Sample records for radiation protection infrastructure

  1. Tools for 21st Century infrastructure protection

    SciTech Connect

    Trost, S.R.

    1997-07-01

    The President`s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCEP) was formed under Executive Order 13010 to recommend a national strategy for protecting and assuring critical infrastructures. Eight critical infrastructure elements have been identified. This paper provides an overview of tools necessary to conduct in depth analysis and characterization of threats, vulnerabilities, and interdependencies of critical infrastructure subsystems, and their interaction with each other. Particular emphasis is placed on research requirements necessary to develop the next generation of tools. In addition to tools, a number of system level research suggestions are made including developing a system architecture, data flow models, national level resources, and a national test bed.

  2. 76 FR 17934 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), will submit the following Information...Request should be forwarded to DHS/NPPD/IP, 245 Murray Lane, SW., Mail Stop 0602...DHS, this responsibility is managed by IP within NPPD. Beginning in Fiscal Year...

  3. Radiation Protection Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Basic Concepts of Radiation Protection time distance shielding Time The amount of radiation exposure increases and decreases ... exposure. How does EPA use the concept of time in radiation protection? When we set a radiation ...

  4. National Infrastructure Protection Plan: Partnering to Enhance Protection and Resiliency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Homeland Security, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The overarching goal of the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) is to build a safer, more secure, and more resilient America by preventing, deterring, neutralizing, or mitigating the effects of deliberate efforts by terrorists to destroy, incapacitate, or exploit elements of our Nation's critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR)…

  5. Radiation Protection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update (AAAS; )

    2008-05-01

    Chemotherapy and radiation can be powerful weapons against cancer. But they harm healthy cells as well. Cells of the immune system and G.I. tract are especially vulnerable: instead of repairing the damage, they respond by committing cellular suicide. In contrast, tumor cells have mutations that make them resistant to cell death. Roswell Park Cancer Institute researcher Andrei Gudkov and his colleagues recently harnessed this property to create a new drug.

  6. Radiation protection standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauriston S. Taylor; Harold O. Wyckoff

    1972-01-01

    The report traces the development of the understanding of radiation hazard, and the philosophy for protection against it. Special attention is given to the work of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), form which two organizations most of the basic radiation protection philosphy and criteria in the world today

  7. Authenticated Modbus Protocol for Critical Infrastructure Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raphael C.-W. Phan

    2012-01-01

    Protecting a nation's critical infrastructure, notably its power grid is crucial in view of increasing threats, such as international terrorism. We focus on the security of the Modbus protocol, a de-facto protocol for distributed control systems popularly used for power plants. Specifically, we analyze the security of a recently proposed authenticated Modbus protocol. We present attacks on the protocol, discuss

  8. Cyber Security and Information Infrastructure Protection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provos, Niels

    The University of Michigan's Center for Information Technology Integration has compiled this introduction to cyber security in order to help people create and manage secure systems. In addition to a clear introduction, the webpage offers helpful advice, strategies, and programs useful for threat assessment, intrusion prevention, and critical infrastructure protection. This resource is ideal for the introductory student for cyber security, but could also assist teachers in labs, homework, and some lecture situations.

  9. IAEA model project on upgrading the radiation protection infrastructure: background--origin--implementation. International Atomic Energy Agency Model.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Lester R; Bradley, F J

    2002-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency Model Project is a focused management program to improve the Radiation Control Programs primarily in developing countries. The effort was initiated in 1994 as a result of RAPAT mission reports and incidents around the world involving injuries and some deaths from uncontrolled and misuse of radioactive sources. This indicated that many countries were not implementing the IAEA Basic Safety Standards. The initial phase covered 52 countries and resulted in 69% passing legislation and 75% had some type of regulatory authority and 40% had regulations and licensing and inspection capabilities. But, the overall averages masked disappointment for some countries in West Asia where only 22% had regulations and 33% had a licensing and inspection program. In Africa 24% had regulations and 29% had a licensing and inspection program. Plans were approved to extend the effort to an additional 30 countries over the next 4 y. PMID:12075676

  10. Radiation Protection Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A handbook which sets forth the Kennedy Space Center radiation protection policy is presented. The book also covers administrative direction and guidance on organizational and procedural requirements of the program. Only ionizing radiation is covered.

  11. 77 FR 35700 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Program Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure Information Collection...Request should be forwarded to DHS/NPPD/IP/IICD, 245 Murray Lane, SW., Mailstop...internal PCII Program, IICD, and NPPD/IP use only.OMB is particularly...

  12. 76 FR 17935 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP) will submit the following Information...Request should be forwarded to DHS/NPPD/IP, Attn: Emily R. Hickey (Emily.hickey...litigation. The PCII Program is administered by IP's Infrastructure Information...

  13. 76 FR 50487 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), will submit the following Information...INFORMATION CONTACT: Emily Hickey, DHS/NPPD/IP, Emily.Hickey@dhs.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY...Program is administered by DHS/NPPD/IP's Infrastructure Information...

  14. Radiation protection in space

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, E.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fry, R.J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space.

  15. Sensible radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, H.H.

    1996-03-01

    This report describes eight general principles of radiation protection. The first principle is based on the idea that the ICRP derivation of risk coefficients are meaningless when applied to routine radiation exposure. The other principles describes what should be acceptable exposures.

  16. DECISION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PROTECTION OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, John E.

    included in the broader set of critical infrastructures defined by the USA Patriot Act of 2001 [1]. In the Patriot Act, critical infrastructures are those #12;3 "systems and assets, whether physical or virtual, so

  17. Radiation protection and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation was found not to be an operational problem during the Apollo program. Doses received by the crewmen of Apollo missions 7 through 17 were small because no major solar-particle events occurred during those missions. One small event was detected by a radiation sensor outside the Apollo 12 spacecraft, but no increase in radiation dose to the crewmen inside the spacecraft was detected. Radiation protection for the Apollo program was focused on both the peculiarities of the natural space radiation environment and the increased prevalence of manmade radiation sources on the ground and onboard the spacecraft. Radiation-exposure risks to crewmen were assessed and balanced against mission gain to determine mission constraints. Operational radiation evaluation required specially designed radiation detection systems onboard the spacecraft in addition to the use of satellite data, solar observatory support, and other liaison. Control and management of radioactive sources and radiation-generating equipment was important in minimizing radiation exposure of ground-support personnel, researchers, and the Apollo flight and backup crewmen.

  18. 75 FR 41213 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure Information Collection...an information collection entitled, ``IP Data Call.'' This is a correction notice...published 60-day notice to read, ``IP Data Call Survey.'' There are no...

  19. 75 FR 31458 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure Information Collection...required contact: Ribkha Hailu, DHS/NPPD/IP/IICD, at iicd@dhs.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY...this responsibility is managed by NPPD/IP. In FY2006, IP engaged in the annual...

  20. U.S. Government Activities to Protect the Information Infrastructure

    E-print Network

    U.S. Government Activities to Protect the Information Infrastructure Dennis D Steinauer, Shirley M.S. Government (and of some joint activities of government and industry) that involve the security of the evolving information infrastructure. Over the past few years, U.S. Government organizations have expanded

  1. 75 FR 67989 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Infrastructure Protection; Infrastructure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), will submit the following Information...in a timely manner.'' DHS designated IP to lead these efforts. Given that the vast...sectors are privately owned or controlled, IP's success in achieving the homeland...

  2. Protection from Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Singleterry, R. C.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; Kim, M. Y.; Badavi, F. F.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The exposures anticipated for our astronauts in the anticipated Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) will be significantly higher (both annual and carrier) than any other occupational group. In addition, the exposures in deep space result largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little experience. Some evidence exists indicating that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate [1,2]. The purpose of this presentation is to evaluate our current understanding of radiation protection with laboratory and flight experimental data and to discuss recent improvements in interaction models and transport methods.

  3. SUBCOMMITTEE ON ECONOMIC SECURITY, INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION, AND CYBERSECURITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DON YOUNG; Texas JOHN LINDER; MARK E. SOUDER

    Jurisdiction: Development of strategies to protect against terrorist attack against the United States; prioritizing risks through analytical tools and cost\\/benefit analyses; prioritizing investment in critical infrastructure protection across all sectors, including transportation (air, land, sea, and intermodal, both domestic and international); defeating terrorist efforts to inflict economic costs through threats and violence; mitigation of potential consequences of terrorist attacks on

  4. Protecting complex infrastructures against multiple strategic attackers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kjell Hausken

    2011-01-01

    Infrastructures are analysed subject to defence by a strategic defender and attack by multiple strategic attackers. A framework is developed where each agent determines how much to invest in defending versus attacking each of multiple targets. A target can have economic, human and symbolic values, which generally vary across agents. Investment expenditure functions for each agent can be linear in

  5. (Radiation protection guidance)

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, C.R.

    1989-11-16

    The traveler attended the meeting of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and its committees in Oxford, England. This was the first meeting of the Main Commission with all its committees as formed for the 1989--1993 period. The major item of business was to review a draft report that, when finalized, will constitute the revised basic ICRP radiation protection guidance. It is clear that there is much work to be done by ICRP committees and task groups to prepare reports containing information that can be used in conjunction with the revised guidance, e.g., a revised ICRP 30 series of reports. It is extremely important that the US Department of Energy, and other US agencies, including the Commission on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC), not repeat the error committed after the previous ICRP general radiation protection guidance was released in 1977 (ICRP Report No. 26). The US had much difficulty in understanding the implications of the recommendations and their impact on federal and other facilities. As a result there was a long delay in US agencies adopting the ICRP 26 terminology and secondary limits. Actually, all DOE contractors were directed this year, via DOE order 5480.11, to comply with what is basically ICRP 26 and 30 by the end of this calendar year. Much of the rest of the world had adopted most or all of the ICRP 26 and 30 guidance years ago. The US position appeared very confused as regards ICRP 26 to the rest of the world.

  6. RADIATION PROTECTION KEYWORDS: equivalent sphere

    E-print Network

    Lin, Zi-wei

    RADIATION PROTECTION KEYWORDS: equivalent sphere model, space radiation, organ dose IMPROVEMENT OF THE EQUIVALENT SPHERE MODEL FOR SPACE RADIATION ENVIRONMENTS Z. W. LIN East Carolina University, Department Accepted for Publication January 21, 2009 In space radiation calculations it is often useful to calculate

  7. GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS AS ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul-Émile Bélanger; Bruno Herlin; Kent P. von Maubeuge

    Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCLs), are used in many applications as stand-alone barrier to protect the environment. In road infrastructure applications, GCLs are used to protect environmental sensitive areas, such as ground water recharge areas, from any pollution arising from motor vehicles, any materials (deicing salt) used on these particular motorways and\\/or water-endangering materials in the case of accidents. This paper

  8. 76 FR 17933 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), will submit the following Information...Request should be forwarded to DHS/NPPD/IP, 245 Murray Lane, SW., Mail Stop 0602...DHS, this responsibility is managed by IP within NPPD. In Fiscal Year 2006, IP...

  9. The NERC program for the electricity sector critical infrastructure protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Leffler

    2001-01-01

    NERC has been called on and has served on a number of occasions in the past decade as the electric power industry's primary point of contact, communication, and coordination on a broad range of issues relating to national electric security, interconnected electric system vulnerability, and critical infrastructure protection. Dating back to the early 1980s, NERC has been involved with electromagnetic

  10. Personal Radiation Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Mark; Vinci, Victoria

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the personal radiation protection system (PRPS), which has been invented for use on the International Space Station and other spacecraft. The PRPS comprises walls that can be erected inside spacecraft, where and when needed, to reduce the amount of radiation to which personnel are exposed. The basic structural modules of the PRPS are pairs of 1-in. (2.54-cm)-thick plates of high-density polyethylene equipped with fasteners. The plates of each module are assembled with a lap joint. The modules are denoted bricks because they are designed to be stacked with overlaps, in a manner reminiscent of bricks, to build 2-in. (5.08-cm)-thick walls of various lengths and widths. The bricks are of two varieties: one for flat wall areas and one for corners. The corner bricks are specialized adaptations of the flat-area bricks that make it possible to join walls perpendicular to each other. Bricks are attached to spacecraft structures and to each other by use of straps that can be tightened to increase the strengths and stiffnesses of joints.

  11. New Approaches to Radiation Protection

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Eliot M.; Day, Regina; Singh, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given prior to radiation exposure. Mitigators can protect against radiation injury when given after exposure but before symptoms appear. Radioprotectors and mitigators can potentially improve the outcomes of radiotherapy for cancer treatment by allowing higher doses of radiation and/or reduced damage to normal tissues. Such compounds can also potentially counteract the effects of accidental exposure to radiation or deliberate exposure (e.g., nuclear reactor meltdown, dirty bomb, or nuclear bomb explosion); hence they are called radiation countermeasures. Here, we will review the general principles of radiation injury and protection and describe selected examples of radioprotectors/mitigators ranging from small-molecules to proteins to cell-based treatments. We will emphasize agents that are in more advanced stages of development. PMID:25653923

  12. New approaches to radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Eliot M; Day, Regina; Singh, Vijay K

    2014-01-01

    Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given prior to radiation exposure. Mitigators can protect against radiation injury when given after exposure but before symptoms appear. Radioprotectors and mitigators can potentially improve the outcomes of radiotherapy for cancer treatment by allowing higher doses of radiation and/or reduced damage to normal tissues. Such compounds can also potentially counteract the effects of accidental exposure to radiation or deliberate exposure (e.g., nuclear reactor meltdown, dirty bomb, or nuclear bomb explosion); hence they are called radiation countermeasures. Here, we will review the general principles of radiation injury and protection and describe selected examples of radioprotectors/mitigators ranging from small-molecules to proteins to cell-based treatments. We will emphasize agents that are in more advanced stages of development. PMID:25653923

  13. Radiation Protection in Interventional Radiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DECLAN R. JOHNSON; JOHN KYRIOU; EDWARD J. MORTON; ANDREW CLIFTON; MICHAEL FITZGERALD; EMER MACSWEENEY

    2001-01-01

    There is growing concern regarding the radiation dose delivered during interventional procedures, particularly in view of the increasing frequency and complexity of these techniques. This paper reviews the radiation dose levels currently encountered in interventional procedures, the consequent risks to operators and patients and the dose reduction that may be achieved by employing a rigorous approach to radiation protection.Johnson, D.R.

  14. Radiation Protection and Free Radicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Smaller; Eugene C. Avery

    1959-01-01

    FREE radicals formed in biological materials by ionizing radiation may be detected under the proper conditions by paramagnetic resonance techniques. Possibly such free radicals contribute, directly or indirectly, to the radiation damage suffered by living organisms. The various chemicals which have been found to increase the survival of organisms subjected to large doses of radiation may provide protection by action

  15. A CBK for Information Security and Critical Infrastructure Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marianthi Theoharidou; Eleftheria Stougiannou; Dimitris Gritzalis

    2007-01-01

    Academic institutions educate future Information Security and Critical Infrastructure Protection (ISCIP) professionals, offering\\u000a expedient and broad knowledge of the field. As industry often demands higher productivity and stronger specialization, several\\u000a organizations (academic, governmental, industrial) considered the use of a Common Body of Knowledge (CBK), to serve as a tool\\u000a that appropriately groups together the essential knowledge of this field. In

  16. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maisin, J. R.

    Some of the problems related to chemical protection against ionizing radiation are discussed with emphasis on : definition, classification, degree of protection, mechanisms of action and toxicity. Results on the biological response modifyers (BRMs) and on the combination of nontoxic (i.e. low) doses of sulphydryl radioprotectors and BRMs are presented.

  17. Protection of large alpine infrastructures against natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robl, Jörg; Scheikl, Manfred; Hergarten, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Large infrastructures in alpine domains are threatened by a variety of natural hazards like debris flows, rock falls and snow avalanches. Especially linear infrastructure including roads, railway lines, pipe lines and power lines passes through the entire mountain range and the impact of natural hazards can be expected along a distance over hundreds of kilometers. New infrastructure projects like storage power plants or ski resorts including access roads are often located in remote alpine domains without any historical record of hazardous events. Mitigation strategies against natural hazards require a detailed analysis on the exposure of the infrastructure to natural hazards. Following conventional concepts extensive mapping and documentation of surface processes over hundreds to several thousand km² of steep alpine domain is essential but can be hardly performed. We present a case study from the Austrian Alps to demonstrate the ability of a multi-level concept to describe the impact of natural hazards on infrastructure by an iterative process. This includes new state of the art numerical models, modern field work and GIS-analysis with an increasing level of refinement at each stage. A set of new numerical models for rock falls, debris flows and snow avalanches was designed to operate with information from field in different qualities and spatial resolutions. Our analysis starts with simple and fast cellular automata for rockfalls and debrisflows to show the exposure of the infrastructure to natural hazards in huge domains and detects "high risk areas" that are investigated in more detail in field in the next refinement level. Finally, sophisticated 2D- depth averaged fluid dynamic models for all kinds of rapid mass movements are applied to support the development of protection structures.

  18. Radiation Protection and Licensing FNAL Radiation Physics Team

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    Radiation Protection and Licensing K. Vaziri, FNAL Radiation Physics Team Proton Accelerators, 2012 #12;January 13, 2012 Radiation Protection and Licensing 2 Radiation Protection and Licensing 1 5. Tritium control and ground-water protection 6. Radioactive component storage 7. Repair

  19. 77 FR 37060 - Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) Asset Protection Technical Assistance Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure Information Collection...Request should be forwarded to DHS/NPPD/IP/IICD, 245 Murray Lane SW., Mailstop...CAPTAP) is offered jointly by the NPPD/IP and the Federal Emergency Management...

  20. 78 FR 29375 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Office Self-Assessment Questionnaire

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure Information Collection...INFORMATION CONTACT: Barbara Forrest DHS/NPPD/IP/PCII, barbara.forrest@hq.dhs...Program is administered by DHS/ NPPD/IP/IICD. The PCII Program is...

  1. 1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

  2. International standards for radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Peter

    2011-03-01

    International standards for radiation protection are issued by many bodies. These bodies differ to a large extent in their organisation, in the way the members are designated and in the way the international standards are authorised by the issuing body. Large differences also exist in the relevance of the international standards. One extreme is that the international standards are mandatory in the sense that no conflicting national standard may exist, the other extreme is that national and international standards conflict and there is no need to resolve that conflict. Between these extremes there are some standards or documents of relevance, which are not binding by any formal law or contract but are de facto binding due to the scientific reputation of the issuing body. This paper gives, for radiation protection, an overview of the main standards issuing bodies, the international standards or documents of relevance issued by them and the relevance of these documents. PMID:21149291

  3. Page 1 of 4 Radiation Protection Policy

    E-print Network

    Mumby, Peter J.

    Page 1 of 4 Radiation Protection Policy 1.9 Control of Radioactive Materials 1.9.1 Acquisition in Section 2.17 of the Radiation Protection Policy Appendix 1. No radionuclide/radioisotope source shall be brought to the University by any route without prior consultation with the Radiation Protection Service

  4. Radiation Protection Surveys in Clinical Areas

    E-print Network

    Jia, Songtao

    Radiation Protection Surveys in Clinical Areas Procedure: 7.521 Created: 4/23/2014 Version: 1 as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) it is necessary to perform routine radiation protection surveys: Radiation Safety Officer D. Policies 1. Ambient radiation levels: survey with ion chamber survey meter

  5. 30. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 30. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-print Network

    30. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 30. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION Revised;2 30. Radioactivity and radiation protection caused by different radiation types R weighted with so radiation in a volume element of a specified material divided by the mass of this volume element. · Kerma, K

  6. [Radiation protection in radiation oncology. Yesterday, today, and tomorrow].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Th; Müller, R

    2012-11-01

    Publications about radiation protection issues are not very frequent in the 100-year-old history of Strahlentherapie und Onkologie. While at the beginning of the last century the problems of radiation protection were determined by the technical development of radiation therapy, the importance of radiation protection measures and knowledge about radiation protection by the persons involved has clearly increased. A new challenge is treating patients according to radiation safety issues to avoid the risk of stochastic late effects, such as radiation-induced secondary tumors. PMID:22907582

  7. Disaster Tolerant Systems Engineering for Critical Infrastructure Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. HARPER; Mitchell A. THORNTON; Stephen A. SZYGENDA

    2007-01-01

    Quality of life in the United States relies, in large measure, on the continuous operations of a complex infrastructure. This infrastructure is comprised of physical and information-based facilities, networks, and assets, which, if disrupted would seriously impact health, safety and security of citizens or effective functioning of governments and industries. This infrastructure system includes telecommunications, energy, banking and financial, transportation,

  8. 30. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 30. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-print Network

    30. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 30. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION Revised for the 2012 edition (pdg.lbl.gov) February 16, 2012 14:08 #12;2 30. Radioactivity and radiation protection radiation in a volume element of a specified material divided by the mass of this volume element. · Kerma, K

  9. 33. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 33. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-print Network

    33. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 33. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION Revised://pdg.lbl.gov) June 18, 2012 16:20 #12;2 33. Radioactivity and radiation protection tissue caused by different radiation in a volume element of a specified material divided by the mass of this volume element. · Kerma, K

  10. ,FebrUary 1991 Radiation Protection

    E-print Network

    Shepherd, Simon

    of the major health concerns is the damaging effects of ionizing space radiation. Once the crew leaves-N-ASA _Technical Paper _3079 ,FebrUary 1991 Radiation Protection for Human Missions to the Moon Division Radiation Protection for Human Missions to the Moon and Mars Lisa C. Simonsen and John E. Nealy

  11. Constructing vulnerabilty and protective measures indices for the enhanced critical infrastructure protection program.

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R. E.; Buehring, W. A.; Whitfield, R. G.; Bassett, G. W.; Dickinson, D. C.; Haffenden, R. A.; Klett, M. S.; Lawlor, M. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; LANL

    2009-10-14

    The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has directed its Protective Security Advisors (PSAs) to form partnerships with the owners and operators of assets most essential to the Nation's well being - a subclass of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) - and to conduct site visits for these and other high-risk assets as part of the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) Program. During each such visit, the PSA documents information about the facility's current CIKR protection posture and overall security awareness. The primary goals for ECIP site visits (DHS 2009) are to: (1) inform facility owners and operators of the importance of their facilities as an identified high-priority CIKR and the need to be vigilant in light of the ever-present threat of terrorism; (2) identify protective measures currently in place at these facilities, provide comparisons of CIKR protection postures across like assets, and track the implementation of new protective measures; and (3) enhance existing relationships among facility owners and operators; DHS; and various Federal, State, local tribal, and territorial partners. PSAs conduct ECIP visits to assess overall site security; educate facility owners and operators about security; help owners and operators identify gaps and potential improvements; and promote communication and information sharing among facility owners and operators, DHS, State governments, and other security partners. Information collected during ECIP visits is used to develop metrics; conduct sector-by-sector and cross-sector vulnerability comparisons; identify security gaps and trends across CIKR sectors and subsectors; establish sector baseline security survey results; and track progress toward improving CIKR security through activities, programs, outreach, and training (Snyder 2009). The data being collected are used in a framework consistent with the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) risk criteria (DHS 2009). The NIPP framework incorporates consequence, threat, and vulnerability components and addresses all hazards. The analysis of the vulnerability data needs to be reproducible, support risk analysis, and go beyond protection. It also needs to address important security/vulnerability topics, such as physical security, cyber security, systems analysis, and dependencies and interdependencies. This report provides an overview of the approach being developed to estimate vulnerability and provide vulnerability comparisons for sectors and subsectors. the information will be used to assist DHS in analyzing existing protective measures and vulnerability at facilities, to identify potential ways to reduce vulnerabilities, and to assist in preparing sector risk estimates. The owner/operator receives an analysis of the data collected for a specific asset, showing a comparison between the facility's protection posture/vulnerability index and those of DHS sector/subsector sites visited. This comparison gives the owner/operator an indication of the asset's security strengths and weaknesses that may be contributing factors to its vulnerability and protection posture. The information provided to the owner/operator shows how the asset compares to other similar assets within the asset's sector or subsector. A 'dashboard' display is used to illustrate the results in a convenient format. The dashboard allows the owner/operator to analyze the implementation of additional protective measures and to illustrate how such actions would impact the asset's Protective Measures Index (PMI) or Vulnerability Index (VI).

  12. Radiation Protection lessonsRadiation Protection lessons Experiences with operating beams for

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    Radiation Protection lessonsRadiation Protection lessons Experiences with operating beams, they are exposed to much lower radiation than compared to a storage location in the target chamberchamber. WANF O'rings in pumps and motors were not specified to be radiation resistant. CNGSCNGS only radiation hard components

  13. Radiation protection challenges facing the federal agencies.

    PubMed

    Jones, C Rick

    2004-09-01

    In the United States, federal agencies are responsible for setting national policy and performance expectations for radiation protection programs. National policy establishes a regulatory regime, under which society can realize the beneficial uses of radiation while at the same time protecting workers, the public, and environment from the potential hazards of radiation. The challenges facing federal agencies continue to revolve around finding the right balance between benefit and adverse impact. Federal agencies are petitioned to support the research community to provide a sound scientific basis for informing the decision-making process related to radiation protection policy. The federal agencies are further challenged to consider the deliberations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) who bring together the best technical minds in the field to consider the latest scientific information and provide recommendations for establishing comprehensive and coherent radiation protection programs. The uncertainty inherent in research and the conservatism in the models and recommendations of the ICRP and NCRP should be transparent and communicated because determining the level of uncertainty and the degree of conservatism acceptable to society is a challenge for, and the responsibility of, the federal agencies in creating performance-based policies in public health and radiation protection. It is through the federal government's open, inclusive, and democratic processes where society strikes the balance that defines adequate radiation protection policy, builds public trust, and allows the radiation protection professionals to properly implement and manage that policy. PMID:15303063

  14. 78 FR 59982 - Revisions to Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...NRC-2012-0268] Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR...that Occupational Radiation Exposures Are As...

  15. 77 FR 68795 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Office Self-Assessment Questionnaire

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure Information Collection...Request should be forwarded to DHS/NPPD/IP/IICD, 245 Murray Lane, SW., Mail Stop...Officers that will be used by the NPPD/IP PCII Program to assess state and local...

  16. RADIATION PROTECTION KEYWORDS: organ dose, equiv-

    E-print Network

    Lin, Zi-wei

    RADIATION PROTECTION KEYWORDS: organ dose, equiv- alent sphere model, space radiation CAN THE EQUIVALENT-SPHERE MODEL APPROXIMATE ORGAN DOSES IN SPACE RADIATION ENVIRONMENTS? Z. W. LIN East Carolina-4353 Received February 20, 2008 Accepted for Publication January 6, 2009 In space radiation calculations

  17. The Infrastructure Necessary to Support a Sustainable Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Bachner, Katherine M.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2011-07-20

    The NNSA Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) program has been engaged for fifteen years in upgrading the security of nuclear materials in Russia. Part of the effort has been to establish the conditions necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of nuclear security. A sustainable program of nuclear security requires the creation of an indigenous infrastructure, starting with sustained high level government commitment. This includes organizational development, training, maintenance, regulations, inspections, and a strong nuclear security culture. The provision of modern physical protection, control, and accounting equipment to the Russian Federation alone is not sufficient. Comprehensive infrastructure projects support the Russian Federation's ability to maintain the risk reduction achieved through upgrades to the equipment. To illustrate the contributions to security, and challenges of implementation, this paper discusses the history and next steps for an indigenous Tamper Indication Device (TID) program, and a Radiation Portal Monitoring (RPM) program.

  18. Institute of Nuclear Technology & Radiation Protection

    E-print Network

    Institute of Nuclear Technology & Radiation Protection annual Report 2009 #12;#12;ANNUAL REPORT story for the Institute of Nuclear Technology ­ Radiation Protection over the last decades LABORATORY (Deputy:I.Stamatelatos) Operation& Maintenance ofResearchReactor I.Stamatelatos Nuclear

  19. Radiation protection culture: a global challenge.

    PubMed

    Michel, Rolf; Henrichs, Klaus; Wernli, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The central motto 'Radiation Protection Culture-A Global Challenge' of the fourth European IRPA Congress is discussed on the basis of the IRPA Guiding Principles Establishing a Radiation Protection Culture and the contributions presented in the plenary sessions of the conference. PMID:25380760

  20. Radiation protection for nurses. Regulations and guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, C.B. (Radiation Safety Office, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Rules and regulations of federal agencies and state radiation protection programs provide the bases for hospital policy regarding radiation safety for nurses. Nursing administrators should work with the radiation safety officer at their institutions to ensure that radiation exposures to staff nurses will be as low as reasonably achievable and that special consideration will be given to pregnant nurses. Nurses' fears about their exposure to radiation can be greatly reduced through education.

  1. Risk analysis tools for force protection and infrastructure/asset protection

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeger, C.D.; Duggan, R.A.; Paulus, W.K.

    1998-09-01

    The Security Systems and Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories has for many years been involved in the development and use of vulnerability assessment and risk analysis tools. In particular, two of these tools, ASSESS and JTS, have been used extensively for Department of Energy facilities. Increasingly, Sandia has been called upon to evaluate critical assets and infrastructures, support DoD force protection activities and assist in the protection of facilities from terrorist attacks using weapons of mass destruction. Sandia is involved in many different activities related to security and force protection and is expanding its capabilities by developing new risk analysis tools to support a variety of users. One tool, in the very early stages of development, is EnSURE, Engineered Surety Using the Risk Equation. EnSURE addresses all of the risk equation and integrates the many components into a single, tool-supported process to help determine the most cost-effective ways to reduce risk. This paper will briefly discuss some of these risk analysis tools within the EnSURE framework.

  2. Radiation protection: who's in charge here

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunshine

    1979-01-01

    Responsibility for protecting the public from harmful radiation is shared by an assortment of Federal departments and agencies, independent commissions and advisory panels, and all 50 states, but the question of who is ultimately in charge has been a matter of growing concern since the Three Mile Island incident. The objections of radiation users to various proposals to reorganize radiation

  3. Intelligent strategies and techniques for effective cyber security, infrastructure protection and privacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Hooper

    2009-01-01

    There has been increasing challenges in the effective design of critical information infrastructures for effective security, privacy and data protection. The increase in transmission of highly sensitive data and challenges of data protection and of privacy, data loss prevention has major significant implications for systems engineering, systems integration, and systems analysis, design and validation. Furthermore, the design and development of

  4. Evidence-Based Techniques for Evaluating Cyber Protection Systems for Critical Infrastructures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Darby; J. Phelan; P. Sholander; B. Smith; A. Walter; G. Wyss

    2006-01-01

    Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies. Existing risk assessment methodologies consider physical security and cyber security separately. As such, they do not accurately model attacks that involve defeating both physical protection and cyber protection elements (e.g., hackers turning off alarm systems prior to forced entry). Previous research has developed a risk

  5. A Trusted Computing Architecture for Critical Infrastructure Protection Mike Burmester

    E-print Network

    Burmester, Mike

    ] to implement authorization based on attestation. In [4] a timing side-channel is used for verifying TPM--Most critical infrastructures can be modeled as cyber-physical systems whose cyber components control un for security: wrongly received or missed commands can render the entire system unstable. Yet, securing cyber

  6. Protecting Critical Infrastructures While Preserving Each Organization's Autonomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yves Deswarte

    2011-01-01

    \\u000a In critical infrastructures (CIs), different organizations must cooperate, while being mutually suspicious since they have\\u000a different interests and can be in competition on some markets. Moreover, in most cases, there is no recognized authority that\\u000a can impose global security rules to all participating organizations. In such a context, it is difficult to apply good security\\u000a practices to the interconnected information

  7. 76 FR 4258 - Occupational Radiation Protection; Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...CFR Part 835 Federal buildings and facilities, Nuclear energy, Nuclear materials, Nuclear power plants and reactors, Nuclear safety, Occupational safety and health, Radiation protection, and Reporting and recordkeeping requirements....

  8. 76 FR 20489 - Occupational Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ...CFR Part 835 Federal buildings and facilities, Nuclear energy, Nuclear materials, Nuclear power plants and reactors, Nuclear safety, Occupational safety and health, Radiation protection, and Reporting and recordkeeping requirements....

  9. Protective effects in radiation modification of elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G?uszewski, Wojciech; Zagórski, Zbigniew P.; Rajkiewicz, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Saturated character of ethylene/octene thermoplastic elastomers demands an application of nonconventional methods of crosslinking connections between chains of molecules. These are organic peroxides, usually in the presence of coagents or an application of ionizing radiation. Several approaches (radiation, peroxide, peroxide/plus radiation and radiation/plus peroxide) were applied in crosslinking of elastomere Engage 8200. Attention was directed to the protection effects by aromatic peroxides and by photo- and thermostabilizers on radiolysis of elastomers. Role of dose of radiation, dose rate of radiation as well as the role of composition of elastomere on the radiation yield of hydrogen and absorbtion of oxygen was investigated. DRS method was used to follow postirradiation degradation. Influence of crosslinking methods on properties of elastomers is described. Results were interpreted from the point of view of protective actions of aromatic compounds.

  10. Clear Film Protects Against Ultraviolet Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, A.; Yavrouian, A.

    1983-01-01

    Acrylic film contains screeing agent filtering ultraviolet radiation up to 380 nanometers in wavelength but passes other components of Sunlight. Film used to protect such materials as rubber and plastics degraded by ultraviolet light. Used as protective cover on outdoor sheets or pipes made of such materials as polyethylene or polypropylene and on solar cells.

  11. INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-print Network

    INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY ­ RADIATION PROTECTION ANNUAL REPORT 2005 - 2006 #12;2 #12;3 ANNUAL of the Population to Ionizing Radiations of the Enironment P. Kritidis Radioecology E. Florou Physicochemical of Research Reactor M. Stakakis Nuclear Analytical Techniques I. Stamatelatos Neutron Scattering K. Mergia

  12. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. M. Fry; D. S. Nachtwey

    1988-01-01

    The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be

  13. Shielded radiation protection quantities beyond LEO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Clowdsley; J. W. Wilson; M. Y. Kim; B. M. Anderson; J. E. Nealy

    2004-01-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recommended that the quantities used to evaluate health risk to astronauts due to radiation exposure be effective dose and gray-equivalent. The NCRP recommends that effective dose be the limiting quantity for prevention of stochastic effects. Effective dose is a measure of whole body exposure, a weighted average of dose equivalent

  14. (Basic radiation protection criteria). Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ney

    1982-01-01

    Progress in the following areas directly related to nuclear waste management is summarized: (1) a radiation protection system based on risk per rad of dose; (2) assessment of the accumulation and biological significance of industrial waste discharges and estimation of concentrations present in the environment; (3) assessment of exposure resulting from nuclear power; (4) internal emitter standards; (5) human radiation

  15. 78 FR 24107 - Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ...protect data that is utilized for both smart grid applications \\91\\ and in other...See NISTIR 7628: Guidelines for Smart Grid Cyber Security and FIPS 140-2 for further guidance regarding smart grid systems and cryptography....

  16. Accelerator-based tests of radiation shielding properties of materials used in human space infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Lobascio, C; Briccarello, M; Destefanis, R; Faraud, M; Gialanella, G; Grossi, G; Guarnieri, V; Manti, L; Pugliese, M; Rusek, A; Scampoli, P; Durante, M

    2008-03-01

    Shielding is the only practical countermeasure for the exposure to cosmic radiation during space travel. It is well known that light, hydrogenated materials, such as water and polyethylene, provide the best shielding against space radiation. Kevlar and Nextel are two materials of great interest for spacecraft shielding because of their known ability to protect human space infrastructures from meteoroids and debris. We measured the response to simulated heavy-ion cosmic radiation of these shielding materials and compared it to polyethylene, Lucite (PMMA), and aluminum. As proxy to galactic nuclei we used 1 GeV n iron or titanium ions. Both physics and biology tests were performed. The results show that Kevlar, which is rich in carbon atoms (about 50% in number), is an excellent space radiation shielding material. Physics tests show that its effectiveness is close (80-90%) to that of polyethylene, and biology data suggest that it can reduce the chromosomal damage more efficiently than PMMA. Nextel is less efficient as a radiation shield, and the expected reduction on dose is roughly half that provided by the same mass of polyethylene. Both Kevlar and Nextel are more effective than aluminum in the attenuation of heavy-ion dose. PMID:18301097

  17. RADIATION PROTECTION AT SYNCHROTRON RADIATION FACILITIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Liu; Vaclav Vylet

    A synchrotron radiation (SR) facility typically consists of an injector, a storage ring, and SR beamlines. The latter two features are unique to SR facilities, when compared to other types of accelerator facilities. The SR facilities have the characteristics of low injection beam power, but high stored beam power. The storage ring is generally above ground with people occupying the

  18. RADIATION BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS FOR RADIATION PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT The opportunity to write a historical review of the field of radiation biology allows for the viewing of the development and maturity of a field of study, thereby being able to provide the appropriate context for the earlier years of research and its findings. The...

  19. Radiation Protection and the Human Radiation Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Lloyd

    1998-01-01

    This book from the Los Alamos National Laboratory is largely a response to recent revelations and public concern about radiation experiments performed on human beings there and elsewhere, starting about 50 years ago. It is written for an intelligent lay person rather than for the specialist scientist and seeks to clarify the objectives and conduct of these human studies. The

  20. Radiation Protection Quantities for Near Earth Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowdsley, Martha S.; Wilson, John W.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.

    2004-01-01

    As humans travel beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field and mission durations grow, risk due to radiation exposure will increase and may become the limiting factor for such missions. Here, the dosimetric quantities recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for the evaluation of health risk due to radiation exposure, effective dose and gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO), are calculated for several near Earth environments. These radiation protection quantities are evaluated behind two different shielding materials, aluminum and polyethylene. Since exposure limits for missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) have not yet been defined, results are compared to limits recommended by the NCRP for LEO operations.

  1. Critical Infrastructure Protection Risk Modelling with Games Technology

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    physical facilities, supply chains, information technologies and communication networks which, if destroyed the additional risk is that caused by terrorist or criminal activity. For example, the rupture of a pipeline's security industry, there is still certainly the philosophy of protecting business interests against crime

  2. Advance of radiation protection and treatment agents in clinical application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YI Zhanmiao; Zhang Zhaohui; Zhai SuoDi; Jia TingZhen

    Objective: To investigate clinical applications and the advance of radiation protection and radiation treatment agents. Methods: To search and read the available latest literatures, then give a review on the clinical application of radiation protection and treatment agents. Results: Radiation protection and radiation treatment agents include amifostine, ulinary trypsin inhibitor, hormone, traditional Chinese drug, cytokines, mesenchymal cell, etc.. Conclusion: The

  3. Infrastructure-level trust-based protection for security-concerned systems and their communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingfei Dong; D. H.-C. Du; Feng Cao

    2008-01-01

    As many distributed mission-critical systems have taken advantage of Internet connectivity, malicious cyber attacks seriously threat the availability of such systems, due to the lack of infrastructure-level protection on the Internet. In this paper, we propose a trust-based protection framework to address this issue. To encourage users to secure their systems and gradually remove pervasive security issues on end systems,

  4. Using VELMA to Quantify and Visualize the Effectiveness of Green Infrastructure Options for Protecting Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This webinar describes the use of VELMA, a spatially-distributed ecohydrological model, to identify green infrastructure (GI) best management practices for protecting water quality in intensively managed watersheds. The seminar will include a brief description of VELMA and an ex...

  5. An Analysis of IT Governance Practices in the Federal Government: Protecting U.S. Critical Infrastructure from Cyber Terrorist Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. LeWayne

    2012-01-01

    Much of the governing process in the United States (U.S.) today depends on a reliable and well protected public information technology (IT) infrastructure. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is tasked with the responsibility of protecting the country's IT infrastructure. Critics contend that the DHS has failed to address planning and…

  6. Accreditation of ionizing radiation protection programs

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.C.; Swinth, K.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1991-10-01

    There are over one million workers in the United States who have the potential to be exposed to ionizing radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to determine accurately the quantity of radiation to which they may have been exposed. This quantity if measured by personnel dosimeters that are carried by individuals requiring radiation monitoring. Accreditation of the organizations which evaluate this quantity provides official recognition of the competence of these organizations. Accreditation programs in the field of ionizing radiation protection have been in operation for a number of years, and their experience has demonstrated that such programs can help to improve performance.

  7. Sensor4PRI: A Sensor Platform for the Protection of Railway Infrastructures

    PubMed Central

    Cañete, Eduardo; Chen, Jaime; Díaz, Manuel; Llopis, Luis; Rubio, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks constitute pervasive and distributed computing systems and are potentially one of the most important technologies of this century. They have been specifically identified as a good candidate to become an integral part of the protection of critical infrastructures. In this paper we focus on railway infrastructure protection and we present the details of a sensor platform designed to be integrated into a slab track system in order to carry out both installation and maintenance monitoring activities. In the installation phase, the platform helps operators to install the slab tracks in the right position. In the maintenance phase, the platform collects information about the structural health and behavior of the infrastructure when a train travels along it and relays the readings to a base station. The base station uses trains as data mules to upload the information to the internet. The use of a train as a data mule is especially suitable for collecting information from remote or inaccessible places which do not have a direct connection to the internet and require less network infrastructure. The overall aim of the system is to deploy a permanent economically viable monitoring system to improve the safety of railway infrastructures. PMID:25734648

  8. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  9. [Radiation protection agents to provide the radiation safety of astronauts].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Taking into consideration the complexity of radiation factors and stressogenic factors of non-radiation nature in cosmic flights and prognostic difficulties of radiation situation, the authors propose to distinguish several stages of pharmacological protection for cosmonauts. The preparatory stage is realized on the Earth. The next stage is monitoring and correction of radioresistance during a flight. A possible stage consists of treatment of the radiation damage using a traditional protocol. The permanent stage includes pharmacological prevention of the distant consequences of irradiation. PMID:25507772

  10. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, R. J. M.; Nachtwey, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    NASA's current radiation protection guidelines date from 1970, when the career limit was set at 400 rem. Today, using the same approach, but with the current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain. Also, there is considerably more information about the radiation environments to be experienced in different missions than previously. Since 1970 women have joined the ranks. For these and other reasons it was necessary to reexamine the radiation protection guidelines. This task was undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75 (NCRP SC 75). Below the magnetosphere the radiation environment varies with altitude and orbit inclination. In outer space missions galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 100 rem (4.0Sv) for a 24 year old female to 400 rem for a 55 year old male compared to the previous single limit of 400 rem (4.0 Sv). The career limit for the lens of the eye was reduced from 600 to 400 rem (6.0 to 4.0 Sv.)

  11. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, R. J.; Nachtwey, D. S.

    1988-01-01

    The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem).

  12. Apollo experience report: Protection against radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, R. A.; Benson, R. E.; Bailey, J. V.; Barnes, C. M.

    1973-01-01

    Radiation protection problems on earth and in space are discussed. Flight through the Van Allen belts and into space beyond the geomagnetic shielding was recognized as hazardous before the advent of manned space flight. Specialized dosimetry systems were developed for use on the Apollo spacecraft, and systems for solar-particle-event warning and dose projection were devised. Radiation sources of manmade origin on board the Apollo spacecraft present additional problems. Methods applied to evaluate and control or avoid the various Apollo radiation hazards are discussed.

  13. Radiation protection awareness in non-radiologists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A D QUINN; C G TAYLOR; T SABHARWAL; T SIKDAR

    The outcome of teaching the core of knowledge to clinicians and the impact of the POPUMET regulations was assessed using an anonymous questionnaire. 82 of 120 (76%) of non- radiologists responded, of these 37% had attended a radiation protection course. Course attendance improved knowledge of the existence of the POPUMET regulations (p<0.0001) and the ALARA principle. Course attendance made no

  14. 77 FR 66650 - Proposed Revisions to Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Proposed Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR...that Occupational Radiation Exposures Are As...

  15. Issues in deep space radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J W; Shinn, J L; Tripathi, R K; Singleterry, R C; Clowdsley, M S; Thibeault, S A; Cheatwood, F M; Schimmerling, W; Cucinotta, F A; Badhwar, G D; Noor, A K; Kim, M Y; Badavi, F F; Heinbockel, J H; Miller, J; Zeitlin, C; Heilbronn, L

    2001-01-01

    The exposures in deep space are largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little biological experience. Mounting evidence indicates that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate for GCR ions. The available biological data indicates that aluminum alloy structures may generate inherently unhealthy internal spacecraft environments in the thickness range for space applications. Methods for optimization of spacecraft shielding and the associated role of materials selection are discussed. One material which may prove to be an important radiation protection material is hydrogenated carbon nanofibers. PMID:11669118

  16. Issues in deep space radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Tripathi, R. K.; Singleterry, R. C.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Thibeault, S. A.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Schimmerling, W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; Noor, A. K.; Kim, M. Y.; Badavi, F. F.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.

    2001-01-01

    The exposures in deep space are largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little biological experience. Mounting evidence indicates that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate for GCR ions. The available biological data indicates that aluminum alloy structures may generate inherently unhealthy internal spacecraft environments in the thickness range for space applications. Methods for optimization of spacecraft shielding and the associated role of materials selection are discussed. One material which may prove to be an important radiation protection material is hydrogenated carbon nanofibers. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiation protection at nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

    PubMed

    Endo, Kuniaki; Momose, Takumaro; Furuta, Sadaaki

    2011-07-01

    Radiation protection methodologies concerning individual monitoring, workplace monitoring and environmental monitoring in nuclear fuel facilities have been developed and applied to facilities in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories (NCL) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) for over 40 y. External exposure to photon, beta ray and neutron and internal exposure to alpha emitter are important issues for radiation protection at these facilities. Monitoring of airborne and surface contamination by alpha and beta/photon emitters at workplace is also essential to avoid internal exposure. A critical accident alarm system developed by JAEA has been proved through application at the facilities for a long time. A centralised area monitoring system is effective for emergency situations. Air and liquid effluents from facilities are monitored by continuous monitors or sampling methods to comply with regulations. Effluent monitoring has been carried out for 40 y to assess the radiological impacts on the public and the environment due to plant operation. PMID:21498413

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY INTERAGENCY WORKING GROUP ON MEDICAL RADIATION

    E-print Network

    ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY INTERAGENCY WORKING GROUP ON MEDICAL RADIATION EPA 520/4-76-019 FEDERAL GUIDANCE REPORT NO. 9 RADIATION PROTECTION GUIDANCE FOR DIAGNOSTIC X RAYS #12;FEDERAL GUIDANCE REPORT NO. 9 RADIATION PROTECTION GUIDANCE FOR DIAGNOSTIC X RAYS Interagency Working Group on Medical

  19. Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-04-30

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  20. Proceedings: 2003 Radiation Protection Technology Conference

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2004-04-01

    Health physics professionals within the nuclear industry are continually upgrading their programs with new methods and technologies. The Third Annual EPRI Radiation Protection Technology Conference facilitated this effort by communicating technical developments, program improvements, and experience throughout the nuclear power industry. When viewed from the perspective of shorter outages, diminishing numbers of contract RP technicians and demanding emergent work, this information flow is critical for the industry.

  1. Publication and Protection of Sensitive Site Information in a Grid Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Cholia, Shreyas; Cholia, Shreyas; Porter, R. Jefferson

    2008-03-31

    In order to create a successful grid infrastructure, sites and resource providers must be able to publish information about their underlying resources and services. This information makes it easier for users and virtual organizations to make intelligent decisions about resource selection and scheduling, and can be used by the grid infrastructure for accounting and troubleshooting services. However, such an outbound stream may include data deemed sensitive by a resource-providing site, exposing potential security vulnerabilities or private user information to the world at large, including malicious entities. This study analyzes the various vectors of information being published from sites to grid infrastructures. In particular, it examines the data being published to, and collected by the Open Science Grid, including resource selection, monitoring, accounting, troubleshooting, logging and site verification data. We analyze the risks and potential threat models posed by the publication and collection of such data. We also offer some recommendations and best practices for sites and grid infrastructures to manage and protect sensitive data.

  2. Science Goals in Radiation Protection for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francs A.

    2008-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Health risks of concern include cancer, degenerative and performance risks to the central nervous system, heart and lens, and the acute radiation syndromes. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) contain high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, which have been shown to cause qualitatively distinct biological damage compared to terresterial radiation, such as X-rays or gamma-rays, causing risk estimates to be highly uncertain. The biological effects of solar particle events (SPE) are similar to terresterial radiation except for their biological dose-rate modifiers; however the onset and size of SPEs are difficult to predict. The high energies of GCR reduce the effectiveness of shielding, while SPE s can be shielded however the current gap in radiobiological knowledge hinders optimization. Methods used to project risks on Earth must be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting health risks from space radiation, and thus impact mission requirements and costs. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies probabilistic risk assessments and uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts and to mission design. The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in radiation risk projection models. Exploration science goals in radiation protection are centered on ground-based research to achieve the necessary biological knowledge, and in the development of new technologies to improve SPE monitoring and optimize shielding. Radiobiology research is centered on a ground based program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and HZE nuclei at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) located at DoE s Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, NY. We describe recent NSRL results that are closing the knowledge gap in HZE radiobiology and improving exploration risk estimates. Linking probabilistic risk assessment to research goals makes it possible to express risk management objectives in terms of quantitative metrics, which include the number of days in space without exceeding a given risk level within well defined confidence limits, and probabilistic assessments of the effectiveness of design trade spaces such as material type, mass, solar cycle, crew selection criteria, and biological countermeasures. New research in SPE alert and risk assessment, individual radiation sensitivity, and biological countermeasure development are described.

  3. Primer to Design Safe School Projects in Case of Terrorist Attacks and School Shootings. Buildings and Infrastructure Protection Series. FEMA-428/BIPS-07/January 2012. Edition 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipley, Michael; Lyon, Wesley; Smilowitz, Robert; Williams, Pax; Arnold, Christopher; Blewett, William; Hazen, Lee; Krimgold, Fred

    2012-01-01

    This publication, part of the new Building and Infrastructure Protection Series (BIPS) published by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) Infrastructure Protection and Disaster Management Division (IDD), serves to advance high performance and integrated design for buildings and infrastructure. This…

  4. Radiation Protection for Lunar Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowdsley, Martha S.; Nealy, John E.; Wilson, John W.; Anderson, Brooke M.; Anderson, Mark S.; Krizan, Shawn A.

    2005-01-01

    Preliminary analyses of shielding requirements to protect astronauts from the harmful effects of radiation on both short-term and long-term lunar missions have been performed. Shielding needs for both solar particle events (SPEs) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposure are discussed for transit vehicles and surface habitats. This work was performed under the aegis of two NASA initiatives. The first study was an architecture trade study led by Langley Research Center (LaRC) in which a broad range of vehicle types and mission scenarios were compared. The radiation analysis for this study primarily focused on the additional shielding mass required to protect astronauts from the rare occurrence of a large SPE. The second study, led by Johnson Space Center (JSC), involved the design of lunar habitats. Researchers at LaRC were asked to evaluate the changes to mission architecture that would be needed if the surface stay were lengthened from a shorter mission duration of 30 to 90 days to a longer stay of 500 days. Here, the primary radiation concern was GCR exposure. The methods used for these studies as well as the resulting shielding recommendations are discussed. Recommendations are also made for more detailed analyses to minimize shielding mass, once preliminary vehicle and habitat designs have been completed. Here, methodologies are mapped out and available radiation analysis tools are described. Since, as yet, no dosimetric limits have been adopted for missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO), radiation exposures are compared to LEO limits. Uncertainties associated with the LEO career effective dose limits and the effects of lowering these limits on shielding mass are also discussed.

  5. Multisensor system for the protection of critical infrastructure of a seaport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastek, Mariusz; Dulski, Rafa?; Zyczkowski, Marek; Szustakowski, Mieczys?aw; Trzaskawka, Piotr; Ciurapinski, Wies?aw; Grelowska, Grazyna; Gloza, Ignacy; Milewski, Stanislaw; Listewnik, Karol

    2012-06-01

    There are many separated infrastructural objects within a harbor area that may be considered "critical", such as gas and oil terminals or anchored naval vessels. Those objects require special protection, including security systems capable of monitoring both surface and underwater areas, because an intrusion into the protected area may be attempted using small surface vehicles (boats, kayaks, rafts, floating devices with weapons and explosives) as well as underwater ones (manned or unmanned submarines, scuba divers). The paper will present the concept of multisensor security system for a harbor protection, capable of complex monitoring of selected critical objects within the protected area. The proposed system consists of a command centre and several different sensors deployed in key areas, providing effective protection from land and sea, with special attention focused on the monitoring of underwater zone. The initial project of such systems will be presented, its configuration and initial tests of the selected components. The protection of surface area is based on medium-range radar and LLTV and infrared cameras. Underwater zone will be monitored by a sonar and acoustic and magnetic barriers, connected into an integrated monitoring system. Theoretical analyses concerning the detection of fast, small surface objects (such as RIB boats) by a camera system and real test results in various weather conditions will also be presented.

  6. Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Little, J R; Shirley, D L; Blair, L M

    1982-05-01

    This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the degrees awarded in academic year 1980-81 from 61 U.S. universities offering degree programs in radiation protection or related areas that would enable students to work in the health physics field. The report includes historical survey data for the last decade and provides information such as trends by degree level, foreign national student participation, female and minority student participation, and placement of graduates. Also included is a listing of the universities by type of program and number of students.

  7. Radiation protection technician job task analysis manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This manual was developed to assist all DOE contractors in the design and conduct of job task analysis (JTA) for the radiation protection technician. Experience throughout the nuclear industry and the DOE system has indicated that the quality and efficiency in conducting a JTA at most sites is greatly enhanced by using a generic task list for the position, and clearly written guidelines on the JTA process. This manual is designed to provide this information for personnel to use in developing and conducting site-specific JTAs. (VC)

  8. New radiation protection calibration facility at CERN.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Markus; Carbonez, Pierre; Pozzi, Fabio; Silari, Marco; Vincke, Helmut

    2014-10-01

    The CERN radiation protection group has designed a new state-of-the-art calibration laboratory to replace the present facility, which is >20 y old. The new laboratory, presently under construction, will be equipped with neutron and gamma sources, as well as an X-ray generator and a beta irradiator. The present work describes the project to design the facility, including the facility placement criteria, the 'point-zero' measurements and the shielding study performed via FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:24327753

  9. Radiation protection by deferiprone in animal models.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Satoshi; Ikeda, Mizuyo; Anzai, Kazunori; Suzuki, Masao; Katoh, Akira; Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of deferiprone (L1) in removing depleted uranium (DU) and protecting animals from radiation exposure was examined. Rats that had received 2 mg/kg DU via intramuscular injection were orally administered 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg L1 for 3 days. In all of the groups, significant increases in urinary DU excretion and decreases in DU concentration in the injected muscle were observed, indicating that L1 combined with DU and DU was excreted in the urine. No significant increase in the amount of DU in the excreta or decrease in DU concentration in organs other than the muscles was found. As a preliminary test, the effectiveness of L1 in reducing radiation damage was examined in mice injected with 400 mg/kg L1 and rats administered orally with 200 and 400 mg/kg L1 before and just after x-ray exposure. The results were inconclusive. PMID:16798644

  10. The HERMES silicon project { the radiation protection system

    E-print Network

    The HERMES silicon project { the radiation protection system M.G. van Beuzekom #3; , O. Bouhali 1, radiation protection, accelerated beams PACS: 87.50.N; 29.40.Wk; 29.40.C; 29.27; #3; Corresponding author to the beamline. This location makes it vulnerable to increased radiation levels which may be caused by beam

  11. UV radiation effects over microorganisms and study of protective agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felipe Gómez Gómez; Agustín Grau Carles; Luis Vazquez; Ricardo Amils

    2004-01-01

    An important subject of astrobiological interest is the study of the effect of ultraviolet radiation on microorganisms and their protection mechanisms against this damaging agent. UV radiation is considered highly mutagenic and sterilizing, especially during the period of origin of life on Earth when the absence of the ozone layer meant there was no effective protection against ultraviolet radiation from

  12. Prevent Eye Damage: Protect Yourself from UV Radiation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Radiation M ost Americans understand the link between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and skin cancer. Many are less ... long hours in the sun without adequate eye protection can increase the likelihood of developing the following ...

  13. Protection from radiation-induced pneumonitis using cerium oxide nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jimmie Colon; Luis Herrera; Joshua Smith; Swanand Patil; Chris Komanski; Patrick Kupelian; Sudipta Seal; D. Wayne Jenkins; Cheryl H. Baker

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to combat the harmful effects of radiation exposure, we propose that rare-earth cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles (free-radical scavengers) protect normal tissue from radiation-induced damage. Preliminary studies suggest that these nanoparticles may be a therapeutic regenerative nanomedicine that will scavenge reactive oxygen species, which are responsible for radiation-induced cell damage. The effectiveness of CeO2 nanoparticles in radiation protection

  14. Space Weather Status for Exploration Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Dan J.; Lee, Kerry; Zapp, Neal; Barzilla, Janet; Dunegan, Audrey; Johnson, Steve; Stoffle, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during an exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and in free space, for example, may differ by orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for the ability to conduct exploration operations. We present a current status of developing operational concepts for manned exploration and expectations for asset viability and available predictive and characterization toolsets.

  15. Space Radiation Protection, Space Weather, and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, Neal; Rutledge, R.; Semones, E. J.; Johnson, A. S.; Guetersloh, S.; Fry, D.; Stoffle, N.; Lee, K.

    2008-01-01

    Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight -- and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during an exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon may differ by multiple orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for our ability to conduct exploration operations. With these differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, we present the status of the efforts currently underway as the required development to enable exploration operations. The changes in the operating environment as crewed operations begin to stretch away from the Earth are changing the way we think about the lines between "research" and "operations". The real, practical work to enable a permanent human presence away from Earth has already begun.

  16. Space Radiation Protection, Space Weather, and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, Neal; Fry, Dan; Lee, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during a deep space exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon may differ by multiple orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for our ability to conduct exploration operations. With these differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, we present the status of the efforts currently underway as the required development to enable exploration operations. The changes in the operating environment as crewed operations begin to stretch away from the Earth are changing the way we think about the lines between research and operations . The real, practical work to enable a permanent human presence away from Earth has already begun

  17. Cyber-Physical Systems for Critical Infrastructure Protection: A Wireless Sensor Network Application for Electric Grid Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint, Martin

    Critical infrastructure includes resources which are essential to the function of society. Despite an increased focus on protecting U.S. critical infrastructure, some sectors including the electric grid are more vulnerable than ever. Existing critical infrastructure protection (CIP) regulations and the monitoring and control systems used to achieve them have not met performance expectations. This indicates that the next generation of grid control should explore new architectures. This thesis explores the question of whether a cyber-physical system in the form of wireless sensor networks can be used to improve CIP. We examine efforts by others to design a wireless sensor module for monitoring transmission and distribution lines, and note that this work includes little information about the performance of the communications subsystem. Laboratory testing of throughput and reliability for one example communication network are undertaken here, along with consideration of the short message service as one alternative for backhauling sensor data.

  18. THE UNIVERSITY OF UTAH RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Tipple, Brett

    : 45 Medical US: 53 Industrial US: FUNDAMENTALS OF RADIATION by which energy is emitted or propagated through space as particles or waves. Ionizing radiations are those molecular bonds. The radiations most commonly encountered are free electrons and photons of electromagnetic

  19. 78 FR 5813 - 2013 Assuring Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ...include: (1) Responding to radiation accidents or incidents...evaluating the adequacy of State radiation control programs; overseeing radiation laboratory capabilities...decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities; (4)...

  20. To appeared in "Securing Transportation Systems, Protecting Critical Infrastructures Series (Book)", 2012 On the Rationality and Optimality of Transportation

    E-print Network

    To appeared in "Securing Transportation Systems, Protecting Critical Infrastructures Series (Book MIT Media Lab {yanival,sandy}@media.mit.edu 2 Deutsche Telekom Lab, Department of Information Systems resolution network of the Israeli transportation system. We show that the traffic flow level that were

  1. Critical infrastructure protection decision support system decision model : overview and quick-start user's guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Samsa, M.; Van Kuiken, J.; Jusko, M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-12-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Protection Decision Support System Decision Model (CIPDSS-DM) is a useful tool for comparing the effectiveness of alternative risk-mitigation strategies on the basis of CIPDSS consequence scenarios. The model is designed to assist analysts and policy makers in evaluating and selecting the most effective risk-mitigation strategies, as affected by the importance assigned to various impact measures and the likelihood of an incident. A typical CIPDSS-DM decision map plots the relative preference of alternative risk-mitigation options versus the annual probability of an undesired incident occurring once during the protective life of the investment, assumed to be 20 years. The model also enables other types of comparisons, including a decision map that isolates a selected impact variable and displays the relative preference for the options of interest--parameterized on the basis of the contribution of the isolated variable to total impact, as well as the likelihood of the incident. Satisfaction/regret analysis further assists the analyst or policy maker in evaluating the confidence with which one option can be selected over another.

  2. Improved Spacecraft Materials for Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Shinn, J. L.; Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Thibeault, Sheila Ann; Kim, M.-H. Y.; Heinbockel, John H.; Badhwar, Gautam D.

    2001-01-01

    Methods by which radiation shielding is optimized need to be developed and materials of improved shielding characteristics identified and validated. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are very penetrating and the energy absorbed by the astronaut behind the shield is nearly independent of shield composition and even the shield thickness. However, the mix of particles in the transmitted beam changes rapidly with shield material composition and thickness. This results in part from the breakup of the high-energy heavy ions of the GCR which make contributions to biological effects out of proportion to their deposited energy. So the mixture of particles in the radiation field changes with shielding and the control of risk contributions from dominant particle types is critical to reducing the hazard to the astronaut. The risk of biological injury for a given particle type depends on the type of biological effect and is specific to cell or tissue type. Thus, one is faced with choosing materials which may protect a given tissue against a given effect but leave unchanged or even increase the risk of other effects in the same tissue or increase the risks to other adjacent tissues of a different type in the same individual. The optimization of shield composition will then be tied to a specific tissue and risk to that tissue. Such peculiarities arise from the complicated mixture of particles, the nature of their biological response, and the details of their interaction with material constituents. Aside from the understanding of the biological response to specific components, one also needs an accurate understanding of the radiation emerging from the shield material. This latter subject has been a principal element of this project. In the past ten years our understanding of space radiation interactions with materials has changed radically, with a large impact on shield design. For example, the NCRP estimated that only 2 g/sq cm. of aluminum would be required to meet the annual 500 mSv limit for the exposure of the blood forming organs (this limit is strictly for LEO but can be used as a guideline for the Mars mission analysis). The current estimates require aluminum shield thicknesses above 50 g/sq cm., which is impractical. In such a heavily shielded vehicle, the neutrons produced throughout the vehicle also contribute significantly to the exposure and this demands greater care in describing the angular dependence of secondary particle production processes. As such the continued testing of databases and transport procedures in laboratory and spaceflight experiments has continued. This has been the focus of much of the last year's activity and has resulted in improved neutron prediction capability. These new methods have also improved our understanding of the surface environment of Mars. The Mars 2003 NRA HEDS related surface science requirements were driven by the need to validate predictions on the upward flux of neutrons produced in the Martian regolith and bedrock made by the codes developed under this project. The codes used in the surface environment definition are also being used to look at in situ resources for the development of construction material for Martian surface facilities. For example, synthesis of polyimides and polyethylene as binders of regolith for developing basic structural elements has been studied and targets built for accelerator beam testing of radiation shielding properties. Preliminary mechanical tests have also been promising. Improved spacecraft materials have been identified (using the criteria reported by this project at the last conference) as potentially important for future shielding materials. These are liquid hydrogen, hydrogenated nanofibers, liquid methane, LiH, Polyethylene, Polysulfone, and Polyetherimide (in order of decreasing shield performance). Some of the materials are multifunctional and are required for other onboard systems. We are currently preparing software for trade studies with these materials relative to the Mars Reference Mission as required in the project's final year.

  3. Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 99, Nos 14, pp. 227232 (2002)

    E-print Network

    2002-01-01

    227 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 99, Nos 1­4, pp. 227­232 (2002) Nuclear Technology been accepted dogma that the deleterious effects of ionising radiation such as mutagenesis and carcino particle in a lifetime. Over the past 10 years there have been many reports on radiation-induced bystander

  4. Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 97, No. 1, pp. 6973 (2001)

    E-print Network

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    69 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 97, No. 1, pp. 69­73 (2001) Nuclear Technology Publishing BIOMARKERS SPECIFIC TO DENSELY-IONISING (HIGH LET) RADIATIONS D. J. Brenner, N. Okladnikova, P. Hande, L -- There have been several suggestions of biomarkers that are specific to high LET radiation. Such a biomarker

  5. Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 84, Nos. 14, pp. 131133 (1999)

    E-print Network

    Chen, Reuven

    1999-01-01

    131 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 84, Nos. 1­4, pp. 131­133 (1999) Nuclear Technology or radiation at RT, and subsequent illumination with UV light at LNT. The main PTTL peaks appeared at 195 by vacuum UV (VUV) radiation(3) . In the present work the photo- transferred thermoluminescence (PTTL) of Ca

  6. Prevent Eye Damage - Protect Yourself from UV Radiation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (; )

    2008-04-25

    Most Americans understand the link between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and skin cancer. Many are less aware of the connection between UV radiation andeye damage. With increased levels of UV radiation reaching the Earths surface,largely due to stratospheric ozone layer depletion, it is important to take thenecessary precautions to protect your eyes.

  7. Critical infrastructure protection: Resource efficient sampling to improve detection of less frequent patterns in network traffic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdun Naser Mahmood; Jiankun Hu; Zahir Tari; Christopher Leckie

    2010-01-01

    Networked critical infrastructures are of national importance. However, such infrastructures are running 24\\/7. The supervisory control and data acquisition system (SCADA) of the critical infrastructure will generate enormous network traffic continuously. It is vital in such environments that only useful data are stored while redundant data are discarded to reduce the huge data storage demand. However it is technically challenging

  8. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Radiological Control Managers' Council

    2008-06-01

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

  9. Radiation protection aspects of EMITEL Encyclopaedia of Medical Physics.

    PubMed

    Stoeva, M; Tabakov, S; Lewis, C; Tabakova, V; Thurston, J; Smith, P

    2015-07-01

    The Encyclopaedia of Medical Physics EMITEL was developed under the EU pilot project European Medical Imaging Technology e-Encyclopaedia for Lifelong Learning. This large reference material includes 3400 articles on 2100 pages supported by thousands of illustrations. All materials are available free at the website, www.emitel2.eu. The articles are grouped in seven categories-physics of: X-ray diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, radiation protection and general terms. The radiation protection part of EMITEL includes 450 articles. These were organised in several sub-groups including: nuclear and atomic physics; ionizing radiation interactions and biological effects; radiation detection and measurement; dosimetric quantities and units; and general radiation protection and international bodies. EMITEL project was developed over 3 y and attracted as contributors 250+ senior specialists from 35 countries. After its successful launching, EMITEL is actively used by thousands of professionals around the world. PMID:25848099

  10. Using computer-based training to facilitate radiation protection review

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, J.S.; Copenhaver, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    In a national laboratory setting, it is necessary to provide radiation protection overview and training to diverse parts of the laboratory population. This includes employees at research reactors, accelerators, waste facilities, radiochemical isotope processing, and analytical laboratories, among others. In addition, our own radiation protection and monitoring staffs must be trained. To assist in the implementation of this full range of training, ORNL has purchased prepackaged computer-based training in health physics and technical mathematics with training modules that can be selected from many topics. By selection of specific modules, appropriate radiation protection review packages can be determined to meet many individual program needs. Because our radiation protection personnel must have some previous radiation protection experience or the equivalent of an associate's degree in radiation protection for entry level, the computer-based training will serve primarily as review of major principles. Others may need very specific prior training to make the computer-based training effective in their work situations. 4 refs.

  11. CRC handbook of management of radiation protection programs

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.L.; Weidner, A.

    1986-01-01

    This guidebook organizes the profusion of rules and regulations surrounding radiation protection into a single-volume reference. Employee and public protection, accident prevention, and emergency preparedness are included in this comprehensive coverage. Whenever possible, information is presented in convenient checklists, tables, or outlines that enable you to locate information quickly.

  12. Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ?, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins. Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation IgG preparations - prospective effective antidote/countermeasure for ?-irradiation, heavy ions irradiation, neutron irradiation. Recommendations for treatment and immune-prophylaxis of CNS injury, induced by radiation, were proposed. Specific immune therapy and specific immune prophylaxis reduce symptoms of ACvRS. This manuscript summarizes the results of experiments and considering possibility for blocking toxicological mechanisms of action of Radiation and Radiation Neurotoxins and prevention or diminishing clinical signs of injury of CNS. Experimental data suggest that Antiradiation vaccine and Antiradiation IgG with specific antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins, Cytotoxins protect CNS against high doses of radiation.

  13. Space radiation protection: Human support thrust exploration technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Edmund J.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space radiation protection are presented. For crew and practical missions, exploration requires effective, low-mass shielding and accurate estimates of space radiation exposure for lunar and Mars habitat shielding, manned space transfer vehicle, and strategies for minimizing exposure during extravehicular activity (EVA) and rover operations.

  14. PROTECTION OF SINGLE CELLS AND SMALL CELL GROUPS AGAINST RADIATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bellack; A. T. Krebs

    1951-01-01

    The protective effects against radiation injury of a number of chemicals ; were investigated in ioion epidermis cells exposed to x radiation both before and ; after treatment. A protsctive effect was observed for cystained with cystine, ; urea, and NaCl solutions. (C.H.);

  15. Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1979 and 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Gove, R.M.; Little, J.R.; Shirley, D.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public concern over the effects of low-level radiation and other aspects of the use of nuclear energy has grown in recent years, and the demand for radiation protection has continued to increase. Radiation Protection Enrollments and Degrees presents the results of the latest survey of institutions offering degree programs in this field. Students obtaining such degrees are vital to the development of industry, medicine, research, power production, construction, and agriculture. These surveys assist state and federal governments in their search for such personnel.

  16. Preparing the radiation protection worker to meet multiple needs

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, J.S.; Thorpe, B.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) the radiation protection worker aids in protecting personnel and their surrounding environment from the hazards of radiation. These individuals use their technical knowledge, skills, and abilities to survey and monitor various project-related activities. They must also provide guidance in project design, development, and implementation. These combined efforts assure that protective measures are taken in accordance with applicable standards. The ORNL performance-based training program enhances the skills of the worker. The program incorporates job specific information on the diverse facilities and activities monitored with basic fundamentals of radiation protection. Successful completion of this program includes passing both a qualification exam and an on-the-job skills review. This paper details the structure of such a program and explains the strategies taken to reach the program's goals. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Protection from radiation-induced pneumonitis using cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Colon, Jimmie; Herrera, Luis; Smith, Joshua; Patil, Swanand; Komanski, Chris; Kupelian, Patrick; Seal, Sudipta; Jenkins, D Wayne; Baker, Cheryl H

    2009-06-01

    In an effort to combat the harmful effects of radiation exposure, we propose that rare-earth cerium oxide (CeO(2)) nanoparticles (free-radical scavengers) protect normal tissue from radiation-induced damage. Preliminary studies suggest that these nanoparticles may be a therapeutic regenerative nanomedicine that will scavenge reactive oxygen species, which are responsible for radiation-induced cell damage. The effectiveness of CeO(2) nanoparticles in radiation protection in murine models during high-dose radiation exposure is investigated, with the ultimate goal of offering a new approach to radiation protection, using nanotechnology. We show that CeO(2) nanoparticles are well tolerated by live animals, and they prevent the onset of radiation-induced pneumonitis when delivered to live animals exposed to high doses of radiation. In the end, these studies provide a tremendous potential for radioprotection and can lead to significant benefits for the preservation of human health and the quality of life for humans receiving radiation therapy. PMID:19285453

  18. Radiation Protection Policy Section 1.7 Page 1 of 5

    E-print Network

    Mumby, Peter J.

    Radiation Protection Policy Section 1.7 Page 1 of 5 Radiation Protection Policy Section 1.7 Best within the laboratory. #12;Radiation Protection Policy Section 1.7 Page 2 of 5 Definition of Best the installation is designed, built, maintained, operated and dismantled. #12;Radiation Protection Policy Section 1

  19. Occupational Radiation Exposure during Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography and Usefulness of Radiation Protective Curtains

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Tamito; Serikawa, Masahiro; Kamigaki, Michihiro; Yukutake, Masanobu; Ishigaki, Takashi; Ishii, Yasutaka; Mouri, Teruo; Yoshimi, Satoshi; Shimizu, Akinori; Tsuboi, Tomofumi; Kurihara, Keisuke; Tatsukawa, Yumiko; Miyaki, Eisuke; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of radiation protective curtains in reducing the occupational radiation exposure of medical personnel. Methods. We studied medical staff members who had assisted in 80 consecutive therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedures. Use of radiation protective curtains mounted to the X-ray tube was determined randomly for each procedure, and radiation doses were measured with electronic pocket dosimeters placed outside the protective apron. Results. When protective curtains were not used, the mean radiation doses to endoscopists, first assistants, second assistants, and nurses were 340.9, 27.5, 45.3, and 33.1?µSv, respectively; doses decreased to 42.6, 4.2, 13.1, and 10.6?µSv, respectively, when protective curtains were used (P < 0.01). When the patient had to be restrained during ERCP (n = 8), the radiation dose to second assistants without protective curtains increased by a factor of 9.95 (P < 0.01) relative to cases in which restraint was not required. Conclusions. During ERCP, not only endoscopists, but also assistants and nurses were exposed to high doses of radiation. Radiation exposure to staff members during ERCP was reduced with the use of protective curtains. PMID:25477956

  20. Occupational Radiation Exposure during Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography and Usefulness of Radiation Protective Curtains.

    PubMed

    Minami, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Tamito; Serikawa, Masahiro; Kamigaki, Michihiro; Yukutake, Masanobu; Ishigaki, Takashi; Ishii, Yasutaka; Mouri, Teruo; Yoshimi, Satoshi; Shimizu, Akinori; Tsuboi, Tomofumi; Kurihara, Keisuke; Tatsukawa, Yumiko; Miyaki, Eisuke; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of radiation protective curtains in reducing the occupational radiation exposure of medical personnel. Methods. We studied medical staff members who had assisted in 80 consecutive therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedures. Use of radiation protective curtains mounted to the X-ray tube was determined randomly for each procedure, and radiation doses were measured with electronic pocket dosimeters placed outside the protective apron. Results. When protective curtains were not used, the mean radiation doses to endoscopists, first assistants, second assistants, and nurses were 340.9, 27.5, 45.3, and 33.1?µSv, respectively; doses decreased to 42.6, 4.2, 13.1, and 10.6?µSv, respectively, when protective curtains were used (P < 0.01). When the patient had to be restrained during ERCP (n = 8), the radiation dose to second assistants without protective curtains increased by a factor of 9.95 (P < 0.01) relative to cases in which restraint was not required. Conclusions. During ERCP, not only endoscopists, but also assistants and nurses were exposed to high doses of radiation. Radiation exposure to staff members during ERCP was reduced with the use of protective curtains. PMID:25477956

  1. Simple Benchmark Specifications for Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.; Aghara, Sukesh K.

    2013-01-01

    This report defines space radiation benchmark specifications. This specification starts with simple, monoenergetic, mono-directional particles on slabs and progresses to human models in spacecraft. This report specifies the models and sources needed to what the team performing the benchmark needs to produce in a report. Also included are brief descriptions of how OLTARIS, the NASA Langley website for space radiation analysis, performs its analysis.

  2. Radiation Protection for Manned Interplanetary Missions - Radiation Sources, Risks, Remedies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Facius; G. Reitz

    2006-01-01

    Health risks in interplanetary explorative missions differ in two major features significantly from those during the manned missions experienced so far. For one, presently available technologies lead to durations of such missions significantly longer than so far encountered - with the added complication that emergency returns are ruled out. Thus radiation exposures and hence risks for late radiation sequelae like

  3. Issues in deep space radiation protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Miller; C. Zeitlin; L. Heilbronn; F. A. Cucinotta; G. D. Badhwar; A. K. Noor; M. Y. Kim; F. F. Badavi; J. H. Heinbockel

    2001-01-01

    The exposures in deep space are largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little biological experience. Mounting evidence indicates that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate for GCR ions. The available biological data indicates that aluminum alloy structures may generate inherently unhealthy internal spacecraft environments in

  4. Radiation Protection at the dental clinic of the Faculty of Dentistry of the Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala in the year 2001

    E-print Network

    Valiente, D

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis the procedures of radiation protection used by students of dentistry, also the infrastructure of equipment, protective barriers and protective devices at the clinic of the faculty was evaluated. A sample of 76 students and two technicians were evaluated, also 7 dental units with x-ray tubes were evaluated. The conclusions are that only 2 equipment of x-rays meets the requirements of radiation safety and radiology techniques used by the students need to be improved to obtain good image quality and therefore better diagnostic by the students could be made.

  5. Flexible shielding system for radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babin, A.

    1972-01-01

    Modular construction of low cost flexible radiation shielding panels consists of water filled steels cans, zinc bromide windows, turntable unit, master-slave manipulators, and interlocking lead bricks. Easy modifications of shielding wall thicknesses are obtained by rearranging overall geometry of portable components.

  6. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H. [eds.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  7. Proceedings of the Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S.; Casson, W. H.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21-24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  8. Capturing opportunities and meeting challenges in radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Kase, Kenneth R

    2015-02-01

    This summary of the 2014 Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP) captures the opportunities presented during the Warren K. Sinclair Keynote Address, the Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture, and the six scientific sessions including the subsequent questions and answers. It captures the important issues that emerge in these opportunities and discusses the challenges that they bring to radiation protection. These opportunities arise in the basic sciences; in operational areas such as emerging technologies, preparing for the improbable but possible event, industry and medicine; and in education, communication and policy. The challenges include identifying the most important aspects of radiation protection and measurement, prioritizing them in accordance with the NCRP mission, and gaining support for the activities of the NCRP to address these issues in the fulfillment of its charter. PMID:25551512

  9. Research issues for radiation protection for man during prolonged spaceflight

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, J.J.; Hagan, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    For the purpose of this article, radiation protection is defined as any physical, chemical, biological, or pharmacological modality that accomplishes the goal of protecting the astronaut from radiation hazard or increases his ability to assist other astronauts or spacecraft. Thoughtful examination of these largely operational considerations led to identification of medical and radiobiological research required to support the industrialization of near-Earth space. The scope of these research efforts involves thematic issues that have been defined after review of the available preliminary research from several scientific disciplines that relate to the problem of radiation protection in space. This article serves to highlight areas of research requiring further investigation. While certain of these needs for research are driven by the planned orbits involving small designated astronaut populations and well-defined durations that may be specific to the military, it is the use of geostationary orbits, permanent lunar basing, and the proposed Mars mission that form the primary basis for these operational considerations.

  10. Occupational radiation protection of health workers in imaging.

    PubMed

    Vano, E

    2015-04-01

    Occupational radiological protection (RP) is still a challenge in several clinical practices. ICRP has included specific recommendations and advice for occupational protection in most of the documents published in recent years and its current programme of work includes the preparation of documents with specific contents on Occupational Protection. Different professional groups and different medical specialists need dedicated training, supervision and advice to optimise their practices. Many medical specialties outside the imaging departments are still using fluoroscopically guided procedures in surgical theatres without the appropriate RP tools. In addition to the stochastic radiation risks, the new thresholds for tissue reactions proposed by ICRP, and especially the ones for the lens of the eyes and the cerebrovascular system, are a matter of concern for some groups of health workers. More support from medical physics and radiation protection experts regarding occupational issues in the medical field will be needed in the coming years. PMID:25480840

  11. Radiation Protection for Manned Interplanetary Missions - Radiation Sources, Risks, Remedies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facius, R.; Reitz, G.

    Health risks in interplanetary explorative missions differ in two major features significantly from those during the manned missions experienced so far. For one, presently available technologies lead to durations of such missions significantly longer than so far encountered - with the added complication that emergency returns are ruled out. Thus radiation exposures and hence risks for late radiation sequelae like cancer increase proportional to mission duration - similar like most other health and many technical risks too. Secondly, loss of the geomagnetic shielding available in low earth orbits (LEO) does increase the radiation dose rates from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) since significant fractions of the GCR flux below about 10 GeV/n now can reach the space vehicle. In addition, radiation from solar particle events (SPE) which at most in polar orbit segments can contribute to the radiation exposure during LEO missions now can reach the spaceship unattenuated. Radiation doses from extreme SPEs can reach levels where even early acute radiation sickness might ensue - with the added risks from potentially associated crew performance decrements. In contrast to the by and large predictable GCR contribution, the doses and hence risks from large SPEs can only stochastically be assessed. Mission designers face the task to contain the overall health risk within acceptable limits. Towards this end they have to transport the particle fluxes of the radiation fields in free space through the walls of the spaceship and through the tissue of the astronaut to the radiation sensitive organs. To obtain a quantity which is useful for risk assessment, the radiobiological effectiveness as well as the specific sensitivity of a given organ has to be accounted for in such transport calculations which of course require a detailed knowledge of the spatial distribution and the atomic composition of the surrounding shielding material. In doing so the mission designer encounters two major difficulties in addition to those connected with the knowledge of the external radiation fields and the cross sections necessary for the transport calculations. The radiobiological effectiveness of the GCR heavy ions is to a large extent only nominally known with large error margins. Furthermore, the reference risk, late cancer mortality, usually only materializes many years after the mission, in contrast to the risk from early radiation sickness or the other health risks, including those from prolonged exposure to weightlessness. 1 Given these large radiobiological uncertainties of space radiation risk assessment, a first and most effective countermeasure consists of research directed at their diminishment. Furthermore, a new risk criterion is needed which allows a unified quantitative treatment of all health and technical risks arising during the mission as well as the risk of late radiogenic cancer mortality many years after the mission. Countermeasures to reduce radiation exposure comprise judicious planning of the mission with respect to solar activity, skilful utilization and optimization of shielding materials, and research into advanced propulsion systems capable to cut down transit times in free space. Finally, research into means to reduce sensitivity to radiation health effects e.g. by chemical substances and nutritional additives constitutes the third class of possible countermeasures. Arguably, the single most effective among these measures would be reduction of transit time in free space. 2

  12. United States Office of Radiation and EPA 402-B-00-001 Environmental Protection Indoor Air August 2000

    E-print Network

    United States Office of Radiation and EPA 402-B-00-001 Environmental Protection Indoor Air August 2000 Agency Radiation Protection at EPA The First 30 Years ...Protecting People and the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 EPA's Radiation Protection Responsibilities

  13. Radiation protection and shielding design--strengthening the link.

    PubMed

    Hobson, John; Cooper, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The improvement in quality and flexibility of shielding methods and data has been progressive and beneficial in opening up new opportunities for optimising radiation protection in design. The paper describes how these opportunities can best be seized by taking a holistic view of radiation protection, with shielding design being an important component part. This view is best achieved by enhancing the role of 'shielding assessors' so that they truly become 'radiation protection designers'. The increase in speed and efficiency of shielding calculations has been enormous over the past decades. This has raised the issue of how the assessor's time now can be best utilised; pursuing ever greater precision and accuracy in shielding/dose assessments, or improving the contribution that shielding assessment makes to radiological protection and cost-effective design. It is argued in this paper that the latter option is of great importance and will give considerable benefits. Shielding design needs to form part of a larger radiation protection perspective based on a deep understanding/appreciation of the opportunities and constraints of operators and designers, enabling minimal design iterations, cost optimisation of alternative designs (with a 'lifetime' perspective) and improved realisation of design intent in operations. The future of shielding design development is argued to be not in improving the 'toolkit', but in enhanced understanding of the 'product' and the 'process' for achieving it. The holistic processes being developed in BNFL to realise these benefits are described in the paper and will be illustrated by case studies. PMID:16381722

  14. Synchrotron radiation shielding design and ICRP radiological protection quantities.

    PubMed

    Bassey, Bassey; Moreno, Beatriz; Chapman, Dean

    2015-06-01

    Protection and operational quantities as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) are the two sets of quantities recommended for use in radiological protection for external radiation. Since the '80s, the protection quantities have evolved from the concept of dose equivalent to effective dose equivalent to effective dose, and the associated conversion coefficients have undergone changes. In this work, the influence of three different versions of ICRP photon dose conversion coefficients in the synchrotron radiation shielding calculations of an experimental enclosure has been examined. The versions are effective dose equivalent (ICRP Publication 51), effective dose (ICRP Publication 74), and effective dose (ICRP Publication 116) conversion coefficients. The sources of the synchrotron radiation white beam into the enclosure were a bending magnet, an undulator and a wiggler. The ranges of photons energy from these sources were 10-200?keV for the bending magnet and undulator, and 10-500?keV for the wiggler. The design criterion aimed a radiation leakage less than 0.5?µSv?h(-1) from the enclosure. As expected, larger conversion coefficients in ICRP Publication 51 lead to higher calculated dose rates. However, the percentage differences among the calculated dose rates get smaller once shielding is added, and the choice of conversion coefficients set did not affect the final shielding decision. PMID:25906251

  15. Radioprotection from radiation-induced lymphedema without tumor protection.

    PubMed

    Daley, S K; Bernas, M J; Stea, B D; Bracamonte, F; McKenna, M; Stejskal, A; Hirleman, E D; Witte, M H

    2010-06-01

    Lymphedema or tissue swelling from impaired lymph drainage commonly occurs after regional nodal dissection and/or radiation therapy for cancer control. Treatment options for this disabling and life-altering complication involve long-term labor-intensive commitments. Sentinel node biopsy can forestall removal of negative regional nodes, offering some protection against lymphedema, however, most preventive measures are elusive, ineffective, or unproven. Our goal was to determine whether the radioprotectant amifostine could prevent or retard the development of lymphedema in a rodent radiation therapy-dependent model yet not offer tumor protection from the therapeutic effects of radiation therapy. We pre-treated rats after unilateral radical groin dissection with the organic thiophosphate radioprotectant amifostine or placebo prior to single dose post-operative groin radiation therapy and monitored hindlimb volumes, wound scores, and tissue lymphostasis. In addition, we determined whether amifostine protected human MCF7 breast cancer cells exposed to a range of radiation therapy doses in an in vitro clonogenic assay and an in vivo MCF7 tumor xenograft model. Our findings indicate that amifostine markedly reduced the volume of limb lymphedema and dramatically improved wound healing and tissue lymphostasis in the rodent lymphedema model. The in vivo and in vitro studies further demonstrated that amifostine offered no MCF7 tumor protection from radiation therapy. These pre-clinical findings provide proof-of-principle to further delineate specific mechanisms underlying amifostine's beneficial effects, determine optimal amifostine-radiation therapy dosing regimens, and thereby expedite translation into clinical trials to reduce lymphedema incidence and severity in cancer patients at high lymphedema risk in whom radiation therapy is the recommended therapy. PMID:20848992

  16. Dental-service Dental Radiation Safety and Protection: Program guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-27

    The primary purpose of the program guide for Dental Radiation Safety and Protection is to assist VA dental personnel in developing radiologic procedures that ensure maximum safety for their patients and themselves. In order to do this, the authors have included a summary of the biological hazards associated with exposure to x-radiation, provided information on patient exposure levels associated with dental X-ray units, and explained the methods for reducing patient and staff exposure to X-rays.

  17. RADIATION PROTECTION IN THE INDUSTRIAL USE OF RADIATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    McAdams

    1958-01-01

    During the last few years the use of radiation and radioactive mterials ; by American industry has begun to play a vital role in the development and ; improvement of commercial products and in the simplication and control of ; manufacturing processes. This is evidenced by tbe increase in AEC licenses for ; the use of reactor by-product materials, and

  18. Page 1 of 3 Radiation Protection Policy Section 1.2

    E-print Network

    Mumby, Peter J.

    Page 1 of 3 Radiation Protection Policy Section 1.2 1.2 ADMINISTRATION 1.2.1 The Vice a Radiation Protection Adviser (RPA), who advises the University on the following matters a in radiation protection, either a Certificate of Competence granted by RPA2000, or an NVQ Level 4 in Radiation

  19. Cyber-Critical Infrastructure Protection Using Real-Time Payload-Based Anomaly Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Düssel, Patrick; Gehl, Christian; Laskov, Pavel; Bußer, Jens-Uwe; Störmann, Christof; Kästner, Jan

    With an increasing demand of inter-connectivity and protocol standardization modern cyber-critical infrastructures are exposed to a multitude of serious threats that may give rise to severe damage for life and assets without the implementation of proper safeguards. Thus, we propose a method that is capable to reliably detect unknown, exploit-based attacks on cyber-critical infrastructures carried out over the network. We illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by conducting experiments on network traffic that can be found in modern industrial control systems. Moreover, we provide results of a throughput measuring which demonstrate the real-time capabilities of our system.

  20. Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 90, Nos 12, pp. 113116 (2000)

    E-print Network

    Rodenacker, Karsten

    2000-01-01

    113 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 90, Nos 1­2, pp. 113­116 (2000) Nuclear Technology are commonly used. However, it is difficult to make an interpolation from these test results to real patient object to the patient. Therefore, this paper presents a computer model for the simulation of nodules

  1. Swedish approaches to radiation protection at nuclear power stations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Knapp; D. W. Miller

    1996-01-01

    This paper compares Swedish health physics programs at nuclear power plants to U.S. programs. Analysis of the Swedish programs includes examination of health physics staff training, size and longevity. Health physics practices are discussed, especially practices during refueling outages. The paper is based on site visits to Ringhals and Oskarshamn by U.S. radiation protection managers in October, 1995, under the

  2. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 2: Radiation Protection I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  3. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 17: Radiation Protection II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  4. Proceedings: 2002 Radiation Protection Technology Conference: Baltimore, MD, October 2002

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2003-04-01

    In response to program pressures resulting from shorter outages, combined with a diminishing group of contract health physics (HP) technicians, HP professionals must continuously upgrade their programs. Demanding emergent work also requires HP technicians in the nuclear industry to use new methods and technologies. The EPRI Radiation Protection Technology Conference was directed at highlighting a number of key health physics issues and developments.

  5. Guide to good practice in radiation protection training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Johnson; C. Schenley; A. Smith; M. Weseman

    1988-01-01

    This set of guidelines applies to radiation protection training programs for all Department of Energy (DOE) contractors, subcontractors, and visitors to DOE contractor facilities. It is to be used as a self-evaluation tool by DOE contractors as they develop and evaluate their training programs. This document is based on good practice guidelines used by a variety of different facilities both

  6. [Radiation Protection in Orthodontics: relevant data].

    PubMed

    Foucart, Jean-Michel; Felizardo, Rufino; Pizelle, Christophe

    2012-03-01

    For the past 30 years X-Ray images have effected a veritable revolution in medical practice. Using them practitioners cannot only make reliable and precise diagnoses when they begin a course of treatment but also accurately follow the progress of therapy. Orthodontics is one of the specialties that has benefited from the innovations in medical radiography. At the same time we have learned more about the risks that the use of ionizing radiation entails and are, accordingly, basing our radiological practice on the ALARA principle ("As Low As Reasonably Achievable"). Even though this concept is embodied in much national and European legislation, practitioners will enhance their daily use of radiology by acquiring an understanding of the scientific basis for ALARA. PMID:22455646

  7. Radiation protection by disulfiram: protection of membrane and DNA in vitro and in vivo against gamma-radiation.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Nitin Motilal; Gopalaswamy, Usulumarty Venu; Nair, Cherupally rishnan K

    2003-09-01

    Disufiram (a drug used for the treatment of alcoholism) protected microsomal membranes and plasmid DNA against damages induced by gamma-radiation. The peroxidation of membrane lipids increased linearly with the radiation dose up to 600 Gy, and the presence of disulfiram inhibited membrane lipid peroxidation as assayed by the presence of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances. The reduction of the quantity of the supercoiled (ccc) form of plasmid pBR322 DNA is directly related to the radiation-induced damage, particularly to DNA strand breaks. There was a complete protection of plasmid DNA when exposed to gamma-radiation in the presence of disufiram (0.1 mM) at 300 Gy. This drug also protected deoxyribose against damages caused by hydroxyl radicals produced by the Fenton reaction. The administration of DSF to mice prior to whole-body radiation exposure (4 Gy) resulted in a reduction of peroxidation of membrane lipids in mice liver as well as a decrease in radiation-induced damage to cellular DNA, as assayed by single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The results thus suggest the possible use of DSF as a radioprotector. PMID:14646230

  8. Radiation protection for human missions to the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonsen, Lisa C.; Nealy, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation protection assessments are performed for advanced Lunar and Mars manned missions. The Langley cosmic ray transport code and the nucleon transport code are used to quantify the transport and attenuation of galactic cosmic rays and solar proton flares through various shielding media. Galactic cosmic radiation at solar maximum and minimum, as well as various flare scenarios are considered. Propagation data for water, aluminum, liquid hydrogen, lithium hydride, lead, and lunar and Martian regolith (soil) are included. Shield thickness and shield mass estimates required to maintain incurred doses below 30 day and annual limits (as set for Space Station Freedom and used as a guide for space exploration) are determined for simple geometry transfer vehicles. On the surface of Mars, dose estimates are presented for crews with their only protection being the carbon dioxide atmosphere and for crews protected by shielding provided by Martian regolith for a candidate habitat.

  9. The importance and unique aspects of radiation protection in medicine.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Ola; Czarwinski, Renate; Mettler, Fred

    2010-10-01

    Radiation protection in medicine has unique aspects and is an essential element of medical practice. Medical uses of radiation occur throughout the world, from large cities to rural clinics. It has been estimated that the number of medical procedures using radiation grew from about 1.7 billion in 1980 to almost 4 billion in 2007. In spite of these large numbers, there are many parts of the world without adequate equipment, where the ability to perform additional medical procedures would likely result in a net benefit. Medicine accounts for more than 99.9% of the per caput effective dose from man-made sources. The goal in medical exposure is not to give the lowest dose, but to provide the correct dose to enable the practitioner to make the diagnosis or cure a tumour. Too little or too much dose is problematic and the risk of any given procedure ranges from negligible to potentially fatal. Radiation protection in medicine must deal with the issues of not having dose limits, purposely exposing sensitive subgroups, and purposely using doses that could cause deterministic effects. Radiation accidents involving medical uses have accounted for more acute radiation deaths than from any other source including Chernobyl. Many physicians have little or no training in radiation protection, and many have no qualified medical physics support. In many countries, medical radiation devices and uses are only minimally regulated and the rapidly evolving technology is a challenge. Medicine also accounts for the largest number of occupationally exposed workers and collective dose. PMID:20638808

  10. PROTECTING THE NATION'S CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE: THE VULNERABILITY OF U.S. WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terrorism in the United States was not considered a serious threat until the second half of the 1990s. However, recent attacks both at home and abroad have forced government planners to consider the possibility that critical elements of the U.S. infrastructure might in fact be vu...

  11. Virtual Cyber-Security Testing Capability for Large Scale Distributed Information Infrastructure Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Perry Pederson; D. Lee; Guoqiang Shu; Dongluo Chen; Zhijun Liu; Na Li; Lifeng Sang

    2008-01-01

    Security, reliability and interoperability are indispensable in today's distributed heterogeneous information infrastructure. For government and military applications, it is crucial to conduct effective and efficient testing of security properties for newly developed systems, which are to be integrated into existing information system. Yet little progress has been made in the technology advancement of rigorous and automated security testing. In this

  12. Habitat Design Considerations for Implementing Solar Particle Event Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Mathew A.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Walker, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation protection is an important habitat design consideration for human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. Fortunately, radiation shelter concepts can effectively reduce astronaut exposure for the relatively low proton energies of solar particle events, enabling moderate duration missions of several months before astronaut exposure (galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event) approaches radiation exposure limits. In order to minimize habitat mass for increasingly challenging missions, design of radiation shelters must minimize dedicated, single-purpose shielding mass by leveraging the design and placement of habitat subsystems, accommodations, and consumables. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems RadWorks Storm Shelter Team has recently designed and performed radiation analysis on several low dedicated mass shelter concepts for a year-long mission. This paper describes habitat design considerations identified during the study's radiation analysis. These considerations include placement of the shelter within a habitat for improved protection, integration of human factors guidance for sizing shelters, identification of potential opportunities for habitat subsystems to compromise on individual subsystem performances for overall vehicle mass reductions, and pre-configuration of shelter components for reduced deployment times.

  13. Toward an ontology framework supporting the integration of geographic information with modeling and simulation for critical infrastructure protection

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosiano, John J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bent, Russell W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Linger, Steve P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Protecting the nation's infrastructure from natural disasters, inadvertent failures, or intentional attacks is a major national security concern. Gauging the fragility of infrastructure assets, and understanding how interdependencies across critical infrastructures affect their behavior, is essential to predicting and mitigating cascading failures, as well as to planning for response and recovery. Modeling and simulation (M&S) is an indispensable part of characterizing this complex system of systems and anticipating its response to disruptions. Bringing together the necessary components to perform such analyses produces a wide-ranging and coarse-grained computational workflow that must be integrated with other analysis workflow elements. There are many points in both types of work flows in which geographic information (GI) services are required. The GIS community recognizes the essential contribution of GI in this problem domain as evidenced by past OGC initiatives. Typically such initiatives focus on the broader aspects of GI analysis workflows, leaving concepts crucial to integrating simulations within analysis workflows to that community. Our experience with large-scale modeling of interdependent critical infrastructures, and our recent participation in a DRS initiative concerning interoperability for this M&S domain, has led to high-level ontological concepts that we have begun to assemble into an architecture that spans both computational and 'world' views of the problem, and further recognizes the special requirements of simulations that go beyond common workflow ontologies. In this paper we present these ideas, and offer a high-level ontological framework that includes key geospatial concepts as special cases of a broader view.

  14. Ten principles and ten commandments of radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, D.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    For decades, the phrase {open_quotes}time, distance, and shielding{close_quotes} has been presented as summarizing the {open_quotes}basics{close_quotes} of radiation protection. Indeed, for protection from external radiation sources, these three principles are probably the most important ones on which a worker can make decisions and take actions. However, these principles do not address protection against intakes of radioactive materials or {open_quotes}ontakes{close_quotes} (skin contamination), other risk-limiting measures, or other important protective measures taken by governments, public health agencies, regulators, and institutional programs (measures such as performance standards, health education, facility engineering requirements, and administrative procedures). I have identified ten principles and ten accompanying commandments of radiation protection: time, distance, dispersal, source reduction, source barrier, personal barrier, decorporation, effect mitigation, optimal technology, and limitation of other exposures. Corresponding non-technical forms of the commandments are hurry (but don`t be hasty); stay away from it; disperse it and dilute it; use as little as possible; keep it in; keep it out; get it out or off of you (after intake or skin contamination); limit the damage; choose the best technology (perhaps a non-radiation technology); and don`t compound risks (don`t smoke). Technical versions of the commandments are also provided using the verbs {open_quotes}optimize,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}maximize,{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}minimize.{close_quotes} Not all commandments can be applied at the same time, and application may be different for workers and members of the public. Advantages, disadvantages, and implementation of these principles and commandments are discussed, and numerous examples provided. The application of the principles and commandments must be based on knowledge of the radiological conditions to be managed. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Radiation protection and regulations for the nuclear medicine physician.

    PubMed

    Chen, Man Yu

    2014-05-01

    As authorized users of radioactive material, nuclear medicine (NM) physicians play a leading role in the use and management of these agents. Regarding patient management, NM physicians are responsible for ensuring both the appropriateness of exams and the associated patient doses. Along with radiologists, NM physicians are the ones developing and implementing processes that provide guidance to and dialog with referring physicians to ensure that patients receive the most appropriate type of imaging exams. Regarding regulatory compliance, in collaboration with radiation safety officers, NM physicians are the ones educating their staff about principles of radiation protection and radiation safety with adherence to regulations from agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Transportation, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Food and Drug Administration. On occasion, these regulations and standards can be difficult to comprehend. This article is intended to serve as a condensed guide for NM physicians who are in the process of applying for a radioactive materials license, establishing a new radiation protection program, or want to ensure continued compliance and maintenance of safety and security of licensed materials in the clinical or research settings. PMID:24832587

  16. Space and radiation protection: scientific requirements for space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, W.

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiation poses a significant risk to humans living and working in space. The major sources of radiation are solar disturbances and galactic cosmic rays. The components of this radiation are energetic charged particles, protons, as well as fully ionized nuclei of all elements. The biological effects of these particles cannot be extrapolated in a straightforward manner from available data on x-rays and gamma-rays. A radiation protection program that meets the needs of spacefaring nations must have a solid scientific basis, capable not only of predicting biological effects, but also of making reliable estimates of the uncertainty in these predictions. A strategy leading to such predictions is proposed, and scientific requirements arising from this strategy are discussed.

  17. Aging Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA?s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

  18. Mechanisms of radiation interaction with DNA: Potential implications for radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, W.K.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of presentations and discussions which took place at the US Department of Energy/Commission of European Communities (DOE/CEC) workshop on ''Mechanisms of Radiation Interaction with DNA: Potential Implications for Radiation Protection,'' held at San Diego, California, January 21-22, 1987, is provided. The Department has traditionally supported fundamental research on interactions of ionizing radiation with different biological systems and at all levels of biological organization. The aim of this workshop was to review the base of knowledge in the area of mechanisms of radiation action at the DNA level, and to explore ways in which this information can be applied to the development of scientifically sound concepts and procedures for use in the field of radiation protection.

  19. Melatonin protection from chronic, low-level ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Russel J; Korkmaz, Ahmet; Ma, Shuran; Rosales-Corral, Sergio; Tan, Dun-Xian

    2011-12-15

    In the current survey, we summarize the published literature which supports the use of melatonin, an endogenously produced molecule, as a protective agent against chronic, low-level ionizing radiation. Under in vitro conditions, melatonin uniformly was found to protect cellular DNA and plasmid super coiled DNA from ionizing radiation damage due to Cs(137) or X-radiation exposure. Likewise, in an in vivo/in vitro study in which humans were given melatonin orally and then their blood lymphocytes were collected and exposed to Cs(137) ionizing radiation, nuclear DNA from the cells of those individuals who consumed melatonin (and had elevated blood levels) was less damaged than that from control individuals. In in vivo studies as well, melatonin given to animals prevented DNA and lipid damage (including limiting membrane rigidity) and reduced the percentage of animals that died when they had been exposed to Cs(137) or Co(60) radiation. Melatonin's ability to protect macromolecules from the damage inflicted by ionizing radiation likely stems from its high efficacy as a direct free radical scavenger and possibly also due to its ability to stimulate antioxidative enzymes. Melatonin is readily absorbed when taken orally or via any other route. Melatonin's ease of self administration and its virtual absence of toxicity or side effects, even when consumed over very long periods of time, are essential when large populations are exposed to lingering radioactive contamination such as occurs as a result of an inadvertent nuclear accident, an intentional nuclear explosion or the detonation of a radiological dispersion device, i.e., a "dirty" bomb. PMID:22185900

  20. Current issues and actions in radiation protection of patients.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Ola; Malone, Jim; Rehani, Madan; McLean, Donald; Czarwinski, Renate

    2010-10-01

    Medical application of ionizing radiation is a massive and increasing activity globally. While the use of ionizing radiation in medicine brings tremendous benefits to the global population, the associated risks due to stochastic and deterministic effects make it necessary to protect patients from potential harm. Current issues in radiation protection of patients include not only the rapidly increasing collective dose to the global population from medical exposure, but also that a substantial percentage of diagnostic imaging examinations are unnecessary, and the cumulative dose to individuals from medical exposure is growing. In addition to this, continued reports on deterministic injuries from safety related events in the medical use of ionizing radiation are raising awareness on the necessity for accident prevention measures. The International Atomic Energy Agency is engaged in several activities to reverse the negative trends of these current issues, including improvement of the justification process, the tracking of radiation history of individual patients, shared learning of safety significant events, and the use of comprehensive quality audits in the clinical environment. PMID:20638809

  1. Meteoroid Protection Methods for Spacecraft Radiators Using Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of achieving a low mass heat pipe radiator for the nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft were studied. Specific emphasis was placed on a concept applicable to a closed Brayton cycle power sub-system. Three aspects of inter-related problems were examined: (1) the armor for meteoroid protection, (2) emissivity of the radiator surface, and (3) the heat pipe itself. The study revealed several alternatives for the achievement of the stated goal, but a final recommendation for the best design requires further investigation.

  2. Radiation Protection in Educational Institutions. Recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Washington, DC.

    The problems involved when radiation-producing devices of our contemporary technology are used in the teaching of science at the high school and undergraduate college level are discussed. Information is provided on the hazards involved in the use of radiation-producing equipment or radioactive materials in science demonstrations and experiments…

  3. Report on the Scientific Committee for the Evaluation of the Institute of Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection (INTRP)

    E-print Network

    Technology and Radiation Protection (INTRP) submitted to the Director of NCSR Demokritos The following and evaluated the Institute of Nuclear Reactor Technology and Radiation Protection, following the instructions: Environment, health and safety: Radiation protection Environmental radioactivity Health physics

  4. United States Office of EPA-520/1-88-020 Environmental Protection Radiation Program September 1988

    E-print Network

    United States Office of EPA-520/1-88-020 Environmental Protection Radiation Program September 1988. This report was prepared by the OFFICE OF RADIATION PROGRAMS U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Washington and Exposure-to-Dose Conversion Factors for General Application, Based on the 1987 Federal Radiation Protection

  5. Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 97, No. 3, pp. 279-285 (2001)

    E-print Network

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    1 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 97, No. 3, pp. 279-285 (2001) Nuclear Technology Publishing Topics under Debate IS THE LINEAR-NO-THRESHOLD HYPOTHESIS APPROPRIATE FOR USE IN RADIATION PROTECTION? D protection than the basic assumptions regarding the actions of ionising radiation at low levels. As well

  6. Page 1 of 9 Radiation Protection Policy Section 1.5.1

    E-print Network

    Mumby, Peter J.

    Page 1 of 9 Radiation Protection Policy Section 1.5.1 Environment Agency Permit Compliance Radiation Protection Officer, the PI shall determine if there is sufficient material already on the site by the University Radiation Protection Officer (URPO). This is to be supplemented, and ultimately replaced

  7. WM'02 Conference, February 24-28, 2002, Tucson, AZ ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS

    E-print Network

    WM'02 Conference, February 24-28, 2002, Tucson, AZ ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS Mountain Standards Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (6608J) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency radiation protection standards for the potential spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

  8. Protection against radiation oxidative damage in mice by Triphala

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Sandhya; K. M. Lathika; B. N. Pandey; H. N. Bhilwade; R. C. Chaubey; K. I. Priyadarsini; K. P. Mishra

    2006-01-01

    Protection against whole body ?-irradiation (WBI) of Swiss mice orally fed with Triphala (TPL), an Ayurvedic formulation, in terms of mortality of irradiated animals as well as DNA damage at cellular level has been investigated. It was found that radiation induced mortality was reduced by 60% in mice fed with TPL (1g\\/kg body weight\\/day) orally for 7 days prior to

  9. [Studies on chemical protectors against radiation. XXXIII. Protective mechanisms of various compounds against skin injury induced by radiation].

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Kumazawa, N; Suzuki, M; Wang, C M; Ohta, S; Shinoda, M

    1991-01-01

    The radiation protective mechanisms on skin injury induced by soft X-irradiation were investigated by use of various radiation protective agents such as sulfur compounds (MEA, MEG, thiourea), nucleic acid constitutional compounds (adenosine, inosine), antioxidative compounds (sesamol, ferulic acid, ascorbic acid), crude drugs (Rosae Fructus, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, Trapae Fructus, Forsythiae Fructus, Aloe arborescens). Scavenge action of activated oxygen, inhibitory effect of lipid peroxidation, induction of antioxidative protein and protective effect against damage of deoxyribonucleic acid and superoxide dismutase by X-irradiation were evaluated as the radiation protective mechanisms, and relationship between these results and protective effect of skin injury induced by radiation was studied. PMID:1905349

  10. Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S. [eds.

    1988-11-01

    The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  11. Pharmacological Protection From Radiation {+-} Cisplatin-Induced Oral Mucositis

    SciTech Connect

    Cotrim, Ana P. [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yoshikawa, Masanobu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Sunshine, Abraham N.; Zheng Changyu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Sowers, Anastasia L.; Thetford, Angela D.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B. [Radiation Biology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Baum, Bruce J., E-mail: bbaum@dir.nidcr.nih.gov [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate if two pharmacological agents, Tempol and D-methionine (D-met), are able to prevent oral mucositis in mice after exposure to ionizing radiation {+-} cisplatin. Methods and Materials: Female C3H mice, {approx}8 weeks old, were irradiated with five fractionated doses {+-} cisplatin to induce oral mucositis (lingual ulcers). Just before irradiation and chemotherapy, mice were treated, either alone or in combination, with different doses of Tempol (by intraperitoneal [ip] injection or topically, as an oral gel) and D-met (by gavage). Thereafter, mice were sacrificed and tongues were harvested and stained with a solution of Toluidine Blue. Ulcer size and tongue epithelial thickness were measured. Results: Significant lingual ulcers resulted from 5 Multiplication-Sign 8 Gy radiation fractions, which were enhanced with cisplatin treatment. D-met provided stereospecific partial protection from lingual ulceration after radiation. Tempol, via both routes of administration, provided nearly complete protection from lingual ulceration. D-met plus a suboptimal ip dose of Tempol also provided complete protection. Conclusions: Two fairly simple pharmacological treatments were able to markedly reduce chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. This proof of concept study suggests that Tempol, alone or in combination with D-met, may be a useful and convenient way to prevent the severe oral mucositis that results from head-and-neck cancer therapy.

  12. Receiver Based Traffic Control Mechanism to Protect Low Capacity Network in Infrastructure Based Wireless Mesh Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, Syed Sherjeel Ahmad; Zubair, Muhammad; Khan, Zeeshan Shafi

    Infrastructure-based Wireless Mesh Networks are emerging as an affordable, robust, flexible and scalable technology. With the advent of Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) the dream of connecting multiple technology based networks seems to come true. A fully secure WMN is still a challenge for the researchers. In infrastructure-based WMNs almost all types of existing Wireless Networks like Wi-Fi, Cellular, WiMAX, and Sensor etc can be connected through Wireless Mesh Routers (WMRs). This situation can lead to a security problem. Some nodes can be part of the network with high processing power, large memory and least energy issues while others may belong to a network having low processing power, small memory and serious energy limitations. The later type of the nodes is very much vulnerable to targeted attacks. In our research we have suggested to set some rules on the WMR to mitigate these kinds of targeted flooding attacks. The WMR will then share those set of rules with other WMRs for Effective Utilization of Resources.

  13. Protection from heat radiation in open-hearth shops

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomenko, D.I.; Duganov, G.V.; Ilyushchenko, V.I.; Markin, A.D.

    1988-05-01

    Heat radiation studies in open-hearth shops during operations related to servicing the tap hole and cold-charging the furnace were conducted with consideration of the following factors: the capacity of the furnaces; the campaign of the furnace relative to the projected campaign for different furnace capacities; and the variety of manual tasks performed during a shift. Measurements of the thermal radiation were generalized and represented in the form of a nomogram. The results of thermal diagnosis of work stations on the rear platforms of open-hearth furnaces and the cabin of the cold-charging cranes led to the development and introduction of measures to protect workers from heat radiation and improve their working conditions.

  14. Medical radiation exposure and accidents. Dosimetry and radiation protection. Do we only benefit the patient?

    PubMed

    Grammaticos, Philip; Lyra, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This article presents and discusses new information on the old Hippocratic moto of "...not to harm but to benefit the patient". Some radiation accidents are due to medical errors. Millions of medical tests exposing radiation are performed every day worldwide increasing and sometimes exceeding the annual permissible dose administered to the general population. Public authorities are now seriously concerned about medical radiation overused. In U.S.A. both the House of Representatives and the Food and Drug Administration have recently delt with this problem. Others and we have suggested before and the International Atomic Energy Agency now proposes: a "Smart Card" for every individual who receives medical radiation. In this card the amount of medical radiation administered will be recorded. It is time to issue rules for protection of the public from medical radiation overdose. PMID:20808982

  15. OptaSense distributed acoustic and seismic sensing using COTS fiber optic cables for infrastructure protection and counter terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duckworth, Gregory L.; Ku, Emery M.

    2013-06-01

    The OptaSense® Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) technology can turn any cable with single-mode optical fiber into a very large and densely sampled acoustic/seismic sensor array—covering up to a 50 km aperture per system with "virtual" sensor separations as small as 1 meter on the unmodified cable. The system uses Rayleigh scattering from the imperfections in the fiber to return the optical signals measuring local fiber strain from seismic or air and water acoustic signals. The scalable system architecture can provide border monitoring and high-security perimeter and linear asset protection for a variety of industries—from nuclear facilities to oil and gas pipelines. This paper presents various application architectures and system performance examples for detection, localization, and classification of personnel footsteps, vehicles, digging and tunneling, gunshots, aircraft, and earthquakes. The DAS technology can provide a costeffective alternative to unattended ground sensors and geophone arrays, and a complement or alternative to imaging and radar sensors in many applications. The transduction, signal processing, and operator control and display technology will be described, and performance examples will be given from research and development testing and from operational systems on pipelines, critical infrastructure perimeters, railroads, and roadways. Potential new applications will be discussed that can take advantage of existing fiber-optic telecommunications infrastructure as "the sensor"—leading to low-cost and high-coverage systems.

  16. Envitonmental monitoring and radiation protection in Škocjan Caves, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debevec Gerjeviè, V.; Jovanovi?, P.

    2012-04-01

    Škocjan Caves were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1986, due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data. Relation of background radiation to carrying capacity will be explained. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. A system of education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection will be presented as well.

  17. Handbook of engineering control methods for occupational radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Orn, M.K.

    1992-01-01

    Sources of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation are widely used in industrial, medical, military, and other applications. In the workplace, the task of assuring the safety of workers exposed to radiation sources is generally assigned to the safety professional, industrial hygienist, or an engineer in some other discipline. Rarely do employers outside the nuclear industry have the luxury of a staff health physicist in the workplace. Consultants may be called in to provide initial assessments of the hazards and to assist with complex problems, but the day-to-day problem solving is usually a function of the safety professional or other professional with the responsibility for safety. The primary purpose of this book is to provide a practical reference for safety professionals that addresses the application of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation protection standards and the quantitative methods for evaluating and designing engineering controls to meet those standards. Although the emphasis of this book is on control methods, it is necessary to understand the physical nature of the radiation exposure, its units of measure, and its biological effects in order to apply the appropriate control methods. Consequently, a brief treatment of these topics precedes the discussion of control methods for each type of radiation exposure.

  18. Development of accelerator radiation protection at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Toohig, T.

    1993-11-01

    The design of the Superconducting Super Collider evolved over a series of studies from 1984 to 1989. Considerations of concentration of radiation sources and provisions for operational control and monitoring of radiation were determining elements in the design concepts for the facility. The development of the designs involved an extension of the range of applicability of energy deposition and radiation shielding codes beyond the 3 TeV level of the proposed UNK collider to 20 TeV for single beam effects and to 40 TeV in the collision regions. This extrapolation was complicated by the newly discovered, very energetic muons from short-lived states associated with heavy quark states. The design guideline for radiation protection was specified to be 10 mRem/yr, 10% of the Federal limit. In order to limit the amount of land required for the facility, which would extend over some 250 mi. sq., the configuration of the land to be acquired was tailored to the requirements for radiation containment below the levels of the guideline.

  19. Improved Protection Against Solar-Simulated Radiation-Induced Immunosuppression by a Sunscreen with Enhanced Ultraviolet A Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Fourtanier; Audrey Gueniche; Delphine Compan; Susan L. Walker; Antony R. Young

    2000-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation-induced immunosuppression is thought to play a part in skin cancer. Several studies have indicated that sunscreens that are designed to protect against erythema failed to give comparable protection against ultraviolet radiation-induced immunosuppression. One possible reason for this discrepancy is inadequate ultraviolet A protection. This study evaluated the level of immunoprotection in mice afforded by two broad-spectrum sunscreens with

  20. A Cyber Security Self-Assessment Method for Critical Infrastructure Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clifford S. Glantz; Robert B. Bass; James R. Cash; Garill A. Coles; Andrea J. Currie; David J. Gower; Jeffrey J. Heilman; Matthew D. Lammers; Jeffrey L. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is working with federal and private sector representatives to develop a cyber security self-assessment method (the Method) for use in the electric power industry. The Method will assist facility owners in identifying and characterizing cyber vulnerabilities, potential adverse consequences, cyber security risk levels, and cost-effective protection and mitigation measures. The Method supports a comprehensive, expeditious assessment

  1. Radiation protection and dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2014-11-01

    The technological advances that occurred during the last few decades paved the way to the dissemination of CT-based procedures in radiology, to an increasing number of procedures in interventional radiology and cardiology as well as to new techniques and hybrid modalities in nuclear medicine and in radiotherapy. These technological advances encompass the exposure of patients and medical staff to unprecedentedly high dose values that are a cause for concern due to the potential detrimental effects of ionizing radiation to the human health. As a consequence, new issues and challenges in radiological protection and dosimetry in the medical applications of ionizing radiation have emerged. The scientific knowledge of the radiosensitivity of individuals as a function of age, gender and other factors has also contributed to raising the awareness of scientists, medical staff, regulators, decision makers and other stakeholders (including the patients and the public) for the need to correctly and accurately assess the radiation induced long-term health effects after medical exposure. Pediatric exposures and their late effects became a cause of great concern. The scientific communities of experts involved in the study of the biological effects of ionizing radiation have made a strong case about the need to undertake low dose radiation research and the International System of Radiological Protection is being challenged to address and incorporate issues such as the individual sensitivities, the shape of dose-response relationship and tissue sensitivity for cancer and non-cancer effects. Some of the answers to the radiation protection and dosimetry issues and challenges in the medical applications of ionizing radiation lie in computational studies using Monte Carlo or hybrid methods to model and simulate particle transport in the organs and tissues of the human body. The development of sophisticated Monte Carlo computer programs and voxel phantoms paves the way to an accurate dosimetric assessment of the medical applications of ionizing radiation. In this paper, the aforementioned topics will be reviewed. The current status and the future trends in the implementation of the justification and optimization principles, pillars of the International System of Radiological Protection, in the medical applications of ionizing radiation will be discussed. Prospective views will be provided on the future of the system of radiological protection and on dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation.

  2. A biokinetic model for zinc for use in radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The physiology of the essential trace element zinc has been studied extensively in human subjects using kinetic analysis of time-dependent measurements of administered zinc tracers. A number of biokinetic models describing zinc exchange between plasma and tissues and loss of systemic zinc in excreta have been developed from the derived data. More rudimentary biokinetic models for zinc have been developed to estimate radiation doses from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc. The latter models are designed to provide broadly accurate estimates of cumulative decays of zinc radioisotopes in tissues and are not intended as realistic descriptions of the directions of movement of zinc in the body. This paper reviews biokinetic data for zinc and proposes a physiologically meaningful biokinetic model for systemic zinc for use in radiation protection. The proposed model bears some resemblance to zinc models developed in physiological studies but depicts a finer division of systemic zinc and is based on a broader spectrum of data than previous models. The proposed model and current radiation protection model for zinc yield broadly similar estimates of effective dose from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc but substantially different dose estimates for several individual tissues, particularly the liver.

  3. Radiation Protection Studies for LCLS Tune Up Dump

    SciTech Connect

    Santana-Leitner, M.; Fass, A.; Mao, S.; Nuhn, H.D.; /SLAC; Roesler, S.; /CERN; Rokni, S.; Vollaire, J.; /SLAC

    2010-04-29

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is a pioneer fourth generation hard x-ray free electron laser that shall start to deliver laser pulses in 2009. Among other components of LCLS that present radiation protection concerns, the tune up dump (tdund) is of special interest because it also constitutes an issue for machine protection, as it is placed close to radiation sensitive components, like electronic devices and permanent magnets in the undulators. This paper first introduces the stopper of tdund looking at the heat load, and then it describes the shielding around the dump necessary to maintain the prompt and residual dose within design values. Next, preliminary comparisons of the magnetization loss in a dedicated on-site magnet irradiation experiment with FLUKA simulations serve to characterize the magnetic response to radiation of magnets like those of LCLS. The previous knowledge, together with the limit for the allowed demagnetization, are used to estimate the lifetime of the undulator. Further simulations provide guidelines on which lifetime can be expected for an electronic device placed at a given distance of tdund.

  4. Intrusion-Tolerant Self-Healing Devices for Critical Infrastructure Protection Paulo Sousa, Alysson N. Bessani, Wagner S. Dantas, Fabio Souto, Miguel Correia, Nuno F. Neves

    E-print Network

    Correia, Miguel

    Intrusion-Tolerant Self-Healing Devices for Critical Infrastructure Protection Paulo Sousa, and are themselves de- signed with a range of different levels of intrusion-tolerance and self-healing, to serve composition of several in- frastructures [6, 7, 8]: (1) the operational network, usually called SCADA or PCS2

  5. Contribution to the radiation protection for sunglasses standards.

    PubMed

    Masili, Mauro; Schiabel, Homero; Ventura, Liliane

    2015-04-01

    Literature establishes safe limits on the exposure of the eyes to ultraviolet radiation, for the range of 180-400 nm, including spectrally weighted and the total ultraviolet radiant exposure. Most standards for sunglasses protection only require ultraviolet protection in the spectral range of 280-380 nm to ensure the limits for effective spectrally weighted radiant exposure. Calculations of these limits were performed for 27 Brazilian state capitals, and they led to a change in the upper UVA limit to 400 nm on the 2013 review of the Brazilian standard. Moreover, because the sunlight irradiance in Brazil is quite high, integration over the 280- to 400-nm range yields an ultraviolet radiant exposure that is an average of 49% greater than that for the 280- to 380-nm range. These conclusions suggest revision on the standards. PMID:25205833

  6. The IHS diagnostic X-ray equipment radiation protection program

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, A.; Byrns, G.; Suleiman, O.

    1994-05-01

    The Indian Health Service (IHS) operates or contracts with Tribal groups to operate 50 hospitals and approximately 165 primary ambulatory care centers. These facilities contain approximately 275 medical and 800 dental diagnostic x-ray machines. IHS environmental health personnel in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) developed a diagnostic x-ray protection program including standard survey procedures and menu-driven calculations software. Important features of the program include the evaluation of equipment performance collection of average patient entrance skin exposure (ESE) measurements for selected procedures, and quality assurance. The ESE data, collected using the National Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) protocol, will be presented. The IHS Diagnostic X-ray Radiation Protection Program is dynamic and is adapting to changes in technology and workload.

  7. Chromatin Compaction Protects Genomic DNA from Radiation Damage

    PubMed Central

    Takata, Hideaki; Hanafusa, Tomo; Mori, Toshiaki; Shimura, Mari; Iida, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Kenichi; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Maeshima, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Genomic DNA is organized three-dimensionally in the nucleus, and is thought to form compact chromatin domains. Although chromatin compaction is known to be essential for mitosis, whether it confers other advantages, particularly in interphase cells, remains unknown. Here, we report that chromatin compaction protects genomic DNA from radiation damage. Using a newly developed solid-phase system, we found that the frequency of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in compact chromatin after ionizing irradiation was 5–50-fold lower than in decondensed chromatin. Since radical scavengers inhibited DSB induction in decondensed chromatin, condensed chromatin had a lower level of reactive radical generation after ionizing irradiation. We also found that chromatin compaction protects DNA from attack by chemical agents. Our findings suggest that genomic DNA compaction plays an important role in maintaining genomic integrity. PMID:24130727

  8. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation

    PubMed Central

    Kora?, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

    2011-01-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A “sclerojuglonic” compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

  9. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Kora?, Radava R; Khambholja, Kapil M

    2011-07-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A "sclerojuglonic" compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

  10. Implications of radiation dose and exposed populations on radiation protection in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Boice, John D

    2014-02-01

    Radiation is in the public eye because of Fukushima, computed tomography examinations, airport screenings, and possible terrorist attacks. What if the Boston Marathon pressure cooker had also contained a radioactive source? Nuclear power may be on the resurgence. Because of the increasing uses of radiation, the increases in population exposures, and the increasing knowledge of radiation effects, constant vigilance is needed to keep up with the changing times. Psychosocial disorders associated with the inappropriate (but real) fear of radiation need to be recognized as radiation detriments. Radiation risk communication, radiation education, and communication must improve at all levels: to members of the public, to the media, to other scientists, and to radiation professionals. Stakeholders must continue to be involved in all radiation protection initiatives. Finally, we are at a crisis as the number of war babies (me) and baby boomers (you?) who are also radiation professionals continues its rapid decline, and there are few in the pipeline to fill the current and looming substantial need: "The old road is rapidly agin'" (Dylan). NCRP has begun the WARP initiative-Where Are the Radiation Professionals?-an attempt to rejuvenate the pipeline of future professionals before the trickle becomes tiny drops. A Workshop was held in July 2013 with government agencies, military, private sector, universities, White House representatives, and societies to develop a coordinated and national action plan. A "Manhattan Project" is needed to get us "Back to the Future" in terms of the funding levels that existed in years past that provided the necessary resources to train, engage, and retain (a.k.a., jobs) the radiation professionals needed for the nation. If we don't keep swimmin' (Disney's Nemo) we'll "sink like a stone" (Dylan).Introduction of Implications of Radiation Dose and Exposed Populations (Video 2:06, http://links.lww.com/HP/A25). PMID:24378509

  11. Forest construction infrastructures for the prevision, suppression, and protection before and after forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosos, Vasileios C.; Giannoulas, Vasileios J.; Daoutis, Christodoulos

    2014-08-01

    Climatic changes cause temperature rise and thus increase the risk of forest fires. In Greece the forests with the greatest risk to fire are usually those located near residential and tourist areas where there are major pressures on land use changes, while there are no currently guaranteed cadastral maps and defined title deeds because of the lack of National and Forest Cadastre. In these areas the deliberate causes of forest fires are at a percentage more than 50%. This study focuses on the forest opening up model concerning both the prevention and suppression of forest fires. The most urgent interventions that can be done after the fire destructions is also studied in relation to soil protection constructions, in order to minimize the erosion and the torrential conditions. Digital orthophotos were used in order to produce and analyze spatial data using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Initially, Digital Elevation Models were generated, based on photogrammetry and forest areas as well as the forest road network were mapped. Road density, road distance, skidding distance and the opening up percentage were accurately measured for a forest complex. Finally, conclusions and suggestions have been drawn about the environmental compatibility of forest protection and wood harvesting works. In particular the contribution of modern technologies such as digital photogrammetry, remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems is very important, allowing reliable, effective and fast process of spatial analysis contributing to a successful planning of opening up works and fire protection.

  12. Radiation protection issues in galactic cosmic ray risk assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    Radiation protection involves the limitation of exposure to below threshold doses for direct (or deterministic) effects and a knowledge of the risk of stochastic effects after low doses. The principal stochastic risk associated with low dose rate galactic cosmic rays is the increased risk of cancer. Estimates of this risk depend on two factors (a) estimates of cancer risk for low-LET radiation and (b) values of the appropriate radiation weighting factors, WR, for the high-LET radiations of galactic cosmic rays. Both factors are subject to considerable uncertainty. The low-LET cancer risk derived from the late effects of the atomic bombs is vulnerable to a number of uncertainties including especially that from projection in time, and from extrapolation from high to low dose rate. Nevertheless, recent low dose studies of workers and others tend to confirm these estimates. WR, relies on biological effects studied mainly in non-human systems. Additional laboratory studies could reduce the uncertainties in WR and thus produce a more confident estimate of the overall risk of galactic cosmic rays.

  13. Threat of ultraviolet radiation to the eye--how to protect against it

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, D.G.

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effects of exposure of the eye to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to provide information from which protective criteria and standards may be established. To accomplish this purpose, the article discusses ultraviolet radiation, absorption of UV radiation by the eye, the effects of ocular exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and how to protect the eye against exposure to UV radiation.

  14. Summary report on transportation of nuclear fuel materials in Japan : transportation infrastructure, threats identified in open literature, and physical protection regulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John Russell; Ouchi, Yuichiro (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan); Furaus, James Phillip; Marincel, Michelle K.

    2008-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of three detailed studies of the physical protection systems for the protection of nuclear materials transport in Japan, with an emphasis on the transportation of mixed oxide fuel materials1. The Japanese infrastructure for transporting nuclear fuel materials is addressed in the first section. The second section of this report presents a summary of baseline data from the open literature on the threats of sabotage and theft during the transport of nuclear fuel materials in Japan. The third section summarizes a review of current International Atomic Energy Agency, Japanese and United States guidelines and regulations concerning the physical protection for the transportation of nuclear fuel materials.

  15. Infrastructure of radiation oncology in France: A large survey of evolution of external beam radiotherapy practice

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggieri-Pignon, Sophie [Caisse Nationale d'Assurance Maladie des Travailleurs Salaries, Direction Regionale du Sud Est, Marseille (France)]. E-mail: sophie.pignon@ersm-sudest.cnamts.fr; Pignon, Thierry [Department of Oncology Radiotherapy, Hopital de la Timone, Universite de la Mediterrannee, Marseille (France); Marty, Michel [Caisse Nationale d'Assurance Maladie des Travailleurs Salaries, Direction du Service Medical, Paris (France); Rodde-Dunet, Marie-Helene [Caisse Nationale d'Assurance Maladie des Travailleurs Salaries, Direction du Service Medical, Paris (France); Destembert, Brigitte [Caisse Nationale d'Assurance Maladie des Travailleurs Salaries, Echelon local du Service Medical, Orleans (France); Fritsch, Beatrice [Caisse Nationale d'Assurance Maladie des Travailleurs Salaries, Echelon local du Service Medical, Strasbourg (France)

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: To study the structural characteristics of radiation oncology facilities for France and to examine how technological evolutions had to be taken into account in terms of accessibility and costs. This study was initiated by the three health care financing administrations that cover health care costs for the French population. The needs of the population in terms of the geographic distribution of the facilities were also investigated. The endpoint was to make proposals to enable an evolution of the practice of radiotherapy (RT) in France. Methods and materials: A survey designed by a multidisciplinary committee was distributed in all RT facilities to collect data on treatment machines, other equipment, personnel, new patients, and new treatments. Medical advisors ensured site visits in each facility. The data were validated at the regional level and aggregated at the national level for analysis. Results: A total of 357 machines had been installed in 179 facilities: 270 linear accelerators and 87 cobalt units. The distribution of facilities and megavoltage units per million inhabitants over the country was good, although some disparities existed between areas. It appeared that most megavoltage units had not benefited from technological innovation, because 25% of the cobalt units and 57% of the linear accelerators were between 6 and 15 years old. Computed tomography access for treatment preparation was not sufficient, and complete data management systems were scarce (15% of facilities). Seven centers had no treatment planning system. Electronic portal imaging devices were available in 44.7% of RT centers and in vivo dosimetry in 35%. A lack of physicians and medical physicists was observed; consequently, the workload exceeded the normal standard recommended by the French White Book. Discrepancies were found between the number of patients treated per machine per year in each area (range, 244.5-604). Most treatments were delivered in smaller facilities (61.6%). Conclusion: On the basis of the findings of this study, measures were taken to update the infrastructure of RT in France. A first evaluation showed an improvement of care supply in RT in the country.

  16. [The classification of radiation protective agents as the reflection of the present state and development perspective, of current radiation pharmacology].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological drugs which can reduce the radiation damage to the organism when applied in the nearest time before or after exposure to radiation can be referred to as radiation protective agents. The classification of radiation protective agents, which has been well established to date, is a reflection of the history of the formation and current state of radiation pharmacology: the most significant historical landmarks in the screening of radiation protective agents among different groups of pharmaceutical preparations and the formation of the theoretical knowledge about the mechanism for their radiation protective effects. It consists of: (1) radioprotectors which realize their radiation protective effect at the physical, chemical and biochemical levels in the course of the energy absorption of ionizing radiation via partial neutralization of the "oxygen effect" as a radiobiological phenomenon; (2) radiomitigators, which realize their effect at the system level by accelerating the post-radiation recovery of radiosensitive tissues through an activation of proinflammatory signaling pathways and an increase of secretion of hematopoietic growth factors, are used in the early period after exposure to radiation prior to the development of clinical manifestations of acute radiation damage as drugs of emergency and early treatment for radiation injuries; (3) radiomodulators--pharmaceutical drugs and food nutritional supplements which elevate the resistance of the organism to adverse environmental factors, including mutagenic effects of exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation, by means of modulating the gene expression through "substrate" maintenance of adaptive changes resulting in an increased antioxidant protection of the organism; (4) pharmaceutical drugs to protect against the incorporation of technogenic radionu- clides into the organism; (5) pharmaceutical drugs to prevent (arrest) manifestations of the primary response to radiation. PMID:25507763

  17. [The classification of radiation protective agents as the reflection of the present state and development perspective, of current radiation pharmacology].

    PubMed

    Vasin, V M

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological drugs which can reduce the radiation damage to the organism when applied in the nearest time before or after exposure to radiation can be referred to as radiation protective agents. The classification of radiation protective agents, which has been well established to date, is a reflection of the history of the formation and current state of radiation pharmacology: the most significant historical landmarks in the screening of radiation protective agents among different groups of pharmaceutical preparations and the formation of the theoretical knowledge about the mechanism for their radiation protective effects. It consists of: (1) radioprotectors which realize their radiation protective effect at the physical, chemical and biochemical levels in the course of the energy absorption of ionizing radiation via partial neutralization of the "oxygen effect" as a radiobiological phenomenon; (2) radiomitigators, which realize their effect at the system level by accelerating the post-radiation recovery of radiosensitive tissues through an activation of proinflammatory signaling pathways and an increase of secretion of hematopoietic growth factors, are used in the early period after exposure to radiation prior to the development of clinical manifestations of acute radiation damage as drugs of emergency and early treatment for radiation injuries; (3) radiomodulators--pharmaceutical drugs and food nutritional supplements which elevate the resistance of the organism to adverse environmental factors, including mutagenic effects of exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation, by means of modulating the gene expression through "substrate" maintenance of adaptive changes resulting in an increased antioxidant protection of the organism; (4) pharmaceutical drugs to protect against the incorporation of technogenic radionu- clides into the organism; (5) pharmaceutical drugs to prevent (arrest) manifestations of the primary response to radiation. PMID:25434165

  18. Strategic Power Infrastructure Defense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Li; GARY W. ROSENWALD; JUHWAN JUNG; Chen-ching Liu

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview on power infrastructure defense systems. A review of the literature on the subjects of critical infrastructures, threats to the power grids, defense system concepts, and the special protection systems is reported. The proposed Strategic Power Infrastructure Defense (SPID) system methodology is a real-time, wide-area, adaptive protection and control system involving the power, communication,

  19. Regulation of radiation protection of the patient: how and how much, the current Belgian situation.

    PubMed

    Clarijs, Tom

    2011-09-01

    Regulation of radiation protection has always been a cornerstone to protect the patient when exposed to ionising radiation. However, large differences exist between the implementation of international approved recommendations. Even when a well-established supra-national legislative format exists, further translation is always adapted to a suitable level of the medical sector in a country. Actual trends are given for the Belgian situation, where the legislation on radiation protection in medicine is currently under revision. PMID:21733857

  20. United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (6608J) EPA 402-F-12-001 | September 2013 www.epa.gov/radiation/laws/190

    E-print Network

    United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (6608J) EPA 402-F-12-001 | September 2013 www.epa.gov/radiation/laws/190 "Environmental Radiation Protection Standards discussion about whether to revise the Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Nuclear Power

  1. PIN Photodiodes for Radiation Monitoring and Protection in the BaBar Silicon Vertex Tracker

    E-print Network

    Babar Collaboration; T. I. Meyer

    2000-10-23

    We discuss the design, implementation and performance of the radiation monitoring and protection system used by the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) in the BaBar detector. Using 12 reverse-biased PIN photodiodes mounted around the beampipe near the IP, we are able to provide instantaneous radiation dose rates, absorbed dose integrals, and active protection that aborts the circulating beams in the PEP-II storage ring when radiation levels exceed user-defined thresholds. The system has reliably protected the SVT from excessive radiation damage and has also served as a key diagnostic tool in understanding radiation backgrounds at PEP-II.

  2. Carbon Fragmentation Cross Sections for Hadrontherapy and Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Napoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Nicolosi, D.; Pandola, L.; Raciti, G.; Romano, F.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V.; Tropea, S.; Bondì, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.

    2014-05-01

    Fragmentation reactions represent a serious complication in hadrontherapy and space radiation protection. In order to predict their effects, both reliable Monte Carlo codes and experimental data are needed. The shortage of precise measurements, especially of double differential cross sections, has triggered many dedicated experiments at relativistic energies. Aiming to explore the Fermi energy regime, as well, where different reaction mechanisms are involved, we measured the 12C fragmentation at 62 AMeV on a 12C and a 197Au target. A high granularity Si-CsI hodoscope allowed to identify the charge and the mass of detected fragments and measure their energy and emission angle. In this work we report the double differential cross sections for the production of different fragments as a function of the emission angle. Experimental results are compared with the GEANT-4 Monte Carlo predictions performed using two reaction models, the Quantum Molecular Dynamic and the Binary Light Ion Cascade.

  3. Radiation protection and radioactive scales in oil and gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C. [Urbino Univ. (Italy); Bassignani, A.; Colombo, G.; Fantoni, R.F. [National Radiation Protection Institute, Milan (Italy)

    1994-07-01

    Low specific-activity scales consisting of alkaline earth metal carbonates and sulfates are often present in some gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon plants. These scales contain a certain concentration of radium, uranium, and thorium which can cause a risk of gamma irradiation and internal radiocontamination when they must be mechanically removed. The gamma dose rates and the {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra concentrations were determined in sludges, scales, and waters of some gas and oil hydrocarbon plants located in Italy, Congo, and Tunisia. {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th concentrations were very low. The isotopes {sup 238}U and {sup 234}U resulted in radioactive equilibrium, while {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}Th were not always in equilibrium. A rough correlation was found between the gamma dose rate and the {sup 226}Ra concentration. Some considerations and conclusions about radiation protection problems are pointed out. 16 refs., 6 tabs.

  4. PERSPECTIVE ON THE USE OF LNT FOR RADIATION PROTECTION AND RISK ASSESSMENT BY THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    E-print Network

    to a low dose exposure is proportional to dose, with no threshold. The use of LNT for radiation protection methodology. Although recent radiobiological findings indicate novel damage and repair processes at low doses Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects

  5. UV radiation and freshwater zooplankton: damage, protection and recovery.

    PubMed

    Rautio, Milla; Tartarotti, Barbara

    2010-12-01

    While many laboratory and field studies show that zooplankton are negatively affected when exposed to high intensities of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), most studies also indicate that zooplankton are well adapted to cope with large variations in their UVR exposure in the pelagic zone of lakes. The response mechanisms of zooplankton are diverse and efficient and may explain the success and richness of freshwater zooplankton in optically variable waters. While no single behavioural or physiological protection mechanism seems to be superior, and while several unexplained and contradictory patterns exist in zooplankton UVR ecology, recent increases in our understanding are consistent with UVR playing an important role for zooplankton. This review examines the variability in freshwater zooplankton responses to UVR, with a focus on crustacean zooplankton (Cladocera and Copepoda). We present an overview of UVR-induced damages, and the protection and recovery mechanisms freshwater zooplankton use when exposed to UVR. We review the current knowledge of UVR impact on freshwater zooplankton at species and community levels, and discuss briefly how global change over the last three decades has influenced the UVR milieu in lakes. PMID:21516254

  6. United States Air and Radiation EPA 402-R-97-006 Environmental Protection Agency (6601J) July 1997

    E-print Network

    United States Air and Radiation EPA 402-R-97-006 Environmental Protection Agency (6601J) July 1997.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Radiation and Indoor Air Radiation Protection Division Center by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, it does not necessarily reflect the views of the Agency

  7. United States Office of Air and Radiation EPA 402-R-96-017 Environmental Protection Office of Solid Waste and

    E-print Network

    United States Office of Air and Radiation EPA 402-R-96-017 Environmental Protection Office of Solid FOR RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED SITES Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air and Radiation Office of Radiation and Indoor Air Radiation Protection Division Center for Remediation Technology

  8. SPAPI: A Security and Protection Architecture for Physical Infrastructures and Its Deployment Strategy Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    of these chemical industries is critical because many of them use hazardous production materials (HPMs) whose Strategy Using Wireless Sensor Networks Hafiz Abdur Rahman Department of ECE University of British Columbia of critical infrastructures have increased enormously. These infrastructures can easily become subjects

  9. Training of interventional cardiologists in radiation protection—the IAEA's initiatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madan M. Rehani

    2007-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has initiated a major international initiative to train interventional cardiologists in radiation protection as a part of its International Action Plan on the radiological protection of patients. A simple programme of two days' training has been developed, covering possible and observed radiation effects among patients and staff, international standards, dose management techniques, examples of

  10. Radiation protection of human lymphocyte chromosomes in vitro by orientin and vicenin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Vrinda; P Uma Devi

    2001-01-01

    Orientin (Ot) and Vicenin (Vc), two water-soluble flavonoids isolated from the leaves of Indian holy basil Ocimum sanctum have shown significant protection against radiation lethality and chromosomal aberrations in vivo. In the present study the protective effect of Ot and Vc against radiation induced chromosome damage in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes was determined by micronucleus test. In order to select

  11. Radiation-protection factors of selected light vehicles against residual radiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, H.; Morrissey, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes calculations made to determine the factors needed to correct the in-vehicle Radiation Detection Identification and Computation Meter (RADIAC) dose readings to the outside environment. The methodology used is a modified VCS approach and is fully described. The VCS calculation produces a gamma protection factor for a 2-day-old fallout spectrum lying on the ground-surface exterior of the vehicle. This protection factor can be used to correct the in-vehicle RADIAC dose level readings to produce the exterior free-field dose level. The results present not only the correction factors but also several spectra comparisons for in-vehicle and exterior free-field. The calculated correction values are shown.

  12. Approaches to promotion and implementation of action on Radiation Protection for children.

    PubMed

    Goske, Marilyn J; Applegate, Kimberly E; Bulas, Dorothy; Butler, Priscilla F; Callahan, Michael J; Coley, Brian D; Don, Steven; Farley, Shawn; Frush, Donald P; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Kaste, Sue C; Morrison, Gregory; Sidhu, Manrita; Strauss, Keith J; Treves, S Ted

    2011-09-01

    The Radiation Protection in Medicine conference, reviewed in this journal supplement, outlined nine strategies to promote radiation protection for patients. The Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging has focused its work on three of those areas: creating awareness of the need and opportunities for radiation protection for children; developing open-source educational materials for medical professionals and parents on this critical topic for improved patient safety and communication; and lastly, advocating on behalf of children with industry, government and regulatory bodies to improve equipment design and safety features, standardisation of nomenclature and displays of dose reports across vendor platforms that reflect the special considerations of children. PMID:21743076

  13. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I protect intestinal cells from radiation induced apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panagiotis G Mylonas; Panagiota T Matsouka; Eleni V Papandoniou; Constantine Vagianos; Fotis Kalfarentzos; Theodore K Alexandrides

    2000-01-01

    We studied whether programmed cell death (or apoptosis) is the predominant mechanism in radiation-induced cell damage to rat intestinal mucosa and investigated the mechanism of the protective effect of GH and IGF-I in the same model. Male albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups: controls, radiation, radiation plus GH and radiation plus IGF-I. Radiation was administered on the first

  14. Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

  15. The Seven (Or More) Deadly (Or Not So Deadly) Sins of Radiation Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.; Stansbury, Paul S.

    2000-06-01

    This editorial considers the errors that can occur in the routine practice of radiation protection in the workplace. This work provides a tool and an incentive for radiation protection professionals to mentally examine their radiation protection responsibilities to identify actions they may take to improve their part of the practice of radiation protection for the benefit of humankind. We introduce a rating tool that is patterned after the IAEA International Nuclear Event Scale.?Sins? discussed include ignorance of the radiological situation, failure to integrate safety management, disabling safety interlocks, warning devices, access controls, omission of''reasonable'' from the policy of''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA), extrapolation of risk beyond reason, using radiation exposure as an excuse for terminating an unwanted pregnancy, escalation of safety requirements beyond reason, failure to average a concentration standard, not responding to concerns (of workers, public, patient s, etc.), over-training, and substitution of prescriptive procedures for judgment. Readers are encouraged to look at their radiation protection activities and judge which ones do not make sense from the viewpoint of protecting people against radiation. It is likely that readers will find more than one radiation protection activity that bears scrutiny.

  16. Radiation Protection Program Environmental Health and Safety Department

    E-print Network

    .................................................................. 11 3.1. Mines Management ................................................................................................... 13 3.7. Radiation Producing Equipment Supervisor ............................................................. 13 3.8. Radiation Producing Equipment Operators

  17. The LNT Debate in Radiation Protection: Science vs. Policy.

    PubMed

    Mossman, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable interest in revisiting LNT theory as the basis for the system of radiation protection in the US and worldwide. Arguing the scientific merits of policy options is not likely to be fruitful because the science is not robust enough to support one theory to the exclusion of others. Current science cannot determine the existence of a dose threshold, a key piece to resolving the matter scientifically. The nature of the scientific evidence is such that risk assessment at small effective doses (defined as <100 mSv) is highly uncertain, and several policy alternatives, including threshold and non-linear dose-response functions, are scientifically defensible. This paper argues for an alternative approach by looking at the LNT debate as a policy question and analyzes the problem from a social and economic perspective. In other words, risk assessment and a strictly scientific perspective are insufficiently broad enough to resolve the issue completely. A wider perspective encompassing social and economic impacts in a risk management context is necessary, but moving the debate to the policy and risk management arena necessarily marginalizes the role of scientists. PMID:22740781

  18. Swedish approaches to radiation protection at nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, P. [Southern California Edison Co., San Clemente, CA (United States); Miller, D.W. [Illinois Power Co., Clinton, IL (United States)

    1996-06-01

    This paper compares Swedish health physics programs at nuclear power plants to U.S. programs. Analysis of the Swedish programs includes examination of health physics staff training, size and longevity. Health physics practices are discussed, especially practices during refueling outages. The paper is based on site visits to Ringhals and Oskarshamn by U.S. radiation protection managers in October, 1995, under the sponsorship of the North American Regional Technical Center, ISOE, NEA/IAEA. The reactor vessel decontamination at Oskarshamn 1 BWR is discussed including good health physics practices and radiological results. Ringhals unique management organization is discussed with respect to health physics division of responsibilities and differences between in-plant and on-site health physics groups. Analytical results of failed fuel events at Ringhals is also presented including the observed occurrence of cobalt knock-off. Finally, trends in Swedish plants collective doses are summarized. Comprehensive Swedish studies of potential collective doses over the next 20 years are discussed including management options related to dose reduction options.

  19. Radiation Protection Policy for Pregnant Workers Procedure: 7.40 Created: 02/03/2005

    E-print Network

    Jia, Songtao

    Radiation Protection Policy for Pregnant Workers Procedure: 7.40 Created: 02/03/2005 Version: 1 of the Columbia University to limit the radiation dose to the embryo/fetus of a declared pregnant occupationally to the risks of radiation exposure and to consult with her regarding recommendations for maintaining

  20. Ionizing and Nonionizing Radiation Protection. Module SH-35. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on ionizing and nonionizing radiation protection is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module describes various types of ionizing and nonionizing radiation, and the situations in the workplace where potential hazards from radiation may exist. Following the introduction, 13 objectives (each keyed to a…

  1. Protection against enhanced levels of natural radiation: concepts and regulatory approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfdieter Kraus

    2002-01-01

    In the recent years, exposures to enhanced natural radiation came into the focus of radiation protection. A variety of exposure types have to be taken into consideration. Any regulation of enhanced exposures to natural radiation sources may have large social, economic and political consequences. Unfortunately, there has been little or no international harmonisation yet, and a comprehensive, systematic approach totally

  2. Differential protection by two sunscreens from UV radiation-induced immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Reeve, V E; Bosnic, M; Boehm-Wilcox, C; Ley, R D

    1991-10-01

    A controversy has arisen concerning the ability of sunscreens to protect mice from the immunosuppressive effects of UV radiation. We have assessed the photoprotection in hairless mice of two sun protection factor (SPF)15 sunscreens containing different UVB (280-320-nm) absorbers, namely, octyl-N-dimethyl-p-aminobenzoate (o-PABA) or 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate (2-EHMC). Following three minimum erythemal exposures to UV radiation, both systemic suppression of contact hypersensitivity to 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene and induction of susceptibility to transplanted UV radiation-induced tumor cells was established. Topically applied 2-EHMC sunscreen protected totally from both forms of immunosuppression, but the o-PABA sunscreen failed to protect, although both sunscreens were equally effective in protection from UV radiation-induced erythema and edema. PMID:1940432

  3. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation.

  4. Radiation terrorism: what society needs from the radiobiology-radiation protection and radiation oncology communities.

    PubMed

    Coleman, C Norman; Parker, Gerald W

    2009-06-01

    Society's and individuals' concerns about the adverse effects from radiation are logically amplified many times when radiological terrorism is considered. The spectrum of events include industrial sabotage, the use of an explosive or non-explosive radiological dispersal device, the placement of a radiological exposure device in a public facility and the use of an improvised nuclear device. The consequences of an event relate to the physical and medical damage of the event itself, the financial impact, and the acute and long-term medical consequences, including fear of radiation-induced cancer. The magnitude of a state-sponsored nuclear event is so great that limited detailed response planning had been done in the past, as compared to the work now ongoing. Planning is done on the basis of scenario modelling. Medical response planning includes medical triage, distribution of victims to care by experienced physicians, developing medical countermeasures to mitigate or treat radiation injury, counselling and appropriately following exposed or potentially exposed people, and helping the local community develop confidence in their own response plan. Optimal response must be based on the best available science. This requires scientists who can define, prioritise and address the gaps in knowledge with the range of expertise from basic physics to biology to translational research to systems expertise to response planning to healthcare policy to communications. Not only are there unique needs and career opportunities, but there is also the opportunity for individuals to serve their communities and country with education regarding radiation effects and by formulating scientifically based government policy. PMID:19454803

  5. Radiation Symbols

    MedlinePLUS

    Radiation Protection Basics Health Effects Ionizing & Non-Ionizing Radiation Understanding Radiation: Radiation Symbols Radiation Protection Basics Main Page History of Radiation Protection Radiation Warning Symbols Radiation Warning Sign Gallery ...

  6. United States Office of Radiation & EPA 402-R-99-002 Environmental Protection Indoor Air (6602J) October 1999

    E-print Network

    United States Office of Radiation & EPA 402-R-99-002 Environmental Protection Indoor Air (6602J Agency, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, Radiation Protection Division 401 M St. SW, Washington OCCURRING RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS IN THE SOUTHWESTERN COPPER BELT OF ARIZONA U.S. Environmental Protection

  7. Non-coherent near infrared radiation protects normal human dermal fibroblasts from solar ultraviolet toxicity.

    PubMed

    Menezes, S; Coulomb, B; Lebreton, C; Dubertret, L

    1998-10-01

    The sun is the most important and universal source of non-ionizing radiation shed on human populations. Life evolved on Earth bathed by this radiation. Solar UV damages cells, leading to deleterious conditions such as photoaging and carcinogenesis in human skin. During the process of evolution, the cells selected dark- and light-dependent repair mechanisms as a defence against these hazardous effects. This study describes the induction by non-coherent infrared radiation (700-2000 nm), in the absence of rising temperature, of a strong cellular defense against solar UV cytotoxicity as well as induction of cell mitosis. Blocking mitoses with arabinoside-cytosine or protein synthesis with cycloheximide did not abolish the protection, leading to the conclusion that this protection is independent of cell division and of protein neosynthesis. The protection provided by infrared radiation against solar UV radiation is shown to be a long-lasting (at least 24 h) and cumulatif phenomenon. Infrared radiation does not protect the lipids in cellular membranes against UVA induced peroxidation. The protection is not mediated by heat shock proteins. Living organisms on the Earth's surface are bathed by infrared radiation every day, before being submitted to solar UV. Thus, we propose that this as yet undescribed natural process of cell protection against solar UV, acquired and preserved through evolutional selection, plays an important role in life maintenance. Understanding and controlling this mechanism could provide important keys to the prevention of solar UV damage of human skin. PMID:9764844

  8. Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-wei

    2004-01-01

    Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most effect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

  9. Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei

    2004-01-01

    Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

  10. Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei

    2004-01-01

    Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space exploration.

  11. Space and radiation protection: Scientific requirements for space research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Schimmerling

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiation poses a significant risk to humans living and working in space. The major sources of radiation are solar disturbances and galactic cosmic rays. The components of this radiation are energetic charged particles, protons, as well as fully ionized nuclei of all elements. The biological effects of these particles cannot be extrapolated in a straightforward manner from available data

  12. Radiation exposure and protection in cardiac catheterization laboratories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen W. Miller; Frank P. Castronovo Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Cardiac catheterization with angiography can deliver the greatest dose of x-radiation of any diagnostic medical examination. The physicians and technologists in the angiography room receive low-level scattered radiation over a period of months to decades. Although the radiobiology is complex, the physicians who perform cardiac catheterization should be familiar with the potential genetic and somatic effects of radiation and with

  13. Glutamine protects Chinese Hamster Ovary cells from radiation killing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Winters; Richard Matthews; Nuran Ercal; Kalpana Krishnan

    1994-01-01

    Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were propagated in vitro and exposed to varying doses of ionizing radiation. The surviving fraction of cells was determined, being found to be a function of the radiation dose. The cell survival curves obtained as a function of radiation dose were modified by the inclusion of varying doses of glutamine in the medium, with glutamine

  14. CHIPLESS PASSIVE SENSOR FOR WIRELESS MONITORING OF HIGH RADIATION DOSES IN NUCLEAR INFRASTRUCTURES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -pressure dosimeters (HPD) where the polymer material dehydrogenates under irradiation. However, using the MEMS reading and real time monitoring. KEYWORDS : Radiation dosimeter, polymer radiolysis, MEMS. INTRODUCTION]. The transducers principles are described in Figure 2. The irradiation will generate the outgassing of a polymer

  15. Protection from solar UV radiation - how important is what you wear and how you wear it?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Wilson

    How fabric properties and conditions of wear affect UV transmission is reviewed and recommendations for manufacture and selection of sun protective garments are discussed. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been identified as the \\

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of novel tetrapropoxycalix[4]arene enones and cinnamates for protection from ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Chawla, H M; Pant, Nalin; Kumar, Satish; Mrig, Sarika; Srivastava, Bindu; Kumar, Naresh; Black, D Stc

    2011-10-01

    A series of novel calix[4]arene enones (5-7) and cinnamates (12-14) have been synthesized and evaluated for ensuring protection from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Spectroscopic analyses has revealed that compound 6 absorbs ultraviolet radiations between 280 and 350 nm with an absorption maximum at 312 nm. Its molar absorption coefficient (?) (>5 × 10(4)M(-1)cm(-1)) and bandwidth are larger than those for the commercially used sun protectants (oxybenzone (OB), 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (OMC) and avobenzone). The in vitro Sun Protection Factor (SPF) measurement revealed an SPF of 5.2 at 2% concentration of 6 in home made emulsion formulations while combination of 2% each of 6 and OMC gave an SPF of 8.8. Lower sun protection seems to be compensated by significant protection from more harmful UVA radiations (UVA/UVB absorbance ratio of 0.62). PMID:21803597

  17. Radiation exposure in gastroenterology: improving patient and staff protection.

    PubMed

    Ho, Immanuel K H; Cash, Brooks D; Cohen, Henry; Hanauer, Stephen B; Inkster, Michelle; Johnson, David A; Maher, Michael M; Rex, Douglas K; Saad, Abdo; Singh, Ajaypal; Rehani, Madan M; Quigley, Eamonn M

    2014-08-01

    Medical imaging involving the use of ionizing radiation has brought enormous benefits to society and patients. In the past several decades, exposure to medical radiation has increased markedly, driven primarily by the use of computed tomography. Ionizing radiation has been linked to carcinogenesis. Whether low-dose medical radiation exposure will result in the development of malignancy is uncertain. This paper reviews the current evidence for such risk, and aims to inform the gastroenterologist of dosages of radiation associated with commonly ordered procedures and diagnostic tests in clinical practice. The use of medical radiation must always be justified and must enable patients to be exposed at the lowest reasonable dose. Recommendations provided herein for minimizing radiation exposure are based on currently available evidence and Working Party expert consensus. PMID:24842339

  18. Differential Protection by Two Sunscreens from UV Radiation–Induced Immunosuppression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivienne E. Reeve; Meira Bosnic; Christa Boehm-Wilcox; Ronald D. Ley

    1991-01-01

    A controversy has arisen concerning the ability of sunscreens to protect mice from the immunosuppressive effects of UV radiation. We have assessed the photoprotection in hairless mice of two sun protection factor (SPF) 15 sunscreens containing different UVB (280-320-nm) absorbers, namely, octyl-N-dimethyl-p-aminobenzoate (o-PABA) or 2-ethyl-hexyl-p-methoxycinnamate (2-EHMC). Following three minimum erythemal exposures to UV radiation, both systemic suppression of contact hypersensitivity

  19. ITS Department Article to appear in IEEE Intelligent Systems July/August 2007 issue Protecting Transportation Infrastructure

    E-print Network

    Chawathe, Sudarshan S.

    infrastructures.4 Y ear Incidents 2006 Bombs planted on two German trains (but failed to explode) 209 people to bomb New York subway stations foiled Madrid commuter train bombing; 191 killed and nearly 2,000 injured and wounding dozens 1997 A plot to bomb a New York subway station foiled 1996 Multiple suicide attacks on buses

  20. Amifostine (ETHYOL) protects rats from mucositis resulting from fractionated or hyperfractionated radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Cassatt, David R. [Department of Molecular Biology/Biochemistry, MedImmune, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Fazenbaker, Christine A. [Department of Molecular Biology/Biochemistry, MedImmune, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Bachy, Christine M. [Department of Molecular Biology/Biochemistry, MedImmune, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Kifle, Gizachew [Department of Cell Biology, MedImmune, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); McCarthy, Michael P. [Department of Molecular Biology/Biochemistry, MedImmune, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)]. E-mail: mccarthym@medimmune.com

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: The cytoprotective drug amifostine (Ethyol) protects rats from oral mucositis resulting from a single dose of {gamma}-irradiation. We expanded earlier studies to determine whether multiple doses of amifostine protect against fractionated or hyperfractionated radiation and whether the active metabolite of amifostine (WR-1065) accumulates in tissues upon repeated administration. Methods and materials: Rats received amifostine daily for 5 days in conjunction with a 1-week fractionated radiation schedule and were evaluated for oral mucositis. Rats also received amifostine before the am or pm exposure or b.i.d. in conjunction with hyperfractionated radiation. To determine the pharmacokinetics of WR-1065 after repeated dosing, amifostine was given 5 days a week for 1 or 3 weeks, and rat tissue and plasma were collected at intervals during and after treatment and analyzed for WR-1065. Results: Amifostine protected rats from mucositis resulting from fractionated or hyperfractionated radiation. When the number of days of amifostine administration was reduced, protection was diminished. A dose of 100 mg/kg given in the morning or 2 doses at 50 mg/kg provided the best protection against hyperfractionated radiation. WR-1065 did not accumulate in tissues or tumor upon repeated administration. Conclusions: Amifostine prevented radiation-induced mucositis in a rat model; protection was dose and schedule dependent.

  1. Optical Brighteners Provide Baculovirus Activity Enhancement and UV Radiation Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Dougherty; K. P. Guthrie; M. Shapiro

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescent brighteners increase insect viral activity and provide protection against UV inactivation. The relative amount of viral UV protection has not previously been determined due to the dual nature of these compounds. In this study, two distinct viral–host systems, a nuclear polyhedrosis virus of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) infecting its homologous host and a nuclear polyhedrosis virus of the

  2. Application of the ICRP recommendations to revised secondary radiation protection standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Jr. Kennedy; J. P. Corley

    1988-01-01

    In 1977, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) issued Publication No. 26 containing its recommendations for major changes in the conceptual basis for radiation protection. The new recommendations consider total risk (to the whole body) instead of controlling (critical-organ) risk. Subsequent publications and explanatory statements most useful for providing clarification of the intent of the new recommendations have not

  3. Investigation of feasibility of using mexamine for postradiation protection of L cells. [Gamma radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Valter; Yu. F. Martynchik; A. G. Sverdlov

    1977-01-01

    Suspension of L cells were exposed to gamma radiation; mexamine was added before and after irradiation. Effects of caffeine on cells were also studied. Observations were made on survival time, colony formation, and chromosomal aberrations. When mexamine was administered before irradiation a protective effect was demonstrated, but when added after irradiation there was no protective effect. Caffeine did not have

  4. Relative inability of aet and apmt to protect immunologically competent cells against radiation injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustavo Cudkowicz

    1962-01-01

    BS>The radio-protective drugs AET and APMT did not protect ; immunologically competent cells in adult mouse liver against radiation injury, as ; judged by the ability of the irradiated cells to induce wasting disease in parent-; to-F⁠hybrid radiatfon chimeras. This result suggests a method for ; selective destructfon of immune cells in tissues to be transplanted. (auth);

  5. Study on the protection of workers against ionizing radiations in Belgium

    SciTech Connect

    Hublet, P.

    1973-01-01

    Regulations, based on the standards of EURATOM, for protection of the population and workers against ionizing radiations are discussed. Radiation protection is based on the idea of the controlled zone which is a designated space where exposed personnel may receive a radiation dose of more than 1.5 rem/ yr. Periodic medical examinations and personnel dosimetry are recommended. The annual permissible dose is flxed at 5 rem/yr of total radiation for workers aged 18 or over. A table is presented of types of personnel in controlled zones who should carry dosimeters. Tables are presented to show the distribution of workers exposed to ionizing radiation in health institutions, industrial and commercial enterprises, and research and teaching, and dose distributions among these workers from 1965 to 1971. It is concluded that the radiation risk to workers in Belgium is maintained by present laws within very acceptable limits. (HLW)

  6. Calcium Protects Differentiating Neuroblastoma Cells during 50 Hz Electromagnetic Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Tonini; Baroni E. Masala; E. Masala; M. Micheletti; A. Ferroni; M. Mazzanti

    2001-01-01

    Despite growing concern about electromagnetic radiation, the interaction between 50- to 60-Hz fields and biological structures remains obscure. Epidemiological studies have failed to prove a significantly correlation between exposure to radiation fields and particular pathologies. We demonstrate that a 50- to 60-Hz magnetic field interacts with cell differentiation through two opposing mechanisms: it antagonizes the shift in cell membrane surface

  7. New nuclear build and evolving radiation protection challenges.

    PubMed

    Lazo, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Radiological protection has continued to evolve in order to meet emerging challenges and will continue to do so. This paper will discuss the scientific and social challenges that will or may be faced by the radiological protection community in the coming 10 to 20 y and how these may affect what is expected to be a renewed interest in building and operating nuclear power plants for electricity generation. PMID:21399418

  8. Comparison of in vivo murine intestinal radiation protection by E-prostaglandins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Hanson; K. DeLaurentiis

    1987-01-01

    The gastrointestinal cell renewal system is sensitive to injury by ionizing radiation. Natural prostaglandins (PGs) and their analogs have been shown to protect intestinal clonogenic cells (stem cells) in vivo from radiation injury. To further investigate structure and activity relationship in PGs as radiation protectors, studies were done with four E-series PGs: E1, E2, 16,16-dimethyl (dm) PGE2, and 15-deoxy, 16-methyl,

  9. A review of the history of U.S. radiation protection regulations, recommendations, and standards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cynthia G

    2005-06-01

    Shortly after the discovery of x rays by Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen in 1895, and the isolation of the element radium by Pierre and Marie Curie three years later, the fascination with and potential for an array of uses of ionizing radiation in medicine, science, and technology was born. As with any new technology, there was a need to balance both the beneficial and potential detrimental effects of uses of these new technologies for the advancement of humankind. In the early days, radiation hazards were not well understood. Over the decades increasing concerns in the scientific community and lay population demanded that standardized guidance and recommendations be developed for the use of ionizing radiation. Today, U.S. radiation protection standards and recommendations to protect the occupational worker, members of the general public, and the environment are numerous and complex. This review summarizes the history of the development and application of radiation protection standards and regulations to assure the safe use of radiation and radioactive materials. The evolution and roles of international and national scientific recommending and regulatory organizations that shape U.S. radiation protection policy are described and discussed. PMID:15891462

  10. Radiation protection aspects of the operation in a cyclotron facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, P. P. N.; Carneiro, J. C. G. G.

    2014-02-01

    The activated accelerator cyclotron components and the radioisotope production may impact on the personnel radiation exposure of the workers during the routine maintenance and emergency repair procedures and any modification of the equipment. Since the adherence of the principle of ALARA (as low as reasonable achievable) constitutes a major objective of the cyclotron management, it has become imperative to investigate the radiation levels at the workplace and the probable health effects to the worker caused by radiation exposure. The data analysis in this study was based on the individual monitoring records during the period from 2007 to 2011. Monitoring of the workplace was also performed using gamma and neutron detectors to determine the dose rate in various predetermined spots. The results of occupational radiation exposures were analysed and compared with the values established in national standards and international recommendations. Important guidelines have been developed to reduce the individual dose.

  11. New developments in radiation protection instrumentation via active electronic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    New developments in electronics and radiation detectors are improving on real-time data acquisition of radiation exposure and contamination conditions. Recent developments in low power circuit designs, hybrid and integrated circuits, and microcomputers have all contributed to smaller and lighter radiation detection instruments that are, at the same time, more sensitive and provide more information (e.g., radioisotope identification) than previous devices. New developments in radiation detectors, such as cadmium telluride, gas scintillation proportional counters, and imaging counters (both charged particle and photon) promise higher sensitivities and expanded uses over present instruments. These developments are being applied in such areas as health physics, waste management, environmental monitoring, in vivo measurements, and nuclear safeguards.

  12. Nuclear Fragmentation Processes Relevant for Human Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for human space explorations such-as a moon base or a trip to Mars. Models have been developed in order to predict the radiation exposure to astronauts and to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials, and a key ingredient in these models is the physics of nuclear fragmentations. We have developed a semi-analytical method to determine which partial cross sections of nuclear fragmentations most affect the radiation dose behind shielding materials due to exposure to galactic cosmic rays. The cross sections thus determined will require more theoretical and/or experimental studies in order for us to better predict, reduce and mitigate the radiation exposure in human space explorations.

  13. Touristic infrastructure of municipalities in the border section of Bug valley's Do?hobyczów-W?odawa in the context of existing protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ka?amucka, Wioletta; Ka?amucki, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    This article presents results of research concerning tourist infrastructure in some districts located in the Bug river valley, in the context of protected areas. The territory examined includes 9 rural districts and 2 towns in the immediate neighborhood of the river. These administrative units are characterized by great natural value. Their total area is 687,7 km2 that makes 6,7% of the whole Lublin voivodship. On the other hand, the share of protected areas (without Natura 2000) is twice as high - 11,1%. Protected areas makes 37,6% of the territory under study. In some units, share of protected areas is very high: Dubienka - 72%, Horod?o - 69,5%. In 2009 in the region examined there were 48 objects of collective accommodation - 16,8% of total number in the voivodship. 83,6% of all objects were situated in W?odawa. Characteristic feature of accommodation is seasonality. There are only 7 objects that functions the whole year and year-round lodging places (280) makes barely 9,3% of the totality. Comparing tourist management with presence of areas of the highest natural values, one can see strong correlation between these two indexes only in rural unit - W?odawa, located within the borders of Biosphere Reserves "Polesie Zachodnie" (West Polesie) In case of other units such a interdependance does not exist. On the contrary, there is opposite relation. In Do?hobyczów, Mircze, Horod?o, where apart from areas of Natura 2000, in the Bug river valley landscapes protected areas and landscapes parks were created, tourist infrastructure is insignificant or even does not exist. The existence of large protected areas and natural value make it possible to develop various forms of environmentally friendly tourism - tourism qualified, especially fishing and canoeing, hiking, biking, nature education tourism. Tourist service centers should be located outside the valley. Due to the high natural values, caution is advisable to adapt the area for tourism. Such decisions should precede the insightful observations and fieldstudy in order not to affect the structure of natural and touristic values of this area.

  14. The Road To Radiation Protection: A Rocky Path

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Preeti; Khare, Amit; Singh, Vandana; Chatterjee, Rhiti

    2014-01-01

    Radiation has intrigued us with its magnificent properties of imaging and healing. But this discovery, like many others, came with a heavy price. The pioneers of this form of energy themselves often succumbed to its devastating effects and hence, paved a way for future generations to be wary of it, while continuing to use it. This paper attempts to salute those masters who have helped make the radiation world a safer place to live and work in. PMID:25654052

  15. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 512 (2003) 4451 The HERMES silicon project--the radiation protection system

    E-print Network

    2003-01-01

    --the radiation protection system M.G. van Beuzekom*, O. Bouhali1 , V. Mexner, S. Mos, A. Reischl, J.J.M. Steijger detectors; Ionization chambers; Radiation protection; Accelerated beams 1. Introduction The HERMES it vulnerable to increased radiation levels which may be caused by beam instabilities. The Lambda Wheel detector

  16. Oceanic protection of prebiotic organic compounds from UV radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleaves, H. J.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    It is frequently stated that UV light would cause massive destruction of prebiotic organic compounds because of the absence of an ozone layer. The elevated UV flux of the early sun compounds this problem. This applies to organic compounds of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin. Attempts to deal with this problem generally involve atmospheric absorbers. We show here that prebiotic organic polymers as well as several inorganic compounds are sufficient to protect oceanic organic molecules from UV degradation. This aqueous protection is in addition to any atmospheric UV absorbers and should be a ubiquitous planetary phenomenon serving to increase the size of planetary habitable zones.

  17. Office of Radiation & Indoor Air EPA 402-R-05-009 Radiation Protection Division (6608J) August 2006

    E-print Network

    of potential radiological and chemical hazards. In order to help us identify where potential problems may occur) Radiation Protection Division works to address hazards posed by technologically enhanced naturally occurring and to identify where TENORM problems may exist, we have been investigating the potential environmental hazards

  18. Modern Methods of Real-Time Gamma Radiation Monitoring for General Personal Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

    Real-time radiation detectors become an essential part of emergency personnel who may have to respond to unknown accidents, incidents or terrorist attacks, which could involve radioactive material. More and more ordinary citizens are interested in personal radiation protection as well. Reasons include lost sources, nuclear industrial accidents, nuclear or radiological terrorism and the possibility of nuclear weapons being used in a war. People want to have the ability to measure it for themselves and they want to be notified when the radiation levels are increased. To meet this demand, considerable research into new sensors is underway, including efforts to enhance the sensor performance through both the material properties and manufacturing technologies. Deep understanding of physical properties of the materials under the influence of radiation exposure is vital for the effective design of dosimeter devices. Detection of radiation is based on the fact that both the electrical and the optical properties of the materials undergo changes upon the exposure to ionizing radiation. It is believed that radiation causes structural defects. The influence of radiation depends on both the dose and the parameters of the films including their thickness: the degradation is more severe for the higher dose and the thinner films. This paper presents overview of modern methods of real-time gamma radiation monitoring for personal protection of radiation workers and general public and suggests further developments in this area.

  19. The IHS diagnostic X-ray equipment radiation protection program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Knapp; G. Byrns; O. Suleiman

    1994-01-01

    The Indian Health Service (IHS) operates or contracts with Tribal groups to operate 50 hospitals and approximately 165 primary ambulatory care centers. These facilities contain approximately 275 medical and 800 dental diagnostic x-ray machines. IHS environmental health personnel in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) developed a diagnostic x-ray protection program

  20. A Hypothesis on Biological Protection from Space Radiation Through the Use of Therapeutic Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation proposes a hypothesis to use therapeutic gases in space to enhance the biological protection for astronauts from space radiation. The fundamental role in how radiation causes biological damage appears to be radiolysis, the dissociation of water by radiation. A chain of events appears to cause molecular and biological transformations that ultimately manifest into medical diseases. The hypothesis of this work is that applying medical gases may increase resistance to radiation, by possessing the chemical properties that effectively improve the radical scavenging and enhance bond repair and to induce biological processes which enhance and support natural resistance and repair mechanisms.

  1. Tea, coffee, and cocoa as ultraviolet radiation protectants for the beet armyworm nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    El-Salamouny, S; Ranwala, D; Shapiro, M; Shepard, B M; Farrar, Robert R

    2009-10-01

    The addition of 1% (wt:vol) aqueous extracts of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), coffee (Coffea arabica L.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), and green and black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) (Ericales: Theaceae) provided excellent UV radiation protection for the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), nucleopolyhedrovirus under laboratory conditions. Aqueous extracts of coffee, green tea, and black tea at 0.5% provided 85-100% UV protection, whereas cocoa provided 50% UV protection. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a component of green tea, and caffeine, a component of tea and coffee, also were tested as UV protectants. Both compounds were ineffective when tested alone. When EGCG and caffeine were combined, UV protection increased in a synergistic manner, but <35% of the original virus activity was maintained. This study demonstrated that coffee was comparable to green tea and black tea as a UV protectant. Further studies should be conducted to optimize their use in biopesticide formulations. PMID:19886440

  2. Evaluation of Awareness on Radiation Protection and Knowledge About Radiological Examinations in Healthcare Professionals Who Use Ionized Radiation at Work

    PubMed Central

    Yurt, Ay?egül; Çavu?o?lu, Berrin; Günay, Türkan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we evaluated the knowledge and perception and mitigation of hazards involved in radiological examinations, focusing on healthcare personnel who are not in radiation-related occupations, but who use ionising radiation as a part of their work. Methods: A questionnaire was applied to physicians, nurses, technicians and other staff working in different clinics that use radiation in their work, in order to evaluate their knowledge levels about ionizing radiation and their awareness about radiation doses resulting from radiological examinations. The statistical comparisons between the groups were analyzed with the Kruskal Wallis test using the SPSS program. Results: Ninety two participants took part in the study. Their level of knowledge about ionizing radiation and doses in radiological examinations were found to be very weak. The number of correct answers of physicians, nurses, medical technicians and other personnel groups were 15.7±3.7, 13.0±4.0, 10.1±2.9 and 11.8±4.0, respectively. In the statistical comparison between the groups, the level of knowledge of physicians was found to be significantly higher than the level of the other groups (p=0.005). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that general knowledge in relation to radiation, radiation protection, health risks and doses used for radiological applications are insufficient among health professions using with ionizing radiation in their work. PMID:24963445

  3. Radiation protection recommendations on dose limits: The role of the NCRP and the ICRP and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, W.K. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the role of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in making recommendations on dose limits for ionizing radiation exposure for workers and for the public. The text describes the new limits for workers and public recommended by ICRP in 1991 and NCRP in 1993 and the composition of the radiation health detriment on which they are based. The main component of this detriment is the risk of radiation induced cancer which is now estimated to be about three times greater than a decade or so earlier. Uncertainties in these risk estimates are discussed. Some special radiation protection problems, such as those for the embryo or fetus are described. The article also addresses future progress in radiation protection particularly with regard to future improvements in the scientific basis for radiation protection recommendations.

  4. Experimental Determination of Ultraviolet Radiation Protection of Common Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavares, Susana C. A.; da Silva, Joaquim C. G. Esteves; Paiva, Joao

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at a better understanding of the problems associated with the depletion of the ozone layer, we propose several experiments to be performed by students of different levels: secondary and first-year undergraduate students. The oxidation of iodide induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, generated by a mercury lamp, is used as an indicator for…

  5. Radiation protection for the sentinel node procedure in breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Y. de Kanter; P. P. A. M. Arends; A. M. M. Eggermont; T. Wiggers

    2003-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of our study was to determine the radiation dose for those who are involved in the sentinel node procedure in breast cancer patients and testing of a theoretical model.Methods: We studied 12 consecutive breast cancer patients undergoing breast surgery, and a sentinel node dissection including an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). We performed measurements on the surgeon,

  6. Radiation Protection by Cysteamine and Cellular Sulphydryl Levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    László Révész; Helena Bergstrand

    1963-01-01

    IN publications describing a series of experiments a group of Dutch investigators1 recently gave quantitative results on the radioprotective power of different chemical agents at the cellular level in an in vitro system. Assayed by the degree to which radiation damage, as measured by the loss of reproductive integrity of human kidney cells, was prevented, it was shown that the

  7. Radiation protection issues related to Canadian museum operations.

    PubMed

    Waller, Edward J; Cole, David; Jamieson, Terry

    2008-02-01

    Museums in Canada have been found to possess radioactive items. The origin of the radiation can be broadly categorized as either natural (generally, radioactive ores) or anthropogenic (generally, luminous gauges). Radioluminescent gauges, especially bearing radium (226Ra), can also generate significant radiation fields. This is especially true if many gauges are located in close proximity. In addition, the radon may out-gas from these gauges, and generate a loose contamination problem in enclosed spaces (such as display cases). Radioactive ores, bearing naturally occurring uranium and thorium, can generate radiation fields many times greater than the ambient background levels. In addition, they will increase the ambient radon level and potentially generate loose contamination. In this paper, we discuss the specific results of radiological decommissioning at three museums: the National Air Force Museum of Canada (Trenton, Ontario); the Quebec Air and Space Museum (Montreal, PQ); and the Canadian Museum of Nature (Aylmer, PQ). In addition, a radiological survey performed at Canadian Forces Detachment Mountain View (Mountain View, Ontario) of surplus aircraft is included. The primary conclusion is that museums holding radioactive materials may have detectable levels of loose Ra and progeny contamination. They, therefore, have a requirement to be surveyed for loose contamination periodically with the potential for periodic decontamination caused by radon out-gassing. In addition, public access to displays bearing radioactive material should generally be restricted, and comprehensive radiation safety and security programs at museum facilities should be developed and enacted. PMID:18192793

  8. Modification of silicone sealant to improve gamma radiation resistance, by addition of protective agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Pérez, Giovanni; Burillo, Guillermina

    2013-09-01

    Poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) sealant (SS) was modified with the addition of different protective compounds to conserve its physical-chemical properties during gamma irradiation. 2-Vinyl naphthalene (2-VN), bisphenol-A (BPA) and poly (vinyl carbazole) (PVK) were used to evaluate radiation protection through the crosslinking effect of radiation. The samples were irradiated with doses from 100 kGy to 500 kGy at room temperature in air, with a 60Co gamma source, and the changes in molecular weight, thermal behavior, elastic properties and infrared spectra (FTIR-ATR) absorbance analysis were determined. The molecular weight of unmodified silicone sealant increases with the absorbed dose because of crosslinking as predominant effect. However, the crosslinking effect was inhibited with the addition of protective agent due to the aromatic compounds present. Modified silicone sealant films present better radiation resistance than unmodified system.

  9. The beta calibration of radiation survey instruments at protection levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Owen

    1972-01-01

    Beta ray dose rates at protection levels from sources of 90Sr+90Y, 204Tl and 147Pm have been measured in units of 'millirads in air per hour' with a statistical uncertainty of +or-2% or less, and an estimated uncertainty of +or-4% or less, using a specially designed thin-walled, parallel-plate ionization chamber. The measured dose rates from these sources have been used to

  10. Radiation Protection Studies of International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A. (Editor); Shavers, Mark R. (Editor); Saganti, Premkumar B. (Editor); Miller, Jack (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This publication describes recent investigations that evaluate radiation shielding characteristics of NASA's and the Russian Space Agency's space suits. The introduction describes the suits and presents goals of several experiments performed with them. The first chapter provides background information about the dynamic radiation environment experienced at ISS and summarized radiation health and protection requirements for activities in low Earth orbit. Supporting studies report the development and application of a computer model of the EMU space suit and the difficulty of shielding EVA crewmembers from high-energy reentrant electrons, a previously unevaluated component of the space radiation environment. Chapters 2 through 6 describe experiments that evaluate the space suits' radiation shielding characteristics. Chapter 7 describes a study of the potential radiological health impact on EVA crewmembers of two virtually unexamined environmental sources of high-energy electrons-reentrant trapped electrons and atmospheric albedo or "splash" electrons. The radiological consequences of those sources have not been evaluated previously and, under closer scrutiny. A detailed computational model of the shielding distribution provided by components of the NASA astronauts' EMU is being developed for exposure evaluation studies. The model is introduced in Chapters 8 and 9 and used in Chapter 10 to investigate how trapped particle anisotropy impacts female organ doses during EVA. Chapter 11 presents a review of issues related to estimating skin cancer risk form space radiation. The final chapter contains conclusions about the protective qualities of the suit brought to light form these studies, as well as recommendations for future operational radiation protection.

  11. Investigation of the behavior of protection elements against field radiated line coupled UWB-pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzikalla, R.; Ter Haseborg, J. L.

    2006-09-01

    To protect electronic systems against electromagnetic interferences in general nonlinear protection circuits are used. These protection circuits are optimized mostly against special transient interferences such as lightning electromagnetic pulses (LEMP) or electromagnetic pulses caused by nuclear explosions (NEMP). Previous investigations have shown that these protection elements could be undermined by so-called ultra wideband (UWB) pulses. Thereby a direct charge of the UWB-pulse to the elements has been assumed. This assumption was a worst case approximation because in practice UWB-pulses only get into systems by coupling effects. In this investigation the behavior of typical nonlinear protection elements has been tested with field radiated line coupled UWB-pulses. For that line coupled UWB-pulses have been defined depending on the coupling behavior of typical electronic systems and a possibility of generation of this kind of pulses is presented. After it typical nonlinear protection elements such as spark gaps, varistors and protection diodes have been tested with the previously defined test pulses. Finally the measured behavior of the elements has been compared with the behavior by direct charged UWB-pulses and the protection effect of the elements against field radiated line coupled UWB-pulses is re-evaluated.

  12. Protective clothing: Fire and radiation environments. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning clothing design, fabrication, and testing for personal protection from exposure to flames and radiation. Citations discuss the treatment of fibers and textiles, testing for physiological tolerances, and methods of decontamination after exposure. Discussed also are user acceptance and proper use of protective clothing by firefighters, nuclear energy personnel, and others. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. Application of some magnetic nanocompounds in the protection against sun radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sincai, Mariana; Argherie, Diana; Ganga, Diana; Bica, Doina; Vekas, Ladislau

    2007-04-01

    The protective effect of some magnetic nanocompounds against prolonged exposure to UV radiation was investigated. Research was carried in white mice whose auricles (ears) were treated with magnetic nanocompounds in various concentrations. After 8 h of exposure, small auricular fragments from treated and control animals were prepared for cytohistological studies. In animals treated with magnetic nanocompounds, no erythema or other UV-induced changes were noticed. The magnetic nanoparticles thus were UV protective and might be useful as a sunscreen.

  14. Radiation protection design considerations for man in geosynchronous orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossi, M. L.; Stauber, M. C.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of preliminary studies which have been carried out to identify design requirements and mission constraints imposed by the geosynchronous radiation environment. The radiation species of dominant impact are the trapped electrons and solar flare particles. The criterion used in the conducted shielding design analysis has been to limit the skin dose to 100 rems for 3 months. The analysis included the optimization of an electron/bremsstrahlung shield for residence within the vehicle, the minimization of the dose received in extravehicular activity, and the calculation of special shield requirements for solar flares. An investigation was conducted of the potential benefits accruing from a three-layered composite shield with part of the aluminum layer replaced with a lower atomic number material. The materials considered were polyethylene, carbon, beryllium, and lithium hydride.

  15. Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on Cyanobacteria and their Protective Mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bagmi Pattanaik; Rhena Schumann; Ulf Karsten

    \\u000a Enhanced solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) due to stratospheric ozone depletion is a major stress factor for many phototrophic\\u000a organisms in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems (Franklin and Forster, 1997). UVR includes the wavelengths below those visible\\u000a to the human eye. According to the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage), the spectral range is divided into three\\u000a wavebands: 315–400 nm UVA, 280–315 nm

  16. Protective surface coatings on semiconductor nuclear radiation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Hansen; E. E. Haller; G. S. Hubbard

    1980-01-01

    Surface states on germanium p-i-n junctions have been investigated using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and collimated beams of 60 keV gamma-rays. The DLTS spectra have a characteristic signature for each surface treatment but the spectra are complex and not readily interpretable as to suitability for radiation detectors. Collimated gamma-ray beams give a direct measure of surface channel effects and

  17. Protective surface coatings on semiconductor nuclear radiation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Hansen; E. E. Haller; G. S. Hubbard

    1979-01-01

    Surface states on germanium p-i-n junctions have been investigated using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and collimated beams of 60 keV gamma-rays. The DLTS spectra have a characteristic signature for each surface treatment but the spectra are complex and not readily interpretable as to suitability for radiation detectors. Collimated gamma-ray beams give a direct measure of surface channel effects and

  18. Radiation Effects and Protection for Moon and Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, Thomas A.; Watts, John W., Jr.; Armstrong, Tony W.

    1998-01-01

    Manned and robotic missions to the Earth's moon and Mars are exposed to a continuous flux of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and occasional, but intense, fluxes of Solar Energetic Particles (SEP). These natural radiations impose hazards to manned exploration, but also present some constraints to the design of robotic missions. The hazards to interplanetary flight crews and their uncertainties have been studied recently by a National Research Council Committee (Space Studies Board 1996). Considering the present uncertainty estimates, thick spacecraft shielding would be needed for manned missions, some of which could be accomplished with onboard equipment and expendables. For manned and robotic missions, the effects of radiation on electronics, sensors, and controls require special consideration in spacecraft design. This paper describes the GCR and SEP particle fluxes, secondary particles behind shielding, uncertainties in radiobiological effects and their impact on manned spacecraft design, as well as the major effects on spacecraft equipment. The principal calculational tools and considerations to mitigate the radiation effects are discussed, and work in progress to reduce uncertainties is included.

  19. Radiation protection for human exploration of the moon and mars: Application of the mash code system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.O.; Santoro, R.T.; Drischler, J.D.; Barnes, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding code system -- MASH, developed for the Department of Defense for calculating radiation protection factors for armored vehicles against neutron and gamma radiation, has been used to assess the dose from reactor radiation to an occupant in a habitat on Mars. The capability of MASH to reproduce measured data is summarized to demonstrate the accuracy of the code. The estimation of the radiation environment in an idealized reactor-habitat model is reported to illustrate the merits of the adjoint Monte Carlo procedure for space related studies. The reactor radiation dose for different reactor-habitat surface configurations to a habitat occupant is compared with the natural radiation dose acquired during a 500-day Mars mission.

  20. Radiation protection--a look to the future: ICRP perceptions

    SciTech Connect

    Lindell, B.

    1988-08-01

    The author was invited to talk about ICRP perceptions of a look to the future. Many questions will be addressed when the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) initiates a revision of its basic recommendations from 1977, which were published in ICRP Publication 26. This process will take several years, and in the meantime the author does not expect any major changes in the present policy of the commission. It is still too early to predict the commission's future policy but, to some extent, present trends might be extrapolated, as indicated in this discussion.

  1. A biokinetic model for manganese for use in radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The ICRP is updating its recommendations regarding occupational exposure to radionuclides including the biokinetic models used to derive dose coefficients and assess bioassay data for internally deposited radionuclides. This report reviews biokinetic data for manganese and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic manganese consistent with the current database. The model provides a more detailed and biologically realistic description of the movement of absorbed manganese in the body than the model currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The proposed model and current ICRP model yield broadly similar estimates of dose per unit activity of inhaled or ingested radio-manganese but differ substantially with regard to interpretation of bioassay data.

  2. Protective Effect of Rare Earth Against Oxidative Stress Under Ultraviolet-B Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lihong Wang; Xiaohua Huang; Qing Zhou

    2009-01-01

    The effects of lanthanum (III) (La(III)) in protecting soybean leaves against oxidative stress induced by ultraviolet-B (UV-B)\\u000a radiation were investigated. The increase in contents of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide ($${\\\\text{O}}_{\\\\text{2}}^ \\\\cdot \\\\,^ - $$) due to UV-B radiation suggested oxidative stress. The increase in the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the decrease\\u000a in the index of unsaturated fatty acid

  3. Protection of cellular DNA from ?-radiation-induced damages and enhancement in DNA repair by troxerutin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dharmendra Kumar Maurya; Sreedevi Balakrishnan; Veena Prakash Salvi; Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan Nair

    2005-01-01

    The effect of troxerutin on ?-radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in different tissues of mice in vivo and formations of the micronuclei were studied in human peripheral blood lymphocytes ex vivo and mice blood reticulocytes in vivo. Treatments with 1 mM troxerutin significantly inhibited the micronuclei induction in the human lymphocytes. Troxerutin protected\\u000a the human peripheral blood leucocytes from radiation-induced DNA

  4. Shielding and radiation protection at the SSRL 3 GeV injector

    SciTech Connect

    Ipe, N.E.; Liu, J.C.

    1991-12-01

    The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) Injector is comprised of a linear accelerator (linac) capable of energies {le} 150 MeV, a 3 GeV booster synchrotron, and a beam line to transport the electrons into the storage ring SPEAR. The injector is shielded so that under normal operating conditions, the annual dose equivalent at the shield surface does not exceed 10 mSv. This paper describes the shielding and radiation protection at the injector.

  5. Enhanced hematopoietic protection from radiation by the combination of genistein and captopril.

    PubMed

    Day, R M; Davis, T A; Barshishat-Kupper, M; McCart, E A; Tipton, A J; Landauer, M R

    2013-02-01

    The hematopoietic system is sensitive to radiation injury, and mortality can occur due to blood cell deficiency and stem cell loss. Genistein and the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril are two agents shown to protect the hematopoietic system from radiation injury. In this study we examined the combination of genistein with captopril for reduction of radiation-induced mortality from hematopoietic damage and the mechanisms of radiation protection. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 8.25Gy (60)Co total body irradiation (TBI) to evaluate the effects of genistein and captopril alone and in combination on survival, blood cell recovery, hematopoietic progenitor cell recovery, DNA damage, and erythropoietin production. 8.25Gy TBI resulted in 0% survival after 30days in untreated mice. A single subcutaneous injection of genistein administered 24h before TBI resulted in 72% survival. Administration of captopril in the drinking water, from 1h through 30days postirradiation, increased survival to 55%. Genistein plus captopril increased survival to 95%. Enhanced survival was reflected in a reduction of radiation-induced anemia, improved recovery of nucleated bone marrow cells, splenocytes and circulating red blood cells. The drug combination enhanced early recovery of marrow progenitors: erythroid (CFU-E and BFU-E), and myeloid (CFU-GEMM, CFU-GM and CFU-M). Genistein alone and genistein plus captopril protected hematopoietic progenitor cells from radiation-induced micronuclei, while captopril had no effect. Captopril alone and genistein plus captopril, but not genistein alone, suppressed radiation-induced erythropoietin production. These data suggest that genistein and captopril protect the hematopoietic system from radiation injury via independent mechanisms. PMID:23328620

  6. [Medical protection during radiation accidents: some results and lessons of the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Legeza, V I; Grebeniuk, A N; Zatsepin, V V

    2011-01-01

    Actions of medical radiation protection of liquidators of consequences of on Chernobyl atomic power station accident are analysed. It is shown, that during the early period of the accident medical protection of liquidators was provided by administration of radioprotectors, means of prophylaxis: of radioactive iodine incorporation and agent for preventing psychological and emotional stress. When carrying out decontamination and regenerative works, preparations which action is caused by increase of nonspecific resistance of an organism were applied. The lessons taken from the results of the Chernobyl accident, have allowed one to improve the system of medical protection and to introduce in practice new highly effective radioprotective agents. PMID:21520618

  7. United States Environmental Protection Agency | Office of Air and Radiation (6608J) | EPA 402-F-05-028 | October 2005 www.epa.gov/radiation/yucca

    E-print Network

    United States Environmental Protection Agency | Office of Air and Radiation (6608J) | EPA 402-F-05-028 | October 2005 www.epa.gov/radiation/yucca EPA Yucca Mountain Fact Sheet #4: Agency Roles in the Approval for protection for human health and the environment. This fact sheet shows the roles of the different government

  8. Research on radiation protection in the application of new technologies for proton and heavy ion radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tujii, Hirohiko; Akagi, Takashi; Akahane, Keiichi; Uwamino, Yoshitomo; Ono, Tatsuya; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Kohno, Ryosuke; Sakae, Takeji; Shimizu, Masakazu; Urakabe, Eriko; Nakayama, Takashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Nishio, Teiji; Noshizawa, Kanae; Nishizawa, Kunihide; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Yamashita, Haruo; Yonai, Shunsuke

    2009-01-01

    Particle radiotherapy using proton and heavy ion beams has shown improved clinical results and is a promising cancer therapy which is expected to gradually spread in Japan. There are, however, no special regulations for radiotherapy treatment facilities. They have been operated under the same safety regulations as for a research facility using a research accelerator. Significantly high-energy radiation is necessary for particle radiotherapy compared with conventional radiation therapy. The treatment facility, therefore, should have a large accelerator, which is installed in a room with a thick shield wall. Data on radiation protection for such high energy medical facilities is fragmentary and insufficient. In this study, we examined the necessity of other regulations for the safe operation of medical facilities for particle radiotherapy. First, we measured activation levels of the therapeutic devices and of patients. Next the safety level of the medical facility was evaluated from the viewpoint of radiation protection. We have confirmed the facilities can be safely operated by present regulations given in the Law Concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazards due to Radiation Isotopes, etc. or the Law for Health Protection and Medical Care. PMID:21976255

  9. Intercomparison of radiation protection instrumentation in a pulsed neutron field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caresana, M.; Denker, A.; Esposito, A.; Ferrarini, M.; Golnik, N.; Hohmann, E.; Leuschner, A.; Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Manessi, G.; Mayer, S.; Ott, K.; Röhrich, J.; Silari, M.; Trompier, F.; Volnhals, M.; Wielunski, M.

    2014-02-01

    In the framework of the EURADOS working group 11, an intercomparison of active neutron survey meters was performed in a pulsed neutron field (PNF). The aim of the exercise was to evaluate the performances of various neutron instruments, including commercially available rem-counters, personal dosemeters and instrument prototypes. The measurements took place at the cyclotron of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH. The cyclotron is routinely used for proton therapy of ocular tumours, but an experimental area is also available. For the therapy the machine accelerates protons to 68 MeV. The interaction of the proton beam with a thick tungsten target produces a neutron field with energy up to about 60 MeV. One interesting feature of the cyclotron is that the beam can be delivered in bursts, with the possibility to modify in a simple and flexible way the burst length and the ion current. Through this possibility one can obtain radiation bursts of variable duration and intensity. All instruments were placed in a reference position and irradiated with neutrons delivered in bursts of different intensity. The analysis of the instrument response as a function of the burst charge (the total electric charge of the protons in the burst shot onto the tungsten target) permitted to assess for each device the dose underestimation due to the time structure of the radiation field. The personal neutron dosemeters were exposed on a standard PMMA slab phantom and the response linearity was evaluated.

  10. Physical phantom of typical Korean male for radiation protection purpose.

    PubMed

    Kim, J I; Choi, H; Lee, B I; Lim, Y K; Kim, C S; Lee, J K; Lee, C

    2006-01-01

    Dose distribution within a human body can be measured using physical anthropomorphic phantoms. In an effort to establish reference Korean physical model, the first Korean physical phantom of average Korean adult male was constructed using computed tomography (CT) images of a healthy volunteer. The body dimension of the subject was close to that of average Korean male. The source images were obtained using fusion positron emission tomography machine at Radiation Health Research Institute in Korea, and ported into rapid prototyping process. The physical phantom was composed of three tissue-equivalent materials: epoxy resin, urethane foam and polyurethane representing bone, lungs and soft tissues, respectively. The densities of the tissue-equivalent materials were close to those recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and measurements. To facilitate dose mapping, the phantom was sliced into 2 cm sections. Hole grids for thermoluminescence (TL) dosemeter chips were drilled. To verify the appropriateness of the physical phantom, organ doses of selected organs were measured for reference photon beam, and compared with those computed by tomographic model constructed from the same CT images. Absorbed doses converted from TL relative response showed good agreement within 7% with those calculated. PMID:16410295

  11. Some recent data on chemical protection against ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatome, M.; Laval, J. D.; Roman, V.

    Once introduced in the organism, the radioprotectors are fastly degraded and that increases their toxicity, shortens their duration of action and renders them inactive after oral delivery. So, it was tried to protect them by their incorporation in vectors. When a cysteamine-liposomal suspension was orally delivered, it showed a radioprotective activity for about 4 hours. By using 35 S cysteamine, it was noted that its plasmatic concentration was increased. Freeze-drying of these preparations was a good mean of conservation if the samples were stored at 4°C. A good and sustained activity was also obtained after oral delivery of WR-2721 entrapped in microspheres. Otherwise, it was shown that after interacting with the polar heads of phospholipids, under determined conditions of pH and in fluid phase, aminothiols can penetrate inside the membrane and be entrapped in the internal medium of liposomes and as they penetrate, they can lessen the diffusion of oxygen in the lipidic bilayers.

  12. Building the basis for a comprehensive radiation protection program for a multi-program laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Copenhaver, E.D.

    1987-01-01

    An explicit, workplace-specific training has been developed, implemented, and documented for all radiation workers. In addition to the radiation worker personnel located at reactors, accelerators, radiochemical laboratories, and waste treatment areas, we have trained other personnel who work in areas where a lesser potential for radiological/chemical exposure exists. These workforces include construction crews, site restoration crews, contracted special services such as scoping and site characterization teams, and short-term visitors. We are developing a comprehensive, integrated approach to radiation protection training suited for a multi-purpose research laboratory. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Call Title: Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection Call Identifier: FP7-Fission-2009

    E-print Network

    De Cindio, Fiorella

    small or medium-scale Collaborative Projects Advanced nuclear systems for increased sustainability in sustainable nuclear fission energy Coordination and Support Action (coordinating action) Fission-2.3 FissionCall Title: Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection · Call Identifier: FP7-Fission-2009 · Date

  14. Solar radiation, lip protection, and lip cancer risk in Los Angeles County women (California, United States)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice M. Pogoda; Susan Preston-Martin

    1996-01-01

    A population-based case-control study of 74 women with lip cancer diagnosed from 1978 to 1985 in Los Angeles County (California, United States) and frequency matched to 105 controls investigated the risk of solar radiation and protection from lip sunscreening agents to explore the hypothesis that excess incidence of lip cancer seen in men is due partly to lower rates in

  15. Three Mile Island, Unit 2, radiation protection program: report of the special panel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. Meinhold; T. D. Murphy; D. R. Neely; R. L. Kathren; B. L. Rich; G. F. Stone; W. R. Casey

    1979-01-01

    A special panel was appointed by the Director of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, NRC, to review the radiation protection program at Three Mile Island Unit 2. The Panel confirmed several management and technical deficiencies in the program. Recent major GPU\\/Met Ed commitments and actions demonstrated a major change in management attitude. The Panel concluded that exposures to personnel can be maintained

  16. Ambient ultraviolet radiation induces protective responses in soybean but does not attenuate indirect defense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorsten R. Winter; Michael Rostás

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation on (i) the performance and chemistry of soybean plants, (ii) the performance of Spodoptera frugiperda and (iii) the foraging behavior of the herbivore's natural enemy Cotesia marginiventris which exploits herbivore-induced plant volatiles (VOC) for host location. The accumulation of protective phenolics was faster in plants receiving ambient UV than in controls

  17. Tea, Coffee, and Cocoa as Ultraviolet Radiation Protectants for the Beet Armyworm Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. EL-SALAMOUNY; D. RANWALA; M. SHAPIRO; B. M. SHEPARD; ROBERT R. FARRAR

    The addition of 1% (wt:vol) aqueous extracts of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), coffee (Coffea arabica L.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), and green and black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) (Ericales: Theaceae) provided excellent UV radiation protection for the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), nucleopolyhedrovirus under laboratory con- ditions. Aqueous extracts of coffee, green tea, and black tea at 0.5%

  18. Nuclear Technology Series. Radiation Protection Technician. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary radiation protection technician program is designed for use with courses 17-22 of thirty-five included in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians, and operators; and to assist planners,…

  19. Development of Curricula for Nuclear Radiation Protection, Nuclear Instrumentation, and Nuclear Materials Processing Technologies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Daniel M.

    A study was conducted to assist two-year postsecondary educational institutions in providing technical specialty courses for preparing nuclear technicians. As a result of project activities, curricula have been developed for five categories of nuclear technicians and operators: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and…

  20. FP7 Euratom Work Programme Call title: Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection

    E-print Network

    De Cindio, Fiorella

    FP7 Euratom Work Programme Call Fiche Call title: Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection Call-1.2.2: Transmutation fuels and targets and their reprocessing Collaborative Project, either small or medium of European research on severe accident phenomenology and management Network of Excellence Fission-2008

  1. Ceramic coatings on package lids for radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Garino, T.J.; Reber, C.A.; Fleetwood, D.M.

    1991-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of coating gold plated kovar lids with colloidally bonded aluminum oxide. Radiation that is incident on a gold plated lid generates a large number of photoelectrons. These electrons can enhance the damage to microelectronic devices and circuits (ICs). The primary purpose of the coating is to stop the electrons emitted from the lid that would otherwise increase the damage to the IC. A coating system consisting of {approximately}95 wt % alumina (0.5 {mu}m particles) and {approximately}5 wt % colloidal silica (10 nm particles) was developed. The coating was applied to the lids as an aqueous suspension which was then dried to form a porous coating. Coating processing conditions were optimized so that crack-free, uniform coatings with the required thickness ({approximately}80 {mu}m) could be consistently produced. Preliminary data have indicated that the coated lid can be attached to the IC package using current belt furnace sealing procedures. The adhesion and mechanical integrity of the coatings were evaluated by submitting coated lids to centrifuge and shock testing. Selected coatings successfully withstood the shock test and 85% were undamaged after being subjected to an acceleration of 30,000 g's. Several types of radiation tests were performed to determine the effectiveness of the coating to stop electron penetration. Evaluation testing included gamma dose enhancement and X- ray induced photocurrent enhancement. The results for lids with coatings 80 or 150 {mu}m thick were compared with results for uncoated kovar and ceramic lids. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Radiation protection recommendations on dose limits: The role on the NCRP and the ICRP and future developments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warren K. Sinclair

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the role of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in making recommendations on dose limits for ionizing radiation exposure for workers and for the public. The text describes the new limits for workers and public recommended by ICRP in 1991 and

  3. LAURISTON S. TAYLOR LECTURE ON RADIATION PROTECTION AND MEASURMENTS: WHAT MAKES PARTICLE RADIATION SO EFFECTIVE?

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, Eleanor A.

    2012-01-01

    The scientific basis for the physical and biological effectiveness of particle radiations has emerged from many decades of meticulous basic research. A diverse array of biologically relevant consequences at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organism level have been reported, but what are the key processes and mechanisms that make particle radiation so effective, and what competing processes define dose dependences? Recent studies have shown that individual genotypes control radiation-regulated genes and pathways in response to radiations of varying ionization density. The fact that densely ionizing radiations can affect different gene families than sparsely ionizing radiations, and that the effects are dose- and time-dependent has opened up new areas of future research. The complex microenvironment of the stroma, and the significant contributions of the immune response have added to our understanding of tissue-specific differences across the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum. The importance of targeted vs. nontargeted effects remain a thorny, but elusive and important contributor to chronic low dose radiation effects of variable LET that still needs further research. The induction of cancer is also LET-dependent, suggesting different mechanisms of action across the gradient of ionization density. The focus of this 35th Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture is to chronicle the step-by-step acquisition of experimental clues that have refined our understanding of what makes particle radiation so effective, with emphasis on the example of radiation effects on the crystalline lens of the human eye. PMID:23032880

  4. DIM (3,3?-diindolylmethane) confers protection against ionizing radiation by a unique mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Saijun; Meng, Qinghui; Xu, Jiaying; Jiao, Yang; Zhao, Lin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Brown, Milton L.; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Rosen, Eliot M.

    2013-01-01

    DIM (3,3?-diindolylmethane), a small molecule compound, is a proposed cancer preventive agent that can be safely administered to humans in repeated doses. We report that administration of DIM in a multidose schedule protected rodents against lethal doses of total body irradiation up to 13 Gy, whether DIM dosing was initiated before or up to 24 h after radiation. Physiologic submicromolar concentrations of DIM protected cultured cells against radiation by a unique mechanism: DIM caused rapid activation of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a nuclear kinase that regulates responses to DNA damage (DDR) and oxidative stress. Subsequently, multiple ATM substrates were phosphorylated, suggesting that DIM induces an ATM-dependent DDR-like response, and DIM enhanced radiation-induced ATM signaling and NF-?B activation. DIM also caused activation of ATM in rodent tissues. Activation of ATM by DIM may be due, in part, to inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A, an upstream regulator of ATM. In contrast, DIM did not protect human breast cancer xenograft tumors against radiation under the conditions tested. In tumors, ATM was constitutively phosphorylated and was not further stimulated by radiation and/or DIM. Our findings suggest that DIM is a potent radioprotector and mitigator that functions by stimulating an ATM-driven DDR-like response and NF-?B survival signaling. PMID:24127581

  5. Recommended Radiation Protection Practices for Low-Level Waste Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hadlock, D. E.; Hooker, C. D.; Herrington, W. N.; Gilchrist, R. L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in estsblishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) dis- posal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW dis- posal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control , internal exposure control , respiratory protection, survei 1 - lance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of the occupa- tionally exposed individuals. As a result, radiation protection practices were recommended with related rationales in order to reduce occupational exposures as far below specified radiation limits as is reasonably achievable. In addition, recommendations were developed for achieving occupational exposure ALARA under the Regulatory Requirements issued in 10 CFR Part 61.

  6. Dying cells protect survivors from radiation-induced cell death in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Bilak, Amber; Uyetake, Lyle; Su, Tin Tin

    2014-03-01

    We report a phenomenon wherein induction of cell death by a variety of means in wing imaginal discs of Drosophila larvae resulted in the activation of an anti-apoptotic microRNA, bantam. Cells in the vicinity of dying cells also become harder to kill by ionizing radiation (IR)-induced apoptosis. Both ban activation and increased protection from IR required receptor tyrosine kinase Tie, which we identified in a genetic screen for modifiers of ban. tie mutants were hypersensitive to radiation, and radiation sensitivity of tie mutants was rescued by increased ban gene dosage. We propose that dying cells activate ban in surviving cells through Tie to make the latter cells harder to kill, thereby preserving tissues and ensuring organism survival. The protective effect we report differs from classical radiation bystander effect in which neighbors of irradiated cells become more prone to death. The protective effect also differs from the previously described effect of dying cells that results in proliferation of nearby cells in Drosophila larval discs. If conserved in mammals, a phenomenon in which dying cells make the rest harder to kill by IR could have implications for treatments that involve the sequential use of cytotoxic agents and radiation therapy. PMID:24675716

  7. Ground radiation tests and flight atomic oxygen tests of ITO protective coatings for Galileo Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, Frank L.; Maag, Carl R.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation simulation tests (protons and electrons) were performed along with atomic oxygen flight tests aboard the Shuttle to space qualify the surface protective coatings. The results, which contributed to the selection of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated polyester as the material for the thermal blankets of the Galileo Spacecraft, are given here. Two candidate materials, polyester and Fluorglas, were radiation-tested to determine changes at simulated Jovian radiation levels. The polyester exhibited a smaller weight loss (2.8) than the Fluorglas (8.8 percent). Other changes of polyester are given. During low-earth orbit, prior to transit to Jupiter, the thermal blankets would be exposed to atomic oxygen. Samples of uncoated and ITO-coated polyesters were flown on the Shuttle. Qualitative results are given which indicated that the ITO coating protected the underlying polyester.

  8. Intercomparison of radiation protection instrumentation in a pulsed neutron field

    E-print Network

    Caresana, M; Esposito, A; Ferrarini, M; Golnik, N; Hohmann, E; Leuschner, A; Luszik-Bhadra, M; Manessi, G; Mayer, S; Ott, K; Röhrich, J; Silari, M; Trompier, F; Volnhals, M; Wielunski, M

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the EURADOS working group 11, an intercomparison of active neutron survey meters was performed in a pulsed neutron field (PNF). The aim of the exercise was to evaluate the performances of various neutron instruments, including commercially available rem-counters, personal dosemeters and instrument prototypes. The measurements took place at the cyclotron of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH. The cyclotron is routinely used for proton therapy of ocular tumours, but an experimental area is also available. For the therapy the machine accelerates protons to 68 MeV. The interaction of the proton beam with a thick tungsten target produces a neutron field with energy up to about 60 MeV. One interesting feature of the cyclotron is that the beam can be delivered in bursts, with the possibility to modify in a simple and flexible way the burst length and the ion current. Through this possibility one can obtain radiation bursts of variable duration and intensity. All instru...

  9. Effects of ionising radiation exposure on plants, fish and mammals: relevant data for environmental radiation protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Real; S. Sundell-Bergman; J. F. Knowles; D. S. Woodhead; I. Zinger

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop a framework for the assessment of the environmental impact of radiation, it is necessary to establish the relationship between exposure (dose rate, accumulated dose) and the effects that may be induced in plants and animals. With this purpose in mind, the data available on effects induced by ionising radiation in various wildlife groups have been reviewed

  10. Protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells by treatment with antioxidant agents

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, X. Steven [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ware, Jeffrey H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Zhou, Zhaozong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Donahue, Jeremiah J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Guan, Jun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Kennedy, Ann R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)]. E-mail: akennedy@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of antioxidant agents against space radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells. Methods and Materials: The effects of selected concentrations of N-acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, co-enzyme Q10, {alpha}-lipoic acid, L-selenomethionine, and vitamin E succinate on radiation-induced oxidative stress were evaluated in MCF10 human breast epithelial cells exposed to radiation with X-rays, {gamma}-rays, protons, or high mass, high atomic number, and high energy particles using a dichlorofluorescein assay. Results: The results demonstrated that these antioxidants are effective in protecting against radiation-induced oxidative stress and complete or nearly complete protection was achieved by treating the cells with a combination of these agents before and during the radiation exposure. Conclusion: The combination of antioxidants evaluated in this study is likely be a promising countermeasure for protection against space radiation-induced adverse biologic effects.

  11. Protective effect of rare earth against oxidative stress under ultraviolet-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhou, Qing

    2009-04-01

    The effects of lanthanum (III) (La(III)) in protecting soybean leaves against oxidative stress induced by ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation were investigated. The increase in contents of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and superoxide (O2*-) due to UV-B radiation suggested oxidative stress. The increase in the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the decrease in the index of unsaturated fatty acid (IUFA) indicated oxidative damage on cell membrane induced by UV-B radiation. La(III) partially reversed UV-B-radiation-induced damage of plant growth. The reduction in the contents of H(2)O(2), O2*-, and MDA and increase in the content of IUFA, compared with UV-B treatment, also indicated that La(III) alleviated the oxidative damage induced by UV-B radiation. The increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase and the contents of ascorbate, carotenoids, and flavonoids were observed in soybean leaves with La(III) + UV-B treatment, compared with UV-B treatment. Our data suggested that La(III) could protect soybean plants from UV-B-radiation-induced oxidative stress by reacting with reactive oxygen species directly or by improving the defense system of plants. PMID:18953501

  12. PHD inhibition mitigates and protects against radiation-induced gastrointestinal toxicity via HIF2.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Cullen M; Miao, Yu Rebecca; Diep, Anh N; Wu, Colleen; Rankin, Erinn B; Atwood, Todd F; Xing, Lei; Giaccia, Amato J

    2014-05-14

    Radiation-induced gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity can be a major source of morbidity and mortality after radiation exposure. There is an unmet need for effective preventative or mitigative treatments against the potentially fatal diarrhea and water loss induced by radiation damage to the GI tract. We report that prolyl hydroxylase inhibition by genetic knockout or pharmacologic inhibition of all PHD (prolyl hydroxylase domain) isoforms by the small-molecule dimethyloxallyl glycine (DMOG) increases hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) expression, improves epithelial integrity, reduces apoptosis, and increases intestinal angiogenesis, all of which are essential for radioprotection. HIF2, but not HIF1, is both necessary and sufficient to prevent radiation-induced GI toxicity and death. Increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression contributes to the protective effects of HIF2, because inhibition of VEGF function reversed the radioprotection and radiomitigation afforded by DMOG. Additionally, mortality from abdominal or total body irradiation was reduced even when DMOG was given 24 hours after exposure. Thus, prolyl hydroxylase inhibition represents a treatment strategy to protect against and mitigate GI toxicity from both therapeutic radiation and potentially lethal radiation exposures. PMID:24828078

  13. PHD Inhibition Mitigates and Protects Against Radiation-Induced Gastrointestinal Toxicity via HIF2

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Cullen M.; Miao, Yu Rebecca; Diep, Anh N.; Wu, Colleen; Rankin, Erinn B.; Atwood, Todd F.; Xing, Lei; Giaccia, Amato J.

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity can be a major source of morbidity and mortality after radiation exposure. There is an unmet need for effective preventative or mitigative treatments against the potentially fatal diarrhea and water loss induced by radiation damage to the GI tract. We report that prolyl hydroxylase inhibition by genetic knockout or pharmacologic inhibition of all PHD isoforms by the small molecule dimethyloxyallylglycine (DMOG) increases HIF expression, improves epithelial integrity, reduces apoptosis, and increases intestinal angiogenesis, all of which are essential for radioprotection. HIF2, but not HIF1, is both necessary and sufficient to prevent radiation-induced GI toxicity and death. Increased VEGF expression contributes to the protective effects of HIF2, since inhibition of VEGF function reversed the radioprotection and radiomitigation afforded by DMOG. Additionally, mortality is reduced from abdominal or total body irradiation even when DMOG is given 24 hours after exposure. Thus, prolyl hydroxylase inhibition represents a new treatment strategy to protect against and mitigate GI toxicity from both therapeutic radiation and potentially lethal radiation exposures. PMID:24828078

  14. Radiation protection of human lymphocyte chromosomes in vitro by orientin and vicenin.

    PubMed

    Vrinda, B; Uma Devi, P

    2001-11-15

    Orientin (Ot) and Vicenin (Vc), two water-soluble flavonoids isolated from the leaves of Indian holy basil Ocimum sanctum have shown significant protection against radiation lethality and chromosomal aberrations in vivo. In the present study the protective effect of Ot and Vc against radiation induced chromosome damage in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes was determined by micronucleus test. In order to select the most effective drug concentration, fresh whole blood was exposed to 4Gy of cobalt-60 gamma-radiation with or without a 30 min pre-treatment with 6.25, 12.5, 15.0, 17.5 or 20 microM of Ot/Vc. Micronucleus (MN) assay was done by cytochalasin induced cytokinesis block method. Radiation significantly increased the MN frequency (16 times normal). Pre-treatment with either Ot or Vc at all concentrations significantly (P<0.05-0.001) reduced the MN count in a concentration dependent manner, with the optimum effect at 17.5 microM. Therefore, fresh blood samples were incubated with/without 17.5 microM Ot/Vc for 30 min and then exposed to 0.5-4Gy of gamma-radiation. Radiation increased the MN frequency linearly (r(2)=0.99) with dose. Pre-treatment with Ot or Vc significantly (P<0.01-0.001) reduced the MN counts to 51-67% of RT alone values, giving DMFs of 2.62 (Ot) and 2.48 (Vc). Both the compounds showed significant antioxidant activity in vitro at the above concentrations, which was significantly higher than that of DMSO at equimolar concentrations. Thus, the results demonstrate that both the flavonoids give significant protection to the human lymphocytes against the clastogenic effect of radiation at low, non-toxic concentrations. The radioprotection seems to be associated with their antioxidant activity. The clinical potential of these protectors in cancer therapy needs to be investigated. PMID:11673069

  15. Multi-Scale Infrastructure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (EPA) multi-scale infrastructure assessment project supports both water resource adaptation to climate change and the rehabilitation of the nation?s aging water infrastructure by providing tools, scientific data and information to progra...

  16. On the use of age-specific effective dose coefficients in radiation protection of the public

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1998-11-01

    Current radiation protection standards for the public include a limit on effective dose in any year for individuals in critical groups. This paper considers the question of how the annual dose limit should be applied in controlling routine exposures of populations consisting of individuals of all ages. The authors assume that the fundamental objective of radiation protection is limitation of lifetime risk and, therefore, that standards for controlling routine exposures of the public should provide a reasonable correspondence with lifetime risk, taking into account the age dependence of intakes and doses and the variety of radionuclides and exposure pathways of concern. Using new calculations of the per capita (population-averaged) risk of cancer mortality per unit activity inhaled or ingested in the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Federal Guidance Report No. 13, the authors show that applying a limit on annual effective dose only to adults, which was the usual practice in radiation protection of the public before the development of age-specific effective dose coefficients, provides a considerably better correspondence with lifetime risk than applying the annual dose limit to the critical group of any age.

  17. Repeated Nrf2 stimulation using sulforaphane protects fibroblasts from ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sherin T; Bergström, Petra; Hammarsten, Ola

    2014-05-01

    Most of the cytotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation is mediated by radical-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Cellular protection from free radicals can be stimulated several fold by sulforaphane-mediated activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 that regulates more than 50 genes involved in the detoxification of reactive substances and radicals. Here, we report that repeated sulforaphane treatment increases radioresistance in primary human skin fibroblasts. Cells were either treated with sulforaphane for four hours once or with four-hour treatments repeatedly for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. Fibroblasts exposed to repeated-sulforaphane treatment showed a more pronounced dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated mRNA and reduced amount of radiation-induced free radicals compared with cells treated once with sulforaphane. In addition, radiation- induced DNA double-strand breaks measured by gamma-H2AX foci were attenuated following repeated sulforaphane treatment. As a result, cellular protection from ionizing radiation measured by the 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay was increased, specifically in cells exposed to repeated sulforaphane treatment. Sulforaphane treatment was unable to protect Nrf2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, indicating that the sulforaphane-induced radioprotection was Nrf2-dependent. Moreover, radioprotection by repeated sulforaphane treatment was dose-dependent with an optimal effect at 10 uM, whereas both lower and higher concentrations resulted in lower levels of radioprotection. Our data indicate that the Nrf2 system can be trained to provide further protection from radical damage. PMID:24603300

  18. Implications of scientific and technological developments for radiation protection in the next decade

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; Stansbury, P.S.; Paretzke, H.

    1993-01-01

    There are scientific and technological developments taking place that will affect the understanding of the interaction of ionizing radiation with matter, the ability to measure the important parameters of ionizing radiation, and the ability to model radioactivity transport, both in the human body and in the environment. This paper focuses on emerging scientific and technological developments that will impact radiation protection in the next decade. Emerging scientific developments included in this paper are new methods and better analytic capabilities in epidemiology, a better understanding of the interactions between ionizing radiation and the various cellular components and more realistic models to describe the uptake, distribution, retention and excretion of radionuclides in humans. Technological developments include instruments to measure radioactivity in the humans and the environment, and better software to calculate doses from these previously measured quantities.

  19. The present status and trend of ionizing-radiation application on environment protection in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonghua, Ding; Degui, Zheng; Aoshuang, Yan; Guanghua, Niu

    2002-03-01

    Studies in a large scale on ionizing-radiation application on environment protection and pollution control have been carried out for nearly 20 years in China. Desulphurization and denitrification of flue gas by electron-beam processing in coal-fired power stations are a successful industrial example and therefore, a wider use of ionizing radiation in air pollution control can be expected in the near future. In addition to e-beam and 60Co radiation, electric discharge was also a useful means for the air pollution control. There were some satisfied data in removing water polluters but it seems that radiation is the only one component in the technique used to treat wastewater.

  20. Radiation protection in radionuclide therapies with 90 Y-conjugates: risks and safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Cremonesi; Mahila Ferrari; Giovanni Paganelli; Annalisa Rossi; Marco Chinol; Mirco Bartolomei; Gennaro Prisco; Giampiero Tosi

    2006-01-01

    Purpose  The widespread interest in 90Y internal radionuclide treatments has drawn attention to the issue of radiation protection for staff. Our aim in this study was to identify personnel at risk and to validate the protection devices used.Methods  \\u000a 90Y-MoAb (Zevalin, 15 cases, 1.1 GBq\\/patient) and 90Y-peptide (90Y-DOTATOC) systemic (i.v., 50 cases, 3.0 GBq\\/patient) and locoregional (l.r., 50 cases, 0.4 GBq\\/patient) treatments were considered. Radiolabelling

  1. Current status of the application of ionizing radiation to environmental protection: I. Ionizing radiation sources, natural and drinking water purification (A Review)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Pikaev

    2000-01-01

    Present-day applications of ionizing radiation to environmental protection are surveyed. This part of the review summarizes\\u000a new data on the ionizing radiation sources used in this area, on the radiation-chemical purification of polluted natural and\\u000a drinking water, and on the mechanisms of processes occurring in these systems under exposure to ionizing radiation. A particular\\u000a emphasis is placed on large-scale processes.

  2. Assessment of secondary radiation and radiation protection in laser-driven proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Faby, Sebastian; Wilkens, Jan J

    2015-06-01

    This work is a feasibility study of a radiation treatment unit with laser-driven protons based on a state-of-the-art energy selection system employing four dipole magnets in a compact shielded beamline. The secondary radiation emitted from the beamline and its energy selection system and the resulting effective dose to the patient are assessed. Further, it is evaluated whether or not such a compact system could be operated in a conventional treatment vault for clinical linear accelerators under the constraint of not exceeding the effective dose limit of 1 mSv per year to the general public outside the treatment room. The Monte Carlo code Geant4 is employed to simulate the secondary radiation generated while irradiating a hypothetical tumor. The secondary radiation inevitably generated inside the patient is taken into account as well, serving as a lower limit. The results show that the secondary radiation emanating from the shielded compact therapy system would pose a serious secondary dose contamination to the patient. This is due to the broad energy spectrum and in particular the angular distribution of the laser-driven protons, which make the investigated beamline together with the employed energy selection system quite inefficient. The secondary radiation also cannot be sufficiently absorbed in a conventional linear accelerator treatment vault to enable a clinical operation. A promising result, however, is the fact that the secondary radiation generated in the patient alone could be very well shielded by a regular treatment vault, allowing the application of more than 100 fractions of 2Gy per day with protons. It is thus theoretically possible to treat patients with protons in such treatment vaults. Nevertheless, the results show that there is a clear need for alternative more efficient energy selection solutions for laser-driven protons. PMID:25267383

  3. Hydrogen-rich saline protects immunocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanyong; Li, Bailong; Liu, Cong; Chuai, Yunhai; Lei, Jixiao; Gao, Fu; Cui, Jianguo; Sun, Ding; Cheng, Ying; Zhou, Chuanfeng; Cai, Jianming

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Radiation often causes depletion of immunocytes in tissues and blood, which results in immunosuppression. Molecular hydrogen (H2) has been shown in recent studies to have potential as a safe and effective radioprotective agent through scavenging free radicals. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that H2 could protect immunocytes from ionizing radiation (IR). Material/Methods H2 was dissolved in physiological saline or medium using an apparatus produced by our department. A 2-[6-(4?-hydroxy) phenoxy-3H-xanthen-3-on-9-yl] benzoate (HPF) probe was used to detect intracellular hydroxyl radicals (•OH). Cell apoptosis was evaluated by annexin V-FITC and Propidium iodide (PI) staining as well as the caspase 3 activity. Finally, we examined the hematological changes using an automatic Sysmex XE 2100 hematology analyzer. Results We demonstrated H2-rich medium pretreatment reduced •OH level in AHH-1 cells. We also showed H2 reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in thymocytes and splenocytes in living mice. Radiation-induced caspase 3 activation was also attenuated by H2 treatment. Finally, we found that H2 rescued the radiation-caused depletion of white blood cells (WBC) and platelets (PLT). Conclusions This study suggests that H2 protected the immune system and alleviated the hematological injury induced by IR. PMID:22460088

  4. [Data protection, radiation protection and copyright : Problems of transferring results in assessment practice].

    PubMed

    Klemm, H-T

    2015-06-01

    In Germany, the medical assessor is subject to the law on contracts for work and services ("Werksvertragsrecht"). When a medical expert assesses a subject on behalf of a third party, there is no contractual relationship between them. In the field of private insurance law and in social insurance law, the medical expert is faced with various procedural requirements. Failing to meet these legal requirements often makes the assessment difficult or even impossible. The transfer of radiographs to the medical assessor is dealt with in the German X-ray regulations ("Röntgenverordnung"). The assessor, who is without doubt an examining doctor, has the right to have the radiographs temporarily made available (§ 28 et al.). Passing on the radiographs is all the more appropriate if by doing so additional X-ray examinations can be avoided.The right of access to medical data in the social security law, apart from X-ray regulations, is regulated by German Civil Code (BGB) § 810 and German Basic Law section 1 paragraph 1 in connection with section 2 paragraph 1 ("§ 810 BGB; Art. 1 Abs. 1, Art. 2 Abs. 1 GG"). In the absence of third party interest worthy of protection, the right of access to assessment records has to be granted to the subject, who will then authorize the examining medical expert to exercise this right. In private insurance law, only the private health insurance has its regulation concerning obtaining information about treatment or the access to medical assessments. In other types of insurance the medical assessor's right of access to medical examination data and/or the basis for medical findings can only be derived from secondary obligations as part of the insurance contract or directly from general constitutional personal rights. PMID:25971951

  5. Protective effect of anthocyanins from lingonberry on radiation-induced damages.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zi-Luan; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Zuo, Li-Li; Tian, Shuang-Qi

    2012-12-01

    There is a growing concern about the serious harm of radioactive materials, which are widely used in energy production, scientific research, medicine, industry and other areas. In recent years, owing to the great side effects of anti-radiation drugs, research on the radiation protectants has gradually expanded from the previous chemicals to the use of natural anti-radiation drugs and functional foods. Some reports have confirmed that anthocyanins are good antioxidants, which can effectively eliminate free radicals, but studies on the immunoregulatory and anti-radiation effects of anthocyanins from lingonberry (ALB) are less reported. In this experiment, mice were given orally once daily for 14 consecutive days before exposure to 6 Gy of gamma-radiation and were sacrificed on the 7th day post-irradiation. The results showed that the selected dose of extract did not lead to acute toxicity in mice; while groups given anthocyanins orally were significantly better than radiation control group according to blood analysis; pretreatment of anthocyanins significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the thymus and spleen indices and spleen cell survival compared to the irradiation control group. Pretreatment with anthocyanins before irradiation significantly reduced the numbers of micronuclei (MN) in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs). These findings indicate that anthocyanins have immunostimulatory potential against immunosuppression induced by the radiation. PMID:23249859

  6. Fourth conference on radiation protection and dosimetry: Proceedings, program, and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Casson, W.H.; Thein, C.M.; Bogard, J.S. [eds.] [eds.

    1994-10-01

    This Conference is the fourth in a series of conferences organized by staff members of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to improve communication in the field of radiation protection and dosimetry. Scientists, regulators, managers, professionals, technologists, and vendors from the United States and countries around the world have taken advantage of this opportunity to meet with their contemporaries and peers in order to exchange information and ideas. The program includes over 100 papers in 9 sessions, plus an additional session for works in progress. Papers are presented in external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, radiation protection programs and assessments, developments in instrumentation and materials, environmental and medical applications, and on topics related to standards, accreditation, and calibration. Individual papers are indexed separately on EDB.

  7. On the potential impact of the newly proposed quality factors on space radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1987-01-01

    The recently proposed changes in the defined quality factor hold great potential for easing some of the protection requirements from electrons and protons in the near-Earth environment. At the same time, the high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) components play an even more important role which must be further evaluated. Several recommendations are made which need to be addressed before these new quality factors can be implemented into space radiation potection practice.

  8. Melanin-Covered Nanoparticles for Protection of Bone Marrow During Radiation Therapy of Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, Andrew D. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Howard Hughes Medical Institute-Medical Fellows Program, Chevy Chase, MD (United States); The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Revskaya, Ekaterina; Chu, Peter [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Pazo, Valeria [Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Friedman, Matthew [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Nosanchuk, Joshua D. [Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Cahill, Sean [Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Frases, Susana [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Casadevall, Arturo [Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Dadachova, Ekaterina, E-mail: edadacho@aecom.yu.ed [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: Protection of bone marrow against radiotoxicity during radioimmunotherapy and in some cases external beam radiation therapy such as hemi-body irradiation would permit administration of significantly higher doses to tumors, resulting in increased efficacy and safety of treatment. Melanin, a naturally occurring pigment, possesses radioprotective properties. We hypothesized that melanin, which is insoluble, could be delivered to the bone marrow by intravenously administrated melanin-covered nanoparticles (MNs) because of the human body's 'self-sieving' ability, protecting it against ionizing radiation. Methods and Materials: The synthesis of MNs was performed via enzymatic polymerization of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and/or 5-S-cysteinyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine on the surface of 20-nm plain silica nanoparticles. The biodistribution of radiolabeled MNs in mice was done at 3 and 24 h. Healthy CD-1 mice (Charles River Laboratories International, Inc., Wilmington, MA) or melanoma tumor-bearing nude mice were given MNs intravenously, 50 mg/kg of body weight, 3 h before either whole-body exposure to 125 cGy or treatment with 1 mCi of {sup 188}Re-labeled 6D2 melanin-binding antibody. Results: Polymerization of melanin precursors on the surface of silica nanoparticles resulted in formation of a 15-nm-thick melanin layer as confirmed by light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence. The biodistribution after intravenous administration showed than MN uptake in bone marrow was 0.3% and 0.2% of injected dose per gram at 3 and 24 h, respectively, whereas pre-injection with pluronic acid increased the uptake to 6% and 3% of injected dose per gram, respectively. Systemic MN administration reduced hematologic toxicity in mice treated with external radiation or radioimmunotherapy, whereas no tumor protection by MNs was observed. Conclusions: MNs or similar structures provide a novel approach to protection of bone marrow from ionizing radiation based on prevention of free radical formation by melanin.

  9. SCCIR: Smart Cities Critical Infrastructure Response Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Attwood; Madjid Merabti; Paul Fergus; Omar Abuelmaatti

    2011-01-01

    Critical infrastructures play important roles in ensuring the wellbeing of the populace. Protecting critical infrastructures and ensuring their continued operation will be an important part of future Smart City ecosystems. Minimising the destruction of failing critical infrastructure components or system components that are geographically close critical services is essential. Equally important are the system of systems relationships that a failing

  10. Protective effects of WR-2721 against radiation-induced injury of murine gut, testis, lung, and lung tumor nodules

    SciTech Connect

    Milas, L.; Hunter, N.; Reid, B.O.

    1982-03-01

    WR-2721 (S-3-(3 aminopropylamino) ethylphosphorothioic acid) has been investigated for its ability to protect gut, lung, and testis, as well as fibrosarcoma (FSa) tumor nodules, in the lungs of mice from gamma-radiation injury. This compound greatly protected jejunum and testis epithelial cells. FSa micrometastases in the lung were protected in a lesser extent than jejunum and testis. Conversely, WR-2721 was not able to protect the lung against radiation-induced enhancement of tumor metastases formation generated by intravenously injected FSa cells.

  11. Radiation protection systems for the final focus test beam at SLAC.

    PubMed

    Rokni, S H; Benson, E C; Burke, D L; Jenkins, T M; Liu, J C; Nelson, G; Nelson, W R; Smith, H E; Tenenbaum, P; Vylet, V; Walz, D R

    1996-11-01

    The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a new beam line at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center designed to test new beam optics concepts, hardware, and techniques necessary to achieve and measure the small spot sizes required for future generations of high-energy e+e- linear colliders. The FFTB takes a 47 GeVc-1, 1 kW electron beam at the end of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center linear accelerator and transports it to the FFTB beam dump. A radiation protection system was designed and installed for the FFTB with the primary goal that the integrated dose equivalent outside the shielding resulting from beam loss would not exceed 10 mSv y-1. This system is comprised of shielding, a beam containment system and a personnel protection system. This paper presents various aspects of radiation safety at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center that were considered in the design of the FFTB radiation protection system. Beam tests were conducted in which the performance of various beam containment devices and the shielding effectiveness were evaluated. Preliminary results from these tests are presented. PMID:8887529

  12. Protective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester against acute radiation-induced hepatic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Chu, JianJun; Zhang, Xiaojun; Jin, Liugen; Chen, Junliang; Du, Bin; Pang, Qingfeng

    2015-03-01

    Caffeic acid phenyl ester (CAPE) is a potent anti-inflammatory agent and it can eliminate the free radicals. The current study was intended to evaluate the protective effect of CAPE against the acute radiation-induced liver damage in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally administered with CAPE (30 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days before exposing them to a single dose of 30 Gy of ?-ray irradiation to upper abdomen. We found that pretreatment with CAPE significantly decreased the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione. Histological evaluation further confirmed the protection of CAPE against radiation-induced hepatotoxicity. TUNEL assay showed that CAPE pretreatment inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis. Moreover, CAPE inhibited the nuclear transport of NF-?B p65 subunit, decreased the level of tumor necrosis factor-?, nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Taken together, these results suggest that pretreatment with CAPE offers protection against radiation-induced hepatic injury. PMID:25704035

  13. Protection of normal tissue against late radiation injury by WR-2721. [/sup 60/Co; rats

    SciTech Connect

    Utley, J.F. (Univ. of California, San Diego); Quinn, C.A.; White, F.C.; Seaver, N.A.; Bloor, C.M.

    1981-02-01

    The ability of WR-2721 to protect against late radiation damage has been studied in skin, muscle, and vascular tissues of rats. Animals treated with and without WR-2721 received irradiation to the left hind limb; representative groups were killed at intervals ranging from 72 h to 6 months. Comparison of all drug-treated and non-drug-treated animals showed significant protection (P = less than or equal to 0.05). The time pattern of injury in non-drug-treated rats was biphasic, with significant damage occurring at 72 h and 1 week, returning to normal between 1 and 3 months, but showing significant late damage at 6 months (P = less than or equal to 0.001). Again, this injury pattern did not appear in WR-2721-treated rats. Thus the ability of WR-2721 to protect against acute and chronic radiation injury in vessels, skin, and muscle indicates that an increased therapeutic gain can be expected when this drug is used in clinical radiation therapy.

  14. Coenzyme Q10 protects retinal cells from apoptosis induced by radiation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lulli, Matteo; Witort, Ewa; Papucci, Laura; Torre, Eugenio; Schiavone, Nicola; Dal Monte, Massimo; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2012-09-01

    The key pathogenetic event of many retinopathies is apoptosis of retinal cells. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) prevents apoptosis of corneal keratocytes both in vitro and in vivo, by virtue of its ability to inhibit mitochondrial depolarization, independently of its free radical scavenger role. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether CoQ10 can protect cultured retinal cells and the retinas of rats from radiation-induced apoptosis, if instilled as eye drops in the cornea. In vitro experiments were carried out on cultured ARPE-19 or RGC-5 cells pretreated with CoQ10 before eliciting apoptosis by UV- and ?-radiation, chemical hypoxia (Antimycin A) and serum starvation. Cell viability was evaluated by light microscopy and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis. Apoptotic events were scored by time-lapse videomicroscopy. Mitochondrial permeability transition was evaluated by JC-1. The anti-apoptotic effectiveness of CoQ10 in retina was also evaluated by an in situ end-labeling assay in Wistar albino rats treated with CoQ10 eye drops prior to UV irradiation of the eye. CoQ10 substantially increased cell viability and lowered retinal cell apoptosis in response both to UV- and ?-radiation and to chemical hypoxia or serum starvation by inhibiting mitochondrion depolarization. In the rat, CoQ10, even when applied as eye drops on the cornea, protected all retina layers from UVR-induced apoptosis. The ability of CoQ10 to protect retinal cells from radiation-induced apoptosis following its instillation on the cornea suggests the possibility for CoQ10 eye drops to become a future therapeutic countermeasure for radiation-induced retinal lesions. PMID:22843363

  15. A Monte Carlo model of an industrial gauge for radiation protection purposes.

    PubMed

    McGurk, R; Turner, J; Deloar, H M; Packer, K

    2008-03-01

    The Mahlo Gravimat densitometers/gauges located at the Feltex carpet factory in Christchurch, New Zealand, contain the radionuclide strontium-90 (Sr-90). Accurate dose/dose rate estimation is always an important concern from a radiation protection point of view. The EGSnrc/BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code was used to create a model of one gauge to determination of the radiation dose distributions and dose rates in air from the Sr-90 source within the gauge. The model was then modified to include a Perspex shield on the surface of the gauge as a possible method of lowering the radiation levels. With this addition, the model predicted an overall reduction in dose rates of 30%. Although no experimental benchmarking was able to be performed due to simplifications in the model and the lack of reliable experimental data, we believe that Monte Carlo methods could be a valuable addition in the design process of any devices, industrial or otherwise, that contain or use radioactive materials. Furthermore, such methods may aide or guide any investigations undertaken as part of radiation protection surveys. PMID:18488963

  16. Fluence-based and microdosimetric event-based methods for radiation protection in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Stanley B.; Meinhold, C. B. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recently published a report (Report #137) that discusses various aspects of the concepts used in radiation protection and the difficulties in measuring the radiation environment in spacecraft for the estimation of radiation risk to space travelers. Two novel dosimetric methodologies, fluence-based and microdosimetric event-based methods, are discussed and evaluated, along with the more conventional quality factor/LET method. It was concluded that for the present, any reason to switch to a new methodology is not compelling. It is suggested that because of certain drawbacks in the presently-used conventional method, these alternative methodologies should be kept in mind. As new data become available and dosimetric techniques become more refined, the question should be revisited and that in the future, significant improvement might be realized. In addition, such concepts as equivalent dose and organ dose equivalent are discussed and various problems regarding the measurement/estimation of these quantities are presented.

  17. The Protective Effect of Curcumin on Ionizing Radiation-induced Cataractogenesis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Özgen, Seher Çimen; Dökmeci, Dikmen; Akpolat, Meryem; Karada?, Çetin Hakan; Gündüz, Özgür; Erba?, Hakan; Benian, Ömer; Uzal, Cem; Turan, Fatma Nesrin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the protective effect of curcumin against ionizing radiation-induced cataract in the lens of rats. Material and Methods: Rats were divided into six groups. Group 1: Control, Group 2: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), Group 3: DMSO+curcumin, Group 4: Irradiation, Group 5: Irradiation+DMSO, Group 6: Irradiation+DMSO+curcumin. A 15 Gy total dose was given to 4, 5, 6 groups for radiation damage. Curcumin (100 mg/kg) was dissolved in DMSO and given by intragastric intubation for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, lenses were graded and enucleated. The lenticular activity of the antioxidant enzymes, total antioxidant and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. Results: 100% Cataract was seen in the irradiation group. Cataract rate fell to 40% and was limited at grade 1 and 2 in the curcumin group. In the irradiation group, antioxidant enzyme levels were decreased, MDA levels were increased. There was an increase in antioxidant enzyme levels and a significant decrease in MDA in the group which was given curcumin. Conclusion: Curcumin has antioxidant and radioprotective properties and is likely to be a valuable agent for protection against ionizing radiation. Hence, it may be used as an antioxidant and radioprotector against radiation-induced cataractogenesis. PMID:25207034

  18. Inactivation of Kupffer Cells by Gadolinium Chloride Protects Murine Liver From Radiation-Induced Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Du Shisuo; Qiang Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zeng Zhaochong, E-mail: zeng.zhaochong@zs-hospital.sh.c [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ke Aiwu; Ji Yuan [Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhang Zhengyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zeng Haiying [Department of Pathology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Liu Zhongshan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To determine whether the inhibition of Kupffer cells before radiotherapy (RT) would protect hepatocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis. Materials and Methods: A single 30-Gy fraction was administered to the upper abdomen of Sprague-Dawley rats. The Kupffer cell inhibitor gadolinium chloride (GdCl3; 10 mg/kg body weight) was intravenously injected 24 h before RT. The rats were divided into four groups: group 1, sham RT plus saline (control group); group 2, sham RT plus GdCl3; group 3, RT plus saline; and group 4, RT plus GdCl3. Liver tissue was collected for measurement of apoptotic cytokine expression and evaluation of radiation-induced liver toxicity by analysis of liver enzyme activities, hepatocyte micronucleus formation, apoptosis, and histologic staining. Results: The expression of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was significantly attenuated in group 4 compared with group 3 at 2, 6, 24, and 48 h after injection (p <0.05). At early points after RT, the rats in group 4 exhibited significantly lower levels of liver enzyme activity, apoptotic response, and hepatocyte micronucleus formation compared with those in group 3. Conclusion: Selective inactivation of Kupffer cells with GdCl3 reduced radiation-induced cytokine production and protected the liver against acute radiation-induced damage.

  19. WIPP TRANSURANIC WASTE INVENTORY 2009 EPA WIPP RECERTIFICATION FACT SHEET United States Environmental Protection Agency | Office of Air and Radiation (6608J) | June 2009

    E-print Network

    that the waste meets the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria. Does the current WIPP waste inventory contain high Environmental Protection Agency | Office of Air and Radiation (6608J) | June 2009 http://www.epa.gov/radiation Environmental Protection Agency | Office of Air and Radiation (6608J) | June 2009 http://www.epa.gov/radiation/wipp/index.html

  20. Protection effects of condensed bromoacenaphthylene on radiation deterioration of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Y.; Hagiwara, M.; Kasai, N.

    1982-09-01

    As a continuation of a series of the studies on the flame and ..gamma..-radiation resistant modification of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM), condensed bromoacenaphthylene (con-BACN) as a newly developed flame retardant was synthesized and its effects on the radiation resistance of EPDM were investigated. The radiation resistance evaluated by measuring tensile properties of irradiated sheets of 2 mm thick was found improved greatly by adding con-BACN together with ordinary rubber ingredients but decreased by decabromodiphenylether (DBDPE) that has bromins in aromatic rings as con-BACN. When EPDM sheets of 1 mm thick were irradiated in oxygen at a dose rate of 1 X 10/sup 5/ rad/h, the weight swelling ratio increased with increasing dose, indicating that oxidative main chain scission is predominant under the irradiation conditions. On the other hand, crosslinking was shown to be predominant in nitrogen. From the results of the swelling experiments with different additives, it was concluded that DBDPE accelerates both the main chain scission in oxygen and the crosslinking in nitrogen. In contrast to this, con-BACN reduced the chain scission in oxygen. This observation was accounted by the assumption that the influence of the oxidative chain scission is partly compensated by the concurrent crosslinking which takes place through additions of con-BACN to substrate polymers even in the presence of oxygen.

  1. National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Berscheid, Alan P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-30

    National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) mission is to: (1) Improve the understanding, preparation, and mitigation of the consequences of infrastructure disruption; (2) Provide a common, comprehensive view of U.S. infrastructure and its response to disruptions - Scale & resolution appropriate to the issues and All threats; and (3) Built an operations-tested DHS capability to respond quickly to urgent infrastructure protection issues.

  2. Radiation engineering analysis of shielding materials to assess their ability to protect astronauts in deep space from energetic particle radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleterry, R. C.

    2013-10-01

    An analysis is performed on four typical materials (aluminum, liquid hydrogen, polyethylene, and water) to assess their impact on the length of time an astronaut can stay in deep space and not exceed a design basis radiation exposure of 150 mSv. A large number of heavy lift launches of pure shielding mass are needed to enable long duration, deep space missions to keep astronauts at or below the exposure value with shielding provided by the vehicle. Therefore, vehicle mass using the assumptions in the paper cannot be the sole shielding mechanism for long duration, deep space missions. As an example, to enable the Mars Design Reference Mission 5.0 with a 400 day transit to and from Mars, not including the 500 day stay on the surface, a minimum of 24 heavy lift launches of polyethylene at 89,375 lbm (40.54 tonnes) each are needed for the 1977 galactic cosmic ray environment. With the assumptions used in this paper, a single heavy lift launch of water or polyethylene can protect astronauts for a 130 day mission before exceeding the exposure value. Liquid hydrogen can only protect the astronauts for 160 days. Even a single launch of pure shielding material cannot protect an astronaut in deep space for more than 180 days using the assumptions adopted in the analysis. It is shown that liquid hydrogen is not the best shielding material for the same mass as polyethylene for missions that last longer than 225 days.

  3. Comparison of operator radiation exposure with optimized radiation protection devices during coronary angiograms and ad hoc percutaneous coronary interventions by radial and femoral routes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camille Brasselet; Thierry Blanpain; Sophie Tassan-Mangina; Alain Deschildre; Sebastien Duval; Fabien Vitry; Nathalie Gaillot-Petit; Jean Paul Clement; Damien Metz

    During 420 consecutive coronary angiograms (CAs) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs), four interven- tional cardiologists were blindly screened. Radiation exposures were assessed using electronic personal dosimeters. Protection of operator was ensured using a lead apron, low leaded flaps, and leaded glass. Radiation exposure of operators was significantly higher using the radial route when compared with the femoral route for both

  4. United States Environmental Protection Agency | Office of Air and Radiation (6608J) | EPA 402-F-06-009 | March 2006 www.epa.gov/radiation/wipp

    E-print Network

    are emplaced at WIPP. Does the Current WIPP Waste Inventory Contain High-Level Waste (HLW)? AccordingUnited States Environmental Protection Agency | Office of Air and Radiation (6608J) | EPA 402-F-06-009 | March 2006 www.epa.gov/radiation/wipp How has the WIPP TRU Waste Inventory Changed Since the 1998

  5. Russian-Norwegian Cooperation In Regulation of the Public Radiation Protection in the Northwest Russia - 12440

    SciTech Connect

    Shandala, Nataliya; Seregin, Vladimir; Titov, Alexey; Kryuchkov, Viktor; Chizhov, Konstantin [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sneve, Malgorzata [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    In 1960's, the large technical bases of the Northern Fleet were arranged on the Kola Peninsula. These bases were involved in support of nuclear submarines performing acceptance and storage of radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Since 1985, the waste acceptance has been stopped and the technical bases changed their functions to serve as sites of temporary storage (STS). According to the RF Government Directive of 09 February 2000 No 220-r, the STS were put under Rosatom responsibility in order to conduct operations dealing with the SNF and RW management being accumulated during the naval activity and originated from dismantlement of nuclear submarines and surface ships equipped with nuclear powered installations, as well as to carry out environmental remediation of radiation hazardous facilities in this region. The international collaborative assistance is very important to increase effectiveness of such works. This paper includes the findings of cooperation between the Federal Medical Biological Agency (FMBA) and Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) in radiation protection of the public in the course of the STS remediation. Since 2004, the following works has been carried out in this direction: - radiation threat assessment and identification of the priority directions of radiation and hygienic studies; - radiation situation inspections on-site and within the coastal offshore waters at different stage of remediation; - development of the documents including the criteria for the STS remediation and guidelines for radiation monitoring to control the mentioned criteria compliance; - development of the radio-ecological geo-information system. The developed criteria consider four basic options of the STS remediation - renovation, conversion, conservation and liquidation. The main (dose) and derived remediation levels have been determined for each option. The resulted from monitoring radiation parameters - including contents of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 60}Co in samples of soil, vegetation, seawater, seaweeds, bottom sediments, invertebrates and vertebrates, gamma dose rate values - are integrated in the database, which is the component of the geo-information system. The developed regulative and methodical documents and the geo-information system have been introduced in Regional Management-120 under FMBA of Russia, which is responsible for the radiation safety supervision, Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology-120 under FMBA of Russia, which carries out regulatory radiation control, and in the operating organization involved in the STS remediation and responsible for radiation protection of workers and public. The works completed have permitted to solve the majority of problems in enhancement of radiation and hygienic supervision of SevRAO operation. However, some relevant questions in this area need additional efforts. In particular, in the course of specification of the design solutions, obtaining additional data on the radiation situation parameters and clarification of the prognostic assessments, the necessity will certainly arise to amend the regulatory documents taking the adopted design solutions into account. We are on the way to real results. Much has been done for the first time, and although it is difficult to foresee all future problems and challenges, our knowledge, experience and close cooperation permit to assess the prospects confidently. (authors)

  6. Prospects for new information relevant to radiation protection from studies of experimental animals

    SciTech Connect

    McClellan, R.O.

    1988-08-01

    The theory underlying radiation protection was developed from studies of people, laboratory animals, tissues, cells and macromolecules. Data on people were obtained from opportunistic studies of individuals previously exposed to radiation. Rarely has it been possible to conduct prospective studies of people exposed to known quantities of radiation, which sharply restricts the nature of questions that they can address. In contrast, studies using laboratory animals and simpler biological systems can be designed to address specific questions, using controlled exposure conditions. In-vitro research with macromolecules, cells and tissues leads to understanding normal and disease processes in isolated biological components. Studies of the intact animals provide opportunities to study in vivo interactive mechanisms observed in vitro and their role in development of radiation-induced diseases such as cancer. In the future, studies of intact animals should prove increasingly valuable in linking new knowledge at the subanimal level with the more fragmentary information obtained from direct observations on people. This will provide insight into important issues such as (a) effects of low-level radiation exposures, (b) mechanism of cancer induction at high versus low radiation doses, and (c) influence of factors such as nutrition and exposure to chemicals on radiation-induced cancer. This presentation describes strategies for conducting and integrating results of research using macromolecules, cells, tissues, laboratory animals and people to improve our understanding of radiation-induced cancer. It will also emphasize the problems encountered in studies at all levels of biological organization when the disease is observed in low excess incidence long after exposure to the toxicant.

  7. Protective effects of l-glutamine on the bladder wall of rats submitted to pelvic radiation.

    PubMed

    Barcellos, Leilane M; Costa, Waldemar S; Medeiros, Jorge L; Rocha, Beatriz R; Sampaio, Francisco J B; Cardoso, Luiz E M

    2013-04-01

    Radiotherapy is often used to treat prostate tumors, but the normal bladder is usually adversely affected. Using an animal model of pelvic radiation, we investigated whether glutamine nutritional supplementation can prevent radiation-induced damage to the bladder, especially in its more superficial layers. Male rats aged 3-4 months were divided into groups of 8 animals each: controls, which consisted intact animals; radiated-only rats, which were sacrificed 7 (R7) or 15 (R15) days after a radiation session (10Gy aimed at the pelvico-abdominal region); and radiated rats receiving l-glutamine supplementation (0.65g/kg body weight/day), which were sacrificed 7 (RG7) or 15 (RG15) days after the radiation session. Cells and blood vessels in the vesical lamina propria, as well as the urothelium, were then measured using histological methods. The effects of radiation were evaluated by comparing controls vs. either R7 or R15, while a protective effect of glutamine was assessed by comparing R7 vs. RG7 and R15 vs. RG15. The results showed that, in R7, epithelial thickness, epithelial cell density, and cell density in the lamina propria were not significantly affected. However, density of blood vessels in R7 was reduced by 48% (p<0.05) and this alteration was mostly prevented by glutamine (p<0.02). In R15, density of blood vessels in the lamina propria was not significantly modified. However, epithelial thickness was reduced by 25% (p<0.05) in R15, and this effect was prevented by glutamine (p<0.01). In R15, epithelial cell density was increased by 35% (p<0.02), but glutamine did not protect against this radiation-induced increase. Cell density in the lamina propria was likewise unaffected in R15. Density of mast cells in the lamina propria was markedly reduced in R7 and R15. The density was still reduced in RG7, but a higher density in RG15 suggested a glutamine-mediated recovery. Alpha-actin positive cells in the lamina propria formed a suburothelial layer and were identified as myofibroblasts. Thickness of this layer was increased in R7, but was similar to controls in RG7, while changes in R15 and RG15 were less evident. In conclusion, pelvic radiation leads to significant acute and post-acute alterations in the composition and structural features of the vesical lamina propria and epithelium. Most of these changes, however, can be prevented by glutamine nutritional supplementation. These results emphasize, therefore, the potential use of this aminoacid as a radioprotective drug. PMID:23465886

  8. Envisioning a 21st Century, National, Spacecraft Servicing and Protection Infrastructure and Demand Potential: A Logical Development of the Earth Orbit Economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horsham, Gary A.

    2003-01-01

    The modern world is extremely dependent on thin strings of several hundred civil, military, and commercial spacecraft/satellites currently stationed in space. They provide a steady stream of commerce, defense, and knowledge data. This dependency will in all likelihood increase significantly during this century. A major disruption of any kind in these essential systems and networks could be socially, economically, and politically catastrophic, on a global scale. The development of a space-based, robotic services economy could be useful in mitigating this growing risk, from an efficiency and security standpoint. This paper attempts to suggest what makes sense to invest in next for the logical, economic development of Earth orbit i.e., after ISS completion. It expands on the results of an advanced market research and analysis study that sampled the opinions of several satellite industry executives and presents these results within a broad policy context. The concept of a spacecraft carrier that serves as the nucleus of a national, space-based or on-orbit, robotic services infrastructure is introduced as the next logical step for United States leadership in space. This is viewed as a reasonable and appropriate followon to the development of ELVs and satellites in the 1950s and 1960s, the Space Shuttle/PRLV in the 1970s and 1980s, and the International Space Station (ISS) in the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s. Large-scale experience in LEO-to-GEO spacecraft/satellite servicing and protection by robotic means is assumed to be an indispensable prerequisite or stepping-stone toward the development and preservation of the large scientific exploration facilities that are envisioned by NASA for operation beyond GEO. A balanced, return on national investment (RONI) strategy for space, focused on the provision of enhanced national/homeland security for increased protection, national economic/industrial expansion for increased revenue, and national scientific exploration for increased knowledge is recommended as the next strong, irrepressible goal toward realizing and achieving the official NASA vision and mission.

  9. The argument for a unified approach to non-ionizing radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Perala, R.A.; Rigden, G.J. (Electro Magnetic Applications, Inc., Lakewood, CO (United States)); Pfeffer, R.A. (Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency, Springfield, VA (United States))

    1993-12-01

    In the next decade military equipment will be required to operate in severe electromagnetic environments. These environments are expected to contain most non-ionizing frequencies (D.C. to GHz), from hostile and/or non-hostile sources, and be severe enough to cause temporary upset or even catastrophic failure of electronic equipment. Over the past thirty years considerable emphasis has been placed on hardening critical systems to one or more of these non-ionizing radiation environments, the most prevalent being the nuclear-induced electromagnetic pulse (EMD). From this technology development there has evolved a hardening philosophy that applies to most of these non-ionizing radiation environments. The philosophy, which stresses the application of zonal shields plus penetration protection, can provide low-cost hardening against such diverse non-ionizing radiation as p-static, lightning, electromagnetic interference (EMI), EMP, high intensity radiated fields (HIRF), electromagnetic radiation (EMR), and high power microwaves (HPM). The objective in this paper is to describe the application of this philosophy to Army helicopters. The authors develop a unified specification complete with threat definitions and test methods which illustrates integration of EMP, lightning, and HIRF at the box qualification level. This paper is a summary of the effort documented in a cited reference.

  10. Protective effect of tanshinone IIA against radiation-induced ototoxicity in HEI-OC1 cells.

    PubMed

    DU, Shasha; Yao, Qiwei; Tan, Peixin; Xie, Guozhu; Ren, Chen; Sun, Quanquan; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Rong; Yang, Kaijun; Yuan, Yawei; Yuan, Quan

    2013-10-01

    Radiotherapy is a highly efficient treatment method for nasopharyngeal carcinoma that is often accompanied by significant ototoxic side-effects. The inner ear hair cells are particularly prone to serious injury following radiotherapy. Tanshinone IIA is a transcription factor inhibitor that is extracted from the traditional herbal medicine, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The present study investigated the effects of tanshinone IIA treatment on radiation-induced toxicity in the HEI-OC1 hair cell line. Using an MTT assay and flow cytometry, the radiation-induced weakening of the cells was observed to be alleviated when the cells were pre-treated with tanshinone IIA. Radiation exposure promoted p65/nuclear factor (NF)-?B nuclear translocation and activated the p53/p21 pathway, two processes which play a significant role in radiation-induced cell apoptosis. However, pre-treatment of the cells with tanshinone IIA inhibited p65/NF-?B nuclear translocation and p53/p21 pathway activation. These results demonstrate that tanshinone IIA is capable of protecting cochlear cells from radiation-induced injury through the suppression of p65/NF-?B nuclear translocation and the p53/p21 signaling pathway. PMID:24137434

  11. Rhubarb extract has a protective role against radiation-induced brain injury and neuronal cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kui; Zhang, Cheng; Wu, Wenjun; Zhou, Min; Tang, Yamei; Peng, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Oxidative stress caused by ionizing radiation is involved in neuronal damage in a number of disorders, including trauma, stroke, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ionizing radiation can lead to the formation of free radicals, which cause neuronal apoptosis and have important roles in the development of some types of chronic brain disease. The present study evaluated the effects of varying concentrations (2, 5 and 10 µg/ml) of ethanolic rhubarb extract on the neuronal damage caused by irradiation in primary neuronal cultures obtained from the cortices of rat embryos aged 20 days. Brain damage was induced with a single dose of ??irradiation that induced DNA fragmentation, increased lactate dehydrogenase release in neuronal cells and acted as a trigger for microglial cell proliferation. Treatment with rhubarb extract significantly decreased radiation?induced lactate dehydrogenase release and DNA fragmentation, which are important in the process of cell apoptosis. The rhubarb extract exhibited dose?dependent inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase release and neuronal cell apoptosis that were induced by the administration of ionizing radiation. The effect of a 10 µg/ml dose of rhubarb extract on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by radiation was also investigated. This dose led to significant inhibition of ROS generation. In conclusion, the present study showed a protective role of rhubarb extract against irradiation?induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and ROS generation. PMID:25936269

  12. This work was supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Climate Protection Partnerships Division, Office of Air and Radiation, under U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

    E-print Network

    Agency, Climate Protection Partnerships Division, Office of Air and Radiation, under U.S. DepartmentThis work was supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Climate Protection Partnerships Division, Office of Air and Radiation, under U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH

  13. Peroxiredoxin IV Protects Cells From Radiation-Induced Apoptosis in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung Je Park; Hyo Won Chang; Eun-Jeong Jeong; Jong-Lyel Roh; Seung-Ho Choi; Sea-Yuong Jeon; Gyung Hyuck Ko; Sang Yoon Kim

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Human peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are known as a family of thiol-specific antioxidant enzymes, among which Prx-I and -II play an important role in protecting cells from irradiation-induced cell death. It is not known whether Prx-IV also protects cells from ionizing radiation (IR). Methods and Materials: To evaluate the protective role of Prx-IV in IR, we transfected full-length Prx-IV cDNA into

  14. Social infrastructure

    E-print Network

    Kurlbaum, Ryan E. (Ryan Edward)

    2013-01-01

    Current urbanization patterns and aging transportation infrastructures have marginalized millions of US citizens. The result is that 4 .5 million US residents live within 100 meters of a four-lane highway' and have become ...

  15. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Island Resettlement Support (May-December 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T; Hickman, D; Conrado, C; Brown, T; Brunk, J; Marchetti, A; Cox, C; Martinelli, R; Kehl, S; Johannes, K; Henry, D; Bell, R T; Petersen, G

    2002-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former US test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. Using pooled resources of the US Department of Energy and local atoll governments, individual radiation protection programs have been developed in whole-body counting and plutonium urinalysis to assess potential intakes of radionuclides from residual fallout contamination. The whole-body counting systems are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians. Samples of urine are collected from resettlement workers and island residents under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using advanced accelerator based measurement technologies. This web site provides an overview of the methodologies, a full disclosure of the measurement data, and a yearly assessment of estimated radiation doses to resettlement workers and island residents.

  16. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Rongelap Island Resettlement Support (1998-2001)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T; Hickman, D; Conrado, C; Brown, T; Brunk, J; Marchetti, A; Cox, C; Martinelli, R; Kehl, S; Arelong, E; Langinbelik, S; Bell, R T; Petersen, G

    2002-05-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. Using pooled resources of the U.S. Department of Energy and local atoll governments, individual radiation protection programs have been developed in whole-body counting and plutonium urinalysis to assess potential intakes of radionuclides from residual fallout contamination. The whole-body counting systems are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians. Samples of urine are collected from resettlement workers and island residents under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LNLL) using advanced accelerator based measurement technologies. This web site provides an overview of the methodologies, a full disclosure of the measurement data, and a yearly assessment of estimated radiation doses to resettlement workers and island residents.

  17. PROTECTING URBAN FOREST INFRASTRUCTURE DURING

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    .5%) of vegetative cover between 1984 ­ 2002 #12;4/6/2011 6 Canopy Cover Benefits Carbon storage and capture our trees store $24.9 million worth of carbon (1.3 million tons) (UFORE, 1998) our trees capture $779,000 worth of carbon annually (42,300 tons) (UFORE, 1998) NYC's urban forest provides carbon emission

  18. Environmental Cues to Ultraviolet Radiation and Personal Sun Protection In Outdoor Winter Recreation

    PubMed Central

    Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Scott, Michael D.; Maloy, Julie A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of ultraviolet radiation (UV) at North American ski resorts was predicted using temporal, seasonal, altitudinal, and meteorological factors and associated with a set of adult sun protection behaviors. Design UV observations and cross-sectional survey of adults on sun protection were collected. Setting Data were collected at 32 high-altitude ski areas located in Western North America in 2001–03. Participants The sample consisted of 3,937 adult skier or snowboarders. Main Outcome Measures Measurements of direct, reflected, and diffuse UV were performed at 487 measurement points using handheld meters and combined with self-reported and observed sun protection assessed for adults interviewed on chair lifts. Results The strongest predictors of UV were temporal proximity to noon, deviation from winter solstice, and clear skies. By contrast, altitude and latitude had more modest associations with UV and temperature had a small positive relationship with UV. Guest sun safety was inconsistently associated with UV: UV was positively related to adults wearing more sunscreen, reapplying it after two hours, and wearing protective eyewear but fewer adults exhibited many of the other sun protection behaviors, such as hats, protective clothing or lip balm, on days when UV was elevated. Guests took more sun safety precautions on clear-sky days but took steps to maintain body warmth on inclement days. Conclusions In future sun safety promotions, adults should be encouraged to wear sunscreen on cloudy days because UV is still high and conditions can change rapidly. They need reminders to rely more on season and time of day when judging UV and the need for sun safety. PMID:21079060

  19. The decision making criteria on radiation protection of population in the cases of an accidental plutonium dispersion into environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Savkin; A. V. Titov

    Intervention criteria for radiation protection of general public in the case of accidental plutonium release have been elaborated on the basis of experimental radiobiological studies of affects of incorporated plutonium and of long duration medical observation for nuclear workers in Russia and the requirements of the national Radiation Safety Standards. Generic and operational levels for decision-making are given for early

  20. Advances in nuclear particle dosimetry for radiation protection and medicine - Ninth Symposium on Neutron Dosimetry (Editorial Material, English)

    SciTech Connect

    Zoetelief, J; Bos, A J.; Schuhmacher, H; McDonald, Joseph C.; Schultz, F W.; Pihet, P

    2004-12-15

    The Ninth Symposium on Neutron Dosimetry has been expanded to cover not only neutron radiation but heavy charged particle dosimetry as well. The applications are found in such fields as radiation protection, aircrew dosimetry, medicine, nuclear power and accelerator health physics. Scientists from many countries from around the world presented their work, and described the latest developments in techniques and instrumentation.

  1. Reconciling scientists' beliefs about radiation risks and social norms: explaining preferred radiation protection standards.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carol L; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C; Barke, Richard P

    2007-06-01

    Social scientists have argued about the role of political beliefs in highly charged policy debates among scientific experts. In debates about environmental hazards, the focus of contention is likely to rest on the appropriate scientific assumptions to inform safety standards. When scientific communities are polarized, one would expect to find systematic differences among combatants in the choice of appropriate assumptions, and variation in the application of "precaution" in standard setting. We test this proposition using an experiment applied in a mail survey format to groups of scientists from opposing sides of the nuclear policy debate. Questions were asked about the role of political, social, and epistemological beliefs in reaching scientific and policy judgments about the relationship between radiation dose and cancer incidence in human populations. We find that the precautionary tendency is pervasive regardless of whether the scientist is associated with a putatively pro- or anti-nuclear group. Using a multinomial logit model, we explain a modest percentage of the variation in the choice of preferred judgments about safety standards, but find that distinct sets of political and social values are significantly associated with policy positions among scientists. Implications for scientific advice to policymakers are discussed. PMID:17640221

  2. Radiation protection performance for the dismantling of the WWR-M primary cooling circuit.

    PubMed

    Lobach, Yu N; Luferenko, E D; Shevel, V N

    2014-12-01

    The WWR-M is a light-water-cooled and moderated heterogonous research reactor with a thermal output of 10 MW. The reactor has been in operation for >50 y and has had an excellent safety record. A non-hermeticity of the inlet line of the primary cooling circuit (PCC) was found, and the only reasonable technical solution was the complete replacement of the PCC inlet and outlet pipe lines. Such a replacement was a challenging technical task due to the necessity to handle large size components with complex geometries under conditions of high-level radiation fields, and therefore, it required detailed planning aiming to reduce staff exposure. This paper describes the dismantling and removal of the PCC components focusing on radiation protection issues. PMID:24277873

  3. Oxidative stress due to radiation in CD34+ Hematopoietic progenitor cells: protection by IGF-1

    PubMed Central

    Floratou, Konstantina; Giannopoulou, Efstathia; Antonacopoulou, Anna; Karakantza, Marina; Adonakis, George; Kardamakis, Dimitrios; Matsouka, Panagiota

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exerts direct as well as indirect effects on DNA through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) experience DNA strand breaks, favoring genetic instability, due to ROS generation. Our aim was to study the effect of a range of radiation doses in HPCs and the possible protective mechanisms activated by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). ROS generation was evaluated, in the presence or absence of IGF-1 in liquid cultures of human HPCs-CD34+ irradiated with 1-, 2- and 5-Gy X-rays, using a flow cytometry assay. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) expression was studied by western blot analysis and visualized by an immunofluorescence assay. Apoptosis was estimated using the following assays: Annexin-V assay, DNA degradation assay, BCL-2/BAX mRNA and protein levels and caspase-9 protein immunofluorescence visualization. Viability and clonogenic potential were studied in irradiated HPCs. The generation of superoxide anion radicals at an early and a late time point was increased, while the hydrogen peroxide generation at a late time point was stable. IGF-1 presence further enhanced the radiation-induced increase of MnSOD at 24 h post irradiation. IGF-1 inhibited the mitochondria-mediated pathway of apoptosis by regulating the m-RNA and protein expression of BAX, BCL-2 and the BCL-2/BAX ratio and by decreasing caspase-9 protein expression. IGF-1 presence in culture media of irradiated cells restored the clonogenic capacity and the viability of HPCs as well. In conclusion, IGF-1 protects HPCs-CD34+ from radiation effects, by eliminating the oxidative microenvironment through the enhancement of MnSOD activation and by regulating the mitochondria-mediated pathway of apoptosis. PMID:22843358

  4. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Protects Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Against Ionizing Radiation in an Autocrine Manner

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yu-Jen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chin-Ping; Hsu, Ming-Ling; Shieh, Hui-Ru; Chao, Nicholas K. [Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chao, K.S. Clifford, E-mail: ksc2119@columbia.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is critical to embryogenesis and resistance to chemotherapy. We aimed to examine the role of Shh signaling in the response to radiation of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Methods and Materials: Response to ionizing radiation therapy (RT) was evaluated by clonogenic assay. Quantitative RT-polymerase chain reaction for patched-1 (PTCH-1) expression was performed. Cytosolic accumulation of Shh and nuclear translocation of Gli-1 were assessed by immunofluorescence. Gli-1 knockdown was done by RNA interference (RNAi). Immunoprecipitation was performed to detect Shh ligand in conditioned medium. Immunofluorescent stain for {gamma}-H2AX was used as an index of DNA double strand breaks (DSB). Expression of proteins related to DNA damage repair was assessed by Western blotting. Results: We found that Shh ligand could protect human HCC HA22T and Sk-Hep1 cells against RT. In HA22T cells, Shh ligand activated the Shh signaling with upregulation of Shh, PTCH-1, and Gli-1 expression. The nuclear translocation of Gli-1 further supports the activation of Gli-1. The radioprotection by Shh ligand was partly blocked by Shh antibody neutralization and was abolished by Gli-1 RNAi, suggesting a critical role of Shh signaling in radiation resistance. Furthermore, we noted that soluble factors secreted into conditioned medium, either constitutively or responding to radiation, by HA22T or Sk-Hep1 cells protected subsequent culturing cells against RT. Immunoprecipitation shows the presence of Shh peptide in conditioned medium. Intriguingly, antibody neutralization of Shh ligand or knockdown of Gli-1 reversed the radioprotective effect of conditioned medium. Furthermore, Shh ligand reduced the RT-induced phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase 1 and impaired the repair of DNA DSB. Conclusions: Activation of Shh signaling protects HCC cells against ionizing radiation in an autocrine manner. Impairment of DNA damage repair might involve mechanism of Shh-induced radioresistance. Targeting Shh signaling pathway may be a novel strategy to enhance the radioresponse of human HCC cells.

  5. Cancer risk above 1 Gy and the impact for space radiation protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Uwe; Walsh, Linda

    2009-07-01

    Analyses of the epidemiological data on the Japanese A-bomb survivors, who were exposed to ?-rays and neutrons, provide most current information on the dose-response of radiation-induced cancer. Since the dose span of main interest is usually between 0 and 1 Gy, for radiation protection purposes, the analysis of the A-bomb survivors is often focused on this range. However, estimates of cancer risk for doses larger than 1 Gy are becoming more important for long-term manned space missions. Therefore in this work, emphasis is placed on doses larger than 1 Gy with respect to radiation-induced solid cancer and leukemia mortality. The present analysis of the A-bomb survivors data was extended by including two extra high-dose categories and applying organ-averaged dose instead of the colon-weighted dose. In addition, since there are some recent indications for a high neutron dose contribution, the data were fitted separately for three different values for the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the neutrons (10, 35 and 100) and a variable RBE as a function of dose. The data were fitted using a linear and a linear-exponential dose-response relationship using a dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) of both one and two. The work presented here implies that the use of organ-averaged dose, a dose-dependent neutron RBE and the bending-over of the dose-response relationship for radiation-induced cancer could result in a reduction of radiation risk by around 50% above 1 Gy. This could impact radiation risk estimates for space crews on long-term mission above 500 days who might be exposed to doses above 1 Gy. The consequence of using a DDREF of one instead of two increases cancer risk by about 40% and would therefore balance the risk decrease described above.

  6. Protective effect of esculentoside A on radiation-induced dermatitis and fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Zhenyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Su Ying [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Yang Shanmin [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Yin Liangjie [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Wang Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Yi Yanghua [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Fenton, Bruce M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Zhang Lurong [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Okunieff, Paul [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States)]. E-mail: paul_okunieff@urmc.rochester.edu

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of esculentoside A (EsA) on radiation-induced cutaneous and fibrovascular toxicity and its possible molecular mechanisms, both in vivo and in vitro. Methods and Materials: Mice received drug intervention 18 hours before 30 Gy to the right hind leg. Alterations in several cytokines expressed in skin tissue 2 days after irradiation were determined by ELISA. Early skin toxicity was evaluated 3 to 4 weeks after irradiation by skin scoring, and both tissue contraction and expression of TGF-{beta}1 were determined for soft-tissue fibrosis 3 months after irradiation. In vitro, the effect of EsA on radiation-induced nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine production in different cell types was measured by application of 2, 4, and 8 Gy. Results: In vivo, EsA reduced levels of IL-1{alpha}, MCP-1, VEGF, and TGF-{beta}1 in cutaneous tissue and reduced soft-tissue toxicity. In vitro, EsA inhibited the IL-1{alpha} ordinarily produced after 4 Gy in A431 cells. In Raw264.7 cells, EsA reduced levels of IL-1{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, and NO production costimulated by radiation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In L-929 cells, EsA inhibited VEGF, TNF, and MCP-1 production at 2, 4, and 8 Gy. Conclusions: Esculentoside A protects soft tissues against radiation toxicity through inhibiting the production of several proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators in epithelial cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, and skin tissue.

  7. [Studies on chemical protectors against radiation. XXXI. Protection effects of Aloe arborescens on skin injury induced by X-irradiation].

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Ohta, S; Shinoda, M

    1990-11-01

    Protective effects of Aloe arborescens (AA) on mouse skin injury induced by soft X-irradiation were examined. The mechanisms on radiation protection by measuring scavenge activity of activated oxygen, protective effects of nucleic acid, induction of antioxidative protein and so on were further investigated. Consequently a significant protective effect of skin injury was observed in AA S6-3-b. As the mechanisms of radiation protection in AA, the following matters were found. AA S6-3-b showed scavenge activity of hydroxyl radicals generated by Haber-Weiss reaction. AA S6-3-b suppressed the changes of activity in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase at 7d after soft X-irradiation. Metallothionein was induced in the skin and liver against normal mice at 24 h after administration of AA S6-3-b. PMID:2082014

  8. ealth physics is concerned with protecting people from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation while allowing its beneficial use in medicine, science,

    E-print Network

    Massey, Thomas N.

    H ealth physics is concerned with protecting people from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation and radioactivity 100 years ago, radiation protection standards and the philosophy governing those standards have while allowing its beneficial use in medicine, science, and industry. Since the discovery of radiation

  9. Radar commentary: Use of linear no-threshold hypothesis in radiation protection regulation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jeffry A; Stabin, Michael G

    2012-01-01

    Radiation protection recommendations advanced by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, and many times adopted into regulations by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, need to be based on scientifically justified assumptions and conclusions. The linear no-threshold model assigns risk to every radiation exposure above zero dose and is the current basis for setting radiation protection standards worldwide. This hypothesis is vigorously challenged by many individuals but just as vigorously defended in spite of the uncertainties surrounding health effects at low dose levels. It is clear that at radiation doses below 100 mSv, the effects, if any, are so low as to be unobservable and perhaps, therefore, unknowable. However, the linear no-threshold hypothesis is used routinely to formulate regulatory dose limits for workers and the general public and to derive stochastic radiogenic risk estimates at low doses. This note will show that while the linear no-threshold hypothesis may play a legitimate role in setting radiation protection standards and operating policies, such as establishing dose limits or as part of an operational "as low as is reasonably achievable" (ALARA) policy, it is inappropriate for use in estimating possible cancer risks associated with low-level radiation exposures. It will also demonstrate that the raising, not lowering, of current regulatory dose limits is more solidly supported by the actual observed data on radiation dose and effects. The authors submit that the misuse of the linear no-threshold model for predicting radiation effects in exposed individuals and populations should be discontinued. PMID:22134084

  10. Collective dose as a performance measure for occupational radiation protection programs: Issues and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, D.J.; Harty, R.; Hickey, E.E.; Martin, J.B.; Peffers, M.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kathren, R.L. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Collective dose is one of the performance measures used at many US Department of Energy (DOE) contractor facilities to quantitatively assess the objectives of the radiation protection program. It can also be used as a management tool to improve the program for keeping worker doses as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Collective dose is used here to mean the sum of all total effective dose equivalent values for all workers in a specified group over a specified time. It is often used as a surrogate estimate of radiological risk. In principle, improvements in radiation protection programs and procedures will result in reduction of collective dose, all other things being equal. Within the DOE, most frequently, a single collective dose number, which may or may not be adjusted for workload and other factors, is used as a performance measure for a contractor. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the use of collective dose as a performance measure for ALARA programs at DOE sites.

  11. Protective effects of silybin and analogues against X-ray radiation-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Fu, Haiying; Lin, Mingzhang; Katsumura, Yosuke; Yokoya, Akinari; Hata, Kuniki; Muroya, Yusa; Fujii, Kentaro; Shikazono, Naoya

    2010-07-01

    Silybin (SLB) and similar analogues, namely, hesperetin (HESP), naringenin (NAN) and naringin (NAR), are believed to be active constituents of natural flavonoids that have been reported as chemopreventive agents for certain cancers. Moreover, SLB and analogues have been determined to fast repair DNA bases from oxidative damage by pulse radiolysis techniques. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of SLB and analogues on soft X-ray-induced damage to plasmid DNA in vitro. The DNA damage was determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. SLB and analogues were found to protect DNA from radiation damage at micromolar concentrations. Among the compounds tested, HESP and SLB were the most effective in preventing X-ray-induced formation of DNA single-strand breaks (SSB). A comparison of these results with other experiments showed that the ability of SLB and analogues to inhibit DNA damage in vitro correlated with the ability of the compounds to scavenge free radicals. Our work revealed that natural flavonoids, SLB and analogues may be used as potent radioprotectors against radiation damage. PMID:20705588

  12. Small-molecule inhibitor of p53 binding to mitochondria protects mice from gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Strom, Evguenia; Sathe, Swati; Komarov, Pavel G; Chernova, Olga B; Pavlovska, Ivanda; Shyshynova, Inna; Bosykh, Dmitry A; Burdelya, Lyudmila G; Macklis, Roger M; Skaliter, Rami; Komarova, Elena A; Gudkov, Andrei V

    2006-09-01

    p53-dependent apoptosis contributes to the side effects of cancer treatment, and genetic or pharmacological inhibition of p53 function can increase normal tissue resistance to genotoxic stress. It has recently been shown that p53 can induce apoptosis through a mechanism that does not depend on transactivation but instead involves translocation of p53 to mitochondria. To determine the impact of this p53 activity on normal tissue radiosensitivity, we isolated a small molecule named pifithrin-mu (PFTmu, 1) that inhibits p53 binding to mitochondria by reducing its affinity to antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 but has no effect on p53-dependent transactivation. PFTmu has a high specificity for p53 and does not protect cells from apoptosis induced by overexpression of proapoptotic protein Bax or by treatment with dexamethasone (2). PFTmu rescues primary mouse thymocytes from p53-mediated apoptosis caused by radiation and protects mice from doses of radiation that cause lethal hematopoietic syndrome. These results indicate that selective inhibition of the mitochondrial branch of the p53 pathway is sufficient for radioprotection in vivo. PMID:16862141

  13. Niacin protects against UVB radiation-induced apoptosis in cultured human skin keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    LIN, FUQUAN; XU, WEN; GUAN, CUIPING; ZHOU, MIAONI; HONG, WEISONG; FU, LIFANG; LIU, DONGYIN; XU, AIE

    2012-01-01

    Niacin and its related derivatives have been shown to have effects on cellular activities. However, the molecular mechanism of its reduced immunosuppressive effects and photoprotective effects remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the photoprotective effect of niacin in ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). We found that niacin effectively suppressed the UV-induced cell death and cell apoptosis of HaCaT cells. Existing data have shown that AKT activation is involved in the cell survival process. Yet, the potential mechanism of niacin in protection against UV-induced skin damage has thus far not fully been eluvidated. We observed that niacin pretreatment enhances UV induced activation of AKT (Ser473 phosphorylation) as well as that of the downstream signal mTOR (S6 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation). The PI3K/AKT inhibitor, LY294002, and the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, largely neutralized the protective effects of niacin, suggesting that AKT and downstream signaling mTOR/S6 activation are necessary for the niacin-induced protective effects against UV-induced cell death and cell apoptosis. Collectively, our data suggest that niacin may be utilized to prevent UV-induced skin damage and provide a novel mechanism of its photoprotective effects against the UV radiation of sunlight by modulating both AKT and downstream mTOR signaling pathways. PMID:22246168

  14. Radiation Pretreatment Does Not Protect the Rat Optic Nerve From Elevated Intraocular Pressure–Induced Injury

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Elaine C.; Cepurna, William O.; Choi, Dongseok; Choe, Tiffany E.; Morrison, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Optic nerve injury has been found to be dramatically reduced in a genetic mouse glaucoma model following exposure to sublethal, head-only irradiation. In this study, the same radiation treatment was used prior to experimental induction of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) to determine if radiation is neuroprotective in another glaucoma model. Methods. Episcleral vein injection of hypertonic saline was used to elevate IOP unilaterally in two groups of rats: (1) otherwise untreated and (2) radiation pretreated, n > 25/group. Intraocular pressure histories were collected for 5 weeks, when optic nerves were prepared and graded for injury. Statistical analyses were used to compare IOP history and nerve injury. The density of microglia and macrophages in two nerve head regions was determined by Iba1 immunolabeling. Results. Mean and peak IOP elevations were not different between the two glaucoma model groups. Mean optic nerve injury grades were not different in glaucoma model optic nerves and were equivalent to approximately 35% of axons degenerating. Nerves selected for lower mean or peak IOP elevations did not differ in optic nerve injury. Similarly, nerves selected for lower injury grade did not differ in IOP exposure. By multiple regression modeling, nerve injury grade was most significantly associated with mean IOP (P < 0.002). There was no significant effect of radiation treatment. Iba1+ cell density was not altered by radiation treatment. Conclusions. In contrast to previous observations in a mouse genetic glaucoma model, head-only irradiation offers the adult rat optic nerve no protection from optic nerve degeneration due to chronic, experimentally induced IOP elevation. PMID:25525172

  15. Reference levels in the context of Fukushima - lessons learned and a challenge for the radiation protection system.

    PubMed

    Sakai, K

    2012-01-01

    A number of dose criteria were set after the accident in Fukushima, including a criterion regarding the use of school playgrounds in Fukushima. Considering the band of 1-20 mSv/year recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for public exposure under existing exposure situations, Japanese authorities set 20 mSv/year as a 'start line' for reducing the dose to school children. However, this led to considerable confusion among the general public and some experts. They thought that the dose limit was increased to 20 mSv/year (20 times as high as before), and that school children could be exposed to 20 mSv in 1 year. This is just an example of confusion caused by inadequate comprehension of radiation effects, misunderstanding of radiation protection concepts, or both. Another issue was raised regarding the higher radiosensitivity of children compared with adults. In the 2007 ICRP Recommendations, a higher risk coefficient is given to the whole population than the adult population, because the whole population includes children; a subpopulation with higher radiosensitivity and a longer life span. The point of argument was whether a lower reference level should be set for children alone. Radiation protection experts should continue to collect scientific information to improve the radiation protection system. In addition, it is the role of these experts to explain the framework of radiation protection to the general public in plain language. PMID:23089027

  16. Bragg Curve, Biological Bragg Curve and Biological Issues in Space Radiation Protection with Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honglu, Wu; Cucinotta, F.A.; Durante, M.; Lin, Z.; Rusek, A.

    2006-01-01

    The space environment consists of a varying field of radiation particles including high-energy ions, with spacecraft shielding material providing the major protection to astronauts from harmful exposure. Unlike low-LET gamma or X-rays, the presence of shielding does not always reduce the radiation risks for energetic charged particle exposure. Since the dose delivered by the charged particle increases sharply as the particle approaches the end of its range, a position known as the Bragg peak, the Bragg curve does not necessarily represent the biological damage along the particle traversal since biological effects are influenced by the track structure of both primary and secondary particles. Therefore, the biological Bragg curve is dependent on the energy and the type of the primary particle, and may vary for different biological endpoints. To achieve a Bragg curve distribution, we exposed cells to energetic heavy ions with the beam geometry parallel to a monolayer of fibroblasts. Qualitative analyses of gamma-H2AX fluorescence, a known marker of DSBs, indicated increased clustering of DNA damage before the Bragg peak, enhanced homogenous distribution at the peak, and provided visual evidence of high linear energy transfer (LET) particle traversal of cells beyond the Bragg peak. A quantitative biological response curve generated for micronuclei (MN) induction across the Bragg curve did not reveal an increased yield of MN at the location of the Bragg peak. However, the ratio of mono-to bi-nucleated cells, which indicates inhibition in cell progression, increased at the Bragg peak location. These results, along with other biological concerns, show that space radiation protection with shielding can be a complicated issue.

  17. Infrastructure Net

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, provided by Scranton Gillette Communications, contains information on various types of infrastructures. It contains searchable archives of selected articles from four of SGC's publications (Roads & Bridges, Water & Waste Digest, Water Engineering & Management, and Water Quality Products). In addition, a supplier and product directory (unfortunately not searchable) are available.

  18. Preliminary analyses of space radiation protection for lunar base surface systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealy, John E.; Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation shielding analyses are performed for candidate lunar base habitation modules. The study primarily addresses potential hazards due to contributions from the galactic cosmic rays. The NASA Langley Research Center's high energy nucleon and heavy ion transport codes are used to compute propagation of radiation through conventional and regolith shield materials. Computed values of linear energy transfer are converted to biological dose-equivalent using quality factors established by the International Commision of Radiological Protection. Special fluxes of heavy charged particles and corresponding dosimetric quantities are computed for a series of thicknesses in various shield media and are used as an input data base for algorithms pertaining to specific shielded geometries. Dosimetric results are presented as isodose contour maps of shielded configuration interiors. The dose predictions indicate that shielding requirements are substantial, and an abbreviated uncertainty analysis shows that better definition of the space radiation environment as well as improvement in nuclear interaction cross-section data can greatly increase the accuracy of shield requirement predictions.

  19. Some aspects on radiation protection in conventional and digital radiology in Romania.

    PubMed

    Milu, Constantin; Dumitrescu, Alina

    2008-01-01

    Since 1965, medical radiation exposure in the population of Romania has been evaluated by the Network of Radiation Hygiene Laboratories of the Ministry of Public Health, including 23 laboratories throughout the whole country; the network is co-ordinated by the Institute of Public Health Bucharest. In Romania, for a population of 22.5 million inhabitants, 465 X-ray examinations were reported during the last survey, the most frequent being chest examination. There was no specific reference to digital radiology. Digital radiology has been introduced only recently in Romania, and only some rough data on the situation can be presented. Siemens AG is now present in Romania with 23 installations, type SIEREGRAPH CF and AXIOM ICONOS. A digital image intensifier technique is used only for fluoroscopy, and radiography is performed using a conventional film/screen combination. The company Philips has nine installations for angiography, model INTEGRIS, and uses a computed radiography technique. Several direct digital radiography MULTISYSTEM SWISSRAY installations (about 40 units) are also available for adult and paediatric examinations. The Council Directive 97/43/EURATOM on health protection of individuals against dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure was fully transformed into Romanian legislation in 2002. PMID:18381334

  20. A universal radiation protection system based on individual standardised integrated doses.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, M

    2015-06-01

    A 'Universal Radiation Protection System' (URPS) is proposed in this paper with a novel philosophy, concept and methodology. It applies a 'Standardised Integrated Dose System' (SIDS) based on health risk limits for workers and public, no matter where they live in the world. The URPS assigns equal radiation health risk limit to an individual by integrating doses from national natural background (NBG) radiation and from man-made sources. For public, the SIDS integrates doses from planned exposure situations within a dose limit (e.g. 1 mSv y(-1)) on top of the mean national NBG dose in a country. For workers, the SIDS integrates within a dose limit (e.g. 20 mSv y(-1)) of occupational dose and doses from mean national NBG and from planned exposure situations as a member of public within the public dose limit. A panorama overview and the rationale in support of the URPS are presented and discussed with a hope to ignite further thoughts and ideas towards establishing the URPS for universal use. PMID:25994846

  1. Protection by polaprezinc against radiation-induced apoptosis in rat jejunal crypt cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuu-Matsuyama, Mutsumi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Okaichi, Kumio; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Nakashima, Masahiro; Uemura, Takashi; Niino, Daisuke; Sekine, Ichiro

    2008-07-01

    Polaprezinc, an anti-ulcer drug, is a chelate compound consisting of zinc and L-carnosine. Polaprezinc has been shown to prevent gastric mucosal injury. The anti ulcer effects of polaprezinc have been ascribed to its antioxidative property. The effect of polaprezinc on ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis was studied in the jejunal epithelial crypt cells of rats. Seven-to eight week-old Wistar rats, which were treated with 100 mg/kg of polaprezinc orally 1h before irradiation or 2% carboxymethyl cellulose sodium in controls, were exposed to whole body X-ray irradiation at 2 Gy. The number of apoptotic cells per jejunum crypt was counted in haematoxylin and eosin stained sections at 0-6 h after irradiation. TUNEL positive cells and immunopositive cells for active caspase-3 per crypt were also counted. Accumulation of p53, p21(WAF1/CIP1) and Bax expression in the jejunum after irradiation were examined by Western blot analyses. Polaprezinc treatment given prior to radiation resulted in a significant reduction in numbers of apoptotic cells, TUNEL positive cells and active caspase-3 immunopositive cells in jejunal crypt cells. Polaprezinc treatment resulted in decreases of p53 accumulation, p21(WAF1/CIP1) and Bax expression after irradiation. Polaprezinc has a protective effect against ionizing radiation induced apoptosis in rat jejunal crypt cells. PMID:18413982

  2. A basic fibroblast growth factor analog for protection and mitigation against acute radiation syndromes.

    PubMed

    Casey-Sawicki, Kate; Zhang, Mei; Kim, Sunghee; Zhang, Amy; Zhang, Steven B; Zhang, Zhenhuan; Singh, Ravi; Yang, Shanmin; Swarts, Steven; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan; Zhang, Lurong; Zhang, Aiguo; Okunieff, Paul

    2014-06-01

    The effects of fibroblast growth factors and their potential as broad-spectrum agents to treat and mitigate radiation injury have been studied extensively over the past two decades. This report shows that a peptide mimetic of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-P) protects and mitigates against acute radiation syndromes. FGF-P attenuates both sepsis and bleeding in a radiation-induced bone marrow syndrome model and reduces the severity of gastrointestinal and cutaneous syndromes; it should also mitigate combined injuries. FGF-2 and FGF-P induce little or no deleterious inflammation or vascular leakage, which distinguishes them from most other growth factors, angiogenic factors, and cytokines. Although recombinant FGFs have proven safe in several ongoing clinical trials, they are expensive to synthesize, can only be produced in limited quantity, and have limited shelf life. FGF-P mimics the advantageous features of FGF-2 without these disadvantages. This paper shows that FGF-P not only has the potential to be a potent yet safe broad-spectrum medical countermeasure that mitigates acute radiotoxicity but also holds promise for thermal burns, ischemic wound healing, tissue engineering, and stem-cell regeneration. PMID:24776903

  3. Gene-modified mesenchymal stem cells protect against radiation-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianxin; Li, Xin; Lu, You; Gan, Lu; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Yongsheng; Lan, Jie; Liu, Shurui; Sun, Lan; Jia, Li; Mo, Xianming; Li, Jian

    2013-02-01

    Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) presents a common and major obstacle in the radiotherapy of thoracic cancers. The aim of this study was to examine whether RILI could be alleviated by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressing soluble transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) type II receptor via an adenovirus (Ad-sT?R). Here, we systemically administered male MSCs into female mice challenged with thoracic irradiation. The data showed that either MSCs or Ad-sT?R transduced MSCs (Ad-sT?R-MSCs) specifically migrated into radiation-injured lung. Ad-sT?R-MSCs obviously alleviated lung injury, as reflected by survival and histopathology data, as well as the assays of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroxyproline, plasma cytokines, and the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA). Furthermore, MSCs and Ad-sT?R-MSCs could adopt the characteristics of alveolar type II (ATII) cells. However, the MSCs levels in the lungs were relatively low to account for the noted therapeutic effects, suggesting the presence of other mechanisms. In vivo, MSCs-conditioned medium (MSCs CM) significantly attenuated RILI. In vitro, MSCs CM protected ATII cells against radiation-induced apoptosis and DNA damage, and modulated the inflammatory response, indicating the beneficial effects of MSCs are largely due to its paracrine activity. Our results provide a novel insight for RILI therapy that currently lack efficient treatments. PMID:23299797

  4. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) protects skin cells from ionizing radiation via heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei; Xu, Jing; Ge, Yangyang; Cao, Han; Ge, Xin; Luo, Judong; Xue, Jiao; Yang, Hongying; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenolic constituent of green tea, is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger that may have therapeutic applications for the treatment of many disorders. Radiation therapy is widely used for the treatment of various types of cancers; however, radiation-induced skin injury remains a serious concern. EGCG has not yet been reported as protecting skin cells against ionizing radiation. In the present study, we investigated whether EGCG confers cytoprotection against ionizing radiation. We found that, compared with the control, pretreatment with EGCG significantly enhanced the viability of human skin cells that were irradiated with X-rays, and decreased apoptosis induced by X-ray irradiation. Mito-Tracker assay showed that EGCG suppressed the damage to mitochondria induced by ionizing radiation via upregulation of SOD2. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HaCaT cells were significantly reduced when pretreated with EGCG before irradiation. Radiation-induced ?H2AX foci, which are representative of DNA double-strand breaks, were decreased by pretreatment with EGCG. Furthermore, EGCG induced the expression of the cytoprotective molecule heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in a dose-dependent manner via transcriptional activation. HO-1 knockdown or treatment with the HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPPIX) reversed the protective role of EGCG, indicating an important role for HO-1. These results suggest that EGCG offers a new strategy for protecting skin against ionizing radiation. PMID:24968709

  5. Proposed Amendments to the Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, L. [U.S. Public Health Service, Team Leader for the Yucca Mountain Standards, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (6608J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. 20460-0001 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed amendments to its radiation protection standards for the potential spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste disposal system in Yucca Mountain, Nevada on 22 August 2005. The original standards are found in Part 197 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 197). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 directed, and gave the authority to, EPA to take this action based upon input from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). The final original standards were published in the Federal Register (66 FR 32073) on 13 June 2001. In July 2004, a Federal court remanded part of the standards to EPA for reconsideration. The 40 CFR Part 197 standards, as issued in 2001, have four major parts: (1) individual-protection during storage activities; (2) individual-protection following closure of the repository; (3) human-intrusion; and (4) ground-water protection. The storage standard is 150 micro-sieverts ({mu}Sv) (15 mrem) annual committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) to any member of the general public. The disposal standards are: (1) 150 {mu}Sv (15 mrem) annual CEDE for the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) for 10,000 years after disposal; (2)150 {mu}Sv (15 mrem) annual CEDE received by the RMEI within 10,000 years after disposal as a result of human intrusion; and (3) the levels of radionuclides in the ground water cannot cause annual individual doses to exceed: (1) 40 {mu}Sv (4 mrem) per year from beta and gamma emitters or (2) 5 pico-curies per liter (pCi/L) of radium-226 and -228 or 15 pCi/L of gross alpha activity. There were also requirements related to the post-10,000-year period, the basis of compliance judgments, and performance assessments. The Agency's proposed amendments would retain the individual-protection standard established in the 2001 standards, up to 10,000 years. In addition, the compliance period for the individual-protection and human-intrusion standards would be increased to 1 million years and the annual CEDE limit between 10,000 and 1 million years would be 3.5 mSv (350 mrem). There are also proposed requirements for the way performance assessments will be conducted. Finally, the dose calculation methodology would be updated to an ICRP 60 and 72 basis instead of ICRP 26 and 30. The comment period on the proposed amendments ended 21 November 2005. The Agency is analyzing the comments and will publish its responses when issuing the final standards. The proposed standards and the support documents are available at http://www.epa.gov/radiation/yucca/index.html. The docket containing all of the comments is under Docket ID EPA-HQ-OAR-2005-0083 at: http://www.regulations.gov. (author)

  6. Nrf2 Activation Protects against Solar-Simulated Ultraviolet Radiation in Mice and Humans.

    PubMed

    Knatko, Elena V; Ibbotson, Sally H; Zhang, Ying; Higgins, Maureen; Fahey, Jed W; Talalay, Paul; Dawe, Robert S; Ferguson, James; Huang, Jeffrey T-J; Clarke, Rosemary; Zheng, Suqing; Saito, Akira; Kalra, Sukirti; Benedict, Andrea L; Honda, Tadashi; Proby, Charlotte M; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T

    2015-06-01

    The transcription factor Nrf2 determines the ability to adapt and survive under conditions of electrophilic, oxidative, and inflammatory stress by regulating the expression of elaborate networks comprising nearly 500 genes encoding proteins with versatile cytoprotective functions. In mice, disruption of Nrf2 increases susceptibility to carcinogens and accelerates disease pathogenesis. Paradoxically, Nrf2 is upregulated in established human tumors, but whether this upregulation drives carcinogenesis is not known. Here we show that the incidence, multiplicity, and burden of solar-simulated UV radiation-mediated cutaneous tumors that form in SKH-1 hairless mice in which Nrf2 is genetically constitutively activated are lower than those that arise in their wild-type counterparts. Pharmacologic Nrf2 activation by topical biweekly applications of small (40 nmol) quantities of the potent bis(cyano enone) inducer TBE-31 has a similar protective effect against solar-simulated UV radiation in animals receiving long-term treatment with the immunosuppressive agent azathioprine. Genetic or pharmacologic Nrf2 activation lowers the expression of the pro-inflammatory factors IL6 and IL1?, and COX2 after acute exposure of mice to UV radiation. In healthy human subjects, topical applications of extracts delivering the Nrf2 activator sulforaphane reduced the degree of solar-simulated UV radiation-induced skin erythema, a quantifiable surrogate endpoint for cutaneous damage and skin cancer risk. Collectively, these data show that Nrf2 is not a driver for tumorigenesis even upon exposure to a very potent and complete carcinogen and strongly suggest that the frequent activation of Nrf2 in established human tumors is a marker of metabolic adaptation. Cancer Prev Res; 8(6); 475-86. ©2015 AACR. PMID:25804610

  7. [Search problems of human radiation protection in the world of genetics of aging].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the urgency for protection from negative effects of radiation in the range of low and medium dose where classic radioprotectors are ineffective is increased. In this respect it seems promising to study the molecular pathways that increase, on the one hand, the stability of the genome against radiation damage (inducers of carcinogenesis), and, on the other hand, elevate the radiation sensitivity of cell populations in order to eliminate potentially carcinogenic cells. This approach requires modification of cascade mechanisms of signal transduction to apoptosis and responses to DNA damage. Research plan is similar to the Genetics of Aging, where a number of hypotheses about the mechanism of aging have been proposed, including a decrease in the stability of the genome to external influences. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference "The genetics of aging and longevity" (Moscow, April 2012) demonstrated, however, that patterns of aging mechanisms identified in model animals (nematodes, drosophila and mice) are far from the possibility of their practical application. Discovered genes that may be responsible for life expectancy (stress-inducible protein and other components of the signal transduction cascade, as well as suppressors and inducers) rarely find significance in the study of the genomes of centenarian cohorts. This may be due to the difficulty in transferring molecular genetic patterns from model objects to large mammals, including humans, with respect to systems of signal transduction. This point must be taken into account during the search for a new generation of radioprotective agents that promote anti-carcinogenic potential of human cells exposed to radiation at low and moderate doses. It may be necessary to search for such tools in large laboratory animals and in human tissue cultures obtained through genetic engineering or cloning. PMID:25507767

  8. [Search problems of human radiation protection in the world of genetics of aging].

    PubMed

    Koterov, A N

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the urgency for protection from negative effects of radiation in the range of low and medium dose where classic radioprotectors are ineffective is increased. In this respect it seems promising to study the molecular pathways that increase, on the one hand, the stability of the genome against radiation damage (inducers of carcinogenesis), and, on the other hand, elevate the radiation sensitivity of cell populations in order to eliminate potentially carcinogenic cells. This approach requires modification of cascade mechanisms of signal transduction to apoptosis and responses to DNA damage. Research plan is similar to the Genetics of Aging, where a number of hypotheses about the mechanism of aging have been proposed, including a decrease in the stability of the genome to external influences. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference "The genetics of aging and longevity" (Moscow, April 2012) demonstrated, however, that patterns of aging mechanisms identified in model animals (nematodes, drosophila and mice) are far from the possibility of their practical application. Discovered genes that may be responsible for life expectancy (stress-inducible protein and other components of the signal transduction cascade, as well as suppressors and inducers) rarely find significance in the study of the genomes of centenarian cohorts. This may be due to the difficulty in transferring molecular genetic patterns from model objects to large mammals, including humans, with respect to systems of signal transduction. This point must be taken into account during the search for a new generation of radioprotective agents that promote anti-carcinogenic potential of human cells exposed to radiation at low and moderate doses. It may be necessary to search for such tools in large laboratory animals and in human tissue cultures obtained through genetic engineering or cloning. PMID:25434169

  9. Protection of Photosensitized Rats against Long Ultraviolet Radiation by Topical Application of Compounds with Structures Similar to That of Dihydroxyacetone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth A. Follett; John A. Johnson; Ramon M. Fusard

    1987-01-01

    Dihydroxyacetone (DHA), a browning agent, protects photosensitive rats and humans against long ultraviolet radiation (UVA, 320–400 nm) and visible (blue) light. The photoprotective efficacy of DHA and structurally similar compounds was assessed as prevention of edema in the paws of psoralen-sensitized rats, after exposure to blacklight fluorescent lamps. Methylglyoxal produced a yellow-brown color and provided nearly the same protection as

  10. Epoxy-borax-coal tar composition for a radiation protective, burn resistant drum liner and centrifugal casting method

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, N.W.; Taylor, R.S.

    1980-10-28

    A boron containing burn resistant, low level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25-50%, coal tar in the range of 25-37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  11. IL-12 protects bone marrow from and sensitizes intestinal tract to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Neta, R.; Stiefel, S.M.; Ali, N. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Finkelman, F. [Uniformed Services Univ. for Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States); Herrmann, S. [Genetics Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    IL-12, a potent stimulator of hemopoietic progenitor cells, was evaluated as a potential protector against {sup 60}Co-gamma radiation-induced lethal hemopoietic syndrome in mice. Administration of IL-12 before lethal irradiation of genetically distinct strains of mice, B6D2F{sub 1} and C3H/HeJ, protected a significant fraction of both strains of mice from death. Radioprotection was associated with a fivefold increase in the number of bone marrow cells at 6 days after irradiation. Even at supralethal doses of radiation (1200 cGy), the number of c-kit{sup +} bone marrow cells 3 days after irradiation was twofold greater in IL-12-treated mice than in saline-treated mice. However, mice that received IL-12 and 1200 cGy (B6D2F{sub 1}) or 900 cGy (C3H/HeJ) died of the gastrointestinal syndrome, as was evident by gross necroscopy and histologic evaluation, within 4 to 6 days after irradiation. Induction of the gastrointestinal syndrome in mice not treated with IL-12 required radiation doses of 1500 cGy or greater in both strains. Thus, at doses of radiation at which IL-12 still protects c-kit{sup +} hemopoietic cells, it sensitizes the intestinal tract to damage. Radioprotection with IL-12 was abrogated by anti-IL-1R or anti-stem cell factor Ab. Anti-IFN-{gamma} Ab did not affect IL-12-induced hemopoietic radioprotection, but abrogated sensitization of the intestinal tract by IL-12. The sensitizing effect of IL-12 may be related to its ability to prime mice to subsequent inflammatory challenge, as demonstrated by an almost 100-fold increase in circulating TNF and IL-6 levels in normal B6D2F{sub 1} mice challenged with IL-12 and LPS. This priming effect of IL-12 also was abrogated by anti-IFN-{gamma} Ab. 34 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Evaluating Effectiveness of Green Infrastructure Application of Stormwater Best Management Practices in Protecting Stream Habitat and Biotic Condition in New England

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA is developing assessment tools to evaluate the effectiveness of green infrastructure (GI) applied in stormwater best management practices (BMPs) at the small watershed (HUC12 or finer) scale. Based on analysis of historical monitoring data using boosted regression tre...

  13. Protection of radiation induced DNA and membrane damages by total triterpenes isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst.

    PubMed

    Smina, T P; Maurya, D K; Devasagayam, T P A; Janardhanan, K K

    2015-05-25

    The total triterpenes isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum was examined for its potential to prevent ?-radiation induced membrane damage in rat liver mitochondria and microsomes. The effects of total triterpenes on ?-radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in pBR 322 plasmid DNA in vitro and human peripheral blood lymphocytes ex vivo were evaluated. The protective effect of total triterpenes against ?-radiation-induced micronuclei formations in mice bone marrow cells in vivo were also evaluated. The results indicated the significant effectiveness of Ganoderma triterpenes in protecting the DNA and membrane damages consequent to the hazardous effects of radiation. The findings suggest the potential use of Ganoderma triterpenes in radio therapy. PMID:25824410

  14. Protective action of low-intensity laser radiation relative to the toxic effect of metals (experimental study in vitro)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejneka, S. Y.

    1997-12-01

    The study of a possible cytotoxic effect of different doses of low-insensitive laser radiation and protective action of low-intensive laser radiation relative to the toxic effect of metals was carried out by means of the alternative method of investigation in vitro on cell cultura Hela. It was established that the investigated doses of low-intensive laser radiation had not produced any toxic effect on cell culture Hela, so the mentioned doses were not cytotoxic. It was revealed that laser radiation reduced the level of the cytotoxic effect of the studied metal salts on the cell culture, and possessed the protective action against the toxic effect of metals. This action has a clear-cut dose- related character.

  15. Fragmentation cross sections at intermediate energies for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Napoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Bondi, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Nicolosi, D.; Pandola, L.; Raciti, G.; Romano, F.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V.; Tropea, S.

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear fragmentation studies, historically driven by the interest of the nuclear physicists, are nowadays the subject of great attention for the hadrontherapy and the space radiation protection communities. In both fields, fragmentation cross sections are needed to predict the effects of the ion nuclear interactions within the patient's and the astronaut's body. Indeed, the the Monte Carlo codes used in planning tumor treatments and space missions must be tuned and validated by experimental data. However, only a limited set of fragmentation cross sections are available in literature, especially at Fermi energies. Therefore we have studied the production of secondary fragments in the 12C+12C and 12C+ 197Au reactions at 62 AMeV. Some of the measured cross sections are presented in this work.

  16. Intercomparison of radiation protection devices in a high-energy stray neutron field, Part I: Monte Carlo simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rollet; S. Agosteo; G. Fehrenbacher; C. Hranitzky; T. Radon; M. Wind

    2009-01-01

    An intercomparison of radiation protection devices in a high-energy stray neutron field was held in the framework of the COordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry [CONRAD, http:\\/\\/www.eurados.org\\/conrad\\/conrad_overview.htm], financed by the European Commission. An irradiation hall of the GSI (Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany) was the facility selected for this benchmark experiment. The measurements were carried out outside the shielding barriers of

  17. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors l-deprenyl and clorgyline protect nonmalignant human cells from ionising radiation and chemotherapy toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C B Seymour; C Mothersill; R Mooney; M Moriarty; K F Tipton

    2003-01-01

    l-Deprenyl (R-(?)-deprenyl, selegiline) is an inhibitor of monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) that is known to protect nerve cells from a variety of chemical and physical insults. As apoptosis is a common mechanism of radiation-induced cell death, the effect of l-deprenyl on the survival of cultured cells and tissue explants was studied following exposure to gamma radiation. The results obtained were compared

  18. Efficacy of olive mill wastewater for protecting Bacillus thuringiensis formulation from UV radiations.

    PubMed

    Jallouli, Wafa; Sellami, Sameh; Sellami, Maissa; Tounsi, Slim

    2014-12-01

    The effectiveness of 10 low-cost UV-absorbers in protecting Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki BLB1 toxins against inactivation by UV-A and UV-B irradiation was evaluated in this study. Among them, two by-products, molasses and olive mill wastewater (OMW) were selected for further studies. They were tested at different concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2% using the para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as a common UV protectant. Interestingly, addition of PABA and OMW to BLB1 formulations was found to be most effective in protecting BLB1 spores at 90.8 and 76.4% respectively and in preserving delta-endotoxin concentration at a level of 81.7 and 72.2%, respectively when used at a concentration of 0.2%. The lowest preserved spores (46.3%) and delta-endotoxin level (12.4%) was found using molasses. In contrast, spore count and delta-endotoxin concentration were completely reduced after an exposure of unprotected Bt strain BLB1 to UV radiations up to 96h. SDS-PAGE analysis of protected and unprotected samples revealed that delta-endotoxin bands (130, 65-70kDa) were conserved until 96h of UV exposure in presence of PABA or OMW compared with their disappearance in presence of molasses after 72h of exposure and their dramatically decline from 8h of exposure in unprotected mixture. A complete loss of larvicidal toxicity against Ephestia kuehniella was found after 24h of exposure in absence of any UV-absorber. Addition of OMW or PABA offered the highest levels of insecticidal activity with 63.2 and 74.7% of residual toxicity, respectively. Whereas, molasses addition, as UV protectant retained only 26.3% of residual activity after 96h of exposure. Therefore, addition of OMW by-product to Bt formulation may be a suitable alternative to others synthetic chemical compounds. OMW may also provided added value, be environmentally friendly and less hazardous, when used at low concentration. PMID:25093915

  19. Protective effects of Korean red ginseng against radiation-induced apoptosis in human HaCaT keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jae Won; Park, Keun Hyung; HWANG, Hye Sook; Shin, Yoo Seob; Oh, Young-Taek; Kim, Chul-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced oral mucositis is a dose-limiting toxic side effect for patients with head and neck cancer. Numerous attempts at improving radiation-induced oral mucositis have not produced a qualified treatment. Ginseng polysaccharide has multiple immunoprotective effects. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of Korean red ginseng (KRG) on radiation-induced damage in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT and in an in vivo zebrafish model. Radiation inhibited HaCaT cell proliferation and migration in a cell viability assay and wound healing assay, respectively. KRG protected against these effects. KRG attenuated the radiation-induced embryotoxicity in the zebrafish model. Irradiation of HaCaT cells caused apoptosis and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). KRG inhibited the radiation-induced apoptosis and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and stabilized the radiation-induced loss of MMP. Western blots revealed KRG-mediated reduced expression of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM), p53, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and cleaved caspase-3, compared with their significant increase after radiation treatment. The collective results suggest that KRG protects HaCaT cells by blocking ROS generation, inhibiting changes in MMP, and inhibiting the caspase, ATM, p38 and JNK pathways. PMID:24078877

  20. Passive and active protection from ionizing radiation in space: new activities and perspectives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillantini, Piero

    Very intense Solar Cosmic Ray (SCR) events are rare, but not predictable, and can be lethal to a not protected crew in deep space. A ‘life saving’ system must therefore be provided also in short duration manned missions. Passive and active ‘life saving’ system will be revised and discussed. Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) instead flow continuously, have a moderate intensity but the accumulation of their effects can have consequences to human health in long duration (?one year) mission in deep space, and a ‘health saving’ system should be provided. Passive systems are not applicable and recourse has to be made to active systems based on powerful magnetic fields for deviating particles from the habitat where crew members live and work. The activities of last decade are revised and two scenarios are evaluated and discussed: (1) magnetic toroidal systems for mitigating the radiation dose in the relatively large (?100m3) habitat of interplanetary spaceships; (2) very large magnetic systems for protecting a large habitat (?500m3) of an inhabited station that should operate for many decades in deep space. Effectiveness, complexity, involved engineering problems and perspectives are outlined and discussed for both the scenarios. They are nowadays studied and evaluated by a cooperative project supported by the European Union that will be illustrated in a dedicated talk.

  1. UV protectants for the biopesticide based on Bacillus sphaericus Neide and their role in protecting the binary toxins from UV radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Hadapad; R. S. Hire; N. Vijayalakshmi; T. K. Dongre

    2009-01-01

    The UV protectant properties of 26 natural and synthetic compounds were investigated for a biopesticide based on an indigenously isolated strain (ISPC-8) of Bacillus sphaericus Neide. In initial screening, spores of ISPC-8 with 0.1% (w\\/w for solid and v\\/w for liquid materials) concentration of different compounds were exposed to UV-B radiation (4.9×105J\\/m2) for 6h and their spore viability and larvicidal

  2. Calculation of Radiation Protection Quantities and Analysis of Astronaut Orientation Dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowdsley, Martha S.; Nealy, John E.; Atwell, William; Anderson, Brooke M.; Luetke, Nathan J.; Wilson, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Health risk to astronauts due to exposure to ionizing radiation is a primary concern for exploration missions and may become the limiting factor for long duration missions. Methodologies for evaluating this risk in terms of radiation protection quantities such as dose, dose equivalent, gray equivalent, and effective dose are described. Environment models (galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event), vehicle/habitat geometry models, human geometry models, and transport codes are discussed and sample calculations for possible lunar and Mars missions are used as demonstrations. The dependence of astronaut health risk, in terms of dosimetric quantities, on astronaut orientation within a habitat is also examined. Previous work using a space station type module exposed to a proton spectrum modeling the October 1989 solar particle event showed that reorienting the astronaut within the module could change the calculated dose equivalent by a factor of two or more. Here the dose equivalent to various body tissues and the whole body effective dose due to both galactic cosmic rays and a solar particle event are calculated for a male astronaut in two different orientations, vertical and horizontal, in a representative lunar habitat. These calculations also show that the dose equivalent at some body locations resulting from a solar particle event can vary by a factor of two or more, but that the dose equivalent due to galactic cosmic rays has a much smaller (<15%) dependence on astronaut orientation.

  3. Society's valuation of life saving in radiation protection and other contexts.

    PubMed

    Cohen, B L

    1980-01-01

    Various situations are described in which societal action may be interpreted as a dollar value placed on averting a human fatality, and numerical values are derived in each case. Situations included are a variety of medical screening and medical care programs and of automobile and highway safety measures, food for overseas relief, air pollution control, fire prevention, industrial safety, and several radiation-related activities including standards for radium in drinking water, radwaste systems in nuclear plants, and defense and civilian high-level waste management. Values varying from a few thousand dollars to hundreds of millions of dollars per fatality averted are obtained. An attempt to derive data of this type from polling is described. The problem of discounting when money is spent now to save lives far in the future (as with nuclear waste) is discussed. It is concluded that nearly all of the vast variation in the results is unjustified and represents a need for educating the public, especially in the area of radiation protection. PMID:6821577

  4. Quercetin protects radiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in kidney and bladder tissues of rats.

    PubMed

    Özyurt, H; Çevik, Ö; Özgen, Z; Özden, A S; Çad?rc?, S; Elmas, M A; Ercan, F; Gören, M Z; ?ener, G

    2014-10-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) can induce cell damage and cell death through the reactive oxygen species generated by radiolytic hydrolysis. The present study was aimed to determine the possible protective effects of quercetin, a well-known antioxidant agent, against IR-induced bladder and kidney damage in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 8-Gy whole-abdominal IR and given either vehicle or quercetin (20 mg/kg, ip). Rats were decapitated at either 36 h or 10 days following IR, where quercetin or vehicle injections were repeated once daily, and kidney and bladder samples were obtained for the determination of myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 activities, an index of tissue neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis, respectively. Radiation-induced inflammation was evaluated through tissue cytokine, TNF-? levels. In order to examine oxidative DNA damage, tissue 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were measured. All tissues were also examined microscopically. In the saline-treated irradiation groups, myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 activities, 8-OHdG and TNF-? levels were found to be increased in both tissues (p < 0.05). In the quercetin-treated-IR groups, all these oxidant responses were prevented significantly (p < 0.05). The present data demonstrate that quercetin, through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties, attenuates irradiation-induced oxidative organ injury, suggesting that quercetin may have a potential benefit in radiotherapy by minimizing the adverse effects and will improve patient care. PMID:25039564

  5. Protective role of extracellular catalase (KatA) against UVA radiation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Pezzoni, Magdalena; Pizarro, Ramón A; Costa, Cristina S

    2014-02-01

    One of the more stressful factors that Pseudomonas aeruginosa must face in nature is solar UVA radiation. In this study, the protective role of KatA catalase in both planktonic cells and biofilms of P. aeruginosa against UVA radiation was determined by using the wild-type (PAO1) and an isogenic catalase deficient strain (katA). The katA strain was more sensitive than the wild-type, especially in the case of biofilms. Moreover, the wild-type biofilm was more resistant than its planktonic counterpart, but this was not observed in the katA strain. Striking KatA activity was detected in the matrix of katA(+) strains, and to our knowledge, this is the first report of this activity in the matrix of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Provision of bovine catalase or KatA to the matrix of a katA biofilm significantly increased its UVA tolerance, demonstrating that extracellular KatA is essential to optimal defense against UVA in P. aeruginosa biofilms. Efficiency of photocatalytic treatments using TiO2 and UVA was lower in biofilms than in planktonic cells, but KatA and KatB catalases seem not to be responsible for the higher resistance of the sessile cells to this treatment. PMID:24491420

  6. Experimental study of electrostatic discharges of spacecraft solar array protective coatings under radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanshin, Rashid; Novikov, Lev

    Action of charged particles on low-conductive dielectrics causes formation of areas with a high charge density inside; their fields may give rise to development of electrostatic discharge between the charged area and the surface of the dielectric. Discharge channels are growing due to breakdown of dielectric and formation of a conducting phase. Generation of the channels is a complex stochastic process accompanied by such physical and chemical processes as ionization, gas formation, heating, and so on, which cause formation of conducting phase in a glass. That is why no quantitative theory describing formation of conductive channels has been formulated yet. The study of electrostatic discharges in dielectrics under radiation is essential both from a scientific point of view and for the solution of applied problems. In particular, interaction of a spacecraft with ambient plasma causes accumulation of electric charges on its surface producing, as a consequence, electric potential between the spacecraft surface and the plasma. For example, potentials on the surface of satellites operating on a geostationary orbit reach up to 20 kV. Elec-trostatic discharges caused by such potentials can produce not only the considerable electromag-netic interference, but also lead to the destruction of hardware components and structural ele-ments. Electrostatic charging due to electrons from the Earth’s radiation belts causes degradation of solar arrays as a result of surface and internal electrostatic discharges. In the work, surface of K-208 spacecraft solar array protective coatings irradiated by 20 and 40 keV electrons and protons has studied using by AFM methods. Traces of electrostatic dis-charges at different radiation flux densities were analyzed.

  7. Radiation Protection Considerations at USACE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.H. [CHP, SHB INC., Centennial, Colorado (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was initially authorized by Congress in 1974. FUSRAP was enacted to address residual radioactive contamination associated with numerous sites across the U.S. at which radioactive material (primarily Uranium ores and related milling products) had been processed in support of the nation's nuclear weapons program dating back to the Manhattan Project and the period immediately following World War II. In October 1997, Congress transferred the management of this program from the Department of Energy to the United States Corp of Engineers. Through this program, the Corps addresses the environmental remediation of certain sites once used by DOE's predecessor agencies, the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. The waste at FUSRAP sites consists mainly of low levels of uranium, thorium and radium, along with some mixed wastes. Upon completion of remedial activities, these sites are transferred to DOE for long-term stewardship activities. This paper presents and contrasts the radiological conditions and recent monitoring results associated with five large ongoing FUSRAP projects including Maywood, N.J.; the Linde site near Buffalo, N.Y.; Colonie in Albany N.Y. and the St Louis, Mo. airport and downtown sites. The radiological characteristics of soil and debris at each site and respective regulatory clean up criteria is presented and contrasted. Some differences are discussed in the radiological characteristics of material at some sites that result in variations in radiation protection monitoring programs. Additionally, summary data for typical personnel radiation exposure monitoring results are presented. In summary: 1. The FUSRAP projects for which data and observations are reported in this paper are considered typical of the radiological nature of FUSRAP sites in general. 2. These sites are characterized by naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides in soil and debris, at concentrations typically < E4 pCi/ gram total activity. 3. Although external exposure rates are generally low resulting in few exposures above background, occasional 'hot spots' are observed in the 1- 10 mR / hr range or higher. However personnel and general area external exposure monitoring programs consistently demonstrate very low potential for external exposure at theses sites. 4. Potential for airborne exposure is controlled by wetting and misting techniques during excavation and movement of materials. Air sampling and bioassay programs confirm low potential for airborne exposure of workers at these sites. 5. Radiation protection and health physics monitoring programs as implemented at these sites ensure that exposures to personal are maintained ALARA. (authors)

  8. Soluble ferric iron as an effective protective agent against UV radiation: Implications for early life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Felipe; Aguilera, Angeles; Amils, Ricardo

    2007-11-01

    Some recent MER Rover Opportunity results on ancient sedimentary rocks from Mars describe sandstones originated from the chemical weathering of olivine basalts by acidic waters [Squyres, S.W., Knoll, A.H., 2005. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 240, 1-10]. The absence of protective components in early Mars atmosphere forced any possible primordial life forms to deal with high doses of UV radiation. A similar situation occurred on the primitive Earth during the development of early life in the Archean [Berkner, L.V., Marshall, L.C., 1965. J. Atmos. Sci. 22 (3), 225-261; Kasting, J.F., 1993. Science 259, 920-926]. It is known that some cellular and/or external components can shield organisms from damaging UV radiation or quench its toxic effects [Olson, J.M., Pierson, B.K., 1986. Photosynth. Res. 9, 251-259; García-Pichel, F., 1998. Origins Life Evol. B 28, 321-347; Cockell, C., Rettberg, P., Horneck, G., Scherer, K., Stokes, M.D., 2003. Polar Biol. 26, 62-69]. The effectiveness of iron minerals for UV protection has also been reported [Phoenix, V.R., Konhauser, K.O., Adams, D.G., Bottrell, S.H., 2001. Geology 29 (9), 823-826], but nothing is known about the effect of iron in solution. Here we demonstrate the protective effect of soluble ferric iron against UV radiation on acidophilic photosynthetic microorganisms. These results offer an interesting alternative means of protection for life on the surface of early Mars and Earth, especially in light of the geochemical conditions in which the sedimentary minerals, jarosite and goethite, recently reported by the MER missions, were formed [Squyres, S.W., Arvidson, R.E., Bell III, J.F., Brückner, J., Cabrol, N.A., Calvin, W., Carr, M.H., Christensen, P.R., Clark, B.C., Crumpler, L., Des Marais, D.J., d'Uston, C., Economou, T., Farmer, J., Farrand, W., Folkner, W., Golombek, M., Gorevan, S., Grant, J.A., Greeley, R., Grotzinger, J., Haskin, L., Herkenhoff, K.E., Hviid, S., Johnson, J., Klingelhöfer, G., Knoll, A.H., Landis, G., Lemmon, M., Li, R., Madsen, M.B., Malin, M.C., McLennan, S.M., McSween, H.Y., Ming, D.W., Moersch, J., Morris, R.V., Parker, T., Rice Jr., J.W., Richter, L., Rieder, R., Sims, M., Smith, M., Smith, P., Soderblom, L.A., Sullivan, R., Wänke, H., Wdowiak, T., Wolff, M., Yen, A., 2004. Science 306, 1698-1703; Klingelhöfer, G., Morris, R.V., Bernhardt, B., Schröder, C., Rodionov, D.S., de Souza Jr., P.A., Yen, A., Gellert, R., Evlanov, E.N., Zubkov, B., Foh, J., Bonnes, U., Kankeleit, E., Gütlich, P., Ming, D.W., Renz, F., Wdowiak, T., Squyres, S.W., Arvidson, R.E., 2004. Science 306, 1740-1745].

  9. Modulation of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes by Ocimum sanctum and its role in protection against radiation injury.

    PubMed

    Devi, P U; Ganasoundari, A

    1999-03-01

    Aqueous extract (OE) of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum, the Indian holy basil, has been found to protect mouse against radiation lethality and chromosome damage and to possess significant antioxidant activity in vitro. Therefore a study was conducted to see if OE protects against radiation induced lipid peroxidation in liver and to determine the role, if any, of the inherent antioxidant system in radioprotection by OE. Adult Swiss mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 10 mg/kg of OE for 5 consecutive days and exposed to 4.5 Gy of gamma radiation 30 min after the last injection. Glutathione (GSH) and the antioxidant enzymes glutathione transferase (GST), reductase (GSRx), peroxidase (GSPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as lipid peroxide (LPx) activity were estimated in the liver at 15 min, 30 min, 1, 2, 4 and 8 hr post-treatment. LPx was also studied after treatment with a single dose of 50 mg/kg of OE with/without irradiation. OE itself increased the GSH and enzymes significantly above normal levels whereas radiation significantly reduced all the values. The maximum decline was at 30-60 min for GSH and related enzymes and at 2 hr for SOD. Pretreatment with the extract checked the radiation induced depletion of GSH and all the enzymes and maintained their levels within or above the control range. Radiation significantly increased the lipid peroxidation rate, reaching a maximum value at 2 hr after exposure (approximately 3.5 times that of control). OE pretreatment significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced the lipid peroxidation and accelerated recovery to normal levels. The results indicate that Ocimum extract protects against radiation induced lipid peroxidation and that GSH and the antioxidant enzymes appear to have an important role in the protection. PMID:10641157

  10. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Khan; H. Tan; J. W. Baum; B. J. Dionne

    1990-01-01

    One of the functions of the ALARA Center is to collect and disseminate information on dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is the fifth report in the series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA that the center publishes periodically. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches

  11. United States Air and Radiation EPA 402-R-06-001 Environmental Protection (6608J) March 2006

    E-print Network

    United States Air and Radiation EPA 402-R-06-001 Environmental Protection (6608J) March 2006 Agency Audits 7 Site Inspections 7 Approval of INEEL Compressed Waste 9 Change Reports 9 D. Alternative and 10 Storage of Spent Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Waste F. Compliance with the Resource

  12. The use of some nanoemulsions based on aqueous propolis and lycopene extract in the skin's protective mechanisms against UVA radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica V Butnariu; Camelia V Giuchici

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of natural products based on aqueous extract of propolis and lycopene in the skin's protective mechanisms against UVA radiation was evaluated by means of experimental acute inflammation on rat paw edema. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the harmlessness of propolis - lycopene system through evaluation of skin level changes and anti-inflammatory action. The

  13. NeuroNet: Towards an Intelligent Internet Infrastructure

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yu

    in the foreseeable future, potentially detrimental to many national interests. Today's network security solutions and intelligent infrastructure is vital to protect national interests. Although there are reported works

  14. Inactivation of NADPH oxidases NOX4 and NOX5 protects human primary fibroblasts from ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Weyemi, Urbain; Redon, Christophe E; Aziz, Towqir; Choudhuri, Rohini; Maeda, Daisuke; Parekh, Palak R; Bonner, Michael Y; Arbiser, Jack L; Bonner, William M

    2015-03-01

    Human exposure to ionizing radiation from medical procedures has increased sharply in the last three decades. Recent epidemiological studies suggest a direct relationship between exposure to ionizing radiation and health problems, including cancer incidence. Therefore, minimizing the impact of radiation exposure in patients has become a priority in the development of future clinical practices. Crucial players in radiation-induced DNA damage include reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the sources of these have remained elusive. To the best of our knowledge, we show here for the first time that two members of the ROS-generating NADPH oxidase family (NOXs), NOX4 and NOX5, are involved in radiation-induced DNA damage. Depleting these two NOXs in human primary fibroblasts resulted in reduced levels of DNA damage as measured by levels of radiation-induced foci, a marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and the comet assay coupled with increased cell survival. NOX involvement was substantiated with fulvene-5, a NOXs-specific inhibitor. Moreover, fulvene-5 mitigated radiation-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells ex vivo. Our results provide evidence that the inactivation of NOXs protects cells from radiation-induced DNA damage and cell death. These findings suggest that NOXs inhibition may be considered as a future pharmacological target to help minimize the negative effects of radiation exposure for millions of patients each year. PMID:25706776

  15. Protection of cellular DNA from gamma-radiation-induced damages and enhancement in DNA repair by troxerutin.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Dharmendra Kumar; Balakrishnan, Sreedevi; Salvi, Veena Prakash; Nair, Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan

    2005-12-01

    The effect of troxerutin on gamma-radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in different tissues of mice in vivo and formations of the micronuclei were studied in human peripheral blood lymphocytes ex vivo and mice blood reticulocytes in vivo. Treatments with 1 mM troxerutin significantly inhibited the micronuclei induction in the human lymphocytes. Troxerutin protected the human peripheral blood leucocytes from radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in a concentration dependent manner under ex vivo condition of irradiation (2 Gy). Intraperitoneal administration of troxerutin (175 mg/kg body weight) to mice before and after whole body radiation exposure inhibited micronuclei formation in blood reticulocytes significantly. The administration of different doses (75, 125 and 175 mg/kg body weight) of troxerutin 1 h prior to 4 Gy gamma-radiation exposure showed dose-dependent decrease in the yield of DNA strand breaks in murine blood leucocytes and bone marrow cells. The dose-dependent protection was more pronounced in bone marrow cells than in blood leucocytes. Administration of 175 mg/kg body weight of the drug (i.p.) 1 h prior or immediately after whole body irradiation of mice showed that the decrease in strand breaks depended on the post-irradiation interval at which the analysis was done. The observed time-dependent decrease in the DNA strand breaks could be attributed to enhanced DNA repair in troxerutin administered animals. Thus in addition to anti-erythrocytic, anti-thrombic, fibrinolytic and oedema-protective rheological activity, troxerutin offers protection against gamma-radiation-induced micronuclei formation and DNA strand breaks and enhances repair of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks. PMID:16311905

  16. Toroidal magnetic fields for protecting astronauts from ionizing radiation in long duration deep space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papini, Paolo; Spillantini, Piero

    2014-11-01

    Among the configurations of superconducting magnet structures proposed for protecting manned spaceships or manned deep space bases from ionizing radiation, toroidal ones are the most appealing for the efficient use of the magnetic field, being most of the incoming particle directions perpendicular to the induction lines of the field. The parameters of the toroid configuration essentially depend from the shape and volume of the habitat to be protected and the level of protection to be guaranteed. Two options are considered: (1) the magnetic system forming with the habitat a unique complex (compact toroid) to be launched as one piece; (2) the magnetic system to be launched separately from the habitat and assembled around it in space (large toroid). In first option the system habitat+toroid is assumed to have a cylindrical shape, with the toroid surrounding a cylindrical habitat, and launched with its axis on the axis of the launching system. The outer diameter is limited by the diameter of the shroud, which for present and foreseeable launching systems cannot be more than 9 m. The habitat is assumed to be 10 m long and have a 4 m diameter, leaving about 2 m all around for the protecting magnetic field. The volume of the habitat results about 100 m3, barely sufficient to a somewhat small crew (4-5 members) for a long duration (?2 years) mission. Technological problems and the huge magnetic pressure exerted on the inner cylindrical conductor of the toroid limit to not more than 4 T the maximum intensity of the magnetic field. With these parameters the mitigation of the dose inside the habitat due to the galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) is about 70% at minimum solar activity, while also most intense solar events cannot significantly contribute to the dose. The toroidal magnetic field can be produced by a large number of windings of the superconducting cable, arranged in cylindrical symmetry around the habitat to form continuous inner and outer cylindrical surfaces ('continuous' winding). In the option of separated launches for the habitat and the magnetic system, the volume of the habitat can be much larger, up to ?300 m3, i.e. a volume to be considered for a permanently manned space basis rather than for a spaceship. The toroidal field can occupy a larger volume around it, and indeed be less intense (B<3 T) for obtaining the same mitigation of the radiation dose inside the habitat. Also for the separate launches option several structural arrangements can be foreseen, depending from the considered number of windings. The limit of only two huge windings is the most attractive, as it minimizes the material and could be mechanically more stable, but it could be the most difficult to be assembled in space. Main parameters for the different configurations are reported, and the plan for the development of solutions and techniques is presented.

  17. Securing energy assets and infrastructure 2007

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This report describes in detail the energy industry's challenges and solutions for protecting critical assets including oil and gas infrastructure, transmission grids, power plants, storage, pipelines, and all aspects of strategic industry assets. It includes a special section on cyber-terrorism and protecting control systems. Contents: Section I - Introduction; U.S Energy Trends; Vulnerabilities; Protection Measures. Section II - Sector-wise Vulnerabilities Assessments and Security Measures: Coal, Oil and Petroleum, Natural Gas, Electric Power, Cybersecurity and Control Systems, Key Recommendations; Section III - Critical Infrastructure Protection Efforts: Government Initiatives, Agencies, and Checklists.

  18. Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Seedhouse

    \\u000a It is more than forty years since astronauts ventured beyond Earth’s protective magnetic shield and travelled to the Moon.\\u000a Although the Apollo missions subjected astronauts to space radiation, the short duration minimized the risk, but an ECM will\\u000a subject astronauts to much longer exposure. In fact, astronauts will be in deep space for so long, they will run the risk

  19. Diet as a factor in behavioral radiation protection following exposure to heavy particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Bernard M.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James; Todd, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Major risks associated with radiation exposures on deep space missions include carcinogenesis due to heavy-particle exposure of cancer-prone tissues and performance decrements due to neurological damage produced by heavy particles. Because exposure to heavy particles can cause oxidative stress, it is possible that antioxidants can be used to mitigate these risks (and possibly some health risks of microgravity). To assess the capacity of antioxidant diets to mitigate the effects of exposure to heavy particles, rats were maintained on antioxidant diets containing 2% blueberry or strawberry extract or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to exposure to 1.5 or 2.0 Gy of accelerated iron particles at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Following irradiation rats were tested on a series of behavioral tasks: amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning, operant responding and spatial learning and memory. The results indicated that the performance of the irradiated rats maintained on the antioxidant diets was, in general, significantly better than that of the control animals, although the effectiveness of the diets ameliorating the radiation-induced deterioration in performance varied as a function of both the specific diet and the specific endpoint. In addition, animals fed antioxidant diets prior to exposure showed reduced heavy particle-induced tumorigenesis one year after exposure compared to the animals fed the control diet. These results suggest that antioxidant diets have the potential to serve as part of a system designed to provide protection to astronauts against the effects of heavy particles on exploratory missions outside the magnetic field of the earth.

  20. Lung tumor response to inhaled Pu and its implications for radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.L.; McDonald, K.E.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1988-08-01

    Multistage models of cancer induction have been accepted in chemical and radiation carcinogenesis for many years. Most models assume that both initiating and promoting events are required for greatest expression of tumor incidence. The sequence of events is important in determining the shape of the dose-response curve. A total of 1058 female, SPF, Wistar, sham-exposed rats and 2134 rats given a single inhalation to 169Yb, 239PuO2 are being studied for lung tumor formation in a life-span study. Histopathological analyses have been completed on 1149 rats. Similar dose-response curves are seen for pulmonary fibrosis pulmonary metaplasia and lung tumor formation. Lung tumor incidences were: 0.6% (0 Gy), 0.5% (0.06 Gy), 0% (0.11 Gy), 0% (0.23 Gy), 4.5% (0.46 Gy), 0% (0.84 Gy), 13.8% (1.9 Gy), 18.6% (3.5 Gy), 72.5% (7.4 Gy), and 84.9% (15 Gy). The dose lung-tumor curve was best fit by a quadratic function and was not well fit by a linear function. It is proposed that the low-dose portion of the quadratic curve represents promotion event(s) due to increasing 239PuO2 particle clustering in subpleural regions, leading to a cellular evolution of focally intense inflammation, fibrosis, epithelial metaplasia and carcinoma formation. A defined, practical threshold dose may be useful with respect to setting radiation protection guidelines for lung tumor induction.

  1. THE BEIR-III REPORT AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR RADIATION PROTECTION AND PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY

    E-print Network

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    2010-01-01

    radiation exposure of human populations and the delayed or late healthhealth effects In human populations exposed to low-level radiation.health effects of human populations exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation.

  2. Compton scattering by internal shields based on melanin-containing mushrooms provides protection of gastrointestinal tract from ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Revskaya, Ekaterina; Chu, Peter; Howell, Robertha C; Schweitzer, Andrew D; Bryan, Ruth A; Harris, Matthew; Gerfen, Gary; Jiang, Zewei; Jandl, Thomas; Kim, Kami; Ting, Li-Min; Sellers, Rani S; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2012-11-01

    There is a need for radioprotectors that protect normal tissues from ionizing radiation in patients receiving high doses of radiation and during nuclear emergencies. We investigated the possibility of creating an efficient oral radioprotector based on the natural pigment melanin that would act as an internal shield and protect the tissues via Compton scattering followed by free radical scavenging. CD-1 mice were fed melanin-containing black edible mushrooms Auricularia auricila-judae before 9 Gy total body irradiation. The location of the mushrooms in the body before irradiation was determined by in vivo fluorescent imaging. Black mushrooms protected 80% of mice from the lethal dose, while control mice or those given melanin-devoid mushrooms died from gastrointestinal syndrome. The crypts of mice given black mushrooms showed less apoptosis and more cell division than those in control mice, and their white blood cell and platelet counts were restored at 45 days to preradiation levels. The role of melanin in radioprotection was proven by the fact that mice given white mushrooms supplemented with melanin survived at the same rate as mice given black mushrooms. The ability of melanin-containing mushrooms to provide remarkable protection against radiation suggests that they could be developed into oral radioprotectors. PMID:23113595

  3. Compton Scattering by Internal Shields Based on Melanin-Containing Mushrooms Provides Protection of Gastrointestinal Tract from Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Revskaya, Ekaterina; Chu, Peter; Howell, Robertha C.; Schweitzer, Andrew D.; Bryan, Ruth A.; Harris, Matthew; Gerfen, Gary; Jiang, Zewei; Jandl, Thomas; Kim, Kami; Ting, Li-Min; Sellers, Rani S.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There is a need for radioprotectors that protect normal tissues from ionizing radiation in patients receiving high doses of radiation and during nuclear emergencies. We investigated the possibility of creating an efficient oral radioprotector based on the natural pigment melanin that would act as an internal shield and protect the tissues via Compton scattering followed by free radical scavenging. CD-1 mice were fed melanin-containing black edible mushrooms Auricularia auricila-judae before 9?Gy total body irradiation. The location of the mushrooms in the body before irradiation was determined by in vivo fluorescent imaging. Black mushrooms protected 80% of mice from the lethal dose, while control mice or those given melanin-devoid mushrooms died from gastrointestinal syndrome. The crypts of mice given black mushrooms showed less apoptosis and more cell division than those in control mice, and their white blood cell and platelet counts were restored at 45 days to preradiation levels. The role of melanin in radioprotection was proven by the fact that mice given white mushrooms supplemented with melanin survived at the same rate as mice given black mushrooms. The ability of melanin-containing mushrooms to provide remarkable protection against radiation suggests that they could be developed into oral radioprotectors. PMID:23113595

  4. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public Health and...

  5. Pharmacological Doses of Daily Ascorbate Protect Tumors from Radiation Damage after a Single Dose of Radiation in an Intracranial Mouse Glioma Model

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Carole; Fabre, Marie-Sophie; Collis, Sarah V.; Castro, M. Leticia; Field, Cameron S.; Schleich, Nanette; McConnell, Melanie J.; Herst, Patries M.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacological ascorbate is currently used as an anti-cancer treatment, potentially in combination with radiation therapy, by integrative medicine practitioners. In the acidic, metal-rich tumor environment, ascorbate acts as a pro-oxidant, with a mode of action similar to that of ionizing radiation; both treatments kill cells predominantly by free radical-mediated DNA damage. The brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is very resistant to radiation; radiosensitizing GBM cells will improve survival of GBM patients. Here, we demonstrate that a single fraction (6?Gy) of radiation combined with a 1?h exposure to ascorbate (5?mM) sensitized murine glioma GL261 cells to radiation in survival and colony-forming assays in vitro. In addition, we report the effect of a single fraction (4.5?Gy) of whole brain radiation combined with daily intraperitoneal injections of ascorbate (1?mg/kg) in an intracranial GL261 glioma mouse model. Tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: one group received a single dose of 4.5?Gy to the brain 8?days after tumor implantation, a second group received daily intraperitoneal injections of ascorbate (day 8–45) after implantation, a third group received both treatments and a fourth control group received no treatment. While radiation delayed tumor progression, intraperitoneal ascorbate alone had no effect on tumor progression. Tumor progression was faster in tumor-bearing mice treated with radiation and daily ascorbate than in those treated with radiation alone. Histological analysis showed less necrosis in tumors treated with both radiation and ascorbate, consistent with a radio-protective effect of ascorbate in vivo. Discrepancies between our in vitro and in vivo results may be explained by differences in the tumor microenvironment, which determines whether ascorbate remains outside the cell, acting as a pro-oxidant, or whether it enters the cells and acts as an anti-oxidant. PMID:25566497

  6. Pharmacological doses of daily ascorbate protect tumors from radiation damage after a single dose of radiation in an intracranial mouse glioma model.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Carole; Fabre, Marie-Sophie; Collis, Sarah V; Castro, M Leticia; Field, Cameron S; Schleich, Nanette; McConnell, Melanie J; Herst, Patries M

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacological ascorbate is currently used as an anti-cancer treatment, potentially in combination with radiation therapy, by integrative medicine practitioners. In the acidic, metal-rich tumor environment, ascorbate acts as a pro-oxidant, with a mode of action similar to that of ionizing radiation; both treatments kill cells predominantly by free radical-mediated DNA damage. The brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is very resistant to radiation; radiosensitizing GBM cells will improve survival of GBM patients. Here, we demonstrate that a single fraction (6?Gy) of radiation combined with a 1?h exposure to ascorbate (5?mM) sensitized murine glioma GL261 cells to radiation in survival and colony-forming assays in vitro. In addition, we report the effect of a single fraction (4.5?Gy) of whole brain radiation combined with daily intraperitoneal injections of ascorbate (1?mg/kg) in an intracranial GL261 glioma mouse model. Tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: one group received a single dose of 4.5?Gy to the brain 8?days after tumor implantation, a second group received daily intraperitoneal injections of ascorbate (day 8-45) after implantation, a third group received both treatments and a fourth control group received no treatment. While radiation delayed tumor progression, intraperitoneal ascorbate alone had no effect on tumor progression. Tumor progression was faster in tumor-bearing mice treated with radiation and daily ascorbate than in those treated with radiation alone. Histological analysis showed less necrosis in tumors treated with both radiation and ascorbate, consistent with a radio-protective effect of ascorbate in vivo. Discrepancies between our in vitro and in vivo results may be explained by differences in the tumor microenvironment, which determines whether ascorbate remains outside the cell, acting as a pro-oxidant, or whether it enters the cells and acts as an anti-oxidant. PMID:25566497

  7. Experimental Shielding Evaluation of the Radiation Protection Provided by Residential Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Elijah D.

    The human health and environmental effects following a postulated accidental release of radioactive material to the environment has been a public and regulatory concern since the early development of nuclear technology and researched extensively to better understand the potential risks for accident mitigation and emergency planning purposes. The objective of this investigation is to research and develop the technical basis for contemporary building shielding factors for the U.S. housing stock. Building shielding factors quantify the protection a certain building-type provides from ionizing radiation. Much of the current data used to determine the quality of shielding around nuclear facilities and urban environments is based on simplistic point-kernel calculations for 1950's era suburbia and is no longer applicable to the densely populated urban environments seen today. To analyze a building's radiation shielding properties, the ideal approach would be to subject a variety of building-types to various radioactive materials and measure the radiation levels in and around the building. While this is not entirely practicable, this research uniquely analyzes the shielding effectiveness of a variety of likely U.S. residential buildings from a realistic source term in a laboratory setting. Results produced in the investigation provide a comparison between theory and experiment behind building shielding factor methodology by applying laboratory measurements to detailed computational models. These models are used to develop a series of validated building shielding factors for generic residential housing units using the computational code MCNP5. For these building shielding factors to be useful in radiologic consequence assessments and emergency response planning, two types of shielding factors have been developed for; (1) the shielding effectiveness of each structure within a semi-infinite cloud of radioactive material, and (2) the shielding effectiveness of each structure from contaminant deposition on the roof and surrounding surfaces. For example, results from this investigation estimate the building shielding factors from a semi-infinite plume between comparable two-story models with a basement constructed with either brick-and-mortar or vinyl siding composing the exterior wall weather and a typical single-wide manufactured home with vinyl siding to be 0.36, 0.65, and 0.82 respectively.

  8. Concepts and strategies for lunar base radiation protection - Prefabricated versus in-situ materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonsen, Lisa C.; Nealy, John E.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1992-01-01

    The most recently accepted environment data are used as inputs for the Langley nucleon and heavy-ion transport codes, BRYNTRN and HZETRN, to examine the shield effectiveness of lunar regolith in comparison with commercially-used shield materials in nuclear facilities. Several of the fabricated materials categorized as neutron absorbers exhibit favorable characteristics for space radiation protection. In particular, polyethylene with additive boron is analyzed with regard to response to the predicted lunar galactic cosmic ray and solar proton flare environment during the course of a complete solar cycle. Although this effort is not intended to be a definitive trade study for specific shielding recommendations, attention is given to several factors that warrant consideration in such trade studies. For example, the transporting of bulk shield material to the lunar site as opposed to regolith-moving and processing equipment is assessed on the basis of recent scenario studies. The transporting of shield material from Earth may also be a viable alternative to the use of regolith from standpoints of cost-effectiveness, EVA time required, and risk factor.

  9. Protective effect of Biophytum sensitivum (L.) DC on radiation-induced damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Guruvayoorappan, C; Kuttan, Girija

    2008-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of Biophytum sensitivum methanol extract was studied using in vivo mice model . Animals were exposed to whole body gamma irradiation (6 Gy/animal) after treatment with B. sensitivum (50mg/kg b.wt.) followed by estimation of cytosolic enzymes, level of antioxidants, hematological parameters, bone marrow cellular progenitors, serum cytokine levels and spleen hematopoietic colonies. Administration of B. sensitivum could reduce the enhanced level of ALP, GPT and LPO levels in irradiated animals. B. sensitivum could significantly enhance the glutathione (GSH) content in liver and intestinal mucosa of irradiated animals. B. sensitivum treatment could enhance the Total WBC count, cellularity of bone marrow, alpha-esterase positive cells, and relative organ weight of spleen as well as thymus. The number of hematopoietic colonies on the surface of the spleen was found to be enhanced after B. sensitivum treatment. B. sensitivum treatment could also stimulate the production of cytokines such as IL-1beta, IFN-gamma and GM-CSF in animals exposed to whole body gamma irradiation. The present investigation suggests that the protective effect of Biophytum sensitivum on Radiation-Induced hemopoietic damage is mediated through immunomodulation as well as sequential induction of IL-1beta, GM-CSF and IFN-gamma. PMID:18951225

  10. Some important issues in developing basic radiation protection recommendations: dosimetric aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.H.

    1984-03-01

    Some aspects of the difficulties encountered in the dose equivalent system used in radiation protection are explored and recent work to improve these deficiencies described. The philosophical advantages of a departure from the dose equivalent-based system and its replacement by a risk-based system are briefly discussed. The definition of dose equivalent and the debate concerning its physical dimensions and units are described. Dose equivalent is related to other physiological quantities in physics and the treatment of these quantities in the International System of Units compared. Practical problems in the determination of dose equivalent are illustrated using neutrons as an example. The proliferation of operational quantities for the evaluation of neutron dose equivalent and the concomitant potential for confusion when determinations of neutron dose equivalent are intercompared is described. The evaluation of fluence to dose equivalent conversion coefficients and methods of interpolation between recommended values are described. Particular emphasis is given to the accuracy and precision of dose equivalent estimation. Recent work of a Task Group of the ICRP to improve recommended conversion coefficients and the work of an ICRU committee to improve the definition of operational dose equivalent quantities is summarized. 125 references, 11 figures, 4 tables.

  11. Activity and radiation protection studies for the W-Ta target of CSNS.

    PubMed

    Yu, Q Z; Liang, T J; Yin, W

    2009-09-01

    The Chinese government initiated a conceptual design for the project of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), which consists of an H-linear accelerator, a rapid cycling synchrotron accelerating the beam to 1.6 GeV, a target station converting proton beam into lower energy (<1 eV) neutron beam optimised to instruments for neutron scattering applications. The facility operates at 25-Hz repetition rate with an initial beam power of 100 kW. In the target station, the target-moderator-reflector (TMR) components are exposed to the intensive fluxes of high-energy hadrons and become highly radioactive as a result of long-time irradiation. In this paper, the activity of the TMR components are calculated using the Monte Carlo code system LAHET&MCNP4C&CINDER'90. Comparisons of some results with that simulated by FLUKA code are also performed. Detailed analyses of the radionuclides and their characters in the tantalum clad tungsten target (W-Ta target) are important for the radiation protection of the CSNS target station. The shielding design of the service cell for the decay gamma ray induced from the W-Ta target and its vessel shows that the ambient dose rate decreases exponentially with increasing heavy concrete thickness. And 80 cm thickness of heavy concrete for each side of the service cell can satisfy the safety requirement. PMID:19770213

  12. Experimental Quantification of Delayed Radiation-Induced Organ Damage in Highly Irradiated Rats With Bone Marrow Protection: Effect of Radiation Dose and Organ Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Boittin, François-Xavier; Martigne, Patrick; Mayol, Jean-François; Denis, Josiane; Raffin, Florent; Coulon, David; Grenier, Nancy; Drouet, Michel; Hérodin, Francis

    2015-08-01

    The evolution of organ damage following extensive high-dose irradiation remains largely unexplored and needs further investigation. Wistar rats [with or without partial bone marrow protection (?20%)] were irradiated at lethal gamma-ray doses (12, 14, and 16 Gy) and received antibiotic support. While total-body-irradiated rats did not survive, bone marrow protection (achieved by protecting hind limbs behind a lead wall) combined with antibiotic support allowed survival of 12-Gy and 14-Gy irradiated rats for more than 3 mo, with a late phase of body weight loss and altered clinical status. Histological analysis of radiation-induced damages in visceral organs (liver, kidney, and ileum), performed 64 and 104 d after high-dose body irradiation, indicates that the extent and the evolution of damage depend on both the irradiation dose and organ. A dose-related aggravation of lesions was observed in the liver and kidney but not in the ileum. In contrast to the liver, alterations in the kidney and ileum aggravate with time, emphasizing the need to develop new efficient countermeasures to protect both the gastrointestinal tract and kidney from late-occurring radiation effects. Specifically, the complex evolution of organ damage presented in this paper offers the possibility to explore and then validate specific therapeutic windows using candidate drugs targeted to each injured visceral organ. PMID:26107434

  13. Modeling the Action of Protons and Heavier Ions in Biological Targets: Nuclear Interactions in Hadrontherapy and Space Radiation Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Ballarini, F.; Ottolenghi, A.; Scannicchio, D. [Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Pavia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) (Italy); Battistoni, G.; Pelliccioni, M.; Sala, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) (Italy); Cerutti, F.; Gadioli, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); Ferrari, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) (Italy); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Garzelli, M. V. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); Parini, V. [Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Pavia (Italy); Pinsky, L. [University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States)

    2005-05-24

    Tumor treatment with protons and Carbon ions can allow for a better optimization of Tumor Control Probability and Normal Tissue Complication Probability, especially for radio-resistant tumors. Exposure to protons and heavier ions is also of concern for manned space missions such as future travels to the Moon and Mars. Nuclear reactions with the human body constituents, the beam line components (for hadrontherapy), and the spacecraft walls and shielding (for space radiation protection) can significantly modify the characteristics of the primary radiation field and thus the dose distributions in the various target tissues. In this context the FLUKA Monte Carlo transport code, integrated with radiobiological data and coupled with anthropomorphic phantoms, was applied to the characterization of therapeutic proton beams and the calculation of space radiation organ doses, with focus on the role of nuclear interactions. Besides absorbed and equivalent doses, distributions of 'biological' dose (modeled as the average number of DNA clustered lesions per cell induced in a given organ or tissue) were calculated as well. Concerning space radiation protection, exposure to Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) under different shielding conditions was simulated. Both for hadrontherapy and for space radiation exposure, nuclear reaction products were found to play a more important role for the equivalent and 'biological' dose than for the absorbed dose. Furthermore, while for SPEs the doses (both absorbed and equivalent/'biological') decreased dramatically by increasing the shield thickness, the GCR doses showed a slight shielding dependence. Overall, these examples of application of FLUKA to radiotherapy and radiation protection problems emphasized the need of further models and data, typically double-differential cross sections for nucleus-nucleus interactions at energies below a few hundred MeV/n.

  14. Modeling the Action of Protons and Heavier Ions in Biological Targets: Nuclear Interactions in Hadrontherapy and Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Garzelli, M. V.; Ottolenghi, A.; Parini, V.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L.; Sala, P.; Scannicchio, D.

    2005-05-01

    Tumor treatment with protons and Carbon ions can allow for a better optimization of Tumor Control Probability and Normal Tissue Complication Probability, especially for radio-resistant tumors. Exposure to protons and heavier ions is also of concern for manned space missions such as future travels to the Moon and Mars. Nuclear reactions with the human body constituents, the beam line components (for hadrontherapy), and the spacecraft walls and shielding (for space radiation protection) can significantly modify the characteristics of the primary radiation field and thus the dose distributions in the various target tissues. In this context the FLUKA Monte Carlo transport code, integrated with radiobiological data and coupled with anthropomorphic phantoms, was applied to the characterization of therapeutic proton beams and the calculation of space radiation organ doses, with focus on the role of nuclear interactions. Besides absorbed and equivalent doses, distributions of ``biological'' dose (modeled as the average number of DNA clustered lesions per cell induced in a given organ or tissue) were calculated as well. Concerning space radiation protection, exposure to Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) under different shielding conditions was simulated. Both for hadrontherapy and for space radiation exposure, nuclear reaction products were found to play a more important role for the equivalent and ``biological'' dose than for the absorbed dose. Furthermore, while for SPEs the doses (both absorbed and equivalent/``biological'') decreased dramatically by increasing the shield thickness, the GCR doses showed a slight shielding dependence. Overall, these examples of application of FLUKA to radiotherapy and radiation protection problems emphasized the need of further models and data, typically double-differential cross sections for nucleus-nucleus interactions at energies below a few hundred MeV/n.

  15. INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY & ENERGY

    E-print Network

    Schrijver, Karel

    INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY & ENERGY RESTORATION OFFICE of ELECTRICITY DELIVERY & ENERGY RELIABILITY Delivery and Energy Reliability #12;INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY & ENERGY RESTORATION OFFICE of ELECTRICITY Federal agencies to support waivers and specific response legal authorities #12;INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY

  16. Diverse Studies in the Reactivated NASA/Ames Radiation Facility: From Shock Layer Spectroscopy to Thermal Protection System Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert J.; Hartman, G. Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    NASA/Ames' Hypervelocity Free-Flight Radiation Facility has been reactivated after having been decommissioned for some 15 years, first tests beginning in early 1994. This paper discusses two widely different studies from the first series, one involving spectroscopic analysis of model shock-layer radiation, and the other the production of representative impact damage in space shuttle thermal protection tiles for testing in the Ames arc-jet facilities. These studies emphasize the interorganizational and interdisciplinary value of the facility in the newly-developing structure of NASA.

  17. Radiation protection issues on preparedness and response for a severe nuclear accident: experiences of the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Homma, T; Takahara, S; Kimura, M; Kinase, S

    2015-06-01

    Radiation protection issues on preparedness and response for a severe nuclear accident are discussed in this paper based on the experiences following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The criteria for use in nuclear emergencies in the Japanese emergency preparedness guide were based on the recommendations of International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 60 and 63. Although the decision-making process for implementing protective actions relied heavily on computer-based predictive models prior to the accident, urgent protective actions, such as evacuation and sheltering, were implemented effectively based on the plant conditions. As there were no recommendations and criteria for long-term protective actions in the emergency preparedness guide, the recommendations of ICRP Publications 103, 109, and 111 were taken into consideration in determining the temporary relocation of inhabitants of heavily contaminated areas. These recommendations were very useful in deciding the emergency protective actions to take in the early stages of the Fukushima accident. However, some suggestions have been made for improving emergency preparedness and response in the early stages of a severe nuclear accident. PMID:25915551

  18. United States Environmental Protection Agency | Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (6608J) | EPA 402-F-07-010 | May 2007 WIPP: Planned Change Request for Magnesium Oxide (MgO)

    E-print Network

    United States Environmental Protection Agency | Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (6608J) | EPA: Ray Lee Radiation Protection Division (6608J) Office of Radiation and Indoor Air U.S. Environmental of Energy (DOE) has submitted a planned change request to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) related

  19. TiO2 nanoparticles as an effective UV-B radiation skin-protective compound in sunscreens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Popov; A. V. Priezzhev; J. Lademann; R. Myllylä

    2005-01-01

    Protecting human skin against harmful UV-B radiation coming from the sun is currently a problem. Due to the decreased thickness of the ozone layer, a more dangerous amount of UV-B light reaches the surface of our planet. This causes increased frequency of skin diseases. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) fine particles are embedded with sunscreens into the skin to effectively attenuate UV-B

  20. Topical ‘Sydney’ Propolis Protects against UV-Radiation-Induced Inflammation, Lipid Peroxidation and Immune Suppression in Mouse Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nerida Cole; Paul W. Sou; Alanna Ngo; Karen H. Tsang; Joseph A. J. Severino; Sondur J. Arun; Colin C. Duke; Vivienne E. Reeve

    2010-01-01

    Background: Propolis is a honeybee product that has been used in traditional medicine for antioxidant, immune-stimulating, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. Here, the potential of the topical application of a crude ethanolic extract of Sydney propolis to protect against UV-radiation-induced impairments associated with an increased risk of photocarcinogenesis has been tested in the hairless mouse. Methods: Solutions providing between 10 and

  1. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries: Researching radiation protection. USTUR annual report for February 1, 1999 through January 31, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrhart, Susan M. (ed.); Filipy, Ronald E. (ed.)

    2000-07-01

    The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) comprise a human tissue research program studying the deposition, biokinetics and dosimetry of the actinide elements in humans with the primary goals of providing data fundamental to the verification, refinement, or future development of radiation protection standards for these and other radionuclides, and of determining possible bioeffects on both a macro and subcellular level attributable to exposure to the actinides. This report covers USTUR activities during the year from February 1999 through January 2000.

  2. In vivo Study to Evaluate the Protective Effects of Amifostine on Radiation-Induced Damage of Testis Tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meltem Nalca Andrieu; Cengiz Kurtman; Ayse Hicsonmez; Kemal Ozbilgin; Erhan Eser; Esra Erdemli

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the early protective effects of amifostine against radiation-induced damage on rat testis tissue. Methods: Eighty adult male Wistar rats were randomized to 4 groups: Saline solution was given to group A for control, 200 mg\\/kg amifostine (WR-2721) to group B, a single fraction of 6 Gy local irradiation to testes in group C and 200 mg\\/kg amifostine

  3. Protective effects of fucoidan against ?-radiation-induced damage of blood cells.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Ki Hyeong; Lee, Keyong Ho

    2011-04-01

    Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from brown algae including Fucus vesiculosus and Laminaria japonica, has a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant and antitumor activities. Here, we investigated the radioprotective effects of fucoidan on human monoblastic leukemia cell line U937. Further, animal tests were carried out using Balb/c mice in order to determine the radiation-induced changes in the counts of blood cells, including thrombocytes, erythrocytes, leukocytes and hematocrit. Cell viability was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, wherein fucoidan (1, 10, and 100 ?g/mL) was observed to improve recovery from damage caused by 8-Gy radiation in a dose dependent manner. The viability of U937 cells pre-treated with fucoidan also increased in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, fucoidan at 100 mg/kg was found to protect against changes in the counts of blood cells as follows: on day 28 after irradiation, the thrombocyte count in the irradiated controls decreased to 45% compared with the non-irradiated controls, while that in the fucoidan-treated group was 60%. The hematocrit in the fucoidan-treated group recovered to 75% on day 28, while that in the irradiated control was 68%. The erythrocyte count in the irradiated controls consistently ranged from 64% to 67% throughout the experiment, but that in the fucoidan-treated group increased gradually, ranging from 75% to 80%. The mean number of survival days and 50-day actuarial survival rate increased dose dependently in the fucoidan-treated group. The mean number of survival days and the 50-day actuarial survival rate in this group was 16, 21, and 29 days and 12%, 20%, and 30% at fucoidan doses of 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg. The values of these parameters in the control group were 9 days and 0%, although the difference between the test and control groups was not statistically significant. Our results may prove valuable in the field of radioprotection. PMID:21544730

  4. Growth hormone protects colorectal cancer cells from radiation by improving the ability of DNA damage repair.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Che; Yao, Xue-Quan; Cao, Qin-Hong; Xu, Zhe; Li, Wei-Su; Liu, Fu-Kun; Li, Gang

    2014-07-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on the sensitivity of a colorectal cancer cell line to radiotherapy, and to investigate its association with DNA damage and repair. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence were employed to detect growth hormone receptor (GHR) expression in nine human colorectal cancer cell lines. A colony forming assay was performed to measure the colorectal cancer cell proliferation post?radiotherapy, as an indicator of radiotherapy sensitivity. The comet assay results were interpreted as an indicator of radiotherapy?induced DNA damage, and growth arrest and DNA damage 45 (GADD45) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APEN) protein expression were quantified with western blot analysis from the same cell lines. The results demonstrated that the colony?forming efficiency (CFE) was significantly increased in HCT?8 cells subject to radiotherapy and rhGH pretreatment compared with the cells treated with radiotherapy alone, in a dose?dependent manner (0?100 mg/l). This effect was enhanced under high doses of radiation (8 Gy; 52.1±2.9 vs. 21.0±2.7; P<0.001) and was ameliorated with GHR neutralizing antibody exposure. By contrast, rhGH pre?incubation did not change the colony formation rate in GHR(?) LOVO cells. rhGH intervention reduced the early HCT?8 cell DNA damage (21.53±2.88 vs. 36.56±3.93; P=0.003) as well as the following plateau phase, compared with cells treated with radiotherapy alone (5.5±0.42 vs. 9.07±0.84; P=0.012). rhGH upregulated GADD45 and APEN protein expression, which is associated with cellular stress responses and DNA damage repair (P=0.007). The results suggest that rhGH is able to protect colorectal cancer cells from radiation through the interaction with GHR, which is associated with the promotion of DNA damage repair activity. PMID:24788673

  5. Developing a self-sustaining protected area system: a feasibility study of national tourism fee and green infrastructure in the Solomon Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoasiuhu Francis

    2012-01-01

    This research explores how the notion of efficiency could help translate environmental policies into practices to achieve policies targets. The Institutional Analysis Development framework provides the evaluative tool and method. It follows with articulating policy directives alongside the Sustainable Finance of protected area system management perspective. As such, the research offers an interdisciplinary perspective on conservation management particularly in developing

  6. Low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide protects mammalian cells against proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect.

    PubMed

    Tong, Liping; Yu, K N; Bao, Lingzhi; Wu, Wenqing; Wang, Hongzhi; Han, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been proposed to have tight relationship with the irradiation-caused secondary cancers beyond the irradiation-treated area after radiotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrated a protective effect of low concentration carbon monoxide (CO) on the genotoxicity of RIBE after ?-particle irradiation. In the present work, a significant inhibitory effect of low-dose exogenous CO, generated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer [CO-releasing molecule (CORM-2)], on both RIBE-induced proliferation and chromosome aberration was observed. Further studies on the mechanism revealed that the transforming growth factor ?1/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, which mediated RIBE signaling transduction, could be modulated by CO involved in the protective effects. Considering the potential of exogenous CO in clinical applications and its protective effect on RIBE, the present work aims to provide a foundation for potential application of CO in radiotherapy. PMID:24333162

  7. Current wideband MILSATCOM infrastructure and the future of bandwidth availability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kendra L. B. Cook

    2009-01-01

    The military satellite communications (MILSATCOM) infrastructure is typically broken into three categories: wideband, protected, and narrowband. Wideband systems emphasize high capacity, protected systems prioritize anti-jam features and covertness, and narrowband systems emphasize support to the disadvantaged user by providing low data rate communications to small \\/ mobile users. This paper focuses on the existing wideband MILSATCOM infrastructure (namely the Defense

  8. Current wideband MILSATCOM infrastructure and the future of bandwidth availability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kendra L. B. Cook

    2010-01-01

    The military satellite communications (MILSATCOM) infrastructure is typically broken into three categories: wideband, protected, and narrowband. Wideband systems emphasize high capacity, protected systems prioritize anti-jam features and covertness, and narrowband systems emphasize support to the disadvantaged user by providing low data rate communications to small\\/mobile users. This focuses on the existing wideband MILSATCOM infrastructure (namely the Defense Satellite Communications System

  9. WORKSHOP REPORT: MOLECULAR & CELLULAR BIOLOGY OF MODERATE DOSE (1-10 GY) RADIATION & POTENTIAL MECHANISMS OF RADIATION PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Normal tissue response and injury after exposure to ionizing radiation are of great importance to patients with cancer, populations potentially subjected to military, accidental or intentional exposure including bioterrorism, and workers in the nuclear po...

  10. Protection from solar simulated radiation-induced DNA damage in cultured human fibroblasts by three commercially available sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Pascale; Cybulski, Michelle; McNamee, James P; McLean, Jack R; Gorman, Wayne; Deslauriers, Yvon

    2003-07-01

    Exposure to solar radiation can produce both acute and chronic changes in the skin, including sunburn, edema, immunosuppression, premature skin aging, and skin cancer. At the cellular level, solar radiation can produce adverse structural and functional changes in membrane proteins and lipids and in chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA. The increasing awareness of these adverse effects has led the public to demand better photoprotection. In this study, the alkaline comet assay was used to evaluate the photoprotective effects of three commercially available sunscreens at sun protection factors (SPF) 15 and 30. Human fibroblasts were used as target cells to conveniently study the effects of solar simulated radiation on DNA damage in the presence and absence of sunscreens. When human fibroblasts were exposed to various doses of solar simulated radiation, DNA damage, as measured in sunscreen-protected cells by the comet assay, was not significantly different from that detected in unexposed cells. At 1.0 and 1.5 minimal erythemal doses (MED), all sunscreens, at both SPF 15 and 30, provided nearly 100% photoprotection to the fibroblasts. Further studies are required to elucidate the role of UVA in the production and repair of DNA damage in cells exposed to sunlight. PMID:12897816

  11. Radiation protection of the gastrointestinal tract and growth inhibition of prostate cancer xenografts by a single compound.

    PubMed

    Alexeev, Vitali; Lash, Elizabeth; Aguillard, April; Corsini, Laura; Bitterman, Avi; Ward, Keith; Dicker, Adam P; Linnenbach, Alban; Rodeck, Ulrich

    2014-12-01

    Normal tissue toxicity markedly reduces the therapeutic index of genotoxic anticancer agents, including ionizing radiation. Countermeasures against tissue damage caused by radiation are limited by their potential to also protect malignant cells and tissues. Here, we tested a panel of signal transduction modifiers for selective radioprotection of normal but not tumor tissues. These included three inhibitors of GSK3 (LiCl, SB216763, and SB415286) and two inhibitors of NF-?B (ethyl pyruvate and RTA 408). Among these, the thiol-reactive triterpenoid RTA 408 emerged as a robust and effective protector of multiple organ systems (gastrointestinal, skin, and hemopoietic) against lethal doses of radiation. RTA 408 preserved survival and proliferation of intestinal crypt cells in lethally irradiated mice while reducing apoptosis incidence in crypts and villi. In contrast, RTA 408 uniformly inhibited growth of established CWR22Rv1, LNCaP/C4-2B, PC3, and DU145 xenografts either alone or combined with radiation. Antitumor effects in vivo were associated with reduced proliferation and intratumoral apoptosis and with inhibition of NF-?B-dependent transcription in PC3 cells. Selective protection of normal tissue compartments by RTA 408 critically depended on tissue context and could not be replicated in vitro. Collectively, these data highlight the potential of RTA 408 as a cytoprotective agent that may be safely used in chemoradiation approaches. PMID:25398830

  12. Amifostine, a radioprotectant agent, protects rat brain tissue lipids against ionizing radiation induced damage: An FTIR microspectroscopic imaging study

    SciTech Connect

    Cakmak G.; Miller L.; Zorlu, F.; Severcan, F.

    2012-03-03

    Amifostine is the only approved radioprotective agent by FDA for reducing the damaging effects of radiation on healthy tissues. In this study, the protective effect of amifostine against the damaging effects of ionizing radiation on the white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) regions of the rat brain were investigated at molecular level. Sprague-Dawley rats, which were administered amifostine or not, were whole-body irradiated at a single dose of 800 cGy, decapitated after 24 h and the brain tissues of these rats were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The results revealed that the total lipid content and CH{sub 2} groups of lipids decreased significantly and the carbonyl esters, olefinic=CH and CH{sub 3} groups of lipids increased significantly in the WM and GM after exposure to ionizing radiation, which could be interpreted as a result of lipid peroxidation. These changes were more prominent in the WM of the brain. The administration of amifostine before ionizing radiation inhibited the radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in the brain. In addition, this study indicated that FTIRM provides a novel approach for monitoring ionizing radiation induced-lipid peroxidation and obtaining different molecular ratio images can be used as biomarkers to detect lipid peroxidation in biological systems.

  13. Limnoithona sinensis as refuge for bacteria: protection from UV radiation and chlorine disinfection in drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Cai, Bo; Chen, Wei

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we tested the potential of Limnoithona sinensis to provide its attached bacteria refuge against disinfection. The experimental results indicated that in water devoid of zooplankton, both UV radiation and chlorine disinfection significantly decreased the viability of free-living bacteria. In the presence of L. sinensis, however, the attached bacteria could survive and rapidly recover from disinfection. This demonstrated that L. sinensis provided protection from external damage to various aquatic bacteria that were attached to its body. The surviving bacteria remained on L. sinensis after disinfection exposure, which enabled a rapid increase in the bacterial population followed by their subsequent release into the surrounding water. Compared with UV radiation, chlorine disinfection was more effective in terms of inactivating attached bacteria. Both UV radiation and chlorine disinfection had little effect in terms of preventing the spread of undesirable bacteria, due to the incomplete inactivation of the bacteria associated with L. sinensis. PMID:25322149

  14. Protection of T cells from radiation-induced apoptosis by Cepharanthin®

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haruki Oyaizu; Yasushi Adachi; Ryoji Yasumizu; Minoru Ono; Kazuya Ikebukuro; Shirou Fukuhara; Susumu Ikehara

    2001-01-01

    Cepharanthin® (CE) is a medicine that contains several biscoclaurine alkaloids. We examined the effects of CE on radiation-induced T cell apoptosis. Radiation induced apoptosis on T cells in a dose-dependent manner, while CE inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis. CE also attenuated the cytotoxic effects of radiation on the proliferative response of T cells. CE inhibited not only the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane

  15. The prostaglandin E{sub 1} analog, misoprostol, a normal tissue protector, does not protect four murine tumors in vivo from radiation injury

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, W.R.; Zhen, W.; Geng, L. [Loyola Univ. Chicago and Hines Veterans Administration Medical Centers, Hines, IL (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    The clinical development of radioprotectors, such as misoprostol, to protect normal tissue during cancer treatment must proceed with the assurance that tumors are not protected similarly or significantly. To provide data on this critical question, radiation-induced growth delay with or without the presence of misoprostol was measured in four murine tumors grown in the flanks of mice: the Lewis lung carcinoma, M-5076 ovarian sarcoma, FSA and NFSA. The effect of misoprostol on the tumor control dose (TCD{sub 50}) of radiation was measured in FSA-bearing mice with or without prior treatment with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin. Misoprostol did not influence the in vivo growth of any of the four tumors, nor did it protect any of the tumors from radiation-induced growth delay. Likewise, there was no increase in the radiation TCD{sub 50} to treat the FSA in vivo in control or indomethacin-treated tumor-bearing mice. To measure any possible influence of tumor burden on the protective effect of miso-prostol on normal tissue in mice, the protective effect of misoprostol on the survival of intestinal clonogenic cells was measured in M-5076-bearing mice and found to be the same as in non-tumor-bearing mice. These data suggest that misoprostol protects normal tissue in mice without protecting at least four experimental murine tumors. The data support the contention that misoprostol can achieve therapeutic gain by protecting normal tissues without protecting tumors. 44 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES CONFRONTING THE BEIR III COMMITTEE---IMPLICATIONS FOR RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-print Network

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    2010-01-01

    health e f f e c t s in human populations exposed to low levels of radiation.human health and to the environment [3_, WHAT ARE THE IMPORTANT BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF LOW-LEVEL RADIATION?radiation risks and on decision making for the regulation of societal activities concerned with the health effects in human

  17. ULTRAVIOLET PROTECTIVE PIGMENTS AND DNA DIMER INDUCTION AS RESPONSES TO ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life on Earth has evolved adaptations to many environmental stresses over the epochs. One consistent stress has been exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The most basic effect of UV radiation on biological systems is damage to DNA. In response to UV radiation organisms have ad...

  18. Exploratory study of the radiation-protection training programs in nuclear power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine current radiation training programs at a sample of utilities operating nuclear reactors and to evaluate employee information on radiation health. The study addressed three elements: (1) employee perceptions and understanding of ionizing radiation; (2) utility trainers-their background, training, and problems; (3) the content, materials, and conduct of training programs; (4) program uniformity

  19. Low-dose radiation exposure induces a HIF-1-mediated adaptive and protective metabolic response

    PubMed Central

    Lall, R; Ganapathy, S; Yang, M; Xiao, S; Xu, T; Su, H; Shadfan, M; Asara, J M; Ha, C S; Ben-Sahra, I; Manning, B D; Little, J B; Yuan, Z-M

    2014-01-01

    Because of insufficient understanding of the molecular effects of low levels of radiation exposure, there is a great uncertainty regarding its health risks. We report here that treatment of normal human cells with low-dose radiation induces a metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis resulting in increased radiation resistance. This metabolic change is highlighted by upregulation of genes encoding glucose transporters and enzymes of glycolysis and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, concomitant with downregulation of mitochondrial genes, with corresponding changes in metabolic flux through these pathways. Mechanistically, the metabolic reprogramming depends on HIF1?, which is induced specifically by low-dose irradiation linking the metabolic pathway with cellular radiation dose response. Increased glucose flux and radiation resistance from low-dose irradiation are also observed systemically in mice. This highly sensitive metabolic response to low-dose radiation has important implications in understanding and assessing the health risks of radiation exposure. PMID:24583639

  20. Protecting tree roots and subterranean infrastructure in urban areas by developing self-compacting flowable fills with root growth impeding properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felde, Vincent; Simon, Jana; Kimm-Friedenberg, Stefan; Peth, Stephan; Middendorf, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    In urban areas, the installation of cables and disposal lines is still done by open building method. Here, a ditch is being excavated, pipes and lines are laid and subsequently it is filled with and covered by bulk material (e.g. sand or gravel), which is then compacted. Due to the often times limited space that the roots have in the ground and the better supply of water and oxygen in the poorly compacted bulk material, these refilled ditches are areas of preferential root growth of urban trees. The entangling of the pipes and supply lines by these roots leads to severe damage of the tree when maintenance work on the lines is carried out and roots have to be cut. In order to reduce this competition between urban trees and urban subterranean infrastructure, the development of a self-compacting flowable fill with root growth resistance is mandatory. Physico-chemical properties, such as a very high pH-value and a low cation-exchange-capacity, a low root-penetrability, a high packing density and a low porosity, with a poorly connected pore system that impedes gas and water exchange are the characteristic aspects of this flowable fills that could help avoid undesired root penetration into supply lines. The flowable fills are supposed to sheath pipes and lines void-free and without any tension, in order to restrain the root growth in these areas. Trees are of crucial importance for urban ecosystems and are comprising 3% of the total stock of trees in the Federal Republic of Germany, which is why it is fundamental to conserve them. This work therefore targets not only at enabling a balanced coexistence of urban trees and subterranean infrastructure, but also at avoiding costly re-opening of ditches, tree harming cutting of roots and time consuming maintenance work. Further positive side effects are reduced costs for network providers and local municipalities, as well as reduced noise and dust emissions for passersby and local residents. To guarantee the root growth restricting properties, the self-compacting fill has to have less porosity than the adjacent soil (40 - 60%). Theoretically a porosity of 30% is possible with a homogeneous compaction of sand. In urban areas, however, because of the limited spaces and crossing pipes, a mechanical and homogenous compacting is often impossible. Porosities of 60 to 70% are the result. Self-compacting flowable fills have a porosity of about 40% while the first optimized materials can even have a porosity of 28%. We present the first results of the hydro-mechanical properties of the different materials under development that highlight the influence of the mixture of the fills (i.e. maximal grain size) on the root growth impeding properties, while still ensuring mechanical workability of the material (in spite of the low porosity, strengths less than 0.8 N mm-² must be ensured at all times).

  1. Shielding properties of lead-free protective clothing and their impact on radiation doses

    SciTech Connect

    Schlattl, Helmut; Zankl, Maria; Eder, Heinrich; Hoeschen, Christoph [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Bavarian Environment Agency, Buergermeister-Ulrich-Strasse 160, 81679 Augsburg (Germany); GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    The shielding properties of two different lead-free materials--tin and a compound of 80% tin and 20% bismuth--for protective clothing are compared with those of lead for three typical x-ray spectra generated at tube voltages of 60, 75, and 120 kV. Three different quantities were used to compare the shielding capability of the different materials: (1) Air-kerma attenuation factors in narrow-beam geometry, (2) air-kerma attenuation factors in broad-beam geometry, and (3) ratios of organ and effective doses in the human body for a whole-body irradiation with a parallel beam directed frontally at the body. The thicknesses of tin (0.45 mm) and the tin/bismuth compound (0.41 mm) to be compared against lead correspond to a lead equivalence value of 0.35 mm for the 75 kV spectrum. The narrow-beam attenuation factors for 0.45 mm tin are 54% and 32% lower than those for 0.35 mm lead for 60 and 120 kV; those for 0.41 mm tin/bismuth are 12% and 32% lower, respectively. The decrease of the broad-beam air-kerma attenuation factors compared to lead is 74%, 46%, and 41% for tin and 42%, 26%, and 33% for tin/bismuth and the spectra at 60, 75, and 120 kV, respectively. Therefore, it is recommended that the characterization of the shielding potential of a material should be done by measurements in broad-beam geometry. Since the secondary radiation that is mainly responsible for the shielding reduction in broad-beam geometry is of low penetrability, only more superficially located organs receive significantly enhanced doses. The increase for the dose to the glandular breast tissue (female) compared to being shielded by lead is 143%, 37%, and 45% when shielded by tin, and 35%, 15%, and 39% when shielded by tin/bismuth for 60, 75, and 120 kV, respectively. The effective dose rises by 60%, 6%, and 38% for tin, and 14%, 3% and, 35% for tin/bismuth shielding, respectively.

  2. Toward Developing Genetic Algorithms to Aid in Critical Infrastructure Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-05-01

    Today’s society relies upon an array of complex national and international infrastructure networks such as transportation, telecommunication, financial and energy. Understanding these interdependencies is necessary in order to protect our critical infrastructure. The Critical Infrastructure Modeling System, CIMS©, examines the interrelationships between infrastructure networks. CIMS© development is sponsored by the National Security Division at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in its ongoing mission for providing critical infrastructure protection and preparedness. A genetic algorithm (GA) is an optimization technique based on Darwin’s theory of evolution. A GA can be coupled with CIMS© to search for optimum ways to protect infrastructure assets. This includes identifying optimum assets to enforce or protect, testing the addition of or change to infrastructure before implementation, or finding the optimum response to an emergency for response planning. This paper describes the addition of a GA to infrastructure modeling for infrastructure planning. It first introduces the CIMS© infrastructure modeling software used as the modeling engine to support the GA. Next, the GA techniques and parameters are defined. Then a test scenario illustrates the integration with CIMS© and the preliminary results.

  3. PROTECTION OF TISSUE-CULTURE CELLS AGAINST IONIZING RADIATION. II. THE ACTIVITY OF HYPOXIA, DIMETHYL SULPHOXIDE, DIMETHYL SULPHONE, GLYCEROL AND CYSTEAMINE AT ROOM TEMPERATURE AND AT -196 C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Vos; M. C. A. C. Kaalen

    1962-01-01

    Protection against x irradiation by hypoxia, glycerol, dimethyl ; sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone, cystearnine, and a combination of glycerol and ; cysteamine was investigated at +20 deg C and -198 deg C. The protective power of ; the treatment was assayed as the degree to which it prevented radiation damage, ; i.e., the loss of the reproductive integrity of tissue-culture cells.

  4. A Hypothesis on Biological Protection from Space Radiation Through the Use of New Therapeutic Gases as Medical Counter Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Ansari, Rafat R.; Nakao, Atsunori; Wink, David

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure to astronauts could be a significant obstacle for long duration manned space exploration because of current uncertainties regarding the extent of biological effects. Furthermore, concepts for protective shielding also pose a technically challenging issue due to the nature of cosmic radiation and current mass and power constraints with modern exploration technology. The concern regarding exposure to cosmic radiation is the biological damage it induces. As damage is associated with increased oxidative stress, it is important and would be enabling to mitigate and/or prevent oxidative stress prior to the development of clinical symptoms and disease. This paper hypothesizes a "systems biology" approach in which a combination of chemical and biological mitigation techniques are used conjunctively. It proposes using new, therapeutic, medical gases as both chemical radioprotectors for radical scavenging and biological signaling molecules for management of the body s response to exposure. From reviewing radiochemistry of water, biological effects of CO, H2, NO, and H2S gas, and mechanisms of radiation biology, it is concluded that this approach may have great therapeutic potential for radiation exposure. Furthermore, it also appears to have similar potential for curtailing the pathogenesis of other diseases in which oxidative stress has been implicated including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic inflammatory disease, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, Parkinson s and Alzheimer s disease, cataracts, and aging.

  5. A hypothesis on biological protection from space radiation through the use of new therapeutic gases as medical counter measures.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Michael P; Ansari, Rafat R; Nakao, Atsunori; Wink, David

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure to astronauts could be a significant obstacle for long duration manned space exploration because of current uncertainties regarding the extent of biological effects. Furthermore, concepts for protective shielding also pose a technically challenging issue due to the nature of cosmic radiation and current mass and power constraints with modern exploration technology. The concern regarding exposure to cosmic radiation is biological damage that is associated with increased oxidative stress. It is therefore important and would be enabling to mitigate and/or prevent oxidative stress prior to the development of clinical symptoms and disease. This paper hypothesizes a "systems biology" approach in which a combination of chemical and biological mitigation techniques are used conjunctively. It proposes using new, therapeutic, medical gases as chemical radioprotectors for radical scavenging and as biological signaling molecules for management of the body's response to exposure. From reviewing radiochemistry of water, biological effects of CO, H2, NO, and H2S gas, and mechanisms of radiation biology, it can be concluded that this approach may have therapeutic potential for radiation exposure. Furthermore, it also appears to have similar potential for curtailing the pathogenesis of other diseases in which oxidative stress has been implicated including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic inflammatory disease, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, cataracts, and aging. We envision applying these therapies through inhalation of gas mixtures or ingestion of water with dissolved gases. PMID:22475015

  6. Effects of target fragmentation on evaluation of LET spectra from space radiations: Implications for space radiation protection studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Cucinotta; J. W. Wilson; J. L. Shinn; F. F. Badavi; G. D. Badhwar

    1996-01-01

    We present calculations of linear energy transfer (LET) spectra in low earth orbit from galactic cosmic rays and trapped protons using the HZETRN\\/BRYNTRN computer code. The emphasis of our calculations is on the analysis of the effects of secondary nuclei produced through target fragmentation in the spacecraft shield or detectors. Recent improvements in the HZETRN\\/BRYNTRN radiation transport computer code are

  7. Lack of protective effect of thromboxane synthetase inhibitor (CGS-13080) on single dose radiated canine intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Barter, J.F.; Marlow, D.; Kamath, R.K.; Harbert, J.; Torrisi, J.R.; Barnes, W.A.; Potkul, R.K.; Newsome, J.T.; Delgado, G. (Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The effect of a thromboxane A2 synthetase inhibitor (CGS-13080) on canine intestine was studied using a single dose of radiation, and radioactive microspheres were used to determine resultant blood flow. Thromboxane A2 causes vasospasm and platelet aggregation and may play a dominant role in radiation injury. However, there was no effect on the intestinal blood flow diminution occurring after radiation in this laboratory model using this thromboxane A2 synthetase inhibitor.

  8. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  9. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    Kaurin, D.G.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  10. Silymarin Protects Epidermal Keratinocytes from Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Apoptosis and DNA Damage by Nucleotide Excision Repair Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Katiyar, Santosh K.; Mantena, Sudheer K.; Meeran, Syed M.

    2011-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a well recognized epidemiologic risk factor for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. This observation has been linked to the accumulation of UVB radiation-induced DNA lesions in cells, and that finally lead to the development of skin cancers. Earlier, we have shown that topical treatment of skin with silymarin, a plant flavanoid from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), inhibits photocarcinogenesis in mice; however it is less understood whether chemopreventive effect of silymarin is mediated through the repair of DNA lesions in skin cells and that protect the cells from apoptosis. Here, we show that treatment of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) with silymarin blocks UVB-induced apoptosis of NHEK in vitro. Silymarin reduces the amount of UVB radiation-induced DNA damage as demonstrated by reduced amounts of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and as measured by comet assay, and that ultimately may lead to reduced apoptosis of NHEK. The reduction of UV radiation-induced DNA damage by silymarin appears to be related with induction of nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes, because UV radiation-induced apoptosis was not blocked by silymarin in NER-deficient human fibroblasts. Cytostaining and dot-blot analysis revealed that silymarin repaired UV-induced CPDs in NER-proficient fibroblasts from a healthy individual but did not repair UV-induced CPD-positive cells in NER-deficient fibroblasts from patients suffering from xeroderma pigmentosum complementation-A disease. Similarly, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that silymarin did not reduce the number of UVB-induced sunburn/apoptotic cells in the skin of NER-deficient mice, but reduced the number of sunburn cells in their wild-type counterparts. Together, these results suggest that silymarin exert the capacity to reduce UV radiation-induced DNA damage and, thus, prevent the harmful effects of UV radiation on the genomic stability of epidermal cells. PMID:21731736

  11. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT 2009 EPA WIPP RECERTIFICATION FACT SHEET United States Environmental Protection Agency | Office of Air and Radiation (6608J) | June 2009

    E-print Network

    detrimental to human health or the environment. EPA compares the results from PA with the release limits Protection Agency | Office of Air and Radiation (6608J) | June 2009 http://www.epa.gov/radiation system, assuming it is not disrupted by human intrusion or the occurrence of unlikely natural events

  12. Wr-1065, the active form of amifostine, protects hl-60 cells but not peripheral blood mononuclear cells from radiation and etoposide-induced apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georges F Hatoum; Barbara Nevaldine; Tej Bhavsar; Quentin Phung; Peter J Hahn

    2004-01-01

    PurposeDeveloping myeloid cells are particularly sensitive to chemotherapy and ionizing radiation. Mature cells of the hematopoietic lineages, such as are found in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), are much less sensitive for reasons that are not yet understood. Protecting the myeloid precursors from radiation or chemotherapy is an important goal.

  13. Peroxiredoxin IV Protects Cells From Radiation-Induced Apoptosis in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jung Je [Department of Otolaryngology, Institute of Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyo Won; Jeong, Eun-Jeong; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Sea-Yuong [Department of Otolaryngology, Institute of Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Gyung Hyuck [Department of Pathology, Institute of Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Yoon [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sykim2@amc.seoul.kr

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: Human peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are known as a family of thiol-specific antioxidant enzymes, among which Prx-I and -II play an important role in protecting cells from irradiation-induced cell death. It is not known whether Prx-IV also protects cells from ionizing radiation (IR). Methods and Materials: To evaluate the protective role of Prx-IV in IR, we transfected full-length Prx-IV cDNA into AMC-HN3 cells, which weakly express endogenous Prx-IV, and knocked down the expression of Prx-IV with siRNA methods using AMC-HN7 cells, which express high levels of endogenous Prx-IV. Radiosensitivity profiles in these cells were evaluated using clonogenic assay, FACS analysis, cell viability, and TUNEL assay. Results: Three Prx-IV expressing clones were isolated. Prx-IV regulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and made cells more resistant to IR-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the knockdown of Prx-IV with siRNA made cells more sensitive to IR-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: The results of these studies suggest that Prx-IV may play an important role in protecting cells from IR-induced apoptosis in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma.

  14. Solar ultraviolet-B radiation and aquatic primary production: damage, protection, and recovery

    E-print Network

    Vincent, Warwick F.

    concern about the impact of increased solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) on aquatic ecosystems. UV a variety of defences against the toxic end products of UV radiation, such as radical scavenging and repair the UV damage of DNA and other biomolecules. There is a large interspecificvariability

  15. Non-Coherent Near Infrared Radiation Protects Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts from Solar Ultraviolet Toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salatiel Menezes; Bernard Coulomb; Corinne Lebreton; Louis Dubertret

    1998-01-01

    The sun is the most important and universal source of non-ionizing radiation shed on human populations. Life evolved on Earth bathed by this radiation. Solar UV damages cells, leading to deleterious conditions such as photoaging and carcinogenesis in human skin. During the process of evolution, the cells selected dark- and light-dependent repair mechanisms as a defence against these hazardous effects.

  16. Dosimetric and radiation protection considerations based on some cases of patient skin injuries in interventional cardiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EV ANO; L ARRANZ; J M SASTRE; C MORO; A LEDO; MTG ARATE; I MINGUEZ

    Recently, several cases of skin injuries have been detected in patients undergoing cardiac radiofrequency catheter ablation. These procedures were performed on a biplane X-ray system used in a large Spanish hospital for interventional cardiology procedures. Interventional procedures performed and radiation lesions produced on patients are described. The radiation lesions were mainly erythematous lesions and chronic radiodermatitis. Results of the dosimetric

  17. Proline Accumulates in Plants Exposed to uv Radiation and Protects Them against uv-Induced Peroxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. P. Saradhi; S. AliaArora; K. V. S. K. Prasad

    1995-01-01

    Proline accumulated in the shoots of seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa), mustard (Brassica juncea) and mung bean (Vigna radiata) exposed to UV radiations. The level of proline in the seedlings increased significantly with increase in UV exposure time. The production of malondialdehyde (an indice of lipid peroxidation) was also higher in the shoots of seedlings exposed to UV radiation, as

  18. HOW MUCH MEMORY RADIATION PROTECTION DO ONBOARD MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHMS REQUIRE?

    E-print Network

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    is an open area of research. Key words: radiation, onboard data analysis. 1. INTRODUCTION Space missions of future space missions, given the communication de- lays imposed by the extreme distances involved (e.g., to Saturn). The high-radiation space environment can have severe negative effects on unprotected onboard

  19. Ground-based research with heavy ions for space radiation protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Durante; A. Kronenberg

    2005-01-01

    Human exposure to ionizing radiation is one of the acknowledged potential showstoppers for long duration manned interplanetary missions. Human exploratory missions cannot be safely performed without a substantial reduction of the uncertainties associated with different space radiation health risks, and the development of effective countermeasures. Most of our knowledge of the biological effects of heavy charged particles comes from accelerator-based

  20. Problems in the radiation protection of human beings in cosmic space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Matusevich; S. G. Tsypin

    1963-01-01

    A discussion is given of the sources and the biological effect of ionizing radiations in the cosmos. Estimates are given for the weight of shielding required by a space ship. It is shown that the weight of shielding required when the ship is passing through the radiation belts, and when solar flares occur, is several tons. The shielding from galactic