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1

(Radiation protection)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traveler attended the Seventh Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) in Sydney, Australia, April 11--15, 1988. This conference consisted of a comprehensive technical program with oral and poster presentations in all areas of radiation protection including several topics which were of special interest to the traveler; e.g., neutron dosimetry, personnel dosimetry and instrumentation, radiobiology, and radiation accidents.

Swaja

1988-01-01

2

Radiation Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation protection is a very important aspect for the application of particle detectors in many different fields, like high energy physics, medicine, materials science, oil and mineral exploration, and arts, to name a few. The knowledge of radiation units, the experience with shielding, and information on biological effects of radiation are vital for scientists handling radioactive sources or operating accelerators or X-ray equipment. This article describes the modern radiation units and their conversions to older units which are still in use in many countries. Typical radiation sources and detectors used in the field of radiation protection are presented. The legal regulations in nearly all countries follow closely the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Tables and diagrams with relevant information on the handling of radiation sources provide useful data for the researcher working in this field.

Grupen, Claus

3

Radiation protection.  

PubMed

One of radiologic technologists' most important professional obligations is protecting patients, other members of the health care team, the public and themselves from as much radiation-related harm as possible while also maximizing the screening, diagnostic and therapeutic potential of ionizing radiation. This article reviews the different types of radiation dose and how radiation affects the body. Patient shielding, personnel dosimeters and area monitors are discussed, along with beam collimation and filtration. The author also describes protocols to protect pregnant patients and pregnant technologists. PMID:17519374

Brusin, Joyce Helena

4

(Radiation protection)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the Seventh Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) in Sydney, Australia, April 11--15, 1988. This conference consisted of a comprehensive technical program with oral and poster presentations in all areas of radiation protection including several topics which were of special interest to the traveler; e.g., neutron dosimetry, personnel dosimetry and instrumentation, radiobiology, and radiation accidents. Besides attending technical sessions, the traveler presented a paper on results and implications of neutron personnel dosimetry intercomparison studies conducted since 1974 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). During the meeting, the traveler discussed possible future collaborative research efforts with scientists from several countries and obtained commitments for an ORNL-coordinated radiation protection conference planned for November of 1988. Through the conference attendance and discussions with dosimetry researchers, the traveler gained information concerning directions and philosophies in radiation protection and dosimetry and made preliminary plans for future cooperative efforts which will be directly related to Department of Energy (DOE) programs.

Swaja, R.E.

1988-05-06

5

Radiation Protection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chemotherapy and radiation can be powerful weapons against cancer. But they harm healthy cells as well. Cells of the immune system and G.I. tract are especially vulnerable: instead of repairing the damage, they respond by committing cellular suicide. In contrast, tumor cells have mutations that make them resistant to cell death. Roswell Park Cancer Institute researcher Andrei Gudkov and his colleagues recently harnessed this property to create a new drug.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2008-05-01

6

Radiation protection in space.  

PubMed

Radiation environment, basic concepts of radiation protection, and specific aspects of the space radiation field are reviewed. The discussion of physico-chemical and subcellular radiation effects includes mechanisms of radiation action and cellular consequences. The discussion of radiobiological effects includes unique aspects of HZE particle effects, space flight findings, terrestrial findings, analysis of somatic radiation effects and effects on critical organs, and early and delayed effects. Other topics include the impact of the space flight environment, measurement of radiation exposure, establishing radiation protection limits, limitations in establishing space-based radiation exposure limits, radiation protection measures, and recommendations. PMID:11541474

Reitz, G; Facius, R; Sandler, H

7

Atoms, radiation, and radiation protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book describes basic atomic and nuclear structure, the physical processes that result in the emission of ionizing radiations, and external and internal radiation protection criteria, standards, and practices from the standpoint of their underlying physical and biological basis. The sources and properties of ionizing radiation-charged particles, photons, and neutrons-and their interactions with matter are discussed in detail. The underlying

1986-01-01

8

Regulatory aspects of radiation protection.  

PubMed

The paper introduces the projects launched by the European Community to foster prospects in dosimetry, radiation protection and best use of equipment in the medical field. These projects are put in perspective with the European legal framework for radiation protection, in particular, the Basic Safety Standards Directive, the Medical Exposures Directive and the Directive on High-Activity Sealed Sources. A summary is given of the overall mission statements of the commission services in the field of radiation protection, including the field of research, and how they relate to other actions in the overall health policy of the EU. In conclusion, a number of priority areas for future work in the medical field are highlighted. PMID:16461539

Janssens, A; Sarro Vaquero, M

2006-02-03

9

Radiation Protection in Canada  

PubMed Central

The current status of radiation protection in Canada has been summarized in the present paper, the first of a three-part series. Particular emphasis has been placed on the role of the Radiation Protection Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare. Somatic and hereditary effects of radiation exposure are briefly discussed as a basis for an understanding of the radiation protection standards which have been developed at national and international levels. The rapid increase in use of radioactive materials and x-ray apparatus in medicine, industry and research, and the extensive atmosphere testing of nuclear weapons have led to the development of comprehensive radiation protection activities in Canada, especially in the Department of National Health and Welfare. Well-established lines of communication and liaison exist among the various agencies responsible for these activities. ImagesFig. 1

Bird, P. M.

1964-01-01

10

Radiation protection for radiologic technologists.  

PubMed

This article provides a review and update on radiation protection principles. Major topics include the effects of radiation on the body, natural and artificial sources of radiation, the basic principles of radiation protection and recommended dose limits. PMID:10665051

Newman, J

11

Physics for Radiation Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A practical guide to the basic physics that radiation protection professionals need A much-needed working resource for health physicists and other radiation protection professionals, this volume presents clear, thorough, up-to-date explanations of the basic physics necessary to address real-world problems in radiation protection. Designed for readers with limited as well as basic science backgrounds, Physics for Radiation Protection emphasizes applied concepts and carefully illustrates all topics through examples as well as practice problems. Physics for Radiation Protection draws substantially on current resource data available for health physics use, providing decay schemes and emission energies for approximately 100 of the most common radionuclides encountered by practitioners. Excerpts of the Chart of the Nuclides, activation cross sections, fission yields, fission-product chains, photon attenuation coefficients, and nuclear masses are also provided. Coverage includes: * The atom as an energy system * An overview of the major discoveries in radiation physics * Extensive discussion of radioactivity, including sources and materials * Nuclear interactions and processes of radiation dose * Calculational methods for radiation exposure, dose, and shielding * Nuclear fission and production of activation and fission products * Specialty topics ranging from nuclear criticality and applied statistics to X rays * Extensive and current resource data cross-referenced to standard compendiums * Extensive appendices and more than 400 figures

Martin, James E.

2000-06-01

12

Radiation protection for nurses. Regulations and guidelines  

SciTech Connect

Rules and regulations of federal agencies and state radiation protection programs provide the bases for hospital policy regarding radiation safety for nurses. Nursing administrators should work with the radiation safety officer at their institutions to ensure that radiation exposures to staff nurses will be as low as reasonably achievable and that special consideration will be given to pregnant nurses. Nurses' fears about their exposure to radiation can be greatly reduced through education.

Jankowski, C.B. (Radiation Safety Office, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

1992-02-01

13

Forcing the Issue on Radiation Policy  

SciTech Connect

The recent case of a group of tobacco interests suing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Federal court on its policy on second-hand smoke has important implications for radiation policy. The issue was only tangentially about tobacco; its main thrust was at EPA's rule-making process.The EPA is at least as vulnerable to the same charges in the radiation area, particularly with respect to radon.

Rockwell, Theodore

1999-06-06

14

Impact of the 1980 BEIR-III report on low-level radiation risk assessment, radiation protection guides, and public health policy  

SciTech Connect

The author deals with the scientific basis for establishing appropriate radiation protection guides, and this effect on evaluation of societal activities concerned with the health effects in human populations exposed to low-level radiation. Methodology is discussed for estimating risks of radio-induced cancer and genetically related ill-health in man, the sources of data, the dose-response models used, and the precision ascribed to the process. (PSB)

Fabrikant, J.I.

1981-06-01

15

Justification in Radiation Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years the concept of Justification has increasingly come to the fore of the minds of legislators, users of radioactive materials and radiation protection specialists alike. Perhaps the most well known manifestation of this was the lengthy debate, ending in judicial review, about the Justification for the operation of the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (Thorp) at Sellafield and, more

David Owen

1999-01-01

16

Radiation Protection in Canada  

PubMed Central

The current status of radiation protection in Canada is discussed in the last of a three-part series. Particular emphasis has been placed on the role of the Radiation Protection Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare. A radioactive fallout study program has been established involving the systematic collection of air and precipitation samples from 24 locations, soil samples from 23 locations, fresh-milk samples from 16 locations, wheat samples from nine areas and human-bone specimens from various hospitals throughout Canada. A whole-body-counting facility and a special study of fallout in Northern areas have also been initiated. For any age group, the highest average strontium-90 concentration in human bone so far reported has been less than four picocuries per gram of calcium compared with the maximum permissible level of 67 derived from the International Committee on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommendations. By the end of 1963 a general downward trend of levels of radioactivity detected in other parts of the program has been observed. Programs to assess the contribution to the radiation exposure of members of the population from medical x-rays, nuclear reactor operations and natural background-radiation sources have also been described. The annual genetically significant dose from diagnostic x-ray examinations in Canadian public hospitals has been estimated to be 25.8 mrem. Results from the reactor-environment monitoring programs have not suggested the presence of radioactivity beyond that contributed from fallout.

Bird, P. M.

1964-01-01

17

Manifolds and Radiation Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past 40 years humans have travelled beyond Earth's atmosphere, orbiting the planets for extended periods of time and landing on the Moon. Humans have survived this overwhelming challenge but to assure future exploration of space further expertise in the long term survival in space must be obtained. The International Space Station (ISS) provides this opportunity and allows space scientist to fine-tune their knowledge and prepare for even bolder human space missions. In this work we focus on the aspect of radiation, perhaps the most complex one from a physical and physiological perspective. Travel beyond the Earth's atmosphere and especially to Moon and Mars requires a precise consideration of the radiation environment as radiation exposure could be a show-stopper. At the moment scientists have not yet developed complete and reliable systems for radiation protection. Most likely an adequate level of protection will be reached through an integrated countermeasure system which could include: shields, monitoring of the environment, drugs to protect from damage, etc.

Rossitto, Franco; Petrov, Vladislav M.; Ongaro, Filippo

18

Space radiation protection issues.  

PubMed

The complex charged particle environments in space pose considerable challenges with regard to potential health consequences that can impact mission design and crew selection. The lack of knowledge of the biological effects of different ions in isolation and in combination is a particular concern because the risk uncertainties are very high for both cancer and non-cancer late effects. Reducing the uncertainties is of high priority. Two principal components of space radiation each raise different concerns. Solar particle events (SPE) occur sporadically and are comprised primarily of low- to moderate-energy protons. Galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) is isotropic and relatively invariant in dose rate. GCR is also dominated by protons, but the energy range is wider than in SPE. In addition, the contribution of other light and heavy ions to the health risks from GCR must be addressed. This paper will introduce the principal issues under consideration for space radiation protection. PMID:23032885

Kronenberg, Amy; Cucinotta, Francis A

2012-11-01

19

Policy offers protection from harassment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We face a number of legal and ethical issues in our work as scientists and as AGU members. To uphold the highest ethical standards in our professional activities, the Council has adopted policies on free access to published material, ethics in publishing, and misconduct in science. But what about guidelines to govern the personal behavior that constitutes harassment, sexual or otherwise?For years the AGU headquarters staff has had a policy that offers protection from harassment and rules for dealing with it, but the membership went without one until 1994. That year the Council adopted a policy that extends to the membership as well as to the staff and the vendors they encounter at meetings. The law only requires a policy to prevent harassment in the workplace, but the Council felt that a harassment policy was particularly important for members because the subtle behavior that can constitute harassment is most likely to occur at events that combine work and social interaction, such as the meetings, conferences, and training seminars that AGU members attend.

McNutt, Marcia

20

Radiation Protection in Canada  

PubMed Central

The current status of radiation protection in Canada is discussed in the second of a three-part series and particular emphasis is placed on the role of the Radiation Protection Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare. Administrative and operational control procedures have been developed, involving prior approval of health safeguards in the radioisotope user's facilities and techniques, and systematic monitoring and inspection. Where necessary, a medical follow-up of accidents and excessive radiation exposures is carried out. In 1963 more than 1600 radioisotope licences were issued. Filmmonitoring service was provided to about 15,500 isotope and x-ray workers. Semiautomatic handling procedures have been developed to meet the increasing demand for film-monitoring services. Monitoring and inspection services have been provided for x-ray workers, and a committee has been formed to develop administrative procedures for health and safety control in x-ray work. Committees have also been set up to review the health and safety aspects of the operation of nuclear reactors and particle accelerators.

Bird, P. M.

1964-01-01

21

Chemical Protection Against Radiation Damage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses potential war time and medical uses for chemical compounds giving protection against radiation damage. Describes compounds known to protect, research aimed at discovering such compounds, and problems of toxicity. (EB)

Campaigne, Ernest

1969-01-01

22

Chemical Protection Against Ionizing Radiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The scientific literature on radiation-protective drugs is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms involved in determining the sensitivity of biological material to ionizing radiation and mechanisms of chemical radioprotection. In Section I, the ty...

J. C. Livesey D. J. Reed L. F. Adamson

1984-01-01

23

Pregnancy and Radiation Protection  

SciTech Connect

Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating oncologist, other team and family members should carefully discuss for the decision of abortion. Important factors must be considered such as the stage and aggressiveness of the tumour, the location of the tumour, the stage of pregnancy, various therapies etc.

Gerogiannis, J. [Nicosia General Hospital, Nicosia (Cyprus); Stefanoyiannis, A. P. [University General Hospital of Athens 'Attikon', Athens (Greece)

2010-01-21

24

THE PHYSICS OF RADIATION PROTECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of atoraic energy is unavoidably accompanied by nuclear ; radiations such as gamma quanta, neutrons, electrons, alpha particles, ; protons, etc., which exert harmful biological effects; the workers at the ; installations and the population at large must be protected against them. The ; new science, the physics of radiation protection considers the following ; problems: 1. determination

Leipunskii

1962-01-01

25

Radiation protection guidelines for radiation emergencies  

SciTech Connect

The system of dose limitation and present guidance for emergency workers and guidance for intervention on behalf of the public are discussed. There are three elements for the system of dose limitation: justification, optimization and dose limits. The first element is basically a political process in this country. Justification is based on a risk-benefit analysis, and justification of the use of radioactive materials or radiation is generally not within the authority of radiation protection managers. Radiation protection managers typically assess detriments or harm caused by radiation exposure and have very little expertise in assessing the benefits of a particular practice involving nuclear material.

Lessard, E.T.; Meinhold, C.B.

1986-01-01

26

Chemical protection against ionizing radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the problems related to chemical protection against ionizing radiation are discussed with emphasis on : definition, classification, degree of protection, mechanisms of action and toxicity. Results on the biological response modifyers (BRMs) and on the combination of nontoxic (i.e. low) doses of sulphydryl radioprotectors and BRMs are presented.

Maisin, J. R.

27

Protective prostheses during radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Current applications and complications in the use of radiotherapy for the treatment of oral malignancy are reviewed. Prostheses are used for decreasing radiation to vital structures not involved with the lesion but located in the field of radiation. With a program of oral hygiene and proper dental care, protective prostheses can help decrease greatly the morbidity seen with existing radiotherapy regimens.

Poole, T.S.; Flaxman, N.A.

1986-04-01

28

Radiation Protection in Interventional Radiology (*)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interventional procedures are used by a significant number of medical specialities. Radiation protection (RP) for patients and staff is one of the main issues in Interventional Radiology (IR). UNSCEAR, ICRP and IAEA have devoted significant time over the last years to improve radiation safety in IR. Several combined factors: prolonged localized fluoroscopy, multiple radiographic exposures, and repeated procedures can cause

Eliseo Vano

29

CHEMICAL PROTECTION AGAINST IONIZING RADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work on chemical protection against radiation effects in mammals ; is reviewed, especially with respect to whole-body exposure to external radiation. ; This survey shows that many explanations are being offered to account for the ; action of radioprotective agents. In general, the proposed mechanisms are ; concerned with inactivation of radicals and other chemical intermediates, ; depletion of

R. L. Straube; H. M. Patt

1963-01-01

30

The development of radiation protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The harm that might be caused by radiation exposure was recognised within months of Rontgen's discovery of X-rays, and recommendations for protection of patients and workers with radiation were formulated first in 1928. In the light of increasing radiobiological, genetic and human epidemiological evidence, it became clear that there might be no threshold, below which harmful effects did not occur.

E. E. Pochin

1981-01-01

31

Forcing the issue on radiation policy  

SciTech Connect

For those frustrated by an inability to get a fair hearing on evidence that challenges current radiation policy, the recent case of a group of tobacco interests suing the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Federal court on its policy on second-hand smoke has important implications for radiation policy. The issue was only tangentially about tobacco; its main thrust was at EPA`s arbitrary and capricious rule-making process. The EPA is at least as vulnerable to the same charges in the radiation area, particularly with respect to radon. Radiation protection is associated in many people`s minds with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), but other agencies have also been involved. Radon, like second-hand smoke, has been tolerated for generations, and EPA has the burden of proving that it is a public hazard. The law and the unwritten rules of science are quite explicit in defining what must be done to make such a finding. In the case of radon, there is no prior basis for public concern. In fact, the public uses radium spas with radon concentrations up to one million times as high as the EPA permissible limit. In many countries, such spa usage is formally prescribed by physicians and paid for by national health insurance. The health effects, if any, from radon, as from second-hand smoke, are hard to quantify. But, this does not justify--in either case--the EPA`s straying from its published criteria and procedures for testing whether such health effects occur. A Federal court has now demonstrated its willingness to judge and strike down the EPA`s actions regarding second-hand smoke on their own merits, without attempting to be an arbiter of science. The result is a welcome breath of fresh air and an object lesson for those concerned about the mounting costs of treating radon as a major public health hazard.

Rockwell, T. [MPR Associates, Chevy Chase, MD (United States)

1999-09-01

32

1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

Not Available

1993-12-31

33

Radiation protection in pediatric radiology  

SciTech Connect

The book covers all the basic concepts concerned with minimizing the radiation dose to patients, parents, and personnel, while producing radiographic studies of diagnostic quality. Practical information about tissues at risk, radiation risks specific to children, performance of radiographic and fluoroscopic examination, gonadal protection, pregnancy, immobilization of children, mobile radiography, and equipment considerations including those pertaining to computed tomography and dental radiography are given. (KRM)

Not Available

1981-01-01

34

Applied radiation biology and protection  

SciTech Connect

Written by two eminent expects in the field with many years of teaching experience between them, this book presents a concise coverage of the physical and biological basics of radiation biology and protection. The book begins with a description of the methods of particle detection and dosimetric evaluation. The effects of ionizing radiation on man are treated from the initial physico-chemical phase of interaction to their conceivable pathological consequences. Regulations, limits and safeguards on nuclear power plants, radioisotope installations and medical centers which make use of ionizing radiation are given and the risks of exposure to natural, industrial and scientific radiation sources evaluated. The final chapter takes a look at some of the more important nuclear accidents, including Windscale, Three Mile Island, and Chernobyl, and describes basic procedures to be carried out in the eventuality of a nuclear emergency. Twelve chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Granier, R.; Gambini, D.J.

1990-01-01

35

Operational Radiation Protection in High-Energy Physics Accelerators  

SciTech Connect

An overview of operational radiation protection (RP) policies and practices at high-energy electron and proton accelerators used for physics research is presented. The different radiation fields and hazards typical of these facilities are described, as well as access control and radiation control systems. The implementation of an operational RP programme is illustrated, covering area and personnel classification and monitoring, radiation surveys, radiological environmental protection, management of induced radioactivity, radiological work planning and control, management of radioactive materials and wastes, facility dismantling and decommissioning, instrumentation and training.

Rokni, S.H.; Fasso, A.; Liu, J.C.; /SLAC

2012-04-03

36

Emerging issues in cospar's planetary protection policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the World Space Congress in October 2002 the COSPAR Bureau and Council approved a new, consolidated planetary protection policy for COSPAR. This document has subsequently been made available via the Internet on COSPAR's website , with the intention that it be used as an international consensus standard regarding the prevention of biological contamination due to solar system exploration missions. The availability of this policy has been quite useful in forging the terms for international partnerships involving such missions, as well, and NASA now routinely references the COSPAR policy as the basis for planetary protection activities in cooperative missions to other solar system bodies. Nonetheless, in the extremely dynamic (and beneficial) circumstances that solar system exploration has been dealing with, there are good reasons to suggest improvements to the existing policy at this time. Some of these improvements are related to minor inconsistencies, flaws, or oversights in the existing document, some are called for by new mission concepts and technology, and others are suggested by the overarching goals and expanded mission set being considered by the world's space agencies since the consolidated policy was issued. This paper will identify issues in all of these categories, and suggest items that will later be addressed in the work of the COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection - either at this meeting of COSPAR, or subsequent to further deliberations involving meetings, workshops, or symposia sponsored by the Panel.

Rummel, J. D.; Stabekis, P. D.

37

78 FR 59982 - Revisions to Radiation Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2012-0268] Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Assuring that Occupational Radiation Exposures Are As Low As Is Reasonably...Achievable,'' Section 12.2, ``Radiation Sources,'' Section 12.3...

2013-09-30

38

A proposed new policy for planetary protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to control contamination of planets by terrestrial microorganisms and organic constituents, U.S. planetary missions have been governed by a planetary protection (or planetary quarantine) policy which has changed little since 1972. This policy has recently been reviewed in light of new information obtained by planetary exploration during the past decade and because of changes to, or uncertainties in, some parameters used in the existing quantitative approach. On the basis of this analysis, a new planetary protection policy, with the following key features, is proposed: deemphasizing the use of mathematical models and quantitative analyses; establishing requirements for target planet/mission type (i.e., orbiter, lander, etc.) combinations; considering sample return missions a separate category; simplifying documentation; and imposing implementing procedures (i.e., trajectory biasing, cleanroom assembly, spacecraft sterilization, etc.) by exception, i.e., only if the planet/mission combination warrants such controls. Interpretation of the new policy for missions like Galileo, Mars Surface Sample Return, Saturn Orbiter with Twin Probes, and missions to comets are considered. In general, the new policy proposes elimination of all but documentation requirements for most planetary missions and simplification of the remaining compliance procedures.

Devincenzi, D. L.; Stabekis, P. D.; Barengoltz, J. B.

39

Protected Area Economics and Policy: Linking Conservation and Sustainable Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Economic and Policy Issues in Natural Habitats and Protected Areas; Conservation, Protected Areas, and the Global Economic System: How Debt, Trade, Exchange Rates, Inflation, and Macroeconomic Policy Affect Biological Diversity; Conservation in ...

M. Munasinghe J. A. McNeely

1994-01-01

40

Beliefs about radiation: scientists, the public and public policy.  

PubMed

Human behavioral responses to potential hazards are mediated by the beliefs held about those hazards. This holds whether the "behavior" under consideration is the provision of advice about the hazard, statements of support for policies that address the hazard, or personal behaviors in response to the hazard. This paper focuses on beliefs about radiation and the implications of those beliefs for views about radiation protection by both scientists and members of the U.S. public. We use data from a large sample of scientists, collected in 2002, and a series of surveys of the U.S. public collected in 2007. Among scientists, we focus on how beliefs about radiation are related to policy prescriptions for radiation protection. Among members of the lay public the focus shifts to the relationship between beliefs about radiation risks and policy preferences for nuclear energy and nuclear waste policy options. The importance of the differences and similarities in the patterns of beliefs of scientists and the lay public are discussed. PMID:19820463

Jenkins-Smith, Hank C; Silva, Carol L; Murray, Christopher

2009-11-01

41

Vulnerability analysis For evaluating quality of protection of security policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of security policies, specifically access control policies, plays an important part in securing the network by ensuring that policies are correct and consistent. Quality of protection (QoP) of a policy depends on a number of factors. Thus it is desirable to have one unified score based on these factors to judge the quality of the policy and to compare

Muhammad Abedin; Syeda Nessa; Ehab Al-shaer; Latifur Khan

2006-01-01

42

Research Priorities for Occupational Radiation Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the results of an extensive canvass of government, professional, societal, commercial, state, and local occupational radiation protection organizations. In the report, the subpanel addresses broad areas of radiation research it identi...

1994-01-01

43

Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program  

SciTech Connect

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

2007-08-09

44

Aiming Optimum Space Radiation Protection using Regolith  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation protection of space radiation is very important factor in manned space activity on the moon. At the construction of lunar base, low cost radiation shielding would be achieved using regolith that exists on the surface of the moon. We studied radiation shielding ability of regolith as answer the question, how much of depth would be necessary to achieve minimum

Daisuke Masuda; Aiko Nagamatsu; Hiroko Indo; Yoichiro Iwashita; Hiromi Suzuki; Toru Shimazu; Sachiko Yano; Fumiaki Tanigaki; Noriaki Ishioka; Chiaki Mukai; Hideyuki J. Majima

2010-01-01

45

10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20...REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation...

2013-01-01

46

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

SciTech Connect

The original recommendations for radiation protection guidelines were made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1970. Since that time the US crews have become more diverse in their makeup and much has been learned about both radiation-induced cancer and other late effects. While far from adequate there is now some understanding of the risks that high-Z and -energy (HZE) particles pose. For these reasons it was time to reconsider the radiation protection guidelines for space workers. This task was undertaken recently by National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). 42 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Fry, R.J.M.

1987-01-01

47

Setting standards for radiation protection: A time for change  

SciTech Connect

In 1950, the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommended that ``certain radiation effects are irreversible and cumulative.`` Furthermore, the ICRP ``strongly recommended that every effort be made to reduce exposures to all types of ionizing radiations to the lowest possible level.`` Then in 1954, the ICRP published its assumption that human response to ionizing radiation was linear with dose, together with the recommendation that exposures be kept as low as practicable. These concepts are still the foundation of radiation protection policy today, even though, as Evans has stated, ``The linear non-threshold (LNT) model was adopted specifically on a basis of mathematical simplicity, not from radio-biological data.... Groups responsible for setting standards for radiation protection should be abreast of new developments and new data as they are published; however, this does not seem to be the case. For example, there have been many reports in scientific, peer-reviewed, and other publications during the last three decades that have shown the LNT model and the policy of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) to be invalid. However, none of these reports has been refuted or even discussed by standard-setting groups. We believe this mandates a change in the standard-setting process.

Patterson, H.W.; Hickman, D.P.

1996-01-01

48

Anticarcinogenesis and radiation protection 2  

SciTech Connect

The dramatic decrease in the incidence of stomach cancer in industrialized countries during the past 50 years, which is yet to be fully explained, and the observation that carcinogenesis in laboratory animals can be inhibited by antioxidants, retinoids, and caloric restriction, among other influences, challenge us to press on in the search for practical means to prevent cancer. It is in relation to this goal that the studies summarized in this book have special significance. This book is based on the invited and contributed papers presented at the Third International Conference on Anticarcinogenesis and Radiation Protection, held on October 15--21, 1989, in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia. They cover a broad range of investigations into the mechanisms and inhibition of carcinogenesis. In keeping with recent advances in our understanding of the importance of oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes in carcinogenesis, many of the reports focus on mutations and related changes at the level of DNA. At the same time, however, other reports deal with nutritional, immunological, endocrinological, and epidemiological aspects. In all, the various reports address carcinogenesis and its inhibition at virtually every level of biological organization. Included in this compendium are timely reviews of diverse and promising research strategies for cancer prevention, as pursued by investigators in different parts of the world.

Nygaard, O.F.; Upton, A.C. (eds.)

1991-01-01

49

10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

2013-01-01

50

10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

2013-01-01

51

10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

2013-01-01

52

School Sun Protection Policies: Measure Development and Assessments in Two Regions of the United States  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected in 2005-2007 from public school districts that enrolled in a randomized trial evaluating a policy promotion program. METHODS Written policies were collected from 103 of 112 school districts in Colorado and Southern California prior to randomization. We developed methods for selecting policy headings/sections topics likely to contain sun safety policies for students and for assessing the presence, strength, and intent of policies. Trained coders assessed the content of each policy document. RESULTS Overall, 31% of districts had a policy addressing sun safety, most commonly, protective clothing, hats, sunscreen, and education at baseline. More California districts (51.9%) had these policies than Colorado districts (7.8%, p<.001). Policy scores were highest in districts with fewer Caucasian students (b=-0.02, p=.022) in Colorado (b=-0.02, p=.007) but not California (b=0.01, p=.299). CONCLUSION The protocol for assessing sun safety policy in board-approved written policy documents had several advantages over surveys of school officials. Sun protection policies were uncommon and limited in scope in 2005-2007. California has been more active at legislating school policy than Colorado. School district policies remain a largely untapped method for promoting the sun protection of children.

Buller, David B.; French, Simone A.; Buller, Mary K.; Ashley, Jeff L.

2012-01-01

53

Radiation Protection Technologist Training and Certification Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this program is to establish training requirements and methods for certifying the technical competence of Radiation Protection Technologists. This manual delineates general requirements as well as academic training, on-the-job training, are...

1982-01-01

54

Radiation Worker Protection by Exposure Scheduling  

PubMed Central

The discovery of the protective adaptive response of cells to a low dose of radiation suggests applications to radiation worker/first responder protection. Its use in cancer radiotherapy has been discussed in a separate publication. This paper describes simple changes in scheduling that can make use of these beneficial adaptive effects for protection. No increase in total exposure is necessary, only a simple change in the timing of radiation exposure. A low dose of radiation at a sufficient dose rate will trigger the adaptive response. This in turn will offer a considerable protection against the damage from a subsequent high dose. A simple scenario is discussed as well as a brief review of the experimental basis of the adaptive response.

Blankenbecler, Richard

2011-01-01

55

RADIATION BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS FOR RADIATION PROTECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opportunity to write a historical review of the field of radiation biology allows for the viewing of the devel- opment and maturity of a field of study, thereby being able to provide the appropriate context for the earlier years of re- search and its findings. The pioneering work of Muller, Sax, and McClintock, and many others, has stood the

R. Julian Preston

2004-01-01

56

Radiation chemistry and environmental protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of different technological methods in one plant is usually economically advantageous in industry. Such a general approach is also useful in solving ecological problems by methods of radiation technology. This method of cleaning `harsh` sufactants and `mold` products and a stage of subsequent biological purification of these products from the water. Combining radiation and adsorption techniques is also

A. N. Ermakov; N. P. Tarasova; L. T. Bugaenko

1992-01-01

57

49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193...Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection. Each LNG container...following exceptions: (a) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated...

2012-10-01

58

49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193...Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection. Each LNG container...following exceptions: (a) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated...

2011-10-01

59

Research priorities for occupational radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

The Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research concludes that the most urgently needed research is that leading to the resolution of the potential effects of low-level ionizing radiation. This is the primary driving force in setting appropriate radiation protection standards and in directing the emphasis of radiation protection efforts. Much has already been done in collecting data that represents a compendium of knowledge that should be fully reviewed and understood. It is imperative that health physics researchers more effectively use that data and apply the findings to enhance understanding of the potential health effects of low-level ionizing radiation and improve the risk estimates upon which current occupational radiation protection procedures and requirements depend. Research must be focused to best serve needs in the immediate years ahead. Only then will we get the most out of what is accomplished. Beyond the above fundamental need, a number of applied research areas also have been identified as national priority issues. If effective governmental focus is achieved on several of the most important national priority issues, important occupational radiation protection research will be enhanced, more effectively coordinated, and more quickly applied to the work environment. Response in the near term will be enhanced and costs will be reduced by: developing microprocessor-aided {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} instruments to simplify the use and processing of radiation data; developing more sensitive, energy-independent, and tissue-equivalent dosimeters to more accurately quantify personnel dose; and developing an improved risk assessment technology base. This can lead to savings of millions of dollars in current efforts needed to ensure personnel safety and to meet new, more stringent occupational guidelines.

Not Available

1994-02-01

60

RADIATION PROTECTION CALCULATIONS FOR REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical shielding calculations for nuclear reactors are described. ; Nuclear radiation involved in reactor shielding and their sources, calculation ; methcds and their basic theories and the nuclear data of materials, which are ; necessary for the calculations, are listed or referred to in the special ; bibliography. The calculations can be made using normal desk calculators. The ; calculations

Lindackers

1960-01-01

61

Environmental protection by using radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of radiation for controlling environmental pollutants ; such as stack gas, sludge, and microorganisms in waste water is described. The ; sizes and costs of various irradiation sources such as ⁶°Co, ¹³⁷Cs, ; atomic reactors, accelerators, and spent fuel used for waste water treatment are ; compared, showing accelenators to have the lowest cost, except for atomic ;

Machi

1973-01-01

62

Aiming Optimum Space Radiation Protection using Regolith.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation protection of space radiation is very important factor in manned space activity on the moon. At the construction of lunar base, low cost radiation shielding would be achieved using regolith that exists on the surface of the moon. We studied radiation shielding ability of regolith as answer the question, how much of depth would be necessary to achieve minimum radiation protection. We estimated the shielding ability of regolith against each atomic number of space radiation particles. Using stopping power data of ICRU REPORT49 and 73, we simulated the approximate expression (function of the energy of the atomic nucleus as x and the atomic number as Z) of the stopping power for the space proton particle (nucleus of H) against silicon dioxide (SiO2), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), and iron (Fe), which are the main components of regolith. Based on the expression, we applied the manipulation to the other particles of space radiation to up to argon particle (Ar). These simulated expressions complied well the data of ICRU REPORT49 and 73 except alpha particle (nucleus of He). The simulation values of stop-ping power of ten elements from potassium to nickel those we had no data in ICRU REPORT were further simulated. Using the obtained expressions, the relationship between the radiation absorbed dose and depth of a silicon dioxide was obtained. The space radiation relative dose with every depth in the moon could be estimated by this study.

Masuda, Daisuke; Nagamatsu, Aiko; Indo, Hiroko; Iwashita, Yoichiro; Suzuki, Hiromi; Shimazu, Toru; Yano, Sachiko; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki; Mukai, Chiaki; Majima, Hideyuki J.

63

Has radiation protection become a health hazard?  

SciTech Connect

Scientists and engineers have a responsibility to speak out when their findings and recommendations lead to public harm. This can happen in several ways. One is when the media misinterpret or sensationalize a scientific fact misleading the public and creating unwarranted fear. Another is when regulations or public policy decision are purportedly based on scientific data but are, in fact, scientifically invalid. Fear of radiation has been far more detrimental to health than radiation itself. The author knows of no deaths to the public from accidental release of radiation, but the consequences of fear have been deadly.

Rockwell, T. [MPR Associates, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1996-12-31

64

Risk assessment for radiation protection purposes.  

PubMed

In defining criteria for good protection against ionizing radiation, it is important to assess quantitatively the likely risk of any radiation exposure. The 'somatic' risks to the individual result mainly from induction of cancer in the organs irradiated, and these risks can now be estimated on the basis of numerous detailed epidemiological surveys of exposed human populations. Estimates of the risk of hereditary effects, from genetic changes induced in germ cells, are based largely on the frequency with which such effects are induced in other species. In both cases the risk at very low dose can be inferred using knowledge of the way in which radiation damage is caused in tissues. Coherent systems of radiation protection are based on a restriction of doses to the whole body and to individual organs, such that the induction of cancer and genetic harm is infrequent, and the threshold dose for causing other, 'non-stochastic', effects is not exceeded. PMID:7020708

Pochin, E E

1980-09-01

65

Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

Not Available

1991-01-01

66

Radiation policy: a decision-making model.  

PubMed Central

Priority setting in radiation policy is complex because it depends to a large extent on risk perception. It has been shown repeatedly that the public is much more sensitive to potential harmful sequelae of radiation than to those of other environmental pollutants. Thus, cancer risk, particularly at low doses, has become a sociopolitical issue. The principle that radiation causes cancer, is life shortening, and causes an array of other pathologic disorders, is well accepted yet the quantification of sequelae at the lower end point of the dose-response curve is still controversial. The presence of a significant carcinogenic effect at very low doses has strong financial implications. Sociopolitical and economic values play a major role in the interpretation of available data. Thus, the use of nuclear energy is a function of risk/benefit, pressures, available alternatives, and cost. Three case studies--nuclear plant workers, children irradiated for an essentially benign condition, and food safety--are used to illustrate polar policy decisions.

Modan, B

1997-01-01

67

Neutron Measuring Instruments for Radiation Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present report deals with selected topics from the field of neutron dosimetry for radiation protection connected with the work of the subcommittee 6802 in the Standards Committee on Radiology (NAR) of the German Standards Institute (DIN). It is a sort...

M. Heinzelmann W. Schneider M. Hoefert H. Kuehn R. Jahr

1979-01-01

68

Energy Development, Environmental Protection, and Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A major problem in American public policy making is the difficulty of balancing domestic energy resource development with enhancement of environmental quality. Social restraints on energy-environment solutions necessitate the balancing of alternative futures. The interests of government, industry, and the public must all be considered in

Regens, James L.

1978-01-01

69

Shielded radiation protection quantities beyond LEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recommended that the quantities used to evaluate health risk to astronauts due to radiation exposure be effective dose and gray-equivalent. The NCRP recommends that effective dose be the limiting quantity for prevention of stochastic effects. Effective dose is a measure of whole body exposure, a weighted average of dose equivalent to a number body tissues for which the NCRP has adopted tissue weighting factors recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). For deterministic effects, the NCRP has recommended that gray-equivalent be used. Gray-equivalent is evaluated for specific critical organs and is the weighted sum of absorbed dose from field components to that organ using the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) number for that field component. RBE numbers recommended by the NCRP are used. The NCRP has provided effective dose limits as well as limits for gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO) for astronauts in low earth orbit (LEO). As yet, no such limits have been defined for astronaut operations beyond LEO. In this study, the radiation protection quantities, effective dose and gray-equivalent to the eyes, skin, and BFO, are calculated for several environments beyond LEO. The lunar surface and Martian environments are included. For each environment, these radiation protection quantities are calculated behind varying amounts of various types of shielding materials. The results are compared to the exposure limits for LEO, since limits have not yet been defined for interplanetary missions. The benefits of using shielding material containing hydrogen and choosing optimal mission times are discussed.

Clowdsley, M. S.; Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M. Y.; Anderson, B. M.; Nealy, J. E.

70

Proposal to revise the planetary protection policy language for Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we propose revisions to the planetary protection policy language related to Mars exploration. Analysis of the planetary protection policy documents from both NASA and COSPAR reveals that particular phrases (or sections) associated with the Category III and Category IV requirements are ambiguous and/or potentially misleading. Therefore, revised language for specific sections of NASA NPR 8020.12D and the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy will be presented. For NASA NPR 8020.12D, the proposed language changes will revise and extend upon the sections relating to organic materials reporting and archiving (2.3.1C), the Mars impact requirements for orbiters, flybys, and cruise stages (5.3.1.2), the numerical bioburden requirements for Mars orbiters (5.3.1.4), and the bioburden limits for Mars landers (5.3.2.1-5.3.2.4). Further, our proposed change to the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy centers upon the total bioburden limits for off-nominal landings in the Martian special regions. Together, the proposed language changes will ultimately serve to update, clarify, and better coordinate the domestic and international policy documents for planetary protection.

Mogul, Rakesh; Stabekis, Pericles

2012-07-01

71

Whistleblowing Whistleblower Policies, Whistleblower Protection Policies and their Manifestation in the United Nations Secretariat  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since Wikileaks, the term whistleblowing is ubiquitous and has been omnipresent in the media towards the end of 2010. Whistleblowing\\u000a and whistleblower policies, however, have existed for a much longer time. This article will provide an overview over the concept\\u000a of whistleblowing, approaches to whistleblowing research, whistleblower policies and whistleblower protection policies in\\u000a international conventions against corruption. A second focus

Aleksandra Djokic

72

Radiation monitoring policy at the advanced light source  

SciTech Connect

When the accelerator first began operation it was decided that, until we had the necessary dosimetry data to decide otherwise, we would badge the entire worker and experimental population. Each person was issued a dosimetry badge that contained 4 TLD elements. Badges were processed on a monthly basis. After three years of analyzing a total of 65,000 TLD elements, the decision was made to modify the radiation monitoring policy at the ALS. Only those individuals in the workforce that have any potential for exposure, no matter how small, would be badged. Subsequently, DOE conducted an independent review of the ALS radiation monitoring and dosimetry program. This review concluded that the ALS program, if expanded as proposed, would be adequate under the 10 CFR 835 Rule to establish radiation exposures to an acceptable level of confidence. The review team recommended the ALS provide more comprehensive documentation on the basis for its radiation protection and monitoring program. This document describes the technical justification for that program.

Donahue, R.; Heinzelman, K.; Perdue, G.

1998-02-04

73

US NRC discussion of options to revise radiation protection recommendations.  

PubMed

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is continuing the process of engaging stakeholders on issues associated with possible changes to the radiation protection regulations contained in 10 CFR Part 20, and other parts of the NRC regulations, to increase alignment with international recommendations. The Commission is particularly seeking to explore implications, as appropriate and where scientifically justified, of greater alignment with the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission for Radiological Protection. Other information from national and international sources is also being considered. Given that the NRC regulations provide adequate protection, the discussion has been focusing on discerning the benefits and burdens associated with revising the radiation protection regulatory framework. NRC, through three Federal Register Notices, has officially solicited comments on a series of key issues, and has conducted a series of facilitated workshops to encourage feedback from a wide range of stakeholders. The issues include the use of updated scientific methodologies and terminology, the occupational dose limits, and the use of the concepts of constraints in optimisation. NRC staff provided a policy paper with recommendations to the Commission on April 25, 2012 (NRC, 2012). PMID:23089031

Cool, D A

2012-08-22

74

Radiation protection training for diverse general employee populations  

SciTech Connect

Radiation protection training for the general employee at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has undergone a great deal of restructuring in the last two years. The number of personnel totally dedicated to nuclear facilities is less than a fifth of our employees and the percentage of contracted employees who are dedicated radiation workers is much smaller. However, the aging of our facilities and increasing emphasis on environmental control means that everyone needs to understand the basics of radiation protection. In accordance with changing DOE guidelines and internal ORNL policies, greater emphasis has been placed on keeping training focused on current issues, training the total workforce, and requiring some type of testing or feedback mechanism. This report describes efforts to instill respect, but not fear, of radiation in the work environment. Flexible tools are being developed to meet this objective for several diverse general employee populations. Continuing efforts include consideration of computer-based training for retraining, developing additional modules for specialized groups and jobs, and testing/documentation appropriate to each population segment. 6 refs.

Copenhaver, E.D.; Houser, B.S.

1986-01-01

75

Proceedings: 2003 Radiation Protection Technology Conference  

SciTech Connect

Health physics professionals within the nuclear industry are continually upgrading their programs with new methods and technologies. The Third Annual EPRI Radiation Protection Technology Conference facilitated this effort by communicating technical developments, program improvements, and experience throughout the nuclear power industry. When viewed from the perspective of shorter outages, diminishing numbers of contract RP technicians and demanding emergent work, this information flow is critical for the industry.

None

2004-04-01

76

Occupational radiation protection dosimetry in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The general features of occupational radiation protection dosimetry in Nigeria within the period 1990-1999 have been summarised. About 640 personnel, representing about 25% of the estimated number of radiation workers in Nigeria, were monitored by the TL dosimetry technique during the period, with the majority being the personnel of the teaching hospitals across the country. Most private establishments, especially the X ray diagnostic centres, operate without dosimetry coverage or supervision by a regulatory authority. The weighted mean of the annual effective dose ranged between 0 and 28.97 mSv with the upper limit of collective effective dose being 18.47 man.Sv per year. The individual risk estimate due to this is about 1.5 x 10(-3) per year and this was among the medical personnel. The value could be more if all radiation workers in the country were monitored. PMID:11468807

Farai, I P; Obed, R I

2001-01-01

77

Sun protection policies in Miami-Dade County public schools: opportunities for skin cancer prevention.  

PubMed

Childhood exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun and a history of sunburns are risk factors for skin cancer. Because children spend time outdoors when they are at school, school sun protection policies are an important health issue, particularly in areas of the country with year-round warm and sunny climates, such as Florida. To better understand the sun protection policies and practices in South Florida schools, a sample (n = 51) of elementary and middle schools in Miami-Dade County public schools were surveyed as part of a CDC-funded cancer control program at the University of Miami. Of the principals and teachers surveyed, most (78%) knew about the county school system's guidelines for avoiding excessive heat exposure, which include two sun protection measures. Two-thirds reported that they shared these guidelines with teachers; 21% shared them with parents. Few schools monitor implementation of the guidelines, although 70% schedule outdoor activities to avoid peak sun hours. No schools required sunscreen, hats, or protective clothing. Physical education teachers and students spend an average of 4.5 and 0.6 hours per day outdoors, respectively. Improved school sun protection policies and monitoring of such policies is needed to reduce sun exposure and skin cancer risk for both students and staff. PMID:16354252

Kirsner, Robert S; Parker, Dorothy F; Brathwaite, Noel; Thomas, Andrea; Tejada, Francisco; Trapido, Edward J

78

EPA`s occupational radiation safety and health protection program  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to describe EPA`s Occupational Radiation, Safety, and Health Protection Program ({open_quotes}Program{close_quotes}), from its inception to the present day, emphasizing problems encountered and solutions derived in developing and implementing a centrally administered national health physics program. The Program uses written policies, guidance, practices, and methods, as well as a Radiation Safety Information Management System (RADSIMS) to manage and oversee individual Program components and trends. These components include (1) training and education, (2) monitoring and dosimetry, (3) medical/health physics guidance, and (4) quality assurance/control/improvement. The Program, which is currently operational in all ten EPA Regions, is unique in that it incorporates a national database (consistent among all Regions), tied by telecommunications into a VAX computer at Headquarters, into a health physics monitoring system for the purpose of ensuring that EPA workers occupational exposure to ionizing radiation is maintained at levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Development and implementation of the Program has evolved into four distinct phases starting in FY92: (1) EPA Region IV developed a pilot-program with Headquarters, and quality action teams were formed to develop Program components and policies; phases (2) and (3) the Program was expanded into EPA Regions V, VII, and VIII (FY93) and then the remaining six regions (FY94). Phase (4) continued the implementation of the Program as needed agency-wide so as to include EPA applicable program offices and possibly some laboratories during FY96.

Colwell, S.C.; Matusewicz, N.M. [SC& A, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Boyd, M.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-06-01

79

The Seven (Or More) Deadly (Or Not So Deadly) Sins of Radiation Protection  

SciTech Connect

This editorial considers the errors that can occur in the routine practice of radiation protection in the workplace. This work provides a tool and an incentive for radiation protection professionals to mentally examine their radiation protection responsibilities to identify actions they may take to improve their part of the practice of radiation protection for the benefit of humankind. We introduce a rating tool that is patterned after the IAEA International Nuclear Event Scale.?Sins? discussed include ignorance of the radiological situation, failure to integrate safety management, disabling safety interlocks, warning devices, access controls, omission of''reasonable'' from the policy of''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA), extrapolation of risk beyond reason, using radiation exposure as an excuse for terminating an unwanted pregnancy, escalation of safety requirements beyond reason, failure to average a concentration standard, not responding to concerns (of workers, public, patient s, etc.), over-training, and substitution of prescriptive procedures for judgment. Readers are encouraged to look at their radiation protection activities and judge which ones do not make sense from the viewpoint of protecting people against radiation. It is likely that readers will find more than one radiation protection activity that bears scrutiny.

Strom, Daniel J.; Stansbury, Paul S.

2000-06-01

80

Refinement of planetary protection policy for Mars missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under existing COSPAR policy adopted in 1984, missions to Mars (landers, probes, and some orbiters) are designated as Category IV missions. As such, the procedures for implementing planetary protection requirements could include trajectory biasing, cleanrooms, bioload reduction, sterilization of hardware, and bioshields. In 1992, a U.S. National Research Council study recommended that controls on forward contamination of Mars be tied

D. L. DeVincenzi; P. Stabekis; J. Barengoltz

1996-01-01

81

Environmental Policy Beliefs of Stakeholders in Protected Area Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices.

Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

2007-04-01

82

Environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management.  

PubMed

Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices. PMID:17265109

Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

2007-01-29

83

Protection against solar ultraviolet radiation in childhood.  

PubMed

In the last decade, awareness of the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation has increased. Modern lifestyles, outdoor occupations, sports and other activities make total sun avoidance impossible. Children spend more time outdoors than adults and there is compelling evidence that childhood is a particularly vulnerable time for the photocarcinogenic effects of the sun. Sun exposure among infants and pre-school age children is largely depend on the discretion of adult care providers. It is important to learn safe habits about sun-safety behaviours during the childhood. Children deserve to live and play in safe environments, and it is the responsibility of every adult to help children stay safe. Protecting children from excessive sun exposure is protection from sunburn today and other forms of sun damages, especially skin cancers, in the future. PMID:22220468

Pustisek, Nives; Situm, Mirna

2011-09-01

84

Overview of the 2008 COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In January 2008 the COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection held a Policy Workshop in Mont?al, Canada to consider a number of recommendations that had been suggested at prior e Panel business meetings for updating and clarifying the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy that had been adopted at the World Space Congress in 2002. One particular element of the Policy that was due for clarification was the definition of "Special Regions" on Mars, which was discussed by the Panel at a Special Regions Colloquium in Rome in September 2008, and which was recommended for updating by both the US National Research Council's Committee on Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars and by a Special Regions Science Analysis Group organized by NASA under its Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group in 2006. In other business, the Workshop also discussed and adopted wording to reflect the planetary protection considerations associated with future human missions to Mars (subsequent to several NASA and ESA workshops defining those), and addressed the planetary protection categorizations of both Venus and the Earth's Moon. The Workshop also defined a plan to move forward on the categorization of Outer Planet Satellites (to be done in conjunction with SC's B and F), and revised certain portions of the wording of the 1983 version of the COSPAR policy statement, emphasized full participation by all national members in planetary protection decisions and the need to study the ethical considerations of space exploration, and provided for a traceable version of the policy to be assembled and maintained by the Panel. This talk will review the Mont?al Workshop, and use its themes to introduce the remaining speakers in the session. e

Rummel, John

85

[Radiation protectants of the crystalline lens].  

PubMed

During more than a half of century, numerous compounds have been tested in different models against radiation-induced cataract. In this report, we will review the radioprotectors that have been already tested for non-human crystalline lens protection. We will focus on the most important published studies in this topic and the mechanisms of cytoprotection reported in vitro and in vivo from animals. The most frequent mechanisms incriminated in the cytoprotective effect are: free radical scavenging, limitation of lipid peroxidation, modulation of cycle progression increase of intracellular reduced glutathion pool, reduction of DNA strand breaks and limitation of apoptotic cell death. Amifostine (or Ethyol) and anethole dithiolethione (or Sulfarlem), already used clinically as chemo- and radioprotectants, could be further tested for ocular radioprotection particularly for radiation-induced cataract. PMID:15124544

Belkacmi, Y; Pasquier, D; Castelain, B; Warnet, J M; Lartigau, E

2003-11-01

86

Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued radiation protection standards for the potential spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste disposal system in Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These standards are found in Part 197 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 197). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 directed, and gave the authority to, EPA to take this action based upon input from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). The final standards were published in the Federal Register (66 FR 32073) on 13 June 2001. The 40 CFR Part 197 standards have four major parts: (1) individual-protection during storage activities; (2) individual-protection following closure of the repository; (3) human-intrusion; and (4) ground-water protection. The storage standard is 150 microsieverts (Sv) annual committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) to any member of the general public. The disposal standards are: (1) 150 Sv annual CEDE for the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) for 10,000 years after disposal; (2) 150 Sv received by the RMEI within 10,000 years after disposal as a result of human intrusion; and (3) the levels of radionuclides in the ground water cannot exceed 40 Sv from beta and gamma emitters, 5 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) of radium-226 and -228, and 15 pCi/L of gross alpha activity. There are also requirements related to the post-10,000-year period, the basis of compliance judgments, and performance assessments. The Agency has published its responses to the comments received, its technical background document, and its economic impact analysis. In addition to printed form, the documents are available on the World Wide Web at http://www.epa.gov/radiation/yucca/index.html.

Clark, R. L.

2002-02-27

87

Overview of radiation protection at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation protection program at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory is described. After establishing a set of stringent design guidelines for radiation protection, both normal and accidental beam losses for each accelerator were estimated. From these parameters, shielding requirements were specified using Monte-Carlo radiation transport codes. A groundwater activation model was developed to demonstrate compliance with federal drinking water standards.

S. Baker; G. Britvich; J. Bull; L. Coulson; J. Coyne; N. Mokhov; V. Romero; G. Stapleton

1994-01-01

88

The reference individual of radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

The 70-kg {open_quotes}standard man{close_quotes} representing a typical Western adult male has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s. In 1949 at the Chalk River conference, health physicists from the U.S., UK, and Canada agreed on the concept of a standard man to facilitate comparison of internal dose estimates. The 70-kg standard man included specifications of the masses of 25 organs and tissues, total body content of 15 elements, total water intake and output, water content of the body, and some anatomical and physiological data for the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. In 1959, in its Publication 2{sup 2} on permissible doses for internal radiation the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) modified standard man. In 1963 the ICRP established a task group to revise and extend the standard man concept. The name was changed later to Reference Man and the task group`s work was published in 1975 as ICRP Publication 23{sup 3}. Publication 23 similar to Publication 2, updates and documents the sources of the data. Data on women, children, and fetuses were also collected, where available, but these data were limited primarily to anatomical data and only a few reference values were established for these groups. Information assembled during the course of the effort on the Reference Man report was used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to construct a mathematical representation of the body (a phantom) that was suitable for use with Monte Carlo methods in the calculation of organ doses. That effort was undertaken to improve estimates of dose from photon-emitting radionuclides residing within organs, so-called internal emitters. The phantom, although updated throughout the years, remains today as the basis for organ dose estimates in nuclear medicine and radiation protection and underlies the radiation risk data derived from the epidemiologic studies of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Eckerman, K.F.; Cristy, M.

1995-12-31

89

Radiated Emission Limits to Protect Digital Wireless Communication Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

International limits for maximum levels of unintentional radiated emission from electronic devices are developed to protect analog communication services. The international standardization work to develop such limits to protect digital communication servi...

P. Stenumgaard

2004-01-01

90

Manual on radiation protection in hospital and general practice. Volume 1. Basic protection requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general review of the radiation protection requirements common to all medical applications of ionizing radiation and radionuclides is presented in the first volume of a three-part series dealing with the radiation protection of patients, occupationally exposed persons, and the public. The series is directed to national authorities, hospital administrators, supervisors, hospital workers, teachers, and others who have responsibility in

C. B. Braestrup; K. J. Vikterlof

1974-01-01

91

Proposed Updates to the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy, 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the last meeting of the COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection in Montral, Canada at the 2008 COSPAR Assembly, the Panel has had two workshops to consider recommendations to be made to update or modify the current COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy in the spirit of continuous improvement. As proposed in 2008, and consistent with the vision of supporting future international missions of exploration in a comprehensive way, both workshops were focused on the categorizations appropriate to missions to Outer Planet satellites and other small bodies of the solar system. As is being described elsewhere in this session, one workshop (Vienna) attempted to cover the entire set of such objects, and based on the results of that workshop, a second meeting was held (Pasadena) to focus specifically on Titan and Ganymede missions. At both such workshops, and in other fora, additional improvements to the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy have been proposed. This talk will review these proposals, and introduce the resolutions that will later be taken to the Panel on Planetary Protection business meeting after the session.

Rummel, John

92

46 CFR 308.207 - War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. 308.207 Section 308.207...TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.207 War risk protection and...

2011-10-01

93

46 CFR 308.207 - War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. 308.207 Section 308.207...TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.207 War risk protection and...

2012-10-01

94

Radiation Protection Research Recommendations for Missions Beyond LEO  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the request of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements prepared NCRP Report 153, Information Needed to Make Radiation Protection Recommendations for Space Missions Beyond Low-Earth Orbit. This lengthy report, over 400 pages in length, published in November 2006, was drafted by NCRP Scientific Committee 1-7, and is a continuation of NCRP

Lawrence W. Townsend

2008-01-01

95

Proceedings of the Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21-24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program

R. E. Swaja; C. S. Sims; W. H. Casson

1991-01-01

96

Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these

R. E. Swaja; C. S. Sims

1988-01-01

97

Protecting the ozone shield: A new public policy. Technical report, Jan-Dec 90  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the 1980's, public attention and concern have become increasingly focused on a number of specific environmental issues including the consequences of stratospheric ozone depletion cause by the release of CFC's and halons into the environment. This report discusses the policy issues relating to the use of CFC's and halons and their long-term impact on the environment. Stratospheric ozone protects the earth, and the life that dwells on it, from the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation (UVb). A prolonged increase in UVb radiation exposure can cause suppression of the immune system and an increase in the incidence of skin cancer and cataracts in human beings. High levels of UVb radiation can damage land and water based plant life including major food crops, and can cause an increase in smog formation, which has become a major problem in many urban areas.

Manz, P.C.

1991-04-01

98

Dosimetry and Protection from Ionizing Radiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Consideration is given to different methods of ionizing radiation dosimetry and simplified methods for design of shielding for gamma radiation, for neutron radiation and for design of shielding in a nuclear reactor.

B. P. Golubev

1967-01-01

99

Study of Biological Effects and Radiation Protection to Future European Manned Space Flights.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Earth's radiation environment; radiation dose calculation and measurement; foreseen exposure in European manned space missions; biological effects of radiation; and radiation monitoring and protection are discussed.

J. Bourrieau J. Berry J. P. Philippon M. Roux G. Reitz

1988-01-01

100

The importance and unique aspects of radiation protection in medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation protection in medicine has unique aspects and is an essential element of medical practice. Medical uses of radiation occur throughout the world, from large cities to rural clinics. It has been estimated that the number of medical procedures using radiation grew from about 1.7 billion in 1980 to almost 4 billion in 2007. In spite of these large numbers,

Ola Holmberg; Renate Czarwinski; Fred Mettler

2010-01-01

101

Risk Management Vs Risk Retreat: A Case Study of Child Protection Policy Carriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper reports on an interview based study on child care and protection policy and legislation in one Australian state. Specifically, it focuses on the ways in which policy officers frame child care and protection for teachers. Four major themes emerged,in the interview talk of policy officers: (1) childrens rights (2) distinguishing between risk, harm and significant harm; (3)

Parlo Singh

102

UV radiation effects over microorganisms and study of protective agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important subject of astrobiological interest is the study of the effect of ultraviolet radiation on microorganisms and their protection mechanisms against this damaging agent. UV radiation is considered highly mutagenic and sterilizing, especially during the period of origin of life on Earth when the absence of the ozone layer meant there was no effective protection against ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Ferric iron, the product of iron metabolism, as a consequence of its spectral properties, has been suggested to provide protection against radiation making the study of its protective effect on acidophilic microorganisms from the Tinto ecosystem of interest in order to gain information about its possible implications in the development of life during the Archaean as well on planets lacking a protective atmosphere such as Mars. The studies described in this paper constitute preliminary experiments.

Gmez Gmez, Felipe; Grau Carles, Agustn; Vazquez, Luis; Amils, Ricardo

2004-03-01

103

Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection  

SciTech Connect

In the first chapter, terminology, physical and radiological quantities, and units of measurement used to describe the properties of accelerator radiation fields are reviewed. The general considerations of primary radiation fields pertinent to accelerators are discussed. The primary radiation fields produced by electron beams are described qualitatively and quantitatively. In the same manner the primary radiation fields produced by proton and ion beams are described. Subsequent chapters describe: shielding of electrons and photons at accelerators; shielding of proton and ion accelerators; low energy prompt radiation phenomena; induced radioactivity at accelerators; topics in radiation protection instrumentation at accelerators; and accelerator radiation protection program elements.

Cossairt, J.D.

1996-10-01

104

48 CFR 952.223-72 - Radiation protection and nuclear criticality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radiation protection and nuclear criticality...Provisions and Clauses 952.223-72 Radiation protection and nuclear criticality...section 274 of the Atomic Energy Act): Radiation Protection and Nuclear...

2012-10-01

105

48 CFR 952.223-72 - Radiation protection and nuclear criticality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radiation protection and nuclear criticality...Provisions and Clauses 952.223-72 Radiation protection and nuclear criticality...section 274 of the Atomic Energy Act): Radiation Protection and Nuclear...

2011-10-01

106

78 FR 19148 - Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and Licensing Conditions for Dry Storage...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...72 [NRC-2013-0051] Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and Licensing...SFST-ISG-26A), Revision 0, ``Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and Licensing...staff when reviewing the shielding and radiation protection portions of applications...

2013-03-29

107

42 CFR 37.43 - Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment...Examinations § 37.43 Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment...recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements in NCRP...

2012-10-01

108

42 CFR 37.43 - Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment...Examinations § 37.43 Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment...recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements in NCRP...

2011-10-01

109

10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

2013-01-01

110

Impact of the Chernobyl accident on radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

The science of radiation protection is a fundamental outgrowth of peaceful and military applications of ionizing radiation and the use of nuclear energy. Scientific progress in radiation protection has not, however, been as dramatic as progress in other scientific endeavors, because many users of ionizing radiation have perceived that the major technical and institutional problems have already been solved. This misperception is not based on solid fact and is not shared by radiation protection professionals, who have a broader vision of both past achievements and problems remaining in this area. Experience gained as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident has highlighted new problems and demonstrated the urgency of finding better answers to some old questions. This paper addresses the future impact of the recent Chernobyl accident on the science of radiation protection. In summary, the accident demonstrated that particular emphasis should be directed toward: Improvement of dosimetric and health-effects models for predicting the consequences of exposure of the public to low doses of ionizing radiation. Development of optimized, realistic countermeasures and improvement in emergency preparedness. Education of the public, including students, scientists and politicians with regard to radiation protection issues. Development of advanced computer programs and radiation instruments for evaluating reactor accidents and their consequences. Transfer of learned concepts, methods and approaches to other scientific fields, such as environmental sciences, toxicology, pharmacology, etc.

Paretzke, H.G.

1988-08-01

111

Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

Radiological Control Managers' Council

2008-06-01

112

Engineering hot-cell windows for radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

Radiation protection considerations in the design and construction of hot-cell windows are discussed. The importance of evaluating the potential gamma spectra and neutron source terms is stressed. 11 references. (ACR)

Ferguson, K.R.; Courtney, J.C.

1983-01-01

113

Radiation Protection Criteria for Cases of Probabilistic Disruptive Events.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The individual risk limitation for the case of probabilistic disruptive events is studied, when the radiation effects cease to be only stochastic; the proposed criterion is applied for the case of high level waste repositories. The protection's optimizati...

D. J. Beninson

1985-01-01

114

Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory,...

R. E. Swaja C. S. Sims W. H. Casson

1991-01-01

115

Basis for radiation protection of the nuclear worker  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of the standards for protection of persons who work in areas that have a potential for radiation exposure. A review is given of the units of radiation exposure and dose equivalent and of the value of the maximum permissible dose limits for occupational exposure. Federal Regulations and Regulatory Guides for radiation protection are discussed. Average occupational equivalent doses experienced in several operations typical of the United States Nuclear Industry are presented and shown to be significantly lower than the maximum permissible. The concept of maintaining radiation doses to As-Low-As-Reasonably-Achievable is discussed and the practice of imposing engineering and administrative controls to provide effective radiation protection for the nuclear worker is described.

Guevara, F.A.

1982-01-01

116

Radiation protection guidance for activities in low-earth orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific Committee 75 (SC 75) of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) was assembled for the purpose of providing guidance to NASA concerning radiation protection in low-Earth orbit. The report of SC 75 was published in December 2000 as NCRP Report No. 132. In this presentation an overview of the findings and recommendations of the committee report will be presented.

Townsend, L. W.; Fry, R. J. M.

117

Radiation ProtectionSorting Out the Arguments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a response to an article by Wade Allison in which he argues that we should accept drastically higher doses of ionizing\\u000a radiation than what we currently do (Philosophy and Technology 24:193195, 2011). He employs four arguments in defence of his position: comparisons with background radiation, the positive experiences of\\u000a radiotherapy, the presence of biological defence mechanisms against radiation,

Sven Ove Hansson

118

Recommendations for occupational radiation protection in interventional cardiology.  

PubMed

The radiation dose received by cardiologists during percutaneous coronary interventions, electrophysiology procedures and other interventional cardiology procedures can vary by more than an order of magnitude for the same type of procedure and for similar patient doses. There is particular concern regarding occupational dose to the lens of the eye. This document provides recommendations for occupational radiation protection for physicians and other staff in the interventional suite. Simple methods for reducing or minimizing occupational radiation dose include: minimizing fluoroscopy time and the number of acquired images; using available patient dose reduction technologies; using good imaging-chain geometry; collimating; avoiding high-scatter areas; using protective shielding; using imaging equipment whose performance is controlled through a quality assurance programme; and wearing personal dosimeters so that you know your dose. Effective use of these methods requires both appropriate education and training in radiation protection for all interventional cardiology personnel, and the availability of appropriate protective tools and equipment. Regular review and investigation of personnel monitoring results, accompanied as appropriate by changes in how procedures are performed and equipment used, will ensure continual improvement in the practice of radiation protection in the interventional suite. These recommendations for occupational radiation protection in interventional cardiology and electrophysiology have been endorsed by the Asian Pacific Society of Interventional Cardiology, the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions, the Latin American Society of Interventional Cardiology, and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions. PMID:23475846

Durn, Ariel; Hian, Sim Kui; Miller, Donald L; Le Heron, John; Padovani, Renato; Vano, Eliseo

2013-03-08

119

Using computer-based training to facilitate radiation protection review  

SciTech Connect

In a national laboratory setting, it is necessary to provide radiation protection overview and training to diverse parts of the laboratory population. This includes employees at research reactors, accelerators, waste facilities, radiochemical isotope processing, and analytical laboratories, among others. In addition, our own radiation protection and monitoring staffs must be trained. To assist in the implementation of this full range of training, ORNL has purchased prepackaged computer-based training in health physics and technical mathematics with training modules that can be selected from many topics. By selection of specific modules, appropriate radiation protection review packages can be determined to meet many individual program needs. Because our radiation protection personnel must have some previous radiation protection experience or the equivalent of an associate's degree in radiation protection for entry level, the computer-based training will serve primarily as review of major principles. Others may need very specific prior training to make the computer-based training effective in their work situations. 4 refs.

Abercrombie, J.S.; Copenhaver, E.D.

1989-01-01

120

Critical analysis of active shielding methods for space radiation protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

From time to time over the past several decades, designs utilizing active methods involving electromagnetic field configurations have been proposed for the purpose of protecting spacecraft crews from harmful space radiations. Designs affording protection from either solar energetic particle event protons or galactic cosmic rays or both have been proposed. Often these analyses are predicated upon simplified or even incorrect

Lawrence W. Townsend

2005-01-01

121

CRC handbook of management of radiation protection programs  

SciTech Connect

This guidebook organizes the profusion of rules and regulations surrounding radiation protection into a single-volume reference. Employee and public protection, accident prevention, and emergency preparedness are included in this comprehensive coverage. Whenever possible, information is presented in convenient checklists, tables, or outlines that enable you to locate information quickly.

Miller, K.L.; Weidner, A.

1986-01-01

122

Technical qualification requirements and training programs for radiation protection personnel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This document deals with the policies and practices of the Environmental and Occupational Safety Division (EOSD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in regard to the selection, training, qualification, and requalification of radiation protection staff assigned to reactor and nonreactor nuclear facilities. Included are personnel at facilities that: (1) operate reactors or particle accelerators; (2) produce, process, or store radioactive liquid or solid waste; (3) conduct separations operations; (4) engage in research with radioactive materials and radiation sources; and (5) conduct irradiated materials inspection, fuel fabrication, deconamination, or recovery operations. The EOSD personnel also have environmental surveillance and operational and industrial safety responsibilities related to the total Laboratory.

Copenhaver, E.D.; Houser, B.S.; Butler, H.M. Jr.; Bogard, J.S.; Fair, M.F.; Haynes, C.E.; Parzyck, D.C.

1986-04-01

123

Viewpoint on proposed radiation-protection standards  

SciTech Connect

The proposed revision of 10CFR20 is discussed from a personal perspective. A brief historical review of the development of radiation standards is presented, and arguments against the proposed de minimis level elaborated upon. (ACR)

Auxier, J.A.

1982-01-01

124

Radiation protection, radiation safety and radiation shielding assessment of HIE-ISOLDE.  

PubMed

The high intensity and energy ISOLDE (HIE-ISOLDE) project is an upgrade to the existing ISOLDE facility at CERN. The foreseen increase in the nominal intensity and the energy of the primary proton beam of the existing ISOLDE facility aims at increasing the intensity of the produced radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The currently existing ISOLDE facility uses the proton beam from the proton-synchrotron booster with an energy of 1.4 GeV and an intensity up to 2 ?A. After upgrade (final stage), the HIE-ISOLDE facility is supposed to run at an energy up to 2 GeV and an intensity up to 4 ?A. The foreseen upgrade imposes constrains, from the radiation protection and the radiation safety point of view, to the existing experimental and supply areas. Taking into account the upgraded energy and intensity of the primary proton beam, a new assessment of the radiation protection and radiation safety of the HIE-ISOLDE facility is necessary. Special attention must be devoted to the shielding assessment of the beam dumps and of the experimental areas. In this work the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo particle transport simulation program FLUKA was used to perform the computation of the ambient dose equivalent rate distribution and of the particle fluxes in the projected HIE-ISOLDE facility (taking into account the upgrade nominal primary proton beam energy and intensity) and the shielding assessment of the facility, with the aim of identifying in the existing facility (ISOLDE) the critical areas and locations where new or reinforced shielding may be necessary. The consequences of the upgraded proton beam parameters on the operational radiation protection of the facility were studied. PMID:23516267

Romanets, Y; Bernardes, A P; Dorsival, A; Gonalves, I F; Kadi, Y; di Maria, S; Vaz, P; Vlachoudis, V; Vollaire, J

2013-03-20

125

Reduction of the radiation dose received by interventional cardiologists following training in radiation protection.  

PubMed

The University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis was established in 2003 to cover Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Districts of Northern Greece. The hospital has two interventional cardiology units and the occupational radiation exposure of the cardiologists was the highest of all specialties using ionising radiation. In order to aid in decreasing the radiation dose levels, a seminar was organised for all personnel working in interventional radiology field. After this, an important reduction of the radiation dose of the cardiologists was noted. Training in radiation protection is essential to reduce the radiation doses and consequently the deterministic and stochastic effects of ionising radiation of cardiologists working in interventional radiology. PMID:23185068

Abatzoglou, I; Koukourakis, M; Konstantinides, S

2012-11-25

126

Economic and environmental impacts of water quality protection policies: 1. Framework for regional analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural production systems provide some unique challenges for assessing the regional impacts of water quality protection policies. A modeling framework is proposed for assessing the environmental and economic consequences of groundwater quality protection policies at the regional level. The model consists of three components: (1) a crop simulation\\/chemical transport model, (2) a regional economic optimization model, and (3) an aquifer

D. J. Bernardo; H. P. Mapp; G. J. Sabbagh; S. Geleta; K. B. Watkins; R. L. Elliott; J. F. Stone

1993-01-01

127

Economic and environmental impacts of water quality protection policies 1. Framework for regional analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural production systems provide some unique challenges for assessing the regional impacts of water quality protection policies. A modeling framework is proposed for assessing the environmental and economic consequences of groundwater quality protection policies at the regional level. The model consists of three components: (1) a crop simulation\\/chemical transport model, (2) a regional economic optimization model, and (3) an aquifer

D. J. Bernardo; H. P. Mapp; G. J. Sabbagh; S. Geleta; K. B. Watkins; R. L. Elliott; J. F. Stone

1993-01-01

128

47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application...cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2011-10-01

129

47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application...cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2012-10-01

130

10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. 35.2024 Section...of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a) A...duties, and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by §...

2013-01-01

131

Toward an integrated marine protected areas policy: connecting the global to the local  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy development related to marine protected areas (MPAs) occurs at three levels: international, national, and local. Recent\\u000a developments with MPAs highlight their close links to broader national-level park and protected area policies, which in turn\\u000a take their lead from initiatives and recommendations initiated, and increasingly dictated, by international organizations.\\u000a Local-level inputs to MPA policies have tended to be limited to

Marivic G. Pajaro; Monica E. Mulrennan; Amanda C. J. Vincent

2010-01-01

132

Issues in deep space radiation protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exposures in deep space are largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little biological experience. Mounting evidence indicates that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate for GCR ions. The available biological data indicates that aluminum alloy structures may generate inherently unhealthy internal spacecraft environments in

J. Miller; C. Zeitlin; L. Heilbronn; F. A. Cucinotta; G. D. Badhwar; A. K. Noor; M. Y. Kim; F. F. Badavi; J. H. Heinbockel

2001-01-01

133

Dose quantities in radiation protection and their limitations.  

PubMed

For more than 50 years the quantity absorbed dose has been the basic physical quantity in the medical applications of ionising radiation as well as radiological protection against harm from ionising radiation. In radiotherapy relatively high doses are applied (to a part of the human body) within a short period and the absorbed dose is mainly correlated with deterministic effects such as cell killing and tissue damage. In contrast, in radiological protection one is dealing with low doses and low dose rates and long-term stochastic effects in tissue such as cancer induction. The dose quantity (absorbed dose) is considered to be correlated with the probability of cancer incidence and thus risk induced by exposure. ICRP has developed specific dosimetric quantities for radiological protection that allow the extent of exposure to ionising radiation from whole and partial body external radiation as well as from intakes of radionuclides to be taken into account by one quantity. Moreover, radiological protection quantities are designed to provide a correlation with risk of radiation induced cancer. In addition, operational dose quantities have been defined for use in measurements of external radiation exposure and practical applications. The paper describes the concept and considerations underlying the actual system of dose quantities, and discusses the advantage as well as the limitations of applicability of such a system. For example, absorbed dose is a non-stochastic quantity defined at any point in matter. All dose quantities in use are based on an averaging procedure. Stochastic effects and microscopic biological and energy deposition structures are not considered in the definition. Absorbed dose is correlated to the initial very short phase of the radiation interaction with tissue while the radiation induced biological reactions of the tissue may last for minutes or hours or even longer. There are many parameters other than absorbed dose that influence the process of cancer induction, which may influence the consideration of cells and/or tissues at risk which are most important for radiological protection. PMID:15623879

Dietze, G; Menzel, H-G

2004-01-01

134

Radiation protection considerations in space station missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently studying the degree to which the baseline design of space station Freedom (SSF) would permit its evolution to a transportation node for lunar or Mars expeditions. To accomplish NASA's more ambitious exploration goals, nuclear-powered vehicles could be used in SSF's vicinity. This enhanced radiation environment around SSF could necessitate additional crew

K. L. Peddicord; W. E. Bolch

1991-01-01

135

Radiation Protection for Manned Interplanetary Missions - Radiation Sources, Risks, Remedies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Health risks in interplanetary explorative missions differ in two major features significantly from those during the manned missions experienced so far. For one, presently available technologies lead to durations of such missions significantly longer than so far encountered - with the added complication that emergency returns are ruled out. Thus radiation exposures and hence risks for late radiation sequelae like cancer increase proportional to mission duration - similar like most other health and many technical risks too. Secondly, loss of the geomagnetic shielding available in low earth orbits (LEO) does increase the radiation dose rates from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) since significant fractions of the GCR flux below about 10 GeV/n now can reach the space vehicle. In addition, radiation from solar particle events (SPE) which at most in polar orbit segments can contribute to the radiation exposure during LEO missions now can reach the spaceship unattenuated. Radiation doses from extreme SPEs can reach levels where even early acute radiation sickness might ensue - with the added risks from potentially associated crew performance decrements. In contrast to the by and large predictable GCR contribution, the doses and hence risks from large SPEs can only stochastically be assessed. Mission designers face the task to contain the overall health risk within acceptable limits. Towards this end they have to transport the particle fluxes of the radiation fields in free space through the walls of the spaceship and through the tissue of the astronaut to the radiation sensitive organs. To obtain a quantity which is useful for risk assessment, the radiobiological effectiveness as well as the specific sensitivity of a given organ has to be accounted for in such transport calculations which of course require a detailed knowledge of the spatial distribution and the atomic composition of the surrounding shielding material. In doing so the mission designer encounters two major difficulties in addition to those connected with the knowledge of the external radiation fields and the cross sections necessary for the transport calculations. The radiobiological effectiveness of the GCR heavy ions is to a large extent only nominally known with large error margins. Furthermore, the reference risk, late cancer mortality, usually only materializes many years after the mission, in contrast to the risk from early radiation sickness or the other health risks, including those from prolonged exposure to weightlessness. 1 Given these large radiobiological uncertainties of space radiation risk assessment, a first and most effective countermeasure consists of research directed at their diminishment. Furthermore, a new risk criterion is needed which allows a unified quantitative treatment of all health and technical risks arising during the mission as well as the risk of late radiogenic cancer mortality many years after the mission. Countermeasures to reduce radiation exposure comprise judicious planning of the mission with respect to solar activity, skilful utilization and optimization of shielding materials, and research into advanced propulsion systems capable to cut down transit times in free space. Finally, research into means to reduce sensitivity to radiation health effects e.g. by chemical substances and nutritional additives constitutes the third class of possible countermeasures. Arguably, the single most effective among these measures would be reduction of transit time in free space. 2

Facius, R.; Reitz, G.

136

Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H. [eds.

1991-10-01

137

Proceedings of the Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21-24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S.; Casson, W. H.

1991-10-01

138

Viewpoint: Policy Requirements for Protecting Wildlife from Endocrine Disruptors  

PubMed Central

Man-made endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) present a threat to biodiversity, even in remote areas. To date, numerous wildlife species have been affected by EDCs in the environment, but it is likely that many more species are suffering effects that have not yet been reported. Impaired reproduction, damaged brain function, and deficits of the immune system are of particular concern. In order to bring all endocrine-disrupting chemicals under control, the development of screens and tests to identify EDCs must be expedited. However, the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) considers that sufficient information is already available to merit action on several such substances. In addition, it must be recognized that proving the mechanism of action for some chemicals may take decades. Therefore, it is important to enable certain chemicals to be brought under stricter control on the basis of strong suspicion of endocrine disruption or biochemical signaling disruption. Furthermore, the risk assessment process itself also must be modified, and some suggestions are discussed in this article. WWF maintains that any effect that could reasonably be expected to affect the population level should be taken forward in environmental risk characterization, in particular, behavioral effects should be given more consideration. Current chemical management policies are not protective, and we argue for modifications in them to be made.

Lyons, Gwynne

2006-01-01

139

Radiation protection considerations in space station missions  

SciTech Connect

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently studying the degree to which the baseline design of space station Freedom (SSF) would permit its evolution to a transportation node for lunar or Mars expeditions. To accomplish NASA's more ambitious exploration goals, nuclear-powered vehicles could be used in SSF's vicinity. This enhanced radiation environment around SSF could necessitate additional crew shielding to maintain cumulative doses below recommended limits. This paper presents analysis of radiation doses received upon the return and subsequent unloading of Mars vehicles utilizing either nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) or nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion systems. No inherent shielding by the vehicle structure or space station is assumed; consequently, the only operational parameters available to control radiation doses are the source-to-target distance and the reactor shutdown time prior to the exposure period. For the operations planning, estimated doses are shown with respect to recommended dose limits and doses due solely to the natural space environment in low Earth orbit.

Peddicord, K.L.; Bolch, W.E. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

1991-01-01

140

Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts  

SciTech Connect

This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

Not Available

1991-12-31

141

Shielding and Radiation Protection in Ion Beam Therapy Facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation protection is a key aspect of any radiotherapy (RT) department and is made even more complex in ion beam therapy (IBT) by the large facility size, secondary particle spectra and intricate installation of these centers. In IBT, large and complex radiation producing devices are used and made available to the public for treatment. It is thus the responsibility of the facility to put in place measures to protect not only the patient but also the general public, occupationally and nonoccupationally exposed personnel working within the facility, and electronics installed within the department to ensure maximum safety while delivering maximum up-time.

Wroe, Andrew J.; Rightnar, Steven

142

Radiation protection and shielding standards for the 1980s  

SciTech Connect

The American Nuclear Society (ANS) is a standards-writing organization member of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The ANS Standards Committee has a subcommittee denoted ANS-6, Radiation Protection and Shielding, whose charge is to develop standards for radiation protection and shield design, to provide shielding information to other standards-writing groups, and to develop standard reference shielding data and test problems. This paper is a progress report of this subcommittee. Significant progress has been made since the last comprehensive report to the Society.

Trubey, D.K.

1982-01-01

143

Radioprotection from radiation-induced lymphedema without tumor protection.  

PubMed

Lymphedema or tissue swelling from impaired lymph drainage commonly occurs after regional nodal dissection and/or radiation therapy for cancer control. Treatment options for this disabling and life-altering complication involve long-term labor-intensive commitments. Sentinel node biopsy can forestall removal of negative regional nodes, offering some protection against lymphedema, however, most preventive measures are elusive, ineffective, or unproven. Our goal was to determine whether the radioprotectant amifostine could prevent or retard the development of lymphedema in a rodent radiation therapy-dependent model yet not offer tumor protection from the therapeutic effects of radiation therapy. We pre-treated rats after unilateral radical groin dissection with the organic thiophosphate radioprotectant amifostine or placebo prior to single dose post-operative groin radiation therapy and monitored hindlimb volumes, wound scores, and tissue lymphostasis. In addition, we determined whether amifostine protected human MCF7 breast cancer cells exposed to a range of radiation therapy doses in an in vitro clonogenic assay and an in vivo MCF7 tumor xenograft model. Our findings indicate that amifostine markedly reduced the volume of limb lymphedema and dramatically improved wound healing and tissue lymphostasis in the rodent lymphedema model. The in vivo and in vitro studies further demonstrated that amifostine offered no MCF7 tumor protection from radiation therapy. These pre-clinical findings provide proof-of-principle to further delineate specific mechanisms underlying amifostine's beneficial effects, determine optimal amifostine-radiation therapy dosing regimens, and thereby expedite translation into clinical trials to reduce lymphedema incidence and severity in cancer patients at high lymphedema risk in whom radiation therapy is the recommended therapy. PMID:20848992

Daley, S K; Bernas, M J; Stea, B D; Bracamonte, F; McKenna, M; Stejskal, A; Hirleman, E D; Witte, M H

2010-06-01

144

Dental-service Dental Radiation Safety and Protection: Program guide  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the program guide for Dental Radiation Safety and Protection is to assist VA dental personnel in developing radiologic procedures that ensure maximum safety for their patients and themselves. In order to do this, the authors have included a summary of the biological hazards associated with exposure to x-radiation, provided information on patient exposure levels associated with dental X-ray units, and explained the methods for reducing patient and staff exposure to X-rays.

Not Available

1991-08-27

145

Efforts to optimize radiation protection in interventional fluoroscopy.  

PubMed

While it has been known for more than a century that radiation presents risks to both the physician and the patient, skin injuries from fluoroscopy became increasingly rare after the 1930s, and radiation risk from fluoroscopy appeared to be adequately controlled. However, beginning in approximately 1975, new technologies and materials for interventional devices were developed. These enabled new procedures, and as these were instituted, skin injuries again occurred in patients. Four central issues were identified: equipment, quality management, operator training, and occupational radiation protection. Recognition that these were areas for improvement provoked changes in technology and practice that continue today. PMID:24077043

Miller, Donald L

2013-11-01

146

National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements semiannual technical progress report, March 1989August 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

This semiannual technical progress report is for the period 1 March 1989 through 31 August 1989. This National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) program is designed to provide recommendations for radiation protection based on scientific principles. During this period several reports were published covering the topics of occupational radiation exposure, medical exposure, radon control, dosimetry, and radiation protection

Ney

1991-01-01

147

Mechanistic bases for modelling space radiation risk and planning radiation protection of astronauts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The approaches generally adopted for planning radiation protection in ground-based facilities cannot be applied straightforward for astronaut protection in space. Indeed in such extreme conditions, modelling methods and shielding design must be based on a detailed mechanistic knowledge of the peculiar astronauts irradiation conditions. Great help can derive from mechanistic modelling, generally aimed to better understand the intermediate steps

A. ottolenghi; F. Ballarini; M. Biaggi

148

Nuclear Technology Series. Course 2: Radiation Protection I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control

Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

149

Nuclear Technology Series. Course 17: Radiation Protection II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

150

Proceedings: Radiation Protection Technology Conference: Providence, RI, November 2001  

SciTech Connect

Health physics (HP) professionals within the nuclear industry are continually upgrading their respective programs with new methods and technologies. The move to shorter outages combined with a diminishing group of contract HP technicians and demanding emergent work makes such changes even more important. The EPRI Radiation Protection Technology Conference focused on a number of key health physics issues and developments.

None

2002-02-01

151

Proceedings: 2002 Radiation Protection Technology Conference: Baltimore, MD, October 2002  

SciTech Connect

In response to program pressures resulting from shorter outages, combined with a diminishing group of contract health physics (HP) technicians, HP professionals must continuously upgrade their programs. Demanding emergent work also requires HP technicians in the nuclear industry to use new methods and technologies. The EPRI Radiation Protection Technology Conference was directed at highlighting a number of key health physics issues and developments.

None

2003-04-01

152

Radiation exposure and radiation protection of the physician in iodine-131 Lipiodol therapy of liver tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intra-arterial iodine-131 labelled Lipiodol therapy for liver cancer has been investigated for safety and efficacy over a number of years, but data on radiation exposure of personnel have remained unavailable to date. The aim of this study was to assess the radiation exposure of the physician during intra-arterial 131I-Lipiodol therapy for liver malignancies and to develop appropriate radiation protection measures

Jrn H. Risse; Carsten Ponath; Holger Palmedo; Christian Menzel; Frank Grnwald; Hans-J. Biersack

2001-01-01

153

EPA Radiation Protection for Students and Teachers (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) site explains the basic concepts of radiation and radiation protection. Background information includes the history of radiation protection and brief biographies of radiation researchers. There is also basic technical information, such as the types of radiation, radiation warning symbols, basic terms, and a dose calculator. Students can test what they have learned with puzzles and a quiz.

154

Way to Operationalize the DOD's Critical Infrastructure Protection Program Using Information Assurance Policies and Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Defense (DoD) Defense Critical Infrastructure Protection Program has recently reorganized under the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense under the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy. Requirements have been...

A. R. Friedman

2005-01-01

155

White Paper: The Clinton Administration's Policy on Critical Infrastructure Protection: Presidential Decision Directive 63.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This White Paper explains key elements of the Clinton Administration's policy on critical infrastructure protection. The United States possesses both the world's strongest military and its largest national economy. Those two aspects of our power are mutua...

1998-01-01

156

A policy portfolio approach to biodiversity protection on private lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although arguments about biodiversity policy frequently frame the options as either top-down regulation or voluntary incentive-based approaches, in fact a broad spectrum of biodiversity conservation strategies are available. Drawing largely on examples from the United States to support broader conclusions, this article examines the range of policy options and the metrics that should be used to evaluate them. Because the

Holly Doremus

2003-01-01

157

Policy Advocacy: The Politics of Big Cat Protection in Arkansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a strategy for policy advocacy at the state level, using a case study of an attempt to ban private ownership of large, carnivorous cats in Arkansas. Such a policy is designed to link animal rights with the larger issue of species conservation. As candidates who favor the environment have had a harder time getting elected to federal

Christopher M. Branam; Kenneth N. Hansen

158

Measuring the Impacts of Trade Policies: Effective Rates of Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trade policies work through their effects on domestic prices of goods and services - by altering the relationship between domestic and world market prices. Import duties raise domestic prices, while export taxes lower them. Policies that regulate the quantities of imports or exports have an indirect effect on domestic prices. By limiting the amount of a good that can be

Frank Flatters

159

Mechanisms of radiation interaction with DNA: Potential implications for radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

An overview of presentations and discussions which took place at the US Department of Energy/Commission of European Communities (DOE/CEC) workshop on ''Mechanisms of Radiation Interaction with DNA: Potential Implications for Radiation Protection,'' held at San Diego, California, January 21-22, 1987, is provided. The Department has traditionally supported fundamental research on interactions of ionizing radiation with different biological systems and at all levels of biological organization. The aim of this workshop was to review the base of knowledge in the area of mechanisms of radiation action at the DNA level, and to explore ways in which this information can be applied to the development of scientifically sound concepts and procedures for use in the field of radiation protection.

Sinclair, W.K.; Fry, R.J.M.

1987-01-01

160

Ten principles and ten commandments of radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

For decades, the phrase {open_quotes}time, distance, and shielding{close_quotes} has been presented as summarizing the {open_quotes}basics{close_quotes} of radiation protection. Indeed, for protection from external radiation sources, these three principles are probably the most important ones on which a worker can make decisions and take actions. However, these principles do not address protection against intakes of radioactive materials or {open_quotes}ontakes{close_quotes} (skin contamination), other risk-limiting measures, or other important protective measures taken by governments, public health agencies, regulators, and institutional programs (measures such as performance standards, health education, facility engineering requirements, and administrative procedures). I have identified ten principles and ten accompanying commandments of radiation protection: time, distance, dispersal, source reduction, source barrier, personal barrier, decorporation, effect mitigation, optimal technology, and limitation of other exposures. Corresponding non-technical forms of the commandments are hurry (but don`t be hasty); stay away from it; disperse it and dilute it; use as little as possible; keep it in; keep it out; get it out or off of you (after intake or skin contamination); limit the damage; choose the best technology (perhaps a non-radiation technology); and don`t compound risks (don`t smoke). Technical versions of the commandments are also provided using the verbs {open_quotes}optimize,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}maximize,{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}minimize.{close_quotes} Not all commandments can be applied at the same time, and application may be different for workers and members of the public. Advantages, disadvantages, and implementation of these principles and commandments are discussed, and numerous examples provided. The application of the principles and commandments must be based on knowledge of the radiological conditions to be managed. 4 refs., 1 tab.

Strom, D.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-03-01

161

14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 29.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection....

2010-01-01

162

14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 27.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection....

2010-01-01

163

14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Space 1 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 29.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection....

2009-01-01

164

14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Space 1 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 27.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection....

2009-01-01

165

EPA Review of Radiation Protection Activities - 1974. A Prototype for Subsequent Annual Reports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary focus of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) radiation strategy is to implement a program leading to the establishment of necessary radiation controls for the protection of public health and the environment. These controls would incl...

1975-01-01

166

Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Radiation Protection Program: Report of the Special Panel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Special Panel was appointed by the Director of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation to review the Radiation Protection Program at Three Mile Island Unit 2. The Panel confirmed several management and technical deficiencies in the radiation protection...

C. B. Meinhold T. D. Murphy D. R. Neely R. L. Kathren B. L. Rich

1979-01-01

167

Public policies for managing urban growth and protecting open ...  

Treesearch

Description: The public sector in the United States has responded to growing concern ... The main public policy instruments for managing urban growth and ... Please contact Sharon Hobrla, shobrla@fs.fed.us if you notice any errors which...

168

Integrated analysis of policy options for protection of groundwater quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is directed at providing an integrated framework that a regional authority should use when assessing the potential impacts of any policy initiative directed at improving groundwater quality. In particular, a policy model is developed relying on three decision components (a farm-level production decisions model, a household decisions model and a regional policy decision model) where the objective is one of identifying the trade-offs that a regional authority will be confronted with as it strives to balance the preferences of farmers and households while endeavoring to maximize net economic welfare. The basic rule developed indicates that the regional authority must choose a policy whereby any increase (decrease) in regional income is just equal to the decrease (increase) in net benefits to households.

Uri, Noel D.; Huang, Wen-Yuan

1990-05-01

169

Medicinal protection with Chinese herb-compound against radiation damage  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were carried out on mice and the subjects irradiated for cancer therapy to evaluate the protective efficacy of a Chinese medicinal herb-compound (CMHC). The lethality and the degree of leucopenia caused by radiation in mice medicated with CMHC were significantly less in comparison with control mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). CMHC significantly improved the WBC and the thrombocytes in irradiated workers (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). The WBC count of 40 patients under radiotherapy while treated with CMHC recovered from 3450 +/- 77/c.mm to 5425 +/- 264/c.mm (p less than 0.001); whereas, in the control group, without any medication, the WBC count dropped significantly (p less than 0.001). Our results revealed the applicabilities of CMHC in protection against radiation damage in spaceflight and in other fields.

Zhang, R.J.; Qian, J.K.; Yang, G.H.; Wang, B.Z.; Wen, X.L. (Institute of Space Medico-Engineering, Beijing (China))

1990-08-01

170

CHILD PROTECTION POLICY AND PRACTICE: A RELATIONSHIP LOST IN TRANSLATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the challenges and opportunities facing contemporary child protection practice and contends that a meaningful understanding of child protection can best be gleaned by examining how practice is connected historically and sociologically with the broader discipline of social work. The essence of social work is described as a contradictory mix of surveillance and empowerment. The Victorian genesis of

Ian Hyslop

2009-01-01

171

78 FR 20103 - Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-1064; FRL-9797-6] Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and...soliciting public comments for 60 days, on Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and...Federal Guidance Report No. 9, ``Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic...

2013-04-03

172

Vitamin C acts as radiation-protecting agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) is a very efficient, water soluble antioxidant. Its multifunctional biological and biochemical activities are rather well established in the last few decades (e.g. Sies and Stahl, 1995; Meydani et al., 1995; NRC, 1989. In the present letter we are reporting briefly the pronounced radiation-protecting properties of ascorbate (AH-) observed on bacteria (E. coli AB1157) as well as on cultured cells (SCC VII, eukaryotic cells).

Platzer, Isabel; Getoff, Nikola

1998-01-01

173

Mode of Action of Agents giving Protection from Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CONSIDERABLE number of compounds is now known to be capable of protecting animals against X-rays and other radiations. Among the most effective of these are sodium cyanide and sodium azide1, and thiourea2; alcohols3 and amines4 are active at higher concentrations. X-rays degrade polymethacrylic acid in aerated aqueous solutions, and the extent of the reaction could readily be followed by

P. Alexander; M. Fox

1952-01-01

174

Comment on Policy offers protection from harassment [by Marcia McNutt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regarding Policy Offers Protection From Harassment (Eos, October 15, 1996), I am disturbed that the AGU has extended its harassment policy to its membership at events that combine work and social interaction, such as the meetings, conferences, and seminars that AGU members attend. As a woman, I have always found the so-called protections extended to females and other supposedly vulnerable groups to be intrusive and patronizing, but this policy in particular goes too far by trying to sponsor aspects of members' social behavior.I am old enough to remember the days when one responded to uncomfortable situations by drawing on one's own resources. A sense of one's inviolable self developed over time, and meaningful self-esteem derived from an ability to cope with the world. Now, cowering from jokes and recoiling from eye contact, the modern geoscientist apparently requires a patron for protectiona shining knight in the form of this new policy.

Hickman, Martha H.

175

Medical radiation exposure and accidents. Dosimetry and radiation protection. Do we only benefit the patient?  

PubMed

This article presents and discusses new information on the old Hippocratic moto of "...not to harm but to benefit the patient". Some radiation accidents are due to medical errors. Millions of medical tests exposing radiation are performed every day worldwide increasing and sometimes exceeding the annual permissible dose administered to the general population. Public authorities are now seriously concerned about medical radiation overused. In U.S.A. both the House of Representatives and the Food and Drug Administration have recently delt with this problem. Others and we have suggested before and the International Atomic Energy Agency now proposes: a "Smart Card" for every individual who receives medical radiation. In this card the amount of medical radiation administered will be recorded. It is time to issue rules for protection of the public from medical radiation overdose. PMID:20808982

Grammaticos, Philip; Lyra, Maria

176

Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S. (eds.)

1988-11-01

177

The IAEA's activities on radiation protection in interventional cardiology  

PubMed Central

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under its mandate of developing and applying standards of radiation safety has initiated a number of activities in recent years on radiation protection in interventional cardiology. These activities are implemented through four mechanisms, namely training, providing information through the website, research projects and assistance to Member States through Technical Cooperation (TC) projects. Major international initiatives have been taken in the area of training where more than half a dozen regional training courses have been conducted for cardiologists from over 50 countries. Additionally four national training events for over 300 medical and paramedical staff members involved in interventional procedures were held. The training material is freely available on CD from the IAEA. The newly established website provides information on radiation protection issues [1]. Two coordinated research projects have just been completed where peak skin doses to patients undergoing high dose interventional procedures were studied and factors to manage patient doses were identified. The technical cooperation projects involving protection in cardiac interventional procedures have 30 countries as participants.

Rehani, MM

2007-01-01

178

Protective effect of corticosteroids on radiation pneumonitis in mice  

SciTech Connect

We explored the protective effect of corticosteroids on the mortality of mice that received thoracic irradiation. Methylprednisolone, 100 mg/kg/week, given from 11 weeks after gamma irradiation of the thorax resulted in an increase in the LD50 (11-26 weeks) from 14.3 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SE) Gy to 17.6 +/- 0.4 Gy, P less than 0.001, a protection factor of 1.2. Withdrawal of steroids at various times during the period of radiation pneumonitis resulted in accelerated mortality in the next 2-4 weeks, so that the cumulative mortality caught up with that of control animals by 4 weeks after steroid withdrawal. However, after the end of the usual period of pneumonitis withdrawal of steroids did not result in accelerated mortality, suggesting that the time when steroids are protective corresponds to the duration of pneumonitis. A smaller dose of steroids, 25 mg/kg/week, was found to be as protective as the larger dose used in the above experiments. The possibility that corticosteroids reduce mortality, even when given many weeks after radiation, may have important practical and theoretical implications.

Gross, N.J.; Narine, K.R.; Wade, R.

1988-01-01

179

A High-Throughput Screen for Alpha Particle Radiation Protectants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Alpha-particle-emitting elements are of increasing importance as environmental and occupational carcinogens, toxic components of radiation dispersal devices and accidents, and potent therapeutics in oncology. Alpha particle radiation differs from radiations of lower linear energy transfer in that it predominantly damages DNA via direct action. Because of this, radical scavengers effective for other radiations have had only limited effect in mitigating alpha particle toxicity. We describe here a simple assay and a pilot screen of 3,119 compounds in a high-throughput screen (HTS), using the alpha-particle-emitting isotope, 225Ac, for the discovery of compounds that might protect mammalian cells from alpha particles through novel mechanisms. The assay, which monitored the viability of a myeloid leukemic cell line upon alpha particle exposure, was robust and reproducible, yielding a Z' factor of 0.66 and a signal-to-noise ratio of nearly 10 to 1. Surprisingly, 1 compound emerged from this screen, epoxy-4,5-?-dihydroxysantonin (EDHS), that showed considerable protective activity. While the value of EDHS remains to be determined, its discovery is a proof of concept and validation of the utility of this HTS methodology. Further application of the described assay could yield compounds useful in minimizing the toxicity and carcinogenesis associated with alpha particle exposure.

Seideman, Jonathan H.; Shum, David; Djaballah, Hakim

2010-01-01

180

Radiation safety and protection in US dental hygiene programs  

SciTech Connect

A survey of radiation safety and protection measures used by programs teaching dental hygiene indicated some areas for concern. No barriers or radiation shieldings were used between operator and patient in four programs. Radiation monitoring devices were not worn by faculty operators in 16% of the programs. Fewer than half of the programs used thyroid shields for patients on a routine basis. Insufficient filtration for the kilovolt peak employed was used by 14% of the programs, and for 19% more the filtration was unknown or unspecified. Three programs used closed cones. Rectangular collimation was not used at all by 63% of the programs, and only 20% used E speed film routinely. Quality assurance for equipment maintenance and for film processing were in place at only 54% and 49% of the programs, respectively.

Farman, A.G.; Hunter, N.; Grammer, S.

1986-07-01

181

[Estimation of X-radiation protective coats in abdominal angiography].  

PubMed

Medical personnel involved in abdominal angiography are exposed not only to direct radiation but also scattered radiation from inspection tables, patients, image intensifiers, and the beam-limiting system (collimator), among others. Japanese standard JISZ4831 prescribes protective coats of at least 0.25 mm lead equivalent, which is the uniform thickness of lead equivalent. The most commonly used protective coats are 0.25 mm Pb, 0.35 mm Pb, or 0.5 mm Pb in thickness. The weight of a typical protective coat is about 3 kg. While some coats weigh up to 6 kg, wearing such heavy coats becomes physically burdensome as inspection time increases. The trade-off between physical burden and protection was considered by analyzing the X-ray intensity distribution and attenuation rate of scattered radiation in each position assumed by the medical staff. In the case of inspections performed at an x-ray tube voltage of 80 kV, it may be possible to reduce the weight of the lead rubber apron by about 33%. Namely, the lead thickness can be reduced uniformly by 0.20 mm Pb at 70 cm and 0.05 mm Pb at 100 cm, when the shielding capability of a 0.25 mm thick Pb layer is accepted as the standard at 40 cm above the gonad position. The same range of permeated X-ray dose for the gonad position may be reduced as well. In the case of 110 kV, when the lead thicknesses are 0.30 mm Pb at 40 cm and 70 cm, and 0.10 mm Pb at 100 cm, it is possible to reduce the weight of the lead rubber apron by about 28%. PMID:16049412

Koshida, Kichiro; Sota, Takumi; Noto, Kimiya; Fukuda, Atsushi; Matsubara, Kosuke; Nakagawa, Hiroto; Kawabata, Chikako

2005-07-20

182

Envitonmental monitoring and radiation protection in kocjan Caves, Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

kocjan Caves were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1986, due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage. Park kocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park kocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data. Relation of background radiation to carrying capacity will be explained. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. A system of education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection will be presented as well.

Debevec Gerjevi, V.; Jovanovi?, P.

2012-04-01

183

[Risk management from the perspective of the radiation protection officer. Consequences of new radiation protection laws in hospitals].  

PubMed

The implications of the new radiation protection law for hospitals. The novel German radiation control regulation ("Roentgenverordnung") came into effect on July 1, 2002. It contains a number of new rules the majority of which clearly take a more restrictive approach towards the application of ionising radiation. New dose thresholds have been set for control and monitoring areas and written working instructions are now required for all areas of radiology departments. The new regulations also require the indication for a radiological examination to be checked by a radiologist who has completed a formalised training in radiation protection. This particular aspect will have serious implications for every day practice. The necessity of having a trained radiologist on site for 24 hours a day will cause problems in many hospitals. The power of the responsible external independent control body ("rztliche Stelle") has been increased as have the duties of medical physicists. The performance of x-ray examinations that are not medically indicated is punishable by law as bodily harm. This as well as many other regulations are currently being checked for applicability in terms of guidelines, the majority of which are not yet available. PMID:14710658

Wolf, Karl-Jrgen; Gergeleit, Martin

2003-11-01

184

Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC)  

SciTech Connect

Enclosed are proceedings of the workshop on Internal Dosimetry held on Atlanta, Georgia in April 1992. The recommendations from the Workshop were considered by the CIRRPC Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research in identifying those areas to be undertaken by individual Federal Agencies or in cooperative efforts. This document presents summaries of the following sessions: A.1 Applications and limitations of ICRP and other metabolic models, A.2 Applications and implementation of proposed ICRP lung model, A.3 Estimates of intake from repetitive bioassay data, A.4 Chelation models for plutonium urinalysis data, B.1 Transuranium/uranium registry data, B.2 Autopsy tissue analysis, B.3 Bioassay / Whole body counting, B.4 Data base formatting and availability, C.1 An overview of calculational techniques in use today, C.2 The perfect code, C.3 Dose calculations based on individuals instead of averages, C.4 From macro dosimetry to micro dosimetry.

Not Available

1994-05-10

185

Relationship-based access control: protection model and policy language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social Network Systems pioneer a paradigm of access control that is distinct from traditional approaches to access control. Gates coined the term Relationship-Based Access Control (ReBAC) to refer to this paradigm. ReBAC is characterized by the explicit tracking of interpersonal relationships between users, and the expression of access control policies in terms of these relationships. This work explores what it

Philip W. L. Fong

2011-01-01

186

Equality, Protection or Discrimination: Gender Equality Policies in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

European Union (EU) gender Directives are filtered through distinctive national social policy regimes, and differences in political and cultural attitudes toward gender and women’s place in society influence the interpretation and implementation of such Directives. This article discusses the impact of the EU’s gender equality agenda on the traditional gender roles in Turkey and considers how Turkey’s relations with the

Saniye Dedeoglu

2012-01-01

187

Radiation Protection Studies for LCLS Tune Up Dump  

SciTech Connect

The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is a pioneer fourth generation hard x-ray free electron laser that shall start to deliver laser pulses in 2009. Among other components of LCLS that present radiation protection concerns, the tune up dump (tdund) is of special interest because it also constitutes an issue for machine protection, as it is placed close to radiation sensitive components, like electronic devices and permanent magnets in the undulators. This paper first introduces the stopper of tdund looking at the heat load, and then it describes the shielding around the dump necessary to maintain the prompt and residual dose within design values. Next, preliminary comparisons of the magnetization loss in a dedicated on-site magnet irradiation experiment with FLUKA simulations serve to characterize the magnetic response to radiation of magnets like those of LCLS. The previous knowledge, together with the limit for the allowed demagnetization, are used to estimate the lifetime of the undulator. Further simulations provide guidelines on which lifetime can be expected for an electronic device placed at a given distance of tdund.

Santana-Leitner, M.; Fass, A.; Mao, S.; Nuhn, H.D.; /SLAC; Roesler, S.; /CERN; Rokni, S.; Vollaire, J.; /SLAC

2010-04-29

188

A biokinetic model for zinc for use in radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

The physiology of the essential trace element zinc has been studied extensively in human subjects using kinetic analysis of time-dependent measurements of administered zinc tracers. A number of biokinetic models describing zinc exchange between plasma and tissues and loss of systemic zinc in excreta have been developed from the derived data. More rudimentary biokinetic models for zinc have been developed to estimate radiation doses from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc. The latter models are designed to provide broadly accurate estimates of cumulative decays of zinc radioisotopes in tissues and are not intended as realistic descriptions of the directions of movement of zinc in the body. This paper reviews biokinetic data for zinc and proposes a physiologically meaningful biokinetic model for systemic zinc for use in radiation protection. The proposed model bears some resemblance to zinc models developed in physiological studies but depicts a finer division of systemic zinc and is based on a broader spectrum of data than previous models. The proposed model and current radiation protection model for zinc yield broadly similar estimates of effective dose from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc but substantially different dose estimates for several individual tissues, particularly the liver.

Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL

2012-01-01

189

Policy-Driven Memory Protection for Reconfigurable Hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

While processor based systems often enforce memory pro- tection to prevent the unintended sharing of data between processes, current systems built around reconfigurable hardware typically offer no such protection. Several reconfigurable cores are often integrated onto a single chip where they share external resources such as memory. While this enables small form factor and low cost designs, it opens up

Ted Huffmire; Shreyas Prasad; Timothy Sherwood; Ryan Kastner

2006-01-01

190

Nuclear protective action advisories: A policy analysis and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread spontaneous evacuation, the tendency for people to evacuate even when not advised to do so, has been highlighted as one of the likely behavior responses to a nuclear power plant emergency. Utility company representatives contend that protective action advisories can be structured so as to stifle the magnitude and geographic extent of spontaneous evacuation. Data from a utility-company-sponsored telephone

J. H. Jr. Johnson; D. J. Zeigler

2009-01-01

191

Considering Policies to Protect Children from TV Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues that the thinking behind three legislative proposals intended to protect children from the harmful effects of TV violence is fundamentally flawed. Analyzes a composite week of television programming. Finds that many children watch television after 9 P.M., and the lowest percentages of punishment for aggressive acts and major consequences

Potter, W. James; Warren, Ron

1996-01-01

192

Economic and environmental impacts of water quality protection policies: 1. Framework for regional analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural production systems provide some unique challenges for assessing the regional impacts of water quality protection policies. A modeling framework is proposed for assessing the environmental and economic consequences of groundwater quality protection policies at the regional level. The model consists of three components: (1) a crop simulation/chemical transport model, (2) a regional economic optimization model, and (3) an aquifer groundwater flow model. The three submodels are linked and run recursively to simulate producer response to alternative water quality policies over a multiple-year time horizon. Model solutions provide projections of production practices employed on various resource situations across the region. Economic evaluation of alternative policies may be based upon regional agricultural income, crop production levels, input use, and changes in aquifer water levels over time. Measures of agricultural nonpoint source pollution provided by the model include nitrate, phosphorus and pesticide loadings in deep percolation and runoff water, as well as sediment losses.

Bernardo, D. J.; Mapp, H. P.; Sabbagh, G. J.; Geleta, S.; Watkins, K. B.; Elliott, R. L.; Stone, J. F.

1993-09-01

193

Improved Protection Against Solar-Simulated Radiation-Induced Immunosuppression by a Sunscreen with Enhanced Ultraviolet A Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraviolet radiation-induced immunosuppression is thought to play a part in skin cancer. Several studies have indicated that sunscreens that are designed to protect against erythema failed to give comparable protection against ultraviolet radiation-induced immunosuppression. One possible reason for this discrepancy is inadequate ultraviolet A protection. This study evaluated the level of immunoprotection in mice afforded by two broad-spectrum sunscreens with

Amy Fourtanier; Audrey Gueniche; Delphine Compan; Susan L. Walker; Antony R. Young

2000-01-01

194

Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation  

PubMed Central

Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A sclerojuglonic compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects.

Korac, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

2011-01-01

195

Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation.  

PubMed

Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A "sclerojuglonic" compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

Kora?, Radava R; Khambholja, Kapil M

2011-07-01

196

The All-or-Nothing Anti-Theft Policy - Theft Protection for Pervasive Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many application scenarios for pervasive computing, theft is a serious security threat. In this paper we present the all-or-nothing anti-theft policy aimed at providing theft protection for pervasive computing. The overall idea behind the all-or-nothing anti-theft policy is to chain devices together in friendly networks so that any device will only work when it can see all of its

Jakob Illeborg Pagter; Michael stergaard Pedersen

2007-01-01

197

Chromatin Compaction Protects Genomic DNA from Radiation Damage  

PubMed Central

Genomic DNA is organized three-dimensionally in the nucleus, and is thought to form compact chromatin domains. Although chromatin compaction is known to be essential for mitosis, whether it confers other advantages, particularly in interphase cells, remains unknown. Here, we report that chromatin compaction protects genomic DNA from radiation damage. Using a newly developed solid-phase system, we found that the frequency of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in compact chromatin after ionizing irradiation was 550-fold lower than in decondensed chromatin. Since radical scavengers inhibited DSB induction in decondensed chromatin, condensed chromatin had a lower level of reactive radical generation after ionizing irradiation. We also found that chromatin compaction protects DNA from attack by chemical agents. Our findings suggest that genomic DNA compaction plays an important role in maintaining genomic integrity.

Takata, Hideaki; Hanafusa, Tomo; Mori, Toshiaki; Shimura, Mari; Iida, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Kenichi; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Maeshima, Kazuhiro

2013-01-01

198

Chromatin compaction protects genomic DNA from radiation damage.  

PubMed

Genomic DNA is organized three-dimensionally in the nucleus, and is thought to form compact chromatin domains. Although chromatin compaction is known to be essential for mitosis, whether it confers other advantages, particularly in interphase cells, remains unknown. Here, we report that chromatin compaction protects genomic DNA from radiation damage. Using a newly developed solid-phase system, we found that the frequency of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in compact chromatin after ionizing irradiation was 5-50-fold lower than in decondensed chromatin. Since radical scavengers inhibited DSB induction in decondensed chromatin, condensed chromatin had a lower level of reactive radical generation after ionizing irradiation. We also found that chromatin compaction protects DNA from attack by chemical agents. Our findings suggest that genomic DNA compaction plays an important role in maintaining genomic integrity. PMID:24130727

Takata, Hideaki; Hanafusa, Tomo; Mori, Toshiaki; Shimura, Mari; Iida, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Kenichi; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Maeshima, Kazuhiro

2013-10-09

199

The IHS diagnostic X-ray equipment radiation protection program  

SciTech Connect

The Indian Health Service (IHS) operates or contracts with Tribal groups to operate 50 hospitals and approximately 165 primary ambulatory care centers. These facilities contain approximately 275 medical and 800 dental diagnostic x-ray machines. IHS environmental health personnel in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) developed a diagnostic x-ray protection program including standard survey procedures and menu-driven calculations software. Important features of the program include the evaluation of equipment performance collection of average patient entrance skin exposure (ESE) measurements for selected procedures, and quality assurance. The ESE data, collected using the National Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) protocol, will be presented. The IHS Diagnostic X-ray Radiation Protection Program is dynamic and is adapting to changes in technology and workload.

Knapp, A.; Byrns, G.; Suleiman, O.

1994-05-01

200

New concept of IEC standards for radiation protection dosemeters.  

PubMed

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) develops new standards for radiation protection dosemeters which follow a new concept. They are much more flexible in detail, but still ensure the same measurement quality. They are, for example, no longer specific for the detector type, but rather specific for the measurement task, e.g. for individual monitoring with active direct-reading instruments. Another example is that they are flexible with respect to the ranges of influence quantities. The conceptual changes are described in this paper, together with the advantages this new concept provides for manufacturers, users and legislators. PMID:18420572

Ambrosi, P; Behrens, R

2008-04-16

201

The need to include animal protection in public health policies.  

PubMed

Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

Akhtar, Aysha

2013-06-27

202

The relevance of occupational epidemiology to radiation protection standards.  

PubMed

Large-scale epidemiological studies of U.S. Department of Energy workers have been underway since the 1960s. Despite the increasing availability of information about long-term follow-up of badge-monitored nuclear workers, standard-setting bodies continue to rely on the Life Span Study (LSS) of A-bomb survivors as the primary epidemiological basis for making judgments about hazards of low-level radiation. Additionally, faith in the internal and external validity of studies of A-bomb survivors has influenced decisions about the design, analysis, and interpretation of many worker studies. A systematic comparison of the LSS and worker studies in terms of population characteristics, types of radiation exposures, selection factors, and dosimetry errors suggests that the priority given to dose response findings from the LSS is no longer warranted. Evidence from worker studies suggests that excess radiation-related cancer deaths occur at doses below the current occupational limits; low-dose effects have also been seen in studies of childhood cancers in relation to fetal irradiation. These findings should be considered in revising current radiation protection standards. PMID:17208790

Wing, S; Richardson, D; Stewart, A

1999-01-01

203

APPLICATIONS OF THE PHOTONUCLEAR FRAGMENTATION MODEL TO RADIATION PROTECTION PROBLEMS  

SciTech Connect

In order to provide radiation protection systems for high energy electron accelerators it is necessary to define the yields of hadrons produced when the electron beam interacts with a fixed target. In practical terms this will occur when any beam or fraction of the beam is lost from the accelerator orbit or when any fraction of the beam is intercepted by a target inserted in the path of the beam or when the beam is totally absorbed by a beam dump. The electron and gamma yields from these interactions are well characterized and amenable to calculation utilizing Monte Carlo shower codes. However, the yield of hadrons has been less well defined. Neutron production has received most attention because of its importance to radiation shielding. Production mechanisms such as the giant dipole and the quasi-deuteron resonances have provided valuable information for total neutron yields for electron beams at energies less than about 400 MeV. For electron beams at energies extending to 10 GeV it is necessary to include the higher energy resonance structures and the various intranuclear production channels that are available for the production of higher energy neutrons. The production model described in this paper permits the calculation of laboratory angle and energy of all hadrons produced when an electron beam of energy between 100 MeV and 10 GeV interacts with a fixed target. This model can be used as an event generator for Monte Carlo codes used for many radiation protection purposes including calculation of radiation shielding.

Pavel Degtiarenko

1996-01-01

204

Threat of ultraviolet radiation to the eye--how to protect against it  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effects of exposure of the eye to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to provide information from which protective criteria and standards may be established. To accomplish this purpose, the article discusses ultraviolet radiation, absorption of UV radiation by the eye, the effects of ocular exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and how to protect the eye against exposure to UV radiation.

Pitts, D.G.

1981-12-01

205

Injury and violence prevention policy: celebrating our successes, protecting our future.  

PubMed

Policy strategies for injury and violence prevention influence systems development, organizational change, social norms, and individual behavior to improve the health and safety of a population. Injury and violence prevention professionals should consider how their issues resonate with various audiences, including policy makers, the public, and other decision makers. As the cost of healthcare continues to rise and greater demands are placed on the healthcare system, the use of public health policy becomes increasingly critical to protect the public's health and prevent injury and violence and its related morbidities and disabilities (Degutis, 2011). This article highlights some impactful policy successes from the field, allows us to reflect on the Injury Center's 20th anniversary, and describes steps to address injuries and violence into the future. The purpose of this paper is to discuss policy as a public health strategy and the critical role it plays in injury and violence prevention. PMID:23127675

Kon, Rebecca Greco; Zurick, Elizabeth; Patterson, Sara; Peeples, Amy

2012-08-21

206

Risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer and radiation protection standards  

SciTech Connect

At low doses, the primary biological effects of concern are stochastic in nature, i.e., they are more probable at higher doses, but their severity is independent of the dose. In the last decade, a new epidemiological information on radiation-induced cancer in humans has become available. In the Japanese survivors three new cycles of data (11 yr of experience) have accumulated, and a revised dosimetry system (DS86) has been introduced. UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) reevaluated the risk of cancer from all human sources, which include other human populations such as those treated for ankylosing spondylitis and for cancer of the cervix. UNSCEAR has also evaluated the cancer risk for each of nine organs. For radiation protection purposes (low doses and dose rates, adult populations mainly), nominal values of risk since the 1977-80 period have been {approximately}1%/Sv. This value will need to be increased in the light of the new estimates. Also, risk estimates for various tissues must be reconsidered, and weighting factors used by International Commission on Radiological Protection need to be reexamined. Recommendations on occupational and public dose limits must also be reconsidered. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements is in a comparatively good position with a recently produced set of recommendations that had higher cancer risk estimates in mind.

Sinclair, W.K. (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1989-11-01

207

Radiation protection: the NCRP guidelines and some considerations for the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) in the USA and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), worldwide, were formed about 1928 and have since made recommendations on appropriate levels of protection from ionizing radiation for workers and for the public. These recommendations and much of the guidance provided by these organizations have usually been adopted by

Sinclair

2009-01-01

208

47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided...human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2012-10-01

209

47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided...human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2011-10-01

210

Mechanisms of radiation interaction with DNA: Potential implications for radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the US Department of Energy conducts a broad multidisciplinary research program which includes basic biophysics, biophysical chemistry, molecular and cellular biology as well as experimental animal studies and opportunistic human studies. This research is directed at understanding how low levels of radiation of various qualities produce the spectrum of biological effects that are seen for such exposures. This workshop was entitled ''Mechanisms of Radiation Interaction with DNA: Potential Implications for Radiation Protection.'' It ws jointly sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Commission of European Communities. The aim of the workshop was to review the base of knowledge in the area of mechanisms of radiation action at the DNA level, and to explore ways in which this information can be applied to the development of scientifically sound concepts and procedures for use in the field of radiation protection. The overview of research provided by this multidisciplinary group will be helpful to the Office in program planning. This report includes a summary of the presentations, extended abstracts, the meeting agenda, research recommendations, and a list of participants. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base.

Not Available

1988-01-01

211

The impact of mining activities on Mongolia's protected areas: a status report with policy recommendations.  

PubMed

Mongolia's protected areas cover 20.5 million ha or 13.1% of its national territory. Existing and proposed protected areas, however, are threatened by mining. Mining impacts on Mongolia's protected areas are diverse and include licensed and unlicensed mineral activities in protected areas, buffer zone disturbance, and prevention of the establishment of proposed protected areas. Review of United States, Canadian, and Australian policies revealed 9 basic approaches to resolving conflicts between protected areas and mining. Four approaches suitable for Mongolia are granting land trades and special dispensations in exchange for mineral licenses in protected areas; granting protected status to all lapsed mineral licenses in protected areas; voluntary forfeiting of mineral licenses in protected areas in exchange for positive corporate publicity; and prohibiting all new mineral activities in existing and proposed protected areas. Mining is Mongolia's most important industry, however, and the long-term benefits of preserving Mongolia's natural heritage must be considered and weighed against the economic benefits and costs of mining activities. PMID:16639889

Farrington, John D

2005-07-01

212

On being understood: clarity and jargon in radiation protection.  

PubMed

While much of the language used to express the concepts of radiation protection works effectively, there are many ill-chosen names and phrases and much jargon that permeate our professional speech and writing. From the oxymoron "internal exposure" to the "snarl word" "decay," there is much room for improvement. This essay identifies many of the problems and suggests solutions. We examine the kinds of confusions that can result from using familiar words with unfamiliar meanings and the need for neology. We offer insights into specific and unambiguous naming of physical quantities and explore the seemingly unlimited kinds of "dose." We disaggregate exposure from irradiation following intakes, and unmask units like "gram rad per microcurie hour." We call for a definition of radiation weighting factor that doesn't result in a violation of the law of conservation of energy. We examine the subtleties of distinguishing between radiation and radioactive materials. Some words, such as "exposure," have multiple meanings, while at other times there are different words or phrases with the same meaning, such as "critical level" and "decision level" or "detection level" and "minimum detectable amount." Sometimes phrases are used whose meaning is unclear or not agreed upon, such as "lower limit of detection." Sometimes there are words that are simply not apt, such as "disintegration" applied to the emission of a subatomic particle from a nucleus. PMID:11845840

Strom, Daniel J; Watson, Charles R

2002-03-01

213

Recent estimates of cancer risk from low-let ionizing radiation and radiation protection limits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of the risk of cancer induction, formerly about 1%/Sv, formed the basis of ICRP radiation protection limits in 1977. They have now increased to about 4-5%/Sv for low doses. These increases are based mainly on new data for the Japanese survivors of the A-bombs of 1945. They result from the accumulation of 11 years more of data on solid tumors, the revisions in the dosimetry of those exposed and improvement in statistical methods and projections. The application of a dose rate effectiveness factor between effects at high dose rate and those at low dose and dose rate is also an important consideration. Not only has the total risk changed but also the distribution of risk among organs. Thus the effective dose equivalent may require modification. These changes are modifying ICRP and NCRP thinking about recommendations on protection limits, especially for radiation workers.

Sinclair, Warren K.

1992-07-01

214

Protecting Privacy on the Canadian Information Highway: Policy Developments and Regulatory Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of statutory and non-statutory data-protection provisions currently governing the processing of personal data in Canada's private sector, including federal and provincial legislation and efforts at self-regulation through voluntary codes of practice. Considers a more comprehensive system of regulation, contemporary policy

Bennett, Colin J.

1996-01-01

215

China and Responsibility to Protect: Maintenance and Change of Its Policy for Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article tries to analyze Chinese policy stance on the Responsibility to Protect (RtoP) concept from two levels: its basic attitude towards the core principles of this concept and its specific attitudes towards the execution of this concept, that is, the international intervention actions. Starting from the clarification of the RtoP concept, the article analyzes the maintenance and change of

Liu Tiewa

2012-01-01

216

The Contemporary State of Child Protection Policy and Practice in England and Wales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies and analyzes central tensions and themes that characterize child protection policy in England and Wales. Outlines conflicting messages that have been prevalent in debates about child abuse since the early 1980s. Analyzes in detail the 1989 Children Act, the 1991 Criminal Justice Act, Working Together (1991), and the Memorandum of Good

Parton, Nigel; Otway, Olive

1995-01-01

217

Radiation Rescue: Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Protect from Lethal Irradiation  

PubMed Central

Background Successful treatment of acute radiation syndromes relies on immediate supportive care. In patients with limited hematopoietic recovery potential, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is the only curative treatment option. Because of time consuming donor search and uncertain outcome we propose MSC treatment as an alternative treatment for severely radiation-affected individuals. Methods and Findings Mouse mesenchymal stromal cells (mMSCs) were expanded from bone marrow, retrovirally labeled with eGFP (bulk cultures) and cloned. Bulk and five selected clonal mMSCs populations were characterized in vitro for their multilineage differentiation potential and phenotype showing no contamination with hematopoietic cells. Lethally irradiated recipients were i.v. transplanted with bulk or clonal mMSCs. We found a long-term survival of recipients with fast hematopoietic recovery after the transplantation of MSCs exclusively without support by HSCs. Quantitative PCR based chimerism analysis detected eGFP-positive donor cells in peripheral blood immediately after injection and in lungs within 24 hours. However, no donor cells in any investigated tissue remained long-term. Despite the rapidly disappearing donor cells, microarray and quantitative RT-PCR gene expression analysis in the bone marrow of MSC-transplanted animals displayed enhanced regenerative features characterized by (i) decreased proinflammatory, ECM formation and adhesion properties and (ii) boosted anti-inflammation, detoxification, cell cycle and anti-oxidative stress control as compared to HSC-transplanted animals. Conclusions Our data revealed that systemically administered MSCs provoke a protective mechanism counteracting the inflammatory events and also supporting detoxification and stress management after radiation exposure. Further our results suggest that MSCs, their release of trophic factors and their HSC-niche modulating activity rescue endogenous hematopoiesis thereby serving as fast and effective first-line treatment to combat radiation-induced hematopoietic failure.

Lange, Claudia; Brunswig-Spickenheier, Barbel; Cappallo-Obermann, Heike; Eggert, Katharina; Gehling, Ursula M.; Rudolph, Cornelia; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Cornils, Kerstin; Zustin, Jozef; Spiess, Andrej-Nikolai; Zander, Axel R.

2011-01-01

218

An Epr Investigation of Radiation Protection by Aromatic Additives in Synthetic Polymers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research is a study of the protective effects against ionizing radiation that aromatic compounds provide when added to a synthetic polymer in various proportions. Since radiation damage in high polymer compounds is usually accompanied by the productio...

J. J. Banaszak

1964-01-01

219

Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination. Fourth annual report, July 1, 1987--June 30, 1988  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourth annual report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). CIRRPC was chartered April 9, 1984 under the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (FCCSET) and reports to the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), Executive Office of the President. Its overall charge is to coordinate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation research, and provide advice on the formulation of radiation policy.

Young, A.L.

1988-06-30

220

Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture: limitation and assessment in radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

Protection against ionizing radiation can follow two fundamentally different approaches. In limitation, the maximum permissible dose equivalent is selected on the basis of worst-case assumptions on the shape of dose-effect curves and the influence of other factors (dose distribution, relative biologic effectiveness, etc.). This system has the restricted aim of ensuring that radiation exposure results in risks below stipulated levels. In assessment, the functional relation and the numeric values required for risk estimation are postulated. This permits statements of the absolute values of risks, not only for the maximum permissible dose equivalent but also for any lesser dose equivalents. The principal concept underlying the assessment system is that of incoherence: lack of interdependence between the effects of dose increments and lack of interdependence between the effects on the constituent cells and organs of the body. The notion of incoherence and the choices of numeric values of risks are subject to substantial doubts. They must nevertheless be adopted when risk estimation cannot be avoided.

Rossi, H.H.

1985-01-01

221

Application of the HSEF to assessing radiation risks in the practice of radiation protection.  

PubMed

The primary risk coefficients upon which exposure limits for radiation protection purposes are currently based are derived almost exclusively from cancer-induction data obtained from human populations exposed to radiations of low linear energy transfer. The question of higher linear energy transfer radiations is handled by means of quality factors derived from values for relative biological effectiveness obtained from animal data. However, the advent of microdosimetry has made it possible to establish hit size effectiveness functions from single-cell systems, both in vitro and in vivo. This type of function can substitute completely for the concept of relative biological effectiveness, Q and equivalent dose. A common basis for risk coefficients and the hit size effectiveness function lies in the fact that human cancers are monoclonal and thus single cell in origin. The present communication utilizes this common base as a means of extending the present low-linear energy transfer based risk coefficients to include carcinogenic responses from exposure in radiation fields of any one or mixed qualities, extending from the smallest to the largest linear energy transfers of practical consequence. In doing so, risks from ionizing radiations of any linear energy transfer may be predicted more accurately than at present. PMID:7730058

Bond, V P; Varma, M; Feinendegen, L E; Wuu, C S; Zaider, M

1995-05-01

222

Report of the CIRRPC (Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination) Policy Subpanel on SI (International System of Units) Metric Radiation Units.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Subpanel's recommendation to CIRRPC for U.S. policy concerning the use of SI radiation units is as follows: Recognizing that use of the International System of Units (SI) for radiological quantities is increasing internationally but is not currently w...

1986-01-01

223

Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination second annual report, July 1, 1985--June 30, 1986  

SciTech Connect

This is the second annual report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). CIRRPC was established on April 9, 1984, to replace the Committee on Interagency Radiation Policy and was assigned responsibilities of the former Interagency Radiation Research Committee and former Radiation Policy Council. CIRRPC is chartered under the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (FCCSET) and reports to the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), Executive Office of the President. Its overall charge is to coordinate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation research, and provide advice on the formulation of radiation policy. During CIRRPC`s second year, the member agencies have called upon this interagency resource to assist in coordinating science and policy issues and to provide a vehicle to accomplish multiagency tasks.

Young, A.L.

1996-06-30

224

Policy Issues in Protected Area Management: An Examination of Dugong Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threats to dugong survival include direct mortality from boat strikes, drowning in nets and loss of habitat. Dugong sanctuaries were introduced in 1998 to protect declining dugong numbers by recognising important seagrass habitat areas. Nonpoint source pollutants such as dissolved nutrients, pesticides and suspended sediment have the potential to affect the species composition of seagrass and the extent of seagrass

Ben Jacobsen; Thilak Mallawaarachchi

2001-01-01

225

Beam dumps design and local radiation protection at TERA synchrotron.  

PubMed

The realisation of the National Center of Hadrontherapy was funded by the Italian Government in 2002. The Centre will be built in the area of Pavia (Italy). The synchrotron designed in the framework of this programme will accelerate protons and carbon ions up to 250 MeV and 400 MeV u(-1), respectively. Some of the main aspects which were taken into account in the design of the acceleration system are the patient's safety and the beam control. From this point of view an important role is played by the beam dumps in the synchrotron ring and upstream of the extraction system. In particular, an horizontal and a vertical beam dump will be installed in the synchrotron ring: the former will be used for lowering the beam intensity and the latter for beam abortion. The dump at the extraction will absorb the particles during the mounting and the falling ramps of the synchrotron magnetic cycle, thus extracting only the flat top of the ion spill. Beam dumps can produce intense fields of secondary radiation (neutrons, charged light-hadrons and photons) and high rates of induced activity, since they can absorb the beam completely. Usually they have to be shielded to protect the electronics during machine operation and to attenuate the radiation dose below the limits imposed by the law when the personnel access to the synchrotron hall. The part of the shielding design of the beam dumps concerning with the acceleration of protons was made using Monte Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code. Both induced activity and secondary radiation were taken into account. The shields against secondary radiation produced by carbon ions were designed, referring only to secondary neutrons, taking double-differential distributions from the literature as sources for the FLUKA simulations. The induced activity from carbon ions interactions was estimated analytically, using the data generated by the EPAX 2 code. The dose-equivalent rates from the induced radionuclides were calculated at 1 m from the shielded dumps, taking into account the contribution of activated components of the synchrotron ring. PMID:16381716

Porta, A; Campi, F; Agosteo, S

2005-01-01

226

A curriculum model for Nevada Test Site radiation protection technician training  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research project was undertaken to develop a performance-based curriculum model for Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Technicians. The study began with an overview of Radiation Protection Technician training curricula within the Department of Energy (DOE) Government Contractor system and the Training Accreditation Manuals used for program evaluation of DOE system training programs. The research design included data from a

Petullo

1989-01-01

227

Final report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination, 1984-1995  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). The committee was established to address national and international issues involving ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Three sections are included in the report: a summary of CIRRPC`s history structure, and operations; CIRRPC`s most significant activities, findings and recommendations on national radiation issues of sufficient importance and scope to require interagency attention; topics for future consideration by Federal agencies.

NONE

1995-09-01

228

Neutron, Proton, and Photonuclear Cross Sections for Radiation Therapy and Radiation Protection  

SciTech Connect

The authors review recent work at Los Alamos to evaluate neutron, proton, and photonuclear cross section up to 150 MeV (to 250 MeV for protons), based on experimental data and nuclear model calculations. These data are represented in the ENDF format and can be used in computer codes to simulate radiation transport. They permit calculations of absorbed dose in the body from therapy beams, and through use of kerma coefficients allow absorbed dose to be estimated for a given neutron energy distribution. For radiation protection, these data can be used to determine shielding requirements in accelerator environments, and to calculate neutron, proton, gamma-ray, and radionuclide production. Illustrative comparisons of the evaluated cross section and kerma coefficient data with measurements are given.

Chadwick, M.B.

1998-09-10

229

Anti-apoptotic peptides protect against radiation-induced cell death  

SciTech Connect

The risk of terrorist attacks utilizing either nuclear or radiological weapons has raised concerns about the current lack of effective radioprotectants. Here it is demonstrated that the BH4 peptide domain of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL can be delivered to cells by covalent attachment to the TAT peptide transduction domain (TAT-BH4) and provide protection in vitro and in vivo from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Isolated human lymphocytes treated with TAT-BH4 were protected against apoptosis following exposure to 15 Gy radiation. In mice exposed to 5 Gy radiation, TAT-BH4 treatment protected splenocytes and thymocytes from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Most importantly, in vivo radiation protection was observed in mice whether TAT-BH4 treatment was given prior to or after irradiation. Thus, by targeting steps within the apoptosis signaling pathway it is possible to develop post-exposure treatments to protect radio-sensitive tissues.

McConnell, Kevin W. [Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Muenzer, Jared T. [Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Chang, Kathy C. [Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Davis, Chris G. [Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); McDunn, Jonathan E. [Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Coopersmith, Craig M. [Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Hilliard, Carolyn A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Hotchkiss, Richard S. [Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Grigsby, Perry W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Hunt, Clayton R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States)]. E-mail: chunt@radonc.wustl.edu

2007-04-06

230

Radiation terrorism: what society needs from the radiobiologyradiation protection and radiation oncology communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Societys and individuals concerns about the adverse effects from radiation are logically amplified many times when radiological terrorism is considered. The spectrum of events include industrial sabotage, the use of an explosive or non-explosive radiological dispersal device, the placement of a radiological exposure device in a public facility and the use of an improvised nuclear device. The consequences of an

C Norman Coleman; Gerald W Parker

2009-01-01

231

Modulating Radiation Resistance: Novel Protection Paradigms Based on Defenses against Ionizing Radiation in the Extremophile Deinococcus radiodurans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For Deinococcus radiodurans and other bacteria which are extremely resistant to ionizing radiation (IR) and desiccation, a mechanistic link exists between resistance, manganese accumulation, and protein protection. We have demonstrated that ultrafiltered,...

M. J. Daly

2010-01-01

232

Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

2010-01-01

233

Ionizing and Nonionizing Radiation Protection. Module SH-35. Safety and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This student module on ionizing and nonionizing radiation protection is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module describes various types of ionizing and nonionizing radiation, and the situations in the workplace where potential hazards from radiation may exist. Following the introduction, 13 objectives (each keyed to a

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

234

Standards for protection against radiation, 10 CFR Part 20  

SciTech Connect

On may 21, 1991, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued a revision to its standards for protection against ionizing radiation, 10 CFR Part 20. Although the revised part ({section}{section} 20.1001-20.2401) became effective on June 20, 1991, licensees may defer implementation of the revised rule until January 1, 1993. Licensees continue to be required to comply with the provisions of {section}{section} 20.1-20.601 until the time they adopt the provisions of {section}{section} 20.1001-20.2401. Therefore, between June 20, 1991 and January 1, 1993 both the provisions of {section}{section} 20.1-20.601 and {section}{section} 20.1001-20.2401 are in effect. This NUREG presents a comparative text of the provisions of the revised Part 20 ({section}{section} 20.1001-20. 2401) to the text of {section}{section} 20.1-20.601 for use by the NRC staff and NRC licensees. 2 refs.

Cool, D.A.; Peterson, H.T. Jr.

1991-10-01

235

Radiation protection concepts and quantities for the occupational exposure to cosmic radiation.  

PubMed

For the purposes of dose limitation and dose control, the harm, or detriment, of exposure to radiation is assessed by the quantity effective dose. Effective dose is evaluated by the application of factors to the averaged absorbed dose in the organs and tissues of the body. Radiation monitoring instruments are generally calibrated in terms of the quantity ambient dose equivalent which is defined in a simple spherical phantom. The relationship of these quantities is described. Requirements for the radiation protection of aircraft crew are given in the European Union Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM. There are requirements to assess the exposure of aircraft crew, to inform them of health risks, to reduce higher doses, and to control the dose to the fetus. There are no explicit dose limits, other than a dose objective to be applied to the exposure of the fetus, and no requirements for designation of areas or classification of workers. There are significant differences between the exposure condition of aircraft crew and workers in most other industries where there is occupational exposure to radiation. There are greater ranges of radiation types and energy, and there are different dose distributions and characteristics of the working populations. However, the field intensity is predictable and, with the exception of rare solar events, there is no risk of significant unexpected exposures. Dose assessment is anticipated to be by folding staff roster information with estimates of route doses, since there is little variability of dose rate within an aircraft. Route doses, which may be either an agreed average value for a given airport pairing and aircraft type, or be flight specific, will be closely linked to measured values. Requirements as to the accuracy of dose assessment should be applied which are broadly similar to those used in individual monitoring generally. PMID:11543395

Bartlett, D T

1999-01-01

236

Baseline survey of sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy in early childhood settings in Queensland, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive exposure to sunlight during early childhood increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Self-administered questionnaires ex- ploring sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy were mailed to the directors\\/co- ordinators\\/senior teachers of all known early childhood services in Queensland, Australia, in 2002 (n 5 1383; 56.5% response). Most (73.7%) services had a written sun-protection policy (SPP). However, 40.6% of pre-schools and

Simone L. Harrison; V. Saunders; M. Nowak

2006-01-01

237

Legislative and policy challenges for the protection of biodiversity and bushland habitats: An evidence-based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balancing the needs of biodiversity in the context of ESD remains a challenging and ongoing issue for consent authorities, developers and scientists alike. This article explores some of practical, scientific, legislative and policy issues facing the protection of biodiversity in the context of urbanisation. The application of legislative and policy instruments to environmental decision-making needs to be complemented with more

Mark Patrick Taylor

2008-01-01

238

Economic and environmental impacts of water quality protection policies: 2. Application to the Central High Plains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-stage modeling framework is applied to evaluate the potential economic and environmental impacts of agricultural groundwater protection policies in the Central High Plains Region. Three alternative policies (limitations on total nitrogen applications, limitations on unit-area nitrogen applications, and restrictions on the use of selected herbicides) are compared to a baseline scenario that reflects the absence of any form of groundwater quality protection measures. In general, nitrogen restrictions are more effective in reducing nitrate loadings in percolation water if implemented on a unit-area basis rather than as a total (farm level) restriction. In contrast, the total restriction is more effective in controlling runoff losses of nitrogen. Both nitrogen restrictions have significant impacts on crop production levels and regional agricultural income, while the economic consequences of the pesticide restriction are much less pronounced. The proposed regional modeling framework provides critical information necessary to assess the economic and environmental tradeoffs of policy alternatives aimed at controlling agricultural nonpoint source pollution.

Bernardo, D. J.; Mapp, H. P.; Sabbagh, G. J.; Geleta, S.; Watkins, K. B.; Elliott, R. L.; Stone, J. F.

1993-09-01

239

Photoprotection beyond Ultraviolet Radiation Effective Sun Protection Has to Include Protection against Infrared A Radiation-Induced Skin Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar radiation is well known to damage human skin, for example by causing premature skin ageing (i.e. photoageing). We have recently learned that this damage does not result from ultraviolet (UV) radiation alone, but also from longer wavelengths, in particular near-infrared radiation (IRA radiation, 7601,440 nm). IRA radiation accounts for more than one third of the solar energy that reaches

P. Schroeder; C. Calles; T. Benesova; F. Macaluso; J. Krutmann

2010-01-01

240

Radiation safety and protection of neonates in radiological examinations  

SciTech Connect

Radiation reduction methods in neonatal radiographic examinations are discussed. Studies performed on radiation exposures to the neonates, scattered radiation level, exposure to the nursery personnel, effectiveness of the various shielding methods, uniformity of the x-ray field, heel effect, and skin exposure estimation are described. In summary, recommendations for exposure reduction based on our experimental findings as well as on the ALARA concept of radiation safety are provided.

Yoshizumi, T.T.; Drummond, K.T.; Freeman, J.O.; Mullett, M.D.

1987-05-01

241

Forging Planetary Protection Requirements for the Next Decade: Policies and Discoveries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preventing the biological contamination of sensitive areas on other bodies of the solar system while protecting the Earth from the potential hazard of returned samples from locations that might support an indigenous biota are both of critical importance to the future success of science and exploration missions. In 2002, the ICSU Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) published an international consensus planetary protection policy that outlines requirements to achieve these goals, driven by a desire to preserve science opportunities and by simple prudence. Translating such a policy into requirements at both the mission and subsystem level, however, requires a more intimate understanding of both the sources of contamination and the accessible habitats on other worlds than is now the case--and it may always be that way. As the array of prospective missions grows, new data from current missions and the reexamination of previous results will drive future planetary protection concerns and attendant requirements. A framework for assessing required contamination control measures for space missions must be developed to be robust to our emerging understanding of potential extraterrestrial habitats, while making full use of the increased understanding of biology that we see envision today--particularly those aspects of biology that could affect the survival of Earth microbes on other worlds. Likewise, the development of a greater understanding of biology and its potential can help guide requirements for testing a returned sample for possible biohazards. Current thinking on a strategy to provide such a framework will be provided in this discussion.

Rummel, J. D.

2004-12-01

242

The Relationship between Sun Protection Policy and Associated Practices in a National Sample of Early Childhood Services in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Limiting exposure to sunlight during childhood can significantly reduce the risk of skin cancer. This was the first national study to assess the sun protection policies and practices of early childhood services across Australia. It also examined the key predictors of services' sun protection practices. In 2007, 1017 respondents completed a

Ettridge, Kerry A.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Rayner, Joanne M.; Wilson, Carlene J.

2011-01-01

243

Fluorinated Single Wall Nanotube/Polyethylene Composites for Multifunctional Radiation Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fluorinated Single Wall Nanotubes (f-SWNTs) have been processed in polyethylene by an incipient wetting technique to achieve a well dispersed nanocomposite for radiation protection. In some cases, samples were further processed using the rapid prototyping...

E. V. Barrera J. G. Vera M. L. Shofner M. X. Pulikkathara R. T. Wilkins

2003-01-01

244

The Distribution and Metabolism of the Radiation Protective Agent Aminopropylaminoethyl-Phosphorothioate (WR-2721) in Mice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aminopropylaminoethyl-phosphorothioate (WR-2721) is the least toxic and most effective of the phosphorothioate class of radiation protective agents. In order to investigate the mechanism of action of this agent, distribution and metabolism studies were ca...

G. Kollmann B. Shapiro S. Leon D. Martin

1978-01-01

245

Ochrana pri praci se zdroji ionizujiciho zareni. (Protection during work with ionizing radiation sources).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication has been set up as a textbook for training courses dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation, designed for supervisory staff and persons directly responsible for activities which involve the handling of ionizing ra...

1995-01-01

246

Proceedings of the American Nuclear Society executive conference on good radiation protection management  

SciTech Connect

Some of the topics covered in this book include: Records keeping and control of transient workers' access to vital areas; Designing plants for ALARA - revelation or evolution ; and There are good dollars and sense in good radiation protection management.

Not Available

1985-01-01

247

Description, Experimental Calibration, and Analysis of the Radiation Test Facility at the Protective Structures Development Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The initial calibration experiments performed at the Radiation Test Facility of the Protective Structures Development Center are described and their results analyzed. The dose rate above an open field and the attenuation afforded by the steel frame of the...

A. W. Starbird C. McDonnell J. Velletri J. F. Batter

1964-01-01

248

Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation-protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A Practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

1989-04-01

249

Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

1989-04-01

250

Proceedings of the Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (2nd).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, r...

R. E. Swaja C. S. Sims

1988-01-01

251

Health data use and protection policy; based on differences by cultural and social environment.  

PubMed

On April 22, 1999, the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare proposed electronic preservation of all clinical records. Simultaneously, deliberations on legislation on data disclosure and privacy protection were held. To promote these movements, electronic use of Personal Health Data (PHD) is indispensable, and the system development is on its way to meet rising demands. Indigenous Japanese did not have a word to describe the concept of privacy. It was only in the 1960s when we became aware of that. In this article, the protection policy for data use will be discussed from a Japanese perspective compared with those in other nations, giving an example of the hospital management system under construction at the Hiroshima University Hospital. PMID:11154962

Ishikawa, K

2000-11-01

252

THE EFFECT OF IONIZING RADIATIONS AND SUBSTRATE PROTECTION ON TYROSINASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented which indicate a specific protection of tyrosinase by ; its substrates. Explanations of this protective action are discussed. It ; appears that there are two sites of enzyme activity on the tyrosinase mole cule ; and that the cresolase site has a much higher affinity for its substrate than the ; catecholase site. It is suggested that

H. T. Jr. Yost; D. W. Jr. Fitterer; H. Goldin

1958-01-01

253

Protection from radiation-induced damage to spermatogenesis by hormone treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infertility caused by killing of the spermatogonial stem cells occurs frequently in men treated for cancer with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We investigated whether pretreatment of rats with testosterone plus estradiol, which reversibly inhibits the completion of spermatogenesis and protects spermatogonial stem cells from procarbazine-induced damage, would also protect these cells from radiation. Adult male LBNF rats were implanted for 6

B. Kurdoglu; G. Wilson; N. Parchuri; W. Ye; M. L. Meistrich

1994-01-01

254

Plant Phenolics as Radiation Protectants For The Beet Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Nucleopolyhedrovirus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Thirteen phenolics were tested as ultraviolet (UV) protectants for the nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hbner). After 30 minute exposure to UVB/UVB radiation, eleven SeMNPV/phenolic combinations provided good to excellent UV protection when used at a concentra...

255

Synthesis of amino Derivatives of Dithio Acids as Potential Radiation Protective Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Appreciable radiation-protective properties were found with the N-methyl-quinolinium- 2-dithioacetic acid derivatives. The bis(thiomethyl) and thio-methyl amino derivatives gave much greater protection (60-70% survival vs. 1000 rads) than the dithio acid ...

W. O. Foye

1984-01-01

256

Gamma radiation and gamma protection factors onboard ships during radioactive fallout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of evaluating Gamma Ray Protection Factors (GRPF) for ships in various situations of radioactive fallout are discussed. These factors determine, in connection with a measured gamma radiation dose at a given detector point, the gamma radiation in different compartments of the ship. A computer program GASUFA was developed to calculate the GRPF. GASUFA performs calculations, considering energy, place, and

E. H. Brehm; T. Holst

1975-01-01

257

PROTECTIVE MECHANISMS AND ACCLIMATION TO SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET-B RADIATION IN 'OENOTHERA STRICTA'  

EPA Science Inventory

Mechanisms of plant protection and acclimation to potentially damaging solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation incident on the Earth's surface were examined in Oenothera stricta. Attenuation of this radiation in the upper leaf epidermis reduces the penetration of UV-B ra...

258

Flavonoids can protect maize DNA from the induction of ultraviolet radiation damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diverse flavonoid compounds are widely distributed in angio- sperm families. Flavonoids absorb radiation in the ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum, and it has been proposed that these compounds function as UV filters. We demonstrate that the DNA in Zea mays plants that contain flavonoids (primarily anthocyanins) is protected from the induction of damage caused by UV radiation relative to

Ann E. Stapleton; Virginia Walbot

1994-01-01

259

Protective effects of melatonin and vitamin E in brain damage due to gamma radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma radiation is known to cause serious damage in the brain, and many agents have been used for neuroprotection. In this study, lipid peroxidation levels and histopathological changes in brain tissues of whole-body irradiated rats with likely radiation injury were compared to those with melatonin and vitamin E protection. Forty rats in four equal groups were used. The control group

Fatih S. Erol; Cahide Topsakal; M. Faik Ozveren; Metin Kaplan; Nevin Ilhan; I. Hanifi Ozercan; Oguz G. Yildiz

2004-01-01

260

Radiation exposure and protection for moon and Mars missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deep space radiation environment of galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles from solar flares imposes stringent requirements for radiation shielding for both personnel and electronic equipment at a moon base or on a Mars expedition. Current Los Alamos capabilities for calculating the effect of such shielding are described, and extensions and validation needed before actual manned deep space missions

R. E. MacFarlane; R. E. Prael; D. D. Strottman; G. F. Strniste; W. C. Feldman

1991-01-01

261

Nuclear Fragmentation Processes Relevant for Human Space Radiation Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for human space explorations such as a moon base or a trip to Mars. Models have been developed in order to predict the radiation exposure to astronauts and to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials, and a key ingredient in these models is the physics of nuclear

Zi-Wei Lin

2007-01-01

262

Concepts of radiation safety and protection: Beyond BEIR V  

SciTech Connect

The publication of an updated report on the biological effects of ionizing radiation (BEIR V) has focused new attention on the potential hazards associated with the use of low doses of ionizing radiation for diagnostic purposes. This article reviews the BEIR V report findings and suggests methods for reducing the risks to dental patients and the operators of dental x-ray equipment.

Farman, A.G. (University of Louisville School of Dentistry, KY (USA))

1991-01-01

263

A Survey of Georgia Adult Protective Service Staff: Implications for Older Adult Injury Prevention and Policy  

PubMed Central

Background: The aging population is a rapidly growing demographic. Isolation and limited autonomy render many of the elderly vulnerable to abuse, neglect and exploitation. As the population grows, so does the need for Adult Protective Services (APS). This study was conducted to examine current knowledge of older adult protection laws in Georgia among APS staff and to identify training opportunities to better prepare the APS workforce in case detection and intervention. Methods: The Georgia State University Institute of Public Health faculty developed a primary survey in partnership with the Georgia Division of Aging Services leadership to identify key training priority issues for APS caseworkers and investigators. A 47-item electronic questionnaire was delivered to all APS employees via work-issued email accounts. We conducted descriptive analyses, t-tests and chi-square analyses to determine APS employees baseline knowledge of Georgias elder abuse policies, laws and practices, as well as examine associations of age, ethnicity, and educational attainment with knowledge. We used a p-value of 0.05 and 95% confidence intervals to determine statistical significance of analyses performed. Result: Ninety-two out of 175 APS staff responded to the survey (53% response rate). The majority of respondents were Caucasian (56%) women (92%). For over half the survey items, paired sample t-tests revealed significant differences between what APS staff reported as known and what APS staff members indicated they needed to know more about in terms of elder abuse and current policies. Chi-square tests revealed that non-Caucasians significantly preferred video conferencing as a training format (44% compared to 18%), [?2(1) = 7.102, p < .008], whereas Caucasians preferred asynchronous online learning formats (55% compared to 28%) [?2(1) =5.951, p < .015]. Conclusion: Results from this study provide the Georgia Division of Aging with insight into specific policy areas that are not well understood by APS staff. Soliciting input from intended trainees allows public health educators to tailor and improve training sessions. Trainee input may result in optimization of policy implementation, which may result in greater injury prevention and protection of older adults vulnerable to abuse, neglect and exploitation.

Strasser, Sheryl M.; Kerr, Judith; King, Patricia S; Payne, Brian; Beddington, Sarah; Pendrick, Danielle; Leyda, Elizabeth; McCarty, Frances

2011-01-01

264

A review of voxel model development and radiation protection applications at ENEA.  

PubMed

The need of organ absorbed dose evaluation for radiation protection purposes stimulated, since the late 1960s, the development of anthropoid models to be used with radiation transport codes. Very significant improvements were introduced during the years, passing from stylised analytical human models to realistic voxel models based on computed tomography scans or MRI scans, and finally to advanced surface-geometry models. Besides illustrating the main contributions in this field from various international laboratories, this paper illustrates some applications of voxel models to internal (including in vivo monitoring) and external dosimetry for radiation protection. PMID:20385543

Gualdrini, Gianfranco; Ferrari, Paolo

2010-04-12

265

Low-Dose-Radiation Stimulated Natural Chemical and Biological Protection Against Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Research is being conducted world-wide related to chemoprevention of future lung cancer among smokers. The fact that low doses and dose rates of some sparsely ionizing forms of radiation (e.g., x rays, gamma rays, and beta radiation) stimulate transient natural chemical and biological protection against cancer in high-risk individuals is little known. The cancer preventative properties relate to radiation adaptive response (radiation hormesis) and involve stimulated protective biological signaling (a mild stress response). The biological processes associated with the protective signaling are now better understood and include: increased availability of efficient DNA double-strand break repair (p53-related and in competition with normal apoptosis), stimulated auxiliary apoptosis of aberrant cells (presumed p53-independent), and stimulated protective immune functions. This system of low-dose radiation activated natural protection (ANP) requires an individual-specific threshold level of mild stress and when invoked can efficiently prevent the occurrence of cancers as well as other genomic-instability-associated diseases. In this paper, low, essentially harmless doses of gamma rays spread over an extended period are shown via use of a biological-based, hormetic relative risk (HRR) model to be highly efficient in preventing lung cancer induction by alpha radiation from inhaled plutonium.

Scott, B. R.

2008-01-01

266

Calculation of Combat Vehicle Protection against a Residual Radiation Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gamma protection factors (GPF) for two medium tanks have been calculated using the Monte Carlo program, MORSE. Comparisons with appropriate experiments show good agreement. It is concluded that this calculational approach is a viable alternative to experi...

A. E. Rainis R. M. Schwenk R. E. Rexroad J. W. Kinch

1978-01-01

267

Prevent Eye Damage: Protect Yourself from UV Radiation  

MedlinePLUS

... that contains at least 50% post-consumer fiber. EPAs SunWise Program: Educating Youth About Sun Safety The ... and how you can participate, please visit www.epa.gov/sunwise . Protect Your Eyes The greatest amount ...

268

New nuclear build and evolving radiation protection challenges.  

PubMed

Radiological protection has continued to evolve in order to meet emerging challenges and will continue to do so. This paper will discuss the scientific and social challenges that will or may be faced by the radiological protection community in the coming 10 to 20 y and how these may affect what is expected to be a renewed interest in building and operating nuclear power plants for electricity generation. PMID:21399418

Lazo, Edward

2011-01-01

269

Radiation exposure and protection for moon and Mars missions  

SciTech Connect

A deep space radiation environment of galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles from solar flares imposes stringent requirements for radiation shielding for both personnel and electronic equipment at a moon base or on a Mars expedition. Current Los Alamos capabilities for calculating the effect of such shielding are described, and extensions and validation needed before actual manned deep space missions are launched are outlined. The biological effects of exposure to cosmic-ray ions and to low doses of radiation at low dose rates are poorly understood. Recent Los Alamos work on mutation effects in cells, DNA repair processes, and the analysis of chromosomal aberrations promises to increase our understanding of the basic processes, to provide methods to screen for radiation sensitivity, and to provide advanced dosimetry equipment for space missions.

MacFarlane, R.E.; Prael, R.E.; Strottman, D.D.; Strniste, G.F.; Feldman, W.C.

1991-04-01

270

A regulatory perspective on whether the system of radiation protection is fit for purpose.  

PubMed

The system of radiation protection has its origins in the early efforts to protect people from x rays and radium. It was at the Second International Congress of Radiology in Stockholm in 1928 where the first radiation protection recommendations were adopted. The system of protection steadily evolved as new sources of exposure arose and understanding of radiation-related health risks improved. Safeguarding against these risks has required regulators to set enforceable (i.e. measurable) standards. From erythema dose to tolerance dose, critical organ dose to effective dose equivalent, and now effective dose, the units used to set these limits have evolved along with the science underpinning them. Similarly, the definition of the person or group being protected has changed - from Standard Man to Reference Man to Reference Person, with age and gender differences now considered explicitly. As regulators look towards implementing the changes in the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), there remain questions about how to translate an optimisation-based system of constraints and reference levels into the more familiar regime of enforceable limits. Nevertheless, as the new ICRP Recommendations are refinements of a system that did the job it was designed to do more than adequately, so too will the new system of radiation protection be fit for purpose. PMID:23089004

Boyd, M A

2012-08-22

271

Radiation Rescue: Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Protect from Lethal Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSuccessful treatment of acute radiation syndromes relies on immediate supportive care. In patients with limited hematopoietic recovery potential, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is the only curative treatment option. Because of time consuming donor search and uncertain outcome we propose MSC treatment as an alternative treatment for severely radiation-affected individuals.Methods and FindingsMouse mesenchymal stromal cells (mMSCs) were expanded from bone

Claudia Lange; Brbel Brunswig-Spickenheier; Heike Cappallo-Obermann; Katharina Eggert; Ursula M. Gehling; Cornelia Rudolph; Brigitte Schlegelberger; Kerstin Cornils; Jozef Zustin; Andrej-Nikolai Spiess; Axel R. Zander; Eric J. Bernhard

2011-01-01

272

Synthesis of nanosilver using a vitamin C derivative and studies on radiation protection.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles were prepared from silver nitrate using a vitamin C derivative, 6-palmitoyl ascorbic acid-2-glucoside (PAsAG), via a sonochemical experiment. The resultant golden yellow solution that contained silver nanoparticle-PAsAG complex (SN-PAsAG) of about 5?nm particle sizes was explored for its potential to offer protection to DNA from ?-radiation-induced damages. The presence of SN-PAsAG during irradiation inhibited the disappearance of covalently closed circular (ccc) form of plasmid pBR322 with a dose modifying factor of 1.78. SN-PAsAG protected cellular DNA from radiation-induced damage as evident from comet assay study on mouse spleen cells, irradiated ex vivo. When orally administered with SN-PAsAG at 1 hour prior to whole-body radiation exposure, cellular DNA was found protected from radiation-induced strand breaks in various tissues (spleen cells, bone marrow cells, and blood leucocytes) of animals. Also, SN-PAsAG could enhance the rate of repair of cellular DNA in blood leucocytes and bone marrow cells when administered immediately after radiation exposure. The studies, under in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo radiation exposure conditions, showed effective radiation protection. PMID:21539456

Chandrasekharan, Dhanya K; Khanna, Pawan K; Kagiya, Tsutomu V; Nair, Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan

2011-04-01

273

Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Atoll (2002-2004)  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Enewetak Island (Figure 1) (Bell et al., 2002). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance programs are helping meet the informational needs of the U.S. DOE and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Our updated environmental assessments provide a strong scientific basis for predicting future change in exposure conditions especially in relation to changes in lifestyle, diet and/or land-use patterns. This information has important implications in addressing questions about existing (and future) radiological conditions on the islands, in determining the cost and estimating the effectiveness of potential remedial measures, and in general policy support considerations. Perhaps most importantly, the recently established individual radiological surveillance programs provide affected atoll communities with an unprecedented level of radiation protection monitoring where, for the first time, local resources are being made available to monitor resettled and resettling populations on a continuous basis. As a hard copy supplement to Marshall Islands Program website (http://eed.llnl.gov/mi/), this document provides an overview of the individual radiation protection monitoring program established for the Enewetak Atoll population group along with a full disclosure of all verified measurement data (2002-2004). Readers are advised that an additional feature of the associated web site is a provision where users are able calculate and track doses delivered to volunteers (de-identified information only) participating in the Marshall Islands Radiological Surveillance Program.

Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Johannes, K; Henry, D

2006-01-17

274

Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Rongelap Atoll (2002-2004)  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Rongelap Atoll (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance programs are helping meet the informational needs of the U.S. DOE and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Our updated environmental assessments provide a strong scientific basis for predicting future change in exposure conditions especially in relation to changes in lifestyle, diet and/or land-use patterns. This information has important implications in addressing questions about existing (and future) radiological conditions on the islands, in determining as well as the implementation, cost and effectiveness of potential intervention options, and in general policy support considerations. Perhaps most importantly, the recently established individual radiological surveillance programs provide affected atoll communities with an unprecedented level of radiation protection monitoring where, for the first time, local resources are being made available to monitor resettled and resettling populations on a continuous basis. As a hard copy supplement to Marshall Islands Program website (http://eed.llnl.gov/mi/), this document provides an overview of the individual radiation protection monitoring program established for resettlement workers living on Rongelap Island along with a full disclosure of all verified measurement data (2002-2004). Readers are advised that an additional feature of the associated web site is a provision where users are able calculate and track doses delivered to volunteers (de-identified information only) participating the Marshall Islands Radiological Surveillance Program.

Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Arelong, E; Langinbelik, S

2006-01-17

275

BOOK REVIEW: Fluence-Based and Microdosimetric Event-Based Methods for Radiation Protection in Space (NCRP Report No 137)  

Microsoft Academic Search

National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Bethesda, MD: NCRP This is the third report of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements which considers the potential radiation hazards associated with human activities in Space. The previous publications (1989 and 2000) considered these hazards largely in the conventional terms of absorbed dose and quality factors, and were guided by

J. Simmons

2002-01-01

276

Modern Methods of Real-Time Gamma Radiation Monitoring for General Personal Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time radiation detectors become an essential part of emergency personnel who may have to respond to unknown accidents, incidents or terrorist attacks, which could involve radioactive material. More and more ordinary citizens are interested in personal radiation protection as well. Reasons include lost sources, nuclear industrial accidents, nuclear or radiological terrorism and the possibility of nuclear weapons being used in a war. People want to have the ability to measure it for themselves and they want to be notified when the radiation levels are increased. To meet this demand, considerable research into new sensors is underway, including efforts to enhance the sensor performance through both the material properties and manufacturing technologies. Deep understanding of physical properties of the materials under the influence of radiation exposure is vital for the effective design of dosimeter devices. Detection of radiation is based on the fact that both the electrical and the optical properties of the materials undergo changes upon the exposure to ionizing radiation. It is believed that radiation causes structural defects. The influence of radiation depends on both the dose and the parameters of the films including their thickness: the degradation is more severe for the higher dose and the thinner films. This paper presents overview of modern methods of real-time gamma radiation monitoring for personal protection of radiation workers and general public and suggests further developments in this area.

Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

277

Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Utrok Atoll (2003-2004)  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance programs are helping meet the informational needs of the U.S. DOE and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Our updated environmental assessments provide a strong scientific basis for predicting future change in exposure conditions especially in relation to changes in life-style, diet and/or land-use patterns. This information has important implications in addressing questions about existing (and future) radiological conditions on the islands, in determining the cost and the effectiveness of potential remedial measures, and in general policy support considerations. Perhaps most importantly, the recently established individual radiological surveillance programs provide affected atoll communities with an unprecedented level of radiation protection monitoring where, for the first time, local resources are being made available to monitor resettled and resettling populations on a continuous basis. As a hard copy supplement to Marshall Islands Program website (http://eed.llnl.gov/mi/), this document provides an overview of the individual radiation surveillance monitoring program established for the Utrok Atoll population group along with a full disclosure of all verified measurement data (2003-2004). The Utrok whole body counting facility has been temporarily stationed on Majuro Atoll and, in cooperation with the Utrok Atoll Local Government, serves as a national facility open to the general public. Readers are advised that an additional feature of the associated website is a provision whereby users are able to calculate and track radiation doses delivered to volunteers (de-identified information only) participating in the Marshall Islands Radiological Surveillance Program.

Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Tibon, S; Chee, L

2006-01-17

278

Low-dose extrapolation of radiation health risks: some implications of uncertainty for radiation protection at low doses.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation is a known and well-quantified human cancer risk factor, based on a remarkably consistent body of information from epidemiological studies of exposed populations. Typical examples of risk estimation include use of Japanese atomic bomb survivor data to estimate future risk from radiation-related cancer among American patients receiving multiple computed tomography scans, persons affected by radioactive fallout, or persons whose livelihoods involve some radiation exposure, such as x-ray technicians, interventional radiologists, or shipyard workers. Our estimates of radiation-related risk are uncertain, reflecting statistical variation and our imperfect understanding of crucial assumptions that must be made if we are to apply existing epidemiological data to particular situations. Fortunately, that uncertainty is also highly quantifiable, and can be presented concisely and transparently. Radiation protection is ultimately a political process that involves consent by stakeholders, a diverse group that includes people who might be expected to be risk-averse and concerned with plausible upper limits on risk (how bad could it be?), cost-averse and concerned with lower limits on risk (can you prove there is a nontrivial risk at current dose levels?), or combining both points of view. How radiation-related risk is viewed by individuals and population subgroups also depends very much on perception of related benefit, which might be (for example) medical, economic, altruistic, or nonexistent. The following presentation follows the lead of National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) Commentary 14, NCRP Report 126, and later documents in treating radiation protection from the viewpoint of quantitative uncertainty analysis. PMID:19820450

Land, Charles E

2009-11-01

279

Incorporating community and multiple perspectives in the development of acceptable drinking water source protection policy in catchments facing recreation demands.  

PubMed

The protection of catchment areas for drinking water quality has become an increasingly disputed issue in Australia and internationally. This is particularly the case in regard to the growing demand for nature based and rural recreation. Currently the policy for the protection of drinking water in Western Australia is to enforce a 2km exclusion zone with a much larger surrounding area with limited and prescribed access to recreators. The debate between recreators and water management agencies has been lively, culminating in a recent state government enquiry. This paper describes the second phase of a three phase study to develop a methodology for defensible policy formulation which accounts for the points of view of all stakeholders. We examine general community, active recreators and professionals' views on the current policy of catchment protection and five proposed alternatives using a social judgement theory approach. Key attitudinal determinants of the preferences for policies were identified. Overall the recreators did not support the current policy despite strong support from both the general community and the professional group. Nevertheless, it was evident that there was some support by the community for policies that would enable a slight relaxation of current recreational exclusion. It was also evident that there was a significant proportion of the general community who were dissatisfied with current recreational opportunities and that, in future, it may be less easy to police exclusion zones even if current policy is maintained. The potential for future integration of recreational and water source protection is discussed as well as the benefits of community research in understanding policy preferences in this regard. PMID:23911764

Syme, Geoffrey J; Nancarrow, Blair E

2013-07-31

280

Perspective on the Use of LNT for Radiation Protection and Risk Assessment By The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency  

PubMed Central

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) bases its risk assessments, regulatory limits, and nonregulatory guidelines for population exposures to low level ionizing radiation on the linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis, which assumes that the risk of cancer due to a low dose exposure is proportional to dose, with no threshold. The use of LNT for radiation protection purposes has been repeatedly endorsed by authoritative scientific advisory bodies, including the National Academy of Sciences BEIR Committees, whose recommendations form a primary basis of EPAs risk assessment methodology. Although recent radiobiological findings indicate novel damage and repair processes at low doses, LNT is supported by data from both epidemiology and radiobiology. Given the current state of the science, the consensus positions of key scientific and governmental bodies, as well as the conservatism and calculational convenience of the LNT assumption, it is unlikely that EPA will modify this approach in the near future.

Puskin, Jerome S.

2009-01-01

281

Radiation protection: the NCRP guidelines and some considerations for the future.  

PubMed

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) in the USA and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), worldwide, were formed about 1928 and have since made recommendations on appropriate levels of protection from ionizing radiation for workers and for the public. These recommendations and much of the guidance provided by these organizations have usually been adopted by regulatory bodies around the world. In the case of the NCRP, the levels have fallen from 0.1 roentgen per day in 1934 to the current 5 rem per year (a factor of about 5). The present levels recommended by both the ICRP and the NCRP correspond to reasonable levels of risk where the risks of harm from ionizing radiation are compared with the hazards of other, commonly regarded, as safe, industries. Some considerations for the future in radiation protection include trends in exposure levels (generally downward for the average exposure to workers) and improvements in risk estimation; questions of lifetime limits, de minimis levels, and partial body exposures; plus problems of high LET radiations, acceptability of risk, synergisms, and risk systems for protection. PMID:7342492

Sinclair, W K

282

Reduction in radiation-induced brain injury by use of pentobarbital or lidocaine protection  

SciTech Connect

To determine if barbiturates would protect brain at high doses of radiation, survival rates in rats that received whole-brain x-irradiation during pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia were compared with those of control animals that received no medication and of animals anesthetized with ketamine. The animals were shielded so that respiratory and digestive tissues would not be damaged by the radiation. Survival rates in rats that received whole-brain irradiation as a single 7500-rad dose under pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia was increased from between from 0% and 20% to between 45% and 69% over the 40 days of observation compared with the other two groups (p less than 0.007). Ketamine anesthesia provided no protection. There were no notable differential effects upon non-neural tissues, suggesting that pentobarbital afforded protection through modulation of ambient neural activity during radiation exposure. Neural suppression during high-dose cranial irradiation protects brain from acute and early delayed radiation injury. Further development and application of this knowledge may reduce the incidence of radiation toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS) and may permit the safe use of otherwise unsafe doses of radiation in patients with CNS neoplasms.

Oldfield, E.H.; Friedman, R.; Kinsella, T.; Moquin, R.; Olson, J.J.; Orr, K.; DeLuca, A.M. (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1990-05-01

283

Principles and Application of Collective Dose in Radiation Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

`For moderate increments above background, a linear relationship between the incremental dose and the incremental probability of a deleterious effect will be an adequate approximation' (International Commission on Radiological Protection). This, and similar statements going back over a number of years, validates the collective dose concept. Put simply, collective dose is the sum of the doses to all people in

John Cooper

1996-01-01

284

Protection against radiation induced damage to spermatogenesis by Podophyllum hexandrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extract of rhizome of Podophyllum hexandrum (RP-1) has been found to render protection against lethal whole body irradiation (10 Gy), damage to haemopoietic and gastrointestinal tissue etc. in mice. In order to assess its suitability from clinical point of view its effects were investigated on male germinal tissue in mice. Swiss albino strain A male mice (1012 weeks) were

Namita Samanta; H. C Goel

2002-01-01

285

Radiation Effects and Protection for Moon and Mars Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manned and robotic missions to the Earth's moon and Mars are exposed to a continuous flux of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and occasional, but intense, fluxes of Solar Energetic Particles (SEP). These natural radiations impose hazards to manned exploration, but also present some constraints to the design of robotic missions. The hazards to interplanetary flight crews and their uncertainties have

Thomas A. Parnell; Tony W. Armstrong

286

Experimental Determination of Ultraviolet Radiation Protection of Common Materials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aiming at a better understanding of the problems associated with the depletion of the ozone layer, we propose several experiments to be performed by students of different levels: secondary and first-year undergraduate students. The oxidation of iodide induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, generated by a mercury lamp, is used as an indicator for

Tavares, Susana C. A.; da Silva, Joaquim C. G. Esteves; Paiva, Joao

2007-01-01

287

Radiation protection recommendations on dose limits: The role of the NCRP and the ICRP and future developments  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to review the role of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in making recommendations on dose limits for ionizing radiation exposure for workers and for the public. The text describes the new limits for workers and public recommended by ICRP in 1991 and NCRP in 1993 and the composition of the radiation health detriment on which they are based. The main component of this detriment is the risk of radiation induced cancer which is now estimated to be about three times greater than a decade or so earlier. Uncertainties in these risk estimates are discussed. Some special radiation protection problems, such as those for the embryo or fetus are described. The article also addresses future progress in radiation protection particularly with regard to future improvements in the scientific basis for radiation protection recommendations.

Sinclair, W.K. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD (United States)

1995-02-01

288

Protection from radiation injury by elemental diet: does added glutamine change the effect?  

PubMed Central

The feeding of a protein hydrolysate based 'elemental' diet supplemented with added glutamine did not provide superior protection to the small intestine of dogs subjected to therapeutic pelvic irradiation. Comparison of diets with and without the added glutamine showed significant protection of the intestine from radiation injury. Both histological examination and electron microscopy showed lack of tissue injury with both diets. The activity of the free radical generating enzymes, scavengers, and antioxidants were similar in the intestinal mucosa of dogs fed either diet. After radiation, however, the activity of xanthine oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase were significantly (p < 0.002) higher in the intestine of dogs fed elemental diet without the added glutamine. If the activities of these enzymes are important in the protection of the intestine from radiation injury, then the addition of extra glutamine may provide no benefit. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

McArdle, A H

1994-01-01

289

mTOR inhibition prevents epithelial stem cell senescence and protects from radiation-induced mucositis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The integrity of the epidermis and mucosal epithelia is highly dependent on resident self-renewing stem cells, which makes them vulnerable to physical and chemical insults compromising the repopulating capacity of the epithelial stem cell compartment. This is frequently the case in cancer patients receiving radiation or chemotherapy, many of whom develop mucositis, a debilitating condition involving painful and deep mucosal ulcerations. Here, we show that inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with rapamycin increases the clonogenic capacity of primary human oral keratinocytes and their resident self-renewing cells by preventing stem cell senescence. This protective effect of rapamycin is mediated by the increase expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and the consequent inhibition of ROS formation and oxidative stress. mTOR inhibition also protects from the loss of proliferative basal epithelial stem cells upon ionizing radiation in vivo, thereby preserving the integrity of the oral mucosa and protecting from radiation-induced mucositis.

Iglesias-Bartolome, Ramiro; Patel, Vyomesh; Cotrim, Ana; Leelahavanichkul, Kantima; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Mitchell, James B.; Gutkind, J. Silvio

2012-01-01

290

A new design policy for protective barriers in departments of x-ray diagnosis.  

PubMed

In order to calculate the thicknesses of protective barriers requried in departments of radiodiagnosis for walls, floors, ceilings, protective screens, etc., it is necessary to make an assessment of work load and occupancy factor in each direction. In order to ensure that barriers are safe, it is customary to assume that all the radiological procedures are carried out at the greatest kVp value used in the room in question, and to look up the necessary thicknesses from prepared tables. In fact, only a small fraction of work load is carried out at the highest kilovoltage, and also it is found that a considerable fraction of the total work load is directed downwards. A computer program has been written to use data available from comprehensive analyses of work load broken down into suitable kVp intervals. As the cost of providing the necessary protective barriers can be anything from a few hundred pounds to several thousand pounds, the use of exact values for work load separated into kVp ranges for each direction can lead to substantial savings in cost amounting to hundreds of pounds per room whilst still satisfying the requirements of the Code of Practice for the Protection of Persons against Ionizing Radiations arising from Medical and Dental Use (HMSO, 1972). Departmental surveys were carried out to establish the distribution of work load in kVp and direction, and also to ascertain dosage levels to the staff and within existing rooms. The results show that in practice the doses are such that the reduced barriers found by the method described would be entirely satisfactory. PMID:1191906

Gifford, D

1975-10-01

291

[Current problems of chemical radiation protection of organisms].  

PubMed

The classification has been proposed for antiradiation protective agents which are divided into four groups: I. Radioprotectors; II. Adaptogens; III. Absorbents; IV. The means of Rehabilitations. Radioprotectors in turn are subdivided into myelo-, entero- and cerebroprotectors. Adaptogens act as stimulators of radioresistance. These are natural protectors which are perspective for chemical protection under low-level ionizing irradiation. Natural protectors influence regulatory systems of exposed organisms, mobilize endogenous background of radioresistance (EBR), immunity and intensivity the total non-specific resistance of organism (TNRO). Natural protectors (extracted from cells, plants, animals) are low- or nontoxic and can be used with food. Absorbents, the means of protection from internal irradiation, are subdivided into the drugs which prevents incorporation of radioiodine by thyroid gland and absorption of radionuclides (137Cs, 90Sr, 239Pu, 241Am) in the digestive tract. The main features which distinguish radioprotective drugs of different mechanisms on human organisms are presented. The main which different programs of reability on invalids-Chernobyl. PMID:10366942

Kudriashov, Iu B; Goncharenko, E N

292

Radiation protection for human exploration of the moon and mars: Application of the mash code system  

SciTech Connect

The Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding code system -- MASH, developed for the Department of Defense for calculating radiation protection factors for armored vehicles against neutron and gamma radiation, has been used to assess the dose from reactor radiation to an occupant in a habitat on Mars. The capability of MASH to reproduce measured data is summarized to demonstrate the accuracy of the code. The estimation of the radiation environment in an idealized reactor-habitat model is reported to illustrate the merits of the adjoint Monte Carlo procedure for space related studies. The reactor radiation dose for different reactor-habitat surface configurations to a habitat occupant is compared with the natural radiation dose acquired during a 500-day Mars mission.

Johnson, J.O.; Santoro, R.T.; Drischler, J.D.; Barnes, J.M.

1992-06-01

293

Radiation protection for human exploration of the moon and mars: Application of the mash code system  

SciTech Connect

The Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding code system -- MASH, developed for the Department of Defense for calculating radiation protection factors for armored vehicles against neutron and gamma radiation, has been used to assess the dose from reactor radiation to an occupant in a habitat on Mars. The capability of MASH to reproduce measured data is summarized to demonstrate the accuracy of the code. The estimation of the radiation environment in an idealized reactor-habitat model is reported to illustrate the merits of the adjoint Monte Carlo procedure for space related studies. The reactor radiation dose for different reactor-habitat surface configurations to a habitat occupant is compared with the natural radiation dose acquired during a 500-day Mars mission.

Johnson, J.O.; Santoro, R.T.; Drischler, J.D.; Barnes, J.M.

1992-01-01

294

The Relevance of Occupational Epidemiology to Radiation Protection Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale epidemiological studies of U.S. Department of Energy workers have been underway since the 1960s. Despite the increasing availability of information about long- term follow-up of badge-monitored nuclear workers, standard-setting bodies continue to rely on the Life Span Study (LSS) of A-bomb survivors as the primary epidemiological basis for making judgments about hazards of low-level radiation. Additionally, faith in the

Wing S; Richardson D; Stewart A

1999-01-01

295

[Radiation protection issues in brachytherapic treatment of prostatic cancer].  

PubMed

Brachytherapy is an effective radiotherapeutic treatment for localized prostatic cancer. The permanent brachytherapy is a particular kind of radiotherapy which, US guided, uses permanently implanted seeds containing radioactive sources (Pd103 or I 125). The procedure is minimally invasive and allows to obtain high percentage of success which is comparable to surgery. The possibility to confine permanent radioactive implants in a well delimitated area doesn't exclude the exposition of both the medical staff and family's members of implanted patients. The radiation exposure involves the medical physicists, the radiotherapists, the Medical Radiology Technician, the anaesthetists, the surgeons, the professional nurses but also, after the brachytherapy treatment, public and family members, comforters and cares. It's necessary to consider radiation safety aspects of brachytherapy in order to reduce the risks of exposition. At the end, several studies showed that cremation of bodies could be a possible radiation source that remains in the patient's ashes, potentially inhaled by crematorium staff or members of the public. PMID:18409959

Bellia, M; Bellia, S; Ciantia, F; Luca, N; Serafino, L; Occhipinti, A; Bona, R; Mannino, G

296

Effect of glutaurine and its derivatives and their combinations with radiation protective substances upon irradiated mice.  

PubMed

The radiation protective effects of glutaurine (gamma-L-glutamyl-taurine, Litoralon), and of some of its derivatives, as well as of their combinations with substances of the amino-alkyl-thiol group, have been investigated in mice. The results suggest that glutaurine possesses a radiation protective effect in animals irradiated with LD50/30 of roentgen rays and 60Co gamma rays. The compound has a favourable effect also when administered after irradiation. Its protective effect is especially marked in case of prolonged irradiation. Among the combinations best results were obtained by its simultaneous administration with subminimal doses of AET or cystamine. Some of its derivatives also exhibited considerable protection against irradiation with roentgen rays. PMID:6278851

Feuer, L; Benk, G

1981-01-01

297

Oral PEG 15-20 protects the intestine against radiation : role of lipid rafts.  

SciTech Connect

Intestinal injury following abdominal radiation therapy or accidental exposure remains a significant clinical problem that can result in varying degrees of mucosal destruction such as ulceration, vascular sclerosis, intestinal wall fibrosis, loss of barrier function, and even lethal gut-derived sepsis. We determined the ability of a high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol-based copolymer, PEG 15-20, to protect the intestine against the early and late effects of radiation in mice and rats and to determine its mechanism of action by examining cultured rat intestinal epithelia. Rats were exposed to fractionated radiation in an established model of intestinal injury, whereby an intestinal segment is surgically placed into the scrotum and radiated daily. Radiation injury score was decreased in a dose-dependent manner in rats gavaged with 0.5 or 2.0 g/kg per day of PEG 15-20 (n = 9-13/group, P < 0.005). Complementary studies were performed in a novel mouse model of abdominal radiation followed by intestinal inoculation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), a common pathogen that causes lethal gut-derived sepsis following radiation. Mice mortality was decreased by 40% in mice drinking 1% PEG 15-20 (n = 10/group, P < 0.001). Parallel studies were performed in cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells treated with PEG 15-20 before radiation. Results demonstrated that PEG 15-20 prevented radiation-induced intestinal injury in rats, prevented apoptosis and lethal sepsis attributable to P. aeruginosa in mice, and protected cultured intestinal epithelial cells from apoptosis and microbial adherence and possible invasion. PEG 15-20 appeared to exert its protective effect via its binding to lipid rafts by preventing their coalescence, a hallmark feature in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to radiation.

Valuckaite, V.; Zaborina, O.; Long, J.; Hauer-Jensen, M.; Wang, J.; Holbrook, C.; Zaborin, A.; Drabik, K.; Katdare, M.; Mauceri, H.; Weichselbaum, R.; Firestone, M. A.; Lee, K. Y.; Chang, E. B.; Matthews, J.; Alverdy, J. C.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Arkansas

2009-12-01

298

Thiols and selenium: protective effect on human skin fibroblasts exposed to UVA radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of human dermal fibroblasts to UVA radiation has been linked to a decrease in intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels. GSH (?-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine) is a radical scavenger and a cofactor for protective enzymes such as selenium-dependent GSH peroxidases. In this study, we examine the possibility of a cooperative interaction between three cysteine delivery systems and selenium in protecting human cultured fibroblasts

N. Emonet; M. T. Leccia; A. Favier; J. C. Beani; M. J. Richard

1997-01-01

299

The present status and trend of ionizing-radiation application on environment protection in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in a large scale on ionizing-radiation application on environment protection and pollution control have been carried out for nearly 20 years in China. Desulphurization and denitrification of flue gas by electron-beam processing in coal-fired power stations are a successful industrial example and therefore, a wider use of ionizing radiation in air pollution control can be expected in the near

Ding Yonghua; Zheng Degui; Yan Aoshuang; Niu Guanghua

2002-01-01

300

Cancer risk above 1 Gy and the impact for space radiation protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of the epidemiological data on the Japanese A-bomb survivors, who were exposed to ?-rays and neutrons, provide most current information on the doseresponse of radiation-induced cancer. Since the dose span of main interest is usually between 0 and 1Gy, for radiation protection purposes, the analysis of the A-bomb survivors is often focused on this range. However, estimates of cancer

Uwe Schneider; Linda Walsh

2009-01-01

301

Lack of protection by carotenes against gamma-radiation damage in Phycomyces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenes could protect cells from radiation damage by chemically quenching the free radicals and the activated chemical species\\u000a originated by the exposure. We tested this hypothesis with strains of the zygomycete Phycomyces blakesleeanus that contained different carotenes (phytoene, lycopene, ?-carotene) or different concentrations of ?-carotene. Pairs of strains\\u000a were cultured together, exposed to a maximum of 73 Gy ?-radiation from

V. Martn-Rojas; A. Gmez-Puerto; E. Cerd-Olmedo

1996-01-01

302

A Monte Carlo model of an industrial gauge for radiation protection purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mahlo Gravimat densitometers\\/gauges located at the Feltex carpet factory in Christchurch, New Zealand, contain the radionuclide\\u000a strontium-90 (Sr-90). Accurate dose\\/dose rate estimation is always an important concern from a radiation protection point\\u000a of view. The EGSnrc\\/BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code was used to create a model of one gauge to determination of the radiation dose\\u000a distributions and dose rates in

R. McGurk; J. Turner; H. M. Deloar; K. Packer

2008-01-01

303

Simulating the impacts of ecological protection policies on urban land use sustainability in Shenyang-Fushun, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese cities are undergoing rapid urban sprawl, dramatic landscape change, industrialisation, and ecological damage, which threaten urban sustainable development. The aim of our research was to answer the following question: is it possible to achieve sustainable development through rational ecological protection policies that harmonise future urbanisation, re?industrialisation, economic development, and sustainable urban land use in these cities? To answer the

Fengming Xi; Hong S. He; Yuanman Hu; Rencang Bu; Yu Chang; Xiaoqing Wu; Miao Liu; Tiemao Shi

2010-01-01

304

Australia's Oceans Policy, bioregional marine planning, EPBC Act, marine protected areas, biodiversity conservation, Census of Marine Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian Government's regional marine planning program commenced under Australia's Oceans Policy in 2001 with a focus on the South-east Marine Region. The South-east Regional Marine Plan was completed and released in 2004. In 2005, the Government brought regional marine planning under the provisions of the powerful Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act), with a clear focus

Ian Cresswell

305

Baseline Survey of Sun-Protection Knowledge, Practices and Policy in Early Childhood Settings in Queensland, Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Excessive exposure to sunlight during early childhood increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Self-administered questionnaires exploring sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy were mailed to the directors/co-ordinators/senior teachers of all known early childhood services in Queensland, Australia, in 2002 (n = 1383; 56.5% response).

Harrison, Simone L.; Saunders, V.; Nowak, M.

2007-01-01

306

Primary School Sun Protection Policies and Practices 4 Years after Baseline--A Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Before the 2005 launch of the New Zealand SunSmart Schools Accreditation Programme (SSAP), 242 randomly sampled primary schools completed a mail survey about sun protection policies, practices, curriculum and environment. A 2009 follow-up included 189 (78%) and their mean Total Accreditation Score (TAS = total SSAP requirements met, range 0-12),

Reeder, Anthony I.; Jopson, Janet A.; Gray, Andrew

2012-01-01

307

A biokinetic model for manganese for use in radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

The ICRP is updating its recommendations regarding occupational exposure to radionuclides including the biokinetic models used to derive dose coefficients and assess bioassay data for internally deposited radionuclides. This report reviews biokinetic data for manganese and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic manganese consistent with the current database. The model provides a more detailed and biologically realistic description of the movement of absorbed manganese in the body than the model currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The proposed model and current ICRP model yield broadly similar estimates of dose per unit activity of inhaled or ingested radio-manganese but differ substantially with regard to interpretation of bioassay data.

Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL

2011-01-01

308

MEMORANDUM: The evolution of the international system of radiological protection: food for thought from the Nuclear Energy Agency Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

From its inception, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), which is part of the broader Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, has contributed to the development of international radiological protection norms and standards. This continues today, in the form of studies and workshops to assist radiological protection policy makers, regulators and practitioners to develop concepts and approaches to help the international

Ted Lazo

2003-01-01

309

Sulfur compounds in therapy: Radiation-protective agents, amphetamines, and mucopolysaccharide sulfation  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur-containing compounds have been used in the search for whole-body radiation-protective compounds, in the design of amphetamine derivatives that retain appetite-suppressive effects but lack most behavioral effects characteristic of amphetamines, and in the search for the cause of kidney stone formation in recurrently stoneforming patients. Organic synthetic procedures were used to prepare radiation-protective compounds having a variety of sulfur-containing functional groups, and to prepare amphetamine derivatives having electron-attracting sulfur functions. In the case of the kidney stone causation research, isolation of urinary mucopolysaccharides (MPS) from recurrently stoneforming patients was carried out and the extent of sulfation of the MPS was determined by electrophoresis. Whole-body radiation-protective agents with a high degree of protection against lethal doses of gamma-radiation in mice were found in a series of quinolinium and pyridinium bis(methylthio) and methylthio amino derivatives. Mechanism studies showed that the copper complexes of these agents mimicked the beneficial action of superoxide dismutase. Electron-attracting sulfur-containing functions on amphetamine nitrogen, as well as 4'-amino nitrogen provided amphetamine derivatives with good appetite-suppressant effects and few or no adverse behavioral effects. Higher than normal levels of sulfation of the urinary MPS of stone formers suggested a cause for recurrent kidney stone formation. A sulfation inhibitor was found to prevent recurrence of stone formation and inhibit growth of existing stones. The inclusion of various sulfur-containing functions in organic molecules yielded compounds having whole-body radiation protection from lethal doses of gamma-radiation in animals. The presence of electron-attracting sulfur functions in amphetamine gave derivatives that retained appetite-suppressant effects and eliminated most adverse behavioral effects.

Foye, W.O. (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences, Boston (United States))

1992-09-01

310

Protection effects of condensed bromoacenaphthylene on radiation deterioration of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber. [Gamma radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a continuation of a series of the studies on the flame and ..gamma..-radiation resistant modification of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM), condensed bromoacenaphthylene (con-BACN) as a newly developed flame retardant was synthesized and its effects on the radiation resistance of EPDM were investigated. The radiation resistance evaluated by measuring tensile properties of irradiated sheets of 2 mm thick was found improved

Y. Morita; M. Hagiwara; N. Kasai

1982-01-01

311

LAURISTON S. TAYLOR LECTURE ON RADIATION PROTECTION AND MEASURMENTS: WHAT MAKES PARTICLE RADIATION SO EFFECTIVE?  

PubMed Central

The scientific basis for the physical and biological effectiveness of particle radiations has emerged from many decades of meticulous basic research. A diverse array of biologically relevant consequences at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organism level have been reported, but what are the key processes and mechanisms that make particle radiation so effective, and what competing processes define dose dependences? Recent studies have shown that individual genotypes control radiation-regulated genes and pathways in response to radiations of varying ionization density. The fact that densely ionizing radiations can affect different gene families than sparsely ionizing radiations, and that the effects are dose- and time-dependent has opened up new areas of future research. The complex microenvironment of the stroma, and the significant contributions of the immune response have added to our understanding of tissue-specific differences across the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum. The importance of targeted vs. nontargeted effects remain a thorny, but elusive and important contributor to chronic low dose radiation effects of variable LET that still needs further research. The induction of cancer is also LET-dependent, suggesting different mechanisms of action across the gradient of ionization density. The focus of this 35th Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture is to chronicle the step-by-step acquisition of experimental clues that have refined our understanding of what makes particle radiation so effective, with emphasis on the example of radiation effects on the crystalline lens of the human eye.

Blakely, Eleanor A.

2012-01-01

312

Public Policy on Ground-Water Quality Protection. Proceedings of a National Conference (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, April 13-16, 1977).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication contains the papers presented at a National Conference on Ground Water Quality Protection Policy held in April of 1977. Paper titles include: (1) Magnitude of the Ground-Water Contamination Problem; (2) Limited Degredation as a Ground-Water Quality Policy; (3) Surface and Subsurface Mining: Policy Implications; (4) Oil Well

Kerns, Waldon R., Ed.

313

Public Policy on Ground-Water Quality Protection. Proceedings of a National Conference (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, April 13-16, 1977).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains the papers presented at a National Conference on Ground Water Quality Protection Policy held in April of 1977. Paper titles include: (1) Magnitude of the Ground-Water Contamination Problem; (2) Limited Degredation as a Ground-Water Quality Policy; (3) Surface and Subsurface Mining: Policy Implications; (4) Oil Well

Kerns, Waldon R., Ed.

314

21st L H Gray Conference: the radiobiology/radiation protection interface.  

PubMed

The 21st L H Gray Conference, organised by the L H Gray Trust with the Society for Radiological Protection, brought together international experts in radiobiology, epidemiology and risk assessment, and scientists involved in diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure. The meeting - held in Edinburgh, Scotland, on 4-6 June 2008 - aimed to raise awareness, educate and share knowledge of important issues in radiation protection. A distinguished group of speakers discussed topics that included (i) non-targeted effects of radiation, (ii) exposure to high natural background radiation, (iii) non-cancer effects in Japanese bomb survivors, (iv) lessons learnt from Chernobyl, (v) radiation in the workplace, (vi) biokinetic modelling, (vii) uncertainties in risk estimation, (viii) issues in diagnostic medical exposures, (ix) lessons leant from the polonium-210 incidence and (x) how the radiobiology/radiation oncology community is needed to help society prepare for potential future acts of radiation terrorism. The conference highlighted the importance, relevance and topicality of radiobiology today. PMID:19386958

West, C M L; Martin, C J; Sutton, D G; Wright, E G

2009-05-01

315

Development of Curricula for Nuclear Radiation Protection, Nuclear Instrumentation, and Nuclear Materials Processing Technologies. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study was conducted to assist two-year postsecondary educational institutions in providing technical specialty courses for preparing nuclear technicians. As a result of project activities, curricula have been developed for five categories of nuclear technicians and operators: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and

Hull, Daniel M.

316

University of Pittsburgh researchers find experimental drug could protect some cancer patients from radiation side effects:  

Cancer.gov

A drug under development at the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) and the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine could protect the cells of Fanconi anemia patients from damage caused by radiation treatment for head and neck cancers, a new study suggests.

317

Fourth International Conference on Anticarcinogenesis and Radiation Protection: Supplement. Volume 54, No. 7  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains full papers of presentations given at the 4th International Conference of Anticarcinogenesis and Radiation Protection held in Baltimore, Maryland April 18--23, 1993. Presentations were grouped into topic areas entitled Mechanisms of Cancer and Aging; Biomarkers and Susceptibility Factors; Molecular Diagnosis; Nutrition, exercise, and Cancer; Molecular Mechanisms of Chemoprotection; and Clinical Interventions.

NONE

1994-04-01

318

Nuclear Technology Series. Radiation Protection Technician. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary radiation protection technician program is designed for use with courses 17-22 of thirty-five included in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians, and operators; and to assist planners,

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

319

Equipment performance and radiation protection status in X-ray fluoroscopy units in Sudan.  

PubMed

The number of fluoroscopy and fluoroscopically guided procedures has been substantially growing in developing countries at the same time advanced and sophisticated equipment are used in some hospitals. However, radiation protection requirements are not necessarily well adopted. In this study nine fluoroscopy X-ray units in Sudan were examined for compliance with international standards. The tests included: beam quality, entrance surface air kerma, image quality and radiation field measurements. Staff radiation protection tools such as lead aprons and eye glasses were also visually examined to find out whether international recommendations were fulfilled and to determine the level of staff awareness. The measured peak tube voltage deviation exceeded the recommended tolerance level in 30 % of the measurements. The results of patient doses measurements exceeded the recommended reference dose levels in 43 % of the measurements; however image quality and radiation field generally fulfilled the requirements for most units. The study revealed that a considerable number of fluoroscopy units were not performing according to the international standards and highlights the need of optimisation of radiation protection. PMID:21317144

Ahmed, Nada A; Nayl, A I; Suliman, I I

2011-02-10

320

Recommended Radiation Protection Practices for Low-Level Waste Disposal Sites  

SciTech Connect

The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in estsblishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) dis- posal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW dis- posal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control , internal exposure control , respiratory protection, survei 1 - lance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of the occupa- tionally exposed individuals. As a result, radiation protection practices were recommended with related rationales in order to reduce occupational exposures as far below specified radiation limits as is reasonably achievable. In addition, recommendations were developed for achieving occupational exposure ALARA under the Regulatory Requirements issued in 10 CFR Part 61.

D. E. Hadlock, C. D. Hooker, W. N. Herrington, R. L. Gilchrist

1983-12-01

321

Protecting LHC components against radiation resulting from colliding beam interactions  

SciTech Connect

Beam-induced energy deposition in the LHC high luminosity interaction region (IR) components due to both pp collisions and beam loss in the IR vicinity is a significant challenge for the design of the high luminosity insertions. It was shown in our previous studies that a set of collimators in the machine and absorbers within the low-beta quadrupoles would reduce both the peak power density and total heat load to tolerable levels with a reasonable safety margin. In this paper the results of further optimization and comprehensive MARS calculations are briefly described for the updated IP1 and IP5 layouts and a baseline pp-collision source term. Power density, power dissipation, accumulated dose and residual dose rates are studied in the components of the inner triplets including their TAS absorbers, the TAN neutral beam absorbers, separation dipoles, and quadrupoles of the outer triplets and possible collimators there. It is shown that the optimized absorbers and collimators provide adequate protection of all the critical components.

Nikolai V. Mokhov and Igor L. Rakhno

2001-06-26

322

Evaluation of additional lead shielding in protecting the physician from radiation during cardiac interventional procedures.  

PubMed

Since cardiac interventional procedures deliver high doses of radiation to the physician, radiation protection for the physician in cardiac catheterization laboratories is very important. One of the most important means of protecting the physician from scatter radiation is to use additional lead shielding devices, such as tableside lead drapes and ceiling-mounted lead acrylic protection. During cardiac interventional procedures (cardiac IVR), however, it is not clear how much lead shielding reduces the physician dose. This study compared the physician dose [effective dose equivalent (EDE) and dose equivalent (DE)] with and without additional shielding during cardiac IVR. Fluoroscopy scatter radiation was measured using a human phantom, with an ionization chamber survey meter, with and without additional shielding. With the additional shielding, fluoroscopy scatter radiation measured with the human phantom was reduced by up to 98%, as compared with that without. The mean EDE (whole body, mean+/-SD) dose to the operator, determined using a Luxel badge, was 2.55+/-1.65 and 4.65+/-1.21 mSv/year with and without the additional shielding, respectively (p=0.086). Similarly, the mean DE (lens of the eye) to the operator was 15.0+/-9.3 and 25.73+/-5.28 mSv/year, respectively (p=0.092). In conclusion, although tableside drapes and lead acrylic shields suspended from the ceiling provided extra protection to the physician during cardiac IVR, the reduction in the estimated physician dose (EDE and DE) during cardiac catheterization with additional shielding was lower than we expected. Therefore, there is a need to develop more ergonomically useful protection devices for cardiac IVR. PMID:16395238

Chida, Koichi; Morishima, Yoshiaki; Katahira, Yoshiaki; Chiba, Hiroo; Zuguchi, Masayuki

2005-12-20

323

Applying cost analyses to drive policy that protects children. Mercury as a case study  

SciTech Connect

Exposure in prenatal life to methylmercury (MeHg) has become the topic of intense debate in the United States after the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a proposal in 2004 to reverse strict controls on emissions of mercury from coal-fired power plants that had been in effect for the preceding 15 years. This proposal failed to incorporate any consideration of the health impacts on children that would result from increased mercury emissions. We assessed the impact on children's health of industrial mercury emissions and found that between 316,588 and 637,233 babies are born with mercury-related losses of cognitive function ranging from 0.2 to 5.13 points. We calculated that decreased economic productivity resulting from diminished intelligence over a lifetime results in an aggregate economic cost in each annual birth cohort of $8.7 billion annually. $1.3 billion of this cost is attributable to mercury emitted from American coal-fired power plants. Downward shifts in intellectual quotient (IQ) are also associated with 1566 excess cases of mental retardation annually. This number accounts for 3.2% of MR cases in the United States. If the lifetime excess cost of a case of MR is $1,248,648 in 2000 dollars, then the cost of these excess cases of MR is $2.0 billion annually. Preliminary data suggest that more stringent mercury policy options would prevent thousands of cases of MR and billions of dollars over the next 25 years.

Leonardo Trasande; Clyde Schechter; Karla A. Haynes; Philip J. Landrigan [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States). Department of Community and Preventive Medicine

2006-09-15

324

Protection by S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid against radiation-induced leg contractures in mice. [Gamma Radiation  

SciTech Connect

S-2-(3-Aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721) was shown to provide marked protection against development of radiation-induced leg contractures in C3Hf/Kam mice whose legs were exposed to single doses of gamma-radiation. The radiation doses ranged from 3300 to 6200 rads delivered to the right hind thighs from two parallelly opposed 137Cs sources. WR-2721 was given i.p. 30 min before irradiation. The severity of radiation-induced leg contractures in untreated and WR-2721-treated mice was followed for 342 days after irradiation. The degree of leg contractures in both control and WR-2721-treated mice increased up to 100 days after radiation, when the change stabilized, remaining more or less at the same level to the end of the observation period. During this entire period, the severity of contractures was less in WR-2721-treated mice. The dose-modifying factor for the level of 5 mm reduction in leg extension was 1.5 at 182 days after irradiation. Since WR-2721 did not prevent the radiocurability of 8-mm fibrosarcomas growing in the same legs, these data imply that WR-2721 has a high potential for increasing therapeutic gain when combined with irradiation in the treatment of tumors of an appreciable size.

Hunter, N.; Milas, L.

1983-04-01

325

Topical vitamin C protects porcine skin from ultraviolet radiation-induced damage.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet radiation damage to the skin is due, in part, to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) functions as a biological co-factor and antioxidant due to its reducing properties. Topical application of vitamin C has been shown to elevate significantly cutaneous levels of this vitamin in pigs, and this correlates with protection of the skin from UVB damage as measured by erythema and sunburn cell formation. This protection is biological and due to the reducing properties of the molecule. Further, we provide evidence that the vitamin C levels of the skin can be severely depleted after UV irradiation, which would lower this organ's innate protective mechanism as well as leaving it at risk of impaired healing after photoinduced damage. In addition, vitamin C protects porcine skin from UVA-mediated phototoxic reactions (PUVA) and therefore shows promise as a broad-spectrum photoprotectant. PMID:1390169

Darr, D; Combs, S; Dunston, S; Manning, T; Pinnell, S

1992-09-01

326

Current status of the application of ionizing radiation to environmental protection: I. Ionizing radiation sources, natural and drinking water purification (A Review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present-day applications of ionizing radiation to environmental protection are surveyed. This part of the review summarizes\\u000a new data on the ionizing radiation sources used in this area, on the radiation-chemical purification of polluted natural and\\u000a drinking water, and on the mechanisms of processes occurring in these systems under exposure to ionizing radiation. A particular\\u000a emphasis is placed on large-scale processes.

A. K. Pikaev

2000-01-01

327

Implications of scientific and technological developments for radiation protection in the next decade  

SciTech Connect

There are scientific and technological developments taking place that will affect the understanding of the interaction of ionizing radiation with matter, the ability to measure the important parameters of ionizing radiation, and the ability to model radioactivity transport, both in the human body and in the environment. This paper focuses on emerging scientific and technological developments that will impact radiation protection in the next decade. Emerging scientific developments included in this paper are new methods and better analytic capabilities in epidemiology, a better understanding of the interactions between ionizing radiation and the various cellular components and more realistic models to describe the uptake, distribution, retention and excretion of radionuclides in humans. Technological developments include instruments to measure radioactivity in the humans and the environment, and better software to calculate doses from these previously measured quantities.

Johnson, J.R.; Stansbury, P.S.; Paretzke, H.

1993-01-01

328

On the use of age-specific effective dose coefficients in radiation protection of the public  

SciTech Connect

Current radiation protection standards for the public include a limit on effective dose in any year for individuals in critical groups. This paper considers the question of how the annual dose limit should be applied in controlling routine exposures of populations consisting of individuals of all ages. The authors assume that the fundamental objective of radiation protection is limitation of lifetime risk and, therefore, that standards for controlling routine exposures of the public should provide a reasonable correspondence with lifetime risk, taking into account the age dependence of intakes and doses and the variety of radionuclides and exposure pathways of concern. Using new calculations of the per capita (population-averaged) risk of cancer mortality per unit activity inhaled or ingested in the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Federal Guidance Report No. 13, the authors show that applying a limit on annual effective dose only to adults, which was the usual practice in radiation protection of the public before the development of age-specific effective dose coefficients, provides a considerably better correspondence with lifetime risk than applying the annual dose limit to the critical group of any age.

Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

1998-11-01

329

Protection from radiation-induced damage to spermatogenesis by hormone treatment  

SciTech Connect

Infertility caused by killing of the spermatogonial stem cells occurs frequently in men treated for cancer with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We investigated whether pretreatment of rats with testosterone plus estradiol, which reversibly inhibits the completion of spermatogenesis and protects spermatogonial stem cells from procarbazine-induced damage, would also protect these cells from radiation. Adult male LBNF rats were implanted for 6 weeks with capsules containing testosterone and estradiol and then irradiated with doses from 2.5-7.0 Gy. Controls were irradiated with 1.8-3.5 Gy. Implants were removed 1 day after irradiation, and all animals were killed 10 weeks later for assessment of stem cell survival by counting repopulating tubules in histological sections and by sperm head counts. At doses of 2.5 and 3.5 Gy the repopulation indices and sperm head counts were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the rats treated with testosterone and estradiol than in the controls. Protection factors calculated from the dose-response curves were in the range of 1.5-2.2. Elucidation of the mechanism of protection is essential to apply it to clinical situations. The fact that the spermatogonia are protected against radiation as well as procarbazine indicates that the mechanism does not involve drug delivery or metabolism. 32 refs., 3 figs.

Kurdoglu, B.; Wilson, G.; Parchuri, N.; Ye, W.; Meistrich, M.L. [Univ. of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

1994-07-01

330

Opening the door to improve visiting nurse safety: an initiative to collect and analyze protection practices and policies.  

PubMed

The number of home healthcare clinicians who have been harmed by workplace violence as the direct result of patient care is not known. An initiative in the form of a 36-question survey was sent to the nurse administrators of 156 visiting nurse organizations in the United States. The purpose was to describe workplace violence policies and practices and explore what agencies are doing to protect visiting nurses. PMID:23632275

Mathiews, Ann; Salmond, Susan

2013-06-01

331

O-phospho-L-tyrosine protects TP53 wild-type cells against ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

O-phospho-L-tyrosine (P-Tyr) has been reported previously to inhibit growth of several cancer cell lines at mM concentrations. In the present study, we investigated the effect of this compound on tumor cells and normal cells in combination with radiation exposure. It could be demonstrated for the first time that P-Tyr at microM concentrations protects TP53 wild-type cells against ionizing radiation (SF4 minus BBI = 0.28, SF4 plus BBI = 0.45). On the contrary, human transformed or tumor cell lines characterized by mutated or functional inactivated TP53 were not altered or increased in their radiation sensitivity (SF4 minus BBI = 0.32, SF4 plus BBI = 0.22). Treatment of wild-type TP53 cells with P-Tyr induced stabilization of TP53 within 3 and 16 hours and a subsequent increase in CDKN1A expression after treatment. Consequently, a 16-hours pretreatment of cells with P-Tyr led to a significant radioprotective effect. This was not observed in cell lines with mutated TP53, which shows no radioprotection by P-Tyr. Thus, the present data suggest that P-Tyr-mediated radioprotection is dependent on preirradiation stabilization of TP53. The results indicate that P-Tyr is a radioprotective agent that can potentially be very useful and easy to deliver for radiation protection in general and especially in radiation therapy of TP53-mutated tumors. PMID:11992381

Dittmann, K H; Mayer, C; Rodemann, H P

2001-01-01

332

Protective effect of anthocyanins from lingonberry on radiation-induced damages.  

PubMed

There is a growing concern about the serious harm of radioactive materials, which are widely used in energy production, scientific research, medicine, industry and other areas. In recent years, owing to the great side effects of anti-radiation drugs, research on the radiation protectants has gradually expanded from the previous chemicals to the use of natural anti-radiation drugs and functional foods. Some reports have confirmed that anthocyanins are good antioxidants, which can effectively eliminate free radicals, but studies on the immunoregulatory and anti-radiation effects of anthocyanins from lingonberry (ALB) are less reported. In this experiment, mice were given orally once daily for 14 consecutive days before exposure to 6 Gy of gamma-radiation and were sacrificed on the 7th day post-irradiation. The results showed that the selected dose of extract did not lead to acute toxicity in mice; while groups given anthocyanins orally were significantly better than radiation control group according to blood analysis; pretreatment of anthocyanins significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the thymus and spleen indices and spleen cell survival compared to the irradiation control group. Pretreatment with anthocyanins before irradiation significantly reduced the numbers of micronuclei (MN) in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs). These findings indicate that anthocyanins have immunostimulatory potential against immunosuppression induced by the radiation. PMID:23249859

Fan, Zi-Luan; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Zuo, Li-Li; Tian, Shuang-Qi

2012-12-18

333

Protective Effect of Anthocyanins from Lingonberry on Radiation-induced Damages  

PubMed Central

There is a growing concern about the serious harm of radioactive materials, which are widely used in energy production, scientific research, medicine, industry and other areas. In recent years, owing to the great side effects of anti-radiation drugs, research on the radiation protectants has gradually expanded from the previous chemicals to the use of natural anti-radiation drugs and functional foods. Some reports have confirmed that anthocyanins are good antioxidants, which can effectively eliminate free radicals, but studies on the immunoregulatory and anti-radiation effects of anthocyanins from lingonberry (ALB) are less reported. In this experiment, mice were given orally once daily for 14 consecutive days before exposure to 6 Gy of gamma-radiation and were sacrificed on the 7th day post-irradiation. The results showed that the selected dose of extract did not lead to acute toxicity in mice; while groups given anthocyanins orally were significantly better than radiation control group according to blood analysis; pretreatment of anthocyanins significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the thymus and spleen indices and spleen cell survival compared to the irradiation control group. Pretreatment with anthocyanins before irradiation significantly reduced the numbers of micronuclei (MN) in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs). These findings indicate that anthocyanins have immunostimulatory potential against immunosuppression induced by the radiation.

Fan, Zi-Luan; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Zuo, Li-Li; Tian, Shuang-Qi

2012-01-01

334

[Radiation protective quality of spacesuit "Orlan-M" during extravehicular activities on the International Space Station].  

PubMed

Sampling irradiation of spacesuit "Orlan-M" allowed construction of a simulation model of the spacesuit shielding function for critical body organs. The critical organs self-shielding model is a Russian standard anthropomorphic phantom. Radiation protective quality of the spacesuit was assessed by calculating the dose attenuation rates for several critical body organs of an ISS crewmember implementing EVA. These calculations are intended for more accurate assessment of radiation risk to the ISS crews donning "Orlan-M" in near-Earth orbits. PMID:17193981

Shurshakov, V A; Kartashov, D A; Kolomenski?, A V; Petrov, V M; Red'ko, V I; Abramov, I P; Letkova, L I; Tikhomirov, E P

335

EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE RADIATION PROTECTION AFFORDED BY TYPICAL OAK RIDGE HOMES AGAINST DISTRIBUTED SOURCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protection afforded against simulated fall-out radiation has been ;\\u000a evaluated for several typical homes in the Oak Ridge area. Nine houses were ;\\u000a chosen to represent a variety of construction materials, topographical ;\\u000a conditions and sizes; they included three types of Oak Ridge Cemesto houses, one ;\\u000a concrete-block house with a basement fall-out shelter, and two wood-frame houses. ;

T. D. Strickler; J. A. Auxier

1960-01-01

336

A secondary standard dosimetry system for calibration of radiation protection instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the increasing need and accuracy requirements for the calibration of radiation protection dosimeters, a novel secondary\\u000a standard system consisting of a low level ionization chamber with 104 cm3 sensitive volume operating at ambient atmospheric pressure and an automated digital current integrator with dose\\/dose rate\\u000a calculation has been designed.\\u000a \\u000a The spherical ionization chamber of 27 cm diameter and

K. E. Duftschmid; J. Hiz

1982-01-01

337

Role of pigmentation in protecting Bacillus sp. endospores against environmental UV radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus endospores show different kinds of pigmentation. Red-pigmented spores of Bacillus atrophaeus DSM 675, dark-gray spores of B. atrophaeusT DSM 7264 and light-gray spores of B. subtilis DSM 5611 were used to study the protective role of the pigments in their resistance to defined ranges of environmental UV radiation. Spores of B. atrophaeus DSM 675 possessing a dark-red pigment were

Ralf Moeller; Gerda Horneck; Rainer Facius; Erko Stackebrandt

2005-01-01

338

Interleukin 1 beta initially sensitizes and subsequently protects murine intestinal stem cells exposed to photon radiation  

SciTech Connect

Interleukin 1 (IL-1) has been shown to prevent early bone marrow-related death following total-body irradiation, by protecting hematopoietic stem cells and speeding marrow repopulation. This study assesses the effect of IL-1 on the radiation response of the intestinal mucosal stem cell, a nonhematopoietic normal cell relevant to clinical radiation therapy. As observed with bone marrow, administration of human recombinant IL-1 beta (4 micrograms/kg) to C3H/Km mice 20 h prior to total-body irradiation modestly protected duodenal crypt cells. In contrast to bone marrow, IL-1 given 4 or 8 h before radiation sensitized intestinal crypt cells. IL-1 exposure did not substantially alter the slope of the crypt cell survival curve but did affect the shoulder: the X-ray survival curve was offset to the right by 1.01 +/- 0.06 Gy when IL-1 was given 20 h earlier and by 1.28 +/- 0.08 Gy to the left at the 4-h interval. Protection was greatest when IL-1 was administered 20 h before irradiation, but minimal effects persisted as long as 7 days after a single injection. The magnitude of radioprotection at 20 h or of radiosensitization at 4 h increased rapidly as IL-1 dose increased from 0 to 4 micrograms/kg. However, doses ranging from 10 to 100 micrograms/kg produced no further difference in radiation response. Animals treated with saline or IL-1 had similar core temperatures from 4 to 24 h after administration, suggesting that thermal changes were not responsible for either sensitization or protection. Mice irradiated 20 h after IL-1 had significantly greater crypt cell survival than saline-treated irradiated controls at all assay times, which ranged from 54 to 126 h following irradiation. The intervals to maximum crypt depopulation and initiation of repopulation were identical in both saline- and IL-1-treated groups.

Hancock, S.L.; Chung, R.T.; Cox, R.S.; Kallman, R.F. (Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (USA))

1991-05-01

339

The RDF Protune Policy Editor: Enabling Users to Protect Data in the Semantic Web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fine-grained user-aware access control to user profile data is a key requirement for sharing user profiles among applications. Policy languages like Protune can handle access restrictions very well but are too complicated to be used by non-experts. In this paper, we identify policy templates and embed them into a user interface that enables users to specify powerful access policies and makes them aware of the current and future consequences of their policies. In a user study, we proof the effectiveness of our editor.

Abel, Fabian; de Coi, Juri Luca; Henze, Nicola; Koesling, Arne Wolf; Krause, Daniel; Olmedilla, Daniel

340

A curriculum model for Nevada Test Site radiation protection technician training  

SciTech Connect

A research project was undertaken to develop a performance-based curriculum model for Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Technicians. The study began with an overview of Radiation Protection Technician training curricula within the Department of Energy (DOE) Government Contractor system and the Training Accreditation Manuals used for program evaluation of DOE system training programs. The research design included data from a two page questionnaire. Further data were provided from other Radiation Protection Technician training programs within the DOE system. The developed model utilized a five-phase/step approach to curriculum design encompassing (1) needs analysis, (2) designing the training process, (3) development of curriculum and support materials, (4) training implementation, (5) training evaluation. The Needs Analysis determined the specific material to be covered in the training program. Designing the Training Process involved choosing, from the core/generic job tasks identified in the Needs analysis, the specific knowledge and skills learning objectives for the program. Development of Curriculum and Support Materials involved choosing the method of instruction, identifying which tasks would be taught on-the-job and designing the qualification standard and lesson plans for the tasks. 24 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Petullo, C.F.

1989-05-01

341

Protection effects of condensed bromoacenaphthylene on radiation deterioration of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber. [Gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

As a continuation of a series of the studies on the flame and ..gamma..-radiation resistant modification of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM), condensed bromoacenaphthylene (con-BACN) as a newly developed flame retardant was synthesized and its effects on the radiation resistance of EPDM were investigated. The radiation resistance evaluated by measuring tensile properties of irradiated sheets of 2 mm thick was found improved greatly by adding con-BACN together with ordinary rubber ingredients but decreased by decabromodiphenylether (DBDPE) that has bromins in aromatic rings as con-BACN. When EPDM sheets of 1 mm thick were irradiated in oxygen at a dose rate of 1 X 10/sup 5/ rad/h, the weight swelling ratio increased with increasing dose, indicating that oxidative main chain scission is predominant under the irradiation conditions. On the other hand, crosslinking was shown to be predominant in nitrogen. From the results of the swelling experiments with different additives, it was concluded that DBDPE accelerates both the main chain scission in oxygen and the crosslinking in nitrogen. In contrast to this, con-BACN reduced the chain scission in oxygen. This observation was accounted by the assumption that the influence of the oxidative chain scission is partly compensated by the concurrent crosslinking which takes place through additions of con-BACN to substrate polymers even in the presence of oxygen.

Morita, Y.; Hagiwara, M.; Kasai, N.

1982-09-01

342

CAN WE HAVE IT ALL? BALANCING ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND PUBLIC POLICY  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency is charged with the responsibility for protecting public health and safeguarding our natural environment. This mission, developed in the aftermath of Silent Spring, faces new challenges with the ever increasing human domination of ecosystem...

343

In vitro and in vivo protective effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor against radiation-induced intestinal injury.  

PubMed

Intestinal injury is a major cause of death after high-dose radiation exposure. The use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) to treat radiation injury has focused on enhancing recovery from hematopoietic radiation syndrome. We evaluated G-CSF for its ability to protect against radiation-induced intestinal injury in rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) and BALB/c mouse models. For in vitro tests, pre-radiation addition of G-CSF to IEC-6 prevented cytotoxicity and the loss of cell viability. Pre-radiation G-CSF treatment also reduced radiation-induced cleavage of caspase-3 and p53 in IEC-6. For in vivo tests, examination 12h after abdominal irradiation showed that G-CSF-treated mice were protected against apoptosis of the jejunal crypts. G-CSF-treated mice also showed attenuated intestinal morphological changes 3.5days after abdominal radiation (10Gy). G-CSF also reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? after radiation. This study showed that G-CSF may protect against radiation-induced intestinal damage through its anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects. These results suggest that G-CSF is promising candidate for protection against intestinal mucosal injury following irradiation. PMID:23728838

Kim, Joong-Sun; Yang, Miyoung; Lee, Chang-Geun; Kim, Sung-Dae; Kim, Jung-Ki; Yang, Kwangmo

2013-06-01

344

National committee on radiation protection, 1928-1960: from professional guidelines to government regulation  

SciTech Connect

The National Committee on Radiation Protection is a private, self-perpetuating body of radiation experts founded in 1928 which, except during World War II, has established the basic guidelines for radiation safety in the United States. This dissertation examines three themes in its history from 1928 to 1960. On an intellectual level, how do scientists make judgments when called upon to perform a legal function, instead of conduct research. On an institutional level, how does a scientific committee develop when it serves a medical, industrial, and legal constituency larger than the research community of the scientist themselves. On a political level, how has the development of atomic energy influenced both the intellectual content of the radiation safety standards and the institutional form of the NCRP. Institutional and political concerns were found to play a significant role in the NCRP's intellectual work from 1928 to 1960. The time span can be divided into three periods, revealing a growing politicization of radiation safety: professional self-regulation (1928-1941), government advisory committee (1946-1954), and public controversy and increasing legislation (1954-1960). In 1959, political controversy led to the establishment of the Federal Radiation Council, a government agency which was to replace the NCRP.

Whittemore, G.F.

1986-01-01

345

Caffeic acid protects human peripheral blood lymphocytes against gamma radiation-induced cellular damage.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated in vitro radioprotective potential of caffeic acid (CA), a naturally occurring catecholic acid against gamma radiation-induced cellular changes. Different concentrations of CA (5.5, 11, 22, 44, 66, and 88 microM) were incubated with lymphocytes for 30 min prior to gamma-irradiation, and micronuclei (MN) scoring and comet assay were performed to fix the effective concentration of CA against gamma-irradiation. Among all concentrations, 66 microM of CA showed the optimum protection by effectively decreasing the MN frequencies and comet attributes. From the above-mentioned results, 66 microM of CA was selected as the effective concentration and was further used to investigate its radioprotective efficacy. For that purpose, a separate experiment was carried out on the lymphocytes in which lymphocytes were preincubated with CA (66 microM) and were exposed to different doses of radiation (1, 2, 3, and 4 Gy). Genetic damage (MN, dicentric aberration, and comet attributes) and biochemical changes were measured. Gamma-irradiated lymphocytes showed a dose-dependent increase in the genetic damage and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, accompanied by the significant decrease in the antioxidant status, whereas CA pretreatment positively modulated all the radiation-induced changes through its antioxidant potential. The current study demonstrates that CA is effective in protecting lymphocytes against radiation-induced toxicity and encourages further in vivo study to evaluate radioprotective efficacy of CA. PMID:18561333

Devipriya, Nagarajan; Sudheer, Adluri Ram; Menon, Venugopal P

346

Low-Dose Radiation and Genotoxic Chemicals Can Protect Against Stochastic Biological Effects  

PubMed Central

A protective apoptosis-mediated (PAM) process that is turned on in mammalian cells by low-dose photon (X and ?) radiation and appears to also be turned on by the genotoxic chemical ethylene oxide is discussed. Because of the PAM process, exposure to low-dose photon radiation (and possibly also some genotoxic chemicals) can lead to a reduction in the risk of stochastic effects such as problematic mutations, neoplastic transformation (an early step in cancer occurrence), and cancer. These findings indicate a need to revise the current low-dose risk assessment paradigm for which risk of cancer is presumed to increase linearly with dose (without a threshold) after exposure to any amount of a genotoxic agent such as ionizing radiation. These findings support a view seldom mentioned in the past, that cancer risk can actually decrease, rather than increase, after exposure to low doses of photon radiation and possibly some other genotoxic agents. The PAM process (a form of natural protection) may contribute substantially to cancer prevention in humans and other mammals. However, new research is needed to improve our understanding of the process. The new research could unlock novel strategies for optimizing cancer prevention and novel protocols for low-dose therapy for cancer. With low-dose cancer therapy, normal tissue could be spared from severe damage while possibly eliminating the cancer.

Scott, Bobby R.; Walker, Dale M.; Walker, Vernon E.

2004-01-01

347

[Changes in the "medical research" licensing procedure under the German Radiation Protection Ordinance].  

PubMed

This publication outlines the "medical research" licensing procedure as specified in the amendment of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance of November 1, 2011. The general licensing requirements for the use of radiation have not been changed by the amendment. Three so-called use restrictions (i. e., dose limits of 10 mSv and 20 mSv, age limit of 50 years) have been modified. They will only apply to healthy volunteers in the future. In addition, there are considerable simplifications with respect to applications and licensing procedures of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fr Strahlenschutz, BfS) regarding the use of radiation in the newly introduced "accompanying diagnostics" ("Begleitdiagnostik") case group. The newly established, independent panel of experts at the German Radiological Society (Deutsche Rntgengesellschaft, DRG) may provide essential support to principal investigators, qualified physicians and sponsors for differentiating between "medical research" and "health care", the latter not being subject to licensing. An expert statement will be issued by the DRG within four weeks of an inquiry. This consulting service is subject to confidentiality, and is free of charge for inquirers and without any commitment. PMID:22331822

Habeck, M; Epsch, R; Minkov, V; Langer, M; Griebel, J; Brix, G

2012-02-13

348

Protective effect of nitric oxide against oxidative stress under ultraviolet-B radiation.  

PubMed

The response of bean leaves to UV-B radiation was extensively investigated. UV-B radiation caused increase of ion leakage, loss of chlorophyll, and decrease of the maximum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and the quantum yield of PSII electron transport (PhiPSII) of bean leaves. H2O2 contents and the extent of thylakoid membrane protein oxidation increased, indicated by the decrease of thiol contents and the increase of carbonyl contents with the duration of UV-B radiation. Addition of sodium nitroprusside, a nitric oxide (NO) donor, can partially alleviate UV-B induced decrease of chlorophyll contents, Fv/Fm and PhiPSII. Moreover, the oxidative damage to the thylakoid membrane was alleviated by NO. The potassium salt of 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, a specific NO scavenger, arrested NO mediated protective effects against UV-B induced oxidative damage. Incubation of thylakoid membrane with increasing H2O2 concentrations showed a progressive enhancement in carbonyl contents. H2O2 contents were decreased in the presence of NO under UV-B radiation through increased activities of superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, and catalases. Taken together, the results suggest that NO can effectively protect plants from UV-B damage mostly probably mediated by enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:15908241

Shi, Suyun; Wang, Gang; Wang, Yading; Zhang, Lingang; Zhang, Lixin

2005-08-01

349

Inactivation of Kupffer Cells by Gadolinium Chloride Protects Murine Liver From Radiation-Induced Apoptosis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether the inhibition of Kupffer cells before radiotherapy (RT) would protect hepatocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis. Materials and Methods: A single 30-Gy fraction was administered to the upper abdomen of Sprague-Dawley rats. The Kupffer cell inhibitor gadolinium chloride (GdCl3; 10 mg/kg body weight) was intravenously injected 24 h before RT. The rats were divided into four groups: group 1, sham RT plus saline (control group); group 2, sham RT plus GdCl3; group 3, RT plus saline; and group 4, RT plus GdCl3. Liver tissue was collected for measurement of apoptotic cytokine expression and evaluation of radiation-induced liver toxicity by analysis of liver enzyme activities, hepatocyte micronucleus formation, apoptosis, and histologic staining. Results: The expression of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was significantly attenuated in group 4 compared with group 3 at 2, 6, 24, and 48 h after injection (p <0.05). At early points after RT, the rats in group 4 exhibited significantly lower levels of liver enzyme activity, apoptotic response, and hepatocyte micronucleus formation compared with those in group 3. Conclusion: Selective inactivation of Kupffer cells with GdCl3 reduced radiation-induced cytokine production and protected the liver against acute radiation-induced damage.

Du Shisuo; Qiang Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zeng Zhaochong, E-mail: zeng.zhaochong@zs-hospital.sh.c [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ke Aiwu; Ji Yuan [Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhang Zhengyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zeng Haiying [Department of Pathology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Liu Zhongshan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

2010-03-15

350

Sunscreens: topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against harmful effects of solar radiation  

SciTech Connect

This review deals with topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against the harmful effects of solar radiation. Two concerns about the deleterious effects of sun exposure involve: (1) acute effects (e.g., sunburn and drug-induced phototoxicity) and (2) potential long-term risks of repeated sun exposures leading to development of solar elastosis, keratoses, induction of both nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer, and alteration of immune responses and functions. Action spectra of normal and abnormal reactions of human skin to acute and chronic effects of solar radiation are presented with a view to helping the physician prescribe the appropriate sunscreens. Factors that influence acute effects of sunburn are reviewed. Various artificial methods effective in minimizing or preventing harmful effects of solar radiation, both in normal individuals and in patients with photosensitivity-related problems, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the commercially available chemical sunscreens and their properties. Sun protection factor (SPF) values of several brand-name formulations determined with a solar simulator under indoor conditions (laboratory) and with solar radiation under natural, field conditions are presented. Factors responsible for variations of SPF values observed under indoor and outdoor conditions are reviewed. Systemic photoprotective agents and their limitations are outlined. The photobiology of melanin pigmentation (the tanning reaction) is briefly discussed, with emphasis on the dangers of using quick-tanning lotions for stimulation of the tanning reaction.

Pathak, M.A.

1982-09-01

351

National Interests of the United States in Southeast Asia: Policy Changes For Their Protection and Promotion Since the Withdrawal From the Naval Base at Subic Bay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In November 1992, the United States withdrew its military forces from facilities in the Republic of the Philippines. The United States must now reassess its commitments, and the means and policies it will employ in protecting and promoting national intere...

K. A. Hasselman

1993-01-01

352

Protection by, or from, the Government: Debating citizenship education policy in Hong Kong's Legislative Council  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses citizenship education, education policy and discourse to explore their relations with the exercise of power in society. Taking the case of 1990 and 1997 legislative debates on citizenship education policy in Hong Kong, it briefly surveys the substantive arguments favouring or opposing the retention of government controls over politics in schools. It then examines in more detail

Gregory P. Fairbrother

2006-01-01

353

The politics of ethical foreign policy: A responsibility to protect whom?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical foreign policy persists as a problem of international relations, especially regarding humanitarian intervention. However, despite apparent international upheavals, the debate about the ethics of humanitarian intervention has remained fundamentally unchanged. To escape the limits of this debate, this article deconstructs British claims to ethical foreign policy since 1997, reading these claims against themselves and against contemporary humanitarian intervention literature.

Dan Bulley

2010-01-01

354

Combined radiation-protective and radiation-sensitizing agents. IV. Measurement of intracellular protector concentrations  

SciTech Connect

Radiosensitization of hypoxic V79 Chinese hamster cells by 0.5 mM misonidazole at approximately 0-4 degrees C is substantially enhanced by pretreating the cells overnight with 0.1 mM buthionine sulfoximine, which lowers the cellular glutathione content to 5% of control values (from 4 mM to approximately 0.2 mM). The enhanced sensitization is reversed by concentrations of exogenous cysteine that are much lower (0.02 mM) than the original glutathione content. Reduced Co-enzyme A affords reversal of the enhancing effect at concentrations of about 1 mM. Sodium ascorbate gives no protection at all even at concentrations of 2 mM. The intracellular concentration of the reducing agents was measured using a spin-through oil technique. There was no diffusion of Co-A (MW greater than 750) or ascorbate (excluded by charge) into the cells. In contrast, cysteine was rapidly concentrated by factors of 4-10, even at the low temperatures used. Extracellular ascorbate's inability to radioprotect argues against electron transfer across the cell membrane as a mechanism for radioprotection. This mechanism could have explained the ability of exogenous thiols to radioprotect in former studies using glutathione, and in the present studies using Co-A. The potential of cysteine to be concentrated by cells poses a problem in the interpretation of exogenous protection by non-diffusing thiols, since trace contamination by cysteine could lead to the actual protection observed. Cysteine could also be formed by exchange reactions of exogenous thiols with the disulfide of cysteine, present in all media formulations.

Koch, C.J.; Stobbe, C.C.; Hettiaratchi, P.

1989-04-01

355

Radiation engineering analysis of shielding materials to assess their ability to protect astronauts in deep space from energetic particle radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis is performed on four typical materials (aluminum, liquid hydrogen, polyethylene, and water) to assess their impact on the length of time an astronaut can stay in deep space and not exceed a design basis radiation exposure of 150 mSv. A large number of heavy lift launches of pure shielding mass are needed to enable long duration, deep space missions to keep astronauts at or below the exposure value with shielding provided by the vehicle. Therefore, vehicle mass using the assumptions in the paper cannot be the sole shielding mechanism for long duration, deep space missions. As an example, to enable the Mars Design Reference Mission 5.0 with a 400 day transit to and from Mars, not including the 500 day stay on the surface, a minimum of 24 heavy lift launches of polyethylene at 89,375 lbm (40.54 tonnes) each are needed for the 1977 galactic cosmic ray environment. With the assumptions used in this paper, a single heavy lift launch of water or polyethylene can protect astronauts for a 130 day mission before exceeding the exposure value. Liquid hydrogen can only protect the astronauts for 160 days. Even a single launch of pure shielding material cannot protect an astronaut in deep space for more than 180 days using the assumptions adopted in the analysis. It is shown that liquid hydrogen is not the best shielding material for the same mass as polyethylene for missions that last longer than 225 days.

Singleterry, R. C.

2013-10-01

356

Medigap Insurance: Law Has Increased Protection against Substandard and Overpriced Policies. Report to the Subcommittee on Health, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report reviews certain aspects of the effectiveness of the Public Law 96-265 provisions (Section 1882 of the Social Security Act) designed to protect the elderly against substandard and overpriced health insurance policies supplementing Medicare. This document on Medigap policies includes an executive summary and five chapters. Chapter 1

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

357

Protection against Adverse Biological Effects Induced by Space Radiation by the Bowman-Birk Inhibitor and Antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kennedy, A. R., Zhou, Z., Donahue, J. J. and Ware, J. H. Protection against Adverse Biological Effects Induced by Space Radiation by the Bowman-Birk Inhibitor and Antioxi- dants. Radiat. Res. 166, 327-332 (2006). This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of the soybean-derived Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), BBI concentrate (BBIC) and\\/or antioxidants against the adverse biological effects induced by

Ann R. Kennedy; Zhaozong Zhou; Jeremiah J. Donahue; Jeffrey H. Ware

2006-01-01

358

The argument for a unified approach to non-ionizing radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

In the next decade military equipment will be required to operate in severe electromagnetic environments. These environments are expected to contain most non-ionizing frequencies (D.C. to GHz), from hostile and/or non-hostile sources, and be severe enough to cause temporary upset or even catastrophic failure of electronic equipment. Over the past thirty years considerable emphasis has been placed on hardening critical systems to one or more of these non-ionizing radiation environments, the most prevalent being the nuclear-induced electromagnetic pulse (EMD). From this technology development there has evolved a hardening philosophy that applies to most of these non-ionizing radiation environments. The philosophy, which stresses the application of zonal shields plus penetration protection, can provide low-cost hardening against such diverse non-ionizing radiation as p-static, lightning, electromagnetic interference (EMI), EMP, high intensity radiated fields (HIRF), electromagnetic radiation (EMR), and high power microwaves (HPM). The objective in this paper is to describe the application of this philosophy to Army helicopters. The authors develop a unified specification complete with threat definitions and test methods which illustrates integration of EMP, lightning, and HIRF at the box qualification level. This paper is a summary of the effort documented in a cited reference.

Perala, R.A.; Rigden, G.J. (Electro Magnetic Applications, Inc., Lakewood, CO (United States)); Pfeffer, R.A. (Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency, Springfield, VA (United States))

1993-12-01

359

Protective effect of tanshinone IIA against radiation-induced ototoxicity in HEI-OC1 cells  

PubMed Central

Radiotherapy is a highly efficient treatment method for nasopharyngeal carcinoma that is often accompanied by significant ototoxic side-effects. The inner ear hair cells are particularly prone to serious injury following radiotherapy. Tanshinone IIA is a transcription factor inhibitor that is extracted from the traditional herbal medicine, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The present study investigated the effects of tanshinone IIA treatment on radiation-induced toxicity in the HEI-OC1 hair cell line. Using an MTT assay and flow cytometry, the radiation-induced weakening of the cells was observed to be alleviated when the cells were pre-treated with tanshinone IIA. Radiation exposure promoted p65/nuclear factor (NF)-?B nuclear translocation and activated the p53/p21 pathway, two processes which play a significant role in radiation-induced cell apoptosis. However, pre-treatment of the cells with tanshinone IIA inhibited p65/NF-?B nuclear translocation and p53/p21 pathway activation. These results demonstrate that tanshinone IIA is capable of protecting cochlear cells from radiation-induced injury through the suppression of p65/NF-?B nuclear translocation and the p53/p21 signaling pathway.

DU, SHASHA; YAO, QIWEI; TAN, PEIXIN; XIE, GUOZHU; REN, CHEN; SUN, QUANQUAN; ZHANG, XIAO; ZHENG, RONG; YANG, KAIJUN; YUAN, YAWEI; YUAN, QUAN

2013-01-01

360

Pharmacologic approaches to protection against radiation-induced lethality and other damage.  

PubMed Central

Studies on mechanisms of radioprotection are leading to a more rational use of protectors for different applications. In considering the feasibility of radioprotectors that act through various mechanisms, it is necessary to distinguish the application needed, e.g., protection against accidental external or internal exposures, acute high-dose radiation injury or low doses over a long period, high-LET radiation exposures during space flight, and protection of normal tissues of cancer patients who are undergoing therapy. Protectors generally are classified as either sulfhydryl compounds, other antioxidants, or receptor-mediated agents (e.g., bioactive lipids, cytokines, and growth factors). This review focuses on comparative radioprotection and toxicity studies in mice using the most effective phosphorothioate agents designated as WR-compounds and other classes of protectors. The superiority of phosphorothioates (WR-2721, WR-151327) as radioprotectors appears to be related to their high affinity for DNA and the similarity in structure of phosphorothioate metabolites to polyamines, and their effects on processes related to DNA structure and synthesis. Drug tolerance levels are available from clinical trials using WR-2721 (amifostine) and provide a basis for discussions of the disadvantages of phosphorothioate administration outside a clinical setting. In this regard, arguments are presented against the current use of WR-2721 by Department of Energy personnel for planned radiation exposures during emergencies. Future research may demonstrate, however, that pharmacologic agents could be useful in accident scenarios, especially when used in combination with therapeutic measures. Assessment of potential prophylactic measures should consider compatibility with therapeutic measures currently in use or ones that might be available in the future for the treatment of radiation injuries. These include antiemetics, purified stem cells, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and other cytokines. Their potential usefulness against radiation-induced mutagenesis of pre- and postexposure administration of phosphorothioates and other classes of protectors should be corroborated in humans.

Weiss, J F

1997-01-01

361

Privacy Protection: Mandating New Arrangements to Implement and Assess Federal Privacy Policy and Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When Congress enacted the Privacy Act of 1974, it established a temporary national study commission to conduct a comprehensive assessment of privacy policy and practice in both the public and private sectors and to make recommendations for better protecti...

H. C. Relyea

2004-01-01

362

Protected forests in Europe approaches-harmonising the definitions for international comparison and forest policy making.  

PubMed

Comparison of forest protection between regions in Europe is extremely difficult, because there is such wide variation of strategies, procedures and constraints; the way forests have been used historically and their present closeness to nature also varies, and furthermore so does the definition of what constitutes a forest. For the European Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe (MCPFE) in 2003, forest protection has been harmonised into three categories for the sake of comparison: protection to safeguard biodiversity, protection of landscape and specific natural features, and protective forest functions. There is no single, uniform and universal model and no internationally agreed target with respect to the percentage of forests which should be protected. What is more important than a fixed percentage level of forested area (e.g. 5 or 10%) is that the protection network should be biogeographically and ecologically representative and accordingly distributed on a regional basis. Long-term practical experience and research have proved that conservation of different species of organisms can be assured by appropriate silvicultural management of multifunctional production forests. Consequently, the focus of debate in Europe appears to shift more and more from total protection in segregated areas to 'precision protection' and to combining protection and timber production in the holistic, integrated concept of modern management of forest areas.Advances in regional ecological planning and the growing adoption of naturalistic forest management practices have slowed the decline of the biological diversity in the multifunctional production forests. However, this fact is not yet widely and sufficiently acknowledged and appreciated. There is consequently a political and scientific need for continued study of the effects of naturalistic silvicultural management on the biodiversity of forests. Information from such research is crucially needed before new and additional protection networks and schemes are set up on a large-scale. Protection by voluntary contracts between parties is a workable model concept for European forestry based on private forest ownership. In small private forests, patches of forest worth protecting are often small and located within production forests. Forest certification can contribute to the efforts of maintaining biodiversity in multifunctional production forests and offers an instrument of independently monitoring and verifying that forests are managed according to the agreed criteria. Forest certification is not an alternative or a means of increasing forest protection, because as a voluntary process it cannot guarantee the permanence of protected areas or deal with issues of finance and compensation. PMID:12659801

Parviainen, Jari; Frank, Georg

2003-01-01

363

Role of Apoptotic Proteins in REC-2006 Mediated Radiation Protection in Hepatoma Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of apoptotic proteins in REC-2006-mediated radiation protection in hepatoma cell lines. REC-2006 treatment 2?h before irradiation strongly inhibited the cleavage of ATM and PARP-1 in HepG2 cells. The expression of nuclear apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) was found to be more inhibited (~17%) in HepG2 cells in REC-2006 + radiation-treated group. More inhibition (~33%) of cytochrome c was observed in HepG2 cells upon REC-2006 treatment 2?h prior irradiation. Similarly, significantly more (P<.05) inhibition of Apaf-1, caspase-9 and caspase-3 was observed in REC-2006 + radition-treated group in HepG2 cells. REC-2006 treatment restored the expression of ICAD in HepG2 cells; however, no restoration was observed in Hep3B cells. Lower nuclear to cytoplasmic CAD ratio was observed in HepG2 cells (~0.6) as compared with Hep3B cells (~1.2) in REC-2006 + radiation-treated group. In conclusion, REC-2006 rendered higher protection in HepG2 cells by inhibiting the expression and translocation of AIF, inhibiting the cleavage of ATM and PARP-1, restoring the expression of ICAD, inhibiting the release of cytochrome c and thus modulating the expression of Apaf-1 caspase-9 and activity of caspase-3.

Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Ashok; Arora, Rajesh; Chawla, Raman; Jain, Swatantra Kumar; Tripathi, Rajendra Prasad; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

2011-01-01

364

Oral nicotinamide protects against ultraviolet radiation-induced immunosuppression in humans.  

PubMed

Cutaneous immunity, which is a key defence against the development of skin cancers, is suppressed by even small doses of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Preventing this UV-induced immunosuppression may therefore reduce the incidence of skin cancer. Nicotinamide (vitamin B3) has immune-protective and cancer-preventive effects against UV radiation in mice, and we have shown previously that topical nicotinamide is immune protective in humans. Using the Mantoux model of skin immunity in healthy volunteers, we compared oral nicotinamide to placebo (both administered for 1 week) in a randomized, double-blinded, crossover design against the effects of solar-simulated ultraviolet (ssUV) radiation on delayed-type hypersensitivity to tuberculin purified protein derivative. Discrete areas of the back were irradiated with low doses of ssUV daily for three consecutive days. Immunosuppression, calculated as the difference in Mantoux-induced erythema of irradiated sites compared with unirradiated control sites, was determined in volunteers taking oral nicotinamide and placebo. Significant immunosuppression occurred in an UV dose-dependent manner in the presence of placebo. Oral nicotinamide, at doses of either 1500 or 500 mg daily, was well tolerated and significantly reduced UV immunosuppression with no immune effects in unirradiated skin. Oral nicotinamide is safe and inexpensive and looks promising as a chemopreventive supplement for reducing the immunosuppressive effects of sunlight. PMID:19028705

Yiasemides, Eleni; Sivapirabu, Geetha; Halliday, Gary M; Park, Joohong; Damian, Diona L

2008-11-20

365

The use of total detriment in radiation protection and its potential extension to other hazards  

SciTech Connect

Before publication of the 1977 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), radiation protection standards were based on dose limits to single organs. These dose limits were only loosely linked to the expected effects in the first two generations from gonadal doses and to the risk of fatal cancer from doses to specific organs. In 1977, the ICRP recommended the use of the ``effective dose equivalent (EDE),`` which is a method of summing the doses (weighted with relative risk coefficients) to all organs and tissues, and recommended an annual limit for EDE. Since the 1977 recommendations were published, a ``total risk`` or total detriment approach has been extended to include nonfatal cancers and genetic effects for all subsequent generations, i.e., the total health detriment from low doses of ionizing radiation. This paper discusses the development of this total health detriment from ionizing radiation exposures, and explores potential methods for using it with other hazards (such as exposures to other physical agents, hazardous chemicals, and fatal and nonfatal accidents) in calculating the total detriment to a worker.

Johnson, J.R.; Stansbury, P.S.; Selby, J.M.

1991-10-01

366

The use of total detriment in radiation protection and its potential extension to other hazards  

SciTech Connect

Before publication of the 1977 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), radiation protection standards were based on dose limits to single organs. These dose limits were only loosely linked to the expected effects in the first two generations from gonadal doses and to the risk of fatal cancer from doses to specific organs. In 1977, the ICRP recommended the use of the effective dose equivalent (EDE),'' which is a method of summing the doses (weighted with relative risk coefficients) to all organs and tissues, and recommended an annual limit for EDE. Since the 1977 recommendations were published, a total risk'' or total detriment approach has been extended to include nonfatal cancers and genetic effects for all subsequent generations, i.e., the total health detriment from low doses of ionizing radiation. This paper discusses the development of this total health detriment from ionizing radiation exposures, and explores potential methods for using it with other hazards (such as exposures to other physical agents, hazardous chemicals, and fatal and nonfatal accidents) in calculating the total detriment to a worker.

Johnson, J.R.; Stansbury, P.S.; Selby, J.M.

1991-10-01

367

Important ingredients for successful tourism\\/protected area partnerships: partners' policy recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protected areas in Australia are of great importance to the tourism industry, conservation agencies, and other stakeholders. Due to an increase in limited resources and the complexity and uncertainty of the protected area\\/tourism planning context, these stakeholders are encouraged to enter partnerships. Their ability to work together effectively influences the quality of the tourist experience, the satisfaction of visitors, and

Aggie Wegner; Diane Lee; Betty Weiler

2010-01-01

368

The Cities for Climate Protection Campaign (CCPC) and the framing of Local Climate Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper contributes to the research on understanding local global warming politics. Strategic documents from The Cities for Climate Protection Campaign (CCPC) are analysed to show how CCPC has constructed climate change protection as a local issue. The paper's premise is that the climate change issue must be translated or framed to enable actors to work with this problem in

Gard Lindseth

2004-01-01

369

Practical protective tools for occupational exposure: 1) double focus spectacles for the aged with highly refracted glass lens 2) remodeled barrier for radiation protection.  

PubMed

Summary: Two practical protective tools for occupational exposure for neurointerventional radiologists are presented. The first purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of double focus spectacles for the aged with a highly refracted glass lens (special spectacles for the aged) for radiation protection of the crystalline lens of the eye in comparison with other spectacles on the market, based on the measurement of film density which was obtained by exposure of X-ray through those spectacles. As a result of the film densitometry mentioned above, the effectiveness of special spectacles for the aged in radiation protection was nearly equal to the effectiveness of a goggle type shield which is made with a 0.07 mm lead-equivalent plastic lens. The second purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the protective barrier, which we remodeled for cerebral angiography or neuroendovascular therapy, for radiation exposure, based on the measurement in a simulated study with a head phantom, and on the measurement of radiation exposure in operaters during procedures of clinical cases. In the experimental study radiation exposure in supposed position of the crystalline lens was reduced to about one third and radiation exposure in supposed position of the gonadal glands was reduced to about one seventh, compared to radiation exposure without employing the barrier. The radiation exposure was monitored at the left breast of three radiologists, in 215 cases of cerebral angiography. Employing the barrier in cerebral angiography, average equivalent dose at the left breast measured 1.49mu Sv during 10 min of fluoroscopy. In three kinds of neuroendovascular therapy in 40 cases, radiation exposure in an operator was monitored in the same fashion and the dose was recorded less than the result reported in previous papers in which any protective barrier have not been employed in the procedure (1,2). As a result, the two above mentioned protective tools are considered practical in clinical usage and very effective to reduce radiation exposure in an operator of interventional neuroradiolgy which may sometimes require many hours to complete the therapy under extended fluoroscopic time. 1) The first topic of this report is double focus spectacles for the aged with a highly refracted glass lens (special spectacles for the aged). PMID:20667219

Kurokawa, S; Yabe, S; Takamura, A; Ishizaki, H; Aizawa, S

2001-05-15

370

Effects of Cobalt60 Exposure on Health of Taiwan Residents Suggest New Approach Needed in Radiation Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional approach for radiation protection is based on the ICRP's linear, no threshold (LNT) model of radiation carcinogenesis, which implies that ionizing radiation is always harmful, no matter how small the dose. But a different approach can be derived from the observed health effects of the serendipitous contamination of 1700 apartments in Taiwan with cobalt-60 (T1\\/2 = 5.3 y).

W. L. Chen; Y. C. Luanb; M. C. Shiehb; S. T. Chenb; H. Kung; K. Soong; Y. Yeh; T. Chou; S. Mong; J. Wu; C. Sun; W. Deng; M. Wu; M. Shen

2007-01-01

371

Protection from radiation-induced mitochondrial and genomic DNA damage by an extract of Hippophae rhamnoides.  

PubMed

Hippophae rhamnoides or seabuckthorn is used extensively in Indian and Tibetan traditional medicine for the treatment of circulatory disorders, ischemic heart disease, hepatic injury, and neoplasia. In the present study, we have evaluated the radioprotective potential of REC-1001, a fraction isolated from the berries of H. rhamnoides. Chemical analysis of the extract indicated that REC-1001 was approximately 68% by weight polyphenols, and contained kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and quercetin. The effect of REC-1001 on modulating radiation-induced DNA damage was determined in murine thymocytes by measuring nonspecific nuclear DNA damage at the whole genome level using the alkaline halo assay and by measuring sequence/gene-specific DNA damage both in nuclear DNA (beta-globin gene) and in mitochondrial DNA using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with 10 Gy resulted in a significant amount of DNA damage in the halo assay and reductions in the amplification of both the beta-globin gene and mitochondrial DNA. REC-1001 dose-dependently reduced the amount of damage detected in each assay, with the maximum protective effects observed at the highest REC-1001 dose evaluated (250 micro g/ml). Studies measuring the nicking of naked plasmid DNA further established the radioprotective effect of REC-1001. To elucidate possible mechanisms of action, the antioxidant properties and the free-radical scavenging activities of REC-1001 were evaluated. REC-1001 dose-dependently scavenged radiation-induced hydroxyl radicals, chemically-generated superoxide anions, stabilized DPPH radicals, and reduced Fe(3+) to Fe(2+). The results of the study indicate that the REC-1001 extract of H. rhamnoides protects mitochondrial and genomic DNA from radiation-induced damage. The polyphenols/flavonoids present in the extract might be responsible for the free radical scavenging and DNA protection afforded by REC-1001. PMID:16948057

Shukla, Sandeep Kumar; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Kumar, Indracanti Prem; Samanta, Namita; Afrin, Farhat; Gupta, Manju Lata; Sharma, Upendra Kumar; Sinha, Arun Kumar; Sharma, Yogendra Kumar; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

2006-12-01

372

Patient radiation dose and protection from cone-beam computed tomography.  

PubMed

After over one decade development, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been widely accepted for clinical application in almost every field of dentistry. Meanwhile, the radiation dose of CBCT to patient has also caused broad concern. According to the literature, the effective radiation doses of CBCTs in nowadays market fall into a considerably wide range that is from 19 Sv to 1073 Sv and closely related to the imaging detector, field of view, and voxel sizes used for scanning. To deeply understand the potential risk from CBCT, this report also reviewed the effective doses from literatures on intra-oral radiograph, panoramic radiograph, lateral and posteroanterior cephalometric radiograph, multi-slice CT, and so on. The protection effect of thyroid collar and leaded glasses were also reviewed. PMID:23807928

Li, Gang

2013-06-14

373

Patient radiation dose and protection from cone-beam computed tomography  

PubMed Central

After over one decade development, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been widely accepted for clinical application in almost every field of dentistry. Meanwhile, the radiation dose of CBCT to patient has also caused broad concern. According to the literature, the effective radiation doses of CBCTs in nowadays market fall into a considerably wide range that is from 19 Sv to 1073 Sv and closely related to the imaging detector, field of view, and voxel sizes used for scanning. To deeply understand the potential risk from CBCT, this report also reviewed the effective doses from literatures on intra-oral radiograph, panoramic radiograph, lateral and posteroanterior cephalometric radiograph, multi-slice CT, and so on. The protection effect of thyroid collar and leaded glasses were also reviewed.

2013-01-01

374

Monitoring the consequences of decreased ozone protection: The NSF ultraviolet radiation monitoring network  

SciTech Connect

The effects of decreased protection from ultraviolet radiation are as troubling as the continuing depletion of stratospheric ozone. Evidence exists to clearly link ozone depletion to changes in the antarctic marine environment. Results of two 1992 papers are summarized here. Enhanced exposure to mid-range UV radiation was found to be affecting marine ecosystems with a recorded 6-12 percent reduction in primary productivity directly related to the ozone layer depletion. In another experiment, a model was developed indicating that the ozone hole could reduce near-surface photosynthesis by as much as 12-15 percent. The NSF UV monitoring system in place for these and other experiments uses a spectroradiometer, making hourly, high-resolution measurements of the distribution of UV surface irradiance.

Not Available

1993-03-01

375

Role of pigmentation in protecting Aspergillus niger conidiospores against pulsed light radiation.  

PubMed

The photoprotective potential of fungus pigments was investigated by irradiating conidiospores of three Aspergillus niger strains possessing the same genetic background, but differing in their degree of pigmentation with pulsed light (PL) and monochromatic (254 nm) UV-C radiation. Spores of A. niger MA93.1 and JHP1.1 presenting, respectively, a fawn and a white pigmentation were more sensitive to PL and continuous UV-C radiation than the wild-type A. niger strain N402 possessing a dark pigment. Both spores of the dark A. niger N402 and the fawn-color mutant were equally resistant to moist heat at 56C while spores of the white-color mutant were highly sensitive. These results indicate that melanin protects pigmented spores of A. niger from PL. PMID:23278805

Esbelin, Julia; Mallea, Sabine; J Ram, Arthur F; Carlin, Frdric

2013-01-29

376

Development of policy performance indicators to assess the implementation of protection from exposure to secondhand smoke in China  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop an approach for rapid assessment of tobacco control interventions in China. We examined the correlation between components of the Strength of Tobacco Control (SOTC) index and a proposed rapid evaluation indicator, the Policy Performance Indicator (PPI), which is based on protection of non-smokers from secondhand smoke (SHS). The PPI was used to assess the implementation of policies related to SHS at the provincial/municipal level in China. Methods Stratified random sampling was used to select five types of organisational and household respondents in two municipalities and five provinces in China (Shanghai and Tianjin, Heilongjiang, Henan, Guangdong, Zhejiang and Jiangxi, respectively). Data collection methods included key informant interviews, observation and intercept surveys (organisations), and a modified Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) questionnaire (households). SOTC scores (SHS policy, capacity and efforts), PPI (no smoking in designated smoke-free places) and mid-term to long-term impact (knowledge, attitude and reduced exposure to SHS) were measured, and correlations among them were calculated. Results The PPI varied across the seven locations. Shanghai led in the component indicators (at 56.5% for indoor workplaces and 49.1% for indoor public places, respectively), followed by Guangdong, Tianjin and Zhejiang (at 3035% for these two indicators), and finally, Henan and Jiangxi (at 2025%). Smoke-free policies were more effectively implemented at indoor workplaces than indoor public places. The PPI correlated well with certain components of the SOTC but not with the long-term indicators. Conclusions The PPI is useful for evaluating implementation of smoke-free policies. As tobacco control programmes are implemented, the PPI offers an indicator to track success and change strategies, without collecting data for a full SOTC index.

Wan, Xia; Stillman, Frances; Liu, Huilin; Spires, Mark; Dai, Zhen; Tamplin, Stephen; Hu, Daiwei; Samet, Jonathan M; Yang, Gonghuan

2013-01-01

377

Protection against radiation-induced damage of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) in thyroid cells.  

PubMed

Many epidemiologic studies have shown that the exposure to high external radiation doses increases thyroid neoplastic frequency, especially when given during childhood or adolescence. The use of radioprotective drugs may decrease the damage caused by radiation therapy and therefore could be useful to prevent the development of thyroid tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible application of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) as a radioprotector in the thyroid gland. Rat thyroid epithelial cells (FRTL-5) were exposed to different doses of ? irradiation with or without the addition of PTU, methimazole (MMI), reduced glutathione (GSH) and perchlorate (KClO4). Radiation response was analyzed by clonogenic survival assay. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Apoptosis was quantified by nuclear cell morphology and caspase 3 activity assays. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured using the fluorescent dye 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate. Catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were also determined. Pretreatment with PTU, MMI and GSH prior to irradiation significantly increased the surviving cell fraction (SF) at 2 Gy (P < 0.05), while no effect was observed with KClO4. An increase in extracellular levels of cAMP was found only in PTU treated cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. Cells incubated with agents that stimulate cAMP (forskolin and dibutyril cAMP) mimicked the effect of PTU on SF. Moreover, pretreatment with the inhibitor of protein kinase A, H-89, abolished the radioprotective effect of PTU. PTU treatment diminished radiation-induced apoptosis and protected cells against radiation-induced ROS elevation and suppression of the antioxidant enzyme's activity. PTU was found to radioprotect normal thyroid cells through cAMP elevation and reduction in both apoptosis and radiation-induced oxidative stress damage. PMID:23398355

Perona, Marina; Dagrosa, Mara A; Pagotto, Romina; Casal, Mariana; Pignataro, Omar P; Pisarev, Mario A; Juvenal, Guillermo J

2013-02-11

378

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project: a fertile ground for radiation protection and shielding challenges.  

PubMed

The Spallation Neutron Source facility presently under construction in the USA consists of a front end, a linac, an accumulator ring, a target station and a neutron instrument hall, producing pulsed neutron beams driven by a proton beam of 1 GeV energy and 1.4 MW power with a repetition rate of 60 Hz. The layout of the facility and the radiation protection and shielding concept of the facility is laid out in numerous examples in a walk from the proton beam generation to the neutron utilisation. PMID:16381678

Gallmeier, F X; Ferguson, P D; Popova, I I; Iverson, E B

2005-01-01

379

Manganese chloride treatment does not protect against acute radiation injury of skin or crypt cells  

SciTech Connect

Metallothieonein (MT), the synthesis of which can be induced by metalloelement administration, is a known radical scavenger. This study investigated the possible protective effect of MT against acute radiation injury. Manganese chloride (10 mg of manganese/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to male C3H/He mice 24 h prior to irradiation. The paw of each mouse was irradiated locally, and the acute skin reaction was scored daily and averaged. Acute radiation injury of the small intestine was studied using an LD{sub 50/8} assay and a gut microcolony assay after abdominal irradiation. An LD{sub 50/8} value represents the radiation dose required to kill 50% of animals within 8 days. The number of microcolonies per tissue section was counted 3.5 days after irradiation. The level of MT in the liver, skin and intestine was determined by a modified {sup 203}Hg-binding assay. Acute skin reaction was not prevented by manganese pre-administration. The LD{sub 50/8} values of manganese-pretreated and control mice were 19.4 and 18.4 Gy, respectively. However, the difference was not significant. The number of microcolonies was not significantly different for these two groups in the dose range of 13-19 Gy. The level of MT in the skin and intestine was not increased by administration of manganese, although a sixfold increase was observed in the liver. In conclusion, manganese chloride treatment of mice 24 h prior to irradiation did not significantly protect skin and small intestine against acute radiation injury, because such a treatment did not result in increased levels of MT in the skin and small intestine. 20 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Murata, R.; Nishimura, Y.; Hiraoka, M. [Kyoto Univ., Sakyo-ku (Japan)] [and others

1995-09-01

380

Protection from radiation enteritis by an absorbable polyglycolic acid mesh sling  

SciTech Connect

Patients with malignant tumors of the pelvis who cannot be cured surgically often are treated with radiation after surgery. A devastating side effect of this treatment is radiation-associated small bowel injury (RASBI). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that removal of the small bowel from the radiation field would protect it against RASBI. Twenty cebus monkeys underwent low anterior resection. In 10 animals an absorbable polyglycolic acid (PGA) mesh was sewn circumferentially around the interior of the abdominal cavity as a supporting apron, which prevented the small bowel's descent into the pelvis. The other 10 monkeys did not receive the mesh. All animals received 2000 rads by linear acceleration in a single dose. Twenty-four-hour stool fat, serum vitamin B12, and other serum values were obtained during the study. Animals were sacrificed after 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months, and the small bowel and rectum were examined histologically in a blind manner. Two monkeys who did not undergo surgery, or exposure to radiation served as controls. At all sacrifice periods, the animals with PGA mesh slings demonstrated normal small bowel function and histologic structure. Animals without mesh slings had abnormal stool and blood values at 1 month, and by 2 months all had died of small bowel necrosis. The animals that received the slings had no evidence of infection or obstruction, and by 6 months all evidence of the mesh was gone. Support of the small bowel out of the pelvis by an absorbable PGA mesh sling protects against RASBI and is without apparent complications.

Devereux, D.F.; Thompson, D.; Sandhaus, L.; Sweeney, W.; Haas, A.

1987-02-01

381

National Study of Child Protective Services Systems and Reform Efforts. Review of State CPS Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall goal of the report is to describe the current landscape of child protective services (CPS) across the United States and the future directions or systems improvement efforts underway within this landscape. To accomplish this objective, the Nati...

2003-01-01

382

Family Poverty, School-Based Parental Involvement, and Policy-Focused Protective Factors in Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Multilevel models of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (N = 19,375) revealed that the negative association between family poverty and school-based parental involvement in education varied according to family and school factors targeted by large-scale policy interventions. Specifically, the association was weaker

Cooper, Carey E.

2010-01-01

383

Protection for the U.S. Automobile Industry: A Joint Class Simulation in Trade Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A description of a joint class simulation in trade policy undertaken by an international economics class and a political science class at Davidson College (Pennsylvania) is presented in three sections. Section I describes the structure of the simulation. Students were divided into groups of United States auto manufacturers, the United Auto

Hess, Peter N.; Ortmayer, Louis M.

384

Protecting our life support systems: US federal research and policy on ecosystem services  

EPA Science Inventory

In the United States, a broad range of federal entities are conducting research related to ecosystem services, and government agencies at all levels are increasingly interested in measuring the outcomes of proposed policy options in terms of ecosystem service benefits. However, ...

385

Protecting Brazil's tropical forest: a CGE analysis of macroeconomic, sectoral, and regional policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 'deforestation problem' in Brazil consists of a variety of interrelated issues, of which this paper identifies a regional, sectoral and macroeconomic dimension. Using a regionally and sectorally disaggregated general equilibrium model of Brazil, it is shown that macroeconomic reform is complementary to conservation policies. Therefore, if not for other reasons, macroeconomic reform is urgently needed to provide an adequate

Manfred Wiebelt

1994-01-01

386

Science, policy, and the protection of human health: a European perspective.  

PubMed

Much emphasis is currently given to the question of how available scientific information should be used to inform and support the development of public policy. The interface between the scientific community and policy-makers poses several challenges. In order to overcome the difficulties due to differences of values, language, and purposes, it is important to formulate workable questions and achievable objectives. Effective and ethical use of scientific evidence is desirable, but the complex social and cultural context where decisions are made in modern society must be taken into consideration. A marked trend in European policy-making in environment and health has taken place in the last two decades: besides specific hazardous agents and exposures, the health implications of broad, upstream determinants such as sectoral policies are attracting growing attention. Consequently, essential tools to support rational decision-making, such as risk assessment, need to be supplemented by tools capable of dealing with the additional complexity and uncertainty. Indications and guidance on how to take forward the agenda for action in environment and health in Europe have been made by the series of Ministerial Conferences on Environment and Health, where the 52 Member States of the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization set the priorities and identify common grounds to improve human health and pursue sustainability. PMID:16059917

Martuzzi, Marco

2005-01-01

387

Guidelines for a proposed lightning protection policy of a golf association or tournament sponsor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because lightning causes many deaths and injuries each year on golf courses, guidelines are given for measures to be taken during golf events. Recommendations are given relative to warning systems, shelters, suspension of play, and the distribution of written policy statements.

Hillyer, Charles C.

1991-08-01

388

Collective dose as a performance measure for occupational radiation protection programs: Issues and recommendations  

SciTech Connect

Collective dose is one of the performance measures used at many US Department of Energy (DOE) contractor facilities to quantitatively assess the objectives of the radiation protection program. It can also be used as a management tool to improve the program for keeping worker doses as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Collective dose is used here to mean the sum of all total effective dose equivalent values for all workers in a specified group over a specified time. It is often used as a surrogate estimate of radiological risk. In principle, improvements in radiation protection programs and procedures will result in reduction of collective dose, all other things being equal. Within the DOE, most frequently, a single collective dose number, which may or may not be adjusted for workload and other factors, is used as a performance measure for a contractor. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the use of collective dose as a performance measure for ALARA programs at DOE sites.

Strom, D.J.; Harty, R.; Hickey, E.E.; Martin, J.B.; Peffers, M.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kathren, R.L. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

1998-07-01

389

Optimization of radiation protection for the control of occupational exposure in Ghana.  

PubMed

Investigation of the optimization of protection of occupational exposed workers (OEWs) in Ghana had been carried out on the three practices in the country, namely medical applications, industrial radioisotope applications and research and education from 2002 to 2007. Mean annual effective dose and collective effective dose were estimated from dosimetry records from the Radiation Protection Institute of those occupationally exposed from 2002 to 2007. The mean annual effective dose estimated for about 650 OEWs per year ranged from 0.42 to 0.68 mSv compared with a global value of 0.5 mSv estimated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR 2008 Report). This implies that efforts should still be made to institute as low as reasonably achievable culture in most practices in Ghana even though trend of doses incurred was low. The collective effective dose for this same period estimated ranged from 0.26 to 0.47 man Sv. A reference monetary value of the man sievert was estimated using the human capital approach for each year from 2002 to 2009; it ranged from 172 to 22 US $ per man Sv, which provided a basis for estimating the cost of averting a unit collective effective dose of 1 man Sv. This value could not be used for quantitative optimization since the range of mean annual effective dose estimated was below 1 mSv. PMID:21163897

Gordon, S W; Schandorf, C; Yeboah, J

2010-12-16

390

Ecological solidarity as a conceptual tool for rethinking ecological and social interdependence in conservation policy for protected areas and their surrounding landscape.  

PubMed

Policy for biodiversity conservation must evolve to cope with the increasing human footprint on natural systems. A major issue here is the need for policy for protected areas, which integrates their surrounding landscape and local human populations in the construction of socially grounded measures. To illustrate current conceptual thinking in this direction we present and provide a conceptual basis for a recent initiative in national park policy in France that is based on "ecological solidarity". In the light of other policy ideas and tools that have recently emerged for the co-construction of conservation policy, we argue that this concept provides an imaginative step towards consolidating ecological and social interdependence in biodiversity policy that goes beyond statutory park boundaries. PMID:21640950

Thompson, John D; Mathevet, Raphal; Delano, Olivia; Gil-Fourrier, Chantal; Bonnin, Marie; Cheylan, Marc

2011-04-30

391

The Effects of radiation on the safety and protective efficacy of an attenuated Plasmodium yoelii sporozoite malaria vaccine.  

PubMed

We are developing a radiation attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) malaria vaccine. An important step was to determine the minimum dose of irradiation required to adequately attenuate each sporozoite. This was studied in the Plasmodium yoelii rodent model system. Exposure to 100 Gy completely attenuated P. yoelii sporozoites (PySPZ). Next we demonstrated that immunization of mice intravenously with 3 doses of 750 PySPZ that had received 200 Gy, double the radiation dose required for attenuation, resulted in 100% protection. These results support the contention that a radiation attenuated sporozoite vaccine for malaria will be safe and effective at a range of radiation doses. PMID:19071177

Chattopadhyay, Rana; Conteh, Solomon; Li, Minglin; James, Eric R; Epstein, Judith E; Hoffman, Stephen L

2008-12-09

392

Niacin protects against UVB radiation-induced apoptosis in cultured human skin keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

Niacin and its related derivatives have been shown to have effects on cellular activities. However, the molecular mechanism of its reduced immunosuppressive effects and photoprotective effects remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the photoprotective effect of niacin in ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). We found that niacin effectively suppressed the UV-induced cell death and cell apoptosis of HaCaT cells. Existing data have shown that AKT activation is involved in the cell survival process. Yet, the potential mechanism of niacin in protection against UV-induced skin damage has thus far not fully been eluvidated. We observed that niacin pretreatment enhances UV induced activation of AKT (Ser473 phosphorylation) as well as that of the downstream signal mTOR (S6 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation). The PI3K/AKT inhibitor, LY294002, and the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, largely neutralized the protective effects of niacin, suggesting that AKT and downstream signaling mTOR/S6 activation are necessary for the niacin-induced protective effects against UV-induced cell death and cell apoptosis. Collectively, our data suggest that niacin may be utilized to prevent UV-induced skin damage and provide a novel mechanism of its photoprotective effects against the UV radiation of sunlight by modulating both AKT and downstream mTOR signaling pathways.

LIN, FUQUAN; XU, WEN; GUAN, CUIPING; ZHOU, MIAONI; HONG, WEISONG; FU, LIFANG; LIU, DONGYIN; XU, AIE

2012-01-01

393

Sulforaphane mobilizes cellular defenses that protect skin against damage by UV radiation  

PubMed Central

UV radiation (UVR) is a complete carcinogen that elicits a constellation of pathological events, including direct DNA damage, generation of reactive oxidants that peroxidize lipids and damage other cellular components, initiation of inflammation, and suppression of the immune response. Recent dramatic increases in the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancers are largely attributable to higher exposure of an aging population to UVR. Therefore, the development of cellular strategies for intrinsic protection of the skin against the deleterious effects of UVR is imperative. Here we show that erythema resulting from UVR is a comprehensive and noninvasive biomarker for assessing UVR damage and can be precisely and easily quantified in human skin. Topical application of sulforaphane-rich extracts of 3-day-old broccoli sprouts up-regulated phase 2 enzymes in the mouse and human skin, protected against UVR-induced inflammation and edema in mice, and reduced susceptibility to erythema arising from narrow-band 311-nm UVR in humans. In six human subjects (three males and three females, 2853 years of age), the mean reduction in erythema across six doses of UVR (300800 mJ/cm2 in 100 mJ/cm2 increments) was 37.7% (range 8.3778.1%; P = 0.025). This protection against a carcinogen in humans is catalytic and long lasting.

Talalay, Paul; Fahey, Jed W.; Healy, Zachary R.; Wehage, Scott L.; Benedict, Andrea L.; Min, Christine; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.

2007-01-01

394

[Policy framework for the protection of integrity in research in Brazil].  

PubMed

Beginning with the assumption that the heated tension between research freedom and the protection of human life and integrity has not been overcome, this article discusses the issue of regulatory framework for the protection of research integrity in the Brazilian legal system. Throughout the work, the general aspects and principles that establish the limits between scientific activity and the rights and interests of the subjects of experimental processes are developed, as well as the treatment deserved by certain especially problematic situations derived from the complex cultural composition of Brazilian society. PMID:20476691

de S, Maria de Ftima Freire; Moureira, Diogo Luna

395

Family poverty, school-based parental involvement, and policy-focused protective factors in kindergarten  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilevel models of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (N=19,375) revealed that the negative association between family poverty and school-based parental involvement in education varied according to family and school factors targeted by large-scale policy interventions. Specifically, the association was weaker when parents and teachers had higher levels of educational attainment. In contrast, the association was stronger when

Carey E. Cooper

2010-01-01

396

Space radiation protection: comparison of effective dose to bone marrow dose equivalent.  

PubMed

In many instances, bone marrow dose equivalents averaged over the entire body have been used as a surrogate for whole-body dose equivalents in space radiation protection studies. However, career radiation limits for space missions are expressed as effective doses. This study compares calculations of effective doses to average bone marrow dose equivalents for several large solar particle events (SPEs) and annual galactic cosmic ray (GCR) spectra, in order to examine the suitability of substituting bone marrow dose equivalents for effective doses. Organ dose equivalents are computed for all radiosensitive organs listed in NCRP Report 116 using the BRYNTRN and HZETRN space radiation transport codes and the Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model. These organ dose equivalents are then weighted with the appropriate tissue weighting factors to obtain effective doses. Various thicknesses of aluminum shielding, which are representative of nominal spacecraft and SPE storm shelter configurations, are used in the analyses. For all SPE configurations, the average bone marrow dose equivalent is considerably less than the calculated effective dose. For comparisons of the GCR, there is less than a ten percent difference between the two methods. In all cases, the gonads made up the largest percentage of the effective dose. PMID:12793744

Hoff, Jennifer L; Townsend, Lawrence W; Zapp, E Neal

2002-12-01

397

Traditional agricultural landscapes as protected areas in international law and policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protected area approach to conservation of habitats and species emphasises a natural world shaped without human influence. Despite the debates relating to community conservation, stakeholder involvement in conservation and equitable benefit sharing, progressive approaches to community conservation tend to permit traditional agricultural practises, that support biodiversity preservation, to operate only in land outside core conservation areas. Nevertheless, there are

Stuart R. Harrop

2007-01-01

398

Protection From Exposure to Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke: Policy recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive summary Scientific evidence has firmly established that there is no safe level of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS), a pollutant that causes serious illnesses in adults and children. There is also indisputable evidence that implementing 100% smoke-free environments is the only effective way to protect the population from the harmful effects of exposure to SHS. Moreover, several countries

2007-01-01

399

Protection from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke. Policy recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific evidence has firmly established that there is no safe level of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS), a pollutant that causes serious illnesses in adults and children. There is also indisputable evidence that implementing 100% smoke-free environments is the only effective way to protect the population from the harmful effects of exposure to SHS. Moreover, several countries and hundreds

2007-01-01

400

Protecting Children from Chemical Exposure: Social Work and U.S. Social Welfare Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Defines chemical contamination and reviews data regarding the ubiquity of toxic chemicals. Describes major risk pathways to fetuses and children at different developmental stages and discusses evidence regarding exposure and harm to children from chemical contamination. Reviews the roles for social workers in protecting current and future

Rogge, Mary E.; Combs-Orme, Terri

2003-01-01

401

Private Use, Private Property and Public Policy: Home Recording and Reproduction of Protected Works.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This discussion of the difficulties of protecting copyright for audio and video recordings focuses on the application of the 1976 Copyright Act and the Fair Use principle to educational off-air taping and private home recording. Court cases such as Encyclopedia Britannica Educational Corporation versus Crooks and Universal Studios, et al. versus

Ladd, David

402

Trust and Reputation Policy-Based Mechanisms for Self-protection in Autonomic Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, there is an increasing tendency to migrate the management of communications and information systems onto the Web. This is making many traditional service support models obsolete. In addition, current security mechanisms are not sufficiently robust to protect each management system and\\/or subsystem from web-based intrusions, malware, and hacking attacks. This paper presents research challenges in autonomic management to provide

Martin Serrano; Sven Van Der Meer; John Strassner; Stefano De Paoli; Aphra Kerr; Cristiano Storni

2009-01-01

403

HEW Proposed Policy on the Protection of Human Subjects: Experimentation and the Institutionalized Mentally Disabled  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Underlying bases for federal interest in experimentation on human subjects, including abuses of investigative processes and efforts at regulation, are explored. Focus is on recent HEW rules on the protection of human subjects, which will have a significant impact on many research institutions. (LBH)

Washington University Law Quarterly, 1975

1975-01-01

404

Social Movements as Policy Entrepreneurs: The Family Protection Act and Family Impact Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Both the Family Impact Analysis and the Family Protection Act are perceived by governmental decision makers as pseudo-agenda items; thus, neither issue is being actively or seriously considered. The Family Impact Analysis and the concept of a Family Impact Statement (inspired but not modeled after the environmental impact statement) received an

Boles, Janet K.

405

The SunWise Policy Intervention for School-Based Sun Protection: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Skin cancer is highly preventable, but clearly there is a critical need to focus on better ways to disseminate information about known skin cancer prevention. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) SunWise Program is one channel for reaching children, teachers, and school nurses. In a pilot study designed to increase adoption of

Emmons, Karen M.; Geller, Alan C.; Viswanath, Vish; Rutsch, Linda; Zwirn, Jodie; Gorham, Sue; Puleo, Elaine

2008-01-01

406

Private Use, Private Property and Public Policy: Home Recording and Reproduction of Protected Works.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This discussion of the difficulties of protecting copyright for audio and video recordings focuses on the application of the 1976 Copyright Act and the Fair Use principle to educational off-air taping and private home recording. Court cases such as Encycl...

D. Ladd

1981-01-01

407

The Food Marketing Defense Model: Integrating Psychological Research to Protect Youth and Inform Public Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marketing practices that promote calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods directly to children and adolescents present significant public health risk. Worldwide, calls for government action and industry change to protect young people from the negative effects of food marketing have increased. Current proposals focus on restricting television advertising to children under 12 years old, but current psy- chological models suggest that much moreis

Jennifer L. Harris; Kelly D. Brownell; John A. Bargh

2009-01-01

408

Baseline Survey of Sun Protection Policies and Practices in Primary School Settings in New Zealand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The SunSmart Schools Accreditation Programme (SSAP) was launched as a national programme in October 2005 to help reduce the risk of excessive child exposure to ultraviolet radiation. As part of the need for evaluation, this paper reports the findings of a national survey of a randomly selected sample of approximately 12% of New Zealand primary

Reeder, A. I.; Jopson, J. A.; Gray, A.

2009-01-01

409

Level of compliance with the radiation protection regulation--a survey among Norwegian hospitals and X-ray institutes.  

PubMed

To identify the level of compliance with the new radiation protection regulation among Norwegian health care enterprises (HCEs). Totally, 41 HCEs were authorised to use advanced X-ray equipment for medical purposes during 2005-07. Follow-up inspections with 14 HCEs were carried out during 2007-09. Main topics for the inspections were those requirements identified as most challenging to implement in the authorisation process. Totally, 192 non-conformities with the regulation were revealed during the authorisation process. The inspections revealed that 93 % of the inspected HCEs had non-conformities with the regulation. Most common non-conformities dealt with skills in radiation protection, establishment of local diagnostic reference levels, access to medical physicists and performance of quality control of X-ray equipment. Inspections are an effective tool for implementation of regulation the requirements at the HCEs, thus improving radiation protection awareness. PMID:21743081

Friberg, E G; Widmark, A; Solberg, M; Whni, T

2011-07-09

410

Self-Policing and the Environment: Predicting Self-Disclosure of Clean Air Act Violations Under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Audit Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Self-Policing or Audit Policy waives or reduces penalties when regulated entities voluntarily discover, disclose, and correct environmental violations. This study uses a case-control design to determine if traditional regulatory efforts, organizational factors, and\\/or case characteristics are associated with the odds of disclosing a Clean Air Act violation under the policy. The results suggest that Audit

Paul B. Stretesky; Jackie Gabriel

2005-01-01

411

Radiation-induced versus endogenous DNA damage: possible effect of inducible protective responses in mitigating endogenous damage.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation (IR) causes damage to DNA that is apparently proportional to absorbed dose. The incidence of radiation-induced cancer in humans unequivocally rises with the value of absorbed doses above about 300 mGy, in a seemingly linear fashion. Extrapolation of this linear correlation down to zero-dose constitutes the linear-no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis of radiation-induced cancer incidence. The corresponding dose-risk correlation, however, is questionable at doses lower than 300 mGy. Non-radiation induced DNA damage and, in consequence, oncogenic transformation in non-irradiated cells arises from a variety of sources, mainly from weak endogenous carcinogens such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as from micronutrient deficiencies and environmental toxins. In order to relate the low probability of radiation-induced cancer to the relatively high incidence of non-radiation carcinogenesis, especially at low-dose irradiation, the quantitative and qualitative differences between the DNA damages from non-radiation and radiation sources need to be addressed and put into context of physiological mechanisms of cellular protection. This paper summarizes a co-operative approach by the authors to answer the questions on the quantitative and qualitative DNA damages from non-radiation sources, largely endogenous ROS, and following exposure to low doses of IR. The analysis relies on published data and justified assumptions and considers the physiological capacity of mammalian cells to protect themselves constantly by preventing and repairing DNA damage. Furthermore, damaged cells are susceptible to removal by apoptosis or the immune system. The results suggest that the various forms of non-radiation DNA damage in tissues far outweigh corresponding DNA damage from low-dose radiation exposure at the level of, and well above, background radiation. These data are examined within the context of low-dose radiation induction of cellular signaling that may stimulate cellular protection systems over hours to weeks against accumulation of DNA damage. The particular focus is the hypothesis that these enhanced and persisting protective responses reduce the steady state level of non-radiation DNA damage, thereby reducing deleterious outcomes such as cancer and aging. The emerging model urgently needs rigorous experimental testing, since it suggests, importantly, that the LNT hypothesis is invalid for complex adaptive systems such as mammalian organisms. PMID:12856953

Pollycove, Myron; Feinendegen, Ludwig E

2003-06-01

412

Translating science into policy: using ecosystem thresholds to protect resources in Rocky Mountain National Park.  

PubMed

Concern over impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to ecosystems in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, has prompted the National Park Service, the State of Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, the Environmental Protection Agency, and interested stakeholders to collaborate in the Rocky Mountain National Park Initiative, a process to address these impacts. The development of a nitrogen critical load for park aquatic resources has provided the basis for a deposition goal to achieve resource protection, and parties to the Initiative are now discussing strategies to meet that goal by reducing air pollutant emissions that contribute to nitrogen deposition in the Park. Issues being considered include the types and locations of emissions to be reduced, the timeline for emission reductions, and the impact of emission reductions from programs already in place. These strategies may serve as templates for addressing ecosystem impacts from deposition in other national parks. PMID:17693003

Porter, Ellen; Johnson, Susan

2007-08-13

413

An integrative radiation protection control system based on a CAN bus for the HT-7U tokamak fusion device.  

PubMed

A radiation protection control system has been designed, based on distributed computers and consideration of the features of the radiation source of the HT-7U fusion experimental device, for protecting the workers and the public against neutron and photon radiation, and especially for ensuring that workers cannot unexpectedly enter an area of high radiation level in any case. A multisubsystem (irradiation monitoring subsystem, access control subsystem, safety interlock subsystem and other related facilities) integration concept is proposed for the design. This system has been implemented on the basis of the up-to-date industrial field bus CAN, featuring simplicity and flexibility of installation and maintenance, capability for real-time long distance communication and multi-master protocol. PMID:15296258

Chai, Zhuxin; Huang, Qunying; Wu, Yican; Liu, Xiaoping; Liao, Zhuhua

2004-06-01

414

The Policy Terrain in Protected Area Landscapes: Challenges for Agroforestry in Integrated Landscape Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated ecosystem and landscape approaches to conservation are moving from concept to practice in many parts of the developing\\u000a world. Agroforestry the deliberate management of trees on farms and in agricultural landscapes is emerging as one of the\\u000a most promising approaches to enhance and stabilize rural livelihoods, while reducing pressure on protected areas, enhancing\\u000a habitat for some wild

Rebecca Ashley; Diane Russell; Brent Swallow

2006-01-01

415

Protection by WR-2721 against radiation plus cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II caused injury to colonic epithelium in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was designed to investigate the ability of S-2-(3-aminopropylamino) ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721) to protect mouse colon mucosa against damage produced by combined radiation plus cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (cis-DDP) treatment. Mucosal damage was quantified by using the microcolony assay, which measures the survival of epithelial cells in colon crypts. Radiation doses ranged from 8-24 Gy gamma rays. Cis-DDP at a dose

Hisao Ito; Ritsuko Komaki; Luka Milas

1994-01-01

416

The Protective Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid against Oxidative Damage in Rabbit Conjunctiva and Cornea Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effect of ?-lipoic acid against oxidative damage in rabbit conjunctiva and cornea exposed to ultraviolet radiation. Methods: 20 rabbits weighing 2,500 3,000 g were used, and we divided them into 4 groups with 5 randomly selected rabbits. The rabbits were exposed to 2 J\\/cm2\\/h of ultraviolet A radiation (UVA)

lk Demir; Tamer Demir; Nevin Ilhan

2005-01-01

417

Radiation protection studies for a high-power 160 MeV proton linac  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CERN is presently designing a new chain of accelerators to replace the present Proton Synchrotron (PS) complex: a 160 MeV room-temperature H- linac (Linac4) to replace the present 50 MeV proton linac injector, a 3.5 GeV Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) to replace the 1.4 GeV PS Booster (PSB) and a 50 GeV synchrotron (named PS2) to replace the 26 GeV PS. Linac4 has been funded and the civil engineering work started in October 2008, whilst the SPL is in an advanced stage of design. Beyond injecting into the future 50 GeV PS, the ultimate goal of the SPL is to generate a 4 MW beam for the production of intense neutrino beams. The radiation protection design is driven by the latter requirement. This work summarizes the radiation protection studies conducted for Linac4. FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations, complemented by analytical estimates, were performed to evaluate the propagation of neutrons through the waveguide, ventilation and cable ducts placed along the accelerator, to estimate the radiological impact of the accelerator in its low-energy section, where the access area is located, and to calculate the induced radioactivity in the air and in the components of the accelerator. The latter study is particularly important for maintenance interventions and final disposal of radioactive waste. Two possible layouts for the CCDTL section of the machine were considered in order to evaluate the feasibility, from the radiological standpoint, of replacing electromagnetic quadrupoles with permanent magnet quadrupoles with a high content of cobalt.

Mauro, Egidio; Silari, Marco

2009-07-01

418

Surveillance on interfacility differences in dose-prescription policy of intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans for prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has recently become popular in Japan. Prostate cancer is indisputably one of the main targets of IMRT. However, the current status and interfacility differences in dose-prescription policies for prostate IMRT are unknown. Therefore, a nationwide survey of 43 institutions that had implemented prostate IMRT was conducted by sending a questionnaire regarding the above-mentioned issues. Thirty-three institutions (77%) had responded to the questionnaire by the end of October 2010. A total of 5245 patients with localized prostate cancer had been treated with IMRT by the end of 2009. Regular multileaf collimator-based techniques were the most common beam delivery method. Dose-prescription policies were divided into four major categories: isocenter-based (@isocenter), dose delivered to 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) (D95)-based (D95@PTV), mean dose to the PTV-based (Mean@PTV), and mean dose to the clinical target volume (CTV)-based (@CTV). The mean doses of the CTV and PTV, and the volume of the PTV receiving 95% of the dose (V95) were significantly higher with the D95@PTV policy than with the other prescription policies. Low-dose areas and hot spots were observed within the PTV in plans with @isocenter and @CTV policies. In conclusion, there are currently considerable differences among institutions in Japan regarding target doses for prostate IMRT. The D95@PTV prescription policy resulted in significant dose escalation compared with the other policies. These differences should be taken into consideration when interpreting treatment outcomes and creating multi-institutional protocols in the future.

Mizowaki, Takashi; Hatano, Kazuo; Hiraoka, Masahiro

2012-01-01

419

Universal service order; protective order for non-rural local exchange carriers--FCC. Policy statement.  

PubMed

This protective order for non-rural local exchange carriers (LECs) is intended to facilitate and expedite review of documents containing trade secrets and commercial or financial information submitted by a person or entity that are either privileged or confidential. It reflects the manner in which "Confidential Information," as that term is defined herein, is to be treated in the universal service proceeding to select a mechanism to determine high cost support. The Order is not intended to constitute a resolution of the merits concerning whether any Confidential Information would be released publicly by the Commission upon a proper request. PMID:10182564

1998-08-11

420

Extreme anti-oxidant protection against ionizing radiation in bdelloid rotifers.  

PubMed

Bdelloid rotifers, a class of freshwater invertebrates, are extraordinarily resistant to ionizing radiation (IR). Their radioresistance is not caused by reduced susceptibility to DNA double-strand breakage for IR makes double-strand breaks (DSBs) in bdelloids with essentially the same efficiency as in other species, regardless of radiosensitivity. Instead, we find that the bdelloid Adineta vaga is far more resistant to IR-induced protein carbonylation than is the much more radiosensitive nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In both species, the dose-response for protein carbonylation parallels that for fecundity reduction, manifested as embryonic death. We conclude that the great radioresistance of bdelloid rotifers is a consequence of an unusually effective system of anti-oxidant protection of cellular constituents, including those required for DSB repair, allowing bdelloids to recover and continue reproducing after doses of IR causing hundreds of DSBs per nucleus. Bdelloid rotifers therefore offer an advantageous system for investigation of enhanced anti-oxidant protection and its consequences in animal systems. PMID:22308443

Krisko, Anita; Leroy, Magali; Radman, Miroslav; Meselson, Matthew

2012-01-26

421

Extreme anti-oxidant protection against ionizing radiation in bdelloid rotifers  

PubMed Central

Bdelloid rotifers, a class of freshwater invertebrates, are extraordinarily resistant to ionizing radiation (IR). Their radioresistance is not caused by reduced susceptibility to DNA double-strand breakage for IR makes double-strand breaks (DSBs) in bdelloids with essentially the same efficiency as in other species, regardless of radiosensitivity. Instead, we find that the bdelloid Adineta vaga is far more resistant to IR-induced protein carbonylation than is the much more radiosensitive nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In both species, the doseresponse for protein carbonylation parallels that for fecundity reduction, manifested as embryonic death. We conclude that the great radioresistance of bdelloid rotifers is a consequence of an unusually effective system of anti-oxidant protection of cellular constituents, including those required for DSB repair, allowing bdelloids to recover and continue reproducing after doses of IR causing hundreds of DSBs per nucleus. Bdelloid rotifers therefore offer an advantageous system for investigation of enhanced anti-oxidant protection and its consequences in animal systems.

Krisko, Anita; Leroy, Magali; Radman, Miroslav; Meselson, Matthew

2012-01-01

422

Study of magnetic field expansion using a plasma generator for space radiation active protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many active protecting methods including Electrostatic Fields, Confined Magnetic Field, Unconfined Magnetic Field and Plasma Shielding etc. for defending the high-energy solar particle events (SPE) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) in deep space exploration. The concept of using cold plasma to expand a magnetic field is the best one of all possible methods so far. The magnetic field expansion caused by plasma can improve its protective efficiency of space particles. One kind of plasma generator has been developed and installed into the cylindrical permanent magnet in the eccentric. A plasma stream is produced using a helical-shaped antenna driven by a radio-frequency (RF) power supply of 13.56 MHz, which exits from both sides of the magnet and makes the magnetic field expand on one side. The discharging belts phenomenon is similar to the Earth's radiation belt, but the mechanism has yet to be understood. A magnetic probe is used to measure the magnetic field expansion distributions, and the results indicate that the magnetic field intensity increases under higher increments of the discharge power.

Jia, Xiang-Hong; Jia, Shao-Xia; Xu, Feng; Bai, Yan-Qiang; Wan, Jun; Liu, Hong-Tao; Jiang, Rui; Ma, Hong-Bo; Wang, Shou-Guo

2013-09-01

423

Radiation protection in pediatric interventional cardiology: An IAEA PILOT program in Latin America.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to present a methodology and some initial results for a pilot program on radiation protection (RP) in pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The starting point of the program was a workshop involving several pediatric cardiologists leading this specialty in 11 Latin American countries. The workshop included a pilot RP training course and additional sessions during which the objectives of the program and the methodology to collect and process data on patient and staff radiation doses were discussed. Special attention was dedicated to agree on a common quality control (QC) protocol for the x-ray and imaging systems used in the different catheterization laboratories. The preliminary data showed that only 64% of the cardiologists used their personal dosimeters regularly and that only 36% were aware of their personal dose values. The data on pediatric interventional activity were collected from 10 centers from nine different countries. A total of 2,429 procedures (50% diagnostic and 50% therapeutic) were carried out during 2009 in these centers. Patient dose data were available in only a few centers and were not analyzed on a regular basis in any of the catheterization laboratories involved. Plans were developed for a basic QC protocol of the x-ray systems and construction of a Latin American database on pediatric cardiology with patient and staff dose values with the idea in mind of obtaining distributions of these dose values before promoting several optimization strategies. PMID:21799339

Vano, Eliseo; Ubeda, Carlos; Miranda, Patricia; Leyton, Fernando; Durn, Ariel; Nader, Alejandro

2011-09-01

424

Radiation protection in fixed PET/CT facilities--design and operation  

PubMed Central

We describe the design of a fixed positron emission tomography (PET)/CT facility and the use of a simulated instantaneous dose-rate plot to visually highlight areas of potentially high radiation exposure. We also illustrate the practical implementation of basic radiation protection principles based on the use of distance and shielding and the minimisation of time spent in hot areas. Staff whole body doses for 4 years are presented with results of an optimisation study analysing the dose arising from the different phases within each study using direct reading dosemeters. The total whole body dose for all staff for each patient fell from 9.5 ?Sv in the first full year of operation to 4.8 Sv in 2008. The maximum dose to an individual member of staff per patient decreased over the same period from 3.2 to 0.9 Sv. The optimisation study showed that the highest dose was recorded during the injection phase.

Peet, D J; Morton, R; Hussein, M; Alsafi, K; Spyrou, N

2012-01-01

425

Electronic collimation and radiation protection in paediatric digital radiography: revival of the silver lining.  

PubMed

In digital radiography we are now able to electronically collimate images after acquisition. This may seem convenient in paediatric imaging, but we have to be aware that electronic collimation has two major downsides. Electronic collimation implicates that the original field size should have been smaller and the child has been exposed to unnecessary radiation. Also, by use of electronic collimation, potentially important information may be lost. The "silver lining", denoting the X-ray beam collimation, can serve as a useful radiation protection instrument to check for proper field size and detect unnecessary exposure. Furthermore, the silver lining confirms all exposed anatomy is shown in the final image, and thus may also serve as a quality assurance instrument as the patient has the right to all acquired information. Teaching Points The ability to electronically collimate an image after acquisition may serve to enhance contrast in the region of interest. The ability to electronically collimate an image after acquisition carries the risk of overexposure. The ability to electronically collimate an image after acquisition carries the risk of losing important information. The silver lining can serve as a quality control instrument for proper collimation. The patient has the right to all information obtained during an X-ray examination. PMID:23982805

Bomer, J; Wiersma-Deijl, L; Holscher, H C

2013-08-28

426

Optimization of patient radiation protection in pelvic X-ray examination in Ghana.  

PubMed

Pelvis X-ray examinations inevitably involve exposure of the gonads to ionizing radiation. In line with the principle of keeping doses as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP), accurate patient dose measurement is vital if we are to ascertain that these exposures are fully optimized. The study aimed to provide patient dose estimates for pelvis examination being undertaken at 10 separate hospitals in Ghana in order to provide an initial quantitative indication of each site's typically achievable radiation safety and quality standards. The method employed was adapted from established methods and peer reviewed literature, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) publications on optimization of the radiological protection of patients undergoing radiography, fluoroscopy, and computed tomography examinations in some countries in Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe. Dose measurements were calculated on 323 patients (137 (42%) male, 186 (58%) female, ages, 38.56 yr 9.0; range 20-68). The entrance surface dose (ESD) was determined by an indirect method, using the patient's anatomical data and exposure parameters utilized for the specific examination. The Quality Assurance Dose Database software (QADDs) developed by Integrated Radiological Services Ltd. in Liverpool, UK was used to generate the ESD values. The study identified variations in the technique factors used compared with the recommendations in the European Commission (EC) quality criteria. Eighty percent of the hospitals recorded lower ESD values below IAEA recommended diagnostic reference levels (10 mGy) and 40% of the hospitals exceeded the UK national reference value (4 mGy). However, one hospital consistently recorded higher ESDs than the other hospitals. The variations in the data recorded demonstrate the importance of creating awareness by the radiographic staff on quality assurance and standardization of protocols to ensure satisfactory standards and optimized radiation dose to patients and staff. PMID:22766943

Ofori, Eric K; Antwi, William K; Scutt, Diane N; Ward, Matt

2012-07-05

427

MYRRHA, a Pb-Bi experimental ADS: specific approach to radiation protection aspects.  

PubMed

Since 1998, SCK*CEN, in partnership with IBA s.a. and many European research laboratories, is designing a multipurpose accelerator driven system (ADS) for Research and Development (R&D) applications-MYRRHA-and is conducting an associated R&D support programme. MYRRHA is an ADS under development at Mol in Belgium and is aiming to serve as a basis for the European experimental ADS to provide protons and neutrons for various R&D applications. It consists of a proton accelerator delivering a 350 MeV x 5 mA proton beam to a liquid Pb-Bi spallation target that in turn couples to a Pb-Bi cooled, subcritical fast core. In the first stage, the project focuses mainly on demonstration of the ADS concept, safety research on sub-critical systems and nuclear waste transmutation studies. In a later stage, the device will also be dedicated to research on structural materials, nuclear fuel, liquid metal technology and associated aspects, and on sub-critical reactor physics. Subsequently, it will be used for research on applications such as radioisotope production. A first preliminary conceptual design file of MYRRHA was completed by the end of 2001 and has been reviewed by an International Technical Guidance Committee, which concluded that there are no show stoppers in the project and even though some topics such as the safety studies and the fuel qualification need to be addressed more deeply before concluding it. In this paper, we are reporting on the state-of-the art of the MYRRHA project at the beginning of 2004 and in particular on the radiation shielding assessment and the radiation protection particular aspects through a remote handling operation approach in order to minimise the personnel exposure to radiation. PMID:16604674

Abderrahim, H At; Aoust, Th; Malambu, E; Sobolev, V; Van Tichelen, K; De Bruyn, D; Maes, D; Haeck, W; Van den Eynde, G

2005-01-01

428

Radiation Protection Considerations at USACE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Projects  

SciTech Connect

The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was initially authorized by Congress in 1974. FUSRAP was enacted to address residual radioactive contamination associated with numerous sites across the U.S. at which radioactive material (primarily Uranium ores and related milling products) had been processed in support of the nation's nuclear weapons program dating back to the Manhattan Project and the period immediately following World War II. In October 1997, Congress transferred the management of this program from the Department of Energy to the United States Corp of Engineers. Through this program, the Corps addresses the environmental remediation of certain sites once used by DOE's predecessor agencies, the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. The waste at FUSRAP sites consists mainly of low levels of uranium, thorium and radium, along with some mixed wastes. Upon completion of remedial activities, these sites are transferred to DOE for long-term stewardship activities. This paper presents and contrasts the radiological conditions and recent monitoring results associated with five large ongoing FUSRAP projects including Maywood, N.J.; the Linde site near Buffalo, N.Y.; Colonie in Albany N.Y. and the St Louis, Mo. airport and downtown sites. The radiological characteristics of soil and debris at each site and respective regulatory clean up criteria is presented and contrasted. Some differences are discussed in the radiological characteristics of material at some sites that result in variations in radiation protection monitoring programs. Additionally, summary data for typical personnel radiation exposure monitoring results are presented. In summary: 1. The FUSRAP projects for which data and observations are reported in this paper are considered typical of the radiological nature of FUSRAP sites in general. 2. These sites are characterized by naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides in soil and debris, at concentrations typically < E4 pCi/ gram total activity. 3. Although external exposure rates are generally low resulting in few exposures above background, occasional 'hot spots' are observed in the 1- 10 mR / hr range or higher. However personnel and general area external exposure monitoring programs consistently demonstrate very low potential for external exposure at theses sites. 4. Potential for airborne exposure is controlled by wetting and misting techniques during excavation and movement of materials. Air sampling and bioassay programs confirm low potential for airborne exposure of workers at these sites. 5. Radiation protection and health physics monitoring programs as implemented at these sites ensure that exposures to personal are maintained ALARA. (authors)

Brown, S.H. [CHP, SHB INC., Centennial, Colorado (United States)

2008-07-01

429

Soluble ferric iron as an effective protective agent against UV radiation: Implications for early life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some recent MER Rover Opportunity results on ancient sedimentary rocks from Mars describe sandstones originated from the chemical weathering of olivine basalts by acidic waters [Squyres, S.W., Knoll, A.H., 2005. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 240, 1-10]. The absence of protective components in early Mars atmosphere forced any possible primordial life forms to deal with high doses of UV radiation. A similar situation occurred on the primitive Earth during the development of early life in the Archean [Berkner, L.V., Marshall, L.C., 1965. J. Atmos. Sci. 22 (3), 225-261; Kasting, J.F., 1993. Science 259, 920-926]. It is known that some cellular and/or external components can shield organisms from damaging UV radiation or quench its toxic effects [Olson, J.M., Pierson, B.K., 1986. Photosynth. Res. 9, 251-259; Garca-Pichel, F., 1998. Origins Life Evol. B 28, 321-347; Cockell, C., Rettberg, P., Horneck, G., Scherer, K., Stokes, M.D., 2003. Polar Biol. 26, 62-69]. The effectiveness of iron minerals for UV protection has also been reported [Phoenix, V.R., Konhauser, K.O., Adams, D.G., Bottrell, S.H., 2001. Geology 29 (9), 823-826], but nothing is known about the effect of iron in solution. Here we demonstrate the protective effect of soluble ferric iron against UV radiation on acidophilic photosynthetic microorganisms. These results offer an interesting alternative means of protection for life on the surface of early Mars and Earth, especially in light of the geochemical conditions in which the sedimentary minerals, jarosite and goethite, recently reported by the MER missions, were formed [Squyres, S.W., Arvidson, R.E., Bell III, J.F., Brckner, J., Cabrol, N.A., Calvin, W., Carr, M.H., Christensen, P.R., Clark, B.C., Crumpler, L., Des Marais, D.J., d'Uston, C., Economou, T., Farmer, J., Farrand, W., Folkner, W., Golombek, M., Gorevan, S., Grant, J.A., Greeley, R., Grotzinger, J., Haskin, L., Herkenhoff, K.E., Hviid, S., Johnson, J., Klingelhfer, G., Knoll, A.H., Landis, G., Lemmon, M., Li, R., Madsen, M.B., Malin, M.C., McLennan, S.M., McSween, H.Y., Ming, D.W., Moersch, J., Morris, R.V., Parker, T., Rice Jr., J.W., Richter, L., Rieder, R., Sims, M., Smith, M., Smith, P., Soderblom, L.A., Sullivan, R., Wnke, H., Wdowiak, T., Wolff, M., Yen, A., 2004. Science 306, 1698-1703; Klingelhfer, G., Morris, R.V., Bernhardt, B., Schrder, C., Rodionov, D.S., de Souza Jr., P.A., Yen, A., Gellert, R., Evlanov, E.N., Zubkov, B., Foh, J., Bonnes, U., Kankeleit, E., Gtlich, P., Ming, D.W., Renz, F., Wdowiak, T., Squyres, S.W., Arvidson, R.E., 2004. Science 306, 1740-1745].

Gmez, Felipe; Aguilera, Angeles; Amils, Ricardo

2007-11-01

430

PEELING/FALLING OF PROTECTIVE COVERING CONCRETE AND ITS OPTIMAL INSPECTION POLICY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to maintain and manage infrastructures appropriately under a budget constraint, it is necessary to grasp the processes of deterioration and damage, which are the targets of visual inspection, specify the criteria for risk management, and determine inspection cycle. This study is focused on the peeling/falling of the protective covering concrete of expressway bridge slabs, formulates its process with the Poisson model, and proposes a model that can take into account some effects on peeling/falling. This study proposes a random proportional Poisson model for discussing the heterogeneity of the peeling/falling of concrete of individual slabs. Then, the criteria for risk management regarding peeling/falling are specified, and a method for determining optimal inspection cycle that satisfies the criteria for risk management is proposed. Lastly, the appropriateness of the proposed model is discussed empirically, by applying it to actual expressways.

Kaito, Kiyoyuki; Okizuka, Ryosuke; Ito, Tetsuo; Hashizume, Kenji; Deguchi, Munehiro

431

The use of some nanoemulsions based on aqueous propolis and lycopene extract in the skin's protective mechanisms against UVA radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The use of natural products based on aqueous extract of propolis and lycopene in the skin's protective mechanisms against UVA radiation was evaluated by means of experimental acute inflammation on rat paw edema. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the harmlessness of propolis - lycopene system through evaluation of skin level changes and anti-inflammatory action. The

Monica V Butnariu; Camelia V Giuchici

2011-01-01

432

MEETING REPORT: SRP Annual General Meeting: The Changing Role of the Radiation Protection Professional (Cardiff, 16-17 April 2002)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SRP meeting on The Changing Role of the Radiation Protection Professional (RPP) was held at the National Museum in Cardiff. The aim of the meeting was to examine the role of the RPP and identify future challenges for the profession. The opening address by John Crofts (NRPB) set the scene for the meeting. He presented an interesting review of

W. Jones

2002-01-01

433

Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a

Yong Hum Na; Binquan Zhang; Juying Zhang; Peter F. Caracappa; X. George Xu

2010-01-01

434

TMI2 cleanup experience and the influence of the accident on radiation protection practices in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accident at TMI-2 in March 1979, resulted in severe damage to the reactor core and extensive contamination of the plant. Considerable progress has been made to decontaminate the plant and prepare for defuelling the damaged core. Throughout the cleanup, effective radiation protection programmes have maintained worker exposures far below predicted estimates and below levels typically experienced by operating nuclear

J E Hildebrand

1985-01-01

435

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON RADIATION PROTECTION AND MEASUREMENTS (NCRP) COVERING THE PERIOD 1929-1946  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Committee on Radiation Protection and Measurements was ; established in the United States in 1929, since which time it has provided the ; basic standards and guidance in the field. through the co-operation of many ; organizations this has proven to be an effective program. At the same time ; through interlocking membership between the HCRP and the

L. S. Taylor

1958-01-01

436

COATING BEAUVERIA BASSIANA WITH LIGNIN FOR PROTECTION FROM SOLAR RADIATION AND EFFECTS ON PATHOGENICITY TO LYGUS LINEOLARIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Formulations are being developed for protecting entomopathogenic fungi from solar radiation to improve mycoinsecticide efficacy. Beauveria bassiana (GHA) spores were coated by spray drying with either water-soluble lignin or water-insoluble Ca2+-cross-linked lignin. These coated spores were suspende...

437

Comparison of radiation protection programs at US power reactors, uranium mills, and low-level waste disposal sites  

SciTech Connect

The accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power reactor in March 1979 and subsequent investigations identified serious concerns involving several aspects of radiation protection programs in general. Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories was contracted by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission to characterize and evaluate radiation protection programs at power reactors, uranium mills and commercial low-level waste disposal sites in the United States. These evaluations were termed appraisals because they were structured to facilitate an integrated look at the total radiation protection programs, delve into areas for which explicit regulatory requirements did not exist, and emphasize evaluation of capability and performance rather than compliance with regulations. This paper contains some of the results of 48 power reactor appraisals, 10 uranium mill appraisals and 3 commercial low-level waste disposal site appraisals. The appraisal scope and methodology as well as summary findings and conclusions will be discussed. It was observed from this effort that there is a difference in the adequacy of radiation protection programs as compared between the three types of nuclear facilities. It was observed, based on the risks involved, that the program elements at low-level waste disposal sites and power reactors were substantially better than at the uranium mills. 3 references.

Hadlock, D.E.; Hooker, C.D.; Munson, L.H.

1983-10-01

438

Epidemiological studies and radiation protection: The potential value of a new study at US nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk estimates of fatal cancer constitute the principal component of the health detriment after low doses of ionizing radiation protection recommendations by ICRP and NCRP are based upon them. These risks are presently derived from the Life Span Study of the A bomb survivors in Japan and have recently been supported by a number of relatively imprecise studies of occupational

W SINCLAIR

1994-01-01

439

10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of the Radiation Safety Officer in writing. (f...establish a Radiation Safety Committee to oversee...representative of the nursing service, and a representative...user nor a Radiation Safety Officer. The Committee...of this section in accordance...

2013-01-01

440

Operational Quantities for Use in External Radiation Protection Measurements: An Investigation of Concepts and Principles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The numerical results of individual and area monitoring of external radiations and of monitoring procedures for radiation workers depend not only on the accurate calibration of the radiation measurement instruments but also on the definition of the quanti...

1983-01-01

441

Ccdc94 Protects Cells from Ionizing Radiation by Inhibiting the Expression of p53  

PubMed Central

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent one of the most deleterious forms of DNA damage to a cell. In cancer therapy, induction of cell death by DNA DSBs by ionizing radiation (IR) and certain chemotherapies is thought to mediate the successful elimination of cancer cells. However, cancer cells often evolve to evade the cytotoxicity induced by DNA DSBs, thereby forming the basis for treatment resistance. As such, a better understanding of the DSB DNA damage response (DSBDDR) pathway will facilitate the design of more effective strategies to overcome chemo- and radioresistance. To identify novel mechanisms that protect cells from the cytotoxic effects of DNA DSBs, we performed a forward genetic screen in zebrafish for recessive mutations that enhance the IRinduced apoptotic response. Here, we describe radiosensitizing mutation 7 (rs7), which causes a severe sensitivity of zebrafish embryonic neurons to IRinduced apoptosis and is required for the proper development of the central nervous system. The rs7 mutation disrupts the coding sequence of ccdc94, a highly conserved gene that has no previous links to the DSBDDR pathway. We demonstrate that Ccdc94 is a functional member of the Prp19 complex and that genetic knockdown of core members of this complex causes increased sensitivity to IRinduced apoptosis. We further show that Ccdc94 and the Prp19 complex protect cells from IRinduced apoptosis by repressing the expression of p53 mRNA. In summary, we have identified a new gene regulating a dosage-sensitive response to DNA DSBs during embryonic development. Future studies in human cancer cells will determine whether pharmacological inactivation of CCDC94 reduces the threshold of the cancer cell apoptotic response.

Sorrells, Shelly; Carbonneau, Seth; Harrington, Erik; Chen, Aye T.; Hast, Bridgid; Milash, Brett; Pyati, Ujwal; Major, Michael B.; Zhou, Yi; Zon, Leonard I.; Stewart, Rodney A.; Look, A. Thomas; Jette, Cicely

2012-01-01

442

Hydrogeologic uncertainties and policy implications: The Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1995 Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA (hereafter known as the Act) was passed following complaints from Tucson Water customers receiving treated Central Arizona Project (CAP) water. Consequences of the Act demonstrate the uncertainties and difficulties that arise when the public is asked to vote on a highly technical issue. The recharge requirements of the Act neglect hydrogeological uncertainties because of confusion between "infiltration" and "recharge." Thus, the Act implies that infiltration in stream channels along the Central Wellfield will promote recharge in the Central Wellfield. In fact, permeability differences between channel alluvium and underlying basin-fill deposits may lead to subjacent outflow. Additionally, even if recharge of Colorado River water occurs in the Central Wellfield, groundwater will become gradually salinized. The Act's restrictions on the use of CAP water affect the four regulatory mechanisms in Arizona's 1980 Groundwater Code as they relate to the Tucson Active Management Area: (a) supply augmentation; (b) requirements for groundwater withdrawals and permitting; (c) Management Plan requirements, particularly mandatory conservation and water-quality issues; and (d) the requirement that all new subdivisions use renewable water supplies in lieu of groundwater. Political fallout includes disruption of normal governmental activities because of the demands in implementing the Act. Rsum La loi de 1995 sur la protection des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson (Arizona, tats-Unis) a t promulgue la suite des rclamations des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson aliments en eau traite partir la station centrale d'Arizona (CAP). Les consquences de cette loi montrent les incertitudes et les difficults qui apparaissent lorsque le public est appel voter sur un problme trs technique. Les exigences de la loi en matire de recharge ngligent les incertitudes hydrogologiques du fait de la confusion entre "infiltration" et "recharge". C'est ainsi que la loi laisse entendre que l'infiltration partir des lits de rivires le long du champ captant central favorise la recharge de cette zone. En ralit, les diffrences de permabilit entre les alluvions du lit et les dpts sous-jacents remplissant le bassin peuvent provoquer un coulement sous-jacent. En outre, mme si une recharge par l'eau de la rivire Colorado se produit dans cette zone, la nappe sera progressivement salifie. Les restrictions imposes par la loi quant l'utilisation de l'eau de la station centrale d'Arizona affectent les quatre outils rglementaires du Code des eaux souterraines de l'Arizona de 1980, en ce qu'ils concernent la zone de gestion active de Tucson: (a) l'augmentation de l'approvisionnement (b) les conditions requises pour les prlvements d'eau souterraine et les autorisations; (c) les conditions requises pour le plan de gestion, en particulier la prennit du concessionnaire et les rsultats en matire de qualit de l'eau et (d) la condition que tous les nouveaux districts aient recours des ressources en eau renouvelables la place de l'eau souterraine. Les demandes concernant la mise en oeuvre de la loi ont conduit jusqu' l'arrt des activits normales des instances politiques. Resumen El Acta de Proteccin de los Usuarios de Agua de Tucson, Arizona (EE.UU.) de 1995 (el Acta) se aprob a raz de las quejas de los usuarios de agua de Tucson que reciban agua tratada por el Proyecto de Arizona Central (CAP). Las consecuencias del Acta demuestran las incertidumbres y dificultades que se producen cuando se le pide al pblico que vote sobre temas muy tcnicos. Los requerimientos de recarga del Acta desprecian incertidumbres hidrogeolgicas al confundir entre "infiltracin" y "recarga". As, el Acta dice que la infiltracin en los canales de los arroyos a lo largo del Campo de Produccin Central aumentar la recarga a dicho campo. De hecho, la diferencia de permeabilidad e

Wilson, L. G.; Matlock, W. G.; Jacobs, K. L.

443

Waste disposal and the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection - challenges for radioecology and environmental radiation protection.  

PubMed

The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) represent a change from a process-based to an exposure-based approach, where exposure situations are categorised as planned, emergency, and existing exposure situations. Although the new Recommendations contain further changes based on, inter alia, scientific developments since the publication of the 1990 Recommendations, they overall represent more continuity than change - a notable exception being the direct consideration of environmental protection. The implications of the new Recommendations for radioactive waste management are fairly marginal, as earlier recommendations in this area are still considered valid. This communication provides a brief overview of the current ICRP system for radiological protection as applied to radioactive waste management, as well as an outlook including the possibility of using the developing ICRP system for management of environmental effects as an 'alternative way of reasoning' when building the safety case for a specific waste disposal concept. PMID:19643515

Larsson, Carl-Magnus

2009-07-29

444