treatment modality with a local control rate of approximately 80%. In very rare cases, this may result in the development of radiation-induced sarcoma. It is unclear whether these sarcomas develop from the primary tumor or arise de novo in normal tissue. In 4 tertiary referral centers for sarcoma, 6 cases of desmoid-type fibromatosis that subsequently developed sarcoma after radiotherapy were collected. The DNA sequence of CTNNB1 exon 3 in the desmoid-type fibromatosis and the subsequent postradiation sarcoma was determined. Sarcomas developed 5 to 21 years after the diagnosis of desmoid-type fibromatosis and included 2 osteosarcomas, 2 high-grade undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas, 1 fibrosarcoma, and 1 undifferentiated spindle cell sarcoma. Three patients showed a CTNNB1 hotspot mutation (T41A, S45F, or S45N) in both the desmoid-type fibromatosis and the radiation-induced sarcoma. The other 3 patients showed a CTNNB1 mutation in the original desmoid-type fibromatosis (2 with a T41A and 1 with an S45F mutation), which was absent in the sarcoma. In conclusion, postradiation sarcomas that occur in the treatment area of desmoid-type fibromatosis are extremely rare and can arise through malignant transformation of CTNNB1-mutated desmoid fibromatosis cells, but may also originate from CTNNB1 wild-type normal cells lying in the radiation field. PMID:26414222

  5. Radiation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Outside the protective cocoon of Earth's atmosphere, the universe is full of harmful radiation. Astronauts who live and work in space are exposed not only to ultraviolet rays but also to space radi...

  6. Comparison Test and its Evaluation of Flowmeters for Heat Meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hae-Man; Choi, Yong-Moon; Yoon, Byung-Ro

    2010-06-01

    This study selected a total of 24 heat flowmeters consisting of three types: impeller, electromagnetic and ultrasonic, 8 meters each. The diameter was 0.05 m (9 meters), 0.08 m (9 meters), and 0.15 m (6 meters). In accordance with the OIML R 75 testing method accuracy, installation position, external environment, and durability were tested, and the flowmeter property field test was conducted in the field where of heat supply from winter to summer in order to select the type of heat flowmeter best suited for the circumstances in Korea. According to the test result, all 3 types of flowmeters met the OIML Recommendation, but the result of the field test showed that the electromagnetic flowmeters displayed a deviation at the low flow rate during summer. The impeller flowmeters showed accuracy suggested by the OIML Recommendation, but the ultrasonic flowmeter, a next-generation flowmeter, which is strong against contamination, low in maintenance-rate, and high in accuracy as it has no moving part, was found to be the best choice.

  7. Environmental projects, volume 10. Environmental assessment: New 34-meter antenna at Apollo site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) is part of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. A detailed description of the GDSCC is presented. At present the Venus Station has an unused 9-meter antenna and a 26-meter (85 ft) antenna known as DSS-13. Construction of a new 34-meter (111.5 ft) antenna at the Venus site is under way to replace the present DSS-13 26-meter antenna. The proposed construction at the Apollo Site of a new, high efficiency, 34-meter, multifrequency beam waveguide-type antenna to replace the aging, 20-year old, DSS-12 34-meter antenna located at the Echo Site is analyzed. This new 34-meter antenna, to be constructed at the Apollo Site and to be known as DSS-18, will be of a design similar to the new DSS-13 34-meter antenna now being constructed at the Venus Site. When the new 34-meter antenna is completed and operational at the Apollo Site (planned for 1993), the old DSS-12 34-meter antenna at the Echo Site will be decommissioned, dismantled, and removed.

  8. Price current-meter standard rating development by the U.S. geological survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, E.F.; Schwarz, G.E.; Thibodeaux, K.G.; Turcios, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed new standard rating tables for use with Price type AA and pygmy current meters, which are employed to measure streamflow velocity. Current-meter calibration data, consisting of the rates of rotation of meters at several different constant water velocities, have shown that the original rating tables are no longer representative of the average responsiveness of newly purchased meters or meters in the field. The new rating tables are based on linear regression equations that are weighted to reflect the population mix of current meters in the field and weighted inversely to the variability of the data at each calibration velocity. For calibration velocities of 0.3 m/s and faster, at which most streamflow measurements are made, the new AA-rating predicts the true velocities within 1.5% and the new pygmy-meter rating within 2.0% for more than 95% of the meters. At calibration velocities, the new AA-meter rating is up to 1.4% different from the original rating, and the new pygmy-meter rating is up to 1.6% different.

  9. Effect of cloud cover and surface type on earth's radiation budget derived from the first year of ERBE data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, G. G.; Denn, F. M.; Young, D. F.; Harrison, E. F.; Minnis, P.; Barkstrom, B. R.

    1990-01-01

    One year of ERBE data is analyzed for variations in outgoing LW and absorbed solar flux. Differences in land and ocean radiation budgets as well as differences between clear-sky and total scenes, including clouds, are studied. The variation of monthly average radiative parameters is examined for February 1985 through January 1986 for selected study regions and on zonal and global scales. ERBE results show significant seasonal variations in both outgoing LW and absorbed SW flux, and a pronounced difference between oceanic and continental surfaces. The main factors determining cloud radiative forcing in a given region are solar insolation, cloud amount, cloud type, and surface properties. The strongest effects of clouds are found in the midlatitude storm tracks over the oceans. Over much of the globe, LW warming is balanced by SW cooling. The annual-global average net cloud forcing shows that clouds have a net cooling effect on the earth for the year.

  10. Role of type II pneumocytes in pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis: dose response of radiation-induced lung changes in the transient high vascular permeability period.

    PubMed

    Osterreicher, Jan; Pejchal, Jaroslav; Skopek, Jirí; Mokrỳ, Jaroslav; Vilasová, Zdena; Psutka, Jan; Vávrová, Jirina; Mazurová, Yvona

    2004-12-01

    We studied the dose response of pulmonary changes at 3 weeks after 1-25 Gy irradiation and we investigated the effects of an anti-inflammatory drug. Wistar rats were given a single dose of 1-25Gy irradiation to the thorax. Group one was treated with saline only, while group two was administered subcutaneously a combination of pentoxifylline (35 mg/kg) and dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) twice per week. Lungs were examined histochemically and number of neutrophile granulocytes, alveolar septal thickness, air/tissue ratio, number of alveoli per field, number of type II pneumocytes per alveolus, and occludin 1 expression were measured. A significant dose-dependent depletion of type II pneumocytes was found after irradiation with a dose of 1 Gy and higher. Alveolar neutrophils increased after 1 Gy with a dose dependency noted after 10-25Gy and alveolar septa thickening followed 5-25 Gy. A lower occludin 1 expression was observed in animals irradiated with the doses of 5 20 Gy, indicating an effect on vascular permeability. Anti-inflammatory therapy partially inhibited the increase of neutrophils at all radiation doses and the depletion of type II pneumocytes after doses of 1, 10, and 15 Gy. Occludin 1 did not decrease in the lungs of rats treated with the anti-inflammatory drugs as it did in most rats treated only with saline. Our results suggest that pneumocytes depletion is a major factor responsible for radiation pneumonitis development and that these changes may be compensated for provided radiation doses are below the threshold. PMID:15625787

  11. Balanced Flow Meters without Moving Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R.; VanBuskirk, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Balanced flow meters are recent additions to an established class of simple, rugged flow meters that contain no moving parts in contact with flow and are based on measurement of pressure drops across objects placed in flow paths. These flow meters are highly accurate, minimally intrusive, easily manufacturable, and reliable. A balanced flow meter can be easily mounted in a flow path by bolting it between conventional pipe flanges. A balanced flow meter can be used to measure the flow of any of a variety of liquids or gases, provided that it has been properly calibrated. Relative to the standard orifice-plate flow meter, the balanced flow meter introduces less turbulence and two times less permanent pressure loss and is therefore capable of offering 10 times greater accuracy and repeatability with less dissipation of energy. A secondary benefit of the reduction of turbulence is the reduction of vibration and up to 15 times less acoustic noise generation. Both the balanced flow meter and the standard orifice-plate flow meter are basically disks that contain holes and are instrumented with pressure transducers on their upstream and downstream faces. The most obvious difference between them is that the standard orifice plate contains a single, central hole while the balanced flow meter contains multiple holes. The term 'balanced' signifies that in designing the meter, the sizes and locations of the holes are determined in an optimization procedure that involves balancing of numerous factors, including volumetric flow, mass flow, dynamic pressure, kinetic energy, all in an effort to minimize such undesired effects as turbulence, pressure loss, dissipation of kinetic energy, and non-repeatability and nonlinearity of response over the anticipated range of flow conditions. Due to proper balancing of these factors, recent testing demonstrated that the balanced flow-meter performance was similar to a Venturi tube in both accuracy and pressure recovery, but featured reduced

  12. Off-level corrections for gravity meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebauer, T. M.; Blitz, Thomas; Constantino, Andy

    2016-04-01

    Gravity meters must be aligned with the local gravity at any location on the surface of the earth in order to measure the full amplitude of the gravity vector. The gravitational force on the sensitive component of the gravity meter decreases by the cosine of the angle between the measurement axis and the local gravity vector. Most gravity meters incorporate two horizontal orthogonal levels to orient the gravity meter for a maximum gravity reading. In order to calculate a gravity correction it is often necessary to estimate the overall angular deviation between the gravity meter and the local gravity vector using two measured horizontal tilt meters. Typically this is done assuming that the two horizontal angles are independent and that the product of the cosines of the horizontal tilts is equivalent to the cosine of the overall deviation. These approximations, however, break down at large angles. This paper derives analytic formulae to transform angles measured by two orthogonal tilt meters into the vertical deviation of the third orthogonal axis. The equations can be used to calibrate the tilt sensors attached to the gravity meter or provide a correction for a gravity meter used in an off-of-level condition.

  13. Lasing action and extraordinary reduction in long radiative lifetime of type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dots using circular photonic crystal nanocavity

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Kung-Shu; Chang, Shu-Wei; Hung, Wei-Chun; Chang, Chih-Chi; Lin, Wei-Hsun; Lin, Shih-Yen; Shih, Min-Hsiung; Lee, Po-Tsung; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2015-08-31

    We demonstrated the lasing action and remarkable reduction in long radiative lifetimes of type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dots using a circular photonic-crystal nano-cavity with high Purcell factors. The associated enhancement in carrier recombination was surprisingly high and could even surpass type-I counterparts in similar conditions. These phenomena reveal that the type-II sample exhibited extremely low nonradiative recombination so that weak radiative transitions were more dominant than expected. The results indicate that type-II nanostructures may be advantageous for applications which require controllable radiative transitions but low nonradiative depletions.

  14. Kullback-Leibler information for ordering genes using sperm typing and radiation-hybrid mapping. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Chernoff, H.

    1991-10-01

    Two technologies applicable to gene mapping are those of sperm typing and radiation hybrid mapping. Sperm typing makes use of the polymerase chain reaction, a biochemical technique which allows enormous amplification (production of multiple copies) of small, selected DNA fragments from a single chromosome. A sample of sperm from a single donor is analyzed to see which alleles (distinct forms of the various genes) are present in the individual sperms. The frequencies with which the various possibilities occur can be used to supply estimates of the ordering and of the recombination probabilities among the genes for which that donor is heterozygous (having different alleles of the same gene.)

  15. Dead-time compensation for a logarithmic display rate meter

    DOEpatents

    Larson, J.A.; Krueger, F.P.

    1987-10-05

    An improved circuit is provided for application to a radiation survey meter that uses a detector that is subject to dead time. The circuit compensates for dead time over a wide range of count rates by producing a dead-time pulse for each detected event, a live-time pulse that spans the interval between dead-time pulses, and circuits that average the value of these pulses over time. The logarithm of each of these values is obtained and the logarithms are subtracted to provide a signal that is proportional to a count rate that is corrected for the effects of dead time. The circuit produces a meter indication and is also capable of producing an audible indication of detected events. 5 figs.

  16. Dead-time compensation for a logarithmic display rate meter

    DOEpatents

    Larson, John A.; Krueger, Frederick P.

    1988-09-20

    An improved circuit is provided for application to a radiation survey meter that uses a detector that is subject to dead time. The circuit compensates for dead time over a wide range of count rates by producing a dead-time pulse for each detected event, a live-time pulse that spans the interval between dead-time pulses, and circuits that average the value of these pulses over time. The logarithm of each of these values is obtained and the logarithms are subtracted to provide a signal that is proportional to a count rate that is corrected for the effects of dead time. The circuit produces a meter indication and is also capable of producing an audible indication of detected events.

  17. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them ... places inside your body. The type of radiation therapy you receive depends on many factors, including The ...

  18. Simplified Processing Method for Meter Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Colotelo, Alison H. A.; Downs, Janelle L.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Henderson, Jordan W.; Montgomery, Sadie A.; Vernon, Christopher R.; Parker, Steven A.

    2015-11-01

    Simple/Quick metered data processing method that can be used for Army Metered Data Management System (MDMS) and Logistics Innovation Agency data, but may also be useful for other large data sets. Intended for large data sets when analyst has little information about the buildings.

  19. Evaluating Metal Probe Meters for Soil Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Inexpensive metal probe meters that are sold by garden stores can be evaluated by students for their accuracy in measuring soil pH, moisture, fertility, and salinity. The author concludes that the meters are inaccurate and cannot be calibrated in standard units. However, the student evaluations are useful in learning the methods of soil analysis…

  20. Physiological correlates to 800 meter running performance.

    PubMed

    Deason, J; Powers, S K; Lawler, J; Ayers, D; Stuart, M K

    1991-12-01

    Much of the previous research efforts aimed at determining those physiological characteristics that contribute to distance running success have centered around distances greater than 1500 meters with little attention to events such as the 800 meter run. Therefore, this investigation examined the relationship between selected physiological and body composition, characteristics and performance in an 800 meter run. Measurements of body composition, VO2max, running economy, and performance times for 100 and 300 meter dashes were obtained on 11 male track athletes. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed using 800 meter race time as the dependent variable. Although the combination of 300 and 100 meter run times, percent body fat, running economy and VO2 max as independent variables accounted for the greatest amount of total variance (r2 = .89), the additional variance explained by the model did not increase significantly (p greater than 0.05), when VO2max, percent body fat, and running economy were added to a model which contained 300 and 100 meter run time (r2 = .85) as the explanatory variables. These data offer additional support for the notion that much of the intramuscular ATP produce and utilized during an 800 meter run comes from anaerobic metabolic pathway. PMID:1806725

  1. Proton recoil scintillator neutron rem meter

    DOEpatents

    Olsher, Richard H.; Seagraves, David T.

    2003-01-01

    A neutron rem meter utilizing proton recoil and thermal neutron scintillators to provide neutron detection and dose measurement. In using both fast scintillators and a thermal neutron scintillator the meter provides a wide range of sensitivity, uniform directional response, and uniform dose response. The scintillators output light to a photomultiplier tube that produces an electrical signal to an external neutron counter.

  2. Radiative processes in Alpha-ZnAl_2S4: Ti spinel type single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulyuk, Leonid; Klokishner, Sophia; Sushkevich, Konstantin; Koshchug, Dmitrii; Boulon, Georges; Brenier, Alain; Fortin, Emery

    2008-06-01

    The radiative properties of the alpha-ZnAl_2S4 wide band -gap semiconductor (E_g=3.4eV) doped with Ti-ions are investigated . It is shown, that the ZnAl_2S_4:Ti spinel type crystals exhibit a IR luminescence in the spectral range 0.8-1.4 micrometers. The observed spectroscopic and temporal characteristics are assigned to the emission bands arising from the ligand - -Ti^4+ charge transfer for octahedral sites of titanium. Bulk stoichiometric alpha-ZnAl2S4:Ti crystals with impurity concentration 0.1-0.5 at % were grown by a closed tube vapor method with halogen as a transport agent. At temperatures T=2-300K the steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) studies, as well as the optical absorption measurements , were carried out in the spectral range 0.4-1.5 μm using a liquid nitrogen cooled Ge-detector or photomultiplier. The steady-state PL excitation was provided by Ar^+ (λ_ex1=514nm) and He-Ne (Lambda_ex2=633nm) lasers. The PL kinetics has been examined under pulsed excitation (tau_P~10^-8 s) with wavelengths: "green"-λ_ex1P=532nm and "red"-λ_ex2P=630nm (dye laser and OPO) close to Lambda_ex1 and λ_ex2. The EPR studies of the samples have been carried out as well. Under the "green" excitation (λ_ex1), that corresponds to the maximum of the Ti-impurity absorption (λ_abs~510nm), the steady -state PL spectra of ZnAl^2S^4:Ti crystals consist of 2 broad bands centered at λ_1=1.1μm and Lambda_20.8μm. Τhe first component λ_1 dominates in the spectrum at low temperatures (T<200K). At T~300K the shape of the integral spectrum practically is determined by the second broad band Lambda_2. At "red" excitation (λ_ex2, λ_ex2P) the main contribution to the PL spectra in the whole temperature range is provided by the second component, the kinetics of which obeys the exponential law with a single decay time. In contrast to the second band , the emission decay can be described by the superposition of two exponents with different lifetimes. At low

  3. Resonant electronic transport through a triple quantum-dot with Λ-type level structure under dual radiation fields

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Chun; Xing, Yunhui; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Zhongshui

    2014-08-14

    Due to quantum interference, light can transmit through dense atomic media, a phenomenon known as electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We propose that EIT is not limited to light transmission and there is an electronic analog where resonant transparency in charge transport in an opaque structure can be induced by electromagnetic radiation. A triple-quantum-dots system with Λ-type level structure is generally opaque due to the level in the center dot being significantly higher and therefore hopping from the left dot to the center dot is almost forbidden. We demonstrate that an electromagnetically induced electron transparency (EIET) in charge of transport can indeed occur in the Λ-type system. The direct evidence of EIET is that an electron can travel from the left dot to the right dot, while the center dot apparently becomes invisible. We analyze EIET and the related shot noise in both the zero and strong Coulomb blockade regimes. It is found that the EIET (position, height, and symmetry) can be tuned by several controllable parameters of the radiation fields, such as the Rabi frequencies and detuning frequencies. The result offers a transparency/opaque tuning technique in charge transport using interfering radiation fields.

  4. GANRA-5 protects both cultured cells and mice from various radiation types by functioning as a free radical scavenger.

    PubMed

    Pei, H; Chen, W; Hu, W; Zhu, M; Liu, T; Wang, J; Zhou, G

    2014-06-01

    The radio-protective effects of the oxazolone derivative chemical compound 4-(4-methoxy-3-methoxyphenyl-methyl)-2-phenyl- 5(4H)-oxazolone (GANRA-5) against different types of radiation including X-rays, carbon ion beams, microwaves and ultraviolet light (UV) were studied. Cell proliferation/cytotoxicity assay and colony-forming assay were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of GANRA-5. To test its influence on the induction of double-stranded break (DSB) formation and genomic instability, γH2AX focus-forming assay as well as cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was utilized. Our results indicate that GANRA-5 exhibits low toxicity, while providing high radio-protective effects for MRC-5 cells against different types of radiation. We also found that GANRA-5 acts as a free radical scavenger. Our animal studies provided evidence that GANRA-5 significantly increases the survival rate of mice after X-ray irradiation. Analyses of hemogram, visceral index and detection of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the viscera indicate both low toxicity of GANRA-5, combined with its ability to shield radiation risk. In conclusion, our results suggest that GANRA-5 has the potential to be used as a safe and efficient radio-protectant. PMID:24580122

  5. Resonant electronic transport through a triple quantum-dot with Λ-type level structure under dual radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Chun; Xing, Yunhui; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Zhongshui

    2014-08-01

    Due to quantum interference, light can transmit through dense atomic media, a phenomenon known as electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We propose that EIT is not limited to light transmission and there is an electronic analog where resonant transparency in charge transport in an opaque structure can be induced by electromagnetic radiation. A triple-quantum-dots system with Λ-type level structure is generally opaque due to the level in the center dot being significantly higher and therefore hopping from the left dot to the center dot is almost forbidden. We demonstrate that an electromagnetically induced electron transparency (EIET) in charge of transport can indeed occur in the Λ-type system. The direct evidence of EIET is that an electron can travel from the left dot to the right dot, while the center dot apparently becomes invisible. We analyze EIET and the related shot noise in both the zero and strong Coulomb blockade regimes. It is found that the EIET (position, height, and symmetry) can be tuned by several controllable parameters of the radiation fields, such as the Rabi frequencies and detuning frequencies. The result offers a transparency/opaque tuning technique in charge transport using interfering radiation fields.

  6. Gigawatt-class radiation generated by a Ka-band overmoded Cherenkov-type high power millimeter wave generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dapeng; Shu, Ting; Ju, Jinchuan; Peng, Shengren

    2015-08-01

    Particle simulation and experimental results are presented about a Ka-band overmoded Cherenkov-type high power millimeter wave generator in this paper. The relativistic electron beam with peak current of 8.4 kA was generated by a pulsed power accelerator working at the voltage of 625 kV, which was guided by an axial magnetic field of 1.05 T and transported through the beam-wave interaction structures. After careful calibration, the microwave power radiated in the far field was as high as about 500 MW, with a frequency of 32.1 GHz and a pulse width of 20 ns. The radiation mode was well controlled to be TM0n mode.

  7. Gigawatt-class radiation generated by a Ka-band overmoded Cherenkov-type high power millimeter wave generator.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dapeng; Shu, Ting; Ju, Jinchuan; Peng, Shengren

    2015-08-01

    Particle simulation and experimental results are presented about a Ka-band overmoded Cherenkov-type high power millimeter wave generator in this paper. The relativistic electron beam with peak current of 8.4 kA was generated by a pulsed power accelerator working at the voltage of 625 kV, which was guided by an axial magnetic field of 1.05 T and transported through the beam-wave interaction structures. After careful calibration, the microwave power radiated in the far field was as high as about 500 MW, with a frequency of 32.1 GHz and a pulse width of 20 ns. The radiation mode was well controlled to be TM(0n) mode. PMID:26329220

  8. Gigawatt-class radiation generated by a Ka-band overmoded Cherenkov-type high power millimeter wave generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Dapeng Shu, Ting; Ju, Jinchuan; Peng, Shengren

    2015-08-15

    Particle simulation and experimental results are presented about a Ka-band overmoded Cherenkov-type high power millimeter wave generator in this paper. The relativistic electron beam with peak current of 8.4 kA was generated by a pulsed power accelerator working at the voltage of 625 kV, which was guided by an axial magnetic field of 1.05 T and transported through the beam-wave interaction structures. After careful calibration, the microwave power radiated in the far field was as high as about 500 MW, with a frequency of 32.1 GHz and a pulse width of 20 ns. The radiation mode was well controlled to be TM{sub 0n} mode.

  9. Radiation-induced changes in the dielectric response of poly(vinylidene fluoride) type polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilczer, B.; Smogor, H.; Goslar, J.; Warchol, S.

    2003-01-01

    High and dispersive dielectric response, characteristic of the relaxor state, was observed in ferroelectric P(VDF/TrFE)(50/50) copolymers irradiated with 1.0 MeV and 1.5 MeV electrons. Relaxor-like behaviour of the copolymer is a result of overlapping of the dielectric anomaly characteristic of the glass transition and that related to the Curie point, which is shifted downwards by electron irradiation. The results of ESR, IR and NIR Raman spectroscopy studies of the radiation damage to P(VDF/TrFE)(50/50) show that radiation-induced irreversible transformation of the ferroelectric copolymer to the relaxor state is related to the existence of polar clusters, consisting of a variety of short range coherence of trans-conformation, stabilized by random fields of C=C and conjugated C=C bonds.

  10. Stellar model chromospheres. VI - Empirical estimates of the chromospheric radiative losses of late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, J. L.; Ayres, T. R.

    1978-01-01

    A method is developed for estimating the nonradiative heating of stellar chromospheres by measuring the net radiative losses in strong Fraunhofer line cores. This method is applied to observations of the Mg II resonance lines in a sample of 32 stars including the sun. At most a small dependence of chromospheric nonradiative heating on stellar surface gravity is found, which is contrary to the large effect predicted by recent calculations based on acoustic-heating theories.

  11. Bianchi VI cosmological models representing perfect fluid and radiation with electric-type free gravitational fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S. R.; Banerjee, S. K.

    1992-11-01

    A homogeneous Bianchi type VIh cosmological model filled with perfect fluid, null electromagnetic field and streaming neutrinos is obtained for which the free gravitational field is of the electric type. The barotropic equation of statep = (γ-1)ɛ is imposed in the particular case of Bianchi VI0 string models. Various physical and kinematical properties of the models are discussed.

  12. Monte Carlo simulation-based feasibility study of a dose-area product meter built into a collimator for diagnostic X-ray.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yongsu; Kim, Hyunji; Park, MinSeok; Kim, Jungsu; Seo, Deoknam; Choi, Inseok; Jeong, Hoiwoun; Kim, Jungmin

    2014-12-01

    According to the International Electro-technical Commission, manufacturers of X-ray equipment should indicate the number of radiation doses to which a patient can be exposed. Dose-area product (DAP) meters are readily available devices that provide dose indices. Collimators are the most commonly employed radiation beam restrictors in X-ray equipment. DAP meters are attached to the lower surface of a collimator. A DAP meter consists of a chamber and electronics. This separation makes it difficult for operators to maintain the accuracy of a DAP meter. Developing a comprehensive system that has a DAP meter in place of a mirror in the collimator would be effective for measuring, recording the dose and maintaining the quality of the DAP meter. This study was conducted through experimental measurements and a simulation. A DAP meter built into a collimator was found to be feasible when its reading was multiplied by a correction factor. PMID:24353031

  13. The comparison of element partitioning in two types of thermal treatment facilities and the effects on potential radiation dose

    SciTech Connect

    Aaberg, R.L.; Burger, L.L.; Baker, D.A.; Wallo, A. III; Vazquez, G.A.; Beck, W.L.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is performing a technical analysis to support the potential development of risk-based, numerical radiological control criteria (RCC) for mixed waste from DOE operations. As part of the technical analysis, potential future radiation doses are being calculated for workers at thermal treatment facilities and members of the public residing near such facilities. This study compared two types of thermal treatment systems: a conventional combustion chamber with excess air, represented by a rotary kiln with afterburner, and an oxygen-deficient pyrolysis unit, represented by a plasma arc furnace. The purpose of the first part of this study is to estimate the partitioning for significant radionuclides and elements in the two types of thermal treatment systems. Excess-air systems are generally found to produce heavy-metal chlorides, oxides, and sulfates; plasma-arc systems tend to produce more volatile free metals. This difference causes a change in source term dominance from halide volatility to free metal volatility. Chemical thermodynamic methodology is used to estimate partitioning in the two treatment systems. The second part of the study examines how the potential radiation dose to workers handling residue materials is affected by partitioning of radionuclides at the different types of facilities.

  14. NONLINEAR OPTICAL PHENOMENA: Generation of UV radiation in a lithium tetraborate crystal by walk-off compensated Type I sum-frequency mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhar, G. C.; Kumbhakar, P.; Chaudhary, A. K.

    2002-04-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is generated in two lithium tetraborate (Li2B4O7 or LB4) crystals by Type I walk-off compensated sum-frequency mixing (SFM) of the commonly available Nd:YAG laser radiation and radiation from a dye laser pumped by the second harmonic of the same YAG laser. In the walk-off compensated configuration, an enhancement in the conversion efficiency by a factor of 3.8 relative to the single pass generation is realised.

  15. 20 Meter Solar Sail Analysis and Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taleghani, B.; Lively, P.; Banik, J.; Murphy, D.; Trautt, T.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation discusses studies conducted to determine the element type and size that best represents a 20-meter solar sail under ground-test load conditions, the performance of test/Analysis correlation by using Static Shape Optimization Method for Q4 sail, and system dynamic. TRIA3 elements better represent wrinkle patterns than do QUAD3 elements Baseline, ten-inch elements are small enough to accurately represent sail shape, and baseline TRIA3 mesh requires a reasonable computation time of 8 min. 21 sec. In the test/analysis correlation by using Static shape optimization method for Q4 sail, ten parameters were chosen and varied during optimization. 300 sail models were created with random parameters. A response surfaces for each targets which were created based on the varied parameters. Parameters were optimized based on response surface. Deflection shape comparison for 0 and 22.5 degrees yielded a 4.3% and 2.1% error respectively. For the system dynamic study testing was done on the booms without the sails attached. The nominal boom properties produced a good correlation to test data the frequencies were within 10%. Boom dominated analysis frequencies and modes compared well with the test results.

  16. Insufficient Vitamin D Response to Solar Radiation in German Patients with Type 2 Diabetes or Gestational Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Langer, J; Penna-Martinez, M; Bon, D; Herrmann, E; Wallasch, M; Badenhoop, K

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in all forms of diabetes mellitus. Recently, we reported how ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation affected vitamin D [25(OH)D3] concentrations in patients with type 1 diabetes. Our aim was to analyze whether patients with non-autoimmune diabetes, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) also show the same vitamin D profile in relation to environmental factors including ambient temperature as an indirect parameter for outdoor activities. We analyzed 25(OH)D3 concentrations of T2DM (n=349) and GDM patients (n=327) at the University Hospital Frankfurt from 2005 to 2007. Additionally, daily UVB and monthly outside air temperature measurements for Frankfurt/Germany were obtained. We detected a positive correlation between UVB irradiation and 25(OH)D3 concentrations of T2DM and GDM patients (rho=0.50 and rho=0.63, p=0.003 and p<0.0001, respectively). UVB irradiation was in summer (April-October) higher than in winter (November-March) (5.6 kJ/m² vs. 0.5 kJ/m², p<0.0001). However, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in summer remained high with 76% in T2DM and 59% in GDM. In a stepwise regression analysis for the 25(OH)D3 concentration, significant predictors were outdoor temperature (estimate=0.02, p<0.0001), UVB radiation (estimate=-0.0015, p=0.02), year (2006 vs. 2005 estimate=-0.06, p>0.05, 2007 vs. 2005: estimate=-0.13, p<0.0001) and diabetes type (estimate=0.06, p=0.03). In conclusion, the strong correlation between UVB radiation and 25(OH)D3 concentrations in T2DM and GDM patients determines the seasonal variation. Additional determinants for the 25(OH)D3 concentrations were outdoor temperature, year, and diabetes type. Despite the effects of solar radiation both patients groups remain largely vitamin D deficient during summers. PMID:27525476

  17. Positional characteristics of meter-decameter wavelength bursts associated with hard X-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.; Gergely, T. E.; Kane, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    Isolated and grouped type III bursts have been observed in temporal association with impulsive hard X-ray bursts in the 26-154 keV range, down to frequencies as low as 30 MHz and out to a distance of 3.1 solar radii from the disk center. The bursts occurred in regions whose electron density may have been as much as 20 times higher than that of the Newkirk-Saito model. The present observations indicate that electron acceleration/injection occurs over a region covering a wide range of magnetic field lines. It is noted that, of the two gradual hard X-ray bursts observed in association with type IV bursts, one was accompanied by a type II event, while the other was not, although both exhibited the same characteristics. It is suggested that the gradual burst associated with a type IV only involved electrons which are trapped in the plasmoid which produces the meter-decameter emission, while another fraction of the population is trapped in the low-lying loops which produce the hard X-ray and centimeter radiation.

  18. Commercial building end-use energy metering inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Heidell, J.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.; Reilly, R.W.

    1985-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a comprehensive inventory of end-use metered data. The inventory did not discover many sources of metered end-use data; however, research into existing data bases and extensive discussions with professionals associated with building energy conservation have enabled a clear characterization to be developed of the types of metered data that are required to further energy conservation in commercial buildings. Based on the results of the inventory and this clarification of data requirements, the adequacy of existing data bases has been assessed, and recommendations have been developed for future federal data collection efforts. A summary of sources of existing metered end-use data is provided in Section 2.1 and its adequacy has been summarized. Collection of further end-use metered data is both desirable and valuable for many areas of building energy conservation research. Empirical data are needed to address many issues which to date have been addressed using only simulation techniques. The adequacy of using simulation techniques for various purposes needs to be assessed through comparison with measured data. While these data are expensive to acquire, it is cost-effective to do so in the long run, and the need is not being served by the private market. The preceding conclusion based on results from the inventory of existing data highlights two important facts: First, although the data are widely desired in the private sector, they are not widely available. Second, where suitable data are publicly available and contain the desired supporting information, their collection has generally been funded by government-sponsored research.

  19. Flow measurement of liquid hydrocarbons with positive displacement meters: the correction for slippage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Berrocal, Agustín; Montalvo, Cristina; Blázquez, Juan; Balbás, Miguel

    2013-05-01

    In the oil industry, the economical and fiscal impact of the measurements accuracy on the custody transfer operations implies fulfilling strict requirements of legal metrology. In this work, we focus on the positive displacement meters (PD meters) for refined liquid hydrocarbons. The state of the art of the lack of accuracy due to slippage flow in these meters is revised. The slippage flow due to the pressure drop across the device has been calculated analytically by applying the Navier-Stokes equation. No friction with any wall of the slippage channel has been neglected and a more accurate formula than the one found in the literature has been obtained. PD meters are calibrated against a bidirectional prover in order to obtain their meter factor which allows correction of their indications. Instead of the analytical model, an empirical one is proposed to explain the variation of the meter factor of the PD meters with flow rate and temperature for a certain hydrocarbon. The empirical model is based on the historical calibration data, of 9 years on average, of 25 m with four types of refined hydrocarbon. This model has been statistically validated by linear least-squares fitting. By using the model parameters, we can obtain the meter factor corresponding to different conditions of temperature and flow rate from the conditions in which the devices were calibrated. The flow parameter is such that a 10% flow rate variation implies a meter factor variation lower than 0.01%. A rule of thumb value for the temperature parameter is 0.005% per degree Celsius. The model residuals allow surveillance of the device drift and quantifying its contribution to the meter factor uncertainty. The observed drift is 0.09% at 95% confidence level in the analyzed population of meters.

  20. Enrichment of magnetic alignment stimulated by {gamma}-radiation in core-shell type nanoparticle Mn-Zn ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, P. P.; Tangsali, R. B.; Sonaye, B.; Sugur, S.

    2013-02-05

    Core shell type nanoparticle Mn{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} systems with x=0.55, 0.65 and 0.75 were prepared using autocombustion method. The systems were characterized using tools like XRD and IR for structure confirmation. Magnetic parameter measurements like Saturation magnetization and coercivity were obtained from hysteresis loop which exhibited a symmetry shift due to core shell nature of the nanoparticles. Nanoparticles of particle size between 21.2nm to 25.7nm were found to show 20 percent shrinkage after being radiated by the {gamma}-radiation. This is due to variation in the cation distribution which also affects the cell volume of the cubic cell. Lattice constant reduction observed is reflected in the magnetic properties of the samples. A considerable hike in the saturation magnetization of the samples was observed due to enrichment of magnetic alignment in the magnetic core of the particles. Samples under investigation were irradiated with gamma radiation from Co{sup 60} source for different time intervals.

  1. Upgrades of DARWIN, a dose and spectrum monitoring system applicable to various types of radiation over wide energy ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Satoh, Daiki; Endo, Akira; Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Fusao; Sakurai, Hiroki; Arai, Yoichi

    2011-05-01

    A dose and spectrum monitoring system applicable to neutrons, photons and muons over wide ranges of energy, designated as DARWIN, has been developed for radiological protection in high-energy accelerator facilities. DARWIN consists of a phoswitch-type scintillation detector, a data-acquisition (DAQ) module for digital waveform analysis, and a personal computer equipped with a graphical-user-interface (GUI) program for controlling the system. The system was recently upgraded by introducing an original DAQ module based on a field programmable gate array, FPGA, and also by adding a function for estimating neutron and photon spectra based on an unfolding technique without requiring any specific scientific background of the user. The performance of the upgraded DARWIN was examined in various radiation fields, including an operational field in J-PARC. The experiments revealed that the dose rates and spectra measured by the upgraded DARWIN are quite reasonable, even in radiation fields with peak structures in terms of both spectrum and time variation. These results clearly demonstrate the usefulness of DARWIN for improving radiation safety in high-energy accelerator facilities.

  2. Modulation of cloud radiative effect on the strength asymmetry in two types of El Niño events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, X.; Zheng, F.; Zhu, J.

    2015-12-01

    Corresponding to the pronounced amplitude asymmetry for the central Pacific (CP) and eastern Pacific (EP) types of El Niño, an asymmetry in the strength of the Bjerknes positive feedback is found between these two types of El Niño, which is manifested as a weaker relationship between the zonal wind anomaly and the zonal gradient of sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly in the CP El Niño. Detailed analyses have indicated that this strength asymmetry is mainly derived from the weaker sensitivity of the zonal sea level pressure (SLP) anomaly to that of the diabatic heating anomaly during the development phase of CP El Niño events, which mainly results from the large cancelation induced by the negative SST-cloud thermodynamic feedback that negates the positive dynamical feedback. This study also validates these conclusions by using historical runs of 20 models involved in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). It suggests that the CMIP5 models generally depict the asymmetry in amplitude between the two types of El Niño events well, which is consistent with successfully simulating the strength asymmetry of the Bjerknes feedback. As observed during both types of El Niño events, variations in the total cloud amount and short wave radiation also indicated that the cloud radiative effect is an important factor that causes amplitude asymmetry between CP and EP El Niño events. However, the CMIP5 models are severely biased when capturing realistic CP El Niño structures, namely few models can simulate the significantly weaker warming anomalies in the EP relative to the CP.Corresponding to the pronounced amplitude asymmetry for the central Pacific (CP) and eastern Pacific (EP) types of El Niño, an asymmetry in the strength of the Bjerknes positive feedback is found between these two types of El Niño, which is manifested as a weaker relationship between the zonal wind anomaly and the zonal gradient of sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly in the CP

  3. Advanced smoke meter development survey and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitz, R. W.; Penney, C. M.; Stanforth, C. M.; Shaffernocker, W. M.

    1984-01-01

    Ideal smoke meter characteristics are determined to provide a basis for evaluation of candidate systems. Five promising techniques are analyzed in detail to evaluate compilance with the practical smoke meter requirements. Four of the smoke measurement concepts are optical methods: Modulated Transmission (MODTRAN), Cross Beam Absorption Counter (CBAC), Laser Induced Incandescence (LIN), and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (PAS). A rapid response filter instrument called a Taper Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) is also evaluated. For each technique, the theoretical principles are described, the expected performance is determined, and the advantages and disadvantages are discussed The expected performance is evaluated against each of the smoke meter specifications, and the key questions for further study are given. The most promising smoke meter technique analyzed was MODTRAN, which is a variation on a direct transmission measurement. The soot-laden gas is passed through a transmission cell, and the gas pressure is modulated by a speaker.

  4. EMMNet: sensor networking for electricity meter monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhi-Ting; Zheng, Jie; Ji, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Bao-Hua; Qu, Yu-Gui; Huang, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Xiu-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters. PMID:22163551

  5. Solid state recording current meter conversion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Wang, Lichen

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe the conversion of an Endeco-174 current meter to a solid-state recording current meter. A removable solid-state module was designed to fit in the space originally occupied by an 8-track tape cartridge. The module contains a CPU and 128 kilobytes of nonvolatile CMOS memory. The solid-state module communicates with any terminal or computer using an RS-232C interface at 4800 baud rate. A primary consideration for conversion was to keep modifications of the current meter to a minimum. The communication protocol was designed to emulate the Endeco tape translation unit, thus the need for a translation unit was eliminated and the original data reduction programs can be used without any modification. After conversion, the data recording section of the current meter contains no moving parts; the storage capacity of the module is equivalent to that of the original tape cartridge.

  6. Continuous flow measurements using fixed ultrasonic meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oltmann, Rick

    1993-01-01

    USGS has or soon will be installing four continuous flow-monitoring stations in the delta that will use ultrasonic velocity meters (DVM). Funding for the stations has been provided by USGS, DWR, USBR, and Contra Costa Water District.

  7. Advanced metering techniques in the federal sector

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Chvala, W.D. Jr.; Halverson, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The lack of utility metering in the federal sector has hampered introduction of direct billing of individual activities at most military installations. Direct billing will produce accountability for the amount of energy used and is a positive step toward self-directed energy conservation. For many installations, automatic meter reading (AMR) is a cost-effective way to increase the number of meters while reducing labor requirements and providing energy conservation analysis capabilities. The communications technology used by some of the AMR systems provides other demand-side management (DSM) capabilities. This paper summarizes the characteristics and relative merits of several AMR/DSM technologies that may be appropriate for the federal sector. A case study of an AMR system being installed at Fort Irwin, California, describes a cost-effective two-way radio communication system used for meter reading and load control.

  8. Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced immunosuppression by sunscreen in Candida albicans-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, QUAN; LI, RUNXIANG; ZHAO, XIAOXIA; LIANG, BIHUA; MA, SHAOYIN; LI, ZHENJIE; ZHU, HUILAN

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced immunosuppression leading to skin cancer has received increased attention in previous years. The present study aimed to investigate the immunoprotection offered by Anthelios sunscreen in a mouse model of Candida albicans-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity. Anthelios sunscreen was applied to the skin on the dorsal skin of BALB/c mice treated with a sub-erythema dose of solar-simulated radiation. Delayed-type hypersensitivity was induced by immunization with Candida albicans. Changes in the skin thickness of the foot pads were measured, and immunosuppression rates were also evaluated. The expression levels of CD207, CD80 and CD86 in the Langerhans cells were semi-quantitatively detected using Western blotting and immunohistochemical assays. The delayed-type hypersensitivity mouse model was successfully established. The minimal erythema doses of UVA and UVB exposure to the mice were 2,000 and 145 mJ/cm2, respectively. The immunosuppression rates in the sunscreen group and non-sunscreen group were 24.39 and 65.85%, respectively (P<0.01). The results of the Western blotting and immunohistochemistry showed that the expression levels of CD207 (P<0.01), CD80 (P<0.05) and CD86 (P<0.01) were higher in the sunscreen group, compared with those in the non-sunscreen group. UV exposure reduced Candida albicans antigen-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity. Anthelios sunscreen was found to protect the skin from immunosuppression through the activation of epidermal Langerhans cells. PMID:27175551

  9. In-situ calibration of clinical built-in KAP meters with traceability to a primary standard using a reference KAP meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malusek, A.; Helmrot, E.; Sandborg, M.; Grindborg, J.-E.; Alm Carlsson, G.

    2014-12-01

    The air kerma-area product (KAP) is used for settings of diagnostic reference levels. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends that doses in diagnostic radiology (including the KAP values) be estimated with an accuracy of at least ±7% (k = 2). Industry standards defined by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) specify that the uncertainty of KAP meter measurements should be less than +/- 25% (k = 2). Medical physicists willing to comply with the IAEA’s recommendation need to apply correction factors to KAP values reported by x-ray units. The aim of this work is to present and evaluate a calibration method for built-in KAP meters on clinical x-ray units. The method is based on (i) a tandem calibration method, which uses a reference KAP meter calibrated to measure the incident radiation, (ii) measurements using an energy-independent ionization chamber to correct for the energy dependence of the reference KAP meter, and (iii) Monte Carlo simulations of the beam quality correction factors that correct for differences between beam qualities at a standard laboratory and the clinic. The method was applied to the KAP meter in a Siemens Aristos FX plus unit. It was found that values reported by the built-in KAP meter differed from the more accurate values measured by the reference KAP meter by more than 25% for high tube voltages (more than 140 kV) and heavily filtered beams (0.3 mm Cu). Associated uncertainties were too high to claim that the IEC’s limit of 25% was exceeded. Nevertheless the differences were high enough to justify the need for a more accurate calibration of built-in KAP meters.

  10. Ampere-Hour Meter For Rechargeable Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Schott, Timothy D.; Tcheng, Ping

    1993-01-01

    Low-power analog/digital electronic circuit meters discharge of storage battery in ampere-hours. By metering discharge, one obtains indication of state of charge of battery and avoids unnecessary recharging, maintaining capacity of battery and prolonging life. Because of its small size and low power consumption, useful in such applications as portable video cameras, communication equipment on boats, portable audio equipment, and portable medical equipment.

  11. Identification of red pepper powder irradiated with different types of radiation using luminescence methods: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Byeong-Keun; Yoon, Young-Min; Jung, Koo; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Cheong-Tae; Lee, Yunjong; Kim, Dong-Ho; Ryu, Sang-Ryeol

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the reliability of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) methods for identifying irradiated foods, described in the European standards EN 13751:2002 and EN 1788:2001, respectively, which were established solely through interlaboratory studies on gamma-irradiated food. Red pepper powder samples irradiated with electron-beams (e-beams), gamma rays and high-energy X-rays were used as model foods. Samples irradiated with each radiation type at ⩾4 kGy could be correctly identified by the PSL method, whereas samples irradiated at ⩾0.5 kGy with each radiation type could be correctly recognized by the TL method when e-beams, gamma rays, or high-energy X-rays were used as normalization sources. However, different TL intensities were observed for minerals separated from red pepper powder for different irradiation sources, which was confirmed using pure quartz and K-feldspar minerals. Further interlaboratory studies are required to verify this phenomenon. PMID:26830591

  12. Evaluation of some properties of dental ceramic as affected by different types of lasers and gamma radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badr, Yehia; El'Khoudary, M. A.; Annan, Iman

    2004-05-01

    Dental ceramic:Duceram porcelain(Ducera,Dental-Gesellschaft mbH, FrankFurt, Germany) low fusing dental porcelain was subjected in this investigation to different types of laser radiations: a) Nd:YAG laser pulses o 8 ns, 200mJ/pulse for 5&10 minutes b) Tsonamy 70 fs laser pulses for 1 & 5 minutes c)193 nm Excimer laser pulses 6 &13 mJ/pulse for 5 & 10 minutes and finally d) 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 MRad of Gamma radiations using 10 samples for each type of radiation. Knoop hardness values of test samples were measured using a knoop hardness tester(KHN-Ernst Leitz Wetzlar Germany)showing increased hardness values for all test irradiated samples as compared with the control. Highest hardness value were recorded for Excimer laser 13 mJ/pulse-10 minutes(670kg/mm2 as compared with 410kg/mm2 for the control. On the other hand, the highest value for the transverse strength was obtained for Excimer laser 3.8mJ/pulse-10 minutes). To account for the structural changes occurring due to laser irradiations and leading to the detected here improvement in the mechanical properties we used several techniques which are known to be sensitive to any structural changes such as: x-ray diffraction, SE-Microscopy, FTIR & Raman spectroscopy. Our observations showed series of variations indicating good accordance in the introduced here results. A reasonable interpretation is given here for the effects and variations observed in our measurements and spectra as a result of both Gamma and Laser irradiation. Finally, the given here results indicated that Laser irradiation can be used as a powerful tool for improving the hardness and transverse strength of dental ceramic.

  13. Effects on the ocean carbon cycle from solar radiation management types of geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauvset, Siv; Tjiputra, Jerry

    2016-04-01

    Climate engineering is often brought up in the climate mitigation and adaptation discussions. Such action can be viewed as an additional method for reducing the impacts of global warming. However, much more research is required in order to assess both the feasibility and the safety of such methods. We present results from the Norwegian Earth System model (NorESM) for a future RCP8.5 scenario where solar radiation management in the form of stratospheric sulfur injection has been performed in order to limit the global warming. Since the CO2 emissions continue in this future, the impact climate engineering has on the global and regional ocean carbon sink is a key part of this research. We show that while global surface acidification is not significantly enhanced under climate engineering, there are significant changes in the ocean carbon cycle driven by changes in circulation and stratification, and changes in biological production.

  14. Perception of strong-meter and weak-meter rhythms in children with spina bifida meningomyelocele

    PubMed Central

    HOPYAN, TALAR; SCHELLENBERG, E. GLENN; DENNIS, MAUREEN

    2011-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) are often associated with dysrhythmic movement. We studied rhythm discrimination in 21 children with SBM and in 21 age-matched controls, with the research question being whether both groups showed a strong-meter advantage whereby rhythm discrimination is better for rhythms with a strong-meter, in which onsets of longer intervals occurred on the beat, than those with a weak-meter, in which onsets of longer intervals occurred off the beat. Compared to controls, the SBM group was less able to discriminate strong-meter rhythms, although they performed comparably in discriminating weak-meter rhythms. The attenuated strong-meter advantage in children with SBM shows that their rhythm deficits occur at the level of both perception and action, and may represent a central processing disruption of the brain mechanisms for rhythm. PMID:19573270

  15. Summary of types of radiation belt electron precipitation observed by BARREL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halford, Alexa

    2016-07-01

    The Balloon Array for Relativistic Radiation belt Electron Loss (BARREL) was able to infer precipitation of radiation belt electrons on multiple time scales and due to multiple loss mechanisms. One storm will be specifically highlighted which occurred on 26 January 2013 when a solar wind shock hit the Earth. Although MeV electrons were observed to be lost due to an EMIC wave event [Zhang et al in prep], and multiple periods of electron loss during substorms were observed [Rae et al submitted JGR, Mann et al in prep], we will consider an event period where loss associated with multiple time scales, and thus possibly different loss mechanisms was observed from 1000 - 1200 UT on 26 January 2013. At about 1005 UT on 26 January 2013 an injection of radiation belt electrons followed by drift echoes for energies of ˜80 - 400 keV. BARREL observed X-rays with energies less than 180 keV associated with multiple temporal structures during the drift echo event period. The Van Allen Probes were at similar L-values but upwards of 2 hours away in MLT. Upper band chorus and ULF waves were observed during the event period. Throughout the beginning of the event period, microbursts were clearly observed. During this time lower band chorus waves as well as time domain structures were observed at Van Allen Probe A located upwards of 2 hours away in MLT. This large difference in MLT meant that neither potential loss mechanism was able to be clearly associated with the microbursts. As the lower band chorus and time domain structures were observed to recede, the microbursts were also observed to subside. ULF time scale modulation of the X-rays was also observed throughout most of the event period. We will examine if the ULF waves are the cause of the precipitation themselves, or are modulating the loss of particles from a secondary loss mechanism [Brito et al 2015 JGR, Rae et al Submitted JGR]. Although the 100s ms and ULF time scales are clearly observed, there is an ˜20 minute

  16. [Research on Spectrum Radiation Characteristics of a New Type Infrared/ Ultraviolet Dual Color Decoy].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-sheng; Dai, Meng-yan; Liu, Hai-feng; Xie, Chang-you; Zhang, Tong; Fang, Guo-feng

    2015-07-01

    The advantage of traditional MTV infrared decoys which are mainly consist of magnesium, Teflon and VITON is that it emits high radiant energy, so it is an effective countermeasure to traditional seekers which seek the target by heat source. The spectral radiant intensity which generated from high temperature combustion of MTV infrared decoys in near infrared region and ultraviolet band is very high, and that in Mid-IR region is relative lower, however the radiant intensity of real jet fighter in ultraviolet band is low and the infrared radiant intensity ratio of Mid-IR to near IR band is greater than 1. Thus, the traditional MTV infrared decoys are hardly able to counter the seekers equipped with dual color combined guidance system. Based on the spectral matching principle, we designed and prepared a new infrared/ultraviolet dual color decoy which is mainly consist of oxidant (wt% 45-75), fuel (wt% 10-25), energetic binder (wt% 25-50) and additives. We conducted theoretical calculations on combustion products of the reagent combinations using CEA (Chemic equilibrium & Application) software and initially determined the content of each component of the decoy formulation on the basis of the calculations results, then investigated the infrared radiation characteristics of decoys employing SR5000 spectrum radiometer and remote sensing interferometer spectrometer Tensor37 and analyzed the possible reasons for test results difference of the two systems separately from the test principle and calculation method, the testing environment, stability of testing results and other aspects. We studied the ultraviolet radiation characteristics of decoys using S2000 fiber optical spectrometer and the test results were consistent with the fighter ultraviolet radiant intensity which gained from theoretical calculation. We researched on the temperature characteristics of decoys by Imager IR 8325 mid-infrared thermal imager and it turned out that the dual color decoy is similar to the

  17. A new type of bunch compressor and seeding of a short-wavelength coherent radiation.

    SciTech Connect

    Zholents, A. A.; Zolotorev, M. S. )

    2011-05-30

    Transverse-to-longitudinal emittance exchange was proposed in [1] as a tool for an effective matching of the electron beam phase space to requirements of a possible application. Here we propose a new purpose, namely, use of two consecutive emittance exchanges equipped with the telescope between them for a bunch compression that can be done without the energy chirp in the electron bunch. In principle it allows to reduce the electron peak current in the linac by moving the bunch compressor to the end of the linac and, thus, to relax collective effects associated with high peak currents. It is also possible to have a split-action compression when the first part is done inside the low-energy part of the linac and the second and final part is done after the linac. We also demonstrate how proposed bunch compressor can be used for frequency up-conversion of the energy modulation provided by the laser interacting with the electron beam and thus can prepare a significantly higher frequency seed for seeded free-electron lasers. The same approach can be used for a frequency down-conversion that can be useful for generation of THz radiation.

  18. Burton-Miller-type singular boundary method for acoustic radiation and scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhuo-Jia; Chen, Wen; Gu, Yan

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes the singular boundary method (SBM) in conjunction with Burton and Miller's formulation for acoustic radiation and scattering. The SBM is a strong-form collocation boundary discretization technique using the singular fundamental solutions, which is mathematically simple, easy-to-program, meshless and introduces the concept of source intensity factors (SIFs) to eliminate the singularities of the fundamental solutions. Therefore, it avoids singular numerical integrals in the boundary element method (BEM) and circumvents the troublesome placement of the fictitious boundary in the method of fundamental solutions (MFS). In the present method, we derive the SIFs of exterior Helmholtz equation by means of the SIFs of exterior Laplace equation owing to the same order of singularities between the Laplace and Helmholtz fundamental solutions. In conjunction with the Burton-Miller formulation, the SBM enhances the quality of the solution, particularly in the vicinity of the corresponding interior eigenfrequencies. Numerical illustrations demonstrate efficiency and accuracy of the present scheme on some benchmark examples under 2D and 3D unbounded domains in comparison with the analytical solutions, the boundary element solutions and Dirichlet-to-Neumann finite element solutions.

  19. The 34-meter antenna-subreflector translations to maximize RF gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katow, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    The extension of the 26 meter antenna to 34 meter diameter decreased the F/D ratio. This F/D change resulted in unacceptable gain losses due to the hyperboloid's lateral deflections. A three direction translating mounting device was added to the hyperboloid. This device was controlled by a microprocessor to minimize the offsets of the phase centers in the cassegrain RF system and also compensated for boresight directions. The use of the radiation program to predict the gain losses from displacements computed by a structural computing program using an analytical model of the 34 meter reflector structure is discussed. Field test results showed accurate predictions for the Y and Z hyperboloid translations. In the X direction, the prediction value was low. However, the computed gain losses vs primary foci offsets by the radiation program were verified by field tests.

  20. Muscle-Equivalent Environmental Radiation Meter of Extreme Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kastner, J; Rose, J E; Shonka, F R

    1963-06-01

    A 16.5 liter spherical ion chamber was constructed of conducting muscle-equivalent plastic and filled to 760 mm-Hg with a muscle-equivalent gas. The use of the chamber for measurements of natural environmental backgrounds was made quite feasible with the aid of the recently developed Shonka vibrating quartz fiber electrometer. This instrument is routinely operable at the extremely high sensitivity of better than 5000 divisions per volt. This system, therefore, has made possible reproducible measurements of absorbed dose-rates of fractions of a micro-rad per hour without any need for the usual corrections for wall-effect, stopping power, and so forth. PMID:17794904

  1. The effect of initial conditions on the electromagnetic radiation generation in type III solar radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, H.; Tsiklauri, D.

    2013-06-15

    Extensive particle-in-cell simulations of fast electron beams injected in a background magnetised plasma with a decreasing density profile were carried out. These simulations were intended to further shed light on a newly proposed mechanism for the generation of electromagnetic waves in type III solar radio bursts [D. Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas, 18, 052903 (2011)]. The numerical simulations were carried out using different density profiles and fast electron distribution functions. It is shown that electromagnetic L and R modes are excited by the transverse current, initially imposed on the system. In the course of the simulations, no further interaction of the electron beam with the background plasma could be observed.

  2. The accuracy of portable peak flow meters.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M R; Dickinson, S A; Hitchings, D J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The variability of peak expiratory flow (PEF) is now commonly used in the diagnosis and management of asthma. It is essential for PEF meters to have a linear response in order to obtain an unbiased measurement of PEF variability. As the accuracy and linearity of portable PEF meters have not been rigorously tested in recent years this aspect of their performance has been investigated. METHODS: The response of several portable PEF meters was tested with absolute standards of flow generated by a computer driven, servo controlled pump and their response was compared with that of a pneumotachograph. RESULTS: For each device tested the readings were highly repeatable to within the limits of accuracy with which the pointer position can be assessed by eye. The between instrument variation in reading for six identical devices expressed as a 95% confidence limit was, on average across the range of flows, +/- 8.5 l/min for the Mini-Wright, +/- 7.9 l/min for the Vitalograph, and +/- 6.4 l/min for the Ferraris. PEF meters based on the Wright meter all had similar error profiles with overreading of up to 80 l/min in the mid flow range from 300 to 500 l/min. This overreading was greatest for the Mini-Wright and Ferraris devices, and less so for the original Wright and Vitalograph meters. A Micro-Medical Turbine meter was accurate up to 400 l/min and then began to underread by up to 60 l/min at 720 l/min. For the low range devices the Vitalograph device was accurate to within 10 l/min up to 200 l/min, with the Mini-Wright overreading by up to 30 l/min above 150 l/min. CONCLUSION: Although the Mini-Wright, Ferraris, and Vitalograph meters gave remarkably repeatable results their error profiles for the full range meters will lead to important errors in recording PEF variability. This may lead to incorrect diagnosis and bias in implementing strategies of asthma treatment based on PEF measurement. PMID:1465746

  3. Urinary Concentrations of Benzophenone-Type Ultraviolet Radiation Filters and Couples' Fecundity

    PubMed Central

    Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Sapra, Katherine J.; Maisog, José; Sundaram, Rajeshwari

    2014-01-01

    Concern has arisen about benzophenone (BP) ultraviolet (UV) radiation filters, given their use in sunscreen and personal-care products and their reported estrogenic and antiandrogenic activity. We recruited 501 couples who were discontinuing use of contraceptives in order to become pregnant for the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment (LIFE) Study (Michigan and Texas, 2005–2009). Couples provided urine specimens and completed daily journals until they either achieved pregnancy or had tried for 12 months. Women used fertility monitors to time sexual intercourse and digital pregnancy tests. Urinary concentrations of 5 UV filters (ng/mL) were determined using triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry: 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (also called BP-1); 2,2′,4,4′-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (BP-2); 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP-3); 2,2′-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP-8); and 4-hydroxybenzophenone. Fecundability odds ratios were estimated for each UV filter (dichotomized at the 75th percentile) and adjusted for age, creatinine concentration, body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2), cotinine concentration, season, and site, while accounting for time off contraception. Separate models were fitted for each UV filter and partner; final models included partners' concentrations. Male partners' concentrations of BP-2 and 4-hydroxybenzophenone were associated with reduced fecundity in adjusted models (fecundability odds ratio (FOR) = 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 0.95) and FOR = 0.74 (95% CI: 0.54, 1.00), respectively). In models adjusting for both partners' concentrations, male BP-2 concentration remained associated with reduced fecundity (FOR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.97). These data suggest that male exposure to select UV filters may diminish couples' fecundity, resulting in a longer time to pregnancy. PMID:25395025

  4. 20 Meter Solar Sail Analysis and Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taleghani, B. K.; Lively, P. S.; Banik, J.; Murphy, D. M.; Trautt, T. A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes finite element analyses and correlation studies to predict deformations and vibration modes/frequencies of a 20-meter solar sail system developed by ATK Space Systems. Under the programmatic leadership of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's In-Space Propulsion activity, the 20-meter solar sail program objectives were to verify the design, to assess structural responses of the sail system, to implement lessons learned from a previous 10-meter quadrant system analysis and test program, and to mature solar sail technology to a technology readiness level (TRL) of 5. For this 20 meter sail system, static and ground vibration tests were conducted in NASA Glenn Research Center's 100 meter diameter vacuum chamber at Plum Brook station. Prior to testing, a preliminary analysis was performed to evaluate test conditions and to determine sensor and actuator locations. After testing was completed, an analysis of each test configuration was performed. Post-test model refinements included updated properties to account for the mass of sensors, wiring, and other components used for testing. This paper describes the development of finite element models (FEM) for sail membranes and masts in each of four quadrants at both the component and system levels, as well as an optimization procedure for the static test/analyses correlation.

  5. Use of Coriolis meters in gas applications

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, T.; Pawlas, G.

    1995-12-31

    Coriolis mass flowmeters provide a solution for measuring the mass flow rate of gases directly. Recent calibration data on compressed air shows that the factory water calibration is also valid on air. In addition, a Coriolis meter is fundamentally linear resulting in an accurate measurement over a wide flow range. Data are presented based on testing performed on Micro Motion 25 mm, 50 mm, and 75 mm Coriolis mass flowmeters on compressed air. Test pressures ranging between 1.7 bar (25 psia) and 100 bar (1450 psia) and mass flow rates ranging between 100:1 to 10:1, depending on the meter size. All calibration points fell with {plus_minus}2%, with a significant portion of the data within {plus_minus}5%. Data are also presented for a 6 mm meter on natural gas at 100 bar; all data are within {plus_minus}0.5%. Repeatability data are presented for a 9 mm meter calibrated on 100 bar air for calibration run times between 10 and 60 seconds. Meter repeatability improved approximately 10 times to {plus_minus}0.15% when the calibration time was 60 seconds.

  6. The 4-meter lunar engineering telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, Keith; Giannini, Judith A.; Kilgus, Charles C.; Bely, Pierre Y.; May, B. Scott; Cooper, Shannon A.; Schlimm, Gerard H.; Sounder, Charles; Ormond, Karen; Cheek, Eric

    1991-01-01

    The 16-meter diffraction limited lunar telescope incorporates a primary mirror with 312 one-meter segments; 3 nanometer active optics surface control with laser metrology and hexapod positioners; a space frame structure with one-millimeter stability; and a hexapod mount for pointing. The design data needed to limit risk in this development can be obtained by building a smaller engineering telescope on the moon with all of the features of the 16-meter design. This paper presents a 4.33-meter engineering telescope concept developed by the Summer 1990 Student Program of the NASA/JHU Space Grant Consortium Lunar Telescope Project. The primary mirror, made up of 18 one-meter hexagonal segments, is sized to provide interesting science as well as engineering data. The optics are configured as a Ritchey-Chretien with a coude relay to the focal plane beneath the surface. The optical path is continuously monitored with 3-nanometer precision interferometrically. An active optics processor and piezoelectric actuators operate to maintain the end-to-end optical configuration established by wave front sensing using a guide star. The mirror segments, consisting of a one-centimeter thick faceplate on 30-cm deep ribs, maintain the surface figure to a few nanometers under lunar gravity and thermal environment.

  7. Historical Patterns in the Types of Procedures Performed and Radiation Safety Practices Used in Nuclear Medicine From 1945-2009.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, Miriam E; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Doody, Michele M; Lim, Hyeyeun; Bolus, Norman E; Simon, Steven L; Alexander, Bruce H; Kitahara, Cari M

    2016-07-01

    The authors evaluated historical patterns in the types of procedures performed in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine and the associated radiation safety practices used from 1945-2009 in a sample of U.S. radiologic technologists. In 2013-2014, 4,406 participants from the U.S. Radiologic Technologists (USRT) Study who previously reported working with medical radionuclides completed a detailed survey inquiring about the performance of 23 diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclide procedures and the use of radiation safety practices when performing radionuclide procedure-related tasks during five time periods: 1945-1964, 1965-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-1999, and 2000-2009. An overall increase in the proportion of technologists who performed specific diagnostic or therapeutic procedures was observed across the five time periods. Between 1945-1964 and 2000-2009, the median frequency of diagnostic procedures performed substantially increased (from 5 wk to 30 wk), attributable mainly to an increasing frequency of cardiac and non-brain PET scans, while the median frequency of therapeutic procedures performed modestly decreased (from 4 mo to 3 mo). Also a notable increase was observed in the use of most radiation safety practices from 1945-1964 to 2000-2009 (e.g., use of lead-shielded vials during diagnostic radiopharmaceutical preparation increased from 56 to 96%), although lead apron use dramatically decreased (e.g., during diagnostic imaging procedures, from 81 to 7%). These data describe historical practices in nuclear medicine and can be used to support studies of health risks for nuclear medicine technologists. PMID:27218293

  8. Oxygen-hydrogen meter assembly for use in remote sodium sampling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, G.B.; Bohringer, A.P.; Yount, J.A.

    1980-02-01

    An assembly of an electrolytic oxygen meter and a diffusion type hydrogen meter was designed to fit into the Multipurpose Sampler hardware already installed and operating on the four FFTF sodium systems. One of the key elements in this assembly is a ceramic-metal sealed oxygen sensor which allows use of a metal tube to extend the 51 cm (20 in.) between the sampler top and the flowing sodium region.

  9. An evaluation of descent strategies for TNAV-equipped aircraft in an advanced metering environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izumi, K. H.; Schwab, R. W.; Groce, J. L.; Coote, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated were the effects on system throughput and fleet fuel usage of arrival aircraft utilizing three 4D RNAV descent strategies (cost optimal, clean-idle Mach/CAS and constant descent angle Mach/CAS), both individually and in combination, in an advanced air traffic control metering environment. Results are presented for all mixtures of arrival traffic consisting of three Boeing commercial jet types and for all combinations of the three descent strategies for a typical en route metering airport arrival distribution.

  10. Portable peak flow meters: physical characteristics, influence of temperature, altitude, and humidity.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, O F; Miller, M R; Sigsgaard, T; Tidley, M; Harding, R M

    1994-05-01

    Little is known about the linearity of portable peak flow meters, or about physical gas factors affecting peak expiratory flow (PEF) readings. We therefore tested five portable peak flow meters of three types in an altitude chamber (sea level to 5,500 m) and in a climate chamber at sea level (7-37 degrees C) to determine the influence of the physical conditions of the gas on the reading of the meters. The nonlinear response of the variable orifice meters was confirmed and, when this was corrected for, the readings of these meters were found to be significantly reduced by higher altitude and lower temperature. The readings from a turbine type of peak flow meter were not affected by altitude but were reduced at low temperature. A mathematical model for the variable orifice meters could correct for both their nonlinear behaviour and the effect of gas density (altitude, temperature and humidity). The model showed that correction is not necessary for the differences in gas conditions between calibration and taking of measurements under normal laboratory conditions. All the meters tested had impedances higher than recommended (0.05 kPa.l-1.s) and this may influence PEF at high flows. The mean uncorrected PEF of six healthy subjects when measured with a Mini Wright peak flow meter at sea level and at 3,000 m fell by 5%, but the mean corrected PEF increased by 12%. This increase in PEF was about 60% of that predicted for fully density-dependent flow and agreed with the findings of other similar studies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8050558

  11. Radiation hardness of n-type SiC Schottky barrier diodes irradiated with MeV He ion microbeam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastuović, Željko; Capan, Ivana; Cohen, David D.; Forneris, Jacopo; Iwamoto, Naoya; Ohshima, Takeshi; Siegele, Rainer; Hoshino, Norihiro; Tsuchida, Hidekazu

    2015-04-01

    We studied the radiation hardness of 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SBD) for the light ion detection and spectroscopy in harsh radiation environments. n-Type SBD prepared on nitrogen-doped (∼4 × 1014 cm-3) epitaxial grown 4H-SiC thin wafers have been irradiated by a raster scanning alpha particle microbeam (2 and 4 MeV He2+ ions separately) in order to create patterned damage structures at different depths within a sensitive volume of tested diodes. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) analysis revealed the formation of two deep electron traps in the irradiated and not thermally treated 4H-SiC within the ion implantation range (E1 and E2). The E2 state resembles the well-known Z1/2 center, while the E1 state could not be assigned to any particular defect reported in the literature. Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) microscopy with multiple He ion probe microbeams (1-6 MeV) having different penetration depths in tested partly damaged 4H-SiC SBD has been used to determine the degradation of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) over a wide fluence range of damaging alpha particle. A non-linear behavior of the CCE decrease and a significant degradation of the spectroscopic performance with increasing He ion fluence were observed above the value of 1011 cm-2.

  12. Polymer gels impregnated with gold nanoparticles implemented for measurements of radiation dose enhancement in synchrotron and conventional radiotherapy type beams.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Wan Nordiana; Wong, Christopher James; Ackerly, Trevor; Yagi, Naoto; Geso, Moshi

    2012-09-01

    Normoxic type polyacrylamide gel (nPAG) dosimeters are established for dose quantification in three-dimensions for radiotherapy and hence represent an adequate dosimeter for quantification of the dose variation due to the existence of the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the target during irradiation. This work compared the degree of polymerisation in gel doped with nanoparticles (nPAG-AuNP) with control gel samples when irradiated by various sources. Samples were irradiated with a synchrotron radiation source of mean energy 125 keV, 80 kV X-ray beams from superficial therapy machine (SXRT), 6 MV X-rays and 6 MeV electron beams from linear accelerator. Analysis of the dose-response relation was used to determine a dose enhancement factor (DEF) of 1.76 ± 0.34 and 1.64 ± 0.44 obtained for samples irradiated with kilovoltage X-rays energy from synchrotron source and SXRT respectively. Similarly, including AuNPs in gel results in a DEF of approximately 1.37 ± 0.35 when irradiated by an electron beam and 1.14 ± 0.28 for high energy X-ray beams. The results demonstrate the use of AuNPs embedded in polymer gels for measuring the enhancement of radiation caused by metallic nanoparticles. PMID:22892958

  13. Radiation resistance of weld joints of type 316 stainless steel containing about 10 appm He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabritsiev, S. A.; Pokrovsky, A. S.

    2000-12-01

    Welding is supposed to be an important method for making joints in the pipes conducting the heat agent when replacing divertor and first wall elements. Embrittlement through helium accumulation within the ITER components repaired by welding during maintenance is one of the factors limiting the materials lifetime. To investigate this problem, a set of the 316 RF type steel specimens was saturated by He up to 50 appm at 80°C. Another part was irradiated in the SM-2 reactor up to 0.1 dpa at 80°C. Afterwards, they were subjected to e-beam welding and arc welding, respectively. A part of each specimen underwent LCF bending; another part was tested to tension. These tensile and LCF tests of the specimens showed that neutron irradiation of the weld joints leads to their embrittlement and rapidly reduces the number of cycles to failure.

  14. Collision-induced absorption of radiation in the atmospheres of late-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, Ya. V.

    2016-05-01

    Problems associated with taking into account absorption induced by collisions between hydrogen and helium atoms, helium atoms and hydrogen molecules, and hydrogen molecules, resulting in the formation of short-lived, quasi-molecular complexes are discussed, together with opacity in the atmospheres of late-type stars due to such absorption. There is good agreement between such opacities computed using codes developed by the author and by R. Kurucz. To demonstrate the importance of including collision-induced opacity, theoretical fluxes are compared to the observed spectral energy distribution of the metal-poor L subdwarf SDSS J125637.13-022452.4. The spectral energy distribution of this object can be reproduced with an effective temperature of T eff = 2600 K only if collision-induced absorption is taken into account.

  15. UV radiation exposure, skin type and lymphoid malignancies: results of a French case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Grandin, Laure; Orsi, Laurent; Troussard, Xavier; Monnereau, Alain; Berthou, Christian; Fenaux, Pierre; Marit, Gerald; Soubeyran, Pierre; Huguet, Françoise; Milpied, Noël; Leporrier, Michel; Hémon, Denis; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Investigating the relationship between skin type, UV exposure and lymphoid malignancies (LM). Methods We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in France, including 813 incident cases of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL), lymphoproliferative syndrome (LPS) or multiple myeloma and 748 controls. Results Positive associations between HL and blond/red hair (OR=1.8 [0.8–3.8]), very fair/fair skin (OR=1.6 [1.0–2.5]) were observed. High propensity to burn was associated with HL (OR=1.5 [1.0–2.2]) and LPS (OR=1.4 [1.0–2.1]). Poor ability to tan was significantly associated with HL (OR=1.7 [1.0–2.8]). Having light hair with high propensity to burn was associated with NHL (OR=1.5 [0.9–2.5]) and significantly with HL (OR=3.4 [1.4–8.4]). Having dark hair with high propensity to burn was significantly associated with LPS (OR=1.5 [1.0–2.0]). The associations with HL and NHL were significant for men only, with significant interactions. Outdoors activities since leaving school or in the last decade were not related to LM. Only an almost negative trend was observed. Prior exposure to artificial UV was not associated with LM. Conclusion These results suggest a positive association between the most reactive and palest skin types and NHL or HL in men and do not rule out a slight negative relationship between UV exposure and LM. PMID:18040875

  16. Testing meter, rhythm, and tempo discriminations in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Cook, Robert G

    2010-10-01

    Rhythmic grouping and discrimination is fundamental to music. When compared to the perception of pitch, rhythmic abilities in animals have received scant attention until recently. In this experiment, four pigeons were tested with three types of auditory rhythmic discriminations to investigate their processing of this aspect of sound and music. Two experiments examined a meter discrimination in which successively presented idiophonic sounds were repeated in meters of different lengths in a go/no-go discrimination task. With difficulty, the birds eventually learned to discriminate between 8/4 and 3/4 meters constructed from cymbal and tom drum sounds at 180 beats per minute. This discrimination subsequently transferred to faster tempos, but not to different drum sounds or their combination. Experiment 3 tested rhythmic and arrhythmic patterns of sounds. After 40 sessions of training, these same pigeons showed no discrimination. Experiment 4 tested repetitions of a piano sound at fast and slow tempos. This discrimination was readily learned and showed transfer to novel tempos. The pattern of results suggests that pigeons can time periodic auditory events, but their capacity to understand generalized rhythmic groupings appears limited. PMID:20600695

  17. Miniature, high efficiency transducers for use in ultrasonic flow meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Meghna

    This thesis is concerned with the development of a new type of miniature, high efficiency transducer for use in ultrasonic flow meters. The proposed transducer consists of a thin plate of a suitable piezoelectric material on which an inter-digital transducer is fabricated for the generation and detection of plate acoustic waves. When immersed in a fluid medium, this device can convert energy from plate acoustic waves (PAWs) into bulk acoustic waves (BAWs) and vice versa. It is shown that this mode coupling principle can be used to realize efficient transducers for use in ultrasonic flow meters. This transducer can be mounted flush with the walls of the pipe through which fluid is flowing, resulting in minimal disturbance of fluid flow. A prototype flow cell using these transducers has been designed and fabricated. The characteristics of this device have been measured over water flow rates varying from 0 to 7.5 liters per minute and found to be in good agreement with theory. Another attractive property of the new transducers is that they can be used to realize remotely read, passive, wireless flow meters. Details of methods that can be used to develop this wireless capability are described. The research carried out in this thesis has applications in several other areas such as ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE), noncontact or air coupled ultrasonics, and for developing wireless capability in a variety of other acoustic wave sensors.

  18. Place Postage on Metered Reply Mail Using Postage Meter. Student's Manual and Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostian, Nancy

    Supporting performance objective 64 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on placing postage on metered reply mail using a postage meter are included in this packet. (The packet is the sixth in a set of eight on performing mail…

  19. An evaporation based digital microflow meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, C.; Frijns, A. J. H.; Mandamparambil, R.; Zevenbergen, M. A. G.; den Toonder, J. M. J.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we present a digital microflow meter operating in the range 30-250 nl min-1 for water. The principle is based on determining the evaporation rate of the liquid via reading the number of wetted pore array structures in a microfluidic system, through which continuous evaporation takes place. A proof-of-principle device of the digital flow meter was designed, fabricated, and tested. The device was built on foil-based technology. In the proof-of-principle experiments, good agreement was found between set flow rates and the evaporation rates estimated from reading the number of wetted pore structures. The measurement range of the digital flow meter can be tuned and extended in a straightforward manner by changing the pore structure of the device.

  20. [Estimation of the influence of physical and biological factors on the development of the hematopoietic type of radiation sickness in dogs and two types of monkeys].

    PubMed

    Darenskaia, T A; Nasonova, T A

    2005-01-01

    In this investigation, the analysis of radiobiological experiments on 532 dogs and two types of monkeys (101 animals), irradiated totally in the 1.0 to 6.0 Gy dose range at different irradiation facilities, has been carried out. LD50 values at X-ray and gamma-neutron exposure were close to each other (2.35 and 2.83 Gy, respectively) while at gamma-radiation exposure LD(50/45) increased to 3.09 Gy. Comparison of LD(50/45) values for different kinds of animals allowed us to draw a conclusion of approximately equal radiosensitivities of dogs and Macaca fascicularis monkeys (LD(50/30-45) - 3.09 Gy and 3.17 Gy, respectively); Macaca rhesus monkeys revealed higher radioresistance (LD(50/30-45) - 5.03Gy). Analysis of the influence of several biological factors has not displayed any significant differences in the values of LD(50/45) and average lifespan of male and female dogs. Higher radiosensitivity of dogs with body weight less than 12 kg and lower radiosensitivity of dogs in summer time compared to other seasons have been shown. Dogs at the age of 2 to 3 years appeared to be more radioresistant than animals of the other age. PMID:15810526

  1. Development of a pressure based vortex-shedding meter: measuring unsteady mass-flow in variable density gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, C. L.; Winroth, M.; Alfredsson, P. H.

    2016-08-01

    An entirely pressure-based vortex-shedding meter has been designed for use in practical time-dependent flows. The meter is capable of measuring mass-flow rate in variable density gases in spite of the fact that fluid temperature is not directly measured. Unlike other vortex meters, a pressure based meter is incredibly robust and may be used in industrial type flows; an environment wholly unsuitable for hot-wires for example. The meter has been tested in a number of static and dynamic flow cases, across a range of mass-flow rates and pressures. The accuracy of the meter is typically better than about 3% in a static flow and resolves the fluctuating mass-flow with an accuracy that is better than or equivalent to a hot-wire method.

  2. 8-Meter UV/Optical Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation proposes using the unprecedented capability of the planned Ares V launch vehicle, to place a 8 meter monolithic space telescope at the Earth-Sun L2 point. This new capability enables a new design pardigm -- simplicity. The six to eight meter class telescope with a massive high Technical Readiness Level ground observatory class monolithic primary mirror has been determined feasible. The proposed design, structural analysis, spacecraft design and shroud integration, thermal analysis, propulsion system, guidance navigation and pointing control assumptions about the avionics, and power systems, operational lifetime, and the idea of in-space servicing are reviewed.

  3. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.

    2007-01-30

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  4. Radiative properties of α-ZnAl 2S 4:V spinel type single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghel, S.; Boulon, G.; Kulyuk, L.; Sushkevich, K.

    2011-12-01

    The absorption and luminescent properties of α-ZnAI 2S 4:V spinel type crystals in the temperature range 10-300 K are investigated. The spectra are assigned to the electronic transitions of trivalent vanadium ions located in octahedral sites. It is shown that at low temperatures the three main components of the revealed IR luminescence spectra are caused by the 1A 1g( 1G)→ 1E g( 1D), 1T 2g( 1D), 3T 2g( 3F)→ 3T 1g( 3F), and 1E g( 1D)→ 3T 1g( 3F) transitions. The observed dependencies of the emission components intensities on temperature are explained assuming that there is a phonon assisted tunnelling between 3T 2g( 3F) and 1E g( 1D) states. On temperature rise, the 3T 2g( 3F)→ 3T 1g( 3F) vibronic transitions suppress other emission channels, which leads to the enhancement of the integral luminescence intensity and to the broadening of the spectrum centred at λ=1.4 μm.

  5. Feeling music: integration of auditory and tactile inputs in musical meter perception.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Gamble, Darik; Sarnlertsophon, Kristine; Wang, Xiaoqin; Hsiao, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Musicians often say that they not only hear, but also "feel" music. To explore the contribution of tactile information in "feeling" musical rhythm, we investigated the degree that auditory and tactile inputs are integrated in humans performing a musical meter recognition task. Subjects discriminated between two types of sequences, 'duple' (march-like rhythms) and 'triple' (waltz-like rhythms) presented in three conditions: 1) Unimodal inputs (auditory or tactile alone), 2) Various combinations of bimodal inputs, where sequences were distributed between the auditory and tactile channels such that a single channel did not produce coherent meter percepts, and 3) Simultaneously presented bimodal inputs where the two channels contained congruent or incongruent meter cues. We first show that meter is perceived similarly well (70%-85%) when tactile or auditory cues are presented alone. We next show in the bimodal experiments that auditory and tactile cues are integrated to produce coherent meter percepts. Performance is high (70%-90%) when all of the metrically important notes are assigned to one channel and is reduced to 60% when half of these notes are assigned to one channel. When the important notes are presented simultaneously to both channels, congruent cues enhance meter recognition (90%). Performance drops dramatically when subjects were presented with incongruent auditory cues (10%), as opposed to incongruent tactile cues (60%), demonstrating that auditory input dominates meter perception. We believe that these results are the first demonstration of cross-modal sensory grouping between any two senses. PMID:23119038

  6. BEAM QUALITY CORRECTION FACTORS FOR KAP METERS FOR LIGHTLY AND HEAVILY FILTERED X-RAY BEAMS.

    PubMed

    Herrnsdorf, L; Petersson, H

    2016-06-01

    Kerma-area product (KAP) meters have a pronounced energy dependence when measuring air KAP for lightly filtered X-ray beams (RQR). Today, it is also common with more heavily filtered beams. In this work, the energy dependence for lightly as well as heavily filtered beams (RQC) was investigated for several KAP meter models. The relative energy dependence of the readings of an external and an internal KAP meter was determined relative to an ionisation chamber, which had been calibrated at the primary standards laboratory. As a complement to the measurements, the sensitivity of a KAP meter for various X-ray beam qualities was modelled using Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport and absorption. The result showed a variation in relative energy dependence of up to 30 % for KAP meters for RQC beam qualities compared with RQR qualities. A reduced sensitivity of KAP meters for heavily filtered beams in comparison with lightly filtered ones was found, and it is important that the beam-specific radiation quality correction factors are applied to correct the registered KAP values. PMID:26994096

  7. 49 CFR 192.359 - Customer meter installations: Operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Customer meter installations: Operating pressure... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.359 Customer meter installations: Operating pressure. (a) A meter may not be used at a pressure that is more than 67 percent of the manufacturer's...

  8. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters...

  9. 18 CFR 367.9020 - Account 902, Meter reading expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Account 902, Meter... GAS ACT Operation and Maintenance Expense Chart of Accounts § 367.9020 Account 902, Meter reading... customer meters, and determining consumption when performed by employees engaged in reading meters....

  10. 49 CFR 192.353 - Customer meters and regulators: Location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Location. 192.353... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.353 Customer meters and regulators: Location. (a) Each meter and...

  11. 49 CFR 192.359 - Customer meter installations: Operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Customer meter installations: Operating pressure... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.359 Customer meter installations: Operating pressure. (a) A meter may not be used at a pressure that is more than 67 percent of the manufacturer's...

  12. 18 CFR 367.9020 - Account 902, Meter reading expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Account 902, Meter... GAS ACT Operation and Maintenance Expense Chart of Accounts § 367.9020 Account 902, Meter reading... customer meters, and determining consumption when performed by employees engaged in reading meters....

  13. 49 CFR 192.353 - Customer meters and regulators: Location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Location. 192.353... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.353 Customer meters and regulators: Location. (a) Each meter and...

  14. 49 CFR 192.357 - Customer meters and regulators: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Installation. 192... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.357 Customer meters and regulators: Installation. (a) Each meter and each regulator must be installed so as to minimize anticipated stresses upon...

  15. 49 CFR 192.359 - Customer meter installations: Operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Customer meter installations: Operating pressure... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.359 Customer meter installations: Operating pressure. (a) A meter may not be used at a pressure that is more than 67 percent of the manufacturer's...

  16. 49 CFR 192.353 - Customer meters and regulators: Location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Location. 192.353... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.353 Customer meters and regulators: Location. (a) Each meter and...

  17. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters...

  18. 49 CFR 192.357 - Customer meters and regulators: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Installation. 192... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.357 Customer meters and regulators: Installation. (a) Each meter and each regulator must be installed so as to minimize anticipated stresses upon...

  19. 49 CFR 192.357 - Customer meters and regulators: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Installation. 192... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.357 Customer meters and regulators: Installation. (a) Each meter and each regulator must be installed so as to minimize anticipated stresses upon...

  20. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters...

  1. 18 CFR 367.9020 - Account 902, Meter reading expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 902, Meter... GAS ACT Operation and Maintenance Expense Chart of Accounts § 367.9020 Account 902, Meter reading... customer meters, and determining consumption when performed by employees engaged in reading meters....

  2. 49 CFR 192.357 - Customer meters and regulators: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Installation. 192... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.357 Customer meters and regulators: Installation. (a) Each meter and each regulator must be installed so as to minimize anticipated stresses upon...

  3. 49 CFR 192.353 - Customer meters and regulators: Location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Location. 192.353... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.353 Customer meters and regulators: Location. (a) Each meter and...

  4. 49 CFR 192.359 - Customer meter installations: Operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Customer meter installations: Operating pressure... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.359 Customer meter installations: Operating pressure. (a) A meter may not be used at a pressure that is more than 67 percent of the manufacturer's...

  5. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters...

  6. 18 CFR 367.9020 - Account 902, Meter reading expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 902, Meter... GAS ACT Operation and Maintenance Expense Chart of Accounts § 367.9020 Account 902, Meter reading... customer meters, and determining consumption when performed by employees engaged in reading meters....

  7. 49 CFR 192.353 - Customer meters and regulators: Location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Location. 192.353... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.353 Customer meters and regulators: Location. (a) Each meter and...

  8. WENDI: an improved neutron rem meter.

    PubMed

    Olsher, R H; Hsu, H H; Beverding, A; Kleck, J H; Casson, W H; Vasilik, D G; Devine, R T

    2000-08-01

    Neutron rem meters are routinely used for real-time field measurements of neutron dose equivalent where neutron spectra are unknown or poorly characterized. These meters are designed so that their response per unit fluence approximates an appropriate fluence-to-dose conversion function. Typically, a polyethylene moderator assembly surrounds a thermal neutron detector, such as a BF3 counter tube. Internal absorbers may also be used to further fine-tune the detector response to the shape of the desired fluence conversion function. Historical designs suffer from a number of limitations. Accuracy for some designs is poor at intermediate energies (50 keV-250 keV) critical for nuclear power plant dosimetry. The well-known Andersson-Braun design suffers from angular dependence because of its lack of spherical symmetry. Furthermore, all models using a pure polyethylene moderator have no useful high-energy response, which makes them inaccurate around high-energy accelerator facilities. This paper describes two new neutron rem meter designs with improved accuracy over the energy range from thermal to 5 GeV. The Wide Energy Neutron Detection Instrument (WENDI) makes use of both neutron generation and absorption to contour the detector response function. Tungsten or tungsten carbide (WC) powder is added to a polyethylene moderator with the expressed purpose of generating spallation neutrons in tungsten nuclei and thus enhance the high-energy response of the meter beyond 8 MeV. Tungsten's absorption resonance structure below several keV was also found to be useful in contouring the meter's response function. The WENDI rem meters were designed and optimized using the Los Alamos Monte Carlo codes MCNP, MCNPX, and LAHET. A first generation prototype (WENDI-I) was built in 1995 and its testing was completed in 1996. This design placed a BF3 counter in the center of a spherical moderator assembly, whose outer shell consisted of 30% by weight WC in a matrix of polyethylene. A borated

  9. Repeatability and oblique flow response characteristics of current meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.; Thibodeaux, Kirk G.; Kaehrle, William R.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory investigation into the precision and accuracy of various mechanical-current meters are presented. Horizontal-axis and vertical-axis meters that are used for the measurement of point velocities in streams and rivers were tested. Meters were tested for repeatability and response to oblique flows. Both horizontal- and vertical-axis meters were found to under- and over-register oblique flows with errors generally increasing as the velocity and angle of flow increased. For the oblique flow tests, magnitude of errors were smallest for horizontal-axis meters. Repeatability of all meters tested was good, with the horizontal- and vertical-axis meters performing similarly.

  10. Comparison of current meters used for stream gaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.; Thibodeaux, Kirk G.; Kaehrle, William R.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is field and laboratory testing the performance of several current meters used throughout the world for stream gaging. Meters tested include horizontal-axis current meters from Germany, the United Kingdom, and the People's Republic of China, and vertical-axis and electromagnetic current meters from the United States. Summarized are laboratory test results for meter repeatability, linearity, and response to oblique flow angles and preliminary field testing results. All current meters tested were found to under- and over-register velocities; errors usually increased as the velocity and angle of the flow increased. Repeatability and linearity of all meters tested were good. In the field tests, horizontal-axis meters, except for the two meters from the People's Republic of China, registered higher velocity than did the vertical-axis meters.

  11. Monte Carlo modeling provides accurate calibration factors for radionuclide activity meters.

    PubMed

    Zagni, F; Cicoria, G; Lucconi, G; Infantino, A; Lodi, F; Marengo, M

    2014-12-01

    Accurate determination of calibration factors for radionuclide activity meters is crucial for quantitative studies and in the optimization step of radiation protection, as these detectors are widespread in radiopharmacy and nuclear medicine facilities. In this work we developed the Monte Carlo model of a widely used activity meter, using the Geant4 simulation toolkit. More precisely the "PENELOPE" EM physics models were employed. The model was validated by means of several certified sources, traceable to primary activity standards, and other sources locally standardized with spectrometry measurements, plus other experimental tests. Great care was taken in order to accurately reproduce the geometrical details of the gas chamber and the activity sources, each of which is different in shape and enclosed in a unique container. Both relative calibration factors and ionization current obtained with simulations were compared against experimental measurements; further tests were carried out, such as the comparison of the relative response of the chamber for a source placed at different positions. The results showed a satisfactory level of accuracy in the energy range of interest, with the discrepancies lower than 4% for all the tested parameters. This shows that an accurate Monte Carlo modeling of this type of detector is feasible using the low-energy physics models embedded in Geant4. The obtained Monte Carlo model establishes a powerful tool for first instance determination of new calibration factors for non-standard radionuclides, for custom containers, when a reference source is not available. Moreover, the model provides an experimental setup for further research and optimization with regards to materials and geometrical details of the measuring setup, such as the ionization chamber itself or the containers configuration. PMID:25195174

  12. Blood group typing based on recording the elastic scattering of laser radiation using the method of digital imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Dolmashkin, A A; Dubrovskii, V A; Zabenkov, I V

    2012-05-31

    The possibility is demonstrated to determine the human blood group by recording the scattering of laser radiation with the help of the digital imaging method. It is experimentally shown that the action of a standing ultrasound wave leads to acceleration of the agglutination reaction of red blood cells, to formation of larger immune complexes of red blood cells, and, as a consequence, to acceleration of their sedimentation. In the absence of agglutination of red blood cells the ultrasound does not enhance the relevant processes. This difference in the results of ultrasound action on the mixture of blood and serum allows a method of blood typing to be offered. Theoretical modelling of the technique of the practical blood typing, carried out on the basis of the elastic light scattering theory, agrees well with the experimental results, which made it possible to plan further improvement of the proposed method. The studies of specific features of sedimentation of red blood cells and their immune complexes were aimed at the optimisation of the sample preparation, i.e., at the search for such experimental conditions that provide the maximal resolution of the method and the device for registering the reaction of red blood cells agglutination. The results of the study may be used in designing the instrumentation for blood group assessment in humans.

  13. Blood group typing based on recording the elastic scattering of laser radiation using the method of digital imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolmashkin, A. A.; Dubrovskii, V. A.; Zabenkov, I. V.

    2012-05-01

    The possibility is demonstrated to determine the human blood group by recording the scattering of laser radiation with the help of the digital imaging method. It is experimentally shown that the action of a standing ultrasound wave leads to acceleration of the agglutination reaction of red blood cells, to formation of larger immune complexes of red blood cells, and, as a consequence, to acceleration of their sedimentation. In the absence of agglutination of red blood cells the ultrasound does not enhance the relevant processes. This difference in the results of ultrasound action on the mixture of blood and serum allows a method of blood typing to be offered. Theoretical modelling of the technique of the practical blood typing, carried out on the basis of the elastic light scattering theory, agrees well with the experimental results, which made it possible to plan further improvement of the proposed method. The studies of specific features of sedimentation of red blood cells and their immune complexes were aimed at the optimisation of the sample preparation, i.e., at the search for such experimental conditions that provide the maximal resolution of the method and the device for registering the reaction of red blood cells agglutination. The results of the study may be used in designing the instrumentation for blood group assessment in humans.

  14. Moisture transport into chlorofluorocarbon-free metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Williams, G

    1999-12-01

    Moisture is known to affect the stability of some metered dose inhalers (MDIs). Hydrofluoroalkanes such as tetrafluoroethane (134a) and heptafluoropropane (227) are known to have higher affinity for moisture than the currently used chlorofluorocarbon propellents. An initial study was conducted to determine the water vapor transmission rates of various elastomers that may be used as gaskets in MDIs. A further study was conducted to measure the moisture ingress rates of various chlorofluorocarbon-free MDIs. The data indicate that moisture transport into chlorofluorocarbon-free MDIs is influenced by the elastomeric nature of the gaskets used and the type of hydrofluoroalkane formulation and storage conditions used. PMID:10588979

  15. Educational Electrical Appliance Power Meter and Logger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2013-01-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power…

  16. Combustion products generating and metering device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiberg, R. E.; Klisch, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Device simulates incipient fire conditions in closely-controlled adjustable manner, to give predetermined degree of intensity at selected locations throughout area, and to verify that detection system will respond. Device can be used with and for cross calibration and experimentation in conjunction with commercially available products of combustion analyzing meters.

  17. Performance of planter meters for cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Components and technology offerings to improve planter performance continue to increase. In particular, new row-meter parts allow units to improve what is called singulation (e.g. reducing skips and doubles) assuming the vacuum pressure is properly set. To help understand the value of all this new t...

  18. Measurement error analysis of taxi meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong; Li, Dan; Li, Hang; Zhang, Da-Jian; Hou, Ming-Feng; Zhang, Shi-pu

    2011-12-01

    The error test of the taximeter is divided into two aspects: (1) the test about time error of the taximeter (2) distance test about the usage error of the machine. The paper first gives the working principle of the meter and the principle of error verification device. Based on JJG517 - 2009 "Taximeter Verification Regulation ", the paper focuses on analyzing the machine error and test error of taxi meter. And the detect methods of time error and distance error are discussed as well. In the same conditions, standard uncertainty components (Class A) are evaluated, while in different conditions, standard uncertainty components (Class B) are also evaluated and measured repeatedly. By the comparison and analysis of the results, the meter accords with JJG517-2009, "Taximeter Verification Regulation ", thereby it improves the accuracy and efficiency largely. In actual situation, the meter not only makes up the lack of accuracy, but also makes sure the deal between drivers and passengers fair. Absolutely it enriches the value of the taxi as a way of transportation.

  19. Numerical modeling of fluidic flow meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, D.; Patel, B. R.

    1992-05-01

    The transient fluid flow in fluidic flow meters has been modeled using Creare.x's flow modeling computer program FLUENT/BFC that solves the Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates. The numerical predictions of fluid flow in a fluidic flow meter have been compared with the available experimental results for a particular design, termed the PC-4 design. Overall flow structures such as main jet bending, and primary and secondary vortices predicted by FLUENT/BFC are in excellent agreement with flow visualization results. The oscillation frequencies of the PC-4 design have been predicted for a range of flow rates encompassing laminar and turbulent flow and the results are in good agreement with experiments. The details of the flow field predictions reveal that an important factor that determines the onset of oscillations in the fluidic flow meter is the feedback jet momentum relative to the main jet momentum. The insights provided by the analysis of the PC-4 fluidic flow meter design have led to an improved design. The improved design has sustained oscillations at lower flow rates compared with the PC-4 design and has a larger rangeability.

  20. Measuring and metering of unsteady flows

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanabhan, M.; Dodge, F.T.; Heidrick, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on unsteady flow. Topics considered at the conference included the identification of pulsation induced orifice metering errors including gage line shift, electromagnetic flowmeters, mass flow measurements on the flue of a woodburning stove, fluid excitation forces acting on a tube array, and a numerical analysis of pulsating laminar flow through a pipe orifice.

  1. Modernization of the DFA Moisture Meter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dried Fruit Association (DFA) Dried Fruit Moisture Tester has been the standard technique for determining moisture in dried fruit for more than 50 years. This method of testing moisture is recognized world wide and is AOAC approved. The meter applies the results of conductivity measurements and ...

  2. Meter Designs Reduce Operation Costs for Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center collaborated with Quality Monitoring and Control (QMC) of Humble, Texas, through a Space Act Agreement to design a balanced flow meter for the Space Shuttle Program. QMC founded APlus-QMC LLC to commercialize the technology, which has contributed to 100 new jobs, approximately $250,000 in yearly sales, and saved customers an estimated $10 million.

  3. Multi-Antenna Data Collector for Smart Metering Networks with Integrated Source Separation by Spatial Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quednau, Philipp; Trommer, Ralph; Schmidt, Lorenz-Peter

    2016-03-01

    Wireless transmission systems in smart metering networks share the advantage of lower installation costs due to the expandability of separate infrastructure but suffer from transmission problems. In this paper the issue of interference of wireless transmitted smart meter data with third party systems and data from other meters is investigated and an approach for solving the problem is presented. A multi-channel wireless m-bus receiver was developed to separate the desired data from unwanted interferers by spatial filtering. The according algorithms are presented and the influence of different antenna types on the spatial filtering is investigated. The performance of the spatial filtering is evaluated by extensive measurements in a realistic surrounding with several hundreds of active wireless m-bus transponders. These measurements correspond to the future environment for data-collectors as they took place in rural and urban areas with smart gas meters equipped with wireless m-bus transponders installed in almost all surrounding buildings.

  4. Low Flow Vortex Shedding Flow Meter for Hypergolics/all Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thinh, Ngo Dinh

    1991-01-01

    A family of vortex shedding flow meters, for measurement of hypergol flows, was designed and fabricated. The test loops to evaluate the flow meters for water flow, as well as Freon -113 flow which simulates the hypergolic fluids, were modified and constructed to utilize a pump system which has an output capacity of 200 gpm. Test runs were conducted on the small 1/2 inch model with Freon 113 and on the larger models with water. Results showed that the linearity between the frequency of the vortices and the flow rate of the fluids was very close to that of the turbine flow meter. It is suggested that the vortex shedding flow meter is a possible replacement for the existing turbine type.

  5. Comparison of a few recording current meters in San Francisco Bay, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    A team of research scientists in the U.S. Geological Survey uses San Francisco Bay, California, as an outdoor laboratory to study complicated interactions of physical, chemical, and biological processes which take place in an estuarine environment. A current meter comparison study was conceived because of the need to select a suitable current meter to meet field requirements for current measurements in the Bay. The study took place in south San Francisco Bay, California, in the spring of 1977. An instrument tower which was designed to support instruments free from the conventional mooring line motions was constructed and emplaced in south San Francisco Bay. During a period of two months, four types of recording current meters have been used in the tests. The four types were: (1) Aanderaa, (2) tethered shroud-impeller, (3) drag-inclinometer, and (4) electromagnetic current meters. With the exception of the electromagnetic current meter, one of each type was mounted on the instrument tower, and one of each type was deployed on moorings near the instrument tower. In addition, a wind anemometer and a recording tide gauge were also installed on the tower. This paper discusses the characteristics of each instrument and the accuracy that each instrument can provide when used in an estuarine environment. We pay special attention to our experiences in the field operation with respect to handling of the instruments and to our experiences working up the raw data in the post-deployment data analysis.

  6. Orbital and Physical Characteristics of Meter-sized Earth Impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Peter G.; Wiegert, Paul; Clark, David; Tagliaferri, Edward

    2015-11-01

    We have analysed the orbits and ablation characteristics in the atmosphere of more than 60 earth-impacting meteoroids of one meter in diameter or larger. Using heights at peak luminosity as a proxy for strength, we find that there is roughly an order of magnitude spread in the apparent strength of the population of meter-sized impactors at the Earth. The orbits and physical strength of these objects are consistent with the majority being asteroidal bodies originating from the inner main asteroid belt. We find ~10-15% of our objects have a probable cometary (Jupiter-Family comet and/or Halley-type comet) origin based on orbital characteristics alone. Only half this number, however, show evidence for the expected weaker than average structure compared to asteroidal bodies. Almost all impactors show peak brightness between 20-40 km altitude. Several events have exceptionally high (relative to the remainder of the population) heights of peak brightness. These are physically most consistent with high microporosity objects, though all were on asteroidal-type orbits. We also find three events, including the Oct 8, 2009 airburst near Sulawesi, Indonesia, which display comparatively low heights of peak brightness, consistent with strong monolithic stones or iron meteoroids. Based on orbital similarity, we find a probable connection among several NEOs in our population with the Taurid meteoroid complex. No other major meteoroid streams show linkages with the pre-atmospheric orbits of our meter-class impactors. Our events cover almost four orders of magnitude in mass, but no trend in height of peak brightness is evident, suggesting no strong trend in strength with size for small NEOs, a finding consistent with the results of Popova et al (2011).

  7. Ion irradiation of electronic-type-separated single wall carbon nanotubes: A model for radiation effects in nanostructured carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Jamie E.; Cress, Cory D.; Messenger, Scott R.; Weaver, Brad D.; Helenic, Alysha R.; Landi, Brian J.; Schauerman, Chris M.; DiLeo, Roberta A.; Cox, Nathanael D.; Hubbard, Seth M.

    2012-08-01

    The structural and electrical properties of electronic-type-separated (metallic and semiconducting) single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin-films have been investigated after irradiation with 150 keV {sup 11}B{sup +} and 150 keV {sup 31}P{sup +} with fluences ranging from 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. Raman spectroscopy results indicate that the ratio of the Raman D to G Prime band peak intensities (D/G Prime ) is a more sensitive indicator of SWCNT structural modification induced by ion irradiation by one order of magnitude compared to the ratio of the Raman D to G band peak intensities (D/G). The increase in sheet resistance (R{sub s}) of the thin-films follows a similar trend as the D/G Prime ratio, suggesting that the radiation induced variation in bulk electrical transport for both electronic-types is equal and related to localized defect generation. The characterization results for the various samples are compared based on the displacement damage dose (DDD) imparted to the sample, which is material and damage source independent. Therefore, it is possible to extend the analysis to include data from irradiation of transferred CVD-graphene films on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates using 35 keV C{sup +} ions, and compare the observed changes at equivalent levels of ion irradiation-induced damage to that observed in the SWCNT thin-film samples. Ultimately, a model is developed for the prediction of the radiation response of nanostructured carbon materials based on the DDD for any incident ion with low-energy recoil spectra. The model is also related to the defect concentration, and subsequently the effective defect-to-defect length, and yields a maximum defect concentration (minimum defect-to-defect length) above which the bulk electrical transport properties in SWCNT thin-films and large graphene-based electronic devices rapidly degrade when exposed to harsh environments.

  8. ANL four-meter calorimeter design and operation manual

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.B.; Lewis, R.N.; Youngdahl, G.A.; Jung, E.A.; Roche, C.T.

    1980-02-01

    The four-meter fuel rod calorimetric system measures the thermal power produced by radioactive decay of fuel rods containing Pu. The Pu mass is related to the measured power through the weighted average of the product of the isotopic decay energies and the decay constants of the Pu isotopes present. U content has no effect since the thermal power produced by the U nuclides is insignificant when compared to Pu. Radiations from Pu are alpha particles and low-energy photons. This calorimeter will measure samples producing power up to 1.5 watts at a rate of one sample every 120 min. The instrument consists of a data-acquisition module made up of a microprocessor, with an 8K-byte nonvolatile memory, a control cabinet and the calorimeter chamber. (FS)

  9. The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter

    SciTech Connect

    Kearny, C.H.

    2001-11-20

    The KFM is a homemade fallout meter that can be made using only materials, tools, and skills found in millions of American homes. It is an accurate and dependable electroscope-capacitor. The KFM, in conjunction with its attached table and a watch, is designed for use as a rate meter. Its attached table relates observed differences in the separations of its two leaves (before and after exposures at the listed time intervals) to the dose rates during exposures of these time intervals. In this manner dose rates from 30 mR/hr up to 43 R/hr can be determined with an accuracy of {+-}25%. A KFM can be charged with any one of the three expedient electrostatic charging devices described. Due to the use of anhydrite (made by heating gypsum from wallboard) inside a KFM and the expedient ''dry-bucket'' in which it can be charged when the air is very humid, this instrument always can be charged and used to obtain accurate measurements of gamma radiation no matter how high the relative humidity. The heart of this report is the step-by-step illustrated instructions for making and using a KFM. These instructions have been improved after each successive field test. The majority of the untrained test families, adequately motivated by cash bonuses offered for success and guided only by these written instructions, have succeeded in making and using a KFM. NOTE: ''The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter'', was published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory report in1979. Some of the materials originally suggested for suspending the leaves of the Kearny Fallout Meter (KFM) are no longer available. Because of changes in the manufacturing process, other materials (e.g., sewing thread, unwaxed dental floss) may not have the insulating capability to work properly. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has not tested any of the suggestions provided in the preface of the report, but they have been used by other groups. When using these instructions, the builder can verify the

  10. Radiological mapping of Kelantan, Malaysia, using terrestrial radiation dose rate.

    PubMed

    Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Sanusi, Syazwan Mohd; Gabdo, Hamman Tukur

    2016-06-01

    Measurements of the environmental terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate (TGRD) in each district of Kelantan state, Malaysia, were carried out using a portable hand-held radiation survey meter and global positioning system. The measurements were done based on geology and soil types of the area. The mean TGRD was found to be 209 nGy h(-1). Few areas of relatively enhanced activity were observed in Pasir Mas, Tanah Merah and Jeli districts, which have a mean TGRD between 300 and 500 nGy h(-1). An isodose map of the area was produced using ArcGIS software version 9.3. PMID:26540360

  11. Atm heterozygous mice are more sensitive to radiation-induced cataracts than are their wild-type counterparts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worgul, Basil V.; Smilenov, Lubomir; Brenner, David J.; Junk, Anna; Zhou, Wei; Hall, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    It is important to know whether the human population includes genetically predisposed radiosensitive subsets. In vitro studies have shown that cells from individuals homozygous for ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) are much more radiosensitive than cells from unaffected individuals. Although cells heterozygous for the ATM gene (ATM(+/-)) may be slightly more radiosensitive in vitro, it remained to be determined whether the greater susceptibility of ATM(+/-) cells translates into an increased sensitivity for late effects in vivo, though there is a suggestion that radiotherapy patients that are heterozygous for the ATM gene may be more at risk of developing late normal tissue damage. We chose cataractogenesis in the lens as a means to assay for the effects of ATM deficiency in a late-responding tissue. One eye of wild-type, Atm heterozygous and homozygous knockout mice was exposed to 0.5-, 1.0-, 2.0-, or 4.0-Gy x rays. The animals were followed weekly for cataract development by conventional slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Cataract development in the animals of all three groups was strongly dependent on dose. The lenses of homozygous mice were the first to opacify at any given dose. Most important in the present context is that cataracts appeared earlier in the heterozygous versus wild-type animals. The data suggest that ATM heterozygotes in the human population may also be radiosensitive. This may influence the choice of individuals destined to be exposed to higher than normal doses of radiation, such as astronauts, and may also suggest that radiotherapy patients who are ATM heterozygotes could be predisposed to increased late normal tissue damage.

  12. Coincident bursts of auroral kilometric radiation and VLF emissions associted with a type 3 solar radio noise event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, T. J.; Singh, S.; Wu, C. S.; Labelle, J.; Treumann, R. A.; Inan, U. S.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines an isolated magnetospheric VLF/radio noise event that is highly suggestive of the triggering of terrestrial auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) bu solar type III radio emission and of a close relation between AKR and broadband hiss. The solar type III burst was measured on polar HF riometers and was coincident with local dayside VLF/LF noise emission bursts at South Pole station. It was also coincident with AKR bursts detected onthe AMPTE/IRM satellite, at the same magnetic local time as South Pole. On the basis of the close association of AKR and VLF bursts, and from geometric considerations relating to wave propagation, it is likely that the AKR source was on the dayside and on field lines near South Pole station. The general level of geomagnetic activity was very low. However, an isolated magnetic impulse event (MIE) accompanied by a riometer absorption pulse was in progress when all of the VLF/radio noise bursts occurred. The very close association of the typew III burst at HF with the AKR is consistent with external stimulation of the AKR, is different, more immediate,triggering process than that implied by Calvert (1981) is invoked. It is suggested here that some of the HF solar radiant energy may decay into waves with frequences comparable to those of the AKR by paraetric excitation or some other process, thus providing the few background photons required for the generation of AKR by the WU and Lee (1979) cyclotron maser instability. The AKR, perhaps by modifying the magnetospheric electron velocity distribution, might have produced the observed VLF emissions. Alternatively, the VLF emissions may have arisen from the same anisotropic and unstable electron distribution function responsible for the AKR.

  13. Community Net Energy Metering: How Novel Policies Expand Benefits of Net Metering to Non-Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, James; Varnado, Laurel

    2009-04-01

    As interest in community solutions to renewable energy grows, more states are beginning to develop policies that encourage properties with more than one meter to install shared renewable energy systems. State net metering policies are evolving to allow the aggregation of multiple meters on a customer’s property and to dissolve conventional geographical boundaries. This trend means net metering is expanding out of its traditional function as an enabling incentive to offset onsite customer load at a single facility. This paper analyzes community net energy metering (CNEM) as an emerging vehicle by which farmers, neighborhoods, and municipalities may more easily finance and reap the benefits of renewable energy. Specifically, it aims to compare and contrast the definition of geographical boundaries among different CNEM models and examine the benefits and limitations of each approach. As state policies begin to stretch the geographic boundaries of net metering, they allow inventive solutions to encourage renewable energy investment. This paper attempts to initiate the conversation on this emerging policy mechanism and offers recommendations for further development of these policies.

  14. A seven-crystal Johann-type hard x-ray spectrometer at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    PubMed Central

    Sokaras, D.; Weng, T.-C.; Nordlund, D.; Alonso-Mori, R.; Velikov, P.; Wenger, D.; Garachtchenko, A.; George, M.; Borzenets, V.; Johnson, B.; Rabedeau, T.; Bergmann, U.

    2013-01-01

    We present a multicrystal Johann-type hard x-ray spectrometer (∼5–18 keV) recently developed, installed, and operated at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. The instrument is set at the wiggler beamline 6-2 equipped with two liquid nitrogen cooled monochromators – Si(111) and Si(311) – as well as collimating and focusing optics. The spectrometer consists of seven spherically bent crystal analyzers placed on intersecting vertical Rowland circles of 1 m of diameter. The spectrometer is scanned vertically capturing an extended backscattering Bragg angular range (88°–74°) while maintaining all crystals on the Rowland circle trace. The instrument operates in atmospheric pressure by means of a helium bag and when all the seven crystals are used (100 mm of projected diameter each), has a solid angle of about 0.45% of 4π sr. The typical resolving power is in the order of \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal}\\begin{document}$\\frac{E}{\\Delta E} \\sim 10\\,000$\\end{document}EΔE∼10000. The spectrometer's high detection efficiency combined with the beamline 6-2 characteristics permits routine studies of x-ray emission, high energy resolution fluorescence detected x-ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering of very diluted samples as well as implementation of demanding in situ environments. PMID:23742527

  15. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    1999-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  16. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  17. Optimized profiles for incompressible flow metering nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, R.; Haji-Sheikh, A.; Lou, D. Y. S.; Spindler, M.

    1988-04-01

    The Euler-Lagrange equation was used to minimize shear stress in designing a flow-metering nozzle. The flow field in the nozzle was computed by solving the momentum equation in integral form. The profile of the nozzle was obtained by minimizing the shear losses in the converging section of the nozzle. Following computation of the profile, a metering nozzle was designed, constructed, and subsequently tested to evaluate the validity of the analysis. The nozzle was designed for a pipe diameter of 15.24 cm (6 in.) and a throat diameter of 9.266 cm (3.648 in.). The test results indicated a marked increase in the value of the discharge coefficient when it is compared with that for the ASME standard nozzle. The computed pressure distribution is in good agreement with the experimental data.

  18. Energy Theft in the Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Stephen; Podkuiko, Dmitry; McDaniel, Patrick

    Global energy generation and delivery systems are transitioning to a new computerized "smart grid". One of the principle components of the smart grid is an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). AMI replaces the analog meters with computerized systems that report usage over digital communication interfaces, e.g., phone lines. However, with this infrastructure comes new risk. In this paper, we consider adversary means of defrauding the electrical grid by manipulating AMI systems. We document the methods adversaries will use to attempt to manipulate energy usage data, and validate the viability of these attacks by performing penetration testing on commodity devices. Through these activities, we demonstrate that not only is theft still possible in AMI systems, but that current AMI devices introduce a myriad of new vectors for achieving it.

  19. Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

    After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  20. SOLVENT DISPERSION AND FLOW METER CALCULATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.; Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.

    2013-06-21

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) found that the dispersion numbers for the six combinations of CSSX:Next Generation Solvent (NGS) “blend” and pure NGS versus salt solution, caustic wash, and strip aqueous solutions are all good. The dispersion numbers are indications of processability with centrifugal contactors. A comparison of solvent physical and thermal properties shows that the Intek™ solvent flow meter in the plant has a reading biased high versus calibrated flow when NGS is used, versus the standard CSSX solvent. The flow meter, calibrated for CSSX solvent, is predicted to read 2.8 gpm of NGS in a case where the true flow of NGS is 2.16 gpm.

  1. Variability in radiative properties of major aerosol types: a year-long study over Delhi--an urban station in Indo-Gangetic Basin.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A K; Yadav, V; Pathak, V; Singh, Sachchidanand; Tiwari, S; Bisht, D S; Goloub, P

    2014-03-01

    Aerosol measurements over an urban site at Delhi in the western Ganga basin, northern India, were carried out during 2009 using a ground-based automatic sun/sky radiometer to identify their different types and to understand their possible radiative implications. Differentiation of aerosol types over the station was made using the appropriate thresholds for size-distribution of aerosols (i.e. fine-mode fraction, FMF at 500 nm) and radiation absorptivity (i.e. single scattering albedo, SSA at 440 nm). Four different aerosol types were identified, viz., polluted dust (PD), polluted continent (PC), mostly black carbon (MBC) and mostly organic carbon (MOC), which contributed ~48%, 32%, 11% and 9%, respectively to the total aerosols. Interestingly, the optical properties for these aerosol types differed considerably, which were further used, for the first time, to quantify their radiative implications over this station. The highest atmospheric forcing was observed for PC aerosol type (about +40 W m(-2), along with the corresponding atmospheric heating rate of 1.10 K day(-1)); whereas the lowest was for MBC aerosol type (about +25 W m(-2), along with the corresponding atmospheric heating rate of 0.69 K day(-1)). PMID:24412733

  2. 1-meter near-infrared solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Xu, J.

    In order to observe the fine structure of solar dynamical field and magnetic field, a 1-meter near-infrared solar telescope was developed by Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The telescope is located by the Fuxian Lake in southwest China. In this paper, we will introduce some details of the telescope such as scientific goals, structures, instruments and the parameters of the site. First light observation of high resolution photosphere is introduced too.

  3. From Smart Metering to Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukuča, Peter; Chrapčiak, Igor

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of measurements in electrical distribution systems aimed at better use of data provided by Smart Metering systems. The influence of individual components of apparent power on the power loss is calculated and results of measurements under real conditions are presented. The significance of difference between the traditional and the complex evaluation of the electricity consumption efficiency by means of different definitions of the power factor is illustrated.

  4. Device Stores and Discharges Metered Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooper, S. L.; Setzer, D.

    1983-01-01

    Hand-held container accepts measured amount of liquid from pressurized supply. Supply pressure drives spring-loaded piston that stores enough mechanical energy to discharge measured liquid into another container. Original application of container was to rehydrate sterilized pre-packaged food in zerogravity environment of space vehicles. Possible terrestrial applicatios include dispensing of toxic fluids or metering of fluids for household, commercial or laboratory uses.

  5. Fabrication of 4-meter class astronomical optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, M. J.; Kim, D. W.; Oh, C. J.; Novak, M. J.; Burge, J. H.

    2010-07-01

    The 8-meter mirror production capacity at the University of Arizona is well known. As the Arizona Stadium facility is occupied with giant mirrors, we have developed capability for grinding, polishing, and testing 4-m mirrors in the large optics shop in the College of Optical Sciences. Several outstanding capabilities for optics up to 4.3 meters in diameter are in place: A 4.3-m computer controlled grinding and polishing machine allows efficient figuring of steeply aspheric and nonaxisymmetric surfaces. Interferometry (IR and visible wavelengths) and surface profilometry making novel use of a laser tracker allows quick, accurate in-process measurements from a movable platform on a 30-m vertical tower. A 2-meter class flat measured with a 1-m vibration insensitive Fizeau interferometer and scanning pentaprism system; stitching of 1-m sub-apertures provides complete surface data with the technology ready for extension to the 4 m level. These methods were proven successful by completion of several optics including the 4.3-m Discovery Channel Telescope primary mirror. The 10 cm thick ULE substrate was ground and polished to 16 nm rms accuracy, corresponding to 80% encircled energy in 0.073 arc-second, after removing low order bending modes. The successful completion of the DCT mirror demonstrates the engineering and performance of the support system, ability to finish large aspheric surfaces using computer controlled polishing, and accuracy verification of surface measurements. In addition to the DCT mirror, a 2-meter class flat was produced to an unprecedented accuracy of <10 nm-rms, demonstrating the combined 1-m Fizeau interferometer and scanning pentaprism measurement techniques.

  6. Radiation risk models for all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring individual assessments after a nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Linda; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    In the assessment of health risks after nuclear accidents, some health consequences require special attention. For example, in their 2013 report on health risk assessment after the Fukushima nuclear accident, the World Health Organisation (WHO) panel of experts considered risks of breast cancer, thyroid cancer and leukaemia. For these specific cancer types, use was made of already published excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models for radiation-related cancer incidence fitted to the epidemiological data from the Japanese A-bomb Life Span Study (LSS). However, it was also considered important to assess all other types of solid cancer together and the WHO, in their above-mentioned report, stated "No model to calculate the risk for all other solid cancer excluding breast and thyroid cancer risks is available from the LSS data". Applying the LSS models for all solid cancers along with the models for the specific sites means that some cancers have an overlap in the risk evaluations. Thus, calculating the total solid cancer risk plus the breast cancer risk plus the thyroid cancer risk can overestimate the total risk by several per cent. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to publish the required models for all other solid cancers, i.e. all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring special attention after a nuclear accident. The new models presented here have been fitted to the same LSS data set from which the risks provided by the WHO were derived. Although it is known already that the EAR and ERR effect modifications by sex are statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer", it is shown here that sex modification is not statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer other than thyroid and breast cancer". It is also shown here that the sex-averaged solid cancer risks with and without the sex modification are very similar once breast and thyroid cancers are factored out. Some other notable model

  7. Up-Regulation of Endothelin Type A Receptor in Human and Rat Radiation Proctitis: Preclinical Therapeutic Approach With Endothelin Receptor Blockade

    SciTech Connect

    Jullien, Nicolash; Blirando, Karl; Milliat, Fabien; Benderitter, Marc; Francois, Agnes

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: Rectum radiation damage and fibrosis are often associated with radiation therapy of pelvic tumors. The endothelin (ET) system has been implicated in several fibrotic diseases but never studied in the context of gastrointestinal radiation damage. This study assessed modifications in ET type 1 (ET-1), ET type A receptor (ET{sub A}), and ET type B receptor (ET{sub B}) localization and/or expression in irradiated human rectal tissue and in a rat model of delayed colorectal injury. We also evaluated the therapeutic potential of long-term ET receptor blockade. Methods and Materials: Routine histological studies of sections of healthy and radiation-injured human rectum tissue were done; the sections were also immunostained for ET{sub A} and ET{sub B} receptors. The rat model involved the delivery of 27 Gy in a single dose to the colons and rectums of the animals. The ET-1/ET{sub A}/ET{sub B} expression and ET{sub A}/ET{sub B} localization were studied at 10 weeks postexposure. The abilities of bosentan and atrasentan to protect against delayed rectal injury were also investigated. Results: The immunolocalization of ET{sub A} and ET{sub B} in healthy human rectums was similar to that in rat rectums. However, strong ET{sub A} immunostaining was seen in the presence of human radiation proctitis, and increased ET{sub A} mRNA levels were seen in the rat following colorectal irradiation. Immunostaining for ET{sub A} was also strongly positive in rats in areas of radiation-induced mucosal ulceration, atypia, and fibroproliferation. However, neither bosentan nor atrasentan prevented radiation damage to the rectum when given long term. The only effect seen for atrasentan was an increased number of sclerotic vessel sections in injured tissues. Conclusions: As the result of the overexpression of ET{sub A}, radiation exposure deregulates the endothelin system through an 'ET{sub A} profile' in the human and rodent rectum. However, therapeutic interventions involving mixed or

  8. CD-ROM and Metering--An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shear, Victor

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the need for security and metering features for CD-ROM products. Topics covered include user productivity issues, pricing problems, integrated information resources, advantages of CD-ROM distribution systems, unauthorized use, content encryption, and multiple simultaneous meters. (MES)

  9. SERO sites use prioritization tool to meet metering requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Solana, Amy E.; Sullivan, Gregory P.

    2006-09-01

    This article describes PNNL's effort to develop and implement a standardized methodology to meet the EPAct 2005 metering requirements at federal sites and to assist Southeast Regional Office sites in selecting and then prioritizing buildings to be metered.

  10. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    three types of retail rates (a flat rate, a time-of-use rate, and real-time pricing) from these wholesale price profiles, I examine bill savings from PV generation for the ten wholesale market scenarios under net metering and an alternative to net metering where hourly excess PV generation is compensated at the wholesale price. Most generally, I challenge the common assertion that PV compensation is likely to stay constant (or rise) due to constant (or rising) retail rates, and find that future electricity market scenarios can drive substantial changes in residential retail rates and that these changes, in concert with variations in retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms, interact to place substantial uncertainty on the future value of bill savings from residential PV.

  11. The PCC assay can be used to predict radiosensitivity in biopsy cultures irradiated with different types of radiation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masao; Tsuruoka, Chizuru; Nakano, Takashi; Ohno, Tatsuya; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Okayasu, Ryuichi

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify potential biomarkers for radiosensitivity using the relationship between cell killing and the yield of excess chromatin fragments detected with the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique. This method was applied to primary cultured cells obtained from biopsies from patients. Six primary culture biopsies were obtained from 6 patients with carcinoma of the cervix before starting radiotherapy. The cultures were irradiated with two different LET carbon-ion beams (LET = 13 keV/microm, 77.1+/-2.8 keV/microm) and 200 kV X-rays. The carbon-ion beams were produced by Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). PCC was performed using the polyethylene glycol-mediated cell fusion technique. The yield of excess chromatin fragments were measured by counting the number of unrejoined chromatin fragments detected with the PCC technique after a 24-h post-irradiation incubation period. Obtained results indicated that cultures which were more sensitive to killing were also more susceptible to the induction of excess chromatin fragments. Furthermore there was a good correlation between cell killing and excess chromatin fragments among the 6 cell cultures examined. There is also evidence that the induction of excess chromatin fragments increased with increasing LET as well as cell-killing effect in the same cell culture. The data reported here support the idea that the yield of excess chromatin fragments detected with the PCC technique might be useful for predicting the radiosensitivity of cells contained in tumor tissue, and to predict responses to different radiation types. PMID:17089052

  12. Use of botulinum toxin type A for the treatment of radiation therapy-induced myokymia and neuromyotonia in a dog.

    PubMed

    Rogatko, Cleo P; Glass, Eric N; Kent, Marc; Hammond, James J; de Lahunta, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 5-year-old castrated male Maltese was evaluated for intermittent clinical signs of muscle cramping and abnormal movements of the skin of the right pelvic limb at the site where an infiltrative lipoma had twice been resected. After the second surgery, the surgical field was treated with radiation therapy (RT). The clinical signs developed approximately 14 months after completion of RT. CLINICAL FINDINGS When clinical signs were present, the right biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscles in the area that received RT were firm and had frequently visible contractions, and the skin overlying those muscles had episodic vermiform movements. Electromyography of those muscles revealed abnormal spontaneous activity with characteristics consistent with myokymic discharges and neuromyotonia. Magnetic resonance imaging of the affected leg revealed no evidence of tumor regrowth. The myokymia and neuromyotonia were considered secondary to RT. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME 4 U of Clostridium botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) neurotoxin complex was injected into the affected muscles at each of 6 sites twice during a 24-hour period (ie, 48 U of BoNT-A were administered). The clinical signs were completely resolved 10 days after BoNT-A treatment and were controlled by repeated BoNT-A treatment every 3 to 4 months for > 1 year. CLINICAL RELEVANCE To our knowledge, this is the first report of myokymia and neuromyotonia secondary to RT in a dog. For the dog of this report, injection of BoNT-A into the affected muscles was safe, effective, and easy to perform. PMID:26885596

  13. 7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for moisture meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat Mid ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat High ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter...

  14. 7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for moisture meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat Mid ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat High ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter...

  15. 7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for moisture meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat Mid ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat High ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter...

  16. 7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for moisture meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat Mid ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat High ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter...

  17. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1780 Inspiratory airway pressure meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the...

  18. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1780 Inspiratory airway pressure meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the...

  19. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1780 Inspiratory airway pressure meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the...

  20. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1780 Inspiratory airway pressure meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the...

  1. Integrating an Embedded System within a Microwave Moisture Meter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter uses low-power microwaves to measure the attenuation and phase shift of the sample, from which the dielectric properties are cal...

  2. Integrating an embedded system in a microwave moisture meter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conversion of a PC- or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter measures the attenuation and phase shift of low power microwaves traversing the sample, from which the dielectric properties are calculated. T...

  3. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780 Section 868.1780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.220 - Fuel flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel flow meter. 1065.220 Section 1065... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.220 Fuel flow meter... described in § 1065.667. (2) In the following cases, you may use a fuel flow meter signal that does not...

  5. 49 CFR 192.359 - Customer meter installations: Operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meter installations: Operating pressure... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.359 Customer meter installations: Operating...

  6. 49 CFR 192.357 - Customer meters and regulators: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Installation. 192... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.357 Customer meters and regulators: Installation....

  7. 7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for moisture meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat Mid ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat High ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter...

  8. Plume temperature emitted from metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, G; Church, T; Lewis, D; Meakin, B

    2011-02-28

    The temperature of the drug cloud emitted from a pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI) may result in patient discomfort and inconsistent or non-existent dose delivery to the lungs. The effects of variations in formulation (drug, propellant, co-solvent content) and device hardware (metering volume, actuator orifice diameter, add-on devices) upon the temperature of pMDI plumes, expressed as replicate mean minimum values (MMPT), collected into a pharmacopoeial dose unit sampling apparatus (DUSA), have been investigated. Ten commercially available and two development products, including chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) suspensions and hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) solutions or suspensions, were examined together with a number of drug products in late stage development and a variety of HFA 134a placebo pMDIs. Plume temperatures were observed to be lowest in the proximity of the product's actuator mouthpiece where rapid flashing and evaporation of the formulation's propellant and volatile excipients cause cooling. The ability to control plume temperature by judicious choice of formulation co-solvent content, metering volume and the actuator orifice diameter is identified. An ethanol based HFA 134a formulation delivered through a fine orifice is inherently warmer than one with 100% HFA 134a vehicle delivered through a coarse actuator orifice. Of the 10 commercial products evaluated, MMPTs ranged from -54 to +4°C and followed the formulation class rank order, HFA suspensions

  9. NUCLEAR MIXING METERS FOR CLASSICAL NOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Keegan J.; Iliadis, Christian; Downen, Lori; Champagne, Art; José, Jordi

    2013-11-10

    Classical novae are caused by mass transfer episodes from a main-sequence star onto a white dwarf via Roche lobe overflow. This material possesses angular momentum and forms an accretion disk around the white dwarf. Ultimately, a fraction of this material spirals in and piles up on the white dwarf surface under electron-degenerate conditions. The subsequently occurring thermonuclear runaway reaches hundreds of megakelvin and explosively ejects matter into the interstellar medium. The exact peak temperature strongly depends on the underlying white dwarf mass, the accreted mass and metallicity, and the initial white dwarf luminosity. Observations of elemental abundance enrichments in these classical nova events imply that the ejected matter consists not only of processed solar material from the main-sequence partner but also of material from the outer layers of the underlying white dwarf. This indicates that white dwarf and accreted matter mix prior to the thermonuclear runaway. The processes by which this mixing occurs require further investigation to be understood. In this work, we analyze elemental abundances ejected from hydrodynamic nova models in search of elemental abundance ratios that are useful indicators of the total amount of mixing. We identify the abundance ratios ΣCNO/H, Ne/H, Mg/H, Al/H, and Si/H as useful mixing meters in ONe novae. The impact of thermonuclear reaction rate uncertainties on the mixing meters is investigated using Monte Carlo post-processing network calculations with temperature-density evolutions of all mass zones computed by the hydrodynamic models. We find that the current uncertainties in the {sup 30}P(p, γ){sup 31}S rate influence the Si/H abundance ratio, but overall the mixing meters found here are robust against nuclear physics uncertainties. A comparison of our results with observations of ONe novae provides strong constraints for classical nova models.

  10. Temperature Stability of the Sky Quality Meter

    PubMed Central

    Schnitt, Sabrina; Ruhtz, Thomas; Fischer, Jürgen; Hölker, Franz; Kyba, Christopher C.M.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of radiance measurements taken by the Sky Quality Meter (SQM) was tested under rapidly changing temperature conditions during exposure to a stable light field in the laboratory. The reported radiance was found to be negatively correlated with temperature, but remained within 7% of the initial reported radiance over a temperature range of −15°C to 35°C, and during temperature changes of −33°C/h and +70°C/h. This is smaller than the manufacturer's quoted unit-to-unit systematic uncertainty of 10%, indicating that the temperature compensation of the SQM is adequate under expected outdoor operating conditions. PMID:24030682

  11. The 34-meter antenna drive control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Detailed definitions of the baseline antenna drive and control/instrumentation equipment for 34 meter antennas included in Network Consolidation Program of the Deep Space Network are presented. The overall antenna control and monitor system and its interfaces with other higher level control and monitor equipment is described. Explicit descriptions of the antenna axis drive motors and motor controllers, the axis angle encoding systems, and miscellaneous antenna located components are presented, and related to system functional and performance requirements. Some potential alternates to the baseline system configuration are described and discussed.

  12. Sources of Error in UV Radiation Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Larason, Thomas C.; Cromer, Christopher L.

    2001-01-01

    Increasing commercial, scientific, and technical applications involving ultraviolet (UV) radiation have led to the demand for improved understanding of the performance of instrumentation used to measure this radiation. There has been an effort by manufacturers of UV measuring devices (meters) to produce simple, optically filtered sensor systems to accomplish the varied measurement needs. We address common sources of measurement errors using these meters. The uncertainty in the calibration of the instrument depends on the response of the UV meter to the spectrum of the sources used and its similarity to the spectrum of the quantity to be measured. In addition, large errors can occur due to out-of-band, non-linear, and non-ideal geometric or spatial response of the UV meters. Finally, in many applications, how well the response of the UV meter approximates the presumed action spectrum needs to be understood for optimal use of the meters.

  13. The effect of radiation pressure on the particle dynamics in ring-type N-body configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvouridis, Telemachus J.

    2001-09-01

    The paper deals with a simple photo-gravitational model of N+1 bodies. The motion of a small particle which subjects both the gravitational attraction and the radiation pressure is studied in a regular polygon configuration of N bodies. The dynamical features of this model are investigated for a wide range of values of the radiation parameters by mapping its equilibrium points and periodic orbits. The results show that for these values, radiation merely affects quantitatively the characteristics of the system, while it leaves unaffected the stability of the particle periodic motions and equilibria.

  14. Automatic ranging circuit for a digital panel meter

    DOEpatents

    Mueller, Theodore R.; Ross, Harley H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a range changing circuit that operates in conjunction with a digital panel meter of fixed sensitivity. The circuit decodes the output of the panel meter and uses that information to change the gain of an input amplifier to the panel meter in order to insure that the maximum number of significant figures is always displayed in the meter. The circuit monitors five conditions in the meter and responds to any of four combinations of these conditions by means of logic elements to carry out the function of the circuit.

  15. Design and Study of a Low-Cost Laboratory Model Digital Wind Power Meter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishnan, Rugmini; Karthika, S.

    2010-01-01

    A vane-type low-cost laboratory model anemometer cum power meter is designed and constructed for measuring low wind energy created from accelerating fluids. The constructed anemometer is a device which records the electrical power obtained by the conversion of wind power using a wind sensor coupled to a DC motor. It is designed for its…

  16. Numerical modeling of flow through orifice meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikholesiami, M. Z.; Patel, B. R.

    1988-03-01

    Numerical modeling is performed for turbulent flow through orifice meters using Creare's computer program FLUENT. FLUENT solves the time averaged Navier-Stokes equations in 2-D and 3-D Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates. Turbulence is simulated using a two equation k-epsilon or algebraic stress turbulence model. It is shown that an 80 x 60 grid distribution is sufficient to resolve the flow field around the orifice. The variations in discharge coefficient are studied as a result of variation in beta ratio, Reynolds number, upstream and downstream boundary conditions, pipe surface roughness, and upstream swirl. The effects of beta ratio and Reynolds number on the discharge coefficient are shown to be similar to the experimental data. It is also shown that the surface roughness can increase the discharge coefficient by about 0.7 percent for the range of roughness heights encountered in practice. The numerical modeling approach would be most effective if it is combined with a systematic experimental program that can supply the necessary boundary conditions. It is recommended that numerical modeling be used for the study of other flow meters.

  17. Metering Gas Strut for Separating Rocket Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A proposed gas strut system would separate a liquid-fueled second rocket stage from a solid-fueled first stage using an array of pre-charged struts. The strut would be a piston-and-cylinder mechanism containing a compressed gas. Adiabatic expansion of the gas would drive the extension of the strut. The strut is designed to produce a force-versus-time profile, chosen to prevent agitation of the liquid fuel, in which the force would increase from an initial low value to a peak value, then decay toward the end of the stroke. The strut would include a piston chamber and a storage chamber. The piston chamber would initially contain gas at a low pressure to provide the initial low separation force. The storage chamber would contain gas at a higher pressure. The piston would include a longitudinal metering rod containing an array of small holes, sized to restrict the flow gas between the chambers, that would initially not be exposed to the interior of the piston chamber. During subsequent expansion, the piston motion would open more of the metering holes between the storage and piston chambers, thereby increasing the flow of gas into the piston chamber to produce the desired buildup of force.

  18. Comparative radiation dose mapping of single fruit type and mixed tropical fruit boxes for export from Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quarantine treatment protocols to disinfest fresh agricultural commodities of quarantine pests are traditionally developed for and applied to single commodities. Recently, generic radiation treatments were approved in the USA to control insect pests irrespective of commodity. Approved generic doses ...

  19. Long Island Smart Metering Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-03-30

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) Smart Meter Pilots provided invaluable information and experience for future deployments of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), including the deployment planned as part of LIPA's Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000220). LIPA will incorporate lessons learned from this pilot in future deployments, including lessons relating to equipment performance specifications and testing, as well as equipment deployment and tracking issues. LIPA ultimately deployed three AMI technologies instead of the two that were originally contemplated. This enabled LIPA to evaluate multiple systems in field conditions with a relatively small number of meter installations. LIPA experienced a number of equipment and software issues that it did not anticipate, including issues relating to equipment integration, ability to upgrade firmware and software over the air (as opposed to physically interacting with every meter), and logistical challenges associated with tracking inventory and upgrade status of deployed meters. In addition to evaluating the technology, LIPA also piloted new Time-of-Use (TOU) rates to assess customer acceptance of time-differentiated pricing and to evaluate whether customers would respond by adjusting their activities from peak to non-peak periods. LIPA developed a marketing program to educate customers who received AMI in the pilot areas and to seek voluntary participation in TOU pricing. LIPA also guaranteed participating customers that, for their initial year on the rates, their electricity costs under the TOU rate would not exceed the amount they would have paid under the flat rates they would otherwise enjoy. 62 residential customers chose to participate in the TOU rates, and every one of them saved money during the first year. 61 of them also elected to stay on the TOU rate without the cost guarantee at the end of that year. The customer who chose not to continue on the rate was also the one who achieved the

  20. Feeling Music: Integration of Auditory and Tactile Inputs in Musical Meter Perception

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Gamble, Darik; Sarnlertsophon, Kristine; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2014-01-01

    Musicians often say that they not only hear, but also “feel” music. To explore the contribution of tactile information in “feeling” musical rhythm, we investigated the degree that auditory and tactile inputs are integrated in humans performing a musical meter recognition task. Subjects discriminated between two types of sequences, ‘duple’ (march-like rhythms) and ‘triple’ (waltz-like rhythms) presented in three conditions: 1) Unimodal inputs (auditory or tactile alone), 2) Various combinations of bimodal inputs, where sequences were distributed between the auditory and tactile channels such that a single channel did not produce coherent meter percepts, and 3) Simultaneously presented bimodal inputs where the two channels contained congruent or incongruent meter cues. We first show that meter is perceived similarly well (70%–85%) when tactile or auditory cues are presented alone. We next show in the bimodal experiments that auditory and tactile cues are integrated to produce coherent meter percepts. Performance is high (70%–90%) when all of the metrically important notes are assigned to one channel and is reduced to 60% when half of these notes are assigned to one channel. When the important notes are presented simultaneously to both channels, congruent cues enhance meter recognition (90%). Performance drops dramatically when subjects were presented with incongruent auditory cues (10%), as opposed to incongruent tactile cues (60%), demonstrating that auditory input dominates meter perception. We believe that these results are the first demonstration of cross-modal sensory grouping between any two senses. PMID:23716252

  1. Feeling Music: Integration of Auditory and Tactile Inputs in Musical Meter Perception

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Gamble, Darik; Sarnlertsophon, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Musicians often say that they not only hear, but also “feel” music. To explore the contribution of tactile information in “feeling” musical rhythm, we investigated the degree that auditory and tactile inputs are integrated in humans performing a musical meter recognition task. Subjects discriminated between two types of sequences, ‘duple’ (march-like rhythms) and ‘triple’ (waltz-like rhythms) presented in three conditions: 1) Unimodal inputs (auditory or tactile alone), 2) Various combinations of bimodal inputs, where sequences were distributed between the auditory and tactile channels such that a single channel did not produce coherent meter percepts, and 3) Simultaneously presented bimodal inputs where the two channels contained congruent or incongruent meter cues. We first show that meter is perceived similarly well (70%–85%) when tactile or auditory cues are presented alone. We next show in the bimodal experiments that auditory and tactile cues are integrated to produce coherent meter percepts. Performance is high (70%–90%) when all of the metrically important notes are assigned to one channel and is reduced to 60% when half of these notes are assigned to one channel. When the important notes are presented simultaneously to both channels, congruent cues enhance meter recognition (90%). Performance drops dramatically when subjects were presented with incongruent auditory cues (10%), as opposed to incongruent tactile cues (60%), demonstrating that auditory input dominates meter perception. We believe that these results are the first demonstration of cross-modal sensory grouping between any two senses. PMID:23119038

  2. Peak expiratory flow at increased barometric pressure: comparison of peak flow meters and volumetric spirometer.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P S; Ng, C; Bennett, M

    2000-01-01

    Increasing numbers of patients are receiving hyperbaric oxygen therapy as an intensive care treatment, some of whom have pre-existing airway obstruction. Spirometers are the ideal instruments for measuring airway obstruction, but peak flow meters are useful and versatile devices. The behaviour of both types of device was therefore studied in a hyperbaric unit under conditions of increased pressure. It is important to have a non-electrical indicator of airway obstruction, to minimize the fire risk in the hyperoxic environment. The hypothesis was tested that, assuming that dynamic resistance is unchanged, both the Wright's standard and mini-peak flow meters would over-read peak expiratory flow (PEF) under increased pressure when compared with a volumetric spirometer, as the latter is unaffected by air density. It was postulated that a correction factor could be derived so that PEF meters could be used in this setting. Seven normal subjects performed volume-dependent spirometry to derive PEF, and manoeuvres using both standard and mini PEF meters at sea level, under hyperbaric conditions at 303, 253 and 152 kPa (3, 2.5 and 1.5 atmospheres respectively; 1 atmosphere absolute=101.08 kPa), and again at sea level. There was a progressive and significant decline in PEF with increasing pressure as measured by the spirometer (69.46+/-0.8% baseline at 303 kPa compared with 101 kPa), while the PEF meters showed a progressive increase in their readings (an increase of 7.86+/-1.69% at 303 kPa with the mini PEF meter). Using these data points, a correction factor was derived which allows appropriate values to be calculated from the Wright's meter readings under these conditions. PMID:10600666

  3. Coriolis Force Mass-Flow Meter Composed of a Straight Pipe and an Additional Resonance-Vibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, Hirohide; Tomikawa, Yoshiro

    1993-05-01

    This paper deals with a new construction for a mass-flow meter using Coriolis force, and its basic experimental results. Some Coriolis force mass-flow meters, proposed up to now, are of a twin construction of, for example, a U-type pipe or a straight-type pipe, where the mass-flow is determined by measuring the relative displacement between the pipes. Therefore, their structure is too complex. To improve this situation, the authors propose a new mass-flow meter using one straight pipe, together with an additional flexural resonance-vibrator. The experimental results prove that a mass-flow meter can be realized by such a simple construction as dealt with here.

  4. Software determines multiphase flow without meters

    SciTech Connect

    Saether, G.

    1998-12-01

    A software package devised by Loke Inc., a member of Norway`s CorrOcean Group, is routinely calculating multiphase flows from North Sea wells by monitoring only static measurements-pressures, temperatures and other available measurement quantities. A collection of three modeling programs, the software can also control the production mix and set choke values from individual wells for optimum reservoir production. Calculated flows have proven so accurate that operators now have no need for conventional flow meters or dedicated test lines. In a tuning step taken during initial well testing, Loke establishes parameters for the mathematical models in the software. Thereafter, static measurements of pressure and temperature in the producing well or manifold are converted by the software to flow. These predictions are then used to command choke valves to regulate flow. A representation of the measurement and control scheme is shown.

  5. Engineered coating systems protect meters, station piping

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    This paper describes how the Gas Division of the Colorado Springs, Colorado Department of Public Utilities has cut the frequency of painting exposed pipe, valves and associated equipment at the five gate metering stations, as well as distribution stations within the city and manifold stations where natural gas is distributed to nearby Ft. Carson and the U.S. Air Force Academy. Because of tourism in these areas, the city is very conscious of the appearance it presents. The Gas Division selected New Color Horizons coatings made by the Rust-Oleum Corp. They have cut down on maintenance costs and their facilities still have an excellent appearance. Greater coating durability was obtained through a system consisting of shop-applied enamel finish and a color-matched fast-drying aerosol spray coating to resist corrosion and the elements.

  6. Five meter diameter conical furlable antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortenberry, J. W.; Freeland, R. E.; Moore, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was made to demonstrate that a 5-meter-diameter, furlable, conical reflector antenna utilizing a line source feed can be fabricated utilizing composite materials and to prove that the antenna can function mechanically and electrically as prototype flight hardware. The design, analysis, and testing of the antenna are described. An RF efficiency of 55% at 8.5 GHz and a surface error of 0.64 mm rms were chosen as basic design requirements. Actual test measurements yielded an efficiency of 53% (49.77 dB gain) and a surface error of 0.61 mm rms. Atmospherically induced corrosion of the reflector mesh resulted in the RF performance degradation. An assessment of the antenna as compared to the current state of the art technology was made. This assessment included cost, surface accuracy and RF performance, structural and mechanical characteristics, and possible applications.

  7. Mobility at the scale of meters.

    PubMed

    Surovell, Todd A; O'Brien, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    When archeologists discuss mobility, we are most often referring to a phenomenon that operates on the scale of kilometers, but much of human mobility, at least if measured in terms of frequency of movement, occurs at much smaller scales, ranging from centimeters to tens of meters. Here we refer to the movements we make within the confines of our homes or places of employment. With respect to nomadic peoples, movements at this scale would include movements within campsites. Understanding mobility at small scales is important to archeology because small-scale mobility decisions are a critical factor affecting spatial patterning observed in archeological sites. In this paper, we examine the factors affecting small-scale mobility decisions in a Mongolian reindeer herder summer camp and the implications of those decisions with regard to archeological spatial patterning. PMID:27312186

  8. Educational electrical appliance power meter and logger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, John

    2013-09-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power device such as an electric kettle. Typical power-versus-time profiles are shown for a kettle, a dishwasher and a fridge-freezer. The components are cheap and the cost may be recouped many times over from the resultant energy saving. Custom software will be made available free of charge to anyone who requests it. It is hoped that students attending poorly resourced schools will be able to make power loggers for educational use.

  9. Portable fluorescence meter for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilin, Dmitriy V.; Grishanov, Vladimir N.

    2016-04-01

    Recently, there are great deals of skin fluorescence studies for diagnostic purposes in medicine. Measurement of the intensity of autofluorescence (AF) is suitable method for diagnostic, because it does not require traumatic procedures. Skin AF is widely used by doctors in order to assess the concentration of advanced glycation endproduct (AGE). There are no in vivo fluorescence meters made in Russia, which are affordable, portable, easy-to-use and easily replicable. This paper is devoted to study of the fluorimeter and its mathematical model of spectral characteristics that were developed by authors. Fluorimeter and its software are fully operational and they were given to doctors for testing in the real clinic conditions in order to get a set of AF statistics for patients.

  10. Logic elements for reactor period meter

    DOEpatents

    McDowell, William P.; Bobis, James P.

    1976-01-01

    Logic elements are provided for a reactor period meter trip circuit. For one element, first and second inputs are applied to first and second chopper comparators, respectively. The output of each comparator is O if the input applied to it is greater than or equal to a trip level associated with each input and each output is a square wave of frequency f if the input applied to it is less than the associated trip level. The outputs of the comparators are algebraically summed and applied to a bandpass filter tuned to f. For another element, the output of each comparator is applied to a bandpass filter which is tuned to f to give a sine wave of frequency f. The outputs of the filters are multiplied by an analog multiplier whose output is 0 if either input is 0 and a sine wave of frequency 2f if both inputs are a frequency f.

  11. Performance of a New Meter Designed for Assisted Monitoring of Blood Glucose and Point-of-Care Testing

    PubMed Central

    MacRury, Sandra; Srinivasan, Aparna; Mahoney, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Blood glucose (BG) meters used for assisted monitoring of blood glucose (AMBG) require different attributes compared with meters designed for home use. These include safety considerations (i.e., minimized risk of blood-borne pathogen transmission), capability for testing multiple blood sample types, and enhanced performance specifications. The OneTouch® Verio™Pro+ BG meter is designed to incorporate all of these attributes. Methods Meter accuracy was assessed in clinical studies with arterial, venous, and capillary blood samples with a hematocrit range of 22.9–59.8%. The effect of interferents, including anticoagulants, on accuracy was evaluated. The meter disinfection protocol was validated, and instructions for use and user acceptance of the system were assessed. Results A total of 97% (549/566) of BG measures from all blood sample types and 95.5% (191/200) of arterial blood samples were within ±12 mg/dl or 12.5% of reference measurements. The system was unaffected by 4 anticoagulants and 57 of 59 endogenous and exogenous compounds; it was affected by 2 compounds: pralidoxime iodide and xylose. Bleach wipes were sufficient to disinfect the meter. Users felt that the meter's quality control (QC) prompts would help them to comply with regulatory requirements. Conclusions The meter provided accurate measurements of different blood samples over a wide hematocrit range and was not affected by 57 physiologic and therapeutic compounds. The QC prompts and specific infection-mitigating design further aid to make this meter system practical for AMBG in care facilities. PMID:23566997

  12. The dynamic response of Coriolis mass flow meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheesewright, R.; Clark, C.; Belhadj, A.; Hou, Y. Y.

    2003-09-01

    The speed of response of commercial Coriolis meters to a step change in mass flow rate corresponds to a time constant which may range from 0.1s to several seconds. This response is a result both of the dynamic response of the physical components of the meter and of the electronics and the computational algorithms used to convert that dynamic response into an estimate of the mass flow rate. A comprehensive investigation of the dynamic response is presented with a view to establishing the ultimate limits of the overall meter response. Attention is initially concentrated on a simple straight tube meter and analytical solutions are presented for the response to a step change in flow rate both for an undamped meter and for a meter with internal damping. These results are compared with results from a finite element model of the same meter and then the finite element modelling is extended to geometries typical of commercial meters. Finally, representative results are presented from an experimental study of the response of commercial meters to step changes in flow rate. A study of the essential components of the algorithm used in a meter leads to the conclusion that the time constant cannot be less than the period of one cycle of the meter drive. The analytical, finite element and experimental results all combine to show that the meters all respond in the period of one drive cycle but that the flow step induces fluctuations in the meter output which decay under the influence of the flow tube damping. It is the additional damping introduced in the signal processing to overcome these fluctuations which is responsible for the large observed time constants. Possible alternative approaches are discussed.

  13. Radiofrequency energy exposure from the Trilliant smart meter.

    PubMed

    Foster, Kenneth R; Tell, Richard A

    2013-08-01

    This paper reviews radiofrequency (RF) field levels produced by electric utility meters equipped with RF transceivers (so-called Smart Meters), focusing on meters from one manufacturer (Trilliant, Redwood City, CA, USA, and Granby, QC, Canada). The RF transmission levels are summarized based on publicly available data submitted to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission supplemented by limited independent measurements. As with other Smart Meters, this meter incorporates a low powered radiofrequency transceiver used for a neighborhood mesh network, in the present case using ZigBee-compliant physical and medium access layers, operating in the 2.45 GHz unlicensed band but with a proprietary network architecture. Simple calculations based on a free space propagation model indicate that peak RF field intensities are in the range of 10 mW m or less at a distance of more than 1-2 m from the meters. However, the duty cycle of transmission from the meters is very low (< 1%). Limited measurements identified pulses from the meter that were consistent with data reported by the vendor to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission. Limited measurements conducted in two houses with the meters were unable to clearly distinguish emissions from the meters from the considerable electromagnetic clutter in the same frequency range from other sources, including Wi-Fi routers and, when it was activated, a microwave oven. These preliminary measurements disclosed the difficulties that would be encountered in characterizing the RF exposures from these meters in homes in the face of background signals from other household devices in the same frequency range. An appendix provides an introduction to Smart Meter technology. The RF transmitters in wireless-equipped Smart Meters operate at similar power levels and in similar frequency ranges as many other digital communications devices in common use, and their exposure levels are very far below U.S. and international exposure limits. PMID

  14. Automated semi-spherical irradiance meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tecpoyotl-Torres, M.; Vera-Dimas, J. G.; Escobedo-Alatorre, J.; Cabello-Ruiz, R.; Varona, J.

    2011-09-01

    In this semi-spherical meter, a single detector is used to realize all measurements, which is located on the extreme of a rectangular ring (assumed as joined two mobile branches in order to compensate the weights), describing half-meridians from 0° up to 170°. The illumination source under test is located at the center of the mobile support, which can rotate 360° horizontally. The two combined movements allow us to obtain a semi-spherical geometry. The number of measurement points is determined by the two step-motors located under the mobile support of the luminary and on one of the two fixed arms, which support the mobile rectangular ring, respectively. The mechanical arrangement has the enough rigidity to support the precision required for the acquisition stage, based on a dsPIC. The main advantages of this arrange are: Its low costs (using recyclable materials only such as "electronic waste"), a reliable detection based on a single photo-detector, with an integrated amplification stage, and the mechanical design. The received power by the detector is useful to obtain the irradiance profile of the lighting sources under test. The semi-spherical geometry of the meter makes it useful for the analysis of directive and non directive sources, in accordance with the angle described by the mobile ring. In this work, special attention is given to LED lamps due to its impact in several sceneries of the daily life. A comparison between the irradiance patterns of two LED lamps is also given.

  15. A survey of global radiation damage to 15 different protein crystal types at room temperature: a new decay model

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Ricardo Miguel Ferraz; Bourenkov, Gleb; Russi, Silvia; Popov, Alexander N.

    2013-01-01

    The radiation damage rates to crystals of 15 model macromolecular structures were studied using an automated radiation sensitivity characterization procedure. The diffracted intensity variation with dose is described by a two-parameter model. This model includes a strong resolution-independent decay specific to room-temperature measurements along with a linear increase in overall Debye–Waller factors. An equivalent representation of sensitivity via a single parameter, normalized half-dose, is introduced. This parameter varies by an order of magnitude between the different structures studied. The data show a correlation of crystal radiation sensitivity with crystal solvent content but no dose-rate dependency was detected in the range 0.05–300 kGy s−1. The results of the crystal characterization are suitable for either optimal planning of room-temperature data collection or in situ crystallization plate screening experiments. PMID:23254652

  16. Development of a wavelength-separated type scintillator with optical fiber (SOF) dosimeter to compensate for the Cerenkov radiation effect

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Masayori; Nagase, Naomi; Matsuura, Taeko; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Suzuki, Ryusuke; Miyamoto, Naoki; Sutherland, Kenneth Lee; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Shirato, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    The scintillator with optical fiber (SOF) dosimeter consists of a miniature scintillator mounted on the tip of an optical fiber. The scintillator of the current SOF dosimeter is a 1-mm diameter hemisphere. For a scintillation dosimeter coupled with an optical fiber, measurement accuracy is influenced by signals due to Cerenkov radiation in the optical fiber. We have implemented a spectral filtering technique for compensating for the Cerenkov radiation effect specifically for our plastic scintillator-based dosimeter, using a wavelength-separated counting method. A dichroic mirror was used for separating input light signals. Individual signal counting was performed for high- and low-wavelength light signals. To confirm the accuracy, measurements with various amounts of Cerenkov radiation were performed by changing the incident direction while keeping the Ir-192 source-to-dosimeter distance constant, resulting in a fluctuation of <5%. Optical fiber bending was also addressed; no bending effect was observed for our wavelength-separated SOF dosimeter. PMID:25618136

  17. Development of a wavelength-separated type scintillator with optical fiber (SOF) dosimeter to compensate for the Cerenkov radiation effect.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masayori; Nagase, Naomi; Matsuura, Taeko; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Suzuki, Ryusuke; Miyamoto, Naoki; Sutherland, Kenneth Lee; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Shirato, Hiroki

    2015-03-01

    The scintillator with optical fiber (SOF) dosimeter consists of a miniature scintillator mounted on the tip of an optical fiber. The scintillator of the current SOF dosimeter is a 1-mm diameter hemisphere. For a scintillation dosimeter coupled with an optical fiber, measurement accuracy is influenced by signals due to Cerenkov radiation in the optical fiber. We have implemented a spectral filtering technique for compensating for the Cerenkov radiation effect specifically for our plastic scintillator-based dosimeter, using a wavelength-separated counting method. A dichroic mirror was used for separating input light signals. Individual signal counting was performed for high- and low-wavelength light signals. To confirm the accuracy, measurements with various amounts of Cerenkov radiation were performed by changing the incident direction while keeping the Ir-192 source-to-dosimeter distance constant, resulting in a fluctuation of <5%. Optical fiber bending was also addressed; no bending effect was observed for our wavelength-separated SOF dosimeter. PMID:25618136

  18. Silica optical fibers with high oxygen excess in the core: a new type of radiation-resistant fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashaykin, Pavel F.; Tomashuk, Alexander L.; Salgansky, Mikhail Y.; Abramov, Alexey N.; Iskhakova, Lyudmila D.; Lobanov, Nikolay S.; Nishchev, Konstantin N.; Guryanov, Alexey N.; Dianov, Evgeny M.

    2015-05-01

    The technology, initial properties, and the value of radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) of light in the optical communication spectral range ~1.1-1.7 μm are discussed of the novel MCVD-produced undoped-silica-core F-dopedsilica- cladding fibers, of which the core is synthesized in high O2 excess (HOE) conditions (HOE-fibers). The RIA mechanisms are analyzed and compared in the HOE-fibers and in the F-doped-silica-core fibers previously commonly considered as the most radiation-resistant. The measured RIA values in the HOE-fibers and the literature data on the RIA in the commercial radiation-resistant F-doped-silica-core fibers of Fujikura are compared at λ=1.31 and 1.55 μm. Based on this consideration, the HOE-fibers are argued to be potentially superior to the F-doped-silica-core fibers as to radiation resistance especially at long wavelengths (in particular, at λ~1.55 μm). It is also argued that the fiber drawing tension reduction can further lower RIA in the HOE-fibers. A direct experimental comparison of RIA under γ-radiation from a 60Co-source at a dose rate of 8.7 Gy/s up to a dose of 94 kGy is carried out in two HOE-fibers and a commercial radiation-resistant fiber of European make. RIA in the HOE-fibers is found to be many times lower than that in the commercial fiber throughout the optical communication spectral range ~1.1-1.7 μm.

  19. Measuring peak expiratory flow in general practice: comparison of mini Wright peak flow meter and turbine spirometer.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, K P; Mullee, M A

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare measurements of the peak expiratory flow rate taken by the mini Wright peak flow meter and the turbine spirometer. DESIGN--Pragmatic study with randomised order of use of recording instruments. Phase 1 compared a peak expiratory flow type expiration recorded by the mini Wright peak flow meter with an expiration to forced vital capacity recorded by the turbine spirometer. Phase 2 compared peak expiratory flow type expirations recorded by both meters. Reproducibility was assessed separately. SETTING--Routine surgeries at Aldermoor Health Centre, Southampton. SUBJECTS--212 Patients aged 4 to 78 presenting with asthma or obstructive airways disease. Each patient contributed only once to each phase (105 in phase 1, 107 in phase 2), but some entered both phases on separate occasions. Reproducibility was tested on a further 31 patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--95% Limits of agreement between measurements on the two meters. RESULTS--208 (98%) Of the readings taken by the mini Wright meter were higher than the corresponding readings taken by the turbine spirometer, but the 95% limits of agreement (mean difference (2 SD] were wide (1 to 173 l/min). Differences due to errors in reproducibility were not sufficient to predict this level of disagreement. Analysis by age, sex, order of use, and the type of expiration did not detect any significant differences. CONCLUSIONS--The two methods of measuring peak expiratory flow rate were not comparable. The mini Wright meter is likely to remain the preferred instrument in general practice. PMID:2142611

  20. Comparison of three methods of remote metering of electrical energy: Telephone line, fiber optic, and radio packet. Final report, June 1995--August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Winterheimer, C.

    1998-07-01

    This report deals with the selection of a data communication system for a remote metering system. It covers the following three types of systems: fiber optic, telephone line, and radio packet. It provides a methodology for selecting a communication system for a given remote metering system and a method for comparing costs.

  1. De Minimis Thresholds for Federal Building Metering Appropriateness

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Jordan W.

    2015-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by statute and Presidential Memorandum to establish guidelines for agencies to meter their Federal buildings for energy (electricity, natural gas, and steam) and water. See 42 U.S.C. § 8253(e). DOE issued guidance in February 2006 on the installation of electric meters in Federal buildings. A recent update to the 2006 guidance accounts for more current metering practices within the Federal Government. The updated metering guidance specifies that all Federal buildings shall be considered “appropriate” for energy or water metering unless identified for potential exclusion. In developing the updated guidance to carry out the statue, Congress also directed DOE to (among other things) establish exclusions from the metering requirements based on the de minimis quantity of energy use of a Federal building, industrial process, or structure. This paper discusses the method used to identify de minimis values.

  2. Method and apparatus for reading meters from a video image

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Trevor J.; Ferguson, Jeffrey J.

    1997-01-01

    A method and system to enable acquisition of data about an environment from one or more meters using video images. One or more meters are imaged by a video camera and the video signal is digitized. Then, each region of the digital image which corresponds to the indicator of the meter is calibrated and the video signal is analyzed to determine the value indicated by each meter indicator. Finally, from the value indicated by each meter indicator in the calibrated region, a meter reading is generated. The method and system offer the advantages of automatic data collection in a relatively non-intrusive manner without making any complicated or expensive electronic connections, and without requiring intensive manpower.

  3. Tapping to a Slow Tempo in the Presence of Simple and Complex Meters Reveals Experience-Specific Biases for Processing Music

    PubMed Central

    Ullal-Gupta, Sangeeta; Hannon, Erin E.; Snyder, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    Musical meters vary considerably across cultures, yet relatively little is known about how culture-specific experience influences metrical processing. In Experiment 1, we compared American and Indian listeners' synchronous tapping to slow sequences. Inter-tone intervals contained silence or to-be-ignored rhythms that were designed to induce a simple meter (familiar to Americans and Indians) or a complex meter (familiar only to Indians). A subset of trials contained an abrupt switch from one rhythm to another to assess the disruptive effects of contradicting the initially implied meter. In the unfilled condition, both groups tapped earlier than the target and showed large tap-tone asynchronies (measured in relative phase). When inter-tone intervals were filled with simple-meter rhythms, American listeners tapped later than targets, but their asynchronies were smaller and declined more rapidly. Likewise, asynchronies rose sharply following a switch away from simple-meter but not from complex-meter rhythm. By contrast, Indian listeners performed similarly across all rhythm types, with asynchronies rapidly declining over the course of complex- and simple-meter trials. For these listeners, a switch from either simple or complex meter increased asynchronies. Experiment 2 tested American listeners but doubled the duration of the synchronization phase prior to (and after) the switch. Here, compared with simple meters, complex-meter rhythms elicited larger asynchronies that declined at a slower rate, however, asynchronies increased after the switch for all conditions. Our results provide evidence that ease of meter processing depends to a great extent on the amount of experience with specific meters. PMID:25075514

  4. Development of the 15-meter hoop-column antenna system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, T. G.; Butler, D. H.; Belvin, K.; Allen, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the 15-meter hoop/column antenna system is presented. The 15-meter deployable structure is discussed along with the mulitple-beam feed system development and the structures and RF testing planned in 1985. The topics presented are: overview of antenna development activities; development of 15-meter reflector and kinematic deployment tests; preliminary modal survey test results and future structural dynamics tests; and radio frequency subsystems and near field testing.

  5. Operational test and evaluation of the meter engineering development model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damore, R. J.; Mah, C. P.

    1982-11-01

    The Operational Test and Evaluation (OT&E) of the Meaning Etraction Through Estimated Relevance (METER) System was conducted at Hq Military Airlift Command, Scott AFB, ILL. The Two year effort provided for continuing enhancement of the METER system, as well as tailoring it to interface with the operational message processing system. Analyst training and evaluation of METER's potential utility to the intelligence community were covered.

  6. Cell Type-dependent Gene Transcription Profile in Three Dimensional Human Skin Tissue Model Exposed to Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Implications for Medical Exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Freiin von Neubeck, Claere H.; Shankaran, Harish; Karin, Norman J.; Kauer, Paula M.; Chrisler, William B.; Wang, Xihai; Robinson, Robert J.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Sowa, Marianne B.

    2012-04-17

    The concern over possible health risks from exposures to low doses of ionizing radiation has been driven largely by the increase in medical exposures, the routine implementation of X-ray backscatter devices for airport security screening, and, most recently, the nuclear incident in Japan. Due to a paucity of direct epidemiological data at very low doses, cancer risk must be estimated from high dose exposure scenarios. However, there is increasing evidence that low and high dose exposures result in different signaling events and may have different mechanisms of cancer induction. We have examined the radiation induced temporal response of an in vitro three dimensional (3D) human skin tissue model using microarray-based transcriptional profiling. Our data shows that exposure to 100 mGy of X-rays is sufficient to affect gene transcription. Cell type specific analysis showed significant changes in gene expression with the levels of > 1400 genes altered in the dermis and > 400 genes regulated in the epidermis. The two cell types rarely exhibited overlapping responses at the mRNA level. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) measurements validated the microarray data in both regulation direction and value. Key pathways identified relate to cell cycle regulation, immune responses, hypoxia, reactive oxygen signaling, and DNA damage repair. We discuss in particular the role of proliferation and emphasizing how the disregulation of cellular signaling in normal tissue may impact progression towards radiation induced secondary diseases.

  7. Characteristics of Myeloid Differentiation and Maturation Pathway Derived from Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells Exposed to Different Linear Energy Transfer Radiation Types

    PubMed Central

    Monzen, Satoru; Yoshino, Hironori; Kasai-Eguchi, Kiyomi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) to ionizing radiation causes a marked suppression of mature functional blood cell production in a linear energy transfer (LET)- and/or dose-dependent manner. However, little information about LET effects on the proliferation and differentiation of HSPCs has been reported. With the aim of characterizing the effects of different types of LET radiations on human myeloid hematopoiesis, in vitro hematopoiesis in Human CD34+ cells exposed to carbon-ion beams or X-rays was compared. Highly purified CD34+ cells exposed to each form of radiation were plated onto semi-solid culture for a myeloid progenitor assay. The surviving fractions of total myeloid progenitors, colony-forming cells (CFC), exposed to carbon-ion beams were significantly lower than of those exposed to X-rays, indicating that CFCs are more sensitive to carbon-ion beams (D0 = 0.65) than to X-rays (D0 = 1.07). Similar sensitivities were observed in granulocyte-macrophage and erythroid progenitors, respectively. However, the sensitivities of mixed-type progenitors to both radiation types were similar. In liquid culture for 14 days, no significant difference in total numbers of mononuclear cells was observed between non-irradiated control culture and cells exposed to 0.5 Gy X-rays, whereas 0.5 Gy carbon-ion beams suppressed cell proliferation to 4.9% of the control, a level similar to that for cells exposed to 1.5 Gy X-rays. Cell surface antigens associated with terminal maturation, such as CD13, CD14, and CD15, on harvest from the culture of X-ray-exposed cells were almost the same as those from the non-irradiated control culture. X-rays increased the CD235a+ erythroid-related fraction, whereas carbon-ion beams increased the CD34+CD38− primitive cell fraction and the CD13+CD14+/−CD15− fraction. These results suggest that carbon-ion beams inflict severe damage on the clonal growth of myeloid HSPCs, although the intensity of cell surface

  8. Established Designs For Advanced Ground Based Astronomical Telescopes In The 1-meter To 4-meter Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Anthony B.; Barentine, J.; Legters, S.

    2012-01-01

    The same technology and analytic approaches that led to cost-effective unmitigated successes for the spaceborne Kepler and WISE telescopes are now being applied to meter-class to 4-meter-class ground telescopes, providing affordable solutions to ground astronomy, with advanced features as needed for the application. The range of optical and mechanical performance standards and features that can be supplied for ground astronomy shall be described. Both classical RC designs, as well as unobscured designs are well represented in the IOS design library, allowing heritage designs for both night time and day time operations, the latter even in the proximity of the sun. In addition to discussing this library of mature features, we will also describe a process for working with astronomers early in the definition process to provide the best-value solution. Solutions can include remote operation and astronomical data acquisition and transmission.

  9. Assessing liner performance using on-farm milk meters.

    PubMed

    Penry, J F; Leonardi, S; Upton, J; Thompson, P D; Reinemann, D J

    2016-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to quantify and compare the interactive effects of liner compression, milking vacuum level, and pulsation settings on average milk flow rates for liners representing the range of liner compression of commercial liners. A secondary objective was to evaluate a methodology for assessing liner performance that can be applied on commercial dairy farms. Eight different liner types were assessed using 9 different combinations of milking system vacuum and pulsation settings applied to a herd of 80 cows with vacuum and pulsation conditions changed daily for 36d using a central composite experimental design. Liner response surfaces were created for explanatory variables milking system vacuum (Vsystem) and pulsator ratio (PR) and response variable average milk flow rate (AMF=total yield/total cups-on time) expressed as a fraction of the within-cow average flow rate for all treatments (average milk flow rate fraction, AMFf). Response surfaces were also created for between-liner comparisons for standardized conditions of claw vacuum and milk ratio (fraction of pulsation cycle during which milk is flowing). The highest AMFf was observed at the highest levels of Vsystem, PR, and overpressure. All liners showed an increase in AMF as milking conditions were changed from low to high standardized conditions of claw vacuum and milk ratio. Differences in AMF between liners were smallest at the most gentle milking conditions (low Vsystem and low milk ratio), and these between-liner differences in AMF increased as liner overpressure increased. Differences were noted with vacuum drop between Vsystem and claw vacuum depending on the liner venting system, with short milk tube vented liners having the greater vacuum drop than mouthpiece chamber vented liners. The accuracy of liner performance assessment in commercial parlors fitted with milk meters can be improved by using a central composite experimental design with a repeated center point treatment

  10. A reference radiance-meter system for thermodynamic temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, S. G. R.; Briaudeau, S.; Bourson, F.; Rougié, B.; Truong, D.; Kozlova, O.; Coutin, J.-M.; Sadli, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the work carried out to evaluate the radiometric performance of a radiance-meter system which has been built at the LNE-Cnam to determine the thermodynamic temperature of high-temperature fixed points. The work comes as an integral part of the ‘implementing the new Kelvin’ (INK) project in which nine National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) strive to assign the thermodynamic temperatures to the melting curve of high-temperature fixed points with the lowest possible uncertainty. The method used in this research is based on the radiance approach. It exploits a system based on a laser-illuminated integrating sphere source whose radiance is absolutely measured by a trap detector through a well-defined geometry. The trap detector is calibrated traceable to the LNE-Cnam’s cryogenic radiometer. Once the radiance of the sphere is defined, a single grating-based spectroradiometer is used to measure the radiance of the fixed point source at the laser wavelength through direct comparison with the sphere radiance. This allows the thermodynamic temperature of the fixed point to be determined using Planck’s radiation law. The work provides a thorough evaluation of the system along with a detailed study of all related systematic effects and their corresponding uncertainties.

  11. Wavelength meter having single mode fiber optics multiplexed inputs

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.; Paris, R.D.; Feldman, M.

    1993-02-23

    A wavelength meter having a single mode fiber optics input is disclosed. The single mode fiber enables a plurality of laser beams to be multiplexed to form a multiplexed input to the wavelength meter. The wavelength meter can provide a determination of the wavelength of any one or all of the plurality of laser beams by suitable processing. Another aspect of the present invention is that one of the laser beams could be a known reference laser having a predetermined wavelength. Hence, the improved wavelength meter can provide an on-line calibration capability with the reference laser input as one of the plurality of laser beams.

  12. Wavelength meter having single mode fiber optics multiplexed inputs

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.; Paris, Robert D.; Feldman, Mark

    1993-01-01

    A wavelength meter having a single mode fiber optics input is disclosed. The single mode fiber enables a plurality of laser beams to be multiplexed to form a multiplexed input to the wavelength meter. The wavelength meter can provide a determination of the wavelength of any one or all of the plurality of laser beams by suitable processing. Another aspect of the present invention is that one of the laser beams could be a known reference laser having a predetermined wavelength. Hence, the improved wavelength meter can provide an on-line calibration capability with the reference laser input as one of the plurality of laser beams.

  13. 5. DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BRIDGE AND SUBSTRUCTURE (with graduated meter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BRIDGE AND SUBSTRUCTURE (with graduated meter pole); VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Auwaiakeakua Bridge, Spanning Auwaiakekua Gulch at Mamalahoa Highway, Waikoloa, Hawaii County, HI

  14. 29. Detail view north showing amperage and voltage meters, operator's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Detail view north showing amperage and voltage meters, operator's room, west operator's house. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  15. Procedures and equipment for field proving Coriolis meters

    SciTech Connect

    Apple, C.; Liu, K.T.; Shen, J.J.S.

    1995-12-31

    As one of the fastest growing flowmeter technologies, Coriolis meters are now gaining wider usage in the petroleum and petrochemical industries for custody transfer measurement. As with other traditional custody transfer flowmeters, periodic on-line proving of the Coriolis meter is required. At present, volumetric provers, such as conventional pipe provers and small volume provers, are regarded as the only practical means for flowmeter proving. Depending on how the Coriolis meter`s output is configured, proving techniques differ. In general, if a Coriolis meter is configured to provide mass flow output, an accurate fluid density during proving will need to be determined for volume-to-mass conversion calculations. If a Coriolis meter is configured to provide volumetric flow output, then the same proving procedure for conventional volumetric flowmeters can be adopted. This paper describes the procedures and associated equipment needed for field proving of Coriolis meters. Field proving data collected from several meter installations has shown acceptable proving repeatability and meter factor stability.

  16. Shallow (2-meter) temperature surveys in Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado 2m Survey Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Reno Nevada Publisher: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Description: Shallow temperature surveys are useful in early-stage geothermal exploration to delineate surface outflow zones, with the intent to identify the source of upwelling, usually a fault. Detailed descriptions of the 2-meter survey method and equipment design can be found in Coolbaugh et al. (2007) and Sladek et al. (2007), and are summarized here. The survey method was devised to measure temperature as far below the zone of solar influence as possible, have minimal equilibration time, and yet be portable enough to fit on the back of an all-terrain vehicle (ATV); Figure 2). This method utilizes a direct push technology (DPT) technique where 2.3 m long, 0.54” outer diameter hollow steel rods are pounded into the ground using a demolition hammer. Resistance temperature devices (RTD) are then inserted into the rods at 2-meter depths, and allowed to equilibrate for one hour. The temperatures are then measured and recorded, the rods pulled out of the ground, and re-used at future sites. Usually multiple rods are planted over the course of an hour, and then the sampler returns back to the first station, measures the temperatures, pulls the rods, and so on, to eliminate waiting time. At Wagon Wheel Gap, 32 rods were planted around the hot springs between June 20 and July 1, 2012. The purpose was to determine the direction of a possible upflow fault or other structure. Temperatures at 1.5m and 2m depths were measured and recorded in the attribute table of this point shapefile. Several anomalous temperatures suggest that outflow is coming from a ~N60W striking fault or shear zone that contains the quartz-fluorite-barite veins of the adjacent patented mining claims. It should be noted that temperatures at 2m

  17. On the Application of a Hybrid Monte Carlo Technique to Radiation Transfer in the Post-Explosion Phase of Type IA Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollaeger, Ryan; van Rossum, Daniel; Graziani, Carlo; Couch, Sean; Jordan, George; Lamb, Donald; Moses, Gregory

    2013-10-01

    We apply Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) and Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) to Nomoto's W7 model of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia). IMC is a stochastic method for solving the nonlinear radiation transport equations. DDMC is a stochastic radiation diffusion method that is generally used to accelerate IMC for Monte Carlo (MC) particle histories in optically thick regions of space. The hybrid IMC-DDMC method has recently been extended to account for multifrequency and velocity effects. SNe Ia are thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars that produce characteristic light curves and spectra sourced by radioactive decay of 56Ni. We exhibit the advantages of the hybrid MC approach relative to pure IMC for the W7 model. These results shed light on the viability of IMC-DDMC in more sophisticated, multi-dimensional simulations of SNe Ia. This work was supported in part by the University of Chicago and the National Science Foundation under grant AST-0909132.

  18. KGK-2-type detector of gamma-radiation power for diagnosis of nuclear reactor radiation fields within the range from 1 µGy/s to 100 Gy/s

    SciTech Connect

    Koshelev, A. S. Dovbysh, L. Ye.; Khoruzhy, V. Kh.; Chuklyaev, S. V.

    2015-12-15

    The construction of the KGK-2-type detector of γ-radiation power is briefly described. The diagnostic possibilities of the detector are shown by the example of results of the dose rate measurement in the energy start-ups of the BR-K1 and BR-1M reactors implemented in the mode of generating fission pulses on delayed neutrons. The possibilities of using the KGK-2 detector for postpulse γ diagnostics are demonstrated by the example of results of measurements in the fission pulse on prompt neutrons of the BR-1M reactor.

  19. KGK-2-type detector of gamma-radiation power for diagnosis of nuclear reactor radiation fields within the range from 1 µGy/s to 100 Gy/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshelev, A. S.; Dovbysh, L. Ye.; Khoruzhy, V. Kh.; Chuklyaev, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    The construction of the KGK-2-type detector of γ-radiation power is briefly described. The diagnostic possibilities of the detector are shown by the example of results of the dose rate measurement in the energy start-ups of the BR-K1 and BR-1M reactors implemented in the mode of generating fission pulses on delayed neutrons. The possibilities of using the KGK-2 detector for postpulse γ diagnostics are demonstrated by the example of results of measurements in the fission pulse on prompt neutrons of the BR-1M reactor.

  20. RADIATION DETECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, H.N.; Glass, F.M.

    1960-05-10

    A radiation detector of the type is described wherein a condenser is directly connected to the electrodes for the purpose of performing the dual function of a guard ring and to provide capacitance coupling for resetting the detector system.

  1. Two-Phase Quality/Flow Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moerk, J. Steven (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Werlink, Rudy J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A quality and/or flow meter employs a capacitance probe assembly for measuring the dielectric constant of flow stream, particularly a two-phase flow stream including liquid and gas components.ne dielectric constant of the flow stream varies depending upon the volume ratios of its liquid and gas components, and capacitance measurements can therefore be employed to calculate the quality of the flow, which is defined as the volume ratio of liquid in the flow to the total volume ratio of gas and liquid in the flow. By using two spaced capacitance sensors, and cross-correlating the time varying capacitance values of each, the velocity of the flow stream can also be determined. A microcontroller-based processing circuit is employed to measure the capacitance of the probe sensors.The circuit employs high speed timer and counter circuits to provide a high resolution measurement of the time interval required to charge each capacitor in the probe assembly. In this manner, a high resolution, noise resistant, digital representation of each of capacitance value is obtained without the need for a high resolution A/D converter, or a high frequency oscillator circuit. One embodiment of the probe assembly employs a capacitor with two ground plates which provide symmetry to insure that accurate measurements are made thereby.

  2. Coriolis-effect in mass flow metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raszillier, H.; Durst, F.

    The physical background for the so-called Coriolis mass flow meter is described. The vibration modes of a fluid conveying straight pipe segment are analyzed. These modes deviate in shape from those appearing in the absence of fluid motion. The effect of fluid inertia may be exploited for the purpose of flow measurement. The analysis is performed under a simplifying approximation: the pipe is considered as a beam, the fluid as a moving string. The equations describing the vibrations are derived variationally, with the constraint of a common vibration amplitude of both fluid and pipe. The Lagrange multiplier associated with the constraint gives the interaction force between pipe and fluid. The modes are determined by a perturbation procedure. The analysis shows how the time delay between the vibrations of two appropriately chosen points of the pipe may serve to determine the mass flow rate of the fluid. The precise role of the Coriolis force is considered. The improvements of the used approximation are discussed.

  3. 0.3 Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Full Description: The Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic tunnel (0.3-m TCT) is used for testing two-dimensional airfoil sections and other models at high Reynolds numbers. The tunnel can operate continuously over a range of Mach numbers from about 0.1 to above 1.2, with a stagnation pressure from 14.7 to 88.0 psia (1 to 6 atmospheres) and a stagnation temperature from -320F to 130F (78 K to 328 K). This results in a maximum Reynolds number capability in excess of 100 x 106 per foot. The adaptive walls, floor, and ceiling in the 13-in. by 13-in. (33-cm by 33-cm) test section can be moved to the free-stream streamline shape, eliminating or reducing the wall effects on the model. The combination of flight Reynolds numbers capability and minimal wall interference makes the 0.3-m TCT a powerful tool for aeronautical research at transonic speeds. The Mach number, pressure, temperature, and adaptive wall shape are automatically controlled. The test section has computer-controlled angle of attack and traversing wake survey-probe systems. The facility has been modified to also use alternate test media--a heavy gas (sulfur hexafluoride, SF6), or air, both with a newly installed heat exchanger.

  4. A metering rotary nanopump for microfluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Darby, Scott G; Moore, Matthew R; Friedlander, Troy A; Schaffer, David K; Reiserer, Ron S; Wikswo, John P; Seale, Kevin T

    2010-12-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a microfabricated metering rotary nanopump for the purpose of driving fluid flow in microfluidic devices. The miniature peristaltic pump is composed of a set of microfluidic channels wrapped in a helix around a central camshaft in which a non-cylindrical cam rotates. The cam compresses the helical channels to induce peristaltic flow as it is rotated. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanopump design is able to produce intermittent delivery or removal of several nanolitres of fluid per revolution as well as consistent continuous flow rates ranging from as low as 15 nL min(-1) to above 1.0 µL min(-1). At back pressures encountered in typical microfluidic devices, the pump acts as a high impedance flow source. The durability, biocompatibility, ease of integration with soft-lithographic fabrication, the use of a simple rotary motor instead of multiple synchronized pneumatic or mechanical actuators, and the absence of power consumption or fluidic conductance in the resting state all contribute to a compact pump with a low cost of fabrication and versatile implementation. This suggests that the pump design may be useful for a wide variety of biological experiments and point of care devices. PMID:20959938

  5. Successful repair of a 6 meter battery

    SciTech Connect

    Nay, K.; Gratson, M.; Wash, S.; Sundholm, J.L.; Hippe, W.; Ramani, R.V.

    1996-12-31

    Following a two-year construction period, LTV Steel Company commissioned a new six-meter coke oven battery and ancillary facilities in December 1981 at the S. Chicago Works. The battery is a 60-oven Didier grouped flue underjet design capable of firing coke oven gas and blast furnace gas. In late 1990, coke side refractory damage in the form of severe spalls and holes in the walls were observed. Numerous repair techniques--welding, guniting, panel patching, end flue repairs using zero expansion brick--were employed as interim measures until a comprehensive repair plan could be implemented. A repair plan (primarily for coke side flues) was developed which envisioned end flue repairs on six walls per year beginning in late 1991, early 1992 depending on refractory delivery. However, in late 1992 it became apparent that the coke side deterioration was occurring faster than expected and that extensive pusher side deterioration was also occurring. Because of these developments, another battery inspection was performed. On the basis of this inspection, it was determined that a major rehabilitation would be required to assure long-term, environmentally acceptable operation of the battery.

  6. A metering rotary nanopump for microfluidic systems

    PubMed Central

    Darby, Scott G.; Moore, Matthew R.; Friedlander, Troy A.; Schaffer, David K.; Reiserer, Ron S.; Wikswo, John P.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a microfabricated metering rotary nanopump for the purpose of driving fluid flow in microfluidic devices. The miniature peristaltic pump is composed of a set of microfluidic channels wrapped in a helix around a central cam shaft in which a non-cylindrical cam rotates. The cam compresses the helical channels to induce peristaltic flow as it is rotated. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanopump design is able to produce intermittent delivery or removal of several nanoliters of fluid per revolution as well as consistent continuous flow rates ranging from as low as 15 nL/min to above 1.0 µL/min. At back pressures encountered in typical microfluidic devices, the pump acts as a high impedance flow source. The durability, biocompatibility, ease of integration with soft-lithographic fabrication, the use of a simple rotary motor instead of multiple synchronized pneumatic or mechanical actuators, and the absence of power consumption or fluidic conductance in the resting state all contribute to a compact pump with a low cost of fabrication and versatile implementation. This suggests that the pump design may be useful for a wide variety of biological experiments and point of care devices. PMID:20959938

  7. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, Warren; TMT International Science Development Teams; Science Advisory Committee, TMT

    2015-12-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), the University of California, the Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA) and US associate partner, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA). Cover image: artist's rendition of the TMT International Observatory on Mauna Kea opening in the late evening before beginning operations.

  8. Radiation-induced DNA damage and the relative biological effectiveness of 18F-FDG in wild-type mice

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Taylor, Kristina; Lemon, Jennifer A.; Boreham, Douglas R.

    2014-05-28

    Clinically, the most commonly used positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer is the glucose analog 2-[18F] fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (18F-FDG), however little research has been conducted on the biological effects of 18F-FDG injections. The induction and repair of DNA damage and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of radiation from 18F-FDG relative to 662 keV γ-rays were investigated. The study also assessed whether low-dose radiation exposure from 18F-FDG was capable of inducing an adaptive response. DNA damage to the bone marrow erythroblast population was measured using micronucleus formation and lymphocyte γH2A.X levels. To test the RBE of 18F-FDG, mice were injected with a rangemore » of activities of 18F-FDG (0–14.80 MBq) or irradiated with Cs-137 γ-rays (0–100 mGy). The adaptive response was investigated 24 h after the 18F-FDG injection by 1 Gy in vivo challenge doses for micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) formation or 1, 2 and 4 Gy in vitro challenges doses for γH2A.X formation. A significant increase in MN-RET formation above controls occurred following injection activities of 3.70, 7.40 or 14.80 MBq (P < 0.001) which correspond to bone marrow doses of ~35, 75 and 150 mGy, respectively. Per unit dose, the Cs-137 radiation exposure induced significantly more damage than the 18F-FDG injections (RBE = 0.79 ± 0.04). A 20% reduction in γH2A.X fluorescence was observed in mice injected with a prior adapting low dose of 14.80 MBq 18F-FDG relative to controls (P < 0.019). A 0.74 MBq 18F-FDG injection, which gives mice a dose approximately equal to a typical human PET scan, did not cause a significant increase in DNA damage nor did it generate an adaptive response. Typical 18F-FDG injection activities used in small animal imaging (14.80 MBq) resulted in a decrease in DNA damage, as measured by γH2A.X formation, below spontaneous levels observed in control mice. Lastly, the 18F-FDG RBE was <1.0, indicating that the mixed radiation quality

  9. Power meter for optical efficiency measurements of laser-induced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Rogers, Robert S.; Boac, Donald S.; Duong, Nam D.

    1987-01-01

    A power meter was constructed to measure the power being deposited in transient laser-induced plasmas (LIP). The design rejects the radiation scattered from the laser beam by the LIP and that transmitted past the LIP. The power meter is constructed from a small metal-capped flask placed in an evacuated chamber. The steady-state heat production in the flask is determined from measurements of the temperature gradient on a thermal resistance connecting the top of the flask with a heat sink. The design worked well and should be applicable to a wide variety of situations if the dimensions of the system are adjusted to compensate for power levels substantially different from those used here.

  10. Near-field testing of the 5-meter model of the tetrahedral truss antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kefauver, Neill; Cencich, Tom; Osborn, Jim; Osmanski, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents the technical results from near-field testing of the General Dynamics 5-meter model of the tetrahedral truss antenna at the Martin Marietta Denver Aerospace facility. A 5-meter square side of the tetrahedral served as the perimeter of the antenna, and a mesh surface and extensive surface contouring cord network was used to create a parabolic aperture shape to within an rms accuracy of 30 mils or better. Pattern measurements were made with offset feed systems radiating at frequencies of 7.73, 11.60, 2.27, and 4.26 (all in GHz). This report discusses the method of collecting the data, system measurement accuracy, the test data compiled, and diagostics and isolation of causes of pattern results. The technique of using near-field phase for measuring surface mechanical tolerances is included. Detailed far field antenna patterns and their implications are provided for all tests conducted.

  11. Mycobacterial Pan-Genome Analysis Suggests Important Role of Plasmids in the Radiation of Type VII Secretion Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Emilie; Christina Boritsch, Eva; Vandenbogaert, Mathias; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C.; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Caro, Valerie; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Heym, Beate; Girard-Misguich, Fabienne; Brosch, Roland; Sapriel, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    In mycobacteria, various type VII secretion systems corresponding to different ESX (ESAT-6 secretory) types, are contributing to pathogenicity, iron acquisition, and/or conjugation. In addition to the known chromosomal ESX loci, the existence of plasmid-encoded ESX systems was recently reported. To investigate the potential role of ESX-encoding plasmids on mycobacterial evolution, we analyzed a large representative collection of mycobacterial genomes, including both chromosomal and plasmid-borne sequences. Data obtained for chromosomal ESX loci confirmed the previous five classical ESX types and identified a novel mycobacterial ESX-4-like type, termed ESX-4-bis. Moreover, analysis of the plasmid-encoded ESX loci showed extensive diversification, with at least seven new ESX profiles, identified. Three of them (ESX-P clusters 1–3) were found in multiple plasmids, while four corresponded to singletons. Our phylogenetic and gene-order-analyses revealed two main groups of ESX types: 1) ancestral types, including ESX-4 and ESX-4-like systems from mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial actinobacteria and 2) mycobacteria-specific ESX systems, including ESX-1-2-3-5 systems and the plasmid-encoded ESX types. Synteny analysis revealed that ESX-P systems are part of phylogenetic groups that derived from a common ancestor, which diversified and resulted in the different ESX types through extensive gene rearrangements. A converging body of evidence, derived from composition bias-, phylogenetic-, and synteny analyses points to a scenario in which ESX-encoding plasmids have been a major driving force for acquisition and diversification of type VII systems in mycobacteria, which likely played (and possibly still play) important roles in the adaptation to new environments and hosts during evolution of mycobacterial pathogenesis. PMID:26748339

  12. Mycobacterial Pan-Genome Analysis Suggests Important Role of Plasmids in the Radiation of Type VII Secretion Systems.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Emilie; Christina Boritsch, Eva; Vandenbogaert, Mathias; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Caro, Valerie; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Heym, Beate; Girard-Misguich, Fabienne; Brosch, Roland; Sapriel, Guillaume

    2016-02-01

    In mycobacteria, various type VII secretion systems corresponding to different ESX (ESAT-6 secretory) types, are contributing to pathogenicity, iron acquisition, and/or conjugation. In addition to the known chromosomal ESX loci, the existence of plasmid-encoded ESX systems was recently reported. To investigate the potential role of ESX-encoding plasmids on mycobacterial evolution, we analyzed a large representative collection of mycobacterial genomes, including both chromosomal and plasmid-borne sequences. Data obtained for chromosomal ESX loci confirmed the previous five classical ESX types and identified a novel mycobacterial ESX-4-like type, termed ESX-4-bis. Moreover, analysis of the plasmid-encoded ESX loci showed extensive diversification, with at least seven new ESX profiles, identified. Three of them (ESX-P clusters 1-3) were found in multiple plasmids, while four corresponded to singletons. Our phylogenetic and gene-order-analyses revealed two main groups of ESX types: 1) ancestral types, including ESX-4 and ESX-4-like systems from mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial actinobacteria and 2) mycobacteria-specific ESX systems, including ESX-1-2-3-5 systems and the plasmid-encoded ESX types. Synteny analysis revealed that ESX-P systems are part of phylogenetic groups that derived from a common ancestor, which diversified and resulted in the different ESX types through extensive gene rearrangements. A converging body of evidence, derived from composition bias-, phylogenetic-, and synteny analyses points to a scenario in which ESX-encoding plasmids have been a major driving force for acquisition and diversification of type VII systems in mycobacteria, which likely played (and possibly still play) important roles in the adaptation to new environments and hosts during evolution of mycobacterial pathogenesis. PMID:26748339

  13. SKI2162, an inhibitor of the TGF-β type I receptor (ALK5), inhibits radiation-induced fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-hong; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Choi, Eun Kyung; Ahn, Seung Do; Park, Euisun; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Lee, Sang-wook

    2015-02-28

    Here we demonstrated that SKI2162, a small-molecule inhibitor of the TGF-β type I receptor (ALK5), prevented radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) in mice. SKI2162 inhibited phosphorylation of Smad and induction of RIF-related genes in vitro. In RIF a mouse model, SKI2162 reduced late skin reactions and leg-contracture without jeopardizing the acute skin reaction. Irradiation of mouse tissue increased COL1A2 mRNA levels, and topical administration of SKI2162 significantly inhibited this effect. Thus, these findings support that SKI2162 has potential value as novel RIF-protective agent, and could be candidate for clinical trials. PMID:25686821

  14. Development of simple band-spectral pyranometer and quantum meter using photovoltaic cells and bandpass filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilguun, Amarsaikhan; Nakaso, Tetsushi; Harigai, Toru; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Tanoue, Hideto

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, greenhouse automatic-control, based on the measurement of solar irradiance, has been attracting attention. This control is an effective method for improving crop production. In the agricultural field, it is necessary to measure Photon Flux Density (PFD), which is an important parameter in the promotion of plant growth. In particular, the PFD of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and Plant Biologically Active Radiation (PBAR, 300-800 nm) have been discussed in agricultural plant science. The commercial quantum meter (QM, PAR meter) can only measure Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) which is the integrated PFD quantity on the PAR wavelength. In this research, a band-spectral pyranometer or quantum meter using PVs with optical bandpass filters for dividing the PBAR wavelength into 100 nm bands (five independent channels) was developed. Before field testing, calibration of the instruments was carried out using a solar simulator. Next, a field test was conducted in three differing weather conditions such as clear, partly cloudy and cloudy skies. As a result, it was found that the response rate of the developed pyranometer was faster by four seconds compared with the response rate of the commercial pyranometer. Moreover, the outputs of each channel in the developed pyranometer were very similar to the integrated outputs of the commercial spectroradiometer. It was confirmed that the solar irradiance could be measured in each band separately using the developed band-spectral pyranometer. It was indicated that the developed band-spectral pyranometer could also be used as a PV band-spectral quantum meter which is obtained by converting the band irradiance into band PFD.

  15. The Early Development of Electronic pH Meters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Wallis G.; de Levie, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A 19-year-old undergraduate at the University of Chicago, Kenneth Goode, in 1921 came up with the idea of an electronic pH meter, worked out some of its initial problems, and set in motion an international scientific effort that culminated in the current, wide availability of electronic pH meters. Except for the replacement of vacuum tubes by…

  16. 40 CFR 1065.220 - Fuel flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel flow meter. 1065.220 Section 1065... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.220 Fuel flow meter. (a) Application. You may use fuel flow in combination with a chemical balance of carbon (or...

  17. 40 CFR 1065.220 - Fuel flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel flow meter. 1065.220 Section 1065... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.220 Fuel flow meter. (a) Application. You may use fuel flow in combination with a chemical balance of fuel, inlet air,...

  18. 40 CFR 1065.220 - Fuel flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel flow meter. 1065.220 Section 1065... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.220 Fuel flow meter. (a) Application. You may use fuel flow in combination with a chemical balance of fuel, inlet air,...

  19. Microwave moisture meter for in-shell peanut kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    . A microwave moisture meter built with off-the-shelf components was developed, calibrated and tested in the laboratory and in the field for nondestructive and instantaneous in-shell peanut kernel moisture content determination from dielectric measurements on unshelled peanut pod samples. The meter ...

  20. Microwave Moisture Meter for Granular and Particulate Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A low-cost microwave moisture meter operating at a single frequency for instantaneous and nondestructive determination of moisture content of granular and particulate materials was developed, calibrated and tested with different kinds of grain and seed. The meter operates at a single microwave freq...

  1. Watts Up? Pro AC Power Meter for Automated Energy Recording

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Jason M.; Miller, Jonathan R.; Kaplan, Brent A.; Reed, Derek D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to review the Watts up? Pro AC power meter. Evaluations of the meter's reliability for measuring energy consumption by consumer electronics yielded acceptable levels of reliability. Implications and limitations for the use of this product in behavior analytic research and practice are discussed.

  2. 40 CFR 92.122 - Smoke meter calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoke meter calibration. 92.122 Section 92.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... meter calibration. The smokemeter shall be checked according to the following procedure prior to...

  3. 40 CFR 92.122 - Smoke meter calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Smoke meter calibration. 92.122 Section 92.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... meter calibration. The smokemeter shall be checked according to the following procedure prior to...

  4. 40 CFR 92.122 - Smoke meter calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Smoke meter calibration. 92.122 Section 92.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... meter calibration. The smokemeter shall be checked according to the following procedure prior to...

  5. 69. (Credit JTL) View beneath marble meter bench showing hydraulic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. (Credit JTL) View beneath marble meter bench showing hydraulic lines leading to water valve hydraulic control cylinders from control handles in bench; strings and pulleys activate meters. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  6. 40 CFR 92.122 - Smoke meter calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Smoke meter calibration. 92.122 Section 92.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... meter calibration. The smokemeter shall be checked according to the following procedure prior to...

  7. Torque meter aids study of hysteresis motor rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, M.

    1967-01-01

    Torque meter, simulating hysteresis motor operation, allows rotor ring performance characteristics to be analyzed. The meter determines hysteresis motor torque and actual stresses of the ring due to its mechanical situation and rotation, aids in the study of asymmetries or defects in motor rings, and measures rotational hysteresis.

  8. Multiphase pumps and flow meters avoid platform construction

    SciTech Connect

    Elde, J.

    1999-02-01

    One of the newest wrinkles in efficiency in BP`s Eastern Trough Area Project (ETAP) is the system for moving multiphase oil, water and gas fluids from the Machar satellite field to the Marnock Central Processing Facility (CPF). Using water-turbine-driven multiphase pumps and multiphase flow meters, the system moves fluid with no need for a production platform. In addition, BP has designed the installation so it reduces and controls water coning, thereby increasing recoverable reserves. Both subsea multiphase booster stations (SMUBS) and meters grew out of extensive development work and experience at Framo Engineering AS (Framo) in multiphase meters and multiphase pump systems for subsea installation. Multiphase meter development began in 1990 and the first subsea multiphase meters were installed in the East Spar Project in Australia in 1996. By September 1998, the meters had been operating successfully for more than 1 year. A single multiphase meter installed in Marathon`s West Brae Project has also successfully operated for more than 1 year. Subsea meters for ETAP were installed and began operating in July 1998.

  9. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... following payment options (listed in order of preference): (1) Automated clearinghouse (ACH) debits/credits...) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters at... companies (RCs). (b) A customer is required to have funds available on deposit with the Postal...

  10. Feasibility of Mossbauer survey meter for hydrocarbon and mineral reserves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of developing a Mossbauer survey meter for geophysical prospecting was investigated. Various critical requirements that will have to be met by the source and absorber crystals in such an instrument were identified. It was concluded that a survey meter based on (Rh-103 resonance (40 kev) yields Rh-103) isomeric transition is feasible and should be developed.

  11. Microwave Moisture Meter for Rapid and Nondestructive Grading of Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A low-cost microwave moisture meter made with off-the-shelf components was developed, calibrated and tested in the laboratory and in the field for the grading of peanuts. The meter allows rapid and nondestructive determination of kernel moisture content from measurements on unshelled peanut pods. Th...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Raw exhaust flow meter. 1065.230... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.230 Raw exhaust flow meter. (a) Application. You may use measured raw exhaust flow, as follows: (1) Use the...

  13. Sampling and recording dose rate meter

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, S.

    1984-04-06

    A wide range radiation dose rate for civil defense use, including a Geiger-Mueller tube used in a continuous counting mode and for measuring dose rates from the natural background to about 30. rads/hr., with an ion chamber arranged to measure higher dose rates up to 10,000 rads/hr. The instrument has a sample and record capability in which the selected radiation detector will have its output connected to a selected storage capacitor for a precise interval of time determined by a timing circuit and the storage capacitor will accumulate and hold a voltage proportional to the dose rate, which can be read by means of an electrometer at a later time. The instrument has a self contained hand cranked power supply and all components are selected for long shelf life.

  14. Digital Phase Meter for a Laser Heterodyne Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loya, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The Digital Phase Meter is based on a modified phase-locked loop. When phase alignment between the reference input and the phase-shifted metrological input is achieved, the loop locks and the phase shift of the digital phase shifter equals the phase difference that one seeks to measure. This digital phase meter is being developed for incorporation into a laser heterodyne interferometer in a metrological apparatus, but could also be adapted to other uses. Relative to prior phase meters of similar capability, including digital ones, this digital phase meter is smaller, less complex, and less expensive. The phase meter has been constructed and tested in the form of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA).

  15. Ultrasonic velocity meter used in stream gaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fayard, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    Many streams and canals in Florida are affected by tides or control structures and experience very low flow velocities at times. For example, the St. Johns River in northeastern Florida is affected by tides for about 140 miles upstream from its mouth and many canals in the Miami area of southeastern Florida are controlled by manmade structures and other elements that cause a variable backwater effect and very low flow velocities. For these conditions, it becomes necessary to obtain a continuous index of mean velocity as well as stage in order to compute discharge. Point-velocity sensing systems have been used to relate point velocity to mean velocity but their usefulness commonly is limited because of the lack of an exact relation. The ultrasonic velocity meter (UVM) provides an alternative approach to measuring a velocity index that can be related to mean velocity; one that provides an integrated velocity at a prescribed elevation across a stream. Six stations in the tidal-affected lower St. Johns River basin are presently equipped with UVM's. Measuring sections are as narrow as 100 feet and as wide as 900 feet. Multiple acoustic paths are used to measure wide sections in a straight reach of river; crossing paths are used to measure sections in a bend of the river. Because of low velocity and variable backwater conditions, flow also is measured with UVM's in 11 canals in the Miami area that drain into The Everglades. At some of the canal sites transducers have been permanently mounted and a 'portable' UVM module is used to obtain instantaneous velocity readings.

  16. Adaptive Optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellerbroek, Brent

    2013-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the progress made since the last AO4ELT conference towards developing the first-light AO architecture for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). The Preliminary Design of the facility AO system NFIRAOS has been concluded by the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics. Work on the client Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) has progressed in parallel, including a successful Conceptual Design Review and prototyping of On-Instrument WFS (OIWFS) hardware. Progress on the design for the Laser Guide Star Facility (LGSF) continues at the Institute of Optics and Electronics in Chengdu, China, including the final acceptance of the Conceptual Design and modest revisions for the updated TMT telescope structure. Design and prototyping activities continue for lasers, wavefront sensing detectors, detector readout electronics, real-time control (RTC) processors, and deformable mirrors (DMs) with their associated drive electronics. Highlights include development of a prototype sum frequency guide star laser at the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry (Beijing); fabrication/test of prototype natural- and laser-guide star wavefront sensor CCDs for NFIRAOS by MIT Lincoln Laboratory and W.M. Keck Observatory; a trade study of RTC control algorithms and processors, with prototyping of GPU and FPGA architectures by TMT and the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory; and fabrication/test of a 6x60 actuator DM prototype by CILAS. Work with the University of British Columbia LIDAR is continuing, in collaboration with ESO, to measure the spatial/temporal variability of the sodium layer and characterize the sodium coupling efficiency of several guide star laser systems. AO performance budgets have been further detailed. Modeling topics receiving particular attention include performance vs. computational cost tradeoffs for RTC algorithms; optimizing performance of the tip/tilt, plate scale, and sodium focus tracking loops controlled by the NGS on

  17. An Improved Platform Levelling System for Airborne Gravity Meters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, N.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology have enabled Lacoste and Romberg type relative gravity meters to improve in accuracy to the point where other non-sensor related sources of error serve to limit the overall accuracy of the system. One of these sources of error is derived from the inability of the platform, in which the sensor is mounted, to keep the sensor perfectly level during survey flight. Off level errors occur when the aircraft is unable to maintain straight and level flight along a survey line. The levelling platform of a typical Lacoste and Romberg type dynamic gravity meter utilizes a complex feedback loop involving both accelerometers and gyroscopes with an output connected to torque motors mounted to the platform to sense an off level situation and correct for it. The current system is limited by an inability of the platform to distinguish between an acceleration of the platform due to a change in heading, altitude or speed of the aircraft and a true change in the local gravity vertical. Both of these situations cause the platform to tilt in reponse however the aircraft acceleration creates an error in the gravity measurement. These off level errors can be corrected for to a limited degree depending on the algorithm used and the size and duration of the causal acceleration. High precision GPS now provides accurate real time position information which can be used to determine if an accleration is a real level change or due to an anomalous acceleration. The correct implementation of the GPS position can significantly improve the accuracy of the platform levelling including keeping the platform level during course reversals or drape flying during a survey. This can typically improve the quality of the gravity data before any processing corrections. The enhanced platform also reduces the time taken to stabilize the platform at the beginning of a survey line therefore improving the efficiency of the data collection. This paper discusses the method and

  18. Induction of donor-type chimerism in murine recipients of bone marrow allografts by different radiation regimens currently used in treatment of leukemia patients

    SciTech Connect

    Salomon, O.; Lapidot, T.; Terenzi, A.; Lubin, I.; Rabi, I.; Reisner, Y. )

    1990-11-01

    Three radiation protocols currently used in treatment of leukemia patients before bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were investigated in a murine model (C57BL/6----C3H/HeJ) for BM allograft rejection. These include (a) a single dose of total body irradiation (8.5 Gy TBI delivered at a dose rate of 0.2 Gy/min), (b) fractionated TBI 12 Gy administered in six fractions, 2 Gy twice a day in 3 days, delivered at a dose rate of 0.1 Gy/min, and (c) hyperfractionated TBI (14.4 Gy administered in 12 fractions, 1.2 Gy three times a day in 3 days, delivered at a dose rate of 0.1 Gy/min). Donor-type chimerism 6 to 8 weeks after BMT and hematologic reconstitution on day 12 after BMT found in these groups were compared with results obtained in mice conditioned with 8 Gy TBI delivered at a dose rate of 0.67 Gy/min, routinely used in this murine model. The results in both parameters showed a marked advantage for the single dose 8.5 Gy TBI over all the other treatments. This advantage was found to be equivalent to three- to fourfold increment in the BM inoculum when compared with hyperfractionated radiation, which afforded the least favorable conditions for development of donor-type chimerism. The fractionated radiation protocol was equivalent in its efficacy to results obtained in mice irradiated by single-dose 8 Gy TBI, both of which afforded a smaller but not significant advantage over the hyperfractionated protocol. This model was also used to test the effect of radiation dose rate on the development of donor-type chimerism. A significant enhancement was found after an increase in dose rate from 0.1 to 0.7 Gy/min. Further enhancement could be achieved when the dose rate was increased to 1.3 Gy/min, but survival at this high dose rate was reduced.

  19. Development of a compact flow meter for residential natural gas metering. Final report, May 1989-February 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.S.; Nutt, W.E.

    1992-05-01

    A prototype compact gas flow meter based on the thermal time-of-flight (TOF) concept was built and tested. The flow meter is all electronic and has no mechanical moving parts. The prototype unit demonstrates the elements of the TOF flow metering technology. Tests with the TOF flow meter were performed using a variety of gases including a range of natural gas compositions. Test results show promise toward meeting system accuracy requirements by improving the calibration methods and reducing electronics noise. The battery life with the prototype electronics is less than the 10 year goal, but device substitutions and low duty cycle operation would significantly extend the life time to allow realistic field trials with an improved flow meter.

  20. Bile Duct (Cholangiocarcinoma) Cancer: Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... form of radiation for bile duct cancer. External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) This type of radiation therapy ... determine the correct angles for aiming the radiation beams and the proper dose of radiation. The treatment ...