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1

Homeland Security and Critical Infrastructure Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homeland Security and Critical Infrastructure Protection (Collins & Baggett - 2009) examines current security gaps, protection plans, and future options for keeping critical infrastructures safe from all-hazards. Early chapters offer condensed background on the Department of Homeland Security, the evolution of critical infrastructures in the US, and a review of key legislation, presidential directives, and the approach to assessing infrastructure.

Pamela A. Collins; Ryan K. Baggett

2009-01-01

2

Tools for 21st Century infrastructure protection  

SciTech Connect

The President`s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCEP) was formed under Executive Order 13010 to recommend a national strategy for protecting and assuring critical infrastructures. Eight critical infrastructure elements have been identified. This paper provides an overview of tools necessary to conduct in depth analysis and characterization of threats, vulnerabilities, and interdependencies of critical infrastructure subsystems, and their interaction with each other. Particular emphasis is placed on research requirements necessary to develop the next generation of tools. In addition to tools, a number of system level research suggestions are made including developing a system architecture, data flow models, national level resources, and a national test bed.

Trost, S.R.

1997-07-01

3

77 FR 72673 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Resilience Month, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Critical Infrastructure Protection and Resilience Month, 2012 Proclamation 8911--National...Critical Infrastructure Protection and Resilience Month, 2012 By the President of the...Critical Infrastructure Protection and Resilience Month, we maintain our commitment...

2012-12-05

4

Protecting Critical Infrastructure with Games Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely recognised that there is a considerable gap in the protection of the national infrastructure. Trying to identify what is in fact ‘critical’ is proving to be very difficult as threats constantly evolve. An interactive prototyping tool is useful in playing out scenarios and simulating the effect of change, however existing simulators in the critical infrastructure area are

Adrian Boeing; Martin Masek; William Bailey

2008-01-01

5

Critical (information) Infrastructure Protection in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some sectors and parts of the Dutch national infrastructure are that essential to the Netherlands that serious disruption or even loss of service could lead to a severe impact to the Dutch society, government and industry as well as to those of neighbouring countries. Early 2002, the Dutch government started the Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) project 'Bescherming Vitale Infrastructuur' with

Eric A. M. Luiijf; Helen H. Burger; Marieke H. A. Klaver

2003-01-01

6

76 FR 17934 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), will submit the following Information...Request should be forwarded to DHS/NPPD/IP, 245 Murray Lane, SW., Mail Stop 0602...DHS, this responsibility is managed by IP within NPPD. Beginning in Fiscal Year...

2011-03-31

7

Ensuring (and Insuring?) Critical Information Infrastructure Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protecting infrastructure from calamity has always been important for industry, government and society. Yet with more activities dependent on computer networks -- from banking and aviation to emergency services -- the reliability and security of information and communication systems against disasters, both natural and man-made, are in doubt. The question of protection is difficult because the majority of critical information

Kenneth Neil Cukier; Viktor Mayer-Schoenberger; Lewis Branscomb

2005-01-01

8

Government Intervention in Information Infrastructure Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical information infrastructure protection is the subject “du jour.” An important part to addressing the issue is to answer\\u000a the question whether the private sector or the government should be responsible for protection. The choice of governing arrangement\\u000a – government provision, private provision or any combination thereof – is essential to ensuring an adequate level of security.\\u000a This paper discusses

Dan Assaf

2007-01-01

9

Authenticated Modbus Protocol for Critical Infrastructure Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protecting a nation's critical infrastructure, notably its power grid is crucial in view of increasing threats, such as international terrorism. We focus on the security of the Modbus protocol, a de-facto protocol for distributed control systems popularly used for power plants. Specifically, we analyze the security of a recently proposed authenticated Modbus protocol. We present attacks on the protocol, discuss

Raphael C.-W. Phan

2012-01-01

10

Critical Infrastructure Protection-the cyber\\/information dimension: report on national infrastructure coordination initiatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive Order 13010, entitled “Critical Infrastructure Protection,” states that certain national infrastructures are so vital that their incapacity or destruction would have a debilitating impact on the defense or economic security of the United States. Threats to these critical infrastructures fall into two categories: physical threats and cyber threats. The order established the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCIP).

1997-01-01

11

Radiation Protection Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... Basic Concepts of Radiation Protection time distance shielding Time The amount of radiation exposure increases and decreases ... exposure. How does EPA use the concept of time in radiation protection? When we set a radiation ...

12

THE ROLE OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION (CIP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collocation “critical infrastructures” was officialy born in july 1996, when the USA president decreeted “The executive order for the critical infrastructures protection”. Accordingly to the preface of this document: “critical infrastructures represent Certain national infrastructures that are so vital that their incapacity or destruction would have a debilitating impact on the defense or economic security of the United States.”

Dan Constantin TOFAN

2009-01-01

13

Radiation Protection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chemotherapy and radiation can be powerful weapons against cancer. But they harm healthy cells as well. Cells of the immune system and G.I. tract are especially vulnerable: instead of repairing the damage, they respond by committing cellular suicide. In contrast, tumor cells have mutations that make them resistant to cell death. Roswell Park Cancer Institute researcher Andrei Gudkov and his colleagues recently harnessed this property to create a new drug.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2008-05-01

14

76 FR 17935 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP) will submit the following Information...Request should be forwarded to DHS/NPPD/IP, Attn: Emily R. Hickey (Emily.hickey...litigation. The PCII Program is administered by IP's Infrastructure Information...

2011-03-31

15

76 FR 50487 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), will submit the following Information...INFORMATION CONTACT: Emily Hickey, DHS/NPPD/IP, Emily.Hickey@dhs.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY...Program is administered by DHS/NPPD/IP's Infrastructure Information...

2011-08-15

16

77 FR 35700 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Program Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure Information Collection...Request should be forwarded to DHS/NPPD/IP/IICD, 245 Murray Lane, SW., Mailstop...internal PCII Program, IICD, and NPPD/IP use only.OMB is particularly...

2012-06-14

17

The need for the Protection of Critical National Infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, the concept of ``protection of critical infrastructures'' is one of the most important aspects that should be taken into account by all countries. In Spain, the National Centre for the Protection of Critical Infrastructures (CNPIC) has been recently created, which is responsible of all tasks related to this type of protection. It was established in accordance with all national

Fernando J. Sánchez Gómez; Miguel Ángel Abad Arranz

2009-01-01

18

78 FR 76986 - Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory...The regulations approved certain reliability standards proposed by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation. DATES: Effective on...

2013-12-20

19

73 FR 7368 - Mandatory Reliability Standards for Critical Infrastructure Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...business continuity and disaster recovery techniques and...inadequate for protecting critical national infrastructure,'' and ``inadequate...are well defined in the emergency management and disaster recovery...

2008-02-07

20

A Federal Response: The President's Critical Infrastructure Protection Board.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the U.S. Critical Infrastructure Protection Board's purpose, budget, principles, and priorities. Describes the board's role in coordinating all federal activities related to protection of information systems and networks supporting critical infrastructures. Also discusses its responsibility in creating a policy and road map for government…

Schmidt, Howard

2002-01-01

21

PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION INJURY  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account is given of the principles of protection against radiation ; injury and of the recommendations of Emergency Health Services, Department of ; National Health and Welfare, to those responsible for the protection of the ; health of persons at risk from nuclear weapon fallout radiations. Protection ; against injury is based on 2 concepts: procedures that result in

F. C. Pace; W. R. Waters

1961-01-01

22

Enhancement of Critical Financial Infrastructure Protection Using Trust Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Providing protection to the financial infrastructure in the face of faults and malevolent attacks is vital to the stability,\\u000a availability, and continuity of key financial markets and businesses worldwide. Traditional protection approaches have focused\\u000a on protecting individual financial institutions (FIs) while ignoring the threats arising from cross-domain interactions as\\u000a well as those originating from other critical infrastructures. With the growing

Hisain Elshaafi; Jimmy McGibney; Barry Mulcahy; Dmitri Botvich

23

Radiation Protection Handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A handbook which sets forth the Kennedy Space Center radiation protection policy is presented. The book also covers administrative direction and guidance on organizational and procedural requirements of the program. Only ionizing radiation is covered.

1972-01-01

24

Maintaining radiation protection records  

SciTech Connect

This Report is part of a series prepared under the auspices of Scientific Committee 46 on Operational Radiation Safety. It provides guidance on maintaining radiation protection records. Record keeping is an essential element of every radiation protection program. This Report describes the elements that should enter into the design of a program for the maintenance of operational radiation safety records. The problems of the length of time for retention of records for operational, regulatory, epidemiologic and legal uses are discussed in detail.

Not Available

1992-11-30

25

Energy Regulation Effects on Critical Infrastructure Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. critical infrastructure includes those assets that are vital to maintaining the nation's security, economy, and public health and safety. A reliable supply of electric power provides an essential foundation for the daily operation of all national cri...

M. E. McQuinn

2008-01-01

26

Protecting a nation's critical infrastructure: the first steps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern societies are increasingly dependent on a set of critical products and services which comprise the critical infrastructure (CI). Relatively well-known threats as well as the new terrorist threat increase the need for critical infrastructure protection (CIP). Using a methodological approach, the Netherlands determined its CI that consists of thirty-one critical products and services in eleven critical sectors. The critical

Eric A. M. Luiijf; Marieke H. A. Klaver

2004-01-01

27

75 FR 31458 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure Information Collection...required contact: Ribkha Hailu, DHS/NPPD/IP/IICD, at iicd@dhs.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY...this responsibility is managed by NPPD/IP. In FY2006, IP engaged in the annual...

2010-06-03

28

78 FR 27113 - Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory...regulations proposed to approve certain reliability standards proposed by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation. DATES: Effective on...

2013-05-09

29

75 FR 41213 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure Information Collection...an information collection entitled, ``IP Data Call.'' This is a correction notice...published 60-day notice to read, ``IP Data Call Survey.'' There are no...

2010-07-15

30

Risk Assessment Methodology for Protecting Our Critical Physical Infrastructures  

SciTech Connect

Critical infrastructures are central to our national defense and our economic well-being, but many are taken for granted. Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) 63 highlights the importance of eight of our critical infrastructures and outlines a plan for action. Greatly enhanced physical security systems will be required to protect these national assets from new and emerging threats. Sandia National Laboratories has been the lead laboratory for the Department of Energy (DOE) in developing and deploying physical security systems for the past twenty-five years. Many of the tools, processes, and systems employed in the protection of high consequence facilities can be adapted to the civilian infrastructure.

BIRINGER,BETTY E.; DANNEELS,JEFFREY J.

2000-12-13

31

Protecting complex infrastructures against multiple strategic attackers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrastructures are analysed subject to defence by a strategic defender and attack by multiple strategic attackers. A framework is developed where each agent determines how much to invest in defending versus attacking each of multiple targets. A target can have economic, human and symbolic values, which generally vary across agents. Investment expenditure functions for each agent can be linear in

Kjell Hausken

2011-01-01

32

SUBCOMMITTEE ON ECONOMIC SECURITY, INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION, AND CYBERSECURITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jurisdiction: Development of strategies to protect against terrorist attack against the United States; prioritizing risks through analytical tools and cost\\/benefit analyses; prioritizing investment in critical infrastructure protection across all sectors, including transportation (air, land, sea, and intermodal, both domestic and international); defeating terrorist efforts to inflict economic costs through threats and violence; mitigation of potential consequences of terrorist attacks on

DON YOUNG; Texas JOHN LINDER; MARK E. SOUDER

33

Physics for Radiation Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A practical guide to the basic physics that radiation protection professionals need A much-needed working resource for health physicists and other radiation protection professionals, this volume presents clear, thorough, up-to-date explanations of the basic physics necessary to address real-world problems in radiation protection. Designed for readers with limited as well as basic science backgrounds, Physics for Radiation Protection emphasizes applied concepts and carefully illustrates all topics through examples as well as practice problems. Physics for Radiation Protection draws substantially on current resource data available for health physics use, providing decay schemes and emission energies for approximately 100 of the most common radionuclides encountered by practitioners. Excerpts of the Chart of the Nuclides, activation cross sections, fission yields, fission-product chains, photon attenuation coefficients, and nuclear masses are also provided. Coverage includes: * The atom as an energy system * An overview of the major discoveries in radiation physics * Extensive discussion of radioactivity, including sources and materials * Nuclear interactions and processes of radiation dose * Calculational methods for radiation exposure, dose, and shielding * Nuclear fission and production of activation and fission products * Specialty topics ranging from nuclear criticality and applied statistics to X rays * Extensive and current resource data cross-referenced to standard compendiums * Extensive appendices and more than 400 figures

Martin, James E.

2000-06-01

34

Environmental Radiation Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental distribution of radionuclides, released from nuclear facilities and other sources, and the principles of the emergency countermeasures for radiation protection of the public and workers are discussed in this chapter. The concentration levels of radionuclides in various aquatic and terrestrial environments and the exposure levels of the population due to the various sources of radiation (natural and artificial radionuclides, cosmic radiation, diagnostic medical examinations, atmospheric nuclear tests, etc.) are presented.

Maeda, Y.; Osaki, S.; Vincze, A.

35

Neptunium: Radiation protection guidelines  

SciTech Connect

The present report reviews the current knowledge of neptunium in areas which are important to radiation protection and makes recommendations on radiation protection guidelines. The report briefly reviews the chemical and physical properties of neptunium, the sources of neptunium in the environment, and potential pathways to man. The limited animal data on health effects are also examined. In addition, animal studies that may serve as a basis for predicting the metabolic behavior of neptunium in humans are considered. On the basis of the information examined, recommendations are made on the fraction of ingested neptunium absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract into blood (f/sub 1/). Finally, the report applies the available data to recommendations on radiation protection guidelines for neptunium.

Not Available

1988-02-28

36

76 FR 17933 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), will submit the following Information...Request should be forwarded to DHS/NPPD/IP, 245 Murray Lane, SW., Mail Stop 0602...DHS, this responsibility is managed by IP within NPPD. In Fiscal Year 2006, IP...

2011-03-31

37

Justification in Radiation Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years the concept of Justification has increasingly come to the fore of the minds of legislators, users of radioactive materials and radiation protection specialists alike. Perhaps the most well known manifestation of this was the lengthy debate, ending in judicial review, about the Justification for the operation of the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (Thorp) at Sellafield and, more

David Owen

1999-01-01

38

Constructing vulnerabilty and protective measures indices for the enhanced critical infrastructure protection program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has directed its Protective Security Advisors (PSAs) to form partnerships with the owners and operators of assets most essential to the Nation's well being - a subclass of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) - and to conduct site visits for these and other high-risk assets as part of the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure

R. E. Fisher; W. A. Buehring; R. G. Whitfield; G. W. Bassett; D. C. Dickinson; R. A. Haffenden; M. S. Klett; M. A. Lawlor

2009-01-01

39

Agriculture and Food: Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources Sector- Specific Plan as Input to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Protecting the Nation's agriculture and food critical infrastructure and key resources (CI/KR) is an important responsibility shared by Federal, State, local, and tribal governments and private industry. Because of the open nature of many portions of the ...

2007-01-01

40

Pregnancy and Radiation Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating oncologist, other team and family members should carefully discuss for the decision of abortion. Important factors must be considered such as the stage and aggressiveness of the tumour, the location of the tumour, the stage of pregnancy, various therapies etc.

Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.

2010-01-01

41

78 FR 29375 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Office Self-Assessment Questionnaire  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure Information Collection...INFORMATION CONTACT: Barbara Forrest DHS/NPPD/IP/PCII, barbara.forrest@hq.dhs...Program is administered by DHS/ NPPD/IP/IICD. The PCII Program is...

2013-05-20

42

77 FR 37060 - Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) Asset Protection Technical Assistance Program...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure Information Collection...Request should be forwarded to DHS/NPPD/IP/IICD, 245 Murray Lane SW., Mailstop...CAPTAP) is offered jointly by the NPPD/IP and the Federal Emergency Management...

2012-06-20

43

Radiation protection guidelines for radiation emergencies  

SciTech Connect

The system of dose limitation and present guidance for emergency workers and guidance for intervention on behalf of the public are discussed. There are three elements for the system of dose limitation: justification, optimization and dose limits. The first element is basically a political process in this country. Justification is based on a risk-benefit analysis, and justification of the use of radioactive materials or radiation is generally not within the authority of radiation protection managers. Radiation protection managers typically assess detriments or harm caused by radiation exposure and have very little expertise in assessing the benefits of a particular practice involving nuclear material.

Lessard, E.T.; Meinhold, C.B.

1986-01-01

44

Optical Radiation: Laser Protection  

MedlinePLUS

... protection at all times. Determine the maximum power density, or intensity, lasers produce when workers are exposed ... following table shows the maximum power or energy density for which adequate protection is afforded by safety ...

45

Methodologies and applications for critical infrastructure protection: State-of-the-art  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work provides an update of the state-of-the-art on energy security relating to critical infrastructure protection. For this purpose, this survey is based upon the conceptual view of OECD countries, and specifically in accordance with EU Directive 114\\/08\\/EC on the identification and designation of European critical infrastructures, and on the 2009 US National Infrastructure Protection Plan.The review discusses the different

Jose M. Yusta; Gabriel J. Correa; Roberto Lacal-Arántegui

2011-01-01

46

The U.S. National Infrastructure Protection Center: 1999-2001 - A Research In Progress Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996, the increasing threats of cyber-terrorism and information warfare lead U.S. President Clinton to form the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCIP), which resulted in a number of landmark government initiatives to combat various computer security issues. This paper investigates the role of the National Infrastructure Protection Center (NIPC) and the information provided by the organisation. As a

M. K. Lavine

47

Radiation protection during space flight.  

PubMed

The problem of ensuring space flight safety arises from conditions inherent to space flights and outer space and from the existing weight limitations of spacecraft. In estimating radiation hazard during space flights, three natural sources are considered: the Earth's radiation belt, solar radiation, and galactic radiation. This survey first describes the major sources of radiation hazard in outer space with emphasis on those source parameters directly related to shielding manned spacecraft. Then, the current status of the safety criteria used in the shielding calculations is discussed. The rest of the survey is devoted to the rationale for spacecraft radiation shielding calculations. The recently completed long-term space flights indicate the reliability of the radiation safety measures used for the near-Earth space exploration. While planning long-term interplanetary flights, it is necessary to solve a number of complicated technological problems related to the radiation protection of the crew. PMID:6318715

Kovalev, E E

1983-12-01

48

Recommendation-based geovisualization support for reconstitution in critical infrastructure protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protecting critical infrastructure systems, such as electrical power grids, has become a primary concern for many governments and organizations across a variety of stakeholder perspectives. Critical infrastructures involve multidimensional, highly complex collections of technologies, processes, and people, and as such, are vulnerable to potentially catastrophic failures on many levels. Moreover, cross-infrastructure dependencies can give rise to cascading effects with escalating impact across multiple infrastructures. Critical infrastructure protection involves both safeguarding against potential disaster scenarios and effective response in the aftermath of infrastructure failure. Our research is developing innovative approaches to modeling critical infrastructures in order to support decision-making during reconstitution efforts in response to infrastructure disruptions. By modeling the impact of infrastructure elements, both within and across infrastructures, we can recommend focus areas for reconstitution resources across different stakeholders in the context of their current goals. An interactive geovisualization interface provides a natural context for this infrastructure analysis support. This paper presents an overview of our approach and the GIS modeling environment under development for decision support in critical infrastructure reconstitution.

Wilson, David C.; Pala, Okan; Tolone, William J.; Xiang, Wei-Ning

2009-05-01

49

75 FR 67989 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Infrastructure Protection; Infrastructure...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...achieving the homeland security mission for critical...desires to collect information from its stakeholders...efforts to improve the security of the Nation's infrastructure...the visibility and awareness of the critical infrastructure...proposed collection of information is necessary for...

2010-11-04

50

Multiple Modeling Approaches and Insights for Critical Infrastructure Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrastructures provide the foundation for national economic vitality, security and every day comforts. The systems, processes, facilities and experts that form these infrastructures are sophisticated, complex and highly interdependent. Over time, these physical, human and cyber components have evolved toward economical and efficient systems that are robust against random failures and natural events. This evolution creates greater interconnectedness and complexity.

Theresa BROWN

51

Designing radiation protection signs  

SciTech Connect

Entry into hazardous areas without the proper protective equipment is extremely dangerous and must be prevented whenever possible. Current postings of radiological hazards at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) do not incorporate recent findings concerning effective warning presentation. Warning information should be highly visible, quickly, and easily understood. While continuing to comply with industry standards (e.g., Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines), these findings can be incorporated into existing radiological sign design, making them more effective in terms of usability and compliance. Suggestions are provided for designing more effective postings within stated guidelines.

Rodriguez, M.A.; Richey, C.L.

1995-03-01

52

Fiber optic sensor applications in transportation infrastructure protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent study (1) on transportation infrastructure, the results are very disturbing. It states that 83% of the United States transportation infrastructure in not capable of meeting the needs of the next 10 years. While other countries have been more aggressive in infrastructure development and monitoring, the United States is lagging behind. There are a broad range of infrastructure sensing applications in transportation that are not being met. Many of these vital assets are aging or not adequately monitored with the potential for catastrophic failure. As examples, the bridge failure in Minneapolis, Minnesota was due to a structural failure. Fire safety problems, with recent life-loss fires, in road tunnels are challenging due to specific features of their infrastructure, nature of traffic using them and insufficient safety rules on vehicles. As a result, road tunnel fire safety issues are a concern. NIST has recognized the need and is funding innovative research for the development of infrastructure monitoring and inspection technologies. Specifically, NIST through its Technology Innovation Program (TIP) will fund the development of a network of distributed, integrated sensor architectures that will monitor bridges, roadways, tunnels, dams and other critical infrastructure applications (2) Many of these applications can be facilitated by using fiber optic sensors. This paper will specifically address monitoring bridges and tunnels using distributed fiber optic sensors to monitor strain, vibration, temperature and the associated benefits.

Krohn, David; Nicholls, Paul

2009-05-01

53

Constructing vulnerabilty and protective measures indices for the enhanced critical infrastructure protection program.  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has directed its Protective Security Advisors (PSAs) to form partnerships with the owners and operators of assets most essential to the Nation's well being - a subclass of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) - and to conduct site visits for these and other high-risk assets as part of the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) Program. During each such visit, the PSA documents information about the facility's current CIKR protection posture and overall security awareness. The primary goals for ECIP site visits (DHS 2009) are to: (1) inform facility owners and operators of the importance of their facilities as an identified high-priority CIKR and the need to be vigilant in light of the ever-present threat of terrorism; (2) identify protective measures currently in place at these facilities, provide comparisons of CIKR protection postures across like assets, and track the implementation of new protective measures; and (3) enhance existing relationships among facility owners and operators; DHS; and various Federal, State, local tribal, and territorial partners. PSAs conduct ECIP visits to assess overall site security; educate facility owners and operators about security; help owners and operators identify gaps and potential improvements; and promote communication and information sharing among facility owners and operators, DHS, State governments, and other security partners. Information collected during ECIP visits is used to develop metrics; conduct sector-by-sector and cross-sector vulnerability comparisons; identify security gaps and trends across CIKR sectors and subsectors; establish sector baseline security survey results; and track progress toward improving CIKR security through activities, programs, outreach, and training (Snyder 2009). The data being collected are used in a framework consistent with the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) risk criteria (DHS 2009). The NIPP framework incorporates consequence, threat, and vulnerability components and addresses all hazards. The analysis of the vulnerability data needs to be reproducible, support risk analysis, and go beyond protection. It also needs to address important security/vulnerability topics, such as physical security, cyber security, systems analysis, and dependencies and interdependencies. This report provides an overview of the approach being developed to estimate vulnerability and provide vulnerability comparisons for sectors and subsectors. the information will be used to assist DHS in analyzing existing protective measures and vulnerability at facilities, to identify potential ways to reduce vulnerabilities, and to assist in preparing sector risk estimates. The owner/operator receives an analysis of the data collected for a specific asset, showing a comparison between the facility's protection posture/vulnerability index and those of DHS sector/subsector sites visited. This comparison gives the owner/operator an indication of the asset's security strengths and weaknesses that may be contributing factors to its vulnerability and protection posture. The information provided to the owner/operator shows how the asset compares to other similar assets within the asset's sector or subsector. A 'dashboard' display is used to illustrate the results in a convenient format. The dashboard allows the owner/operator to analyze the implementation of additional protective measures and to illustrate how such actions would impact the asset's Protective Measures Index (PMI) or Vulnerability Index (VI).

Fisher, R. E.; Buehring, W. A.; Whitfield, R. G.; Bassett, G. W.; Dickinson, D. C.; Haffenden, R. A.; Klett, M. S.; Lawlor, M. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; LANL

2009-10-14

54

Modeling Critical Vaccine Supply Location: Protecting Critical Infrastructure and Population in Central Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the launch of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security in 2002, research needs have been established in the areas of disaster preparedness and critical infrastructure protection. Disaster preparedness seeks to lessen the adverse effects of disasters and hazards by planning in advance and responding in a proper manner. Critical infrastructures are those entities deemed necessary for society to function

Paul J. Maliszewski

2008-01-01

55

An Ontology-Based Approach to Blind Spot Revelation in Critical Infrastructure Protection Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

One widely perceived yet poorly understood phenomenon in the practice of critical infrastructure protection is that of blind spots. These are certain aspects of the interrelationships among different critical infrastructure systems (CI systems) that could trigger catastrophe across CI systems but are concealed from planners, and discovered only in the aftermath of a crisis. In this paper, we discuss the

Joshua Blackwell; William J. Tolone; Seok-Won Lee; Wei-Ning Xiang; Lydia Marsh

2008-01-01

56

77 FR 68795 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Office Self-Assessment Questionnaire  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure Information Collection...Request should be forwarded to DHS/NPPD/IP/IICD, 245 Murray Lane, SW., Mail Stop...Officers that will be used by the NPPD/IP PCII Program to assess state and local...

2012-11-16

57

Protection against radiation (biological, pharmacological, chemical, physical)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical, chemical, and biological protection for astronauts from penetrating radiation on long-term space flights is discussed. The status of pharmacochemical protection, development of protective substances, medical use of protective substances, protection for spacecraft ecologic systems, adaptogens and physical conditioning, bone marrow transplants and local protection are discussed. Combined use of local protection and pharmacochemical substances is also briefly considered.

Saksonov, P. P.

1975-01-01

58

Potholes and Detours in the Road to Critical Infrastructure Protection Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The national strategy for the protection of critical infrastructure and key assets is not working due to a number of failed strategies, which this article examines in detail: federalism (separation of state and federal governmental controls) advocates tha...

R. Darken T. G. Lewis

2005-01-01

59

Research needs for radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

In answer to a request from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the NCRP has issued Report No. 117, summarizing the Council`s suggestions for research to strengthen radiation protection. As might be expected, the basic question deals with the effects of low-LET radiations at low doses and low dose rates. Have present regulations for radiation protection already been set at, or even below, the practical limits at which significant research results can be obtained for epidemiological application? The NCRP`s answer consists of 63 biological and physical projects for investigation, each described by a paragraph or two, prefaced with a caveat that this list is neither complete or definitive. The 63 are grouped under five headings: Cellular and molecular biology; Dose determinations; Risk assessment; Prevention, intervention and perception; and, Resource requirements.

NONE

1993-12-31

60

76 FR 22113 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Infrastructure Protection; Infrastructure...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...seeking clearance in this information collection request...OMB. IP will use the information collected to obtain...desires to collect information from its stakeholders...efforts to improve the security of the Nation's infrastructure...the visibility and awareness of the critical...

2011-04-20

61

Radiation protection standards in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation protection standards for the individual exposed to ionizing radiation in his/her daily work have evolved over more than 50 years since the first recommendations on limits by the NCRP and the ICRP. Initial standards were based on the absence of observable harm, notably skin erythema, but have since been modified as other concerns, such as leukemia and genetic effects, became more important. More recently, the general carcinogenic effect of radiation has become the principal concern at low doses. Genetic effects are also of concern in the younger individual. Modern radiation protection practices take both of these risks into account. Quantification of these risks improves as new information emerges. The study of the Japanese survivors of the atomic bombs continues to yield new information and the recent revisions in the dosimetry are about to be completed. The special circumstances of space travel suggest approaches to limits not unlike those for radiation workers on the ground. One approach is to derive a career limit based on the risks of accident faced by many nonradiation workers in a lifetime. The career limit can be apportioned according to the type of mission. The NCRP is considering this and other approaches to the specification of radiation standards in space.

Sinclair, Warren K.

62

A control system testbed to validate critical infrastructure protection concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Mississippi State University SCADA Security Laboratory and Power and Energy Research laboratory. This laboratory combines model control systems from multiple critical infrastructure industries to create a testbed with functional physical processes controlled by commercial hardware and software over common industrial control system routable and non-routable networks. Laboratory exercises, functional demonstrations, and lecture material from the testbed

Thomas Morris; Anurag Srivastava; Bradley Reaves; Wei Gao; Kalyan Pavurapu; Ram Reddi

2011-01-01

63

Space station: Infrastructure for radiation measurements in low Earth orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has recently begun the design and development phase of the Space Station Program. International negotiations with the Europeans, Japanese and Canadians are progressing and they will soon join the United States in the development to complete plans for a cooperative, international space endeavor. The Space Station will prove a permanently manned facility in low earth orbit to support scientific research, technology development and commercial activities. In addition, free-flying platforms will be developed to carry a variety of user payloads in polar orbit, in co-orbit with the station and eventually into geosynchronous orbit. The Station and platforms represent an infrastructure of research facilities in space which could be utilized for measurements of naturally occurring radiation and secondary emissions over extended periods of time. High energy radiation experiments at the Station/platforms might vary in objective from scientific purpose of characterizing the radiation evironment for improved model accuracy. This paper describes the Space Station Program content, schedule and approach for inputting user requirements into the design process. Conference participants can then assess to what extent this future capability in space matches their future research initiatives.

Meredith, B. D.

1989-05-01

64

Protecting Critical Infrastructures While Preserving Each Organization's Autonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In critical infrastructures (CIs), different organizations must cooperate, while being mutually suspicious since they have\\u000a different interests and can be in competition on some markets. Moreover, in most cases, there is no recognized authority that\\u000a can impose global security rules to all participating organizations. In such a context, it is difficult to apply good security\\u000a practices to the interconnected information

Yves Deswarte

2011-01-01

65

Legal Authorities Database: A 'Legal Foundations' Study, Report 4 of 12. Report to the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the fall of 1996, the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCIP) commissioned the creation of a legal database. The PCCIP Legal Authorities Database (Database) now houses over 14,000 legal authorities bearing on infrastructure...

1997-01-01

66

Radiation biology: concepts for radiation protection.  

PubMed

The opportunity to write a historical review of the field of radiation biology allows for the viewing of the development and maturity of a field of study, thereby being able to provide the appropriate context for the earlier years of research and its findings. The pioneering work of Muller, Sax, and McClintock, and many others, has stood the test of time. The idea that x-rays could damage the genetic material and result in interactions that could lead to gene mutations and a range of chromosomal alterations is now interpretable in terms of induced DNA damage and errors of DNA repair. The expanded idea that such genetic alterations can be induced by DNA damage that is produced by one or two tracks of ionizing radiation remains the mainstay of radiation biology. The impact of the more recent molecular approaches to unraveling the mechanism behind this simple concept has confirmed this fundamental observation. The remarkable advances have allowed for a fairly complete understanding of the specific types of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiations and the pivotal role played by the errors of repair of double-strand breaks. Given our considerably enhanced knowledge of the details of the DNA repair processes involved, misrepair is a very unlikely event. The role of potential confounders of the concept of dose-response (e.g., bystander effects, genomic instability, and adaptive responses) is taking on a growing importance to the field. The evolving need is to begin to consider mechanistically-based dose-response models for cancer risk such that any potential impact of confounders on the response at low, environmental doses can be assessed. Thus, radiation biology research has always had a focus on how best to protect human health from radiation exposures and will continue to do so. PMID:15891452

Preston, R Julian

2005-06-01

67

Radiation biology: concepts for radiation protection.  

PubMed

The opportunity to write a historical review of the field of radiation biology allows for the viewing of the development and maturity of a field of study, thereby being able to provide the appropriate context for the earlier years of research and its findings. The pioneering work of Muller, Sax, and McClintock, and many others, has stood the test of time. The idea that x-rays could damage the genetic material and result in interactions that could lead to gene mutations and a range of chromosomal alterations is now interpretable in terms of induced DNA damage and errors of DNA repair. The expanded idea that such genetic alterations can be induced by DNA damage that is produced by one or two tracks of ionizing radiation remains the mainstay of radiation biology. The impact of the more recent molecular approaches to unraveling the mechanism behind this simple concept has confirmed this fundamental observation. The remarkable advances have allowed for a fairly complete understanding of the specific types of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiations and the pivotal role played by the errors of repair of double-strand breaks. Given our considerably enhanced knowledge of the details of the DNA repair processes involved, misrepair is a very unlikely event. The role of potential confounders of the concept of dose-response (e.g., bystander effects, genomic instability, and adaptive responses) is taking on a growing importance to the field. The evolving need is to begin to consider mechanistically-based dose-response models for cancer risk such that any potential impact of confounders on the response at low, environmental doses can be assessed. Thus, radiation biology research has always had a focus on how best to protect human health from radiation exposures and will continue to do so. PMID:15194918

Preston, R Julian

2004-07-01

68

Evidence-Based Techniques for Evaluating Cyber Protection Systems for Critical Infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies. Existing risk assessment methodologies consider physical security and cyber security separately. As such, they do not accurately model attacks that involve defeating both physical protection and cyber protection elements (e.g., hackers turning off alarm systems prior to forced entry). Previous research has developed a risk

J. Darby; J. Phelan; P. Sholander; B. Smith; A. Walter; G. Wyss

2006-01-01

69

Cancer complexity and radiation protection.  

PubMed

Management of radiological risks typically encountered in environmental and occupational settings is challenging because of uncertainties in the magnitude of the risks and the benefits of risk reduction. In practice, radiation dose instead of risk is measured. However, the relationship between dose and risk is not straightforward because cancer (the major health effect of concern at low doses) is a disease of complexity. Risks at small doses (defined as less than 100 mSv) can never be known exactly because of the inherent uncertainties in cancer as a complex disease. Tumors are complex because of the nonlinear interactions that occur among tumor cells and between the tumor and its local tissue environment. This commentary reviews evidence for cancer complexity and what complexity means for radiation protection. A complexity view of cancer does not mean we must abandon our current system of protection. What it does mean is that complexity requires new ways of thinking about control of cancer-the ideas that cancers can occur without cause, cancers behave unpredictably, and calculated cancer risks following small doses of radiation are highly uncertain. PMID:24849905

Mossman, Kenneth L

2014-07-01

70

78 FR 24107 - Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...protect data that is utilized for both smart grid applications \\91\\ and in other...See NISTIR 7628: Guidelines for Smart Grid Cyber Security and FIPS 140-2 for further guidance regarding smart grid systems and cryptography....

2013-04-24

71

Status of radiation protection at different hospitals in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Nepal has a long history of medical radiology since1923 but unfortunately, we still do not have any Radiation Protection Infrastructure to control the use of ionizing radiations in the various fields. The objective of this study was an assessment of the radiation protection in medical uses of ionizing radiation. Twenty-eight hospitals with diagnostic radiology facility were chosen for this study according to patient loads, equipment and working staffs. Radiation surveys were also done at five different radiotherapy centers. Questionnaire for radiation workers were used; radiation dose levels were measured and an inventory of availability of radiation equipment made. A corollary objective of the study was to create awareness in among workers on possible radiation health hazard and risk. It was also deemed important to know the level of understanding of the radiation workers in order to initiate steps towards the establishment of Nepalese laws, regulation and code of radiological practice in this field. Altogether, 203 Radiation workers entertained the questionnaire, out of which 41 are from the Radiotherapy and 162 are from diagnostic radiology. The radiation workers who have participated in the questionnaire represent more than 50% of the radiation workers working in this field in Nepal. Almost all X-ray, CT and Mammogram installations were built according to protection criteria and hence found safe. Radiation dose level at the reference points for all the five Radiotherapy centers are within safe limit. Around 65% of the radiation workers have never been monitored for radiation. There is no quality control program in any of the surveyed hospitals except radiotherapy facilities.

Adhikari, Kanchan P.; Jha, L.N.; Galan, Montenegro P.

2012-01-01

72

Radiation Protection Quantities for Near Earth Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

As humans travel beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field and mission durations grow, risk due to radiation exposure will increase and may become the limiting factor for such missions. Here, the dosimetric quantities recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for the evaluation of health risk due to radiation exposure, effective dose and gray-equivalent

Martha S. Clowdsley; John W. Wilson; Myung-Hee Kim; Brooke M. Anderson; John E. Nealy

73

Accelerator-based tests of radiation shielding properties of materials used in human space infrastructures.  

PubMed

Shielding is the only practical countermeasure for the exposure to cosmic radiation during space travel. It is well known that light, hydrogenated materials, such as water and polyethylene, provide the best shielding against space radiation. Kevlar and Nextel are two materials of great interest for spacecraft shielding because of their known ability to protect human space infrastructures from meteoroids and debris. We measured the response to simulated heavy-ion cosmic radiation of these shielding materials and compared it to polyethylene, Lucite (PMMA), and aluminum. As proxy to galactic nuclei we used 1 GeV n iron or titanium ions. Both physics and biology tests were performed. The results show that Kevlar, which is rich in carbon atoms (about 50% in number), is an excellent space radiation shielding material. Physics tests show that its effectiveness is close (80-90%) to that of polyethylene, and biology data suggest that it can reduce the chromosomal damage more efficiently than PMMA. Nextel is less efficient as a radiation shield, and the expected reduction on dose is roughly half that provided by the same mass of polyethylene. Both Kevlar and Nextel are more effective than aluminum in the attenuation of heavy-ion dose. PMID:18301097

Lobascio, C; Briccarello, M; Destefanis, R; Faraud, M; Gialanella, G; Grossi, G; Guarnieri, V; Manti, L; Pugliese, M; Rusek, A; Scampoli, P; Durante, M

2008-03-01

74

Radiation protection challenges facing the federal agencies.  

PubMed

In the United States, federal agencies are responsible for setting national policy and performance expectations for radiation protection programs. National policy establishes a regulatory regime, under which society can realize the beneficial uses of radiation while at the same time protecting workers, the public, and environment from the potential hazards of radiation. The challenges facing federal agencies continue to revolve around finding the right balance between benefit and adverse impact. Federal agencies are petitioned to support the research community to provide a sound scientific basis for informing the decision-making process related to radiation protection policy. The federal agencies are further challenged to consider the deliberations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) who bring together the best technical minds in the field to consider the latest scientific information and provide recommendations for establishing comprehensive and coherent radiation protection programs. The uncertainty inherent in research and the conservatism in the models and recommendations of the ICRP and NCRP should be transparent and communicated because determining the level of uncertainty and the degree of conservatism acceptable to society is a challenge for, and the responsibility of, the federal agencies in creating performance-based policies in public health and radiation protection. It is through the federal government's open, inclusive, and democratic processes where society strikes the balance that defines adequate radiation protection policy, builds public trust, and allows the radiation protection professionals to properly implement and manage that policy. PMID:15303063

Jones, C Rick

2004-09-01

75

Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program  

SciTech Connect

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

2007-08-09

76

New affordable options for infrastructure and asset protection  

SciTech Connect

Securitas is one of the leaders evolving with technology and delivering new forms of affordable security for mining facilities. It was called in to protect a large mothballed coal mine in the central USA, the victim of repeated thefts. First, Mobile Surveillance Units (MSUs) were installed but thefts continued. Later, a new wireless video security system called Videofied which used MotionViewers which use infrared detectors to detect movement and send a 10 second clip of the intrusion to an operator. This led to the thieves being caught. 2 photos.

NONE

2009-09-15

77

A framework for protecting a SIP-based infrastructure against malformed message attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a framework that can be utilized for the protection of session initiation protocol (SIP)-based infrastructures from malformed message attacks. Its main characteristic is that it is lightweight and that it can be easily adapted to heterogeneous SIP implementations. The paper analyzes several real-life attacks on VoIP services and proposes a novel detection and protection mechanism that is

Dimitris Geneiatakis; Georgios Kambourakis; Costas Lambrinoudakis; Tasos Dagiuklas; Stefanos Gritzalis

2007-01-01

78

The socio-political dimensions of critical information infrastructure protection (CIIP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, the topic of critical information infrastructure protection (CIIP) is mainly discussed in the domain of engineers, consultants, and IT security experts. All these communities address important aspects of the problem complex, but hardly ever deal with socio-political ones. This paper addresses the need for a greater role of the social sciences in the field, due to a range

Myriam Dunn

2005-01-01

79

Influence of time-dependent factors in the evaluation of critical infrastructure protection measures.  

SciTech Connect

The examination of which protective measures are the most appropriate to be implemented in order to prevent, protect against, respond to, and recover from attacks on critical infrastructures and key resources typically involves a comparison of the consequences that could occur when the protective measure is implemented to those that could occur when it is not. This report describes a framework for evaluation that provides some additional capabilities for comparing optional protective measures. It illustrates some potentially important time-dependent factors, such as the implementation rate, that affect the relative pros and cons associated with widespread implementation of protective measures. It presents example results from the use of protective measures, such as detectors and pretrained responders, for an illustrative biological incident. Results show that the choice of an alternative measure can depend on whether or not policy and financial support can be maintained for extended periods of time. Choice of a time horizon greatly influences the comparison of alternatives.

Buehring, W. A.; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences

2008-03-28

80

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

SciTech Connect

The original recommendations for radiation protection guidelines were made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1970. Since that time the US crews have become more diverse in their makeup and much has been learned about both radiation-induced cancer and other late effects. While far from adequate there is now some understanding of the risks that high-Z and -energy (HZE) particles pose. For these reasons it was time to reconsider the radiation protection guidelines for space workers. This task was undertaken recently by National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). 42 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Fry, R.J.M.

1987-01-01

81

Radiation protection for nurses. Regulations and guidelines  

SciTech Connect

Rules and regulations of federal agencies and state radiation protection programs provide the bases for hospital policy regarding radiation safety for nurses. Nursing administrators should work with the radiation safety officer at their institutions to ensure that radiation exposures to staff nurses will be as low as reasonably achievable and that special consideration will be given to pregnant nurses. Nurses' fears about their exposure to radiation can be greatly reduced through education.

Jankowski, C.B. (Radiation Safety Office, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

1992-02-01

82

Protection of critical infrastructure using fiber optic sensors embedded in technical textiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrorists and criminals more and more attack and destroy important infrastructures like routes, railways, bridges, tunnels, dikes and dams, important buildings. Therefore, reliable on-line and long-term monitoring systems are required to protect such critical infrastructures. Fiber optic sensors are well-suited for that. They can be installed over many kilometers and are able to measure continuously distributed strain, pressure, temperature and further mechanical and physical quantities. The very tiny optical fibers can be integrated into structures and materials and can provide information about any significant changes or damages of the structures. These so-called smart materials and smart structures are able to monitor itself or its environment. Particularly smart technical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors have become very attractive because of their high importance for the structural health monitoring of geotechnical and masonry infrastructures. Such textiles are usually used for reinforcement of the structures; the embedded fiber optic sensors provide information about the condition of the structures and detect the presence of any damages and destructions in real time. Thus, critical infrastructures can be preventively protected. The paper will introduce this innovative field and will present the results achieved within several German and European projects.

Krebber, Katerina; Lenke, Philipp; Liehr, Sascha; Noether, Nils; Wendt, Mario; Wosniok, Aleksander

2010-04-01

83

Implantation of Inspection and Radiation Protection Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods, means and procedures adopted by Petrobras engineering service to survey safety radiation protection of the companies that carry out radiographic services of PETROBRAS are described. The systems used in certification of personnel, procedures, audi...

J. L. R. Cunha

1988-01-01

84

RADIATION BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS FOR RADIATION PROTECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT The opportunity to write a historical review of the field of radiation biology allows for the viewing of the development and maturity of a field of study, thereby being able to provide the appropriate context for the earlier years of research and its findings. The...

85

Radiation Protection Quantities for Near Earth Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As humans travel beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field and mission durations grow, risk due to radiation exposure will increase and may become the limiting factor for such missions. Here, the dosimetric quantities recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for the evaluation of health risk due to radiation exposure, effective dose and gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO), are calculated for several near Earth environments. These radiation protection quantities are evaluated behind two different shielding materials, aluminum and polyethylene. Since exposure limits for missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) have not yet been defined, results are compared to limits recommended by the NCRP for LEO operations.

Clowdsley, Martha S.; Wilson, John W.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.

2004-01-01

86

Radiation Protection Program of Petrobras.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Risks present in oil industry require specific control programs, especially when using radioactive sources. Main uses of ionizing radiation in oil industry are in process control systems, industrial radiography and oilwell logging. A comprehensive and sys...

M. Signorini

1988-01-01

87

Accreditation of ionizing radiation protection programs  

SciTech Connect

There are over one million workers in the United States who have the potential to be exposed to ionizing radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to determine accurately the quantity of radiation to which they may have been exposed. This quantity if measured by personnel dosimeters that are carried by individuals requiring radiation monitoring. Accreditation of the organizations which evaluate this quantity provides official recognition of the competence of these organizations. Accreditation programs in the field of ionizing radiation protection have been in operation for a number of years, and their experience has demonstrated that such programs can help to improve performance.

McDonald, J.C.; Swinth, K.L.; Selby, J.M.

1991-10-01

88

Primer to Design Safe School Projects in Case of Terrorist Attacks and School Shootings. Buildings and Infrastructure Protection Series. FEMA-428/BIPS-07/January 2012. Edition 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication, part of the new Building and Infrastructure Protection Series (BIPS) published by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) Infrastructure Protection and Disaster Management Division (IDD), serves to advance high performance and integrated design for buildings and infrastructure. This…

Chipley, Michael; Lyon, Wesley; Smilowitz, Robert; Williams, Pax; Arnold, Christopher; Blewett, William; Hazen, Lee; Krimgold, Fred

2012-01-01

89

49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193...Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection. Each LNG container...following exceptions: (a) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated...

2013-10-01

90

Aiming Optimum Space Radiation Protection using Regolith.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation protection of space radiation is very important factor in manned space activity on the moon. At the construction of lunar base, low cost radiation shielding would be achieved using regolith that exists on the surface of the moon. We studied radiation shielding ability of regolith as answer the question, how much of depth would be necessary to achieve minimum radiation protection. We estimated the shielding ability of regolith against each atomic number of space radiation particles. Using stopping power data of ICRU REPORT49 and 73, we simulated the approximate expression (function of the energy of the atomic nucleus as x and the atomic number as Z) of the stopping power for the space proton particle (nucleus of H) against silicon dioxide (SiO2), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), and iron (Fe), which are the main components of regolith. Based on the expression, we applied the manipulation to the other particles of space radiation to up to argon particle (Ar). These simulated expressions complied well the data of ICRU REPORT49 and 73 except alpha particle (nucleus of He). The simulation values of stop-ping power of ten elements from potassium to nickel those we had no data in ICRU REPORT were further simulated. Using the obtained expressions, the relationship between the radiation absorbed dose and depth of a silicon dioxide was obtained. The space radiation relative dose with every depth in the moon could be estimated by this study.

Masuda, Daisuke; Nagamatsu, Aiko; Indo, Hiroko; Iwashita, Yoichiro; Suzuki, Hiromi; Shimazu, Toru; Yano, Sachiko; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki; Mukai, Chiaki; Majima, Hideyuki J.

91

Radiation protection in pediatric radiology  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to make available a source of practical information regarding the manner in which radiologic examinations in children should be conducted to reduce the radiation dose to these patients and those responsible for their care. The report is mainly for the use of pediatricians, radiologists, radiologic technologists, and other physicians and medical practitioners who order or use radiological methods in examining children.

Not Available

1981-01-01

92

Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

Not Available

1991-01-01

93

Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer  

SciTech Connect

The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

1983-03-01

94

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's current radiation protection guidelines date from 1970, when the career limit was set at 400 rem. Today, using the same approach, but with the current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain. Also, there is considerably more information about the radiation environments to be experienced in different missions than previously. Since 1970 women have joined the ranks. For these and other reasons it was necessary to reexamine the radiation protection guidelines. This task was undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75 (NCRP SC 75). Below the magnetosphere the radiation environment varies with altitude and orbit inclination. In outer space missions galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 100 rem (4.0Sv) for a 24 year old female to 400 rem for a 55 year old male compared to the previous single limit of 400 rem (4.0 Sv). The career limit for the lens of the eye was reduced from 600 to 400 rem (6.0 to 4.0 Sv.)

Fry, R. J. M.; Nachtwey, D. S.

1986-01-01

95

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem).

Fry, R. J.; Nachtwey, D. S.

1988-01-01

96

Space Station - Infrastructure for radiation measurements in low earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general configuration, development schedule, and capabilities of the NASA International Space Station are reviewed, with an emphasis on the possibilities for long-term measurements of high-energy cosmic and secondary radiation from the main Station spacecraft, coorbiting or polar-orbit platforms, or Station-supported GEO satellites. Also outlined are the organizational structure and the application procedures to be followed by potential users of the Station facilities. Diagrams and drawings are provided.

Meredith, B. D.

1989-01-01

97

Towards an advanced e-Infrastructure for Civil Protection applications: Research Strategies and Innovation Guidelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of the EU co-funded project CYCLOPS (http://www.cyclops-project.eu) the problem of designing an advanced e-Infrastructure for Civil Protection (CP) applications has been addressed. As a preliminary step, some studies about European CP systems and operational applications were performed in order to define their specific system requirements. At a higher level it was verified that CP applications are usually conceived to map CP Business Processes involving different levels of processing including data access, data processing, and output visualization. At their core they usually run one or more Earth Science models for information extraction. The traditional approach based on the development of monolithic applications presents some limitations related to flexibility (e.g. the possibility of running the same models with different input data sources, or different models with the same data sources) and scalability (e.g. launching several runs for different scenarios, or implementing more accurate and computing-demanding models). Flexibility can be addressed adopting a modular design based on a SOA and standard services and models, such as OWS and ISO for geospatial services. Distributed computing and storage solutions could improve scalability. Basing on such considerations an architectural framework has been defined. It is made of a Web Service layer providing advanced services for CP applications (e.g. standard geospatial data sharing and processing services) working on the underlying Grid platform. This framework has been tested through the development of prototypes as proof-of-concept. These theoretical studies and proof-of-concept demonstrated that although Grid and geospatial technologies would be able to provide significant benefits to CP applications in terms of scalability and flexibility, current platforms are designed taking into account requirements different from CP. In particular CP applications have strict requirements in terms of: a) Real-Time capabilities, privileging time-of-response instead of accuracy, b) Security services to support complex data policies and trust relationships, c) Interoperability with existing or planned infrastructures (e.g. e-Government, INSPIRE compliant, etc.). Actually these requirements are the main reason why CP applications differ from Earth Science applications. Therefore further research is required to design and implement an advanced e-Infrastructure satisfying those specific requirements. In particular five themes where further research is required were identified: Grid Infrastructure Enhancement, Advanced Middleware for CP Applications, Security and Data Policies, CP Applications Enablement, and Interoperability. For each theme several research topics were proposed and detailed. They are targeted to solve specific problems for the implementation of an effective operational European e-Infrastructure for CP applications.

Mazzetti, P.; Nativi, S.; Verlato, M.; Angelini, V.

2009-04-01

98

Shielded radiation protection quantities beyond LEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recommended that the quantities used to evaluate health risk to astronauts due to radiation exposure be effective dose and gray-equivalent. The NCRP recommends that effective dose be the limiting quantity for prevention of stochastic effects. Effective dose is a measure of whole body exposure, a weighted average of dose equivalent to a number body tissues for which the NCRP has adopted tissue weighting factors recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). For deterministic effects, the NCRP has recommended that gray-equivalent be used. Gray-equivalent is evaluated for specific critical organs and is the weighted sum of absorbed dose from field components to that organ using the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) number for that field component. RBE numbers recommended by the NCRP are used. The NCRP has provided effective dose limits as well as limits for gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO) for astronauts in low earth orbit (LEO). As yet, no such limits have been defined for astronaut operations beyond LEO. In this study, the radiation protection quantities, effective dose and gray-equivalent to the eyes, skin, and BFO, are calculated for several environments beyond LEO. The lunar surface and Martian environments are included. For each environment, these radiation protection quantities are calculated behind varying amounts of various types of shielding materials. The results are compared to the exposure limits for LEO, since limits have not yet been defined for interplanetary missions. The benefits of using shielding material containing hydrogen and choosing optimal mission times are discussed.

Clowdsley, M. S.; Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M. Y.; Anderson, B. M.; Nealy, J. E.

99

Radiation protection and radiation recovery with essential metalloelement chelates  

SciTech Connect

This review presents the roles of some essential metalloelement-dependent enzymes in tissue maintenance and function, and their responses to radiation injury in accounting for radiation protection and recovery effects observed for nontoxic doses of essential metalloelement compounds. Effects of biochemicals including water undergoing bond radiolysis and the effects of free radicals derived from diatomic oxygen account for the acute and chronic aspects of radiation injury. Copper chelates have radiation protection and radiation recovery activities and cause rapid recovery of immunocompetency and recovery from radiation-induced histopathology. Mice treated with Cu(II){sub 2}(3,5-disopropylsalicy-late){sub 4}[Cu(II){sub 2}(3,5-DIPS){sub 4}] had increased survival and corresponding increases in numbers of myeloid and multipotential progenitor cells early after irradiation and earlier recovery of immune reactivity. Examination of radiation-induced histopathology in spleen, bone marrow, thymus, and small intestine also revealed Cu(II){sub 2}(3,5-DIPS){sub 4}-mediated rapid recovery of radiation-induced histopathology. Most recently, Fe, Mn, and Zn complexes have also been found to prevent death in lethally irradiated mice. These pharmacological effects of essential metalloelement chelates can be understood as due to facilitation of de novo synthesis of essential metalloelement-dependent enzymes which have roles in preventing the accumulation of pathological concentrations of oxygen radicals or repairing biochemical damage caused by radiation-induced bond homolysis. Essential metalloelement chelates offer a physiological approach to prevention and/or treatment of radiation injury. 97 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Sorenson, J.R.J.; Soderberg, L.S.F.; Chang, L.W. [Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)

1995-12-01

100

Radiation Protection Using Carbon Nanotube Derivatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BHA and BHT are well-known food preservatives that are excellent radical scavengers. These compounds, attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), could serve as excellent radical traps. The amino-BHT groups can be associated with SWNTs that have carbolyxic acid groups via acid-base association or via covalent association. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection or cellular stress mitigation via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds of SWNTs and their derivatives. It works by reducing the number of free radicals within or nearby a cell, tissue, organ, or living organism. This reduces the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including (but not limited to) cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. These derivatives can show an unusually high scavenging ability, which could prove efficacious in protecting living systems from radical-induced decay. This technique could be used to protect healthy cells in a living biological system from the effects of radiation therapy. It could also be used as a prophylactic or antidote for radiation exposure due to accidental, terrorist, or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons; high-altitude or space travel (where radiation exposure is generally higher than desired); or in any scenario where exposure to radiation is expected or anticipated. This invention s ultimate use will be dependent on the utility in an overall biological system where many levels of toxicity have to be evaluated. This can only be assessed at a later stage. In vitro toxicity will first be assessed, followed by in vivo non-mammalian screening in zebra fish for toxicity and therapeutic efficacy.

Conyers, Jodie L., Jr.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward

2010-01-01

101

Neutron spectrometry for radiation protection: Three examples  

SciTech Connect

Workers and the general public are exposed to neutron radiation from a variety of sources, including fission and fusion reactors, accelerators, the nuclear fuel and nuclear weapons cycles, and cosmic rays in space, in aircraft and on the earth. Because the health effects of neutrons depend strongly on their energy, neutron spectrometry is essential for accurate risk-related neutron dosimetry. In addition, the penetration of neutrons through protective shielding changes their energy and can be difficult to calculate reliably, so the measurement of energy spectra is often needed to verify neutron transport calculations. The Environmental Measurements Laboratory has been measuring neutron energy spectra for over 20 years, primarily with multisphere (or Bonner sphere) spectrometers. Because of this experience, the Laboratory has responded to a number of requests to provide reference neutron energy spectra at critical locations in or near nuclear facilities and radiation fields. This talk will describe the author`s instruments and three recent examples of their use: outside the Princeton Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), up to two kilometers from the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) bare reactor, and in a Canadian Forces jet aircraft at commercial aviation altitudes. All of these studies have implications beyond routine occupational radiation protection. For example, the APRF measurements are part of the broad effort to resolve the discrepancy between measured and calculated thermal neutron activation at Hiroshima, one of the most important unsolved problems in radiation dosimetry.

Goldhagen, P.

1995-12-31

102

Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program  

SciTech Connect

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

none,

2013-04-30

103

Design Assessment Using Multizone Simulation to Protect Critical Infrastructure From Internal Chemical and Biological Threats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previous attacks in Tokyo and Washington, DC, have demonstrated the capability to weaponize and use chemical and biological (CB) agents against critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure includes the defense industrial base whose primary mission is ...

D. M. Abraham J. W. Croisant V. M. Nakano

2006-01-01

104

Science Goals in Radiation Protection for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation presents major challenges to future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Health risks of concern include cancer, degenerative and performance risks to the central nervous system, heart and lens, and the acute radiation syndromes. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) contain high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, which have been shown to cause qualitatively distinct biological damage compared to terresterial radiation, such as X-rays or gamma-rays, causing risk estimates to be highly uncertain. The biological effects of solar particle events (SPE) are similar to terresterial radiation except for their biological dose-rate modifiers; however the onset and size of SPEs are difficult to predict. The high energies of GCR reduce the effectiveness of shielding, while SPE s can be shielded however the current gap in radiobiological knowledge hinders optimization. Methods used to project risks on Earth must be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting health risks from space radiation, and thus impact mission requirements and costs. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies probabilistic risk assessments and uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts and to mission design. The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in radiation risk projection models. Exploration science goals in radiation protection are centered on ground-based research to achieve the necessary biological knowledge, and in the development of new technologies to improve SPE monitoring and optimize shielding. Radiobiology research is centered on a ground based program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and HZE nuclei at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) located at DoE s Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, NY. We describe recent NSRL results that are closing the knowledge gap in HZE radiobiology and improving exploration risk estimates. Linking probabilistic risk assessment to research goals makes it possible to express risk management objectives in terms of quantitative metrics, which include the number of days in space without exceeding a given risk level within well defined confidence limits, and probabilistic assessments of the effectiveness of design trade spaces such as material type, mass, solar cycle, crew selection criteria, and biological countermeasures. New research in SPE alert and risk assessment, individual radiation sensitivity, and biological countermeasure development are described.

Cucinotta, Francs A.

2008-01-01

105

Corrosion Protection of Launch Infrastructure and Hardware Through the Space Shuttle Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Corrosion, the environmentally induced degradation of materials, has been a challenging and costly problem that has affected NASA's launch operations since the inception of the Space Program. Corrosion studies began at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in 1966 during the Gemini/Apollo Programs with the evaluation of long-term protective coatings for the atmospheric protection of carbon steel. NASA's KSC Beachside Corrosion Test Site, which has been documented by the American Society of Materials (ASM) as one of the most corrosive, naturally occurring environments in the world, was established at that time. With the introduction of the Space Shuttle in 1981, the already highly corrosive natural conditions at the launch pad were rendered even more severe by the acidic exhaust from the solid rocket boosters. In the years that followed, numerous efforts at KSC identified materials, coatings, and maintenance procedures for launch hardware and equipment exposed to the highly corrosiye environment at the launch pads. Knowledge on materials degradation, obtained by facing the highly corrosive conditions of the Space Shuttle launch environment, as well as limitations imposed by the environmental impact of corrosion control, have led researchers at NASA's Corrosion Technology Laboratory to establish a new technology development capability in the area of corrosion prevention, detection, and mitigation at KSC that is included as one of the "highest priority" technologies identified by NASA's integrated technology roadmap. A historical perspective highlighting the challenges encountered in protecting launch infrastructure and hardware from corrosion during the life of the Space Shuttle program and the new technological advances that have resulted from facing the unique and highly corrosive conditions of the Space Shuttle launch environment will be presented.

Calle, L. M.

2011-01-01

106

Developing measurement indices to enhance protection and resilience of U.S. critical infrastructure and key resources.  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is developing indices to better assist in the risk management of critical infrastructures. The first of these indices is the Protective Measures Index - a quantitative index that measures overall protection across component categories: physical security, security management, security force, information sharing, protective measures and dependencies. The Protective Measures Index, which can also be recalculated as the Vulnerability Index, is a way to compare differing protective measures (eg fence versus security training). The second of these indices is the Resilience Index, which assesses a site's resilience and consists of three primary components: robustness, resourcefulness and recovery. The third index is the Criticality Index, which assesses the importance of a facility. The Criticality Index includes economic, human, governance and mass evacuation impacts. The Protective Measures Index, Resilience Index and Criticality Index are being developed as part of the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection initiative that DHS protective security advisers implement across the nation at critical facilities. This paper describes two core themes: determination of the vulnerability, resilience and criticality of a facility and comparison of the indices at different facilities.

Fisher, R. E.; Norman, M. (Decision and Information Sciences); (DHS)

2010-07-01

107

Protection against solar ultraviolet radiation in childhood.  

PubMed

In the last decade, awareness of the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation has increased. Modern lifestyles, outdoor occupations, sports and other activities make total sun avoidance impossible. Children spend more time outdoors than adults and there is compelling evidence that childhood is a particularly vulnerable time for the photocarcinogenic effects of the sun. Sun exposure among infants and pre-school age children is largely depend on the discretion of adult care providers. It is important to learn safe habits about sun-safety behaviours during the childhood. Children deserve to live and play in safe environments, and it is the responsibility of every adult to help children stay safe. Protecting children from excessive sun exposure is protection from sunburn today and other forms of sun damages, especially skin cancers, in the future. PMID:22220468

Pustisek, Nives; Situm, Mirna

2011-09-01

108

Moving from Protection to Resiliency: A Path to Securing Critical Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The events of 9\\/11 brought renewed focus to critical infrastructure, but the security of infrastructure has been and continues\\u000a to be an issue outside the scope of any one event or country. Oil pipeline attacks in Iraq, massive blackouts in Italy, the\\u000a United States, and Russia, submarine cable failures in the Atlantic, accidental and intentional failures of infrastructure\\u000a are an

Laurie Anne Schintler; Sean Gorman; Rajendra Kulkarni; Roger Stough

109

Radiation protection guidelines for the skin  

SciTech Connect

With the exception of the function of cells in the skin associated with immunocompetence nonstochastic effects have been well characterized and threshold doses are known with a precision appropriate for setting radiation protection standards. A dose limitation of 0.5 Sv per year and a working lifetime dose limit of 20 Sv should protect the worker population adequately and therefore, the current protection standards are quite adequate. The risk estimate for skin cancer is very dependent on the selection of the projection model and on the mortality rate assumed. Based on the relative risk model, a mortality rate of 0.2% and summing risks for both UVR exposed and shielded skin the risk is about twice (1.94/10{sup {minus}4} Sv{sup {minus}1}) that which ICRP derived in 1977. With the absolute model the risk is considerably less, about 0.5/10{sup {minus}4} Sv{sup {minus}1}. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Fry, R.J.M.

1989-01-01

110

The reference individual of radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

The 70-kg {open_quotes}standard man{close_quotes} representing a typical Western adult male has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s. In 1949 at the Chalk River conference, health physicists from the U.S., UK, and Canada agreed on the concept of a standard man to facilitate comparison of internal dose estimates. The 70-kg standard man included specifications of the masses of 25 organs and tissues, total body content of 15 elements, total water intake and output, water content of the body, and some anatomical and physiological data for the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. In 1959, in its Publication 2{sup 2} on permissible doses for internal radiation the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) modified standard man. In 1963 the ICRP established a task group to revise and extend the standard man concept. The name was changed later to Reference Man and the task group`s work was published in 1975 as ICRP Publication 23{sup 3}. Publication 23 similar to Publication 2, updates and documents the sources of the data. Data on women, children, and fetuses were also collected, where available, but these data were limited primarily to anatomical data and only a few reference values were established for these groups. Information assembled during the course of the effort on the Reference Man report was used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to construct a mathematical representation of the body (a phantom) that was suitable for use with Monte Carlo methods in the calculation of organ doses. That effort was undertaken to improve estimates of dose from photon-emitting radionuclides residing within organs, so-called internal emitters. The phantom, although updated throughout the years, remains today as the basis for organ dose estimates in nuclear medicine and radiation protection and underlies the radiation risk data derived from the epidemiologic studies of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Eckerman, K.F.; Cristy, M.

1995-12-31

111

Radiated Emission Limits to Protect Digital Wireless Communication Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

International limits for maximum levels of unintentional radiated emission from electronic devices are developed to protect analog communication services. The international standardization work to develop such limits to protect digital communication servi...

P. Stenumgaard

2004-01-01

112

Application of solid state nuclear track detectors in radiation protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article reviews the current status of the application of nuclear track detectors with emphasis on recent developments in the field of radiation protection. Track etch detectors have been used for the measurements of low level radiation in the environ...

T. V. Ramachandran M. C. Subba Ramu U. C. Mishra

1989-01-01

113

Space Radiation Protection, Space Weather, and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during a deep space exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon may differ by multiple orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for our ability to conduct exploration operations. With these differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, we present the status of the efforts currently underway as the required development to enable exploration operations. The changes in the operating environment as crewed operations begin to stretch away from the Earth are changing the way we think about the lines between research and operations . The real, practical work to enable a permanent human presence away from Earth has already begun

Zapp, Neal; Fry, Dan; Lee, Kerry

2010-01-01

114

Space Radiation Protection, Space Weather, and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight -- and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during an exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon may differ by multiple orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for our ability to conduct exploration operations. With these differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, we present the status of the efforts currently underway as the required development to enable exploration operations. The changes in the operating environment as crewed operations begin to stretch away from the Earth are changing the way we think about the lines between "research" and "operations". The real, practical work to enable a permanent human presence away from Earth has already begun.

Zapp, Neal; Rutledge, R.; Semones, E. J.; Johnson, A. S.; Guetersloh, S.; Fry, D.; Stoffle, N.; Lee, K.

2008-01-01

115

Space Weather Status for Exploration Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during an exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and in free space, for example, may differ by orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for the ability to conduct exploration operations. We present a current status of developing operational concepts for manned exploration and expectations for asset viability and available predictive and characterization toolsets.

Fry, Dan J.; Lee, Kerry; Zapp, Neal; Barzilla, Janet; Dunegan, Audrey; Johnson, Steve; Stoffle, Nicholas

2011-01-01

116

Quantifying causal mechanisms to determine how protected areas affect poverty through changes in ecosystem services and infrastructure.  

PubMed

To develop effective environmental policies, we must understand the mechanisms through which the policies affect social and environmental outcomes. Unfortunately, empirical evidence about these mechanisms is limited, and little guidance for quantifying them exists. We develop an approach to quantifying the mechanisms through which protected areas affect poverty. We focus on three mechanisms: changes in tourism and recreational services; changes in infrastructure in the form of road networks, health clinics, and schools; and changes in regulating and provisioning ecosystem services and foregone production activities that arise from land-use restrictions. The contributions of ecotourism and other ecosystem services to poverty alleviation in the context of a real environmental program have not yet been empirically estimated. Nearly two-thirds of the poverty reduction associated with the establishment of Costa Rican protected areas is causally attributable to opportunities afforded by tourism. Although protected areas reduced deforestation and increased regrowth, these land cover changes neither reduced nor exacerbated poverty, on average. Protected areas did not, on average, affect our measures of infrastructure and thus did not contribute to poverty reduction through this mechanism. We attribute the remaining poverty reduction to unobserved dimensions of our mechanisms or to other mechanisms. Our study empirically estimates previously unidentified contributions of ecotourism and other ecosystem services to poverty alleviation in the context of a real environmental program. We demonstrate that, with existing data and appropriate empirical methods, conservation scientists and policymakers can begin to elucidate the mechanisms through which ecosystem conservation programs affect human welfare. PMID:24567397

Ferraro, Paul J; Hanauer, Merlin M

2014-03-18

117

Radiation protection guidance for activities in low-earth orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific Committee 75 (SC 75) of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) was assembled for the purpose of providing guidance to NASA concerning radiation protection in low-Earth orbit. The report of SC 75 was published in December 2000 as NCRP Report No. 132. In this presentation an overview of the findings and recommendations of the committee report

L. W. Townsend; R. J. M. Fry

2002-01-01

118

Improved Spacecraft Materials for Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods by which radiation shielding is optimized need to be developed and materials of improved shielding characteristics identified and validated. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are very penetrating and the energy absorbed by the astronaut behind the shield is nearly independent of shield composition and even the shield thickness. However, the mix of particles in the transmitted beam changes rapidly with shield material composition and thickness. This results in part from the breakup of the high-energy heavy ions of the GCR which make contributions to biological effects out of proportion to their deposited energy. So the mixture of particles in the radiation field changes with shielding and the control of risk contributions from dominant particle types is critical to reducing the hazard to the astronaut. The risk of biological injury for a given particle type depends on the type of biological effect and is specific to cell or tissue type. Thus, one is faced with choosing materials which may protect a given tissue against a given effect but leave unchanged or even increase the risk of other effects in the same tissue or increase the risks to other adjacent tissues of a different type in the same individual. The optimization of shield composition will then be tied to a specific tissue and risk to that tissue. Such peculiarities arise from the complicated mixture of particles, the nature of their biological response, and the details of their interaction with material constituents. Aside from the understanding of the biological response to specific components, one also needs an accurate understanding of the radiation emerging from the shield material. This latter subject has been a principal element of this project. In the past ten years our understanding of space radiation interactions with materials has changed radically, with a large impact on shield design. For example, the NCRP estimated that only 2 g/sq cm. of aluminum would be required to meet the annual 500 mSv limit for the exposure of the blood forming organs (this limit is strictly for LEO but can be used as a guideline for the Mars mission analysis). The current estimates require aluminum shield thicknesses above 50 g/sq cm., which is impractical. In such a heavily shielded vehicle, the neutrons produced throughout the vehicle also contribute significantly to the exposure and this demands greater care in describing the angular dependence of secondary particle production processes. As such the continued testing of databases and transport procedures in laboratory and spaceflight experiments has continued. This has been the focus of much of the last year's activity and has resulted in improved neutron prediction capability. These new methods have also improved our understanding of the surface environment of Mars. The Mars 2003 NRA HEDS related surface science requirements were driven by the need to validate predictions on the upward flux of neutrons produced in the Martian regolith and bedrock made by the codes developed under this project. The codes used in the surface environment definition are also being used to look at in situ resources for the development of construction material for Martian surface facilities. For example, synthesis of polyimides and polyethylene as binders of regolith for developing basic structural elements has been studied and targets built for accelerator beam testing of radiation shielding properties. Preliminary mechanical tests have also been promising. Improved spacecraft materials have been identified (using the criteria reported by this project at the last conference) as potentially important for future shielding materials. These are liquid hydrogen, hydrogenated nanofibers, liquid methane, LiH, Polyethylene, Polysulfone, and Polyetherimide (in order of decreasing shield performance). Some of the materials are multifunctional and are required for other onboard systems. We are currently preparing software for trade studies with these materials relative to the Mars Reference Mission as required in the project's final year.

Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Shinn, J. L.; Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Thibeault, Sheila Ann; Kim, M.-H. Y.; Heinbockel, John H.; Badhwar, Gautam D.

2001-01-01

119

Study of Biological Effects and Radiation Protection to Future European Manned Space Flights.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Earth's radiation environment; radiation dose calculation and measurement; foreseen exposure in European manned space missions; biological effects of radiation; and radiation monitoring and protection are discussed.

J. Bourrieau J. Berry J. P. Philippon M. Roux G. Reitz

1988-01-01

120

Protecao radiologica para bombeiros. (Radiation protection to firemen).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic Knowledge about ionizing radiation oriented for firemen, are presented. The mainly damage and effects caused by radiation exposure as well as the method of radiation protection are described in simple words. The action to be taken in case of fir...

E. S. Almeida

1985-01-01

121

PROTECTING THE NATION'S CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE: THE VULNERABILITY OF U.S. WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Terrorism in the United States was not considered a serious threat until the second half of the 1990s. However, recent attacks both at home and abroad have forced government planners to consider the possibility that critical elements of the U.S. infrastructure might in fact be vu...

122

Protecting critical infrastructure: implementing integration and expanding education: first prize: 2007 Schubmehl-Prein Essay contest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tenuous network of interconnected data that supports our nation's critical infrastructure has been built up, computer by computer, over only the last few decades. From punch cards to the supercomputers constructed by pioneers in today's fields, computers have been controlling our nation's critical sectors nearly every step of the way. As designers of today's critical systems gravitate slowly towards

David A. Martinez

2008-01-01

123

Protection of Critical National Information Infrastructure (CNII) against cyber terrorism: Development of strategy and policy framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical National Information Infrastructure (CNII) is crucial to the survivability of a nation that the destruction or disruption of these systems and communication networks would significantly affect the economic strength, image, defense and security, government capabilities to function, and public health and safety. CNII would probably become an attractive target for terrorists. There is a need to have a strategy

Zahri Yunos; Syahrul Hafidz Suid

2010-01-01

124

75 FR 9607 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) announced the establishment of the Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) by notice published in the Federal Register (71 FR 14930-14933) dated March 24, 2006. That notice identified the purpose of CIPAC as well as its membership. This notice provides (i) the quarterly CIPAC membership update, (ii) instructions on how the public can......

2010-03-03

125

On the Modeling of Electric Railway Lines for the Assessment of Infrastructure Impact in Radiated Emission Tests of Rolling Stock  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we address the problem of testing radiated emissions generated by rolling stock, when carried out on actual railway sites, as prescribed by the standard EN 50121. The idea of assessing infrastructure impact on test results is presented here by means of an electromagnetic model of railway sites. In the first part, modeling tools are introduced together with

Andrea Cozza; Bernard DÉmoulin

2008-01-01

126

75 FR 68370 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Infrastructure Protection; Chemical Security...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF HOMELAND SECURITY National Protection...DHS-2010-0071] Agency Information Collection Activities...Protection; Chemical Security Awareness Training Program...currently approved information collection request...the Chemical Security Awareness Training...

2010-11-05

127

78 FR 19148 - Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and Licensing Conditions for Dry Storage...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...72 [NRC-2013-0051] Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and Licensing...SFST-ISG-26A), Revision 0, ``Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and Licensing...staff when reviewing the shielding and radiation protection portions of applications...

2013-03-29

128

Aging Water Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA?s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

129

Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

Radiological Control Managers' Council

2008-06-01

130

Radiation protection guidance for activities in low-earth orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific Committee 75 (SC 75) of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) was assembled for the purpose of providing guidance to NASA concerning radiation protection in low-Earth orbit. The report of SC 75 was published in December 2000 as NCRP Report No. 132. In this presentation an overview of the findings and recommendations of the committee report will be presented.

Townsend, L. W.; Fry, R. J. M.

131

Some issues important in developing basic radiation protection recommendations  

SciTech Connect

Presentations in this conference addressed various aspects of risk estimation, somatic effects, effects on the embryo-fetus, genetic impacts, non-stochastic effects, and implications for the NCRP program. Also included is the Eighth Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture, ''Limitation and Assessment in Radiation Protection,'' presented by Harold H. Rossi. Representatives from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Environmental Protection Agency, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, and Department of Energy participated in a Scientific Briefing Session entitled ''What the NCRP Should be Doing for Federal Agencies.'' The meeting closed with brief progress reports from NCRP scientific committees concerned with (1) Biological effects and exposure criteria for radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation, (2) Radiation protection in mammography, (3) Radiation exposure and potentially related injury, (4) Policy in regard to the international system of units, and (5) Radiation exposure control in a nuclear emergency. Twenty articles were abstracted separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base and the International Nuclear Information System.

Not Available

1985-01-01

132

Using computer-based training to facilitate radiation protection review  

SciTech Connect

In a national laboratory setting, it is necessary to provide radiation protection overview and training to diverse parts of the laboratory population. This includes employees at research reactors, accelerators, waste facilities, radiochemical isotope processing, and analytical laboratories, among others. In addition, our own radiation protection and monitoring staffs must be trained. To assist in the implementation of this full range of training, ORNL has purchased prepackaged computer-based training in health physics and technical mathematics with training modules that can be selected from many topics. By selection of specific modules, appropriate radiation protection review packages can be determined to meet many individual program needs. Because our radiation protection personnel must have some previous radiation protection experience or the equivalent of an associate's degree in radiation protection for entry level, the computer-based training will serve primarily as review of major principles. Others may need very specific prior training to make the computer-based training effective in their work situations. 4 refs.

Abercrombie, J.S.; Copenhaver, E.D.

1989-01-01

133

SI units in radiation protection and measurements  

SciTech Connect

This report considers the concepts of quantities and units, discusses the International System, develops the relationships between conventional and SI units for radiation quantities, considers arguments for and against the adoption of SI units in terms of their use in various fields of activity, and provides recommendations for action. Emphasis in this report is given to ionizing radiation with some discussion of the use of the SI for nonionizing radiation.

Not Available

1985-01-01

134

Radiation protection for manned space activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth's natural radiation environment poses a hazard to manned space activities directly through biological effects and indirectly through effects on materials and electronics. The following standard practices are indicated that address: (1) environment models for all radiation species including uncertainties and temporal variations; (2) upper bound and nominal quality factors for biological radiation effects that include dose, dose rate, critical organ, and linear energy transfer variations; (3) particle transport and shielding methodology including system and man modeling and uncertainty analysis; (4) mission planning that includes active dosimetry, minimizes exposure during extravehicular activities, subjects every mission to a radiation review, and specifies operational procedures for forecasting, recognizing, and dealing with large solar flaes.

Jordan, T. M.

1983-01-01

135

Evaluation of range parameters of the cameras for security system protecting the selected critical infrastructure of seaport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many separated infrastructural objects within a harbor area that may be considered "critical", such as gas and oil terminals or anchored naval vessels. Those objects require special protection, including security systems capable of monitoring both surface and underwater areas, because an intrusion into the protected area may be attempted using small surface vehicles (boats, kayaks, rafts, floating devices with weapons and explosives) as well as underwater ones (manned or unmanned submarines, scuba divers). The cameras used in security systems operate in several different spectral ranges in order to improve the probability of detection of incoming objects (potential threats). The cameras should then have adequate range parameters for detection, recognition and identification and those parameters, both measured and obtained through numerical simulations, will be presented in the paper. The range parameters of thermal cameras were calculated using NVTherm software package. Parameters of four observation thermal cameras were also measured on a specialized test stand at Institute of Optoelectronics, MUT. This test stand makes it also possible to test visual cameras. The parameters of five observation cameras working in the visual range were measured and on the basis of those data the detection, recognition and identification ranges were determined. The measurement results and simulation data will be compared. The evaluation of range parameters obtained for the tested camera types will define their usability in the real security system for the protection of selected critical infrastructure of a seaport.small surface objects (such as RIB boats) by a camera system and real test results in various weather conditions will also be presented.

Kastek, Mariusz; Barela, Jaroslaw; Zyczkowski, Marek; Dulski, Rafal; Trzaskawka, Piotr; Firmanty, Krzysztof; Kucharz, Juliusz

2012-10-01

136

Receiver Based Traffic Control Mechanism to Protect Low Capacity Network in Infrastructure Based Wireless Mesh Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrastructure-based Wireless Mesh Networks are emerging as an affordable, robust, flexible and scalable technology. With the advent of Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) the dream of connecting multiple technology based networks seems to come true. A fully secure WMN is still a challenge for the researchers. In infrastructure-based WMNs almost all types of existing Wireless Networks like Wi-Fi, Cellular, WiMAX, and Sensor etc can be connected through Wireless Mesh Routers (WMRs). This situation can lead to a security problem. Some nodes can be part of the network with high processing power, large memory and least energy issues while others may belong to a network having low processing power, small memory and serious energy limitations. The later type of the nodes is very much vulnerable to targeted attacks. In our research we have suggested to set some rules on the WMR to mitigate these kinds of targeted flooding attacks. The WMR will then share those set of rules with other WMRs for Effective Utilization of Resources.

Gilani, Syed Sherjeel Ahmad; Zubair, Muhammad; Khan, Zeeshan Shafi

137

Space activities and radiation protection of crew members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personnel working as crew in space-based activities e.g. professional astronauts and cosmo-nauts but also -to a certain extend-space flight participants ("space tourists"), demand health and safety considerations that have to include radiation protection measures. The radiation environment that a crew is exposed to during a space flight, differs significantly to that found on earth including commercial aviation, mainly due to the presence of heavy charged particles with great potential for biological damage. The exposure exceeds those routinely received by terrestrial radiation workers. A sequence of activities has to be conducted targeting to mitigate adverse effects of space radiation. Considerable information is available and applied through the joint efforts of the Space Agencies that are involved in the operations of the International Space Station, ISS. This presentation will give an introduction to the current measures for ra-diation monitoring and protection of astronauts of the European Space Agency (ESA). It will include information: on the radiation protection guidelines that shall ensure the proper imple-mentation and execution of radiation protection measures, the operational hardware used for radiation monitoring and personal dosimetry on ISS, as well as information about operational procedures that are applied.

Straube, Ulrich; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Facius, Rainer; Reiter, Thomas; Kehl, Marcel; Damann, M. D. Volker; Tognini, Michel

138

Plays Well With Others: Enhancing DoD's Role in Protecting the National Information Infrastructure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The terrorist attacks on the twin trade towers and the Pentagon kindled an immediate, renewed focus on homeland defense, Since then, efforts to combat physical terrorist threats have rightly taken center stage, However, the need to protect our national in...

W. E. Durall

2002-01-01

139

Protection from radiation-induced pneumonitis using cerium oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In an effort to combat the harmful effects of radiation exposure, we propose that rare-earth cerium oxide (CeO(2)) nanoparticles (free-radical scavengers) protect normal tissue from radiation-induced damage. Preliminary studies suggest that these nanoparticles may be a therapeutic regenerative nanomedicine that will scavenge reactive oxygen species, which are responsible for radiation-induced cell damage. The effectiveness of CeO(2) nanoparticles in radiation protection in murine models during high-dose radiation exposure is investigated, with the ultimate goal of offering a new approach to radiation protection, using nanotechnology. We show that CeO(2) nanoparticles are well tolerated by live animals, and they prevent the onset of radiation-induced pneumonitis when delivered to live animals exposed to high doses of radiation. In the end, these studies provide a tremendous potential for radioprotection and can lead to significant benefits for the preservation of human health and the quality of life for humans receiving radiation therapy. PMID:19285453

Colon, Jimmie; Herrera, Luis; Smith, Joshua; Patil, Swanand; Komanski, Chris; Kupelian, Patrick; Seal, Sudipta; Jenkins, D Wayne; Baker, Cheryl H

2009-06-01

140

Optimisation of Critical Infrastructure Protection: The SiVe Project on Airport Security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper outlines the scientific goals, ongoing work and first results of the SiVe research project on critical infrastructure security. The methodology is generic while pilot studies are chosen from airport security. The outline proceeds in three major steps, (1) building a threat scenario, (2) development of simulation models as scenario refinements, and (3) assessment of alternatives. Advanced techniques of systems analysis and simulation are employed to model relevant airport structures and processes as well as offences. Computer experiments are carried out to compare and optimise alternative solutions. The optimality analyses draw on approaches to quantitative risk assessment recently developed in the operational sciences. To exploit the advantages of the various techniques, an integrated simulation workbench is build up in the project.

Breiing, Marcus; Cole, Mara; D'Avanzo, John; Geiger, Gebhard; Goldner, Sascha; Kuhlmann, Andreas; Lorenz, Claudia; Papproth, Alf; Petzel, Erhard; Schwetje, Oliver

141

Simple Benchmark Specifications for Space Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report defines space radiation benchmark specifications. This specification starts with simple, monoenergetic, mono-directional particles on slabs and progresses to human models in spacecraft. This report specifies the models and sources needed to what the team performing the benchmark needs to produce in a report. Also included are brief descriptions of how OLTARIS, the NASA Langley website for space radiation analysis, performs its analysis.

Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.; Aghara, Sukesh K.

2013-01-01

142

OptaSense distributed acoustic and seismic sensing using COTS fiber optic cables for infrastructure protection and counter terrorism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OptaSense® Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) technology can turn any cable with single-mode optical fiber into a very large and densely sampled acoustic/seismic sensor array—covering up to a 50 km aperture per system with "virtual" sensor separations as small as 1 meter on the unmodified cable. The system uses Rayleigh scattering from the imperfections in the fiber to return the optical signals measuring local fiber strain from seismic or air and water acoustic signals. The scalable system architecture can provide border monitoring and high-security perimeter and linear asset protection for a variety of industries—from nuclear facilities to oil and gas pipelines. This paper presents various application architectures and system performance examples for detection, localization, and classification of personnel footsteps, vehicles, digging and tunneling, gunshots, aircraft, and earthquakes. The DAS technology can provide a costeffective alternative to unattended ground sensors and geophone arrays, and a complement or alternative to imaging and radar sensors in many applications. The transduction, signal processing, and operator control and display technology will be described, and performance examples will be given from research and development testing and from operational systems on pipelines, critical infrastructure perimeters, railroads, and roadways. Potential new applications will be discussed that can take advantage of existing fiber-optic telecommunications infrastructure as "the sensor"—leading to low-cost and high-coverage systems.

Duckworth, Gregory L.; Ku, Emery M.

2013-06-01

143

Radiation Protection for Manned Interplanetary Missions - Radiation Sources, Risks, Remedies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health risks in interplanetary explorative missions differ in two major features significantly from those during the manned missions experienced so far. For one, presently available technologies lead to durations of such missions significantly longer than so far encountered - with the added complication that emergency returns are ruled out. Thus radiation exposures and hence risks for late radiation sequelae like

R. Facius; G. Reitz

2006-01-01

144

Radiation protection, radiation safety and radiation shielding assessment of HIE-ISOLDE.  

PubMed

The high intensity and energy ISOLDE (HIE-ISOLDE) project is an upgrade to the existing ISOLDE facility at CERN. The foreseen increase in the nominal intensity and the energy of the primary proton beam of the existing ISOLDE facility aims at increasing the intensity of the produced radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The currently existing ISOLDE facility uses the proton beam from the proton-synchrotron booster with an energy of 1.4 GeV and an intensity up to 2 ?A. After upgrade (final stage), the HIE-ISOLDE facility is supposed to run at an energy up to 2 GeV and an intensity up to 4 ?A. The foreseen upgrade imposes constrains, from the radiation protection and the radiation safety point of view, to the existing experimental and supply areas. Taking into account the upgraded energy and intensity of the primary proton beam, a new assessment of the radiation protection and radiation safety of the HIE-ISOLDE facility is necessary. Special attention must be devoted to the shielding assessment of the beam dumps and of the experimental areas. In this work the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo particle transport simulation program FLUKA was used to perform the computation of the ambient dose equivalent rate distribution and of the particle fluxes in the projected HIE-ISOLDE facility (taking into account the upgrade nominal primary proton beam energy and intensity) and the shielding assessment of the facility, with the aim of identifying in the existing facility (ISOLDE) the critical areas and locations where new or reinforced shielding may be necessary. The consequences of the upgraded proton beam parameters on the operational radiation protection of the facility were studied. PMID:23516267

Romanets, Y; Bernardes, A P; Dorsival, A; Gonçalves, I F; Kadi, Y; di Maria, S; Vaz, P; Vlachoudis, V; Vollaire, J

2013-07-01

145

Issues in deep space radiation protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exposures in deep space are largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little biological experience. Mounting evidence indicates that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate for GCR ions. The available biological data indicates that aluminum alloy structures may generate inherently unhealthy internal spacecraft environments in

J. Miller; C. Zeitlin; L. Heilbronn; F. A. Cucinotta; G. D. Badhwar; A. K. Noor; M. Y. Kim; F. F. Badavi; J. H. Heinbockel

2001-01-01

146

Nuclear Research Centre Juelich. 1984 Annual Work Report of the Department for Safety and Radiation Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department for Safety and Radiation Protection continues to be responsible for coordinating radiation protection, safety and protection at the KFA. It supports the other institutes and departments in performing the safety tasks allotted to them. The p...

R. Hille

1985-01-01

147

Physical basis of radiation protection in space travel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The health risks of space radiation are arguably the most serious challenge to space exploration, possibly preventing these missions due to safety concerns or increasing their costs to amounts beyond what would be acceptable. Radiation in space is substantially different from Earth: high-energy (E) and charge (Z) particles (HZE) provide the main contribution to the equivalent dose in deep space, whereas ? rays and low-energy ? particles are major contributors on Earth. This difference causes a high uncertainty on the estimated radiation health risk (including cancer and noncancer effects), and makes protection extremely difficult. In fact, shielding is very difficult in space: the very high energy of the cosmic rays and the severe mass constraints in spaceflight represent a serious hindrance to effective shielding. Here the physical basis of space radiation protection is described, including the most recent achievements in space radiation transport codes and shielding approaches. Although deterministic and Monte Carlo transport codes can now describe well the interaction of cosmic rays with matter, more accurate double-differential nuclear cross sections are needed to improve the codes. Energy deposition in biological molecules and related effects should also be developed to achieve accurate risk models for long-term exploratory missions. Passive shielding can be effective for solar particle events; however, it is limited for galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Active shielding would have to overcome challenging technical hurdles to protect against GCR. Thus, improved risk assessment and genetic and biomedical approaches are a more likely solution to GCR radiation protection issues.

Durante, Marco; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2011-10-01

148

47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information...prevent human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF...

2010-10-01

149

47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83... Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application...that will cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF...

2009-10-01

150

47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information...prevent human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF...

2009-10-01

151

47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application...cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2013-10-01

152

Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H. [eds.

1991-10-01

153

Protecting Lunar Colonies From Space Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When Apollo 7 astronaut Walter Cunningham blasted off from Earth on 11 October 1968, the last thing he was thinking about was radiation risks or any risks at all. “Fear doesn’t even enter your mind because you have confidence in yourself, your own ability, your training, and your knowledge,” Cunningham told Space Weather. As a crew member of the first manned mission in the Apollo program and the first three-man American space mission, Cunningham spent 11 days in Earth orbit, testing life-support, propulsion, and control systems on a redesigned command module. In retrospect, compared with immediate risks such as those associated with launch and reentry, “exposure to radiation, which could have long-term effects—we just never gave that a thought,” Cunningham said.

Kumar, Mohi

2009-08-01

154

Protection against ionizing radiation with eicosanoids  

SciTech Connect

Prostaglandins (PGs) are extremely diverse in their pharmacological activities. They exhibit both antagonistic as well as cytoprotective properties in the pathogenesis of inflammation. Participation of PGs as chemical mediators in the regulation of immune responses and inflammation are increasingly apparent. The antagonistic properties of PGs have been implicated in a variety of symptoms resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation. Post-irradiation increases in small bowel motility, diarrhea, flatulence, abdominal pain, mucositis, and esophagitis have been attributed, in part, to excessive PG production. In contrast, exogenous PGs, particularly of the E type, have been shown to be cytoprotective against a variety of damaging agents, and a deficiency of endogeneous PG has been suggested to contribute to increase susceptibility to injury. These findings have provided much of the impetus to examine the potential cytoprotective effects of PGs in radiation injury.

Steel, L.K.; Catravas, G.N.

1988-01-01

155

Overview of novel techniques for radiation protection and dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally, the main approaches for assessing the radiation protection (RP) quantities in neutron fields are: i) the use of an instrument with a response to the protection quantity quasi-independent of energy; ii) neutron spectrometry; iii) microdosimetry.The techniques based on the first approach include rem-meters, superheated emulsions and the electronic personal dosemeters. Passive rem-meters have recently been developed for assessing the

Stefano Agosteo

2010-01-01

156

Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts  

SciTech Connect

This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

Not Available

1991-12-31

157

Critical Infrastructure Protection and Resilience; Emergency Evacuation 2011. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2234.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Critical Infrastructure: Improving Resilience of Critical Infrastructure Systems Postdisaster: Recovery and Mitigation; Material Convergence and Determinants: Case of Hurricane Katrina; Resiliency of Transportation Network of Santo Domi...

2011-01-01

158

Radiation protection and measurement for low-voltage neutron generators  

SciTech Connect

This report is concerned with neutron generators that operate at voltages below a few hundred kilovolts and produce neutrons chiefly by the T(d,n) reaction. The report provides information on the radiation protection problems in the use of these generators and the means available for dealing with these problems. It is intended to serve as a guide to good practice and bring together in one place, a number of recommendations relevant to the use of low voltage neutron generators that have appeared in other NCRP documents. The report surveys the radiations produced by low voltage neutron generators and their measurement. It then addresses the fundamentals of radiation protection, including shielding and physical safeguards. Guidance is given on radioactive waste resulting from the use of neutron generators and information is provided on non-radiation hazards and licensing. 91 references, 4 figures, 7 tables.

Not Available

1983-11-01

159

Dental-service Dental Radiation Safety and Protection: Program guide  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the program guide for Dental Radiation Safety and Protection is to assist VA dental personnel in developing radiologic procedures that ensure maximum safety for their patients and themselves. In order to do this, the authors have included a summary of the biological hazards associated with exposure to x-radiation, provided information on patient exposure levels associated with dental X-ray units, and explained the methods for reducing patient and staff exposure to X-rays.

Not Available

1991-08-27

160

Setting standards for radiation protection: A time for change  

SciTech Connect

In 1950, the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommended that ``certain radiation effects are irreversible and cumulative.`` Furthermore, the ICRP ``strongly recommended that every effort be made to reduce exposures to all types of ionizing radiations to the lowest possible level.`` Then in 1954, the ICRP published its assumption that human response to ionizing radiation was linear with dose, together with the recommendation that exposures be kept as low as practicable. These concepts are still the foundation of radiation protection policy today, even though, as Evans has stated, ``The linear non-threshold (LNT) model was adopted specifically on a basis of mathematical simplicity, not from radio-biological data.... Groups responsible for setting standards for radiation protection should be abreast of new developments and new data as they are published; however, this does not seem to be the case. For example, there have been many reports in scientific, peer-reviewed, and other publications during the last three decades that have shown the LNT model and the policy of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) to be invalid. However, none of these reports has been refuted or even discussed by standard-setting groups. We believe this mandates a change in the standard-setting process.

Patterson, H.W.; Hickman, D.P.

1996-01-01

161

Health protection: Toxic agent and radiation control.  

PubMed Central

It is estimated that of the four million chemical compounds which have been synthesized or isolated from natural materials, more than 55,000 are produced commercially. Approximately 1,000 new compounds are introduced annually; pesticide formulations alone contain about 1,500 active chemical ingredients. Diagnostic x-rays are used extensively in medicine and dentistry. Over 2,000 chemicals are suspected carcinogens in laboratory animals--epidemiologic evidence suggests that 26 of these chemicals and/or industrial processes are carcinogenic in humans. More than 20 agents are known to be associated with birth defects in humans; 47 atmospheric contaminants have been identified in animal studies as recognized carcinogens and 128 as mutagens; and, of the 765 contaminants identified in drinking water, 12 were recognized carcinogens, 31 suspected carcinogens, and 59 mutagens. Radiation has known carcinogenic and genetic effects at significant levels of exposure. Problems with toxic agents and radiation sources occur not only in industry, but also in medical and dental care (x-rays and drugs), agriculture (pesticides and herbicides), Government activities (biological and chemical agents), consumer products (incorrect use of consumer products which contain toxic substances), and natural sources (fungal products).

1983-01-01

162

Infrastructure of radiation oncology in France: A large survey of evolution of external beam radiotherapy practice  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To study the structural characteristics of radiation oncology facilities for France and to examine how technological evolutions had to be taken into account in terms of accessibility and costs. This study was initiated by the three health care financing administrations that cover health care costs for the French population. The needs of the population in terms of the geographic distribution of the facilities were also investigated. The endpoint was to make proposals to enable an evolution of the practice of radiotherapy (RT) in France. Methods and materials: A survey designed by a multidisciplinary committee was distributed in all RT facilities to collect data on treatment machines, other equipment, personnel, new patients, and new treatments. Medical advisors ensured site visits in each facility. The data were validated at the regional level and aggregated at the national level for analysis. Results: A total of 357 machines had been installed in 179 facilities: 270 linear accelerators and 87 cobalt units. The distribution of facilities and megavoltage units per million inhabitants over the country was good, although some disparities existed between areas. It appeared that most megavoltage units had not benefited from technological innovation, because 25% of the cobalt units and 57% of the linear accelerators were between 6 and 15 years old. Computed tomography access for treatment preparation was not sufficient, and complete data management systems were scarce (15% of facilities). Seven centers had no treatment planning system. Electronic portal imaging devices were available in 44.7% of RT centers and in vivo dosimetry in 35%. A lack of physicians and medical physicists was observed; consequently, the workload exceeded the normal standard recommended by the French White Book. Discrepancies were found between the number of patients treated per machine per year in each area (range, 244.5-604). Most treatments were delivered in smaller facilities (61.6%). Conclusion: On the basis of the findings of this study, measures were taken to update the infrastructure of RT in France. A first evaluation showed an improvement of care supply in RT in the country.

Ruggieri-Pignon, Sophie [Caisse Nationale d'Assurance Maladie des Travailleurs Salaries, Direction Regionale du Sud Est, Marseille (France)]. E-mail: sophie.pignon@ersm-sudest.cnamts.fr; Pignon, Thierry [Department of Oncology Radiotherapy, Hopital de la Timone, Universite de la Mediterrannee, Marseille (France); Marty, Michel [Caisse Nationale d'Assurance Maladie des Travailleurs Salaries, Direction du Service Medical, Paris (France); Rodde-Dunet, Marie-Helene [Caisse Nationale d'Assurance Maladie des Travailleurs Salaries, Direction du Service Medical, Paris (France); Destembert, Brigitte [Caisse Nationale d'Assurance Maladie des Travailleurs Salaries, Echelon local du Service Medical, Orleans (France); Fritsch, Beatrice [Caisse Nationale d'Assurance Maladie des Travailleurs Salaries, Echelon local du Service Medical, Strasbourg (France)

2005-02-01

163

Ultraviolet radiation protection by a beach umbrella.  

PubMed

A beach umbrella intercepts all direct UV irradiance, but only part of the diffuse component. Using a simple sky view factor model, we have determined the fraction of the hemispheric diffuse irradiance that is not intercepted by the umbrella. Assuming a sensor at the surface and close to the center of the umbrella, isotropic diffuse irradiance and for an umbrella of 80 cm radius and 100 cm high, our results show that approximately 34% of the incident horizontal irradiance is not intercepted by the umbrella. These results agree with irradiance measurements conducted with and without the umbrella. The model is next extended to examine receipt of UV radiation by a human figure in a vertical position, either standing or sitting. PMID:20059729

Utrillas, María P; Martínez-Lozano, José A; Nuñez, Manuel

2010-01-01

164

Preliminary radiation protection analyses of the target SPES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some radiation protection quantities for the SPES target (1) have been preliminary assessed (2). The proton beam interacts with the target disks and the structures around the disks. The inelastic collisions produce neutrons, gammas and radioactive residual nuclei (which can emit gamma, beta and alpha particles). The produced neutrons, in turn, can activate other structural components in the surroundings of

C. Petrovich; A. Andrighetto; C. Antonucci; M. Barbui; L. Biasetto; S. Carturan; F. Cervellera; S. Cevolani; M. Cinausero; L. Costa; P. Colombo; I. Cristofolini; A. Dainelli; M. De Cecco; P. Di Bernardo; M. Giacchini; F. Gramegna; M. Lollo; G. Maggioni; M. Manzolaro; G. Meneghetti; R. Oboe; L. Piga; A. Pisent; G. Prete; V. Rizzi; M. Tonezzer; P. Zanonato; D. Zafiropoulos

165

Radiation protection for human missions to the Moon and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation protection assessments are performed for advanced Lunar and Mars manned missions. The Langley cosmic ray transport code and the nucleon transport code are used to quantify the transport and attenuation of galactic cosmic rays and solar proton flares through various shielding media. Galactic cosmic radiation at solar maximum and minimum, as well as various flare scenarios are considered. Propagation data for water, aluminum, liquid hydrogen, lithium hydride, lead, and lunar and Martian regolith (soil) are included. Shield thickness and shield mass estimates required to maintain incurred doses below 30 day and annual limits (as set for Space Station Freedom and used as a guide for space exploration) are determined for simple geometry transfer vehicles. On the surface of Mars, dose estimates are presented for crews with their only protection being the carbon dioxide atmosphere and for crews protected by shielding provided by Martian regolith for a candidate habitat.

Simonsen, Lisa C.; Nealy, John E.

1991-01-01

166

Radiation protection for human missions to the Moon and Mars  

SciTech Connect

Radiation protection assessments are performed for advanced Lunar and Mars manned missions. The Langley cosmic ray transport code and the nucleon transport code are used to quantify the transport and attenuation of galactic cosmic rays and solar proton flares through various shielding media. Galactic cosmic radiation at solar maximum and minimum, as well as various flare scenarios are considered. Propagation data for water, aluminum, liquid hydrogen, lithium hydride, lead, and lunar and Martian regolith (soil) are included. Shield thickness and shield mass estimates required to maintain incurred doses below 30 day and annual limits (as set for Space Station Freedom and used as a guide for space exploration) are determined for simple geometry transfer vehicles. On the surface of Mars, dose estimates are presented for crews with their only protection being the carbon dioxide atmosphere and for crews protected by shielding provided by Martian regolith for a candidate habitat.

Simonsen, L.C.; Nealy, J.E.

1991-02-01

167

Habitat Design Considerations for Implementing Solar Particle Event Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation protection is an important habitat design consideration for human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. Fortunately, radiation shelter concepts can effectively reduce astronaut exposure for the relatively low proton energies of solar particle events, enabling moderate duration missions of several months before astronaut exposure (galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event) approaches radiation exposure limits. In order to minimize habitat mass for increasingly challenging missions, design of radiation shelters must minimize dedicated, single-purpose shielding mass by leveraging the design and placement of habitat subsystems, accommodations, and consumables. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems RadWorks Storm Shelter Team has recently designed and performed radiation analysis on several low dedicated mass shelter concepts for a year-long mission. This paper describes habitat design considerations identified during the study's radiation analysis. These considerations include placement of the shelter within a habitat for improved protection, integration of human factors guidance for sizing shelters, identification of potential opportunities for habitat subsystems to compromise on individual subsystem performances for overall vehicle mass reductions, and pre-configuration of shelter components for reduced deployment times.

Simon, Mathew A.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Walker, Steven A.

2013-01-01

168

EPA Radiation Protection for Students and Teachers (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) site explains the basic concepts of radiation and radiation protection. Background information includes the history of radiation protection and brief biographies of radiation researchers. There is also basic technical information, such as the types of radiation, radiation warning symbols, basic terms, and a dose calculator. Students can test what they have learned with puzzles and a quiz.

169

Polyamines protect against radiation-induced oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Astronauts and cosmonauts are exposed to a wide variety of different hazards while in space that include radiation, which presents one of the most critical barriers to long-term missions. A major deleterious effect directly associated with ionizing radiation is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as peroxides and hydroxyl radicals. The free radicals generated by ultraviolet (UV) or ionizing radiation can attack cellular lipids, proteins and DNA. Endogenous free radical scavengers such as glutathione and the polyamines (e.g, spermidine and spermine) can inhibit the action of ROS. In particular, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the enzyme involved in heme protein metabolism, can provide antioxidant protection through the production of the antioxidant bilirubin. Furthermore, polyamines have been shown to indirectly increase HO-1 content and antioxidant protection. The beta2-adrenoceptor agonist clenbuterol has been shown to stimulate polyamine synthesis and by extension, might provide a margin of antioxidant protection through increasing HO-1 content. However, it is unclear whether the polyamines are acting as a tertiary messengers for antioxidant protection in the be beta2-adrenoceptor signal transduction pathway. The purpose of this study was to study the role of the polyamine pathway in attenuating free radical-induced damage. PMID:16044631

von Deutsch, Albert W; Mitchell, Clarence D; Williams, Chris E; Dutt, Kamla; Silvestrov, Natalia A; Klement, Brenda J; Abukhalaf, Imad K; von Deutsch, Daniel A

2005-06-01

170

Radiation protection and regulations for the nuclear medicine physician.  

PubMed

As authorized users of radioactive material, nuclear medicine (NM) physicians play a leading role in the use and management of these agents. Regarding patient management, NM physicians are responsible for ensuring both the appropriateness of exams and the associated patient doses. Along with radiologists, NM physicians are the ones developing and implementing processes that provide guidance to and dialog with referring physicians to ensure that patients receive the most appropriate type of imaging exams. Regarding regulatory compliance, in collaboration with radiation safety officers, NM physicians are the ones educating their staff about principles of radiation protection and radiation safety with adherence to regulations from agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Transportation, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Food and Drug Administration. On occasion, these regulations and standards can be difficult to comprehend. This article is intended to serve as a condensed guide for NM physicians who are in the process of applying for a radioactive materials license, establishing a new radiation protection program, or want to ensure continued compliance and maintenance of safety and security of licensed materials in the clinical or research settings. PMID:24832587

Chen, Man Yu

2014-05-01

171

US Environmental Protection Agency Radiation Protection Programs for Waste Management and Site Cleanup  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the regulatory authorities of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (ORIA) as they pertain to radioactive waste management and disposal, and cleanup of radioactively contaminated sites. It also describes several ORIA initiatives and examples of two of EPA's radioactive waste standards. (authors)

2008-01-01

172

Calcium antagonists protect mice against lethal doses of ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

Currently available radioprotectors are poorly tolerated in man and the general use of aminothiol radioprotectors is compromised by their side-effects. In a search for less toxic radioprotective agents, diltiazem, a calcium antagonist with a benzothiazepine structure, was found to protect mice against a lethal (LD100) gamma radiation dose allowing survival of up to 93%. Dihydropyridine calcium antagonists such as nifedipine, nimodipine, isradipine and nitrendipine also provided radioprotection. Calcium antagonists might attenuate radiation-induced injury by inhibiting cellular calcium overload, subsequent to cell membrane damage caused by radiation-generated free radicals. In view of their good tolerance, calcium antagonists may be applied safely in situations of radiation exposure, including radiotherapy and internal radionuclide contamination. These calcium antagonists may also be viewed in other contexts where free radicals are implicated in pathological processes. PMID:1450817

Floersheim, G L

1992-11-01

173

The radiobiology/radiation protection interface in healthcare.  

PubMed

The current knowledge of radiation effects is reviewed and implications for its application in healthcare considered. The 21st L H Gray conference gathered leading experts in radiobiology, radiation epidemiology, radiation effect modelling, and the application of radiation in medicine to provide an overview of the subject. The latest radiobiology research in non-targeted effects such as genomic instability and the bystander effect challenge the old models, but the implications for health effects on humans are uncertain. Adaptive responses to external stresses, of which radiation is one, have been demonstrated in cells and animal models, but it is not known how these might modify human dose-effect relationships. Epidemiological evidence from the Japanese A-bomb survivors provides strong evidence that there is a linear relationship between the excess risk of cancer and organ dose that extends from about 50 mSv up to 2.5 Sv, and results from pooled data for multiple epidemiological studies indicate that risks extend down to doses of 20 mSv. Thus linear extrapolation of the A-bomb dose-effect data provides an appropriate basis for radiological protection standards at the present time. Risks from higher dose diagnostic procedures fall within the range in which health effects can be demonstrated. There is therefore reason for concern about the rise in the number of computed tomography (CT) scans performed in many countries, and in particular the use of CT for screening of asymptomatic individuals. New radiotherapy techniques allow high dose radiation fields to be conformed more effectively to target volumes, and reduce doses to critical organs, but they tend to give a higher and more uniform dose to the whole body which may increase the risk of second cancer. It is important that radiation protection practitioners keep abreast of developments in understanding of radiation effects and advise the medical community about the implications of fundamental research when planning medical applications for the future. PMID:19454808

Martin, C J; Sutton, D G; West, C M; Wright, E G

2009-06-01

174

48 CFR 952.223-72 - Radiation protection and nuclear criticality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Radiation protection and nuclear criticality. 952.223-72 Section...223-72 Radiation protection and nuclear criticality. As prescribed...subcontract rather than by reliance upon Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing...

2013-10-01

175

42 CFR 37.45 - Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment. 37.45 Section 37...Radiographic Examinations § 37.45 Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment. Except as...

2013-10-01

176

Chelation of lysosomal iron protects against ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation causes DNA damage and consequent apoptosis, mainly due to the production of hydroxyl radicals (HO•) that follows radiolytic splitting of water. However, superoxide (O2•-) and H2O2 also form and induce oxidative stress with resulting LMP (lysosomal membrane permeabilization) arising from iron-catalysed oxidative events. The latter will contribute significantly to radiation-induced cell death and its degree largely depends on the quantities of lysosomal redox-active iron present as a consequence of autophagy and endocytosis of iron-rich compounds. Therefore radiation sensitivity might be depressed by lysosome-targeted iron chelators. In the present study, we have shown that cells in culture are significantly protected from ionizing radiation damage if initially exposed to the lipophilic iron chelator SIH (salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone), and that this effect is based on SIH-dependent lysosomal stabilization against oxidative stress. According to its dose-response-modifying effect, SIH is a most powerful radioprotector and a promising candidate for clinical application, mainly to reduce the radiation sensitivity of normal tissue. We propose, as an example, that inhalation of SIH before each irradiation session by patients undergoing treatment for lung malignancies would protect normally aerated lung tissue against life-threatening pulmonary fibrosis, whereas the sensitivity of malignant lung tumours, which usually are non-aerated, will not be affected by inhaled SIH. PMID:20846118

Berndt, Carsten; Kurz, Tino; Selenius, Markus; Fernandes, Aristi P; Edgren, Margareta R; Brunk, Ulf T

2010-12-01

177

Issues in Space Radiation Protection: Galactic Cosmic Rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With shielding from cosmic heavy ions, one is faced with limited knowledge about the physical properties and biological responses of these radiations. Herein, the current status of space shielding technology and its impact on radiation health is discussed in terms of conventional protection practice and a test biological response model. The impact of biological response on optimum materials selection for cosmic ray shielding is presented in terms of the transmission characteristics of the shield material. Although liquid hydrogen gas is an optimum shield material, evaluation of the effectiveness of polymeric structural materials must await improvement in our knowledge of both the biological response and the nuclear processes.

Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M.; Schimmerling, W.; Badavi, F. F.; Thibeault, S. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Shinn, J. L.; Kiefer, R.

1995-01-01

178

Pyridoxamine protects intestinal epithelium from ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are the major cause of biological tissue damage during the exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The existing strategies to protect normal tissues from detrimental effects of IR suffer from several shortcomings including high toxic side effects, unfavorable administration routs or low efficacy. These shortcomings emphasize a need for radioprotective treatments that combine effectiveness with safety and ease of use. In this paper, we demonstrate that pyridoxamine, a ROS and RCS scavenger with a very favorable safety profile, can inhibit IR-induced gastrointestinal endothelial apoptosis in cell culture and in animal model. Pyridoxamine was more effective at protecting from radiation-induced apoptosis compared to Amifostine, a synthetic thiol compound and the only FDA approved radioprotector. We suggest that PM has a potential as an effective and safe radioprotective agent.

Thotala, Dinesh; Chetyrkin, Sergei; Hudson, Billy; Hallahan, Dennis; Voziyan, Paul; Yazlovitskaya, Eugenia

2009-01-01

179

Vitamin C acts as radiation-protecting agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) is a very efficient, water soluble antioxidant. Its multifunctional biological and biochemical activities are rather well established in the last few decades (e.g. Sies and Stahl, 1995; Meydani et al., 1995; NRC, 1989. In the present letter we are reporting briefly the pronounced radiation-protecting properties of ascorbate (AH -) observed on bacteria ( E. coli AB1157) as well as on cultured cells (SCC VII, eukaryotic cells).

Platzer, Isabel; Getoff, Nikola

1998-01-01

180

The IAEA's activities on radiation protection in interventional cardiology  

PubMed Central

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under its mandate of developing and applying standards of radiation safety has initiated a number of activities in recent years on radiation protection in interventional cardiology. These activities are implemented through four mechanisms, namely training, providing information through the website, research projects and assistance to Member States through Technical Cooperation (TC) projects. Major international initiatives have been taken in the area of training where more than half a dozen regional training courses have been conducted for cardiologists from over 50 countries. Additionally four national training events for over 300 medical and paramedical staff members involved in interventional procedures were held. The training material is freely available on CD from the IAEA. The newly established website provides information on radiation protection issues [1]. Two coordinated research projects have just been completed where peak skin doses to patients undergoing high dose interventional procedures were studied and factors to manage patient doses were identified. The technical cooperation projects involving protection in cardiac interventional procedures have 30 countries as participants.

Rehani, MM

2007-01-01

181

Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S. [eds.

1988-11-01

182

Pharmacological Protection From Radiation {+-} Cisplatin-Induced Oral Mucositis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate if two pharmacological agents, Tempol and D-methionine (D-met), are able to prevent oral mucositis in mice after exposure to ionizing radiation {+-} cisplatin. Methods and Materials: Female C3H mice, {approx}8 weeks old, were irradiated with five fractionated doses {+-} cisplatin to induce oral mucositis (lingual ulcers). Just before irradiation and chemotherapy, mice were treated, either alone or in combination, with different doses of Tempol (by intraperitoneal [ip] injection or topically, as an oral gel) and D-met (by gavage). Thereafter, mice were sacrificed and tongues were harvested and stained with a solution of Toluidine Blue. Ulcer size and tongue epithelial thickness were measured. Results: Significant lingual ulcers resulted from 5 Multiplication-Sign 8 Gy radiation fractions, which were enhanced with cisplatin treatment. D-met provided stereospecific partial protection from lingual ulceration after radiation. Tempol, via both routes of administration, provided nearly complete protection from lingual ulceration. D-met plus a suboptimal ip dose of Tempol also provided complete protection. Conclusions: Two fairly simple pharmacological treatments were able to markedly reduce chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. This proof of concept study suggests that Tempol, alone or in combination with D-met, may be a useful and convenient way to prevent the severe oral mucositis that results from head-and-neck cancer therapy.

Cotrim, Ana P. [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yoshikawa, Masanobu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Sunshine, Abraham N.; Zheng Changyu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Sowers, Anastasia L.; Thetford, Angela D.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B. [Radiation Biology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Baum, Bruce J., E-mail: bbaum@dir.nidcr.nih.gov [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

2012-07-15

183

Optical Protection Filters for Harmful Laser Beams and UV Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Due to the rapid growth of radiation protection applications in various devices and instruments, it is essential to use suitable filters for eye protection of the personal working in the radiation field. Different protection filters were produced to protect from four laser beam wavelengths (at 532nm, 632.8nm, 694nm and 1064nm) and block three UV bands (UVA, UVB, and UVC). The design structure of the required dielectric multilayer filters used optical thin film technology. The computer analyses of the multilayer filter formulas were prepared using Macleod Software for the production filter processes. The deposition technique was achieved on optical substrates (Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301) by dielectric material combinations including Dralo (mixture of oxides TiO2/Al2O3), and Lima (mixture of oxides SiO2/Al2O3); deposition by an electron beam gun. The output transmittance curves for both theoretical and experimental values of all filters are presented. To validate the suitability for use in a 'real world', rather than laboratory test application, full environmental assessment was also carried out. These filters exhibited high endurance after exposing them to the durability tests (adhesion, abrasion resistance and humidity) according to military standards MIL-C-675C and MIL-C-48497A.

Azim M, Osama A. [Vacuum Coating Lab. Manager, Arab International Optronics Co., El-Salam City, P.O. Box: 8182 Nassr City, Cairo 11491 (Egypt)

2007-02-14

184

US NRC discussion of options to revise radiation protection recommendations.  

PubMed

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is continuing the process of engaging stakeholders on issues associated with possible changes to the radiation protection regulations contained in 10 CFR Part 20, and other parts of the NRC regulations, to increase alignment with international recommendations. The Commission is particularly seeking to explore implications, as appropriate and where scientifically justified, of greater alignment with the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission for Radiological Protection. Other information from national and international sources is also being considered. Given that the NRC regulations provide adequate protection, the discussion has been focusing on discerning the benefits and burdens associated with revising the radiation protection regulatory framework. NRC, through three Federal Register Notices, has officially solicited comments on a series of key issues, and has conducted a series of facilitated workshops to encourage feedback from a wide range of stakeholders. The issues include the use of updated scientific methodologies and terminology, the occupational dose limits, and the use of the concepts of constraints in optimisation. NRC staff provided a policy paper with recommendations to the Commission on April 25, 2012 (NRC, 2012). PMID:23089031

Cool, D A

2012-01-01

185

Protecting Critical Rail Infrastructure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Terrorist attacks and accidents involving rail systems have resulted in death and destruction. The attacks in Madrid and London are good indications of the potential effects of a terrorist attack on the United States rail systems. Three years after the Ma...

G. S. Capra

2006-01-01

186

A High-Throughput Screen for Alpha Particle Radiation Protectants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Alpha-particle-emitting elements are of increasing importance as environmental and occupational carcinogens, toxic components of radiation dispersal devices and accidents, and potent therapeutics in oncology. Alpha particle radiation differs from radiations of lower linear energy transfer in that it predominantly damages DNA via direct action. Because of this, radical scavengers effective for other radiations have had only limited effect in mitigating alpha particle toxicity. We describe here a simple assay and a pilot screen of 3,119 compounds in a high-throughput screen (HTS), using the alpha-particle-emitting isotope, 225Ac, for the discovery of compounds that might protect mammalian cells from alpha particles through novel mechanisms. The assay, which monitored the viability of a myeloid leukemic cell line upon alpha particle exposure, was robust and reproducible, yielding a Z' factor of 0.66 and a signal-to-noise ratio of nearly 10 to 1. Surprisingly, 1 compound emerged from this screen, epoxy-4,5-?-dihydroxysantonin (EDHS), that showed considerable protective activity. While the value of EDHS remains to be determined, its discovery is a proof of concept and validation of the utility of this HTS methodology. Further application of the described assay could yield compounds useful in minimizing the toxicity and carcinogenesis associated with alpha particle exposure.

Seideman, Jonathan H.; Shum, David; Djaballah, Hakim

2010-01-01

187

Protection concepts for optronical sensors against laser radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid developments in the laser field through the last years led to very compact laser devices with high brightness. In the visual and near infrared spectral range practically each wavelength is now available. For optronical sensors, laser radiation states an increasing threat that cannot be encountered just by conventional safety measures like absorption or interference filters. We present a concept to protect imaging sensors against laser radiation of any wavelength. The system is based on the combination of a spatial light modulator and wavelength multiplexing and allows selective spectral filtering in a defined region of interest in the scene. Such a system offers the possibility to suppress annoying laser radiation without losing spatial information in the region of interest. Depending on the used imaging sensor, we discuss different ways to realize a control loop to activate the appropriate pixels of the spatial light modulator for the attenuation of the laser light.

Ritt, Gunnar; Eberle, Bernd

2011-10-01

188

Medical radiation exposure and accidents. Dosimetry and radiation protection. Do we only benefit the patient?  

PubMed

This article presents and discusses new information on the old Hippocratic moto of "...not to harm but to benefit the patient". Some radiation accidents are due to medical errors. Millions of medical tests exposing radiation are performed every day worldwide increasing and sometimes exceeding the annual permissible dose administered to the general population. Public authorities are now seriously concerned about medical radiation overused. In U.S.A. both the House of Representatives and the Food and Drug Administration have recently delt with this problem. Others and we have suggested before and the International Atomic Energy Agency now proposes: a "Smart Card" for every individual who receives medical radiation. In this card the amount of medical radiation administered will be recorded. It is time to issue rules for protection of the public from medical radiation overdose. PMID:20808982

Grammaticos, Philip; Lyra, Maria

2010-01-01

189

[Estimation of X-radiation protective coats in abdominal angiography].  

PubMed

Medical personnel involved in abdominal angiography are exposed not only to direct radiation but also scattered radiation from inspection tables, patients, image intensifiers, and the beam-limiting system (collimator), among others. Japanese standard JISZ4831 prescribes protective coats of at least 0.25 mm lead equivalent, which is the uniform thickness of lead equivalent. The most commonly used protective coats are 0.25 mm Pb, 0.35 mm Pb, or 0.5 mm Pb in thickness. The weight of a typical protective coat is about 3 kg. While some coats weigh up to 6 kg, wearing such heavy coats becomes physically burdensome as inspection time increases. The trade-off between physical burden and protection was considered by analyzing the X-ray intensity distribution and attenuation rate of scattered radiation in each position assumed by the medical staff. In the case of inspections performed at an x-ray tube voltage of 80 kV, it may be possible to reduce the weight of the lead rubber apron by about 33%. Namely, the lead thickness can be reduced uniformly by 0.20 mm Pb at 70 cm and 0.05 mm Pb at 100 cm, when the shielding capability of a 0.25 mm thick Pb layer is accepted as the standard at 40 cm above the gonad position. The same range of permeated X-ray dose for the gonad position may be reduced as well. In the case of 110 kV, when the lead thicknesses are 0.30 mm Pb at 40 cm and 70 cm, and 0.10 mm Pb at 100 cm, it is possible to reduce the weight of the lead rubber apron by about 28%. PMID:16049412

Koshida, Kichiro; Sota, Takumi; Noto, Kimiya; Fukuda, Atsushi; Matsubara, Kosuke; Nakagawa, Hiroto; Kawabata, Chikako

2005-07-20

190

?-Tocopherol succinate protects mice against radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of ?-tocopherol succinate (?-TS) in protecting mice from gastrointestinal syndrome induced by total-body irradiation. CD2F1 mice were injected subcutaneously with 400 mg/kg of ?-TS and exposed to different doses of (60)Co ? radiation, and 30-day survival was monitored. Jejunum sections were analyzed for crypts and villi, PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis), and apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling - TUNEL). The crypt regeneration in irradiated mice was evaluated by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Bacterial translocation from gut to heart, spleen and liver in ?-TS-treated and irradiated mice was evaluated by bacterial culture on sheep blood agar, colistin-nalidixic acid, and xylose-lysine-desoxycholate medium. Our results demonstrate that ?-TS enhanced survival in a significant number of mice irradiated with 9.5, 10, 11 and 11.5 Gy (60)Co ? radiation when administered 24 h before radiation exposure. ?-TS also protected the intestinal tissue of irradiated mice in terms of crypt and villus number, villus length and mitotic figures. TS treatment decreased the number of TUNEL- and PUMA-positive cells and increased the number of BrdU-positive cells in jejunum compared to vehicle-treated mice. Further, ?-TS inhibited gut bacterial translocation to the heart, spleen and liver in irradiated mice. Our data suggest that ?-TS protects mice from radiation-induced gastrointestinal damage by inhibiting apoptosis, promoting regeneration of crypt cells, and inhibiting translocation of gut bacteria. PMID:22013885

Singh, Pankaj K; Wise, Stephen Y; Ducey, Elizabeth J; Fatanmi, Oluseyi O; Elliott, Thomas B; Singh, Vijay K

2012-02-01

191

Envitonmental monitoring and radiation protection in Škocjan Caves, Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Škocjan Caves were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1986, due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data. Relation of background radiation to carrying capacity will be explained. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. A system of education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection will be presented as well.

Debevec Gerjeviè, V.; Jovanovi?, P.

2012-04-01

192

Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued radiation protection standards for the potential spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste disposal system in Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These standards are found in Part 197 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 197). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 directed, and gave the authority to, EPA to take this action based upon input from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). The final standards were published in the Federal Register (66 FR 32073) on 13 June 2001. The 40 CFR Part 197 standards have four major parts: (1) individual-protection during storage activities; (2) individual-protection following closure of the repository; (3) human-intrusion; and (4) ground-water protection. The storage standard is 150 microsieverts (Sv) annual committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) to any member of the general public. The disposal standards are: (1) 150 Sv annual CEDE for the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) for 10,000 years after disposal; (2) 150 Sv received by the RMEI within 10,000 years after disposal as a result of human intrusion; and (3) the levels of radionuclides in the ground water cannot exceed 40 Sv from beta and gamma emitters, 5 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) of radium-226 and -228, and 15 pCi/L of gross alpha activity. There are also requirements related to the post-10,000-year period, the basis of compliance judgments, and performance assessments. The Agency has published its responses to the comments received, its technical background document, and its economic impact analysis. In addition to printed form, the documents are available on the World Wide Web at http://www.epa.gov/radiation/yucca/index.html.

Clark, R. L.

2002-02-27

193

Cyber Security Infrastructure in India: A Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Need for cyber security infrastructure to protect the evolving ICT infrastructure in modern information society does not need any emphasis. ICT infrastructure is the thread through which all critical national infrastructures are woven together. Existence of a trustworthy cyber security infrastructure is a precondition for all E-governance and E- commerce initiatives being taken world over. Attempt is being made in

M M Chaturvedi; MP Gupta; Jaijit Bhattacharya

194

A biokinetic model for zinc for use in radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

The physiology of the essential trace element zinc has been studied extensively in human subjects using kinetic analysis of time-dependent measurements of administered zinc tracers. A number of biokinetic models describing zinc exchange between plasma and tissues and loss of systemic zinc in excreta have been developed from the derived data. More rudimentary biokinetic models for zinc have been developed to estimate radiation doses from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc. The latter models are designed to provide broadly accurate estimates of cumulative decays of zinc radioisotopes in tissues and are not intended as realistic descriptions of the directions of movement of zinc in the body. This paper reviews biokinetic data for zinc and proposes a physiologically meaningful biokinetic model for systemic zinc for use in radiation protection. The proposed model bears some resemblance to zinc models developed in physiological studies but depicts a finer division of systemic zinc and is based on a broader spectrum of data than previous models. The proposed model and current radiation protection model for zinc yield broadly similar estimates of effective dose from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc but substantially different dose estimates for several individual tissues, particularly the liver.

Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL

2012-01-01

195

Radiation protection performance indicators at the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko.  

PubMed

Nuclear power plant safety performance indicators are developed "by nuclear operating organisations to monitor their own performance and progress, to set their own challenging goals for improvement, and to gain additional perspective on performance relative to that of other plants". In addition, performance indicators are widely used by regulatory authorities although the use is not harmonised. Two basic performance indicators related to good radiation protection practice are collective radiation exposure and volume of low-level radioactive waste. In 2000, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, a Westinghouse pressurised water reactor with electrical output 700 MW, finished an extensive modernisation including the replacement of both steam generators. While the annual volume of low-level radioactive waste does not show a specific trend related to modernisation, the annual collective dose reached maximum, i.e. 2.60 man Sv, and dropped to 1.13 man Sv in 2001. During the replacement of the steam generators in 2000, the dose associated with this activity was 1.48 man Sv. The annual doses in 2002 and 2003 were 0.53 and 0.80 man Sv, respectively, nearing thus the goal set by the US Institute of Nuclear Power Operators, which is 0.65 man Sv. Therefore, inasmuch as collective dose as the radiation protection performance indicator are concerned, the modernisation of the Krsko nuclear power plant was a success. PMID:16832974

Janzekovic, Helena

2006-06-01

196

Radiation Protection Studies for LCLS Tune Up Dump  

SciTech Connect

The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is a pioneer fourth generation hard x-ray free electron laser that shall start to deliver laser pulses in 2009. Among other components of LCLS that present radiation protection concerns, the tune up dump (tdund) is of special interest because it also constitutes an issue for machine protection, as it is placed close to radiation sensitive components, like electronic devices and permanent magnets in the undulators. This paper first introduces the stopper of tdund looking at the heat load, and then it describes the shielding around the dump necessary to maintain the prompt and residual dose within design values. Next, preliminary comparisons of the magnetization loss in a dedicated on-site magnet irradiation experiment with FLUKA simulations serve to characterize the magnetic response to radiation of magnets like those of LCLS. The previous knowledge, together with the limit for the allowed demagnetization, are used to estimate the lifetime of the undulator. Further simulations provide guidelines on which lifetime can be expected for an electronic device placed at a given distance of tdund.

Santana-Leitner, M.; Fass, A.; Mao, S.; Nuhn, H.D.; /SLAC; Roesler, S.; /CERN; Rokni, S.; Vollaire, J.; /SLAC

2010-04-29

197

Improved Protection Against Solar-Simulated Radiation-Induced Immunosuppression by a Sunscreen with Enhanced Ultraviolet A Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraviolet radiation-induced immunosuppression is thought to play a part in skin cancer. Several studies have indicated that sunscreens that are designed to protect against erythema failed to give comparable protection against ultraviolet radiation-induced immunosuppression. One possible reason for this discrepancy is inadequate ultraviolet A protection. This study evaluated the level of immunoprotection in mice afforded by two broad-spectrum sunscreens with

Amy Fourtanier; Audrey Gueniche; Delphine Compan; Susan L. Walker; Antony R. Young

2000-01-01

198

Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation  

PubMed Central

Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A “sclerojuglonic” compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects.

Korac, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

2011-01-01

199

Implications of radiation dose and exposed populations on radiation protection in the 21st century.  

PubMed

Radiation is in the public eye because of Fukushima, computed tomography examinations, airport screenings, and possible terrorist attacks. What if the Boston Marathon pressure cooker had also contained a radioactive source? Nuclear power may be on the resurgence. Because of the increasing uses of radiation, the increases in population exposures, and the increasing knowledge of radiation effects, constant vigilance is needed to keep up with the changing times. Psychosocial disorders associated with the inappropriate (but real) fear of radiation need to be recognized as radiation detriments. Radiation risk communication, radiation education, and communication must improve at all levels: to members of the public, to the media, to other scientists, and to radiation professionals. Stakeholders must continue to be involved in all radiation protection initiatives. Finally, we are at a crisis as the number of war babies (me) and baby boomers (you?) who are also radiation professionals continues its rapid decline, and there are few in the pipeline to fill the current and looming substantial need: "The old road is rapidly agin'" (Dylan). NCRP has begun the WARP initiative-Where Are the Radiation Professionals?-an attempt to rejuvenate the pipeline of future professionals before the trickle becomes tiny drops. A Workshop was held in July 2013 with government agencies, military, private sector, universities, White House representatives, and societies to develop a coordinated and national action plan. A "Manhattan Project" is needed to get us "Back to the Future" in terms of the funding levels that existed in years past that provided the necessary resources to train, engage, and retain (a.k.a., jobs) the radiation professionals needed for the nation. If we don't keep swimmin' (Disney's Nemo) we'll "sink like a stone" (Dylan).Introduction of Implications of Radiation Dose and Exposed Populations (Video 2:06, http://links.lww.com/HP/A25). PMID:24378509

Boice, John D

2014-02-01

200

Radiation Protection Aspects of the SPES Project at LNL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) project will be built at the National Laboratories in Legnaro (Italy) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN). Its goal will be the development of radioactive ion beams and the consequent re-acceleration with the existing linac to perform forefront research in nuclear physics. Radiation protection aspects are being considered at every stage of the project, e.g. civil construction planning, control system design and special technological plants. These aspects have been studied with the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA and are presented in this paper.

Sarchiapone, L.; Zafiropoulos, D.

2011-12-01

201

New concept of IEC standards for radiation protection dosemeters.  

PubMed

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) develops new standards for radiation protection dosemeters which follow a new concept. They are much more flexible in detail, but still ensure the same measurement quality. They are, for example, no longer specific for the detector type, but rather specific for the measurement task, e.g. for individual monitoring with active direct-reading instruments. Another example is that they are flexible with respect to the ranges of influence quantities. The conceptual changes are described in this paper, together with the advantages this new concept provides for manufacturers, users and legislators. PMID:18420572

Ambrosi, P; Behrens, R

2008-01-01

202

Issues In Space Radiation Protection: Galactic Cosmic Rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When shielding from cosmic heavy ions, one is faced with limited knowledge about the physical properties and biological responses of these radiations. Herein, the current health is discussed in terms of conventional protection practice and a test biological response model. The impact of biological response on optimum materials selection for cosmic ray shielding is presented in terms of the transmission characteristics of the shield material. Although liquid hydrogen is an optimum shield material, evaluation of the effectiveness of polymeric structural materials must await improvement in our knowledge of both the biological response and the nuclear processes.

Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M.; Schimmerling, W.; Badavi, F. F.; Thibeault, S. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Shinn, J. L.; Kiefer, R.

1995-01-01

203

Calcium protects differentiating neuroblastoma cells during 50 Hz electromagnetic radiation.  

PubMed Central

Despite growing concern about electromagnetic radiation, the interaction between 50- to 60-Hz fields and biological structures remains obscure. Epidemiological studies have failed to prove a significantly correlation between exposure to radiation fields and particular pathologies. We demonstrate that a 50- to 60-Hz magnetic field interacts with cell differentiation through two opposing mechanisms: it antagonizes the shift in cell membrane surface charges that occur during the early phases of differentiation and it modulates hyperpolarizing K channels by increasing intracellular Ca. The simultaneous onset of both mechanisms prevents alterations in cell differentiation. We propose that cells are normally protected against electromagnetic insult. Pathologies may arise, however, if intracellular Ca regulation or K channel activation malfunctions.

Tonini, R; Baroni, M D; Masala, E; Micheletti, M; Ferroni, A; Mazzanti, M

2001-01-01

204

Multifaceted pathways protect human skin from UV radiation.  

PubMed

The recurrent interaction of skin with sunlight is an intrinsic constituent of human life, and exhibits both beneficial and detrimental effects. The apparent robust architectural framework of skin conceals remarkable mechanisms that operate at the interface between the surface and environment. In this Review, we discuss three distinct protective mechanisms and response pathways that safeguard skin from deleterious effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The unique stratified epithelial architecture of human skin along with the antioxidant-response pathways constitutes the important defense mechanisms against UV radiation. The intricate pigmentary system and its intersection with the immune-system cytokine axis delicately balance tissue homeostasis. We discuss the relationship among these networks in the context of an unusual depigmenting disorder, vitiligo. The elaborate tunable mechanisms, elegant multilayered architecture and evolutionary selection pressures involved in skin and sunlight interaction makes this a compelling model to understand biological complexity. PMID:24937072

Natarajan, Vivek T; Ganju, Parul; Ramkumar, Amrita; Grover, Ritika; Gokhale, Rajesh S

2014-06-17

205

APPLICATIONS OF THE PHOTONUCLEAR FRAGMENTATION MODEL TO RADIATION PROTECTION PROBLEMS  

SciTech Connect

In order to provide radiation protection systems for high energy electron accelerators it is necessary to define the yields of hadrons produced when the electron beam interacts with a fixed target. In practical terms this will occur when any beam or fraction of the beam is lost from the accelerator orbit or when any fraction of the beam is intercepted by a target inserted in the path of the beam or when the beam is totally absorbed by a beam dump. The electron and gamma yields from these interactions are well characterized and amenable to calculation utilizing Monte Carlo shower codes. However, the yield of hadrons has been less well defined. Neutron production has received most attention because of its importance to radiation shielding. Production mechanisms such as the giant dipole and the quasi-deuteron resonances have provided valuable information for total neutron yields for electron beams at energies less than about 400 MeV. For electron beams at energies extending to 10 GeV it is necessary to include the higher energy resonance structures and the various intranuclear production channels that are available for the production of higher energy neutrons. The production model described in this paper permits the calculation of laboratory angle and energy of all hadrons produced when an electron beam of energy between 100 MeV and 10 GeV interacts with a fixed target. This model can be used as an event generator for Monte Carlo codes used for many radiation protection purposes including calculation of radiation shielding.

Pavel Degtiarenko

1996-01-01

206

Radiation protection issues in galactic cosmic ray risk assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation protection involves the limitation of exposure to below threshold doses for direct (or deterministic) effects and a knowledge of the risk of stochastic effects after low doses. The principal stochastic risk associated with low dose rate galactic cosmic rays is the increased risk of cancer. Estimates of this risk depend on two factors (a) estimates of cancer risk for low-LET radiation and (b) values of the appropriate radiation weighting factors, WR, for the high-LET radiations of galactic cosmic rays. Both factors are subject to considerable uncertainty. The low-LET cancer risk derived from the late effects of the atomic bombs is vulnerable to a number of uncertainties including especially that from projection in time, and from extrapolation from high to low dose rate. Nevertheless, recent low dose studies of workers and others tend to confirm these estimates. WR, relies on biological effects studied mainly in non-human systems. Additional laboratory studies could reduce the uncertainties in WR and thus produce a more confident estimate of the overall risk of galactic cosmic rays.

Sinclair, W. K.

1994-01-01

207

The relevance of occupational epidemiology to radiation protection standards.  

PubMed

Large-scale epidemiological studies of U.S. Department of Energy workers have been underway since the 1960s. Despite the increasing availability of information about long-term follow-up of badge-monitored nuclear workers, standard-setting bodies continue to rely on the Life Span Study (LSS) of A-bomb survivors as the primary epidemiological basis for making judgments about hazards of low-level radiation. Additionally, faith in the internal and external validity of studies of A-bomb survivors has influenced decisions about the design, analysis, and interpretation of many worker studies. A systematic comparison of the LSS and worker studies in terms of population characteristics, types of radiation exposures, selection factors, and dosimetry errors suggests that the priority given to dose response findings from the LSS is no longer warranted. Evidence from worker studies suggests that excess radiation-related cancer deaths occur at doses below the current occupational limits; low-dose effects have also been seen in studies of childhood cancers in relation to fetal irradiation. These findings should be considered in revising current radiation protection standards. PMID:17208790

Wing, S; Richardson, D; Stewart, A

1999-01-01

208

National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements semiannual technical progress report, March 1989--August 1989  

SciTech Connect

This semiannual technical progress report is for the period 1 March 1989 through 31 August 1989. This National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) program is designed to provide recommendations for radiation protection based on scientific principles. During this period several reports were published covering the topics of occupational radiation exposure, medical exposure, radon control, dosimetry, and radiation protection standards. Accomplishments of various committees are also reported; including the committees on dental x-ray protection, radiation safety in uranium mining and milling, ALARA, instrumentation, records maintenance, occupational exposures of medical personnel, emergency planning, and others. (SM)

Ney, W.R.

1991-01-01

209

Risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer and radiation protection standards  

SciTech Connect

At low doses, the primary biological effects of concern are stochastic in nature, i.e., they are more probable at higher doses, but their severity is independent of the dose. In the last decade, a new epidemiological information on radiation-induced cancer in humans has become available. In the Japanese survivors three new cycles of data (11 yr of experience) have accumulated, and a revised dosimetry system (DS86) has been introduced. UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) reevaluated the risk of cancer from all human sources, which include other human populations such as those treated for ankylosing spondylitis and for cancer of the cervix. UNSCEAR has also evaluated the cancer risk for each of nine organs. For radiation protection purposes (low doses and dose rates, adult populations mainly), nominal values of risk since the 1977-80 period have been {approximately}1%/Sv. This value will need to be increased in the light of the new estimates. Also, risk estimates for various tissues must be reconsidered, and weighting factors used by International Commission on Radiological Protection need to be reexamined. Recommendations on occupational and public dose limits must also be reconsidered. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements is in a comparatively good position with a recently produced set of recommendations that had higher cancer risk estimates in mind.

Sinclair, W.K. (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1989-11-01

210

On Radiated Emission Limits for Pulsed Interference to Protect Modern Digital Wireless Communication Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present international standards for maximum levels of unintentional radiated emission from electronic devices are developed to protect analog communication services. In this paper, we propose a set of measurement bandwidths and electric field strength levels that could be used as radiated emission limits for future radiated emission standards, based on the RMS detector, in order to protect modern digital communication

Peter F. Stenumgaard

2007-01-01

211

47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided...human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2013-10-01

212

Trends in radiation protection--a view from the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP)  

SciTech Connect

The present status of ionizing radiation protection in our society, with the exception of extraordinary events such as the Chernobyl accident, can be considered reasonably satisfactory. Occupationally, average exposures have risks no greater than accident rates in safe industries and show a downward trend in concert with results of safety practices in other occupations; higher exposures are being addressed specifically, and a new NCRP guideline may prove useful. An important concern relating to the quality factor for neutrons is at least partially accounted for by recent International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and NCRP recommendations. Among public exposures, the most important by far is exposure to indoor Rn. However, this problem is being addressed on all fronts, and its magnitude and the means to deal with it will soon be better known. For the near future, we should see a stabilizing of risk estimates, albeit at levels very probably higher than formerly. There may also be an increasing tendency to use incidence rather than mortality for calculating these estimates. These changes may require some adjustment in our perspective on limits. As the difference in risk between the sexes becomes more definite, we may wish to adopt a policy of equal risk rather than one of equal dose. Age data also emphasize, more and more, the decline of risk with age; consequently, using older workers when feasible in radiation-exposure circumstances becomes more desirable. For the longer-term future, various developments can be expected, including, possibly, a more suitable climate for a risk system, a more appropriate way to express differences in radiation quality, further knowledge of the role probabilities of causation may play in radiation control, the effect of mitigating and enhancing factors, and progress in fundamental oncology.

Sinclair, W.K.

1988-08-01

213

Low Dose Radiation Adaptive Protection to Control Neurodegenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Concerns have been expressed recently regarding the observed increased DNA damage from activities such as thinking and exercise. Such concerns have arisen from an incomplete accounting of the full effects of the increased oxidative damage. When the effects of the induced adaptive protective responses such as increased antioxidants and DNA repair enzymes are taken into consideration, there would be less endogenous DNA damage during the subsequent period of enhanced defenses, resulting in improved health from the thinking and exercise activities. Low dose radiation (LDR), which causes oxidative stress and increased DNA damage, upregulates adaptive protection systems that may decrease diseases in an analogous manner. Though there are ongoing debates regarding LDR’s carcinogenicity, with two recent advisory committee reports coming to opposite conclusions, data published since the time of the reports have overwhelmingly ruled out its carcinogenicity, paving the way for consideration of its potential use for disease reduction. LDR adaptive protection is a promising approach to control neurodegenerative diseases, for which there are no methods of prevention or cure. Preparation of a compelling ethics case would pave the way for LDR clinical studies and progress in dealing with neurodegenerative diseases.

Doss, Mohan

2014-01-01

214

Low dose radiation adaptive protection to control neurodegenerative diseases.  

PubMed

Concerns have been expressed recently regarding the observed increased DNA damage from activities such as thinking and exercise. Such concerns have arisen from an incomplete accounting of the full effects of the increased oxidative damage. When the effects of the induced adaptive protective responses such as increased antioxidants and DNA repair enzymes are taken into consideration, there would be less endogenous DNA damage during the subsequent period of enhanced defenses, resulting in improved health from the thinking and exercise activities. Low dose radiation (LDR), which causes oxidative stress and increased DNA damage, upregulates adaptive protection systems that may decrease diseases in an analogous manner. Though there are ongoing debates regarding LDR's carcinogenicity, with two recent advisory committee reports coming to opposite conclusions, data published since the time of the reports have overwhelmingly ruled out its carcinogenicity, paving the way for consideration of its potential use for disease reduction. LDR adaptive protection is a promising approach to control neurodegenerative diseases, for which there are no methods of prevention or cure. Preparation of a compelling ethics case would pave the way for LDR clinical studies and progress in dealing with neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24910585

Doss, Mohan

2014-05-01

215

Arbeitsbericht 1988 der Abteilung Sicherheit und Strahlenschutz. (1988 annual work report of the Department for Safety and Radiation Protection).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department for Safety and Radiation Protection continues to be responsible for coordinating radiation protection, safety and protection at the KFA. It supports the other institutes and departments in performing the safety tasks allotted to them. The p...

R. Hille

1989-01-01

216

Commentary on Using LNT for Radiation Protection and Risk Assessment.  

PubMed

An article by Jerome Puskin attempts to justify the continued use of the linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption in radiation protection and risk assessment. In view of the substantial and increasing amount of data that contradicts this assumption; it is difficult to understand the reason for endorsing this unscientific behavior, which severely constrains nuclear energy projects and the use of CT scans in medicine. Many Japanese studies over the past 25 years have shown that low doses and low dose rates of radiation improve health in living organisms including humans. Recent studies on fruit flies have demonstrated that the original basis for the LNT notion is invalid. The Puskin article omits any mention of important reports from UNSCEAR, the NCRP and the French Academies of Science and Medicine, while citing an assessment of the Canadian breast cancer study that manipulated the data to obscure evidence of reduced breast cancer mortality following a low total dose. This commentary provides dose limits that are based on real human data, for both single and chronic radiation exposures. PMID:20877492

Cuttler, Jerry M

2009-01-01

217

73 FR 61256 - Public Health and Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...safety radiation protection standards for...There are two primary mechanisms...discuss broad or major comments in...radiological protection standards for...identical, protections to the affected...NAS discussed two important kinds...threshold by two orders of magnitude...high level of protection but that does...event might......

2008-10-15

218

Recent estimates of cancer risk from low-let ionizing radiation and radiation protection limits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of the risk of cancer induction, formerly about 1%/Sv, formed the basis of ICRP radiation protection limits in 1977. They have now increased to about 4-5%/Sv for low doses. These increases are based mainly on new data for the Japanese survivors of the A-bombs of 1945. They result from the accumulation of 11 years more of data on solid tumors, the revisions in the dosimetry of those exposed and improvement in statistical methods and projections. The application of a dose rate effectiveness factor between effects at high dose rate and those at low dose and dose rate is also an important consideration. Not only has the total risk changed but also the distribution of risk among organs. Thus the effective dose equivalent may require modification. These changes are modifying ICRP and NCRP thinking about recommendations on protection limits, especially for radiation workers.

Sinclair, Warren K.

1992-07-01

219

Developing the radiation protection safety culture in the UK.  

PubMed

In the UK, as elsewhere, there is potential to improve how radiological challenges are addressed through improvement in, or development of, a strong radiation protection (RP) safety culture. In preliminary work in the UK, two areas have been identified as having a strong influence on UK society: the healthcare and nuclear industry sectors. Each has specific challenges, but with many overlapping common factors. Other sectors will benefit from further consideration.In order to make meaningful comparisons between these two principal sectors, this paper is primarily concerned with cultural aspects of RP in the working environment and occupational exposures rather than patient doses.The healthcare sector delivers a large collective dose to patients each year, particularly for diagnostic purposes, which continues to increase. Although patient dose is not the focus, it must be recognised that collective patient dose is inevitably linked to collective occupational exposure, especially in interventional procedures.The nuclear industry faces major challenges as work moves from operations to decommissioning on many sites. This involves restarting work in the plants responsible for the much higher radiation doses of the 1960/70s, but also performing tasks that are considerably more difficult and hazardous than those original performed in these plants.Factors which influence RP safety culture in the workplace are examined, and proposals are considered for a series of actions that may lead to an improvement in RP culture with an associated reduction in dose in many work areas. These actions include methods to improve knowledge and awareness of radiation safety, plus ways to influence management and colleagues in the workplace. The exchange of knowledge about safety culture between the nuclear industry and medical areas may act to develop RP culture in both sectors, and have a wider impact in other sectors where exposures to ionising radiations can occur. PMID:24894330

Cole, P; Hallard, R; Broughton, J; Coates, R; Croft, J; Davies, K; Devine, I; Lewis, C; Marsden, P; Marsh, A; McGeary, R; Riley, P; Rogers, A; Rycraft, H; Shaw, A

2014-06-01

220

Cyberwarfare on the Electricity Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

The report analyzes the possibility of cyberwarfare on the electricity infrastructure. The ongoing deregulation of the electricity industry makes the power grid all the more vulnerable to cyber attacks. The report models the power system information system components, models potential threats and protective measures. It therefore offers a framework for infrastructure protection.

Murarka, N.; Ramesh, V.C.

2000-03-20

221

[Nuclear energy and public health, the mission of OPRI (Office of Protection from Ionizing Radiation)].  

PubMed

In the domain of the use of ionising radiation for medical purposes and in the nuclear industry, the protection of man and his environment is primordial. Such protection is defined in European Community countries by the Directives of the Euratom Council, applied as national law. In France, the "Office de protection contre les rayonnements ionisants" oversees the application of laws and rules relating to protection from radiation and determines the inspections and analyses required to ensure the protection of the population against ionising radiation. PMID:7754326

Tisné, M R

1995-03-15

222

Meeting Radiation Protection Requirements and Reducing Spacecraft Mass - A Multifunctional Materials Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Both crew and radio-sensitive systems, especially electronics must be protected from the effects of the space radiation environment. One method of mitigating this radiation exposure is to use passive-shielding materials. In previous vehicle designs such a...

B. Reddell J. Franklin K. Rojdev S. Koontz W. Atwell

2010-01-01

223

Overview of a cyber-enabled wireless monitoring system for the protection and management of critical infrastructure systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term deterioration of large-scale infrastructure systems is a critical national problem that if left unchecked, could lead to catastrophes similar in magnitude to the collapse of the I-35W Bridge. Fortunately, the past decade has witnessed the emergence of a variety of sensing technologies from many engineering disciplines including from the civil, mechanical and electrical engineering fields. This paper provides a detailed overview of an emerging set of sensor technologies that can be effectively used for health management of large-scale infrastructure systems. In particular, the novel sensing technologies are integrated to offer a comprehensive monitoring system that fundamentally addresses the limitations associated with current monitoring systems (for example, indirect damage sensing, cost, data inundation and lack of decision making tools). Self-sensing materials are proposed for distributed, direct sensing of specific damage events common to civil structures such as cracking and corrosion. Data from self-sensing materials, as well as from more traditional sensors, are collected using ultra low-power wireless sensors powered by a variety of power harvesting devices fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Data collected by the wireless sensors is then seamlessly streamed across the internet and integrated with a database upon which finite element models can be autonomously updated. Life-cycle and damage detection analyses using sensor and processed data are streamed into a decision toolbox which will aid infrastructure owners in their decision making.

Lynch, Jerome P.; Kamat, Vineet; Li, Victor C.; Flynn, Michael; Sylvester, Dennis; Najafi, Khalil; Gordon, Timothy; Lepech, Michael; Emami-Naeini, Abbas; Krimotat, Alex; Ettouney, Mohammed; Alampalli, Sharada; Ozdemir, Tayfun

2009-03-01

224

Nuclear fragmentation measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear fragmentation measurements are necessary in hadrontherapy and space radiation protection, to predict the effects of the ion nuclear interactions within the human body. Nowadays, a very limited set of carbon fragmentation cross sections has been measured and in particular, to our knowledge, no double differential fragmentation cross sections at intermediate energies are available in literature. We have measured the double differential cross sections and the angular distributions of the secondary fragments produced in the 12C fragmentation at 62 AMeV on a thin carbon target. The experimental data have been also used to benchmark the prediction capability of the Geant4 Monte Carlo code at intermediate energies, where it was never tested before.

De Napoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Battistoni, G.; Blancato, A. A.; Bondì, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Giacoppo, F.; Morone, M. C.; Nicolosi, D.; Pandola, L.; Raciti, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Romano, F.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V.; Sfienti, C.; Tropea, S.

2013-04-01

225

Protective role of metallothionein in chemical and radiation carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Metallothionein (MT) is a low molecular weight metal-binding protein induced by endogenous and exogenous stimuli such as cytokines and heavy metals. In 1993 and 1994, two research groups (Choo et al. and Palmiter et al., respectively) produced MT-I/II double-knockout mice (MT-I/II null mice) with null mutations of the MT-I and MT-II genes. Subsequently, MT-I/II null mice have been used to clarify the biological function, physiological role, and pathophysiological relevance of MT by many research groups. Recent studies using MT-I/II null mice to investigate the role of MT in metal toxicity and distribution, oxidative stress, and some disease were reviewed. In addition, several research groups including our laboratory have reported that MT-I/II null mice are highly susceptible to several carcinogenesis caused by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, X-ray, benzo[a]pyrene, N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine, lead, and cisplatin. These results suggest that MT is an important protective factor against not only metal toxicity and oxidative stress but also chemical and radiation carcinogenesis. In this review, we present the findings of MT-I/II null mice with regard to the protective role of MT in carcinogenesis and mutagenesis caused by chemical agents and X-ray. PMID:23590136

Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Satoh, Masahiko

2013-03-01

226

UV radiation and freshwater zooplankton: damage, protection and recovery  

PubMed Central

While many laboratory and field studies show that zooplankton are negatively affected when exposed to high intensities of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), most studies also indicate that zooplankton are well adapted to cope with large variations in their UVR exposure in the pelagic zone of lakes. The response mechanisms of zooplankton are diverse and efficient and may explain the success and richness of freshwater zooplankton in optically variable waters. While no single behavioural or physiological protection mechanism seems to be superior, and while several unexplained and contradictory patterns exist in zooplankton UVR ecology, recent increases in our understanding are consistent with UVR playing an important role for zooplankton. This review examines the variability in freshwater zooplankton responses to UVR, with a focus on crustacean zooplankton (Cladocera and Copepoda). We present an overview of UVR-induced damages, and the protection and recovery mechanisms freshwater zooplankton use when exposed to UVR. We review the current knowledge of UVR impact on freshwater zooplankton at species and community levels, and discuss briefly how global change over the last three decades has influenced the UVR milieu in lakes.

Rautio, Milla; Tartarotti, Barbara

2011-01-01

227

Vulnerability and Mitigation Studies for Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

The summary of this presentation is that: (1) We do end-to-end systems analysis for infrastructure protection; (2) LLNL brings interdisciplinary subject matter expertise to infrastructure and explosive analysis; (3) LLNL brings high-fidelity modeling capabilities to infrastructure analysis for use on high performance platforms; and (4) LLNL analysis of infrastructure provides information that customers and stakeholders act on.

Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Morris, J

2007-08-02

228

Protection of the environment from ionising radiation in a regulatory context (protect): proposed numerical benchmark values.  

PubMed

Criteria are needed to be able to judge the level of risk associated with dose rates estimated for non-human biota. In this paper, European guidance on the derivation of predicted no-effect chemical concentrations has been applied to appropriate radiation sensitivity data. A species sensitivity distribution fitted to the data for all species resulted in a generic predicted no-effect dose rate of 10 microGy h(-1).Currently, data are inadequate to derive screening values for separate organism groups. A second, higher, benchmark could aid in decision making by putting results into context on the scale of no effect to a risk of 'serious' effect. The need for, meaning and use of such a value needs to be debated by the wider community. This paper explores potential approaches of deriving scientific input to this debate. The concepts proposed in this paper are broadly consistent with the framework for human protection. PMID:19589629

Andersson, Pål; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Beresford, Nicholas A; Copplestone, David; Howard, Brenda J; Howe, Paul; Oughton, Deborah; Whitehouse, Paul

2009-12-01

229

Radiation protection standards: The NRC (U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission) perspective  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the role and viewpoint of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on radiation protection standards, specifically the major revision of 10CFR20 and the criteria for below regulatory concern. The NRC relies heavily on consensus standards and (especially in radiation protection) the recommendations of authoritative organizations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, and the National Committee on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). The NRC is modifying its radiation protection requirements to be consistent with ICRP/NCRP recommendations and to avoid undue controls on trivial risks. The problems are formidable and final resolution of many issues may not occur this calendar year.

Congel, F.J. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-11-01

230

Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

2010-01-01

231

Neutron, Proton, and Photonuclear Cross Sections for Radiation Therapy and Radiation Protection  

SciTech Connect

The authors review recent work at Los Alamos to evaluate neutron, proton, and photonuclear cross section up to 150 MeV (to 250 MeV for protons), based on experimental data and nuclear model calculations. These data are represented in the ENDF format and can be used in computer codes to simulate radiation transport. They permit calculations of absorbed dose in the body from therapy beams, and through use of kerma coefficients allow absorbed dose to be estimated for a given neutron energy distribution. For radiation protection, these data can be used to determine shielding requirements in accelerator environments, and to calculate neutron, proton, gamma-ray, and radionuclide production. Illustrative comparisons of the evaluated cross section and kerma coefficient data with measurements are given.

Chadwick, M.B.

1998-09-10

232

PROTECTIVE MEASURES AGAINST THE EFFECTS OF RADIATION FROM RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS USED IN INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protective measures against external radiation hazards are described, ; and practical examples, in conaection with sealed sources, are given. The ; special protective measures taken against air and water contamination are also ; explained. An example shows how the required protective measures can be derived ; and calculated for a special case. (auth);

Schwarzer

1962-01-01

233

OXYGEN PROTECTION OF BACTERIOPHAGE T1 AGAINST IONIZING RADIATIONS  

PubMed Central

Bacteriophage T1 was suspended in distilled water and in phosphate buffer, saturated with oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide, and irradiated with gamma rays and x-rays. Under the same conditions phage was exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Oxygen acted as a protective agent against both irradiation and hydrogen peroxide inactivation. As a protective agent against irradiation, oxygen was more efficient in distilled water than in buffer. The phage was much more sensitive to irradiation in the presence of hydrogen or nitrogen than in the presence of oxygen. Survivals of phage irradiated in suspensions saturated with hydrogen and with nitrogen did not differ significantly. From this it was concluded that oxygen did not protect T1 by removing atomic hydrogen from the irradiated medium, since the hydrogen-saturated medium increased the yield of atomic hydrogen but did not increase the yield of inactivated phage. It was presumed, therefore, that phage is sensitive to OH radicals and this was confirmed by irradiating phage with UV in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and comparing this survival with the survivals obtained from hydrogen peroxide alone and from UV alone. The combined effect of hydrogen peroxide and UV acting simultaneously was greater than the effect attributable to hydrogen peroxide and UV acting separately. Evidence for sensitivity to HO2 radicals was considered, and the effect was attributed chiefly to an oxidizing action since phage sensitivity is greater at higher hydrogen ion concentrations, which favor oxidation by HO2 radicals. Since the OH radical is a more efficient oxidizing agent than O-, the former being favored in an acid medium, the latter in an alkaline medium, and since the phage is more sensitive in the first situation than in the second, the present tests proved the importance of oxidation as the mechanism of inactivation. Since some inactivation was encountered when phage was exposed to reducing agents, independently of irradiation, it was concluded that phage is somewhat sensitive to reducing agents, but the inactivation attributable to ionizing radiations is due chiefly to oxidation, against which these reducing agents are very efficient protectors. Under no circumstances did hydrogen peroxide protect T1, whether produced by irradiation in the medium or added beforehand to the medium to be irradiated. The first point was investigated by irradiating T1 in the presence of hydrogen and oxygen combined; this produced a higher yield of hydrogen peroxide but a lower survival of T1. In all these tests phage survival under irradiation was directly correlated with oxygen content of the medium rather than with production of hydrogen peroxide. It is proposed that the protective effect of oxygen is due to a reaction between the phage and oxygen, and this complex confers stability upon the phage.

Bachofer, C. S.; Pottinger, M. Aelred

1956-01-01

234

Modulating Radiation Resistance: Novel Protection Paradigms Based on Defenses against Ionizing Radiation in the Extremophile Deinococcus radiodurans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For Deinococcus radiodurans and other bacteria which are extremely resistant to ionizing radiation (IR) and desiccation, a mechanistic link exists between resistance, manganese accumulation, and protein protection. We have demonstrated that ultrafiltered,...

M. J. Daly

2010-01-01

235

Presidential Report on Radiation Protection Advice: Screening of Humans for Security Purposes Using Ionization Radiation Scanning Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Presidential Report from the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has been prepared at the request of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). FDA has the responsibility for regulating the manufacture of electronic products...

2009-01-01

236

Modern new nuclear fuel characteristics and radiation protection aspects.  

PubMed

The glut of fissile material from reprocessing plants and from the conclusion of the cold war has provided the opportunity to design new fuel types to beneficially dispose of such stocks by generating useful power. Thus, in addition to the normal reactor core complement of enriched uranium fuel assemblies, two other types are available on the world market. These are the ERU (enriched recycled uranium) and the MOX (mixed oxide) fuel assemblies. Framatome ANP produces ERU fuel assemblies by taking feed material from reprocessing facilities and blending this with highly enriched uranium from other sources. MOX fuel assemblies contain plutonium isotopes, thus exploiting the higher neutron yield of the plutonium fission process. This paper describes and evaluates the gamma, spontaneous and alpha reaction neutron source terms of these non-irradiated fuel assembly types by defining their nuclear characteristics. The dose rates which arise from these terms are provided along with an overview of radiation protection aspects for consideration in transporting and delivering such fuel assemblies to power generating utilities. PMID:16381693

Terry, Ian R

2005-01-01

237

Swedish approaches to radiation protection at nuclear power stations  

SciTech Connect

This paper compares Swedish health physics programs at nuclear power plants to U.S. programs. Analysis of the Swedish programs includes examination of health physics staff training, size and longevity. Health physics practices are discussed, especially practices during refueling outages. The paper is based on site visits to Ringhals and Oskarshamn by U.S. radiation protection managers in October, 1995, under the sponsorship of the North American Regional Technical Center, ISOE, NEA/IAEA. The reactor vessel decontamination at Oskarshamn 1 BWR is discussed including good health physics practices and radiological results. Ringhals unique management organization is discussed with respect to health physics division of responsibilities and differences between in-plant and on-site health physics groups. Analytical results of failed fuel events at Ringhals is also presented including the observed occurrence of cobalt knock-off. Finally, trends in Swedish plants collective doses are summarized. Comprehensive Swedish studies of potential collective doses over the next 20 years are discussed including management options related to dose reduction options.

Knapp, P. [Southern California Edison Co., San Clemente, CA (United States); Miller, D.W. [Illinois Power Co., Clinton, IL (United States)

1996-06-01

238

The LNT Debate in Radiation Protection: Science vs. Policy  

PubMed Central

There is considerable interest in revisiting LNT theory as the basis for the system of radiation protection in the US and worldwide. Arguing the scientific merits of policy options is not likely to be fruitful because the science is not robust enough to support one theory to the exclusion of others. Current science cannot determine the existence of a dose threshold, a key piece to resolving the matter scientifically. The nature of the scientific evidence is such that risk assessment at small effective doses (defined as <100 mSv) is highly uncertain, and several policy alternatives, including threshold and non-linear dose-response functions, are scientifically defensible. This paper argues for an alternative approach by looking at the LNT debate as a policy question and analyzes the problem from a social and economic perspective. In other words, risk assessment and a strictly scientific perspective are insufficiently broad enough to resolve the issue completely. A wider perspective encompassing social and economic impacts in a risk management context is necessary, but moving the debate to the policy and risk management arena necessarily marginalizes the role of scientists.

Mossman, Kenneth L.

2012-01-01

239

Solid state nuclear track detectors in hadrontherapy and radiation protection in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent widespread of carbon-therapy for cancer treatment and the long duration manned exploration planned by NASA require the knowledge of nuclear data both for assessing the correct dose distribution in the target volume and surrounding healthy tissue (radiation therapy), and for a better knowledge of the mixed radiation field to which astronauts will be exposed (radiation protection in space).

Paola Scampoli

2009-01-01

240

78 FR 40487 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...presentation of the report from the Regional Resilience Working Group. We request that comments...Security with advice on the security and resilience of the Nation's critical infrastructure...critical infrastructure protection and resilience as directed by the President. At...

2013-07-05

241

Infrastructure web: distributed monitoring and managing critical infrastructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National-scale critical infrastructure protection depends on many processes: intelligence gathering, analysis, interdiction, detection, response and recovery, to name a few. These processes are typically carried out by different individuals, agencies and industry sectors. Many new threats to national infrastructure are arising from the complex couplings that exist between advanced information technologies (telecommunications and internet), physical components (utilities), human services (health, law enforcement, emergency management) and commerce (financial services, logistics). Those threats arise and evolve at a rate governed by human intelligence and innovation, on `internet time' so to speak. The processes for infrastructure protection must operate on the same time scale to be effective. To achieve this, a new approach to integrating, coordinating and managing infrastructure protection must be deployed. To this end, we have designed an underlying web-like architecture that will serve as a platform for the decentralized monitoring and management of national critical infrastructures.

Jiang, Guofei; Cybenko, George; McGrath, Dennis

2001-02-01

242

Radiation terrorism: what society needs from the radiobiology-radiation protection and radiation oncology communities.  

PubMed

Society's and individuals' concerns about the adverse effects from radiation are logically amplified many times when radiological terrorism is considered. The spectrum of events include industrial sabotage, the use of an explosive or non-explosive radiological dispersal device, the placement of a radiological exposure device in a public facility and the use of an improvised nuclear device. The consequences of an event relate to the physical and medical damage of the event itself, the financial impact, and the acute and long-term medical consequences, including fear of radiation-induced cancer. The magnitude of a state-sponsored nuclear event is so great that limited detailed response planning had been done in the past, as compared to the work now ongoing. Planning is done on the basis of scenario modelling. Medical response planning includes medical triage, distribution of victims to care by experienced physicians, developing medical countermeasures to mitigate or treat radiation injury, counselling and appropriately following exposed or potentially exposed people, and helping the local community develop confidence in their own response plan. Optimal response must be based on the best available science. This requires scientists who can define, prioritise and address the gaps in knowledge with the range of expertise from basic physics to biology to translational research to systems expertise to response planning to healthcare policy to communications. Not only are there unique needs and career opportunities, but there is also the opportunity for individuals to serve their communities and country with education regarding radiation effects and by formulating scientifically based government policy. PMID:19454803

Coleman, C Norman; Parker, Gerald W

2009-06-01

243

Infrastructure web: distributed monitoring and managing critical infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

National-scale critical infrastructure protection depends on many processes: intelligence gathering, analysis, interdiction, detection, response and recovery, to name a few. These processes are typically carried out by different individuals, agencies and industry sectors. Many new threats to national infrastructure are arising from the complex couplings that exist between advanced information technologies (telecommunications and internet), physical components (utilities), human services (health,

Guofei Jiang; George Cybenko; Dennis McGrath

2001-01-01

244

National Infrastructure Advisory Council  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NIAC chose to initiate this Study in order to provide a strategic-level review of the Sector Partnership Model implementation and set a course for this critically important partnership in anticipation of the coming Presidential Administration transition. The NIAC's objective with the Study was to assess the effectiveness of the public-private partnership for critical infrastructure protection and to identify opportunities

N. W. Washington

2005-01-01

245

Spacecraft Radiator Freeze Protection Using a Regenerative Heat Exchanger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An active thermal control system architecture has been modified to include a regenerative heat exchanger (regenerator) inboard of the radiator. Rather than using a radiator bypass valve a regenerative heat exchanger is placed inboard of the radiators. A regenerator cold side bypass valve is used to set the return temperature. During operation, the regenerator bypass flow is varied, mixing cold radiator return fluid and warm regenerator outlet fluid to maintain the system setpoint. At the lowest heat load for stable operation, the bypass flow is closed off, sending all of the flow through the regenerator. This lowers the radiator inlet temperature well below the system set-point while maintaining full flow through the radiators. By using a regenerator bypass flow control to maintain system setpoint, the required minimum heat load to avoid radiator freezing can be reduced by more than half compared to a radiator bypass system.

Ungar, Eugene K.; Schunk, Richard G.

2011-01-01

246

Non-coherent near infrared radiation protects normal human dermal fibroblasts from solar ultraviolet toxicity.  

PubMed

The sun is the most important and universal source of non-ionizing radiation shed on human populations. Life evolved on Earth bathed by this radiation. Solar UV damages cells, leading to deleterious conditions such as photoaging and carcinogenesis in human skin. During the process of evolution, the cells selected dark- and light-dependent repair mechanisms as a defence against these hazardous effects. This study describes the induction by non-coherent infrared radiation (700-2000 nm), in the absence of rising temperature, of a strong cellular defense against solar UV cytotoxicity as well as induction of cell mitosis. Blocking mitoses with arabinoside-cytosine or protein synthesis with cycloheximide did not abolish the protection, leading to the conclusion that this protection is independent of cell division and of protein neosynthesis. The protection provided by infrared radiation against solar UV radiation is shown to be a long-lasting (at least 24 h) and cumulatif phenomenon. Infrared radiation does not protect the lipids in cellular membranes against UVA induced peroxidation. The protection is not mediated by heat shock proteins. Living organisms on the Earth's surface are bathed by infrared radiation every day, before being submitted to solar UV. Thus, we propose that this as yet undescribed natural process of cell protection against solar UV, acquired and preserved through evolutional selection, plays an important role in life maintenance. Understanding and controlling this mechanism could provide important keys to the prevention of solar UV damage of human skin. PMID:9764844

Menezes, S; Coulomb, B; Lebreton, C; Dubertret, L

1998-10-01

247

Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space exploration.

Lin, Zi-Wei

2004-01-01

248

Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most effect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

Lin, Zi-wei

2004-01-01

249

Proceedings of the Third symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Third Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association (20-22 Nov 1996) coorganized by Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health and 'Rudjer Boskovic' Institute, with the support of Ministry of Science and Technology of the Repu...

1996-01-01

250

Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

1989-04-01

251

Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation-protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A Practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

1989-04-01

252

Status of radiation protection in various interventional cardiology procedures in the Asia Pacific region  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveIncreasing use of interventional procedures in cardiology with unknown levels of radiation protection in many countries of Asia-Pacific region necessitates the need for status assessment. The study was part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project for achieving improved radiation protection in interventional cardiology (IC) in developing countries.DesignThe survey covers 18 cardiac catheterisation laboratories in seven countries (Bangladesh, India,

Virginia Tsapaki; Mohammed Faruque Ghulam; Soo Teik Lim; Hung Ngo Minh; Nwe Nwe; Anil Sharma; Kui-Hian Sim; Suphot Srimahachota; Madan Mohan Rehani

2011-01-01

253

The radiation protection and therapy effects of mesenchymal stem cells in mice with acute radiation injury  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on haematopoietic reconstitution in reducing bone marrow cell apoptosis effects in irradiated mice, and to research the safe and effective dosage of MSCs in mice with total body irradiation (TBI). After BALB/c mice were irradiated with 5.5 Gy cobalt-60 ?-rays, the following were observed: peripheral blood cell count, apoptosis rate, cell cycle, colony-forming unit-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) and colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) counts of bone marrow cells and pathological changes in the medulla. The survival of mice infused with three doses of MSCs after 8.0 Gy or 10 Gy TBI was examined. The blood cells recovered rapidly in the MSC groups. The apoptotic ratio of bone marrow cells in the control group was higher at 24 h after radiation. A lower ratio of G0/G1 cell cycle phases and a higher ratio of G2/M and S phases, as well as a greater number of haematopoietic islands and megalokaryocytes in the bone marrow, were observed in the MSC-treated groups. MSCs induced recovery of CFU-GM and CFU-GM and improved the survival of mice after 8 Gy TBI, but 1.5 × 108 kg?1 of MSCs increased mortality. These results indicate that MSCs protected and treated irradiated mice by inducing haematopoiesis and reducing apoptosis. MSCs may be a succedaneous or intensive method of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation under certain radiation dosages, and could provide a valuable strategy for acute radiation syndrome.

Hu, K X; Sun, Q Y; Guo, M; Ai, H S

2010-01-01

254

Green Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

255

42 CFR 37.43 - Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements in NCRP Report No. 33 âMedical X-ray and Gamma-Ray Protection for Energies up to 10 MeVâEquipment Design and Useâ (issued February 1, 1968), in NCRP Report No. 48, âMedical...

2012-10-01

256

Protective immunity to UV radiation-induced skin tumours induced by skin grafts and epidermal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little evidence that cutaneous dendritic cells (DC), including epidermal Langerhans cells (LC), can induce immunity to UV radiation (UVR)-induced skin tumours. Here, it is shown that cells within skin can induce protective antitumour immunity against a UVR-induced fibrosarcoma. Transplantation of the skin overlying subcutaneous tumours onto naïve recipients could induce protective antitumour immunity, probably because the grafting stimulated

Ronald Sluyter; Kylie S Yuen; Gary M Halliday

2001-01-01

257

79 FR 6509 - Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Nuclear Power Operations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...program generally provide two types of controls...standards). For most major industries, including...adopt standards for the protection of water quality, including...applicable radiation protection standards for future...20\\ In response to major climate change initiatives...Institute has stated ``Two major analyses issued...The Environmental......

2014-02-04

258

79 FR 32521 - Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Nuclear Power Operations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is announcing an extension of the public comment period for the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) requesting public comment and information on potential approaches to updating the EPA's ``Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Nuclear Power Operations''. The EPA published the ANPR on February 4, 2014 in the Federal Register, which......

2014-06-05

259

Handbook of engineering control methods for occupational radiation protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation are widely used in industrial, medical, military, and other applications. In the workplace, the task of assuring the safety of workers exposed to radiation sources is generally assigned to the safety professional, industrial hygienist, or an engineer in some other discipline. Rarely do employers outside the nuclear industry have the luxury of a staff

Orn

1992-01-01

260

Nuclear Fragmentation Processes Relevant for Human Space Radiation Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for human space explorations such as a moon base or a trip to Mars. Models have been developed in order to predict the radiation exposure to astronauts and to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials, and a key ingredient in these models is the physics of nuclear

Zi-Wei Lin

2007-01-01

261

Radiation Protection Materials for Space Missions and Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has a new vision for space exploration in the 21st Century encompassing a broad range of human and robotic missions including missions to Moon, Mars and beyond. Exposure from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space long duration missions is ``the show stopper.'' The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep

Ram Tripathi

2007-01-01

262

The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of doses to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers.

Fry, R. J. M.

263

SCCIR: Smart Cities Critical Infrastructure Response Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical infrastructures play important roles in ensuring the wellbeing of the populace. Protecting critical infrastructures and ensuring their continued operation will be an important part of future Smart City ecosystems. Minimising the destruction of failing critical infrastructure components or system components that are geographically close critical services is essential. Equally important are the system of systems relationships that a failing

Andrew Attwood; Madjid Merabti; Paul Fergus; Omar Abuelmaatti

2011-01-01

264

Application of InSAR to detection of localized subsidence and its effects on flood protection infrastructure in the New Orleans area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vulnerability of the United States Gulf of Mexico coast to inundation has received increasing attention in the years since hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Flood protection is a challenge throughout the area, but the population density and cumulative effect of historic subsidence makes it particularly difficult in the New Orleans area. Analysis of historical and continuing geodetic measurements identifies a surprising degree of complexity in subsidence (Dokka 2011), including regions that are subsiding at rates faster than those considered during planning for hurricane protection and for coastal restoration projects. Improved measurements are possible through combining traditional single point, precise geodetic data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations for to obtain geographically dense constraints on surface deformation. The Gulf Coast environment is very challenging for InSAR techniques, especially with systems not designed for interferometry. We are applying pair-wise InSAR to longer wavelength (L-band, 24 cm) synthetic aperture radar data acquired with the airborne UAVSAR instrument (http://uavsar.jpl.nasa.gov/) to detect localized change impacting flood protection infrastructure in the New Orleans area during the period from 2009 - 2013. Because aircraft motion creates large-scale image artifacts across the scene, we focus on localized areas on and near flood protection infrastructure to identify anomalous change relative to the surrounding area indicative of subsidence, structural deformation, and/or seepage (Jones et al., 2011) to identify areas where problems exist. C-band and particularly X-band radar returns decorrelate over short time periods in rural or less urbanized areas and are more sensitive to atmospheric affects, necessitating more elaborate analysis techniques or, at least, a strict limit on the temporal baseline. The new generation of spaceborne X-band SAR acquisitions ensure relatively high frequency of acquisition, a dramatic increase of persistent scatter density in urban areas, and improved measurement of very small displacements (Crosetto et al., 2010). We compare the L-band UAVSAR results with permanent scatterer (PS-InSAR) and Short Baseline Subsets (SBAS) interferometric analyses of a stack composed by 28 TerraSAR X-band images acquired over the same period, to determine the influence of different radar frequencies and analyses techniques. Our applications goal is to demonstrate a technique to inform targeted ground surveys, identify areas of persistent subsidence, and improve overall monitoring and planning in flood risk areas. Dokka, 2011, The role of deep processes in late 20th century subsidence of New Orleans and coastal areas of southern Louisiana and Mississippi: J. Geophys. Res., 116, B06403, doi:10.1029/2010JB008008. Jones, C. E., G. Bawden, S. Deverel, J. Dudas, S. Hensley, Study of movement and seepage along levees using DINSAR and the airborne UAVSAR instrument, Proc. SPIE 8536, SAR Image Analysis, Modeling, and Techniques XII, 85360E (November 21, 2012); doi:10.1117/12.976885. Crosetto, M., Monserrat, O., Iglesias, R., & Crippa, B. (2010). Persistent Scatterer Interferometry: Potential, limits and initial C-and X-band comparison. Photogrammetric engineering and remote sensing, 76(9), 1061-1069. Acknowledgments: This research was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Jones, Cathleen; Blom, Ronald; Latini, Daniele

2014-05-01

265

Review of existing issues, ethics and practices in general medical research and in radiation protection research.  

PubMed

A literature review was carried out in relation to general medical research and radiation protection research. A large number of documents were found concerning the subject of ethics in general medical research. For radiation protection research, the number of documents and the information available is very limited. A review of practices in 13 European countries concerning general medical research and radiation protection research was carried out by sending a questionnaire to each country. It was found that all countries reviewed were well regulated for general medical research. For research that involves ionising radiation, the UK and Ireland are by far the most regulated countries. For other countries, there does not seem to be much information available. From the literature review and the review of practices, a number of existing ethical issues were identified and exposed, and a number of conclusions were drawn. PMID:18440965

Schreiner-Karoussou, A

2008-01-01

266

Radiation Protection by the Antioxidant Alpha-Tocopherol Succinate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radiological terrorism and use of nuclear weapons are major concerns for national defense and homeland security. At low doses of radiation, the hazards from these scenarios may not be apparent immediately, but may result in late arising pathologies like c...

P. Karikari R. Toles T. Seed V. Inivasan V. K. Singh

2005-01-01

267

Radiation Protection Program of Petrobras in Industrial Radiography Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Industrial hygiene; main purpose is the preservation of employee physical well being when exposed to certain aggressive agents. PETROBRAS Industrial hygiene program forecasts preventive policies in several specific fields. For the ionizing radiations area...

M. Signorini

1988-01-01

268

New developments in radiation protection instrumentation via active electronic methods  

SciTech Connect

New developments in electronics and radiation detectors are improving on real-time data acquisition of radiation exposure and contamination conditions. Recent developments in low power circuit designs, hybrid and integrated circuits, and microcomputers have all contributed to smaller and lighter radiation detection instruments that are, at the same time, more sensitive and provide more information (e.g., radioisotope identification) than previous devices. New developments in radiation detectors, such as cadmium telluride, gas scintillation proportional counters, and imaging counters (both charged particle and photon) promise higher sensitivities and expanded uses over present instruments. These developments are being applied in such areas as health physics, waste management, environmental monitoring, in vivo measurements, and nuclear safeguards.

Umbarger, C.J.

1981-01-01

269

Radiation exposure and protection for moon and Mars missions  

SciTech Connect

A deep space radiation environment of galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles from solar flares imposes stringent requirements for radiation shielding for both personnel and electronic equipment at a moon base or on a Mars expedition. Current Los Alamos capabilities for calculating the effect of such shielding are described, and extensions and validation needed before actual manned deep space missions are launched are outlined. The biological effects of exposure to cosmic-ray ions and to low doses of radiation at low dose rates are poorly understood. Recent Los Alamos work on mutation effects in cells, DNA repair processes, and the analysis of chromosomal aberrations promises to increase our understanding of the basic processes, to provide methods to screen for radiation sensitivity, and to provide advanced dosimetry equipment for space missions.

MacFarlane, R.E.; Prael, R.E.; Strottman, D.D.; Strniste, G.F.; Feldman, W.C.

1991-04-01

270

Nuclear Fragmentation Processes Relevant for Human Space Radiation Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for human space explorations such as a moon base or a trip to Mars. Models have been developed in order to predict the radiation exposure to astronauts and to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials, and a key ingredient in these models is the physics of nuclear fragmentations. We have developed a semi-analytical method to determine which partial cross sections of nuclear fragmentations most affect the radiation dose behind shielding materials due to exposure to galactic cosmic rays. The cross sections thus determined will require more theoretical and/or experimental studies in order for us to better predict, reduce and mitigate the radiation exposure in human space explorations.

Lin, Zi-Wei

2007-04-01

271

Oceanic protection of prebiotic organic compounds from UV radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is frequently stated that UV light would cause massive destruction of prebiotic organic compounds because of the absence of an ozone layer. The elevated UV flux of the early sun compounds this problem. This applies to organic compounds of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin. Attempts to deal with this problem generally involve atmospheric absorbers. We show here that prebiotic organic polymers as well as several inorganic compounds are sufficient to protect oceanic organic molecules from UV degradation. This aqueous protection is in addition to any atmospheric UV absorbers and should be a ubiquitous planetary phenomenon serving to increase the size of planetary habitable zones.

Cleaves, H. J.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

272

Complex Networks and Critical Infrastructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term “Critical Infrastructures” indicates all those technological infrastructures such as: electric grids, telecommunication networks, railways, healthcare systems, financial circuits, etc. that are more and more relevant for the welfare of our countries. Each one of these infrastructures is a complex, highly non-linear, geographically dispersed cluster of systems, that interact with their human owners, operators, users and with the other infrastructures. Their augmented relevance and the actual political and technological scenarios, which have increased their exposition to accidental failure and deliberate attacks, demand for different and innovative protection strategies (generally indicate as CIP - Critical Infrastructure Protection). To this end it is mandatory to understand the mechanisms that regulate the dynamic of these infrastructures. In this framework, an interesting approach is those provided by the complex networks. In this paper we illustrate some results achieved considering structural and functional properties of the corresponding topological networks both when each infrastructure is assumed as an autonomous system and when we take into account also the dependencies existing among the different infrastructures.

Setola, Roberto; de Porcellinis, Stefano

273

Linear attenuation coefficient and build up factor of MCP-96 alloy for radiation shielding and protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Build-up factors and linear attenuation coefficients of MCP-96 alloy are determined for radiation shielding and protection, using ^60Co and ^137Cs gamma emitters. A narrow collimated beam of ?-rays is passed through various thicknesses of MCP-96 alloy and the attenuation in the intensity of the beam is determined. The thickness of the 4 x 4 cm^2 blocks varies from 0.5 cm to 6 cm. Plotting the thickness of the alloy and the corresponding intensity of the beam allowed us to determine its linear attenuation coefficient. The narrow beam geometry is then replaced by broad beam geometry by removing the collimator and the radiation beam is able to interact with the MCP-96 alloy at all possible positions facing the radiation source. Additional radiations obtained by the detector as a result from the scattering of radiation develops the build-up factor. The buildup factor is then calculated using the attenuated beam received by the detector in the broad beam geometry and in the narrow beam geometry. The buildup factor is found to be dependent on the thickness of the MCP-96 attenuator, the beam energy and the source to attenuator distance. These values are providing ways for dose correction in radiation oncology and radiation shielding and protection when MCP-96 is used as tissue compensator or for radiation protection purposes.

Hopkins, Deidre; Maqbool, Muhammad; Islam, Mohammed

2009-10-01

274

Modern Methods of Real-Time Gamma Radiation Monitoring for General Personal Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time radiation detectors become an essential part of emergency personnel who may have to respond to unknown accidents, incidents or terrorist attacks, which could involve radioactive material. More and more ordinary citizens are interested in personal radiation protection as well. Reasons include lost sources, nuclear industrial accidents, nuclear or radiological terrorism and the possibility of nuclear weapons being used in a war. People want to have the ability to measure it for themselves and they want to be notified when the radiation levels are increased. To meet this demand, considerable research into new sensors is underway, including efforts to enhance the sensor performance through both the material properties and manufacturing technologies. Deep understanding of physical properties of the materials under the influence of radiation exposure is vital for the effective design of dosimeter devices. Detection of radiation is based on the fact that both the electrical and the optical properties of the materials undergo changes upon the exposure to ionizing radiation. It is believed that radiation causes structural defects. The influence of radiation depends on both the dose and the parameters of the films including their thickness: the degradation is more severe for the higher dose and the thinner films. This paper presents overview of modern methods of real-time gamma radiation monitoring for personal protection of radiation workers and general public and suggests further developments in this area.

Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

275

Comparison of in vivo murine intestinal radiation protection by E-prostaglandins  

SciTech Connect

The gastrointestinal cell renewal system is sensitive to injury by ionizing radiation. Natural prostaglandins (PGs) and their analogs have been shown to protect intestinal clonogenic cells (stem cells) in vivo from radiation injury. To further investigate structure and activity relationship in PGs as radiation protectors, studies were done with four E-series PGs: E1, E2, 16,16-dimethyl (dm) PGE2, and 15-deoxy, 16-methyl, 16-hydroxy PGE1 (misoprostol). No protection was seen with PGE1 at doses ranging from 1-100 ug/mouse given from 15 min to 3 hrs before 15.0 Gy137Cs. In contrast, the other three E-series PGs increased intestinal clonogenic cell survival when given 15 min before irradiation. The optimum pre-irradiation time of PG administration was 1 hr for PGE2 and 16,16-dm PGE2 and 2 hrs for misoprostol. The degree of maximum radiation protection was markedly different among the four PGs. PGE2 increased survival to 200% of control values and 16,16-dm PGE2 increased survival to about 400% of controls. The greatest radioprotection was seen with misoprostol, which increased survival to 600% of control. These results suggest that molecular alterations in the side chains of PGs change the efficiency of PG-induced radiation protection. The highest protection to date has been observed with misoprostol. This important finding warrants clinical investigation in patients subjected to radiotherapy.

Hanson, W.R.; DeLaurentiis, K.

1987-01-01

276

Low-dose extrapolation of radiation health risks: some implications of uncertainty for radiation protection at low doses.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation is a known and well-quantified human cancer risk factor, based on a remarkably consistent body of information from epidemiological studies of exposed populations. Typical examples of risk estimation include use of Japanese atomic bomb survivor data to estimate future risk from radiation-related cancer among American patients receiving multiple computed tomography scans, persons affected by radioactive fallout, or persons whose livelihoods involve some radiation exposure, such as x-ray technicians, interventional radiologists, or shipyard workers. Our estimates of radiation-related risk are uncertain, reflecting statistical variation and our imperfect understanding of crucial assumptions that must be made if we are to apply existing epidemiological data to particular situations. Fortunately, that uncertainty is also highly quantifiable, and can be presented concisely and transparently. Radiation protection is ultimately a political process that involves consent by stakeholders, a diverse group that includes people who might be expected to be risk-averse and concerned with plausible upper limits on risk (how bad could it be?), cost-averse and concerned with lower limits on risk (can you prove there is a nontrivial risk at current dose levels?), or combining both points of view. How radiation-related risk is viewed by individuals and population subgroups also depends very much on perception of related benefit, which might be (for example) medical, economic, altruistic, or nonexistent. The following presentation follows the lead of National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) Commentary 14, NCRP Report 126, and later documents in treating radiation protection from the viewpoint of quantitative uncertainty analysis. PMID:19820450

Land, Charles E

2009-11-01

277

A Hypothesis on Biological Protection from Space Radiation Through the Use of Therapeutic Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation proposes a hypothesis to use therapeutic gases in space to enhance the biological protection for astronauts from space radiation. The fundamental role in how radiation causes biological damage appears to be radiolysis, the dissociation of water by radiation. A chain of events appears to cause molecular and biological transformations that ultimately manifest into medical diseases. The hypothesis of this work is that applying medical gases may increase resistance to radiation, by possessing the chemical properties that effectively improve the radical scavenging and enhance bond repair and to induce biological processes which enhance and support natural resistance and repair mechanisms.

Schoenfeld, Michael

2011-01-01

278

Evaluation of Awareness on Radiation Protection and Knowledge About Radiological Examinations in Healthcare Professionals Who Use Ionized Radiation at Work  

PubMed Central

Objective: In this study, we evaluated the knowledge and perception and mitigation of hazards involved in radiological examinations, focusing on healthcare personnel who are not in radiation-related occupations, but who use ionising radiation as a part of their work. Methods: A questionnaire was applied to physicians, nurses, technicians and other staff working in different clinics that use radiation in their work, in order to evaluate their knowledge levels about ionizing radiation and their awareness about radiation doses resulting from radiological examinations. The statistical comparisons between the groups were analyzed with the Kruskal Wallis test using the SPSS program. Results: Ninety two participants took part in the study. Their level of knowledge about ionizing radiation and doses in radiological examinations were found to be very weak. The number of correct answers of physicians, nurses, medical technicians and other personnel groups were 15.7±3.7, 13.0±4.0, 10.1±2.9 and 11.8±4.0, respectively. In the statistical comparison between the groups, the level of knowledge of physicians was found to be significantly higher than the level of the other groups (p=0.005). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that general knowledge in relation to radiation, radiation protection, health risks and doses used for radiological applications are insufficient among health professions using with ionizing radiation in their work.

Yurt, Aysegul; Cavusoglu, Berrin; Gunay, Turkan

2014-01-01

279

Evaluation of awareness on radiation protection and knowledge about radiological examinations in healthcare professionals who use ionized radiation at work.  

PubMed

Objective: In this study, we evaluated the knowledge and perception and mitigation of hazards involved in radiological examinations, focusing on healthcare personnel who are not in radiation-related occupations, but who use ionising radiation as a part of their work. Methods: A questionnaire was applied to physicians, nurses, technicians and other staff working in different clinics that use radiation in their work, in order to evaluate their knowledge levels about ionizing radiation and their awareness about radiation doses resulting from radiological examinations. The statistical comparisons between the groups were analyzed with the Kruskal Wallis test using the SPSS program. Results: Ninety two participants took part in the study. Their level of knowledge about ionizing radiation and doses in radiological examinations were found to be very weak. The number of correct answers of physicians, nurses, medical technicians and other personnel groups were 15.7±3.7, 13.0±4.0, 10.1±2.9 and 11.8±4.0, respectively. In the statistical comparison between the groups, the level of knowledge of physicians was found to be significantly higher than the level of the other groups (p=0.005). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that general knowledge in relation to radiation, radiation protection, health risks and doses used for radiological applications are insufficient among health professions using with ionizing radiation in their work. PMID:24963445

Yurt, Ay?egül; Cavu?o?lu, Berrin; Günay, Türkan

2014-06-01

280

Protection of Lexan from UV Radiation by Photodownconversion. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Photodownconversion of uv radiation incident on a polymeric substrate, Lexan, into visible and IR region is effected by coating the substrate with cerous chloride (CeCl sub 3 )/poly(vinyl alcohol) complex whereby photolytic degradation of the substrate is...

W. M. Yen H. Yu

1980-01-01

281

Radiation protection recommendations on dose limits: The role of the NCRP and the ICRP and future developments  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to review the role of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in making recommendations on dose limits for ionizing radiation exposure for workers and for the public. The text describes the new limits for workers and public recommended by ICRP in 1991 and NCRP in 1993 and the composition of the radiation health detriment on which they are based. The main component of this detriment is the risk of radiation induced cancer which is now estimated to be about three times greater than a decade or so earlier. Uncertainties in these risk estimates are discussed. Some special radiation protection problems, such as those for the embryo or fetus are described. The article also addresses future progress in radiation protection particularly with regard to future improvements in the scientific basis for radiation protection recommendations.

Sinclair, W.K. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD (United States)

1995-02-01

282

Knowledge, skills, and abilities for key radiation protection positions at DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

This document provides detailed qualification criteria for contractor key radiation protection personnel. Although federal key radiation protection positions are also identified, qualification standards for federal positions are provided in DOE O 360.1 and the DOE Technical Qualifications Program. Appendices B and D provide detailed listings for knowledge, skills, and abilities for contractor and DOE federal key radiation protection positions. This information may be used in developing position descriptions and individual development plans. Information provided in Appendix C may be useful in developing performance measures and assessing an individual`s performance in his or her specific position. Additionally, Federal personnel may use this information to augment their Office/facility qualification standards under the Technical Qualifications Program.

NONE

1997-01-01

283

Proceedings of the 26th annual meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection Measurements  

SciTech Connect

This book reports on the 26th Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements which addressed the topic Health and Ecological Implications of Radioactively Contaminated Environments, a topic of great current interest and importance. The meeting was divided into five subtopics. The first dealt with the contaminated sites themselves, the second with human health implications, the third on remediation, the fourth (a panel) on lessons learned and issues of the future and finally a summation. The meeting also included progress reports on the work of three NCRP committees, Scientific Committee 1-2 on the Assessment of Risk for Radiation Protection Purposes, Scientific Committee 66 on Biological Effects and Exposure Criteria for Ultrasound and Scientific Committee 83 on Identification of Research Needs for Radiation Protection. Summaries of these reports prepared by their respective chairmen are included in this volume.

Richmond, C.R.

1991-01-01

284

UV protective textile clothing for workers exposed to natural and artificial UV radiation.  

PubMed

Some amounts of ultraviolet radiation are beneficial for humans but excessive exposure can cause many negative health effects to the skin and eyes and also can affect the immune system. Exposed area of skin should be covered by working clothes with low UVR transmission. It concerns both exposure to natural UV or prolonged exposure to artificial UV. This article presents some aspects of UV protective textile clothing for workers exposed to natural and artificial UV radiation. This article presents results of selected textile samples transmittances and calculated UPF and new proposed AUPF, which describes protective properties against UV of textiles. The UPF and AUPF differs substantially between each other, what is related both to the weighting factors of erythema and actinic efficiency functions and spectral range of these functions. UV protection by clothing depends on a large variety of factors, such as type of fiber, color or moisture content. Contrary to popular opinion, however, some fabrics provide insufficient ultraviolet (UV) protection. PMID:21097351

Wolska, A; Owczarek, G; Bartkowiak, G

2010-01-01

285

Tempest protection of IT infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The explosion of telecommunication services has improved many folds the ability for people to disseminate information worldwide. New telephone, facsimile and computer communications have created opportunities totally revamp functioning and promote information interchange at a lower cost than ever before. By the sudden growth in the field of Information Technology today it becomes extensive usage in Functioning of Operations, Planning,

Ch. R. Phani Kumar; G. Aswan Kumar; M. A. Mehaboob Jani; Suresh Sangam

2011-01-01

286

Envisioning a 21st Century, National, Spacecraft Servicing and Protection Infrastructure and Demand Potential: A Logical Development of the Earth Orbit Economy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The modern world is extremely dependent on thin strings of several hundred civil, military, and commercial spacecraft/satellites currently stationed in space. They provide a steady stream of commerce, defense, and knowledge data. This dependency will in all likelihood increase significantly during this century. A major disruption of any kind in these essential systems and networks could be socially, economically, and politically catastrophic, on a global scale. The development of a space-based, robotic services economy could be useful in mitigating this growing risk, from an efficiency and security standpoint. This paper attempts to suggest what makes sense to invest in next for the logical, economic development of Earth orbit i.e., after ISS completion. It expands on the results of an advanced market research and analysis study that sampled the opinions of several satellite industry executives and presents these results within a broad policy context. The concept of a spacecraft carrier that serves as the nucleus of a national, space-based or on-orbit, robotic services infrastructure is introduced as the next logical step for United States leadership in space. This is viewed as a reasonable and appropriate followon to the development of ELVs and satellites in the 1950s and 1960s, the Space Shuttle/PRLV in the 1970s and 1980s, and the International Space Station (ISS) in the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s. Large-scale experience in LEO-to-GEO spacecraft/satellite servicing and protection by robotic means is assumed to be an indispensable prerequisite or stepping-stone toward the development and preservation of the large scientific exploration facilities that are envisioned by NASA for operation beyond GEO. A balanced, return on national investment (RONI) strategy for space, focused on the provision of enhanced national/homeland security for increased protection, national economic/industrial expansion for increased revenue, and national scientific exploration for increased knowledge is recommended as the next strong, irrepressible goal toward realizing and achieving the official NASA vision and mission.

Horsham, Gary A.

2003-01-01

287

Application of some magnetic nanocompounds in the protection against sun radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The protective effect of some magnetic nanocompounds against prolonged exposure to UV radiation was investigated. Research was carried in white mice whose auricles (ears) were treated with magnetic nanocompounds in various concentrations. After 8 h of exposure, small auricular fragments from treated and control animals were prepared for cytohistological studies. In animals treated with magnetic nanocompounds, no erythema or other UV-induced changes were noticed. The magnetic nanoparticles thus were UV protective and might be useful as a sunscreen.

Sincai, Mariana; Argherie, Diana; Ganga, Diana; Bica, Doina; Vekas, Ladislau

2007-04-01

288

Protective clothing: Fire and radiation environments. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning clothing design, fabrication, and testing for personal protection from exposure to flames and radiation. Citations discuss the treatment of fibers and textiles, testing for physiological tolerances, and methods of decontamination after exposure. Discussed also are user acceptance and proper use of protective clothing by firefighters, nuclear energy personnel, and others. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-11-01

289

Radiation protection in digestive endoscopy: European Society of Digestive Endoscopy (ESGE) guideline.  

PubMed

This article expresses the current view of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) about radiation protection for endoscopic procedures, in particular endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Particular cases, including pregnant women and pediatric patients, are also discussed. This Guideline was developed by a group of endoscopists and medical physicists to ensure that all aspects of radiation protection are adequately dealt with. A two-page executive summary of evidence statements and recommendations is provided. The target readership for this Guideline mostly includes endoscopists, anesthesiologists, and endoscopy assistants who may be exposed to X-rays during endoscopic procedures. PMID:22438152

Dumonceau, J-M; Garcia-Fernandez, F J; Verdun, F R; Carinou, E; Donadille, L; Damilakis, J; Mouzas, I; Paraskeva, K; Ruiz-Lopez, N; Struelens, L; Tsapaki, V; Vanhavere, F; Valatas, V; Sans-Merce, M

2012-04-01

290

A biokinetic model for manganese for use in radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

The ICRP is updating its recommendations regarding occupational exposure to radionuclides including the biokinetic models used to derive dose coefficients and assess bioassay data for internally deposited radionuclides. This report reviews biokinetic data for manganese and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic manganese consistent with the current database. The model provides a more detailed and biologically realistic description of the movement of absorbed manganese in the body than the model currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The proposed model and current ICRP model yield broadly similar estimates of dose per unit activity of inhaled or ingested radio-manganese but differ substantially with regard to interpretation of bioassay data.

Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL

2011-01-01

291

Radiation protection for human exploration of the moon and mars: Application of the mash code system  

SciTech Connect

The Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding code system -- MASH, developed for the Department of Defense for calculating radiation protection factors for armored vehicles against neutron and gamma radiation, has been used to assess the dose from reactor radiation to an occupant in a habitat on Mars. The capability of MASH to reproduce measured data is summarized to demonstrate the accuracy of the code. The estimation of the radiation environment in an idealized reactor-habitat model is reported to illustrate the merits of the adjoint Monte Carlo procedure for space related studies. The reactor radiation dose for different reactor-habitat surface configurations to a habitat occupant is compared with the natural radiation dose acquired during a 500-day Mars mission.

Johnson, J.O.; Santoro, R.T.; Drischler, J.D.; Barnes, J.M.

1992-06-01

292

Radiation protection for human exploration of the moon and mars: Application of the mash code system  

SciTech Connect

The Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding code system -- MASH, developed for the Department of Defense for calculating radiation protection factors for armored vehicles against neutron and gamma radiation, has been used to assess the dose from reactor radiation to an occupant in a habitat on Mars. The capability of MASH to reproduce measured data is summarized to demonstrate the accuracy of the code. The estimation of the radiation environment in an idealized reactor-habitat model is reported to illustrate the merits of the adjoint Monte Carlo procedure for space related studies. The reactor radiation dose for different reactor-habitat surface configurations to a habitat occupant is compared with the natural radiation dose acquired during a 500-day Mars mission.

Johnson, J.O.; Santoro, R.T.; Drischler, J.D.; Barnes, J.M.

1992-01-01

293

ICRP and IAEA actions on radiation protection in computed tomography.  

PubMed

In 1998, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) warned that computed tomography (CT) doses were high, and the frequency of usage was likely to increase in view of spiral CT technology that enhances patient convenience and provides high-quality diagnostic information. Two ICRP publications (Publications 87 and 102) have provided patient dose management recommendations while reviewing the technology and results of optimisations to date, and stimulated interest in patient dose management. The International Atomic Energy Agency, on the other hand, has been instrumental in assessing the state of practice at grassroots level, identifying lacunae in justification and optimisation, providing guidance to counterparts in various countries, and improving practice. The results from approximately 50 less-resourced countries for adult and paediatric CT studies have become available, and some have been published. The concerted efforts and actions by these two international organisations have contributed to better awareness and improvement of patient protection in CT in adults and children in many countries. PMID:23089014

Rehani, M M

2012-01-01

294

Shielding and radiation protection at the SSRL 3 GeV injector  

SciTech Connect

The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) Injector is comprised of a linear accelerator (linac) capable of energies {le} 150 MeV, a 3 GeV booster synchrotron, and a beam line to transport the electrons into the storage ring SPEAR. The injector is shielded so that under normal operating conditions, the annual dose equivalent at the shield surface does not exceed 10 mSv. This paper describes the shielding and radiation protection at the injector.

Ipe, N.E.; Liu, J.C.

1991-12-01

295

Radiation protection system at the RIKEN RI beam factory.  

PubMed

The RIKEN RI (radioactive isotope) Beam Factory is scheduled to commence operations in 2006, and its maximum energy will be 400 MeV u(-1) for ions lighter than Ar and 350 MeV u(-1) for uranium. The beam intensity will be 1 pmicroA (6 x 10(12) particles s(-1)) for any element at the goal. For the hands-on-maintenance and the rational shield thickness of the building, the beam loss must be controlled with several kinds of monitors. Three types of radiation monitors will be installed. The first one consists of a neutron dose equivalent monitor and an ionisation chamber, which are commercially available area monitors. The second one is a conventional hand-held dose equivalent monitor wherein the logarithmic signal is read by a programmable logic controller based on the radiation safety interlock system (HIS). The third one is a simple plastic scintillator called a beam loss monitor. All the monitors have threshold levels for alarm and beam stop, and HIS reads all these signals. PMID:16381729

Uwamino, Y; Fujita, S; Sakamoto, H; Ito, S; Fukunishi, N; Yabutani, T; Yamano, T; Fukumura, A

2005-01-01

296

Radiation Protection Materials for Space Missions and Industries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA has a new vision for space exploration in the 21st Century encompassing a broad range of human and robotic missions including missions to Moon, Mars and beyond. Exposure from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space long duration missions is ``the show stopper.'' The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space missions. In the enabling technology, we have developed methodology and concomitant technology for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of space missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints. Studies have been made for various missions. Current technology is adequate for low earth orbit missions. Revolutionary materials need to be developed for career astronauts and deep space missions. The details of this new technology and its impact on space missions and other technologies will be discussed.

Tripathi, Ram

2007-03-01

297

Sulfur compounds in therapy: Radiation-protective agents, amphetamines, and mucopolysaccharide sulfation  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur-containing compounds have been used in the search for whole-body radiation-protective compounds, in the design of amphetamine derivatives that retain appetite-suppressive effects but lack most behavioral effects characteristic of amphetamines, and in the search for the cause of kidney stone formation in recurrently stoneforming patients. Organic synthetic procedures were used to prepare radiation-protective compounds having a variety of sulfur-containing functional groups, and to prepare amphetamine derivatives having electron-attracting sulfur functions. In the case of the kidney stone causation research, isolation of urinary mucopolysaccharides (MPS) from recurrently stoneforming patients was carried out and the extent of sulfation of the MPS was determined by electrophoresis. Whole-body radiation-protective agents with a high degree of protection against lethal doses of gamma-radiation in mice were found in a series of quinolinium and pyridinium bis(methylthio) and methylthio amino derivatives. Mechanism studies showed that the copper complexes of these agents mimicked the beneficial action of superoxide dismutase. Electron-attracting sulfur-containing functions on amphetamine nitrogen, as well as 4'-amino nitrogen provided amphetamine derivatives with good appetite-suppressant effects and few or no adverse behavioral effects. Higher than normal levels of sulfation of the urinary MPS of stone formers suggested a cause for recurrent kidney stone formation. A sulfation inhibitor was found to prevent recurrence of stone formation and inhibit growth of existing stones. The inclusion of various sulfur-containing functions in organic molecules yielded compounds having whole-body radiation protection from lethal doses of gamma-radiation in animals. The presence of electron-attracting sulfur functions in amphetamine gave derivatives that retained appetite-suppressant effects and eliminated most adverse behavioral effects.

Foye, W.O. (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences, Boston (United States))

1992-09-01

298

The state of radiological protection; views of the radiation protection profession: IRPA13, Glasgow, May 2012.  

PubMed

The IRPA13 Congress took place from 14-18 May 2012 in Glasgow, Scotland, UK, and was attended by almost 1500 radiological protection professionals. The scientific programme of the Congress was designed to capture a snapshot of the profession's views of the current state of knowledge, and of the challenges seen for the coming years. This paper provides a summary of these results of the Congress in twelve key scientific areas that served as the structural backbone of IRPA13. PMID:23186783

Lazo, Edward; Smith, Rachel; Coates, Roger; Andersen, Ralph; Asano, Yoshihiro; Chapple, Claire-Louise; Faulkner, Keith; Hefner, Alfred; Hill, Marion; Jones, Rick; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Liebenberg, Gert; Liland, Astrid; McKinlay, Alastair; Menzel, Hans-Georg; Perks, Christopher; Rodriguez, Manuel; Schieber, Caroline; Shaw, Peter; Visage, Abrie; Wakeford, Richard; Ye, Sung-Joon

2012-12-01

299

Building the basis for a comprehensive radiation protection program for a multi-program laboratory  

SciTech Connect

An explicit, workplace-specific training has been developed, implemented, and documented for all radiation workers. In addition to the radiation worker personnel located at reactors, accelerators, radiochemical laboratories, and waste treatment areas, we have trained other personnel who work in areas where a lesser potential for radiological/chemical exposure exists. These workforces include construction crews, site restoration crews, contracted special services such as scoping and site characterization teams, and short-term visitors. We are developing a comprehensive, integrated approach to radiation protection training suited for a multi-purpose research laboratory. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Copenhaver, E.D.

1987-01-01

300

Ceramic coatings on package lids for radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of coating gold plated kovar lids with colloidally bonded aluminum oxide. Radiation that is incident on a gold plated lid generates a large number of photoelectrons. These electrons can enhance the damage to microelectronic devices and circuits (ICs). The primary purpose of the coating is to stop the electrons emitted from the lid that would otherwise increase the damage to the IC. A coating system consisting of {approximately}95 wt % alumina (0.5 {mu}m particles) and {approximately}5 wt % colloidal silica (10 nm particles) was developed. The coating was applied to the lids as an aqueous suspension which was then dried to form a porous coating. Coating processing conditions were optimized so that crack-free, uniform coatings with the required thickness ({approximately}80 {mu}m) could be consistently produced. Preliminary data have indicated that the coated lid can be attached to the IC package using current belt furnace sealing procedures. The adhesion and mechanical integrity of the coatings were evaluated by submitting coated lids to centrifuge and shock testing. Selected coatings successfully withstood the shock test and 85% were undamaged after being subjected to an acceleration of 30,000 g's. Several types of radiation tests were performed to determine the effectiveness of the coating to stop electron penetration. Evaluation testing included gamma dose enhancement and X- ray induced photocurrent enhancement. The results for lids with coatings 80 or 150 {mu}m thick were compared with results for uncoated kovar and ceramic lids. 6 refs., 6 figs.

Garino, T.J.; Reber, C.A.; Fleetwood, D.M.

1991-08-01

301

Radiation Protection Enrollments and Degrees. Enrollments--Fall 1973. Degrees Granted July 1965-June 1973.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The demand for radiation protection personnel has increased during the past several years and can be expected to continue to increase for several years to come. This document gives the results of the latest survey of institutions offering degree programs in this field. Such a small segment of the total college enrollment is represented in health…

Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC. Div. of Labor Relations.

302

Fourth International Conference on Anticarcinogenesis and Radiation Protection: Supplement. Volume 54, No. 7  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains full papers of presentations given at the 4th International Conference of Anticarcinogenesis and Radiation Protection held in Baltimore, Maryland April 18--23, 1993. Presentations were grouped into topic areas entitled Mechanisms of Cancer and Aging; Biomarkers and Susceptibility Factors; Molecular Diagnosis; Nutrition, exercise, and Cancer; Molecular Mechanisms of Chemoprotection; and Clinical Interventions.

NONE

1994-04-01

303

PROTECTING WORKERS FROM RADIATION SOURCES IN URANIUM MINES AND IN WORK WITH RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on radiation protection are presented and discussed. Methods for ; monitoring exposure, radioactive levels in water, air, and dust under and above ; ground are given, along with hemograms of 94 miners and 142 workers (95 men) in ; uranium technology. The main problems and dangers, remedies advocated, planned, ; or in effect are also discussed. (P.C.H.);

D. Karajovic; B. Panov; M. Jeremic; D. Djuric; M. Vukotic; D. Gvozdanovic

1962-01-01

304

Physical, chemical, and biological properties of radiocerium relevant to radiation protection guidelines  

SciTech Connect

Cerium, an element in the lanthanide series, has a number of radioactive isotopes. Several of these are produced in abundance in nuclear fission reactions associated with nuclear industry operations or detonation of nuclear devices. This report summarizes our present knowledge of the relevant physical, chemical, and biological properties of radiocerium as a basis for establishing radiation protection guidelines.

Not Available

1980-01-01

305

Three Mile Island, Unit 2, radiation protection program: report of the special panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A special panel was appointed by the Director of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, NRC, to review the radiation protection program at Three Mile Island Unit 2. The Panel confirmed several management and technical deficiencies in the program. Recent major GPU\\/Met Ed commitments and actions demonstrated a major change in management attitude. The Panel concluded that exposures to personnel can be maintained

C. B. Meinhold; T. D. Murphy; D. R. Neely; R. L. Kathren; B. L. Rich; G. F. Stone; W. R. Casey

1979-01-01

306

21st L H Gray Conference: the radiobiology/radiation protection interface.  

PubMed

The 21st L H Gray Conference, organised by the L H Gray Trust with the Society for Radiological Protection, brought together international experts in radiobiology, epidemiology and risk assessment, and scientists involved in diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure. The meeting - held in Edinburgh, Scotland, on 4-6 June 2008 - aimed to raise awareness, educate and share knowledge of important issues in radiation protection. A distinguished group of speakers discussed topics that included (i) non-targeted effects of radiation, (ii) exposure to high natural background radiation, (iii) non-cancer effects in Japanese bomb survivors, (iv) lessons learnt from Chernobyl, (v) radiation in the workplace, (vi) biokinetic modelling, (vii) uncertainties in risk estimation, (viii) issues in diagnostic medical exposures, (ix) lessons leant from the polonium-210 incidence and (x) how the radiobiology/radiation oncology community is needed to help society prepare for potential future acts of radiation terrorism. The conference highlighted the importance, relevance and topicality of radiobiology today. PMID:19386958

West, C M L; Martin, C J; Sutton, D G; Wright, E G

2009-05-01

307

LAURISTON S. TAYLOR LECTURE ON RADIATION PROTECTION AND MEASURMENTS: WHAT MAKES PARTICLE RADIATION SO EFFECTIVE?  

PubMed Central

The scientific basis for the physical and biological effectiveness of particle radiations has emerged from many decades of meticulous basic research. A diverse array of biologically relevant consequences at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organism level have been reported, but what are the key processes and mechanisms that make particle radiation so effective, and what competing processes define dose dependences? Recent studies have shown that individual genotypes control radiation-regulated genes and pathways in response to radiations of varying ionization density. The fact that densely ionizing radiations can affect different gene families than sparsely ionizing radiations, and that the effects are dose- and time-dependent has opened up new areas of future research. The complex microenvironment of the stroma, and the significant contributions of the immune response have added to our understanding of tissue-specific differences across the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum. The importance of targeted vs. nontargeted effects remain a thorny, but elusive and important contributor to chronic low dose radiation effects of variable LET that still needs further research. The induction of cancer is also LET-dependent, suggesting different mechanisms of action across the gradient of ionization density. The focus of this 35th Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture is to chronicle the step-by-step acquisition of experimental clues that have refined our understanding of what makes particle radiation so effective, with emphasis on the example of radiation effects on the crystalline lens of the human eye.

Blakely, Eleanor A.

2012-01-01

308

Operational radiation protection for astronauts and cosmonauts and correlated activities of ESA Medical Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the early times of human spaceflight radiation has been, besides the influence of microgravity on the human body, recognized as a main health concern to astronauts and cosmonauts. The radiation environment that the crew experiences during spaceflight differs significantly to that found on earth due to particles of greater potential for biological damage. Highly energetic charged particles, such as protons, helium nuclei ("alpha particles") and heavier ions up to iron, originating from several sources, as well as protons and electrons trapped in the Earth's radiation belts, are the main contributors. The exposure that the crew receives during a spaceflight significantly exceeds exposures routinely received by terrestrial radiation workers. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Astronaut Center (EAC) in Cologne, Germany, is home of the European Astronaut Corps. Part of the EAC is the Crew Medical Support Office (CMSO or HSF-AM) responsible for ensuring the health and well-being of the European Astronauts. A sequence of activities is conducted to protect astronauts and cosmonauts health, including those aiming to mitigate adverse effects of space radiation. All health related activities are part of a multinational Medical Operations (MedOps) concept, which is executed by the different Space Agencies participating in the human spaceflight program of the International Space Station (ISS). This article will give an introduction to the current measures used for radiation monitoring and protection of astronauts and cosmonauts. The operational guidelines that shall ensure proper implementation and execution of those radiation protection measures will be addressed. Operational hardware for passive and active radiation monitoring and for personal dosimetry, as well as the operational procedures that are applied, are described.

Straube, Ulrich; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Facius, Rainer; Fuglesang, Christer; Reiter, Thomas; Damann, Volker; Tognini, Michel

2010-04-01

309

Dying cells protect survivors from radiation-induced cell death in Drosophila.  

PubMed

We report a phenomenon wherein induction of cell death by a variety of means in wing imaginal discs of Drosophila larvae resulted in the activation of an anti-apoptotic microRNA, bantam. Cells in the vicinity of dying cells also become harder to kill by ionizing radiation (IR)-induced apoptosis. Both ban activation and increased protection from IR required receptor tyrosine kinase Tie, which we identified in a genetic screen for modifiers of ban. tie mutants were hypersensitive to radiation, and radiation sensitivity of tie mutants was rescued by increased ban gene dosage. We propose that dying cells activate ban in surviving cells through Tie to make the latter cells harder to kill, thereby preserving tissues and ensuring organism survival. The protective effect we report differs from classical radiation bystander effect in which neighbors of irradiated cells become more prone to death. The protective effect also differs from the previously described effect of dying cells that results in proliferation of nearby cells in Drosophila larval discs. If conserved in mammals, a phenomenon in which dying cells make the rest harder to kill by IR could have implications for treatments that involve the sequential use of cytotoxic agents and radiation therapy. PMID:24675716

Bilak, Amber; Uyetake, Lyle; Su, Tin Tin

2014-03-01

310

Dying Cells Protect Survivors from Radiation-Induced Cell Death in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

We report a phenomenon wherein induction of cell death by a variety of means in wing imaginal discs of Drosophila larvae resulted in the activation of an anti-apoptotic microRNA, bantam. Cells in the vicinity of dying cells also become harder to kill by ionizing radiation (IR)-induced apoptosis. Both ban activation and increased protection from IR required receptor tyrosine kinase Tie, which we identified in a genetic screen for modifiers of ban. tie mutants were hypersensitive to radiation, and radiation sensitivity of tie mutants was rescued by increased ban gene dosage. We propose that dying cells activate ban in surviving cells through Tie to make the latter cells harder to kill, thereby preserving tissues and ensuring organism survival. The protective effect we report differs from classical radiation bystander effect in which neighbors of irradiated cells become more prone to death. The protective effect also differs from the previously described effect of dying cells that results in proliferation of nearby cells in Drosophila larval discs. If conserved in mammals, a phenomenon in which dying cells make the rest harder to kill by IR could have implications for treatments that involve the sequential use of cytotoxic agents and radiation therapy.

Bilak, Amber; Uyetake, Lyle; Su, Tin Tin

2014-01-01

311

Recommended Radiation Protection Practices for Low-Level Waste Disposal Sites  

SciTech Connect

The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in estsblishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) dis- posal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW dis- posal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control , internal exposure control , respiratory protection, survei 1 - lance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of the occupa- tionally exposed individuals. As a result, radiation protection practices were recommended with related rationales in order to reduce occupational exposures as far below specified radiation limits as is reasonably achievable. In addition, recommendations were developed for achieving occupational exposure ALARA under the Regulatory Requirements issued in 10 CFR Part 61.

D. E. Hadlock, C. D. Hooker, W. N. Herrington, R. L. Gilchrist

1983-12-01

312

DIM (3,3'-diindolylmethane) confers protection against ionizing radiation by a unique mechanism.  

PubMed

DIM (3,3'-diindolylmethane), a small molecule compound, is a proposed cancer preventive agent that can be safely administered to humans in repeated doses. We report that administration of DIM in a multidose schedule protected rodents against lethal doses of total body irradiation up to 13 Gy, whether DIM dosing was initiated before or up to 24 h after radiation. Physiologic submicromolar concentrations of DIM protected cultured cells against radiation by a unique mechanism: DIM caused rapid activation of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a nuclear kinase that regulates responses to DNA damage (DDR) and oxidative stress. Subsequently, multiple ATM substrates were phosphorylated, suggesting that DIM induces an ATM-dependent DDR-like response, and DIM enhanced radiation-induced ATM signaling and NF-?B activation. DIM also caused activation of ATM in rodent tissues. Activation of ATM by DIM may be due, in part, to inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A, an upstream regulator of ATM. In contrast, DIM did not protect human breast cancer xenograft tumors against radiation under the conditions tested. In tumors, ATM was constitutively phosphorylated and was not further stimulated by radiation and/or DIM. Our findings suggest that DIM is a potent radioprotector and mitigator that functions by stimulating an ATM-driven DDR-like response and NF-?B survival signaling. PMID:24127581

Fan, Saijun; Meng, Qinghui; Xu, Jiaying; Jiao, Yang; Zhao, Lin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Brown, Milton L; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Rosen, Eliot M

2013-11-12

313

DIM (3,3?-diindolylmethane) confers protection against ionizing radiation by a unique mechanism  

PubMed Central

DIM (3,3?-diindolylmethane), a small molecule compound, is a proposed cancer preventive agent that can be safely administered to humans in repeated doses. We report that administration of DIM in a multidose schedule protected rodents against lethal doses of total body irradiation up to 13 Gy, whether DIM dosing was initiated before or up to 24 h after radiation. Physiologic submicromolar concentrations of DIM protected cultured cells against radiation by a unique mechanism: DIM caused rapid activation of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a nuclear kinase that regulates responses to DNA damage (DDR) and oxidative stress. Subsequently, multiple ATM substrates were phosphorylated, suggesting that DIM induces an ATM-dependent DDR-like response, and DIM enhanced radiation-induced ATM signaling and NF-?B activation. DIM also caused activation of ATM in rodent tissues. Activation of ATM by DIM may be due, in part, to inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A, an upstream regulator of ATM. In contrast, DIM did not protect human breast cancer xenograft tumors against radiation under the conditions tested. In tumors, ATM was constitutively phosphorylated and was not further stimulated by radiation and/or DIM. Our findings suggest that DIM is a potent radioprotector and mitigator that functions by stimulating an ATM-driven DDR-like response and NF-?B survival signaling.

Fan, Saijun; Meng, Qinghui; Xu, Jiaying; Jiao, Yang; Zhao, Lin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Brown, Milton L.; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Rosen, Eliot M.

2013-01-01

314

Nuclear data needs for radiation protection and therapy dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

New nuclear data are required for improved neutron and proton radiotherapy treatment planning as well as future applications of high-energy particle accelerators. Modern neutron radiotherapy employs energies extending to 70 MeV, while industrial applications such as transmutation and tritium breeding may generate neutrons exceeding energies of 100 MeV. Secondary neutrons produced by advanced proton therapy facilities can have energies as high as 250 MeV. Each use requires nuclear data for transport calculations and analysis of radiation effects (dosimetry). We discuss the nuclear data needs supportive of these applications including the different information requirements. As data in this energy region are sparse and likely to remain so, advanced nuclear model calculations can provide some of the needed information. ln this context, we present new evaluated nuclear data for C, N, and O. Additional experimental information, including integral and differential data, are required to confirm these results and to bound further calculations. We indicate the required new data to be measured and the difficulties in carrying out such experiments.

Chadwick, M.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); DeLuca, P.M. Jr. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept of Medical Physics; Haight, R.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-12-31

315

Radiation protection recommendations on dose limits: The role on the NCRP and the ICRP and future developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to review the role of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in making recommendations on dose limits for ionizing radiation exposure for workers and for the public. The text describes the new limits for workers and public recommended by ICRP in 1991 and

Warren K. Sinclair

1995-01-01

316

Extracellular genomic DNA protects mice against radiation and chemical mutagens  

PubMed Central

Background High doses of ionizing irradiation and chemical mutagens induce random mutations and chromosome aberrations in cells of affected organisms and cause acute symptoms, delayed increased risk of cancer and accelerated aging. The mechanism of disease development remains unclear and no treatment exists for consequences of the mutagenic damage. Hypothesis We have proposed recently that extracellular genomic DNA from tissue fluids of a healthy organism, innate receptor-mediated nuclear delivery of this DNA, and its homologous recombination with cellular genomic sequences might function concertedly as a natural proofreading mechanism for somatic cell genomes. Here we hypothesize that cells dying from irradiation or chemical mutagens release heavily damaged DNA fragments that propagate mutations and chromosome aberrations to DNA-recipient cells via this mechanism, inducing cell death and release of their mutated DNA again into the bloodstream. The repeated release of the mutated DNA followed by its incorporation into cellular genomes would spread mutational damage in the affected organism, thus making this DNA the etiologic agent of either radiation sickness or post-mutagen exposure syndrome. The hypothesis opens a possibility to inhibit and treat the disease via administration of non-mutated genomic DNA fragments that would compete with the circulating mutant DNA fragments, entering cells in greater numbers, leading to replacement of mutant segments in cellular genomes. Results and Conclusions Injection of fragmented mouse DNA, but not human DNA, into lethally irradiated mice dramatically increased their survival. Similarly, the mouse DNA was more potent than human and salmon DNA in accelerating recovery of the normal leukocyte level in mice treated with the chemical mutagen cyclophosphamide. The species specificity of the DNA therapy suggests that the genomic sequences are the agent producing the effects.

2004-01-01

317

Extracellular genomic DNA protects mice against radiation and chemical mutagens  

PubMed Central

Background High doses of ionizing irradiation and chemical mutagens induce random mutations and chromosome aberrations in cells of affected organisms and cause acute symptoms, delayed increased risk of cancer and accelerated aging. The mechanism of disease development remains unclear and no treatment exists for consequences of the mutagenic damage. Hypothesis We have proposed recently that extracellular genomic DNA from tissue fluids of a healthy organism, innate receptor-mediated nuclear delivery of this DNA, and its homologous recombination with cellular genomic sequences might function concertedly as a natural proofreading mechanism for somatic cell genomes. Here we hypothesize that cells dying from irradiation or chemical mutagens release heavily damaged DNA fragments that propagate mutations and chromosome aberrations to DNA-recipient cells via this mechanism, inducing cell death and release of their mutated DNA again into the bloodstream. The repeated release of the mutated DNA followed by its incorporation into cellular genomes would spread mutational damage in the affected organism, thus making this DNA the etiologic agent of either radiation sickness or post-mutagen exposure syndrome. The hypothesis opens a possibility to inhibit and treat the disease via administration of non-mutated genomic DNA fragments that would compete with the circulating mutant DNA fragments, entering cells in greater numbers, leading to replacement of mutant segments in cellular genomes. Results and Conclusions Injection of fragmented mouse DNA, but not human DNA, into lethally irradiated mice dramatically increased their survival. Similarly, the mouse DNA was more potent than human and salmon DNA in accelerating recovery of the normal leukocyte level in mice treated with the chemical mutagen cyclophosphamide. The species specificity of the DNA therapy suggests that the genomic sequences are the agent producing the effects.

2003-01-01

318

Los Alamos Science: Number 23, 1995. Radiation protection and the human radiation experiments  

SciTech Connect

There are a variety of myths and misconceptions about the ionizing radiation that surrounds and penetrates us all. Dispel a few of these by taking a leisurely tour of radiation and its properties, of the natural and man-made sources of ionizing radiation, and of the way doses are calculated. By damaging DNA and inducing genetic mutations, ionizing radiation can potentially initiate a cell on the road to cancer. The authors review what is currently known about regulation of cellular reproduction, DNA damage and repair, cellular defense mechanisms, and the specific cancer-causing genes that are susceptible to ionizing radiation. A rapid survey of the data on radiation effects in humans shows that high radiation doses increase the risk of cancer, whereas the effects of low doses are very difficult to detect. The hypothetical risks at low doses, which are estimated from the atomic-bomb survivors, are compared to the low-dose data so that the reader can assess the present level of uncertainty. As part of the openness initiative, ten individuals who have worked with plutonium during various periods in the Laboratory`s history were asked to share their experiences including their accidental intakes. The history and prognosis of people who have had plutonium exposures is discussed by the Laboratory`s leading epidemiologist.

Cooper, N.G. [ed.] [ed.

1995-12-31

319

Hydrogen-rich saline protects against ultraviolet B radiation injury in rats  

PubMed Central

Exposure of skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces photo-damage. Ultraviolet B (UVB) is the major component of UV radiation which induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and plays an important role in photo-damage. Hydrogen gas reduces ROS and alleviates inflammation. In this study, we sought to demonstrate that hydrogen-rich saline has the effect on skin injuries caused by UVB radiation. UVB radiation was irradiated on female C57BL/6 rats to induce skin injury. Hydrogen-rich saline and nitrogen-rich saline were administered to rats by intraperitoneal injection. Skin damage was detected by microscope after injury. UVB radiation had a significant affection in tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 levels, tissue superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide activity. Hydrogen-rich saline had a protective effect by altering the levels of these markers and relieved morphological skin injury. Hydrogen-rich saline protected against UVB radiation injury, possibly by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress.

Guo, Ze; Zhou, Bingrong; Li, Wei; Sun, Xuejun; Luo, Dan

2012-01-01

320

Protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells by treatment with antioxidant agents  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of antioxidant agents against space radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells. Methods and Materials: The effects of selected concentrations of N-acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, co-enzyme Q10, {alpha}-lipoic acid, L-selenomethionine, and vitamin E succinate on radiation-induced oxidative stress were evaluated in MCF10 human breast epithelial cells exposed to radiation with X-rays, {gamma}-rays, protons, or high mass, high atomic number, and high energy particles using a dichlorofluorescein assay. Results: The results demonstrated that these antioxidants are effective in protecting against radiation-induced oxidative stress and complete or nearly complete protection was achieved by treating the cells with a combination of these agents before and during the radiation exposure. Conclusion: The combination of antioxidants evaluated in this study is likely be a promising countermeasure for protection against space radiation-induced adverse biologic effects.

Wan, X. Steven [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ware, Jeffrey H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Zhou, Zhaozong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Donahue, Jeremiah J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Guan, Jun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Kennedy, Ann R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)]. E-mail: akennedy@mail.med.upenn.edu

2006-04-01

321

Radiatsionnye issledovaniya v ORB i RI OIYaI. Itogi za 1979-1989 gody. (Radiation protection research in the Department of Radiation Safety and R R JINR. Results for 1979-1989).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey and results of the radiation protection research in the Department of radiation safety, JINR for the 1979-1989 decade are presented. The characteristics of JINR basic nuclear installations as radiation sources and radiation environmental situatio...

M. M. Komochkov

1989-01-01

322

78 FR 20934 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...presentation of the report from the Regional Resilience Working Group. We request that comments...Security with advice on the security and resilience of the Nation's critical infrastructure...critical infrastructure protection and resilience as directed by the President. At...

2013-04-08

323

Cybersecurity: The Nation's Greatest Threat to Critical Infrastructure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the past decade, the cyber threat to critical infrastructure has grown to potentially catastrophic dimensions. Critical Infrastructure protection has become a matter of national security, public safety, and economic stability. It is imperative the U....

N. L. Olive

2013-01-01

324

Insights into the state of radiation protection among a subpopulation of Indian dental practitioners  

PubMed Central

Purpose Radiographs is an integral part of patient management in dentistry, despite their detrimental effects. As the literature pertaining to radiation protection among Indian dental practitioners is sparse, exploring such protection is needed. Materials and Methods All private dental practitioners in Mangalore, India were included in the study. A structured, pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire was employed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practices, previous training, perceptions towards the need to spread awareness, and willingness to gain and implement knowledge about radiation hazards and protection. Information regarding each respondent's age, gender, education, and type and duration of practice was collected. Results Overall, 87 out of 120 practitioners participated in the study. The mean knowledge, attitude, and practice scores were 9.54±2.54, 59.39±7.01, and 5.80±3.19, respectively. Overall, 25.3% of the respondents had undergone training in radiation protection, 98.9% perceived a need to spread awareness, and 94.3% were willing to improve their knowledge. Previous training showed a significant correlation with age, sex, and duration of practice; attitude was significantly correlated with education and type of practice; and knowledge scores showed a significant correlation with type of practice. Conclusion Although the knowledge and practices of respondents were poor, they had a positive attitude and were willing to improve their knowledge. Age, sex, and duration of practice were associated with previous training; education and type of practice with attitude scores; and type of practice with knowledge scores. The findings of this study suggest a policy is needed to ensure the adherence of dental practitioners to radiation protection guidelines.

Binnal, Almas; Denny, Ceena; Ahmed, Junaid; Nayak, Vijayendra

2013-01-01

325

Repeated Nrf2 stimulation using sulforaphane protects fibroblasts from ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

Most of the cytotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation is mediated by radical-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Cellular protection from free radicals can be stimulated several fold by sulforaphane-mediated activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 that regulates more than 50 genes involved in the detoxification of reactive substances and radicals. Here, we report that repeated sulforaphane treatment increases radioresistance in primary human skin fibroblasts. Cells were either treated with sulforaphane for four hours once or with four-hour treatments repeatedly for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. Fibroblasts exposed to repeated-sulforaphane treatment showed a more pronounced dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated mRNA and reduced amount of radiation-induced free radicals compared with cells treated once with sulforaphane. In addition, radiation- induced DNA double-strand breaks measured by gamma-H2AX foci were attenuated following repeated sulforaphane treatment. As a result, cellular protection from ionizing radiation measured by the 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay was increased, specifically in cells exposed to repeated sulforaphane treatment. Sulforaphane treatment was unable to protect Nrf2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, indicating that the sulforaphane-induced radioprotection was Nrf2-dependent. Moreover, radioprotection by repeated sulforaphane treatment was dose-dependent with an optimal effect at 10 uM, whereas both lower and higher concentrations resulted in lower levels of radioprotection. Our data indicate that the Nrf2 system can be trained to provide further protection from radical damage. PMID:24603300

Mathew, Sherin T; Bergström, Petra; Hammarsten, Ola

2014-05-01

326

Radiation protective structure alternatives for habitats of a lunar base research outpost  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar and galactic cosmic radiation levels on the Moon pose a hazard to extended manned lunar missions. Lunar soil represents an available, economical material to be used for radiation shielding. Several alternatives have been suggested to use lunar soil to protect the inhabitants of a lunar base research outpost from radiation. The Universities Space Research Association has requested that a comparative analysis of the alternatives be performed, with the purpose of developing the most advantageous design. Eight alternatives have been analyzed, including an original design which was developed to satisfy the identified design criteria. The original design consists of a cylindrical module and airlock, partially buried in the lunar soil, at a depth sufficient to achieve adequate radiation shielding. The report includes descriptions of the alternatives considered, the method of analysis used, and the final design selected.

Bell, Fred J.; Foo, Lai T.; Mcgrew, William P.

1988-01-01

327

The present status and trend of ionizing-radiation application on environment protection in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies in a large scale on ionizing-radiation application on environment protection and pollution control have been carried out for nearly 20 years in China. Desulphurization and denitrification of flue gas by electron-beam processing in coal-fired power stations are a successful industrial example and therefore, a wider use of ionizing radiation in air pollution control can be expected in the near future. In addition to e-beam and 60Co radiation, electric discharge was also a useful means for the air pollution control. There were some satisfied data in removing water polluters but it seems that radiation is the only one component in the technique used to treat wastewater.

Yonghua, Ding; Degui, Zheng; Aoshuang, Yan; Guanghua, Niu

2002-03-01

328

Evaluating Effectiveness of Green Infrastructure Application of Stormwater Best Management Practices in Protecting Stream Habitat and Biotic Condition in New England  

EPA Science Inventory

The US EPA is developing assessment tools to evaluate the effectiveness of green infrastructure (GI) applied in stormwater best management practices (BMPs) at the small watershed (HUC12 or finer) scale. Based on analysis of historical monitoring data using boosted regression tre...

329

Structure of dried cellular alginate matrix containing fillers provides extra protection for microorganisms against UVC radiation.  

PubMed

Soil microorganisms in general and biocontrol agents in particular are very sensitive to UV light. The packaging of biocontrol microorganisms into cellular solids has been developed as a means of reducing loss caused by exposure to environmental UV radiation. The bacterial and fungal biocontrol agents Pantoea agglomerans and Trichoderma harzianum were immobilized in freeze-dried alginate beads containing fillers and subjected to 254 nm UV radiation (UVC). Immobilization of cells in freeze-dried alginate-glycerol beads resulted in greater survival after UV irradiation than for a free cell suspension. Adding chitin, bentonite or kaolin as fillers to the alginate-glycerol formulation significantly increased bacterial survival. Immobilization in alginate-glycerol-kaolin beads resulted in the highest levels of survival. The transmissive properties of the dried hydrocolloid cellular solid had a major influence on the amount of protection by the cell carrier. Dried alginate matrix (control) transmitted an average of 7.2% of the radiation. Filler incorporation into the matrix significantly reduced UV transmission: Alginate with kaolin, bentonite and chitin transmitted an average of 0.15, 0.38 and 3.4% of the radiation, respectively. In addition, the filler inclusion had a considerable effect on the bead's average wall thickness, resulting in a approximately 1.5- to threefold increase relative to beads based solely on alginate. These results suggest that the degree of protection of entrapped microorganisms against UVC radiation is determined by the UV-transmission properties of the dried matrix and the cellular solid's structure. It is concluded that for maximum protection against UV-radiation-induced cell loss, biocontrol microorganisms should be immobilized in alginate-glycerol beads containing kaolin. PMID:12859230

Zohar-Perez, C; Chernin, L; Chet, I; Nussinovitch, A

2003-08-01

330

Current status of the application of ionizing radiation to environmental protection: I. Ionizing radiation sources, natural and drinking water purification (A Review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present-day applications of ionizing radiation to environmental protection are surveyed. This part of the review summarizes\\u000a new data on the ionizing radiation sources used in this area, on the radiation-chemical purification of polluted natural and\\u000a drinking water, and on the mechanisms of processes occurring in these systems under exposure to ionizing radiation. A particular\\u000a emphasis is placed on large-scale processes.

A. K. Pikaev

2000-01-01

331

Extract of Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) protects against gamma-radiation induced testicular damage in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation is an important environmental risk factor and, a major therapeutic agent for cancer treatment. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of extract of Xylopia aethiopica (XA) on gamma-radiation-induced testicular damage in rats. Vitamin C (VC) served as the reference antioxidant during the study. The study consists of 4 groups of 11 rats each. Group I received corn oil (vehicle), groups II and IV were pretreated with XA (250 mg/kg) and VC (250mg/kg) for 6 weeks before and 8 weeks after exposure to gamma-radiation; group III was exposed to a single dose of gamma-radiation (5 Gy). Biochemical analysis revealed that gamma-irradiation caused a significant increase (p < .05) in serum and testicular lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels by 217% and 221%, respectively. Irradiated rats had markedly decreased testicular catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Irradiation resulted in 59% and 40% decreases in spermatozoa motility and live/dead sperm count, respectively, and a 161% increase in total sperm abnormalities. Histologically, testes of the irradiated rats showed extensive degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules and defoliation of spermatocytes. Supplementation of XA and VC reversed the adverse effects of gamma-radiation on biochemical and histological indices of the rats. These findings demonstrated that Xylopia aethiopica has a protective effect by inhibiting oxidative damage in testes of irradiated rats. PMID:21305847

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Adedara, Isaac Adegboyega; Popoola, Bosede; Farombi, Ebenezer Olatunde

2010-01-01

332

Radiation-protection survey guide: fixed radiographic unit. Final report, June 1980-April 1985  

SciTech Connect

Prior to routine use, all newly installed x-ray machines must have a radiation-protection survey by a qualified expert. The survey is an evaluation of existing or potential radiation hazards associated with the use of diagnostic x-ray equipment under specific conditions. Such evaluation includes the measurement of exposure levels in the environment as well as environmental levels arising from operation of the equipment. The survey also includes an evaluation of the safety characteristics of the x-ray unit.

Weed, R.L.; Jordan, D.

1985-05-01

333

Commentary: Ethical Issues of Current Health-Protection Policies on Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation  

PubMed Central

The linear no-threshold (LNT) model of ionizing-radiation-induced cancer is based on the assumption that every radiation dose increment constitutes increased cancer risk for humans. The risk is hypothesized to increase linearly as the total dose increases. While this model is the basis for radiation safety regulations, its scientific validity has been questioned and debated for many decades. The recent memorandum of the International Commission on Radiological Protection admits that the LNT-model predictions at low doses are “speculative, unproven, undetectable and ‘phantom’.” Moreover, numerous experimental, ecological, and epidemiological studies show that low doses of sparsely-ionizing or sparsely-ionizing plus highly-ionizing radiation may be beneficial to human health (hormesis/adaptive response). The present LNT-model-based regulations impose excessive costs on the society. For example, the median-cost medical program is 5000 times more cost-efficient in saving lives than controlling radiation emissions. There are also lives lost: e.g., following Fukushima accident, more than 1000 disaster-related yet non-radiogenic premature deaths were officially registered among the population evacuated due to radiation concerns. Additional negative impacts of LNT-model-inspired radiophobia include: refusal of some patients to undergo potentially life-saving medical imaging; discouragement of the study of low-dose radiation therapies; motivation for radiological terrorism and promotion of nuclear proliferation.

Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Doss, Mohan; Feinendegen, Ludwig E.; Janiak, Marek K.; Miller, Mark L.; Sanders, Charles L.; Scott, Bobby R.; Ulsh, Brant; Vaiserman, Alexander

2014-01-01

334

Commentary: ethical issues of current health-protection policies on low-dose ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

The linear no-threshold (LNT) model of ionizing-radiation-induced cancer is based on the assumption that every radiation dose increment constitutes increased cancer risk for humans. The risk is hypothesized to increase linearly as the total dose increases. While this model is the basis for radiation safety regulations, its scientific validity has been questioned and debated for many decades. The recent memorandum of the International Commission on Radiological Protection admits that the LNT-model predictions at low doses are "speculative, unproven, undetectable and 'phantom'." Moreover, numerous experimental, ecological, and epidemiological studies show that low doses of sparsely-ionizing or sparsely-ionizing plus highly-ionizing radiation may be beneficial to human health (hormesis/adaptive response). The present LNT-model-based regulations impose excessive costs on the society. For example, the median-cost medical program is 5000 times more cost-efficient in saving lives than controlling radiation emissions. There are also lives lost: e.g., following Fukushima accident, more than 1000 disaster-related yet non-radiogenic premature deaths were officially registered among the population evacuated due to radiation concerns. Additional negative impacts of LNT-model-inspired radiophobia include: refusal of some patients to undergo potentially life-saving medical imaging; discouragement of the study of low-dose radiation therapies; motivation for radiological terrorism and promotion of nuclear proliferation. PMID:24910586

Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzy?ski, Ludwik; Doss, Mohan; Feinendegen, Ludwig E; Janiak, Marek K; Miller, Mark L; Sanders, Charles L; Scott, Bobby R; Ulsh, Brant; Vaiserman, Alexander

2014-05-01

335

Fourth conference on radiation protection and dosimetry: Proceedings, program, and abstracts  

SciTech Connect

This Conference is the fourth in a series of conferences organized by staff members of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to improve communication in the field of radiation protection and dosimetry. Scientists, regulators, managers, professionals, technologists, and vendors from the United States and countries around the world have taken advantage of this opportunity to meet with their contemporaries and peers in order to exchange information and ideas. The program includes over 100 papers in 9 sessions, plus an additional session for works in progress. Papers are presented in external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, radiation protection programs and assessments, developments in instrumentation and materials, environmental and medical applications, and on topics related to standards, accreditation, and calibration. Individual papers are indexed separately on EDB.

Casson, W.H.; Thein, C.M.; Bogard, J.S. [eds.] [eds.

1994-10-01

336

Radiation  

NASA Video Gallery

Outside the protective cocoon of Earth's atmosphere, the universe is full of harmful radiation. Astronauts who live and work in space are exposed not only to ultraviolet rays but also to space radi...

337

Additional guidance on protecting on-site personnel from the excessive risks of a radiation accident.  

PubMed

Advice was published in 2005 (NRPB 2005 Doc. NRPB 16 1-29) to provide a framework for the protection of on-site personnel who are not involved in mitigating actions in the event of a radiation accident. Such persons could include employees of the site operator, contractors and visitors. Following on from this advice, the HPA has developed additional on-site protection guidance (Watson et al 2007 Report to HSE) (the guidance produced by Watson et al (2007) was written as a commercial contract report for the Health and Safety Executive. Parties who have relevant interest in this guidance, or who wish to comment on it, can request a copy from the HPA). The issues discussed are protection of the unborn child, measures to protect against serious deterministic injury and high individual risk of stochastic effects, implications of off-site and public exposure considerations, and development of on-site neighbouring areas. In each case particular thought is required to ensure that protective measures are efficient and do not lead to any discontinuities in the level of protection offered. Although not formal HPA advice, the new guidance is intended to aid discussions between operators and regulators. PMID:20530862

Watson, Samantha; Higgins, Neil

2010-06-01

338

USEPA ORD Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation describes research that is being conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) Research Program, which will help U.S. water infrastructure to be more effectively and sustainably managed. The AWI research program see...

339

On the potential impact of the newly proposed quality factors on space radiation protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recently proposed changes in the defined quality factor hold great potential for easing some of the protection requirements from electrons and protons in the near-Earth environment. At the same time, the high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) components play an even more important role which must be further evaluated. Several recommendations are made which need to be addressed before these new quality factors can be implemented into space radiation potection practice.

Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

1987-01-01

340

Sunscreens: topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against harmful effects of solar radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review deals with topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against the harmful effects of solar radiation. Two concerns about the deleterious effects of sun exposure involve: (1) acute effects (e.g., sunburn and drug-induced phototoxicity) and (2) potential long-term risks of repeated sun exposures leading to development of solar elastosis, keratoses, induction of both nonmelanoma and melanoma

M PATHAK

1982-01-01

341

Organisational and radiation protection concepts of the University of Munich hot-lab facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preparation of radioactive targets requires extensive precautions to protect laboratory staff as well as the environment from radiation damage and contamination. In the new hot-lab facility of the University of Munich, which is currently under construction, the technical equipment for target production will be integrated in a health physics system which meets these conditions in a very satisfactory way. Some details of the layout and the organisation of the laboratory will be given.

Grossmann, R.; Maier, H. J.

1993-09-01

342

Melanin-Covered Nanoparticles for Protection of Bone Marrow During Radiation Therapy of Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Protection of bone marrow against radiotoxicity during radioimmunotherapy and in some cases external beam radiation therapy such as hemi-body irradiation would permit administration of significantly higher doses to tumors, resulting in increased efficacy and safety of treatment. Melanin, a naturally occurring pigment, possesses radioprotective properties. We hypothesized that melanin, which is insoluble, could be delivered to the bone marrow by intravenously administrated melanin-covered nanoparticles (MNs) because of the human body's 'self-sieving' ability, protecting it against ionizing radiation. Methods and Materials: The synthesis of MNs was performed via enzymatic polymerization of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and/or 5-S-cysteinyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine on the surface of 20-nm plain silica nanoparticles. The biodistribution of radiolabeled MNs in mice was done at 3 and 24 h. Healthy CD-1 mice (Charles River Laboratories International, Inc., Wilmington, MA) or melanoma tumor-bearing nude mice were given MNs intravenously, 50 mg/kg of body weight, 3 h before either whole-body exposure to 125 cGy or treatment with 1 mCi of {sup 188}Re-labeled 6D2 melanin-binding antibody. Results: Polymerization of melanin precursors on the surface of silica nanoparticles resulted in formation of a 15-nm-thick melanin layer as confirmed by light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence. The biodistribution after intravenous administration showed than MN uptake in bone marrow was 0.3% and 0.2% of injected dose per gram at 3 and 24 h, respectively, whereas pre-injection with pluronic acid increased the uptake to 6% and 3% of injected dose per gram, respectively. Systemic MN administration reduced hematologic toxicity in mice treated with external radiation or radioimmunotherapy, whereas no tumor protection by MNs was observed. Conclusions: MNs or similar structures provide a novel approach to protection of bone marrow from ionizing radiation based on prevention of free radical formation by melanin.

Schweitzer, Andrew D. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Howard Hughes Medical Institute-Medical Fellows Program, Chevy Chase, MD (United States); The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Revskaya, Ekaterina; Chu, Peter [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Pazo, Valeria [Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Friedman, Matthew [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Nosanchuk, Joshua D. [Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Cahill, Sean [Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Frases, Susana [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Casadevall, Arturo [Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Dadachova, Ekaterina, E-mail: edadacho@aecom.yu.ed [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)

2010-12-01

343

Radiation protection for pregnant workers and their offspring: a recommended approach for monitoring.  

PubMed

Radiation protection of pregnant workers and their offspring is an issue that has been referenced in the literature by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other international institutions. Several documents of the ICRP address the issue of the protection of the pregnant workers. The new ICRP recommendations refer to the control of working conditions of a pregnant worker, after declaration of pregnancy, such that it is unlikely that the additional dose to the fetus will exceed about 1 mSv during the remainder of pregnancy. The IAEA Basic Safety Standards present similar recommendations. The IAEA is preparing a technical document that provides guidance on these issues. PMID:21097485

Cruz-Suarez, Rodolfo; Nosske, Dietmar; Souza-Santos, Denison

2011-03-01

344

Coenzyme Q10 protects retinal cells from apoptosis induced by radiation in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

The key pathogenetic event of many retinopathies is apoptosis of retinal cells. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) prevents apoptosis of corneal keratocytes both in vitro and in vivo, by virtue of its ability to inhibit mitochondrial depolarization, independently of its free radical scavenger role. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether CoQ10 can protect cultured retinal cells and the retinas of rats from radiation-induced apoptosis, if instilled as eye drops in the cornea. In vitro experiments were carried out on cultured ARPE-19 or RGC-5 cells pretreated with CoQ10 before eliciting apoptosis by UV- and ?-radiation, chemical hypoxia (Antimycin A) and serum starvation. Cell viability was evaluated by light microscopy and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis. Apoptotic events were scored by time-lapse videomicroscopy. Mitochondrial permeability transition was evaluated by JC-1. The anti-apoptotic effectiveness of CoQ10 in retina was also evaluated by an in situ end-labeling assay in Wistar albino rats treated with CoQ10 eye drops prior to UV irradiation of the eye. CoQ10 substantially increased cell viability and lowered retinal cell apoptosis in response both to UV- and ?-radiation and to chemical hypoxia or serum starvation by inhibiting mitochondrion depolarization. In the rat, CoQ10, even when applied as eye drops on the cornea, protected all retina layers from UVR-induced apoptosis. The ability of CoQ10 to protect retinal cells from radiation-induced apoptosis following its instillation on the cornea suggests the possibility for CoQ10 eye drops to become a future therapeutic countermeasure for radiation-induced retinal lesions. PMID:22843363

Lulli, Matteo; Witort, Ewa; Papucci, Laura; Torre, Eugenio; Schiavone, Nicola; Dal Monte, Massimo; Capaccioli, Sergio

2012-09-01

345

Tetracycline derivatives and ceftriaxone, a cephalosporin antibiotic, protect neurons against apoptosis induced by ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

DNA damage induced by low doses of ionizing radiation causes apoptosis, which is partially mediated via the generation of free radicals. Both free radicals and apoptosis are involved in the majority of brain diseases, including stroke, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Because previous studies have shown that tetracycline derivatives doxycycline and minocycline have anti-inflammatory effects and are protective against brain ischemia, we studied whether minocycline and doxycycline or ceftriaxone, a cephalosporin antibiotic with the potential to inhibit excitotoxicity, protect neurons against ionizing radiation in primary cortical cultures. A single dose of 1 Gy significantly increased lactate dehydrogenase release, induced DNA fragmentation in neurons and triggered microglial proliferation. Treatment with minocycline (20 nM), doxycycline (20 nM) and ceftriaxone (1 microM) significantly reduced irradiation-induced lactate dehydrogenase release and DNA fragmentation. The most efficient protection was achieved by minocycline treatment, which also inhibited the irradiation-induced increase in microglial cell number. Our results suggest that some tetracycline derivatives, such as doxycycline and minocycline, and ceftriaxone, a cephalosporin derivative, protect neurons against apoptotic death. PMID:11579149

Tikka, T; Usenius, T; Tenhunen, M; Keinänen, R; Koistinaho, J

2001-09-01

346

Critical Infrastructure: The National Asset Database.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Infrastructure Protection (OIP) in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has been developing and maintaining a National Asset Database. The Database contains information on over 77,000 individual assets, ranging from dams, hazardous mate...

J. Moteff

2007-01-01

347

Critical Infrastructure: The National Asset Database.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Infrastructure Protection (OIP) in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has been developing and maintaining a National Asset Database. The Database contains information on over 77,000 individual assets, ranging from dams, hazardous mate...

J. Moteff

2006-01-01

348

Fluence-based and microdosimetric event-based methods for radiation protection in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recently published a report (Report #137) that discusses various aspects of the concepts used in radiation protection and the difficulties in measuring the radiation environment in spacecraft for the estimation of radiation risk to space travelers. Two novel dosimetric methodologies, fluence-based and microdosimetric event-based methods, are discussed and evaluated, along with the more conventional quality factor/LET method. It was concluded that for the present, any reason to switch to a new methodology is not compelling. It is suggested that because of certain drawbacks in the presently-used conventional method, these alternative methodologies should be kept in mind. As new data become available and dosimetric techniques become more refined, the question should be revisited and that in the future, significant improvement might be realized. In addition, such concepts as equivalent dose and organ dose equivalent are discussed and various problems regarding the measurement/estimation of these quantities are presented.

Curtis, Stanley B.; Meinhold, C. B. (Principal Investigator)

2002-01-01

349

Recent international regulations: low dose-low rate radiation protection and the demise of reason.  

PubMed

The radiation protection measures suggested by the International Committee for Radiation Protection (ICRP), national regulating bodies and experts, have been becoming ever more strict despite the decrease of any information supporting the existence of the Linear no Threshold model (LNT) and of any adverse effects of Low Dose Low Rate (LDLR) irradiation. This tendency arises from the disproportionate response of human society to hazards that are currently in fashion and is unreasonable. The 1 mSv/year dose limit for the public suggested by the ICRP corresponds to a 1/18,181 detriment-adjusted cancer risk and is much lower than other hazards that are faced by modern societies such as e.g. driving and smoking which carry corresponding rate risks of 1/2,100 and 1/2,000. Even worldwide deadly work accidents rate is higher at 1/ 8,065. Such excessive safety measures against minimal risks from man made radiation sources divert resources from very real and much greater hazards. In addition they undermine research and development of radiation technology and tend to subjugate science and the quest for understanding nature to phobic practices. PMID:18815661

Okkalides, Demetrios

2008-01-01

350

Low-Dose Radiation and Genotoxic Chemicals Can Protect Against Stochastic Biological Effects  

PubMed Central

A protective apoptosis-mediated (PAM) process that is turned on in mammalian cells by low-dose photon (X and ?) radiation and appears to also be turned on by the genotoxic chemical ethylene oxide is discussed. Because of the PAM process, exposure to low-dose photon radiation (and possibly also some genotoxic chemicals) can lead to a reduction in the risk of stochastic effects such as problematic mutations, neoplastic transformation (an early step in cancer occurrence), and cancer. These findings indicate a need to revise the current low-dose risk assessment paradigm for which risk of cancer is presumed to increase linearly with dose (without a threshold) after exposure to any amount of a genotoxic agent such as ionizing radiation. These findings support a view seldom mentioned in the past, that cancer risk can actually decrease, rather than increase, after exposure to low doses of photon radiation and possibly some other genotoxic agents. The PAM process (a form of natural protection) may contribute substantially to cancer prevention in humans and other mammals. However, new research is needed to improve our understanding of the process. The new research could unlock novel strategies for optimizing cancer prevention and novel protocols for low-dose therapy for cancer. With low-dose cancer therapy, normal tissue could be spared from severe damage while possibly eliminating the cancer.

Scott, Bobby R.; Walker, Dale M.; Walker, Vernon E.

2004-01-01

351

Sunscreens: topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against harmful effects of solar radiation  

SciTech Connect

This review deals with topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against the harmful effects of solar radiation. Two concerns about the deleterious effects of sun exposure involve: (1) acute effects (e.g., sunburn and drug-induced phototoxicity) and (2) potential long-term risks of repeated sun exposures leading to development of solar elastosis, keratoses, induction of both nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer, and alteration of immune responses and functions. Action spectra of normal and abnormal reactions of human skin to acute and chronic effects of solar radiation are presented with a view to helping the physician prescribe the appropriate sunscreens. Factors that influence acute effects of sunburn are reviewed. Various artificial methods effective in minimizing or preventing harmful effects of solar radiation, both in normal individuals and in patients with photosensitivity-related problems, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the commercially available chemical sunscreens and their properties. Sun protection factor (SPF) values of several brand-name formulations determined with a solar simulator under indoor conditions (laboratory) and with solar radiation under natural, field conditions are presented. Factors responsible for variations of SPF values observed under indoor and outdoor conditions are reviewed. Systemic photoprotective agents and their limitations are outlined. The photobiology of melanin pigmentation (the tanning reaction) is briefly discussed, with emphasis on the dangers of using quick-tanning lotions for stimulation of the tanning reaction.

Pathak, M.A.

1982-09-01

352

Quercetin liposomes protect against radiation-induced pulmonary injury in a murine model  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the hypothesis that quercetin liposomes are able to effectively protect against radiation-induced pulmonary injury in a murine model was tested. C57BL/6J mice receiving whole-thorax radiotherapy (16 Gy) were randomly divided into three groups: control, radiation therapy plus saline (RT+NS) and RT plus quercetin (RT+QU). At 1, 4, 8 and 24 weeks post-irradiation, lung injury was assessed by measuring oxidative damage and the extent of acute pneumonitis and late fibrosis. In the lung tissues from the RT+NS group, the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly elevated and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activities were significantly reduced; the total cell counts and inflammatory cell proportions in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 concentrations and the hydroxyproline (HP) content were significantly increased. Quercetin liposome administration significantly reduced the MDA content and increased SOD and GSH-PX activities in the lung tissues, and reduced the total cell counts and inflammatory cell proportions in the BALF, plasma TNF-? and TGF-?1 concentrations and the HP content in the lung tissues. A histological examination revealed suppression of the inflammatory response and reduced TGF-?1 expression and fibrosis scores. Radiation-induced oxidative damage ranged from pneumonitis to lung fibrosis. Quercetin liposomes were shown to protect against radiation-induced acute pneumonitis and late fibrosis, potentially by reducing oxidative damage.

LIU, HAO; XUE, JIAN-XING; LI, XING; AO, RUI; LU, YOU

2013-01-01

353

Inactivation of Kupffer Cells by Gadolinium Chloride Protects Murine Liver From Radiation-Induced Apoptosis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether the inhibition of Kupffer cells before radiotherapy (RT) would protect hepatocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis. Materials and Methods: A single 30-Gy fraction was administered to the upper abdomen of Sprague-Dawley rats. The Kupffer cell inhibitor gadolinium chloride (GdCl3; 10 mg/kg body weight) was intravenously injected 24 h before RT. The rats were divided into four groups: group 1, sham RT plus saline (control group); group 2, sham RT plus GdCl3; group 3, RT plus saline; and group 4, RT plus GdCl3. Liver tissue was collected for measurement of apoptotic cytokine expression and evaluation of radiation-induced liver toxicity by analysis of liver enzyme activities, hepatocyte micronucleus formation, apoptosis, and histologic staining. Results: The expression of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was significantly attenuated in group 4 compared with group 3 at 2, 6, 24, and 48 h after injection (p <0.05). At early points after RT, the rats in group 4 exhibited significantly lower levels of liver enzyme activity, apoptotic response, and hepatocyte micronucleus formation compared with those in group 3. Conclusion: Selective inactivation of Kupffer cells with GdCl3 reduced radiation-induced cytokine production and protected the liver against acute radiation-induced damage.

Du Shisuo; Qiang Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zeng Zhaochong, E-mail: zeng.zhaochong@zs-hospital.sh.c [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ke Aiwu; Ji Yuan [Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhang Zhengyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zeng Haiying [Department of Pathology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Liu Zhongshan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

2010-03-15

354

National committee on radiation protection, 1928-1960: from professional guidelines to government regulation  

SciTech Connect

The National Committee on Radiation Protection is a private, self-perpetuating body of radiation experts founded in 1928 which, except during World War II, has established the basic guidelines for radiation safety in the United States. This dissertation examines three themes in its history from 1928 to 1960. On an intellectual level, how do scientists make judgments when called upon to perform a legal function, instead of conduct research. On an institutional level, how does a scientific committee develop when it serves a medical, industrial, and legal constituency larger than the research community of the scientist themselves. On a political level, how has the development of atomic energy influenced both the intellectual content of the radiation safety standards and the institutional form of the NCRP. Institutional and political concerns were found to play a significant role in the NCRP's intellectual work from 1928 to 1960. The time span can be divided into three periods, revealing a growing politicization of radiation safety: professional self-regulation (1928-1941), government advisory committee (1946-1954), and public controversy and increasing legislation (1954-1960). In 1959, political controversy led to the establishment of the Federal Radiation Council, a government agency which was to replace the NCRP.

Whittemore, G.F.

1986-01-01

355

System Dynamics Approach for Critical Infrastructure and Decision Support. A Model for a Potable Water System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Critical Infrastructure Protection \\/ Decision Support System (CIP\\/DSS) project, supported by the Science and Technology Office, has been developing a risk-informed Decision Support System that provides insights for making critical infrastructure protection decisions. The system considers seventeen different Department of Homeland Security defined Critical Infrastructures (potable water system, telecommunications, public health, economics, etc.) and their primary interdependencies. These infrastructures

D. Pasqualini; M. Witkowski

2005-01-01

356

Combined radiation-protective and radiation-sensitizing agents. IV. Measurement of intracellular protector concentrations  

SciTech Connect

Radiosensitization of hypoxic V79 Chinese hamster cells by 0.5 mM misonidazole at approximately 0-4 degrees C is substantially enhanced by pretreating the cells overnight with 0.1 mM buthionine sulfoximine, which lowers the cellular glutathione content to 5% of control values (from 4 mM to approximately 0.2 mM). The enhanced sensitization is reversed by concentrations of exogenous cysteine that are much lower (0.02 mM) than the original glutathione content. Reduced Co-enzyme A affords reversal of the enhancing effect at concentrations of about 1 mM. Sodium ascorbate gives no protection at all even at concentrations of 2 mM. The intracellular concentration of the reducing agents was measured using a spin-through oil technique. There was no diffusion of Co-A (MW greater than 750) or ascorbate (excluded by charge) into the cells. In contrast, cysteine was rapidly concentrated by factors of 4-10, even at the low temperatures used. Extracellular ascorbate's inability to radioprotect argues against electron transfer across the cell membrane as a mechanism for radioprotection. This mechanism could have explained the ability of exogenous thiols to radioprotect in former studies using glutathione, and in the present studies using Co-A. The potential of cysteine to be concentrated by cells poses a problem in the interpretation of exogenous protection by non-diffusing thiols, since trace contamination by cysteine could lead to the actual protection observed. Cysteine could also be formed by exchange reactions of exogenous thiols with the disulfide of cysteine, present in all media formulations.

Koch, C.J.; Stobbe, C.C.; Hettiaratchi, P.

1989-04-01

357

Radiation risk and protection of patients in clinical SPECT/CT.  

PubMed

Clinical studies have demonstrated that hybrid single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT for various diagnostic issues has an added value as compared to SPECT alone. However, the combined acquisition of functional and anatomical images can substantially increase radiation exposure to patients, in particular when using a hybrid system with diagnostic CT capabilities. It is, therefore, essential to carefully balance the diagnostic needs and radiation protection requirements. To this end, the evidence on health effects induced by ionizing radiation is outlined. In addition, the essential concepts for estimating radiation doses and lifetime attributable cancer risks associated with SPECT/CT examinations are presented taking into account both the new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) as well as the most recent radiation risk models. Representative values of effective dose and lifetime attributable risk are reported for ten frequently used SPECT radiopharmaceuticals and five fully diagnostic partial-body CT examinations. A diagnostic CT scan acquired as part of a combined SPECT/CT examination contributes considerably to, and for some applications even dominates, the total patient exposure. For the common SPECT and CT examinations considered in this study, the lifetime attributable risk of developing a radiation-related cancer is less than 0.27 %/0.37 % for men/women older than 16 years, respectively, and decreases markedly with increasing age at exposure. Since there is no clinical indication for a SPECT/CT examination unless an emission scan has been indicated, the issue on justification comes down to the question of whether it is necessary to additionally acquire a low-dose CT for attenuation correction and anatomical localization of tracer uptake or even a fully diagnostic CT. In any case, SPECT/CT studies have to be optimized, e.g. by adapting dose reduction measures from state-of-the-art CT practice, and exposure levels should not exceed the national diagnostic reference levels for standard situations. PMID:24052089

Brix, Gunnar; Nekolla, Elke A; Borowski, Markus; Noßke, Dietmar

2014-05-01

358

[Personnel requirements of medical radiation physics in radiotherapy in comparison to the current guidelines "radiation protection in medicine" : Special consideration of intensity-modulated radiation therapy].  

PubMed

In 1994 and 1998 reports on staffing levels in medical radiation physics for radiation therapy were published by the "Deutsche Gesellschaft für Medizinische Physik" (DGMP, German Society for Medical Physics). Because of the technical and methodological progress, changes in recommended qualifications of staff and new governmental regulations, it was necessary to establish new staffing levels. The data were derived from a new survey in clinics. Some of the previously established results from the old reports were adapted to the new conditions by conversion.The staffing requirements were normalized to main components as in the earlier reports resulting in a simple method for calculation of staffing levels. The results were compared with the requirements in the "Richtlinie Strahlenschutz in der Medizin" (guidelines on radiation protection in medicine) and showed satisfactory agreement. PMID:24805160

Leetz, H-K; Eipper, H H; Gfirtner, H; Schneider, P; Welker, K

2014-08-01

359

Radiation Engineering Analysis of Shielding Materials to Assess Their Ability to Protect Astronauts in Deep Space From Energetic Particle Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis is performed on four typical materials (aluminum, liquid hydrogen, polyethylene, and water) to assess their impact on the length of time an astronaut can stay in deep space and not exceed a design basis radiation exposure of 150 mSv. A large number of heavy lift launches of pure shielding mass are needed to enable long duration, deep space missions to keep astronauts at or below the exposure value with shielding provided by the vehicle. Therefore, vehicle mass using the assumptions in the paper cannot be the sole shielding mechanism for long duration, deep space missions. As an example, to enable the Mars Design Reference Mission 5.0 with a 400 day transit to and from Mars, not including the 500 day stay on the surface, a minimum of 24 heavy lift launches of polyethylene at 89,375 lbm (40.54 tonnes) each are needed for the 1977 galactic cosmic ray environment. With the assumptions used in this paper, a single heavy lift launch of water or polyethylene can protect astronauts for a 130 day mission before exceeding the exposure value. Liquid hydrogen can only protect the astronauts for 160 days. Even a single launch of pure shielding material cannot protect an astronaut in deep space for more than 180 days using the assumptions adopted in the analysis. It is shown that liquid hydrogen is not the best shielding material for the same mass as polyethylene for missions that last longer than 225 days.

Singleterry, R. C.

2013-01-01

360

Radiation engineering analysis of shielding materials to assess their ability to protect astronauts in deep space from energetic particle radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis is performed on four typical materials (aluminum, liquid hydrogen, polyethylene, and water) to assess their impact on the length of time an astronaut can stay in deep space and not exceed a design basis radiation exposure of 150 mSv. A large number of heavy lift launches of pure shielding mass are needed to enable long duration, deep space missions to keep astronauts at or below the exposure value with shielding provided by the vehicle. Therefore, vehicle mass using the assumptions in the paper cannot be the sole shielding mechanism for long duration, deep space missions. As an example, to enable the Mars Design Reference Mission 5.0 with a 400 day transit to and from Mars, not including the 500 day stay on the surface, a minimum of 24 heavy lift launches of polyethylene at 89,375 lbm (40.54 tonnes) each are needed for the 1977 galactic cosmic ray environment. With the assumptions used in this paper, a single heavy lift launch of water or polyethylene can protect astronauts for a 130 day mission before exceeding the exposure value. Liquid hydrogen can only protect the astronauts for 160 days. Even a single launch of pure shielding material cannot protect an astronaut in deep space for more than 180 days using the assumptions adopted in the analysis. It is shown that liquid hydrogen is not the best shielding material for the same mass as polyethylene for missions that last longer than 225 days.

Singleterry, R. C.

2013-10-01

361

Arbeitsbericht 1985 der Abteilung Sicherheit und Strahlenschutz. (Operations report 1985 of the Department of Safety and Radiation Protection).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under the heading 'Licensing' the report deals with licensing procedures and the handling of nuclear-fuels and radioactive materials. Operational radiation protection is concerned with operational and personnel monitoring, mathematical methods and safety ...

R. Hille K. L. Frenkler

1986-01-01

362

Protection Military Personnel and the Public from the Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation from Military Communications and Radar Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study has as its objective the improvement of the protection provided by the military services to military personnel and members of the general public from the hazards of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of military communications and radar systems. T...

S. A. Oliva

1979-01-01

363

Radiation Dose Assessments of Solar Particle Events with Spectral Representation at High Energies for the Improvement of Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For radiation dose assessments of major solar particle events (SPEs), spectral functional forms of SPEs have been made by fitting available satellite measurements up to approx.100 MeV. However, very high-energy protons (above 500 MeV) have been observed with neutron monitors (NMs) in ground level enhancements (GLEs), which generally present the most severe radiation hazards to astronauts. Due to technical difficulties in converting NM data into absolutely normalized fluence measurements, those functional forms were made with little or no use of NM data. A new analysis of NM data has found that a double power law in rigidity (the so-called Band function) generally provides a satisfactory representation of the combined satellite and NM data from approx.10 MeV to approx.10 GeV in major SPEs (Tylka & Dietrich 2009). We use the Band function fits to re-assess human exposures from large SPEs. Using different spectral representations of large SPEs, variations of exposure levels were compared. The results can be applied to the development of approaches of improved radiation protection for astronauts, as well as the optimization of mission planning and shielding for future space missions.

Kim, Myung-Hee; Atwell, William; Tylka, Allan J.; Dietrich, William F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2010-01-01

364

The argument for a unified approach to non-ionizing radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

In the next decade military equipment will be required to operate in severe electromagnetic environments. These environments are expected to contain most non-ionizing frequencies (D.C. to GHz), from hostile and/or non-hostile sources, and be severe enough to cause temporary upset or even catastrophic failure of electronic equipment. Over the past thirty years considerable emphasis has been placed on hardening critical systems to one or more of these non-ionizing radiation environments, the most prevalent being the nuclear-induced electromagnetic pulse (EMD). From this technology development there has evolved a hardening philosophy that applies to most of these non-ionizing radiation environments. The philosophy, which stresses the application of zonal shields plus penetration protection, can provide low-cost hardening against such diverse non-ionizing radiation as p-static, lightning, electromagnetic interference (EMI), EMP, high intensity radiated fields (HIRF), electromagnetic radiation (EMR), and high power microwaves (HPM). The objective in this paper is to describe the application of this philosophy to Army helicopters. The authors develop a unified specification complete with threat definitions and test methods which illustrates integration of EMP, lightning, and HIRF at the box qualification level. This paper is a summary of the effort documented in a cited reference.

Perala, R.A.; Rigden, G.J. (Electro Magnetic Applications, Inc., Lakewood, CO (United States)); Pfeffer, R.A. (Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency, Springfield, VA (United States))

1993-12-01

365

A Hypothesis on Biological Protection from Space Radiation Through the Use of New Therapeutic Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation exposure to astronauts could be a significant obstacle for long duration manned space exploration because of current uncertainties regarding the extent of biological effects. Furthermore, concepts for protective shielding also pose a technically challenging issue due to the nature of cosmic radiation and current mass and power constraints with modern exploration technology. The concern regarding exposure to cosmic radiation is the biological damage it induces. As damage is associated with increased oxidative stress, it is important and would be enabling to mitigate and/or prevent oxidative stress prior to the development of clinical symptoms and disease. This paper hypothesizes a "systems biology" approach in which a combination of chemical and biological mitigation techniques are used conjunctively. It proposes using new, therapeutic, medical gases as both chemical radioprotectors for radical scavenging and biological signaling molecules for management of the body s response to exposure. From reviewing radiochemistry of water, biological effects of CO, H2, NO, and H2S gas, and mechanisms of radiation biology, it is concluded that this approach may have great therapeutic potential for radiation exposure. Furthermore, it also appears to have similar potential for curtailing the pathogenesis of other diseases in which oxidative stress has been implicated including, cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic inflammatory disease, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, parkinson s and alzheimer s disease, cataracts, and aging

Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Ansari,Rafat R.; Nakao, Atsunori; Wink, David

2011-01-01

366

A Hypothesis on Biological Protection from Space Radiation Through the Use of New Therapeutic Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation exposure to astronauts could be a significant obstacle for long duration manned space exploration because of current uncertainties regarding the extent of biological effects. Furthermore, concepts for protective shielding also pose a technically challenging issue due to the nature of cosmic radiation and current mass and power constraints with modern exploration technology. The concern regarding exposure to cosmic radiation is the biological damage it induces. As damage is associated with increased oxidative stress, it is important and would be enabling to mitigate and/or prevent oxidative stress prior to the development of clinical symptoms and disease. This paper hypothesizes a "systems biology" approach in which a combination of chemical and biological mitigation techniques are used conjunctively. It proposes using new, therapeutic, medical gases as both chemical radioprotectors for radical scavenging and biological signaling molecules for management of the body s response to exposure. From reviewing radiochemistry of water, biological effects of CO, H2, NO, and H2S gas, and mechanisms of radiation biology, it is concluded that this approach may have great therapeutic potential for radiation exposure. Furthermore, it also appears to have similar potential for curtailing the pathogenesis of other diseases in which oxidative stress has been implicated including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic inflammatory disease, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, Parkinson s and Alzheimer s disease, cataracts, and aging.

Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Ansari, Rafat R.; Nakao, Atsunori; Wink, David

2011-01-01

367

Phenol-Oxidizing Peroxidases Contribute to the Protection of Plants from Ultraviolet Radiation Stress1  

PubMed Central

We have studied the mechanism of UV protection in two duckweed species (Lemnaceae) by exploiting the UV sensitivity of photosystem II as an in situ sensor for radiation stress. A UV-tolerant Spirodela punctata G.F.W. Meyer ecotype had significantly higher indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels than a UV-sensitive ecotype. Parallel work on Lemna gibba mutants suggested that UV tolerance is linked to IAA degradation rather than to levels of free or conjugated IAA. This linkage is consistent with a role for class III phenolic peroxidases, which have been implicated both in the degradation of IAA and the cross-linking of various UV-absorbing phenolics. Biochemical analysis revealed increased activity of a specific peroxidase isozyme in both UV-tolerant duckweed lines. The hypothesis that peroxidases play a role in UV protection was tested in a direct manner using genetically modified tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris). It was found that increased activity of the anionic peroxidase correlated with increased tolerance to UV radiation as well as decreased levels of free auxin. We conclude that phenol-oxidizing peroxidases concurrently contribute to UV protection as well as the control of leaf and plant architecture.

Jansen, Marcel A.K.; van den Noort, Ria E.; Tan, M.Y. Adillah; Prinsen, Els; Lagrimini, L. Mark; Thorneley, Roger N.F.

2001-01-01

368

Phenol-oxidizing peroxidases contribute to the protection of plants from ultraviolet radiation stress.  

PubMed

We have studied the mechanism of UV protection in two duckweed species (Lemnaceae) by exploiting the UV sensitivity of photosystem II as an in situ sensor for radiation stress. A UV-tolerant Spirodela punctata G.F.W. Meyer ecotype had significantly higher indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels than a UV-sensitive ecotype. Parallel work on Lemna gibba mutants suggested that UV tolerance is linked to IAA degradation rather than to levels of free or conjugated IAA. This linkage is consistent with a role for class III phenolic peroxidases, which have been implicated both in the degradation of IAA and the cross-linking of various UV-absorbing phenolics. Biochemical analysis revealed increased activity of a specific peroxidase isozyme in both UV-tolerant duckweed lines. The hypothesis that peroxidases play a role in UV protection was tested in a direct manner using genetically modified tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris). It was found that increased activity of the anionic peroxidase correlated with increased tolerance to UV radiation as well as decreased levels of free auxin. We conclude that phenol-oxidizing peroxidases concurrently contribute to UV protection as well as the control of leaf and plant architecture. PMID:11457952

Jansen, M A; van den Noort, R E; Tan, M Y; Prinsen, E; Lagrimini, L M; Thorneley, R N

2001-07-01

369

A compendium of major US radiation protection standards and guides: Legal and technical facts  

SciTech Connect

Following discussion of the general issue, the CIRRPC Executive Committee approved, with concurrence of the full Committee, an Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) staff proposal to develop a compendium of Fact Sheets on the major US radiation protection standards and guides, existing or proposed. The compendium contains relevant legal or statutory information and detailed technical requirements that state and describe the protection to be achieved. The report provides appropriate legislative citations; notes any legislative language that gave direction to the development of standards promulgated under the legislation; cites rationales for the standards promulgated; and provides a listing of related standards. Two consultants with considerable experience in radiation protection regulations were contracted to assist the ORAU staff in developing the report. This report has been reviewed twice by the CIRRPC member agencies; once to ensure the accuracy of all the legal and technical facts in the compendium, and once to comment on the entire document, including the accompanying text. This final report reflects consideration of all the agencies' comments received during the reviews. Part I of this report presents information on the selection, preparation and content of the Fact Sheets; an overview of their scopes, applications and modes of control; and the ORAU conclusions and recommendations. Part II contains the Fact Sheets and a User's Guide to finding relevant information in the Fact Sheets.

Mills, W.A.; Flack, D.S.; Arsenault, F.J.; Conti, E.F.

1988-07-01

370

Pharmacologic approaches to protection against radiation-induced lethality and other damage.  

PubMed Central

Studies on mechanisms of radioprotection are leading to a more rational use of protectors for different applications. In considering the feasibility of radioprotectors that act through various mechanisms, it is necessary to distinguish the application needed, e.g., protection against accidental external or internal exposures, acute high-dose radiation injury or low doses over a long period, high-LET radiation exposures during space flight, and protection of normal tissues of cancer patients who are undergoing therapy. Protectors generally are classified as either sulfhydryl compounds, other antioxidants, or receptor-mediated agents (e.g., bioactive lipids, cytokines, and growth factors). This review focuses on comparative radioprotection and toxicity studies in mice using the most effective phosphorothioate agents designated as WR-compounds and other classes of protectors. The superiority of phosphorothioates (WR-2721, WR-151327) as radioprotectors appears to be related to their high affinity for DNA and the similarity in structure of phosphorothioate metabolites to polyamines, and their effects on processes related to DNA structure and synthesis. Drug tolerance levels are available from clinical trials using WR-2721 (amifostine) and provide a basis for discussions of the disadvantages of phosphorothioate administration outside a clinical setting. In this regard, arguments are presented against the current use of WR-2721 by Department of Energy personnel for planned radiation exposures during emergencies. Future research may demonstrate, however, that pharmacologic agents could be useful in accident scenarios, especially when used in combination with therapeutic measures. Assessment of potential prophylactic measures should consider compatibility with therapeutic measures currently in use or ones that might be available in the future for the treatment of radiation injuries. These include antiemetics, purified stem cells, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and other cytokines. Their potential usefulness against radiation-induced mutagenesis of pre- and postexposure administration of phosphorothioates and other classes of protectors should be corroborated in humans.

Weiss, J F

1997-01-01

371

Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Island Resettlement Support (May-December 2001)  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former US test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. Using pooled resources of the US Department of Energy and local atoll governments, individual radiation protection programs have been developed in whole-body counting and plutonium urinalysis to assess potential intakes of radionuclides from residual fallout contamination. The whole-body counting systems are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians. Samples of urine are collected from resettlement workers and island residents under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using advanced accelerator based measurement technologies. This web site provides an overview of the methodologies, a full disclosure of the measurement data, and a yearly assessment of estimated radiation doses to resettlement workers and island residents.

Hamilton, T; Hickman, D; Conrado, C; Brown, T; Brunk, J; Marchetti, A; Cox, C; Martinelli, R; Kehl, S; Johannes, K; Henry, D; Bell, R T; Petersen, G

2002-06-01

372

Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Rongelap Island Resettlement Support (1998-2001)  

SciTech Connect

The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. Using pooled resources of the U.S. Department of Energy and local atoll governments, individual radiation protection programs have been developed in whole-body counting and plutonium urinalysis to assess potential intakes of radionuclides from residual fallout contamination. The whole-body counting systems are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians. Samples of urine are collected from resettlement workers and island residents under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LNLL) using advanced accelerator based measurement technologies. This web site provides an overview of the methodologies, a full disclosure of the measurement data, and a yearly assessment of estimated radiation doses to resettlement workers and island residents.

Hamilton, T; Hickman, D; Conrado, C; Brown, T; Brunk, J; Marchetti, A; Cox, C; Martinelli, R; Kehl, S; Arelong, E; Langinbelik, S; Bell, R T; Petersen, G

2002-05-01

373

Investigation of self-microemulsifying and microemulsion systems for protection of prednisolone from gamma radiation.  

PubMed

Radiation is efficient for terminal sterilization. Unfortunately, its use for liquid pharmaceuticals is difficult. This work investigated the potential radioprotective effect of self-microemulsifying (SMEDDS), microemulsions and their phase transition systems which were reported to enhance ocular drug delivery. Prednisolone solutions were prepared in SMEDDS, W/O microemulsions containing, 5% w/w (ME 5%) or 10% w/w (ME 10%) water, liquid crystalline system with 25% water (LC) and coarse emulsion containing 80% water (EM). These were subjected to gamma irradiation with aqueous solution and suspension being used as control. The physical properties of the formulations were monitored and the chemical potency of the drug was determined using a stability indicating HPLC method. The phase behavior of the formulations was not affected by irradiation but the viscosity of LC was significantly reduced. The SMEDDS, ME 5% and ME 10% showed excellent radiation protection as indicated by no change in the chemical potency. The LC retained 84% and the EM retained 39.8% of the chemical potency after exposure to 20 KGy. The aqueous solution was extensively degraded with the suspension retaining only 73.5% of the potency at 20 KGy. SMEDDS and W/O microemulsion can thus protect prednisolone from degradation by ionizing radiation. PMID:20148711

El Maghraby, Gamal M; Bosela, Ahmed A

2011-06-01

374

(NCRP comments on radiation protection related reports, proposed standards, and meetings)  

SciTech Connect

Two NCRP Reports, two Annual Meeting Proceedings and one Commentary have been published during this period. NCRP Report No. 105, Radiation Protection for Medical and Allied Health Personnel is a rewrite and update of NCRP Report No. 48, which had the same title and which it supersedes. The primary objective of the new report is to update the material to include new radiation sources used in medicine. NCRP Report No. 106, Limit for Exposure to Hot Particles'' on the Skin was prepared in response to a request from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report addresses the potential biological effect of microscopic radioactive particles on the skin and reviews the presently available information on the subject. Proceedings No. 10, Radon, is the proceedings of the 24th Annual Meeting of the NCRP. Proceedings No. 11, Radiation Protection Today---The NCRP at Sixty Years is the proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the NCRP. Commentary No. 5, Review of the Publication, Living Without Landfills, was recently released. Also included is a list of NCRP committee reports which were released in the current reporting period.

Not Available

1991-01-01

375

Relation of dose measurements to indexing protective devices for exposure to solar radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports preliminary results of using Polysulphone to study scattered solar UV radiation underneath a shade cloth. Passive dosimeters, (Polysulphone) instead of a single UV meter were used to measure UVR-exposure to a selected target area on a minikin. Results show that the UV-dosimeters can be used to investigate the efficacy of shade structures without alteration of the field of solar radiation. The UV-transmittance of the shade cloth was measured to be 0.14. The ratio of the shaded dose to the unshaded dose at ten selected sites of the minikin was found to vary from 0.16 to 0.86 for the shade structure in the present experiments. A dosimetric model was proposed to estimate the effective dose to the facial area based on the measurement in five zones of the face. The result yields an 'average' ratio of the shaded dose to the unshaded dose of 0.31 as compared with the transmittance 0.14. They correspond to the protective factor of the shade structure by more than 100%. The possibility of including the effect of scattered radiation in the index for classification of UV-protective devices will be discussed.

Wong, Cho-Fai; Fleming, R. A.; Thomas, B. W.

1994-07-01

376

The use of total detriment in radiation protection and its potential extension to other hazards  

SciTech Connect

Before publication of the 1977 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), radiation protection standards were based on dose limits to single organs. These dose limits were only loosely linked to the expected effects in the first two generations from gonadal doses and to the risk of fatal cancer from doses to specific organs. In 1977, the ICRP recommended the use of the ``effective dose equivalent (EDE),`` which is a method of summing the doses (weighted with relative risk coefficients) to all organs and tissues, and recommended an annual limit for EDE. Since the 1977 recommendations were published, a ``total risk`` or total detriment approach has been extended to include nonfatal cancers and genetic effects for all subsequent generations, i.e., the total health detriment from low doses of ionizing radiation. This paper discusses the development of this total health detriment from ionizing radiation exposures, and explores potential methods for using it with other hazards (such as exposures to other physical agents, hazardous chemicals, and fatal and nonfatal accidents) in calculating the total detriment to a worker.

Johnson, J.R.; Stansbury, P.S.; Selby, J.M.

1991-10-01

377

The use of total detriment in radiation protection and its potential extension to other hazards  

SciTech Connect

Before publication of the 1977 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), radiation protection standards were based on dose limits to single organs. These dose limits were only loosely linked to the expected effects in the first two generations from gonadal doses and to the risk of fatal cancer from doses to specific organs. In 1977, the ICRP recommended the use of the effective dose equivalent (EDE),'' which is a method of summing the doses (weighted with relative risk coefficients) to all organs and tissues, and recommended an annual limit for EDE. Since the 1977 recommendations were published, a total risk'' or total detriment approach has been extended to include nonfatal cancers and genetic effects for all subsequent generations, i.e., the total health detriment from low doses of ionizing radiation. This paper discusses the development of this total health detriment from ionizing radiation exposures, and explores potential methods for using it with other hazards (such as exposures to other physical agents, hazardous chemicals, and fatal and nonfatal accidents) in calculating the total detriment to a worker.

Johnson, J.R.; Stansbury, P.S.; Selby, J.M.

1991-10-01

378

Assessing the protective effect of vertically heterogeneous canopies against radiative frost: The case of quinoa on the Andean Altiplano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Night radiative frost is a highly limiting factor for agriculture in Andean highlands. Nevertheless, a diversity of crop species have been domesticated there, commonly showing high heterogeneity in plant growth at the field level. The possible protective effect of crop canopy heterogeneity against nocturnal radiative frost is examined using a dual approach, combining a field experiment and a simplified energy

T. Winkel; J. P. Lhomme; J. P. Nina Laura; C. Mamani Alcón; C. del Castillo; A. Rocheteau

2009-01-01

379

Protection from radiation-induced mitochondrial and genomic DNA damage by an extract of Hippophae rhamnoides.  

PubMed

Hippophae rhamnoides or seabuckthorn is used extensively in Indian and Tibetan traditional medicine for the treatment of circulatory disorders, ischemic heart disease, hepatic injury, and neoplasia. In the present study, we have evaluated the radioprotective potential of REC-1001, a fraction isolated from the berries of H. rhamnoides. Chemical analysis of the extract indicated that REC-1001 was approximately 68% by weight polyphenols, and contained kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and quercetin. The effect of REC-1001 on modulating radiation-induced DNA damage was determined in murine thymocytes by measuring nonspecific nuclear DNA damage at the whole genome level using the alkaline halo assay and by measuring sequence/gene-specific DNA damage both in nuclear DNA (beta-globin gene) and in mitochondrial DNA using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with 10 Gy resulted in a significant amount of DNA damage in the halo assay and reductions in the amplification of both the beta-globin gene and mitochondrial DNA. REC-1001 dose-dependently reduced the amount of damage detected in each assay, with the maximum protective effects observed at the highest REC-1001 dose evaluated (250 micro g/ml). Studies measuring the nicking of naked plasmid DNA further established the radioprotective effect of REC-1001. To elucidate possible mechanisms of action, the antioxidant properties and the free-radical scavenging activities of REC-1001 were evaluated. REC-1001 dose-dependently scavenged radiation-induced hydroxyl radicals, chemically-generated superoxide anions, stabilized DPPH radicals, and reduced Fe(3+) to Fe(2+). The results of the study indicate that the REC-1001 extract of H. rhamnoides protects mitochondrial and genomic DNA from radiation-induced damage. The polyphenols/flavonoids present in the extract might be responsible for the free radical scavenging and DNA protection afforded by REC-1001. PMID:16948057

Shukla, Sandeep Kumar; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Kumar, Indracanti Prem; Samanta, Namita; Afrin, Farhat; Gupta, Manju Lata; Sharma, Upendra Kumar; Sinha, Arun Kumar; Sharma, Yogendra Kumar; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

2006-12-01

380

The evolution of the international system of radiological protection: food for thought from the Nuclear Energy Agency Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health.  

PubMed

From its inception, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), which is part of the broader Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, has contributed to the development of international radiological protection norms and standards. This continues today, in the form of studies and workshops to assist radiological protection policy makers, regulators and practitioners to develop concepts and approaches to help the international system of radiological protection, as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), to evolve to better serve societal needs. The NEA's Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH), in providing this support, has collaborated closely with the ICRP and strongly supports the current ICRP recommendation development process. In particular, active dialogue with a broad range of stakeholders is contributing to the evolution of concepts towards consensus on new ICRP recommendations. The CRPPH, as a body of ICRP recommendation practitioners, feels that the public, workers and the environment are well protected by the current radiological protection system, but agrees that a new consolidation and clarification of ICRP recommendations would be of value. The intent of the CRPPH in collaborating with ICRP is to develop a system of radiological protection that is simplified, more coherent, firmly based upon science and more clearly presented than the current system. This paper summarises the more detailed views of the CRPPH on the evolution of the system of radiological protection. PMID:14582716

Lazo, Ted

2003-09-01

381

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project: a fertile ground for radiation protection and shielding challenges.  

PubMed

The Spallation Neutron Source facility presently under construction in the USA consists of a front end, a linac, an accumulator ring, a target station and a neutron instrument hall, producing pulsed neutron beams driven by a proton beam of 1 GeV energy and 1.4 MW power with a repetition rate of 60 Hz. The layout of the facility and the radiation protection and shielding concept of the facility is laid out in numerous examples in a walk from the proton beam generation to the neutron utilisation. PMID:16381678

Gallmeier, F X; Ferguson, P D; Popova, I I; Iverson, E B

2005-01-01

382

Patient radiation dose and protection from cone-beam computed tomography  

PubMed Central

After over one decade development, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been widely accepted for clinical application in almost every field of dentistry. Meanwhile, the radiation dose of CBCT to patient has also caused broad concern. According to the literature, the effective radiation doses of CBCTs in nowadays market fall into a considerably wide range that is from 19 µSv to 1073 µSv and closely related to the imaging detector, field of view, and voxel sizes used for scanning. To deeply understand the potential risk from CBCT, this report also reviewed the effective doses from literatures on intra-oral radiograph, panoramic radiograph, lateral and posteroanterior cephalometric radiograph, multi-slice CT, and so on. The protection effect of thyroid collar and leaded glasses were also reviewed.

2013-01-01

383

Use of optical properties of LiF in radiation protection dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical absorption spectra of LiF:Mg, Ti thermoluminescence (TL) materials have been determined and used in radiation absorbed dose measurements. Samples were irradiated with different gamma doses (0 - 1.022 Gy) with dose rate of 12.78 mGy/min and also for different X-ray beam qualities. It was found that there is no significant absorption edge, and the optical absorption increases with increasing gamma doses. Peak intensities of trapping levels showed a linear increase with increasing X-ray or gamma doses. The variation of the optical density with X-ray or gamma doses is energy independent. The TL readings were not affected when the samples were first measured optically. The linearity of the optical density-dose relationship is found to be useful in radiation protection dosimetry.

El-Sersy, A. R.; Khaled, N. E.

2004-07-01

384

Protective effect of genistein on radiation-induced intestinal injury in tumor bearing mice  

PubMed Central

Background Radiation therapy is the most widely used treatment for cancer, but it causes the side effect of mucositis due to intestinal damage. We examined the protective effect of genistein in tumor-bearing mice after abdominal irradiation by evaluation of apoptosis and intestinal morphological changes. Methods Mouse colon cancer CT26 cells were subcutaneously injected at the flank of BALB/c mice to generate tumors. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with abdominal radiation at 5 and 10 Gy, and with genistein at 200 mg/kg body weight per day for 1 d before radiation. The changes in intestinal histology were evaluated 12 h and 3.5 d after irradiation. To assess the effect of the combination treatment on the cancer growth, the tumor volume was determined at sacrifice before tumor overgrowth occurred. Results Genistein significantly decreased the number of apoptotic nuclei compared with that in the irradiation group 12 h after 5 Gy irradiation. Evaluation of histological changes showed that genistein ameliorated intestinal morphological changes such as decreased crypt survival, villus shortening, and increased length of the basal lamina 3.5 d after 10 Gy irradiation. Moreover, the genistein-treated group exhibited more Ki-67-positive proliferating cells in the jejunum than the irradiated control group, and crypt depths were greater in the genistein-treated group than in the irradiated control group. The mean weight of the CT26 tumors was reduced in the group treated with genistein and radiation compared with the control group. Conclusion Genistein had a protective effect on intestinal damage induced by irradiation and delayed tumor growth. These results suggest that genistein is a useful candidate for preventing radiotherapy-induced intestinal damage in cancer patients.

2013-01-01

385

Cancer risk above 1 Gy and the impact for space radiation protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of the epidemiological data on the Japanese A-bomb survivors, who were exposed to ?-rays and neutrons, provide most current information on the dose-response of radiation-induced cancer. Since the dose span of main interest is usually between 0 and 1 Gy, for radiation protection purposes, the analysis of the A-bomb survivors is often focused on this range. However, estimates of cancer risk for doses larger than 1 Gy are becoming more important for long-term manned space missions. Therefore in this work, emphasis is placed on doses larger than 1 Gy with respect to radiation-induced solid cancer and leukemia mortality. The present analysis of the A-bomb survivors data was extended by including two extra high-dose categories and applying organ-averaged dose instead of the colon-weighted dose. In addition, since there are some recent indications for a high neutron dose contribution, the data were fitted separately for three different values for the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the neutrons (10, 35 and 100) and a variable RBE as a function of dose. The data were fitted using a linear and a linear-exponential dose-response relationship using a dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) of both one and two. The work presented here implies that the use of organ-averaged dose, a dose-dependent neutron RBE and the bending-over of the dose-response relationship for radiation-induced cancer could result in a reduction of radiation risk by around 50% above 1 Gy. This could impact radiation risk estimates for space crews on long-term mission above 500 days who might be exposed to doses above 1 Gy. The consequence of using a DDREF of one instead of two increases cancer risk by about 40% and would therefore balance the risk decrease described above.

Schneider, Uwe; Walsh, Linda

2009-07-01

386

Studies on the protective effects of Boerhaavia diffusa L. against gamma radiation induced damage in mice.  

PubMed

The radioprotective effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa was studied using the in vivo mice model. The sublethally irradiated mice (600 rads, single dose) were treated intraperitoneally with 20 mg/kg of the extract. The animals were sacrificed at different time periods after the whole-body radiation. The most affected tissues--bone marrow and intestine--were considerably protected by the intraperitoneal administration of B. diffusa as estimated by bone marrow cellularity, maturing monocytes, and intestinal glutathione. Total white blood cell count was lowered drastically after radiation exposure (ninth day, 1500+/-500 cells/ mm(3)). When the animals were exposed to radiation and treated with B. diffusa, the total white blood cell count was lowered only to 4000+/-400 cells/mm(3) on the third day, and it reached an almost normal level (6250+/-470 cells/mm(3)) by the ninth day. The elevated level of serum and liver alkaline phosphatase after radiation exposure was reduced in the B. diffusa-treated group. The serum and liver glutamate pyruvate transferase, which were elevated after radiation exposure, were also reduced by treatment with B. diffusa compared to the control. The lipid peroxidation level also increased in the irradiated animals both in the liver and serum, but in B. diffusa-treated animals, there was a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation levels. The agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA isolated from bone marrow of mice exposed to gamma radiation showed heavy damage that was reduced by treatment with B. diffusa. These results are indicative of the radioprotective effect of the whole-plant extract of B. diffusa. PMID:18048886

Manu, K A; Leyon, P V; Kuttan, Girija

2007-12-01

387

Protective effect of an antithyroid compound against ?-radiation-induced damage in human colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

We have previously reported the radioprotective effect of propylthiouracil (PTU) on thyroid cells. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether tumor cells and normal cells demonstrate the same response to PTU. Human colon carcinoma cells were irradiated with ?-irradiation with or without PTU. We evaluated the clonogenic survival, intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and apoptosis by nuclear cell morphology and caspase-3 activity assays. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. PTU treatment increased surviving cell fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) from 56.9 ± 3.6 in controls to 75.0 ± 3.5 (p < 0.05) and diminished radiation-induced apoptosis. In addition, we observed that the level of antioxidant enzymes' activity was increased in cells treated with PTU. Moreover, pretreatment with PTU increased intracellular levels of cAMP. Forskolin (p < 0.01) and dibutyryl cAMP (p < 0.05) mimicked the effect of PTU on SF2. Co-treatment with H89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A, abolished the radioprotective effect of PTU. PTU reduces the toxicity of ionizing radiation by increasing cAMP levels and also possibly through a reduction in apoptosis levels and in radiation-induced oxidative stress damage. We therefore conclude that PTU protects both normal and cancer cells during exposure to radiation in conditions mimicking the radiotherapy. PMID:24811726

Perona, Marina; Dagrosa, Maria A; Pagotto, Romina; Casal, Mariana; Pignataro, Omar; Pisarev, Mario A; Juvenal, Guillermo J

2014-08-01

388

Protective effect of esculentoside A on radiation-induced dermatitis and fibrosis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the effect of esculentoside A (EsA) on radiation-induced cutaneous and fibrovascular toxicity and its possible molecular mechanisms, both in vivo and in vitro. Methods and Materials: Mice received drug intervention 18 hours before 30 Gy to the right hind leg. Alterations in several cytokines expressed in skin tissue 2 days after irradiation were determined by ELISA. Early skin toxicity was evaluated 3 to 4 weeks after irradiation by skin scoring, and both tissue contraction and expression of TGF-{beta}1 were determined for soft-tissue fibrosis 3 months after irradiation. In vitro, the effect of EsA on radiation-induced nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine production in different cell types was measured by application of 2, 4, and 8 Gy. Results: In vivo, EsA reduced levels of IL-1{alpha}, MCP-1, VEGF, and TGF-{beta}1 in cutaneous tissue and reduced soft-tissue toxicity. In vitro, EsA inhibited the IL-1{alpha} ordinarily produced after 4 Gy in A431 cells. In Raw264.7 cells, EsA reduced levels of IL-1{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, and NO production costimulated by radiation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In L-929 cells, EsA inhibited VEGF, TNF, and MCP-1 production at 2, 4, and 8 Gy. Conclusions: Esculentoside A protects soft tissues against radiation toxicity through inhibiting the production of several proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators in epithelial cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, and skin tissue.

Xiao Zhenyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Su Ying [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Yang Shanmin [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Yin Liangjie [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Wang Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Yi Yanghua [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Fenton, Bruce M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Zhang Lurong [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Okunieff, Paul [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States)]. E-mail: paul_okunieff@urmc.rochester.edu

2006-07-01

389

Niacin protects against UVB radiation-induced apoptosis in cultured human skin keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

Niacin and its related derivatives have been shown to have effects on cellular activities. However, the molecular mechanism of its reduced immunosuppressive effects and photoprotective effects remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the photoprotective effect of niacin in ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). We found that niacin effectively suppressed the UV-induced cell death and cell apoptosis of HaCaT cells. Existing data have shown that AKT activation is involved in the cell survival process. Yet, the potential mechanism of niacin in protection against UV-induced skin damage has thus far not fully been eluvidated. We observed that niacin pretreatment enhances UV induced activation of AKT (Ser473 phosphorylation) as well as that of the downstream signal mTOR (S6 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation). The PI3K/AKT inhibitor, LY294002, and the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, largely neutralized the protective effects of niacin, suggesting that AKT and downstream signaling mTOR/S6 activation are necessary for the niacin-induced protective effects against UV-induced cell death and cell apoptosis. Collectively, our data suggest that niacin may be utilized to prevent UV-induced skin damage and provide a novel mechanism of its photoprotective effects against the UV radiation of sunlight by modulating both AKT and downstream mTOR signaling pathways.

LIN, FUQUAN; XU, WEN; GUAN, CUIPING; ZHOU, MIAONI; HONG, WEISONG; FU, LIFANG; LIU, DONGYIN; XU, AIE

2012-01-01

390

Reference levels in the context of Fukushima - lessons learned and a challenge for the radiation protection system.  

PubMed

A number of dose criteria were set after the accident in Fukushima, including a criterion regarding the use of school playgrounds in Fukushima. Considering the band of 1-20 mSv/year recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for public exposure under existing exposure situations, Japanese authorities set 20 mSv/year as a 'start line' for reducing the dose to school children. However, this led to considerable confusion among the general public and some experts. They thought that the dose limit was increased to 20 mSv/year (20 times as high as before), and that school children could be exposed to 20 mSv in 1 year. This is just an example of confusion caused by inadequate comprehension of radiation effects, misunderstanding of radiation protection concepts, or both. Another issue was raised regarding the higher radiosensitivity of children compared with adults. In the 2007 ICRP Recommendations, a higher risk coefficient is given to the whole population than the adult population, because the whole population includes children; a subpopulation with higher radiosensitivity and a longer life span. The point of argument was whether a lower reference level should be set for children alone. Radiation protection experts should continue to collect scientific information to improve the radiation protection system. In addition, it is the role of these experts to explain the framework of radiation protection to the general public in plain language. PMID:23089027

Sakai, K

2012-01-01

391

Trade Study of System Level Ranked Radiation Protection Concepts for Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A strategic focus area for NASA is to pursue the development of technologies which support exploration in space beyond the current inhabited region of low earth orbit. An unresolved issue for crewed deep space exploration involves limiting crew radiation exposure to below acceptable levels, considering both solar particle events and galactic cosmic ray contributions to dosage. Galactic cosmic ray mitigation is not addressed in this paper, but by addressing credible, easily implemented, and mass efficient solutions for the possibility of solar particle events, additional margin is provided that can be used for cosmic ray dose accumulation. As a result, NASA s Advanced Engineering Systems project office initiated this Radiation Storm Shelter design activity. This paper reports on the first year results of an expected 3 year Storm Shelter study effort which will mature concepts and operational scenarios that protect exploration astronauts from solar particle radiation events. Large trade space definition, candidate concept ranking, and a planned demonstration comprised the majority of FY12 activities. A system key performance parameter is minimization of the required increase in mass needed to provide a safe environment. Total system mass along with operational assessments and other defined protection system metrics provide the guiding metrics to proceed with concept developments. After a downselect to four primary methods, the concepts were analyzed for dosage severity and the amount of shielding mass necessary to bring dosage to acceptable values. Besides analytical assessments, subscale models of several concepts and one full scale concept demonstrator were created. FY12 work terminated with a plan to demonstrate test articles of two selected approaches. The process of arriving at these selections and their current envisioned implementation are presented in this paper.

Cerro, Jeffrey A

2013-01-01

392

The pristine atomic structure of MoS{sub 2} monolayer protected from electron radiation damage by graphene  

SciTech Connect

Materials can, in principle, be imaged at the level of individual atoms with aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. However, such resolution can be attained only with very high electron doses. Consequently, radiation damage is often the limiting factor when characterizing sensitive materials. Here, we demonstrate a simple and an effective method to increase the electron radiation tolerance of materials by using graphene as protective coating. This leads to an improvement of three orders of magnitude in the radiation tolerance of monolayer MoS{sub 2}. Further on, we construct samples in different heterostructure configurations to separate the contributions of different radiation damage mechanisms.

Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Kurasch, Simon; Sedighi, Mona; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University (Germany)] [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University (Germany)

2013-11-11

393

The pristine atomic structure of MoS2 monolayer protected from electron radiation damage by graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Materials can, in principle, be imaged at the level of individual atoms with aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. However, such resolution can be attained only with very high electron doses. Consequently, radiation damage is often the limiting factor when characterizing sensitive materials. Here, we demonstrate a simple and an effective method to increase the electron radiation tolerance of materials by using graphene as protective coating. This leads to an improvement of three orders of magnitude in the radiation tolerance of monolayer MoS2. Further on, we construct samples in different heterostructure configurations to separate the contributions of different radiation damage mechanisms.

Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Kurasch, Simon; Sedighi, Mona; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute

2013-11-01

394

Protection of DNA against Direct Radiation Damage by Complex Formation with Positively Charged Polypeptides  

PubMed Central

Radioprotection of DNA from direct-type radiation damage by histones has been studied in model systems using complexes of positively charged polypeptides (PCPs) with DNA. PCPs bind to DNA via ionic interactions mimicking the mode of DNA-histone binding. Direct radiation damage to DNA in films of DNA-PCP complexes was quantified as unaltered base release, which correlates closely with DNA strand breaks. All types of PCPs tested protected DNA from radiation, with the maximum radioprotection being approximately 2.5-fold compared with non-complexed DNA. Conformational changes of the DNA induced by PCPs or repair of free radical damage on the DNA sugar moiety by PCPs are considered the most feasible mechanisms of radioprotection of DNA. The degree of radioprotection of DNA by polylysine (PL) increased dramatically on going from pure DNA to a molar ratio of PL monomer:DNA nucleotide ~1:2, while a further increase in the PL:DNA ratio did not offer more radioprotection. This concentration dependence is in agreement with the model of PCP binding to DNA that assumes preferential binding of positively charged side groups to DNA phosphates in the minor groove, so that the maximum occupancy of all minor-groove PCP binding sites is at a molar ratio of PCP:DNA = 1:2.

Roginskaya, Marina; Bernhard, William A.; Razskazovskiy, Yuriy

2007-01-01

395

A Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Analog for Protection and Mitigation against Acute Radiation Syndromes.  

PubMed

The effects of fibroblast growth factors and their potential as broad-spectrum agents to treat and mitigate radiation injury have been studied extensively over the past two decades. This report shows that a peptide mimetic of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-P) protects and mitigates against acute radiation syndromes. FGF-P attenuates both sepsis and bleeding in a radiation-induced bone marrow syndrome model and reduces the severity of gastrointestinal and cutaneous syndromes; it should also mitigate combined injuries. FGF-2 and FGF-P induce little or no deleterious inflammation or vascular leakage, which distinguishes them from most other growth factors, angiogenic factors, and cytokines. Although recombinant FGFs have proven safe in several ongoing clinical trials, they are expensive to synthesize, can only be produced in limited quantity, and have limited shelf life. FGF-P mimics the advantageous features of FGF-2 without these disadvantages. This paper shows that FGF-P not only has the potential to be a potent yet safe broad-spectrum medical countermeasure that mitigates acute radiotoxicity but also holds promise for thermal burns, ischemic wound healing, tissue engineering, and stem-cell regeneration.Health Phys. 106(6):000-000; 2014. PMID:24776903

Casey-Sawicki, Kate; Zhang, Mei; Kim, Sunghee; Zhang, Amy; Zhang, Steven B; Zhang, Zhenhuan; Singh, Ravi; Yang, Shanmin; Swarts, Steven; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan; Zhang, Lurong; Zhang, Aiguo; Okunieff, Paul

2014-06-01

396

Impact of the 1980 BEIR-III report on low-level radiation risk assessment, radiation protection guides, and public health policy  

SciTech Connect

The author deals with the scientific basis for establishing appropriate radiation protection guides, and this effect on evaluation of societal activities concerned with the health effects in human populations exposed to low-level radiation. Methodology is discussed for estimating risks of radio-induced cancer and genetically related ill-health in man, the sources of data, the dose-response models used, and the precision ascribed to the process. (PSB)

Fabrikant, J.I.

1981-06-01

397

Permafrost Hazards and Linear Infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international experience of linear infrastructure planning, construction and exploitation in permafrost zone is being directly tied to the permafrost hazard assessment. That procedure should also consider the factors of climate impact and infrastructure protection. The current global climate change hotspots are currently polar and mountain areas. Temperature rise, precipitation and land ice conditions change, early springs occur more often. The big linear infrastructure objects cross the territories with different permafrost conditions which are sensitive to the changes in air temperature, hydrology, and snow accumulation which are connected to climatic dynamics. One of the most extensive linear structures built on permafrost worldwide are Trans Alaskan Pipeline (USA), Alaska Highway (Canada), Qinghai-Xizang Railway (China) and Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline (Russia). Those are currently being influenced by the regional climate change and permafrost impact which may act differently from place to place. Thermokarst is deemed to be the most dangerous process for linear engineering structures. Its formation and development depend on the linear structure type: road or pipeline, elevated or buried one. Zonal climate and geocryological conditions are also of the determining importance here. All the projects are of the different age and some of them were implemented under different climatic conditions. The effects of permafrost thawing have been recorded every year since then. The exploration and transportation companies from different countries maintain the linear infrastructure from permafrost degradation in different ways. The highways in Alaska are in a good condition due to governmental expenses on annual reconstructions. The Chara-China Railroad in Russia is under non-standard condition due to intensive permafrost response. Standards for engineering and construction should be reviewed and updated to account for permafrost hazards caused by the climate change. Extra maintenance activity is needed for existence infrastructure to stay operable. Engineers should run climate models under the most pessimistic scenarios when planning new infrastructure projects. That would allow reducing the potential shortcomings related to the permafrost thawing.

Stanilovskaya, Julia; Sergeev, Dmitry

2014-05-01

398

TAT-Mediated Delivery of Tousled Protein to Salivary Glands Protects Against Radiation-Induced Hypofunction  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer invariably suffer its deleterious side effect, xerostomia. Salivary hypofunction ensuing from the irreversible destruction of glands is the most common and debilitating oral complication affecting patients undergoing regional radiotherapy. Given that the current management of xerostomia is palliative and ineffective, efforts are now directed toward preventive measures to preserve gland function. The human homolog of Tousled protein, TLK1B, facilitates chromatin remodeling at DNA repair sites and improves cell survival against ionizing radiation (IR). Therefore, we wanted to determine whether a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to rat salivary glands could protect against IR-induced salivary hypofunction. Methods: The cell-permeable TAT-TLK1B fusion protein was generated. Rat acinar cell line and rat salivary glands were pretreated with TAT peptide or TAT-TLK1B before IR. The acinar cell survival in vitro and salivary function in vivo were assessed after radiation. Results: We demonstrated that rat acinar cells transduced with TAT-TLK1B were more resistant to radiation (D{sub 0} = 4.13 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 0 Gy) compared with cells transduced with the TAT peptide (D{sub 0} = 4.91 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 20.2 Gy). Correspondingly, retroductal instillation of TAT-TLK1B in rat submandibular glands better preserved salivary flow after IR (89%) compared with animals pretreated with Opti-MEM or TAT peptide (31% and 39%, respectively; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results demonstrate that a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to the salivary glands effectively attenuates radiation-mediated gland dysfunction. Prophylactic TLK1B-protein therapy could benefit patients undergoing radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer.

Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan, E-mail: gsunav@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Palaniyandi, Senthilnathan; Richardson, Charles; De Benedetti, Arrigo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Schrott, Lisa [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Caldito, Gloria [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)] [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

2012-09-01

399

Proposed Amendments to the Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed amendments to its radiation protection standards for the potential spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste disposal system in Yucca Mountain, Nevada on 22 August 2005. The original standards are found in Part 197 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 197). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 directed, and gave the authority to, EPA to take this action based upon input from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). The final original standards were published in the Federal Register (66 FR 32073) on 13 June 2001. In July 2004, a Federal court remanded part of the standards to EPA for reconsideration. The 40 CFR Part 197 standards, as issued in 2001, have four major parts: (1) individual-protection during storage activities; (2) individual-protection following closure of the repository; (3) human-intrusion; and (4) ground-water protection. The storage standard is 150 micro-sieverts ({mu}Sv) (15 mrem) annual committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) to any member of the general public. The disposal standards are: (1) 150 {mu}Sv (15 mrem) annual CEDE for the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) for 10,000 years after disposal; (2)150 {mu}Sv (15 mrem) annual CEDE received by the RMEI within 10,000 years after disposal as a result of human intrusion; and (3) the levels of radionuclides in the ground water cannot cause annual individual doses to exceed: (1) 40 {mu}Sv (4 mrem) per year from beta and gamma emitters or (2) 5 pico-curies per liter (pCi/L) of radium-226 and -228 or 15 pCi/L of gross alpha activity. There were also requirements related to the post-10,000-year period, the basis of compliance judgments, and performance assessments. The Agency's proposed amendments would retain the individual-protection standard established in the 2001 standards, up to 10,000 years. In addition, the compliance period for the individual-protection and human-intrusion standards would be increased to 1 million years and the annual CEDE limit between 10,000 and 1 million years would be 3.5 mSv (350 mrem). There are also proposed requirements for the way performance assessments will be conducted. Finally, the dose calculation methodology would be updated to an ICRP 60 and 72 basis instead of ICRP 26 and 30. The comment period on the proposed amendments ended 21 November 2005. The Agency is analyzing the comments and will publish its responses when issuing the final standards. The proposed standards and the support documents are available at http://www.epa.gov/radiation/yucca/index.html. The docket containing all of the comments is under Docket ID EPA-HQ-OAR-2005-0083 at: http://www.regulations.gov. (author)

Clark, L. [U.S. Public Health Service, Team Leader for the Yucca Mountain Standards, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (6608J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. 20460-0001 (United States)

2006-07-01

400

A Guanxi Shibboleth based Security Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

An e-Social Science infrastructure generally has security requirements to protect their restricted resources or services. As a widely accepted authentication and authorization technology, Shibboleth supports the sharing of resources on inter-institutional federation. Guanxi is an open source implementation of the Shibboleth protocol and architecture. In this paper, we propose a security infrastructure for e-social science based on the Guanxi Shibboleth.

Wei Jie; Alistair Young; Junaid Arshad; June Finch; Rob Procter; Andy Turner

2008-01-01

401

Role of sphingolipids in murine radiation-induced lung injury: protection by sphingosine 1-phosphate analogs  

PubMed Central

Clinically significant radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a common toxicity in patients administered thoracic radiotherapy. Although the molecular etiology is poorly understood, we previously characterized a murine model of RILI in which alterations in lung barrier integrity surfaced as a potentially important pathobiological event and genome-wide lung gene mRNA levels identified dysregulation of sphingolipid metabolic pathway genes. We hypothesized that sphingolipid signaling components serve as modulators and novel therapeutic targets of RILI. Sphingolipid involvement in murine RILI was confirmed by radiation-induced increases in lung expression of sphingosine kinase (SphK) isoforms 1 and 2 and increases in the ratio of ceramide to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and dihydro-S1P (DHS1P) levels in plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and lung tissue. Mice with a targeted deletion of SphK1 (SphK1?/?) or with reduced expression of S1P receptors (S1PR1+/?, S1PR2?/?, and S1PR3?/?) exhibited marked RILI susceptibility. Finally, studies of 3 potent vascular barrier-protective S1P analogs, FTY720, (S)-FTY720-phosphonate (fTyS), and SEW-2871, identified significant RILI attenuation and radiation-induced gene dysregulation by the phosphonate analog, fTyS (0.1 and 1 mg/kg i.p., 2×/wk) and to a lesser degree by SEW-2871 (1 mg/kg i.p., 2×/wk), compared with those in controls. These results support the targeting of S1P signaling as a novel therapeutic strategy in RILI.—Mathew, B., Jacobson, J. R., Berdyshev, E., Huang, Y., Sun, X., Zhao, Y., Gerhold, L. M., Siegler, J., Evenoski, C., Wang, T., Zhou, T., Zaidi, R., Moreno-Vinasco, L., Bittman, R., Chen, C. T., LaRiviere, P. J., Sammani, S., Lussier, Y. A., Dudek, S. M., Natarajan, V., Weichselbaum, R. R., Garcia, J. G. N. Role of sphingolipids in murine radiation-induced lung injury: protection by sphingosine 1-phosphate analogs.

Mathew, Biji; Jacobson, Jeffrey R.; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Huang, Yong; Sun, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Yutong; Gerhold, Lynnette M.; Siegler, Jessica; Evenoski, Carrie; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Tong; Zaidi, Rafe; Moreno-Vinasco, Liliana; Bittman, Robert; Chen, Chin Tu; LaRiviere, Patrick J.; Sammani, Saad; Lussier, Yves A.; Dudek, Steven M.; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Garcia, Joe G. N.

2011-01-01

402

Epoxy-borax-coal tar composition for a radiation protective, burn resistant drum liner and centrifugal casting method  

DOEpatents

A boron containing burn resistant, low level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source. The material is basically composed of Borax in the range of 25-50%, coal tar in the range of 25-37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% Borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

Taylor, Robert S. (Livermore, CA); Boyer, Norman W. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01

403

An integrative radiation protection control system based on a CAN bus for the HT-7U tokamak fusion device.  

PubMed

A radiation protection control system has been designed, based on distributed computers and consideration of the features of the radiation source of the HT-7U fusion experimental device, for protecting the workers and the public against neutron and photon radiation, and especially for ensuring that workers cannot unexpectedly enter an area of high radiation level in any case. A multisubsystem (irradiation monitoring subsystem, access control subsystem, safety interlock subsystem and other related facilities) integration concept is proposed for the design. This system has been implemented on the basis of the up-to-date industrial field bus CAN, featuring simplicity and flexibility of installation and maintenance, capability for real-time long distance communication and multi-master protocol. PMID:15296258

Chai, Zhuxin; Huang, Qunying; Wu, Yican; Liu, Xiaoping; Liao, Zhuhua

2004-06-01

404

Protection against ionising radiation and synergism with thiols by zinc aspartate.  

PubMed

Pre-treatment with zinc aspartate protected mice against the lethal effects of radiation and raised the LD50 from 8 Gy to 12.2 Gy. Zinc chloride and zinc sulphate were clearly less active. The radioprotective effect of zinc aspartate was equivalent to cysteamine and slightly inferior to S,2-aminoethylisothiourea (AET). Zinc aspartate displayed a similar therapeutic index to the thiols but could be applied at an earlier time before irradiation. Synergistic effects occurred with the combined administration of zinc aspartate and thiols. By giving zinc aspartate with cysteamine, the LD50 was increased to 13.25 Gy and, by combining it in the optimal protocol with AET, to 17.3 Gy. The radioprotection by zinc and its synergism with thiols is explained by the stabilisation of thiols through the formation of zinc complexes. PMID:3518853

Floersheim, G L; Floersheim, P

1986-06-01

405

Ascorbic acid metabolism in protection against free radicals: A radiation model  

SciTech Connect

The role of ascorbic acid in scavenging free radicals was evaluated in a model of mammalian colonic epithelium homogenized in physiologic buffer and exposed to ionizing radiation. Ascorbic acid interacts with hydroxyl free radicals, resulting in production of the ascorbate free radical (AFR). Colonic mucosa contains a soluble factor that is heat sensitive, PCA precipitable and is contained within 1,000 MW dialysis tubing; it uses GSH and cysteine to reduce AFR. The factor from rat colon is fractionated between 55 and 70% saturation with solid (NH4)2SO4; a 3-4 fold increase in enzyme activity was achieved. We suggest that the factor is a cytosolic enzyme appropriately referred to as soluble AFR-reductase. This information provides insight into the mechanism by which ascorbic acid protects against damage by hydroxyl free radicals.

Rose, R.C. (Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks (USA))

1990-06-15

406

The Protective Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid against Oxidative Damage in Rabbit Conjunctiva and Cornea Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effect of ?-lipoic acid against oxidative damage in rabbit conjunctiva and cornea exposed to ultraviolet radiation. Methods: 20 rabbits weighing 2,500– 3,000 g were used, and we divided them into 4 groups with 5 randomly selected rabbits. The rabbits were exposed to 2 J\\/cm2\\/h of ultraviolet A radiation (UVA)

Ülkü Demir; Tamer Demir; Nevin Ilhan

2005-01-01

407

Extreme anti-oxidant protection against ionizing radiation in bdelloid rotifers  

PubMed Central

Bdelloid rotifers, a class of freshwater invertebrates, are extraordinarily resistant to ionizing radiation (IR). Their radioresistance is not caused by reduced susceptibility to DNA double-strand breakage for IR makes double-strand breaks (DSBs) in bdelloids with essentially the same efficiency as in other species, regardless of radiosensitivity. Instead, we find that the bdelloid Adineta vaga is far more resistant to IR-induced protein carbonylation than is the much more radiosensitive nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In both species, the dose–response for protein carbonylation parallels that for fecundity reduction, manifested as embryonic death. We conclude that the great radioresistance of bdelloid rotifers is a consequence of an unusually effective system of anti-oxidant protection of cellular constituents, including those required for DSB repair, allowing bdelloids to recover and continue reproducing after doses of IR causing hundreds of DSBs per nucleus. Bdelloid rotifers therefore offer an advantageous system for investigation of enhanced anti-oxidant protection and its consequences in animal systems.

Krisko, Anita; Leroy, Magali; Radman, Miroslav; Meselson, Matthew

2012-01-01

408

Extreme anti-oxidant protection against ionizing radiation in bdelloid rotifers.  

PubMed

Bdelloid rotifers, a class of freshwater invertebrates, are extraordinarily resistant to ionizing radiation (IR). Their radioresistance is not caused by reduced susceptibility to DNA double-strand breakage for IR makes double-strand breaks (DSBs) in bdelloids with essentially the same efficiency as in other species, regardless of radiosensitivity. Instead, we find that the bdelloid Adineta vaga is far more resistant to IR-induced protein carbonylation than is the much more radiosensitive nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In both species, the dose-response for protein carbonylation parallels that for fecundity reduction, manifested as embryonic death. We conclude that the great radioresistance of bdelloid rotifers is a consequence of an unusually effective system of anti-oxidant protection of cellular constituents, including those required for DSB repair, allowing bdelloids to recover and continue reproducing after doses of IR causing hundreds of DSBs per nucleus. Bdelloid rotifers therefore offer an advantageous system for investigation of enhanced anti-oxidant protection and its consequences in animal systems. PMID:22308443

Krisko, Anita; Leroy, Magali; Radman, Miroslav; Meselson, Matthew

2012-02-14

409

Tripartite conferences on radiation protection: Canada, United Kingdom, United States (1949-1953)  

SciTech Connect

As a result of largely informal contacts between scientists from the United States, Canada, and United Kingdom, it became evident to their governments that, to insure compatible protection practices, closer technical cooperation must be established. This led to a two-day conference between representatives of the three governments at Chalk River, Ontario in September 1949; it was the first of what became known as the Tripartite Conferences. The initial talks led quickly to agreement on the new NCRP proposals for a basic permissible dose for the exposure of workers to external sources of radiation. A second meeting in Harwell, England, during the summer of 1950 reached tentative agreement on the outstanding problems. The third and last Tripartite Conference took place at Harriman, New York, in early spring 1953. This meeting produced the final recommendations, insofar as they involved agreements between the three countries, for new protection standards. Questions regarding the proceedings of the conferences and interpretations of their findings have arisen over the succeeding years; even as recently as 1983. Continued interest and consequent inquiries emphasized the desirability of providing more permanent documentation of those very important conferences. This author, a member of the United States delegation to all three conferences, came into possession of most of the working papers and final reports, hence he has felt the obligation to assemble this material for both technical and historical reference. This report compromises mainly of a brief discussion of the conferences themselves, with some background information leading up to their organization.

Taylor, L.S.

1984-08-01

410

Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick

2009-10-01

411

Calculation of Radiation Protection Quantities and Analysis of Astronaut Orientation Dependence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Health risk to astronauts due to exposure to ionizing radiation is a primary concern for exploration missions and may become the limiting factor for long duration missions. Methodologies for evaluating this risk in terms of radiation protection quantities such as dose, dose equivalent, gray equivalent, and effective dose are described. Environment models (galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event), vehicle/habitat geometry models, human geometry models, and transport codes are discussed and sample calculations for possible lunar and Mars missions are used as demonstrations. The dependence of astronaut health risk, in terms of dosimetric quantities, on astronaut orientation within a habitat is also examined. Previous work using a space station type module exposed to a proton spectrum modeling the October 1989 solar particle event showed that reorienting the astronaut within the module could change the calculated dose equivalent by a factor of two or more. Here the dose equivalent to various body tissues and the whole body effective dose due to both galactic cosmic rays and a solar particle event are calculated for a male astronaut in two different orientations, vertical and horizontal, in a representative lunar habitat. These calculations also show that the dose equivalent at some body locations resulting from a solar particle event can vary by a factor of two or more, but that the dose equivalent due to galactic cosmic rays has a much smaller (<15%) dependence on astronaut orientation.

Clowdsley, Martha S.; Nealy, John E.; Atwell, William; Anderson, Brooke M.; Luetke, Nathan J.; Wilson, John W.

2006-01-01

412

Inhibiting Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Protein Kinase C? (PKC?) Protects the Salivary Gland from Radiation Damage.  

PubMed

Radiation therapy for head and neck cancer can result in extensive damage to normal adjacent tissues such as the salivary gland and oral mucosa. We have shown previously that tyrosine phosphorylation at Tyr-64 and Tyr-155 activates PKC? in response to apoptotic stimuli by facilitating its nuclear import. Here we have identified the tyrosine kinases that mediate activation of PKC? in apoptotic cells and have explored the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors for suppression of irradiation-induced apoptosis. We identify the damage-inducible kinase, c-Abl, as the PKC? Tyr-155 kinase and c-Src as the Tyr-64 kinase. Depletion of c-Abl or c-Src with shRNA decreased irradiation- and etoposide-induced apoptosis, suggesting that inhibitors of these kinases may be useful therapeutically. Pretreatment with dasatinib, a broad spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor, blocked phosphorylation of PKC? at both Tyr-64 and Tyr-155. Expression of "gate-keeper" mutants of c-Abl or c-Src that are active in the presence of dasatinib restored phosphorylation of PKC? at Tyr-155 and Tyr-64, respectively. Imatinib, a c-Abl-selective inhibitor, also specifically blocked PKC? Tyr-155 phosphorylation. Dasatinib and imatinib both blocked binding of PKC? to importin-? and nuclear import, demonstrating that tyrosine kinase inhibitors can inhibit nuclear accumulation of PKC?. Likewise, pretreatment with dasatinib also suppressed etoposide and radiation induced apoptosis in vitro. In vivo, pre-treatment of mice with dasatinib blocked radiation-induced apoptosis in the salivary gland by >60%. These data suggest that tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be useful prophylactically for protection of nontumor tissues in patients undergoing radiotherapy of the head and neck. PMID:24569990

Wie, Sten M; Adwan, Tariq S; Degregori, James; Anderson, Steven M; Reyland, Mary E

2014-04-11

413

Protective effect of Alstonia scholaris against radiation-induced clastogenic and biochemical alterations in mice.  

PubMed

We studied the radioprotective effect of Alstonia scholaris bark extract (ASE) on cytogenetic alterations in the form of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei induction in bone marrow. For this purpose, one group of male Swiss albino mice was exposed to 2.5 Gy gamma radiation to serve as the irradiated control, while the other group received ASE (100 mg/kg bwt/d) orally for 5 consecutive days 30 min before irradiation to serve as the experimental group. Results indicated that dicentrics and chromosomal exchanges were increased at 12 h post-exposure in both groups, followed by a gradual decline and then disappearance by d 15 and 7, respectively. However, the occurrence of chromatid breaks and acentric fragments was also maximum at 12 h, and later decreased without attaining the normal value, even up to the last necropsy interval. The percentage of such aberrations was significantly less in the ASE-pretreated irradiated animals. The incidence of chromosome breaks and centric rings kept increasing up to d 1, but then declined gradually and reached zero beginning at d 7; they were significantly lower in the ASE-treated irradiated group at the early intervals. A significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) and an increase in lipid peroxidation were observed after radiation exposure in untreated controls, whereas ASE-pretreated irradiated animals exhibited a significant increase in GSH and a decrease in lipid peroxidation; however, the values remained below normal. The results from the present study suggest that ASE pretreatment provides protection against radiation-induced chromosomal damage and micronuclei induction in the bone marrow of mice. PMID:20932245

Jahan, Swafiya; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar

2010-01-01

414

MYRRHA, a Pb-Bi experimental ADS: specific approach to radiation protection aspects.  

PubMed

Since 1998, SCK*CEN, in partnership with IBA s.a. and many European research laboratories, is designing a multipurpose accelerator driven system (ADS) for Research and Development (R&D) applications-MYRRHA-and is conducting an associated R&D support programme. MYRRHA is an ADS under development at Mol in Belgium and is aiming to serve as a basis for the European experimental ADS to provide protons and neutrons for various R&D applications. It consists of a proton accelerator delivering a 350 MeV x 5 mA proton beam to a liquid Pb-Bi spallation target that in turn couples to a Pb-Bi cooled, subcritical fast core. In the first stage, the project focuses mainly on demonstration of the ADS concept, safety research on sub-critical systems and nuclear waste transmutation studies. In a later stage, the device will also be dedicated to research on structural materials, nuclear fuel, liquid metal technology and associated aspects, and on sub-critical reactor physics. Subsequently, it will be used for research on applications such as radioisotope production. A first preliminary conceptual design file of MYRRHA was completed by the end of 2001 and has been reviewed by an International Technical Guidance Committee, which concluded that there are no show stoppers in the project and even though some topics such as the safety studies and the fuel qualification need to be addressed more deeply before concluding it. In this paper, we are reporting on the state-of-the art of the MYRRHA project at the beginning of 2004 and in particular on the radiation shielding assessment and the radiation protection particular aspects through a remote handling operation approach in order to minimise the personnel exposure to radiation. PMID:16604674

Abderrahim, H Aït; Aoust, Th; Malambu, E; Sobolev, V; Van Tichelen, K; De Bruyn, D; Maes, D; Haeck, W; Van den Eynde, G

2005-01-01

415

Radiation Protection Considerations at USACE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Projects  

SciTech Connect

The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was initially authorized by Congress in 1974. FUSRAP was enacted to address residual radioactive contamination associated with numerous sites across the U.S. at which radioactive material (primarily Uranium ores and related milling products) had been processed in support of the nation's nuclear weapons program dating back to the Manhattan Project and the period immediately following World War II. In October 1997, Congress transferred the management of this program from the Department of Energy to the United States Corp of Engineers. Through this program, the Corps addresses the environmental remediation of certain sites once used by DOE's predecessor agencies, the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. The waste at FUSRAP sites consists mainly of low levels of uranium, thorium and radium, along with some mixed wastes. Upon completion of remedial activities, these sites are transferred to DOE for long-term stewardship activities. This paper presents and contrasts the radiological conditions and recent monitoring results associated with five large ongoing FUSRAP projects including Maywood, N.J.; the Linde site near Buffalo, N.Y.; Colonie in Albany N.Y. and the St Louis, Mo. airport and downtown sites. The radiological characteristics of soil and debris at each site and respective regulatory clean up criteria is presented and contrasted. Some differences are discussed in the radiological characteristics of material at some sites that result in variations in radiation protection monitoring programs. Additionally, summary data for typical personnel radiation exposure monitoring results are presented. In summary: 1. The FUSRAP projects for which data and observations are reported in this paper are considered typical of the radiological nature of FUSRAP sites in general. 2. These sites are characterized by naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides in soil and debris, at concentrations typically < E4 pCi/ gram total activity. 3. Although external exposure rates are generally low resulting in few exposures above background, occasional 'hot spots' are observed in the 1- 10 mR / hr range or higher. However personnel and general area external exposure monitoring programs consistently demonstrate very low potential for external exposure at theses sites. 4. Potential for airborne exposure is controlled by wetting and misting techniques during excavation and movement of materials. Air sampling and bioassay programs confirm low potential for airborne exposure of workers at these sites. 5. Radiation protection and health physics monitoring programs as implemented at these sites ensure that exposures to personal are maintained ALARA. (authors)

Brown, S.H. [CHP, SHB INC., Centennial, Colorado (United States)

2008-07-01

416

Radiation Symbols  

MedlinePLUS

... Effects Ionizing & Non-Ionizing Radiation Understanding Radiation: Radiation Symbols Radiation Protection Basics Main Page History of Radiation ... Michigan's Radiation and Health Physics Page . United Nations Symbol In February of 2007, the United Nations introduced ...

417

Soluble ferric iron as an effective protective agent against UV radiation: Implications for early life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some recent MER Rover Opportunity results on ancient sedimentary rocks from Mars describe sandstones originated from the chemical weathering of olivine basalts by acidic waters [Squyres, S.W., Knoll, A.H., 2005. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 240, 1-10]. The absence of protective components in early Mars atmosphere forced any possible primordial life forms to deal with high doses of UV radiation. A similar situation occurred on the primitive Earth during the development of early life in the Archean [Berkner, L.V., Marshall, L.C., 1965. J. Atmos. Sci. 22 (3), 225-261; Kasting, J.F., 1993. Science 259, 920-926]. It is known that some cellular and/or external components can shield organisms from damaging UV radiation or quench its toxic effects [Olson, J.M., Pierson, B.K., 1986. Photosynth. Res. 9, 251-259; García-Pichel, F., 1998. Origins Life Evol. B 28, 321-347; Cockell, C., Rettberg, P., Horneck, G., Scherer, K., Stokes, M.D., 2003. Polar Biol. 26, 62-69]. The effectiveness of iron minerals for UV protection has also been reported [Phoenix, V.R., Konhauser, K.O., Adams, D.G., Bottrell, S.H., 2001. Geology 29 (9), 823-826], but nothing is known about the effect of iron in solution. Here we demonstrate the protective effect of soluble ferric iron against UV radiation on acidophilic photosynthetic microorganisms. These results offer an interesting alternative means of protection for life on the surface of early Mars and Earth, especially in light of the geochemical conditions in which the sedimentary minerals, jarosite and goethite, recently reported by the MER missions, were formed [Squyres, S.W., Arvidson, R.E., Bell III, J.F., Brückner, J., Cabrol, N.A., Calvin, W., Carr, M.H., Christensen, P.R., Clark, B.C., Crumpler, L., Des Marais, D.J., d'Uston, C., Economou, T., Farmer, J., Farrand, W., Folkner, W., Golombek, M., Gorevan, S., Grant, J.A., Greeley, R., Grotzinger, J., Haskin, L., Herkenhoff, K.E., Hviid, S., Johnson, J., Klingelhöfer, G., Knoll, A.H., Landis, G., Lemmon, M., Li, R., Madsen, M.B., Malin, M.C., McLennan, S.M., McSween, H.Y., Ming, D.W., Moersch, J., Morris, R.V., Parker, T., Rice Jr., J.W., Richter, L., Rieder, R., Sims, M., Smith, M., Smith, P., Soderblom, L.A., Sullivan, R., Wänke, H., Wdowiak, T., Wolff, M., Yen, A., 2004. Science 306, 1698-1703; Klingelhöfer, G., Morris, R.V., Bernhardt, B., Schröder, C., Rodionov, D.S., de Souza Jr., P.A., Yen, A., Gellert, R., Evlanov, E.N., Zubkov, B., Foh, J., Bonnes, U., Kankeleit, E., Gütlich, P., Ming, D.W., Renz, F., Wdowiak, T., Squyres, S.W., Arvidson, R.E., 2004. Science 306, 1740-1745].

Gómez, Felipe; Aguilera, Angeles; Amils, Ricardo

2007-11-01

418

Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Rongelap Atoll (2002-2004)  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Rongelap Atoll (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance programs are helping meet the informational needs of the U.S. DOE and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Our updated environmental assessments provide a strong scientific basis for predicting future change in exposure conditions especially in relation to changes in lifestyle, diet and/or land-use patterns. This information has important implications in addressing questions about existing (and future) radiological conditions on the islands, in determining as well as the implementation, cost and effectiveness of potential intervention options, and in general policy support considerations. Perhaps most importantly, the recently established individual radiological surveillance programs provide affected atoll communities with an unprecedented level of radiation protection monitoring where, for the first time, local resources are being made available to monitor resettled and resettling populations on a continuous basis. As a hard copy supplement to Marshall Islands Program website (http://eed.llnl.gov/mi/), this document provides an overview of the individual radiation protection monitoring program established for resettlement workers living on Rongelap Island along with a full disclosure of all verified measurement data (2002-2004). Readers are advised that an additional feature of the associated web site is a provision where users are able calculate and track doses delivered to volunteers (de-identified information only) participating the Marshall Islands Radiological Surveillance Program.

Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Arelong, E; Langinbelik, S

2006-01-17

419

Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Atoll (2002-2004)  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Enewetak Island (Figure 1) (Bell et al., 2002). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance programs are helping meet the informational needs of the U.S. DOE and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Our updated environmental assessments provide a strong scientific basis for predicting future change in exposure conditions especially in relation to changes in lifestyle, diet and/or land-use patterns. This information has important implications in addressing questions about existing (and future) radiological conditions on the islands, in determining the cost and estimating the effectiveness of potential remedial measures, and in general policy support considerations. Perhaps most importantly, the recently established individual radiological surveillance programs provide affected atoll communities with an unprecedented level of radiation protection monitoring where, for the first time, local resources are being made available to monitor resettled and resettling populations on a continuous basis. As a hard copy supplement to Marshall Islands Program website (http://eed.llnl.gov/mi/), this document provides an overview of the individual radiation protection monitoring program established for the Enewetak Atoll population group along with a full disclosure of all verified measurement data (2002-2004). Readers are advised that an additional feature of the associated web site is a provision where users are able calculate and track doses delivered to volunteers (de-identified information only) participating in the Marshall Islands Radiological Surveillance Program.

Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Johannes, K; Henry, D

2006-01-17

420