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1

Radiation Protection Policy Section 1.8 1.8. Training  

E-print Network

Radiation Protection Policy Section 1.8 1.8. Training 1.8.1.All persons working with ionising radiations within the University of Exeter must receive training in the work they are to undertake. 1.8.2.General radiation protection and safety practice This involves a thorough study of the Local Rules

Mumby, Peter J.

2

Radiation Protection Handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A handbook which sets forth the Kennedy Space Center radiation protection policy is presented. The book also covers administrative direction and guidance on organizational and procedural requirements of the program. Only ionizing radiation is covered.

1972-01-01

3

RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR RADIATION PROTECTION AT TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY................................................................................................................I-1 B. Radiation Protection Program...............................................................................I-3 D. Radiation Safety Management

Zhang, Yuanlin

4

RADIATION PROTECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basis of radiation protection is the limitation of the dose received. ; In specifying permissible levels of irradiation the factors to be considered are ; (1) the source of the radiation, external or internal, (2) exposure to total or ; partial irradiation, and (3) the biological effects involved, somatic or genetic. ; The basic principles of rsdiation protection bassd

1958-01-01

5

Radiation Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation protection is a very important aspect for the application of particle detectors in many different fields, like high energy physics, medicine, materials science, oil and mineral exploration, and arts, to name a few. The knowledge of radiation units, the experience with shielding, and information on biological effects of radiation are vital for scientists handling radioactive sources or operating accelerators or X-ray equipment. This article describes the modern radiation units and their conversions to older units which are still in use in many countries. Typical radiation sources and detectors used in the field of radiation protection are presented. The legal regulations in nearly all countries follow closely the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Tables and diagrams with relevant information on the handling of radiation sources provide useful data for the researcher working in this field.

Grupen, Claus

6

Historical trends in radiation protection, policy and communications: 1964 to the present.  

PubMed

The past 50 y have seen substantial developments in radiation epidemiology, technology, dosimetry, regulations, and protection efforts. During the last five decades, radiation communication has also evolved, growing more sophisticated as communication science and practice have advanced and matured. This talk covers the trends in radiation protection over the past 50 y, illustrated by progress in science and practice of risk communication and changes in societal expectations, and examines challenges that will confront radiation risk communication in the future. PMID:25551509

Locke, Paul A

2015-02-01

7

BEIR-III report and its implications for radiation protection and public health policy  

SciTech Connect

A general background is given of the implications the BEIR-III Report may have on societal decision-making in the regulation of activities concerned with the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific basis for establishing appropriate radiation protection guides are discussed. (ACR)

Fabrikant, J.I.

1980-03-01

8

Radiation Protection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chemotherapy and radiation can be powerful weapons against cancer. But they harm healthy cells as well. Cells of the immune system and G.I. tract are especially vulnerable: instead of repairing the damage, they respond by committing cellular suicide. In contrast, tumor cells have mutations that make them resistant to cell death. Roswell Park Cancer Institute researcher Andrei Gudkov and his colleagues recently harnessed this property to create a new drug.

Science Update (AAAS; )

2008-05-01

9

Commentary: Ethical Issues of Current Health-Protection Policies on Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation  

PubMed Central

The linear no-threshold (LNT) model of ionizing-radiation-induced cancer is based on the assumption that every radiation dose increment constitutes increased cancer risk for humans. The risk is hypothesized to increase linearly as the total dose increases. While this model is the basis for radiation safety regulations, its scientific validity has been questioned and debated for many decades. The recent memorandum of the International Commission on Radiological Protection admits that the LNT-model predictions at low doses are “speculative, unproven, undetectable and ‘phantom’.” Moreover, numerous experimental, ecological, and epidemiological studies show that low doses of sparsely-ionizing or sparsely-ionizing plus highly-ionizing radiation may be beneficial to human health (hormesis/adaptive response). The present LNT-model-based regulations impose excessive costs on the society. For example, the median-cost medical program is 5000 times more cost-efficient in saving lives than controlling radiation emissions. There are also lives lost: e.g., following Fukushima accident, more than 1000 disaster-related yet non-radiogenic premature deaths were officially registered among the population evacuated due to radiation concerns. Additional negative impacts of LNT-model-inspired radiophobia include: refusal of some patients to undergo potentially life-saving medical imaging; discouragement of the study of low-dose radiation therapies; motivation for radiological terrorism and promotion of nuclear proliferation. PMID:24910586

Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzy?ski, Ludwik; Doss, Mohan; Feinendegen, Ludwig E.; Janiak, Marek K.; Miller, Mark L.; Sanders, Charles L.; Scott, Bobby R.; Ulsh, Brant; Vaiserman, Alexander

2014-01-01

10

Commentary: ethical issues of current health-protection policies on low-dose ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

The linear no-threshold (LNT) model of ionizing-radiation-induced cancer is based on the assumption that every radiation dose increment constitutes increased cancer risk for humans. The risk is hypothesized to increase linearly as the total dose increases. While this model is the basis for radiation safety regulations, its scientific validity has been questioned and debated for many decades. The recent memorandum of the International Commission on Radiological Protection admits that the LNT-model predictions at low doses are "speculative, unproven, undetectable and 'phantom'." Moreover, numerous experimental, ecological, and epidemiological studies show that low doses of sparsely-ionizing or sparsely-ionizing plus highly-ionizing radiation may be beneficial to human health (hormesis/adaptive response). The present LNT-model-based regulations impose excessive costs on the society. For example, the median-cost medical program is 5000 times more cost-efficient in saving lives than controlling radiation emissions. There are also lives lost: e.g., following Fukushima accident, more than 1000 disaster-related yet non-radiogenic premature deaths were officially registered among the population evacuated due to radiation concerns. Additional negative impacts of LNT-model-inspired radiophobia include: refusal of some patients to undergo potentially life-saving medical imaging; discouragement of the study of low-dose radiation therapies; motivation for radiological terrorism and promotion of nuclear proliferation. PMID:24910586

Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzy?ski, Ludwik; Doss, Mohan; Feinendegen, Ludwig E; Janiak, Marek K; Miller, Mark L; Sanders, Charles L; Scott, Bobby R; Ulsh, Brant; Vaiserman, Alexander

2014-05-01

11

Radiation protection in space.  

PubMed

Radiation environment, basic concepts of radiation protection, and specific aspects of the space radiation field are reviewed. The discussion of physico-chemical and subcellular radiation effects includes mechanisms of radiation action and cellular consequences. The discussion of radiobiological effects includes unique aspects of HZE particle effects, space flight findings, terrestrial findings, analysis of somatic radiation effects and effects on critical organs, and early and delayed effects. Other topics include the impact of the space flight environment, measurement of radiation exposure, establishing radiation protection limits, limitations in establishing space-based radiation exposure limits, radiation protection measures, and recommendations. PMID:11541474

Reitz, G; Facius, R; Sandler, H

1995-01-01

12

[Basis of radiation protection].  

PubMed

After an introduction, three selected contributions to the 10th Course on Radiation Protection held at the University Hospital of Basel are presented. The principles of radiation protection and new Swiss legislation are discussed as the basis for radiological protection. Ways are proposed of reducing radiation exposure while optimizing the X-ray picture with a minimum dose to patient and personnel. Radiation effects from low doses. From the beginning, life on this planet has been exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources. For about one century additional irradiation has reached us from man-made sources as well. In Switzerland the overall annual radiation exposure from ambient and man-made sources amounts to about 4 mSv. The terrestrial and cosmic radiation and natural radionuclids in the body cause about 1.17 mSv (29%). As much as 1.6 mSv (40%) results from exposure to radon and its progenies, primarily inside homes. Medical applications contribute approximately 1 mSv (26%) to the annual radiation exposure and releases from atomic weapons, nuclear facilities and miscellaneous industrial operations yield less than 0.12 mSv (< 5%) to the annual dose. Observations of detrimental radiation effects from intermediate to high doses are challenged by observations of biopositive adaptive responses and hormesis following low dose exposure. The important question, whether cellular adaptive response or hormesis could cause beneficial effects to the human organism that would outweigh the detrimental effects attributed to low radiation doses, remains to be resolved. Whether radiation exerts a detrimental, inhibitory, modifying or even beneficial effect is likely to result from identical molecular lesions but to depend upon their quantity, localization and time scale of initiation, as well as the specific responsiveness of the cellular systems involved. For matters of radiation protection the bionegative radiation effects are classified as deterministic effects or stochastic effects respectively. The various histopathological reactions of tissues and organs following localized tissue irradiation, and the radiation syndromes following total body irradiation, constitute the deterministic effects. There will be a threshold below which deterministic effects do not appear and spontaneous incidences are not known. For low dose risk considerations deterministic effects are of no significance. Genetic effects and carcinogenesis are said to be stochastic effects. Characteristically the probability of stochastic effects increases with dose but the severity of the effects is independent of the dose. The shape of the dose-response relationship at intermediate to high dose levels is linear-quadratic. For exposure to low doses the response becomes linear, as is to be expected for a linear-quadratic function at low dose. No threshold is assumed for stochastic effects. The estimate of probability of fatal cancer by the ICRP is 4 x 10(-2) per Sv for the working population and 5 x 10(-2) per Sv for the total population. Their estimate of probability of serious hereditary disorders within the first two generations is 1 x 10(-2) per Sv. The highest probability coefficient is attributed to mental retardation following exposure in utero. Within the sensitive period at 8-15 weeks of gestation, a risk probability of 40 x 10(-2) per Sv is assumed but a threshold at 0.1 Sv is not excluded. Conclusions drawn from experiments, clinical observations and epidemiological studies following intermediate to high radiation exposures attribute a mutagenic and carcinogenic competence to all radiation doses. Microdosimetric considerations support this assumption. This conclusion cannot be confirmed experimentally nor by epidemiological studies of populations living under different conditions from natural sources of radiation. Nevertheless, a change in the present restrictive radiation protection policy does not yet appear appropriate. PMID:8711464

Roth, J; Schweizer, P; Gückel, C

1996-06-29

13

Mobile phone health risk policy in Germany: the role of the federal government and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection.  

PubMed

In order to establish a regulatory framework for a given technology important to society, the government must make decisions in the face of existing unknowingness. In the last decade, health risks originating from electromagnetic fields of mobile telecommunication transmitting stations and devices have become a regulation policy issue in Germany. This article investigates the role of the government and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection in regard to policy-making by analysing publications and Federal Parliament reports, hearings and debates. The government and Federal Parliament perceived the research situation in 2001 as insufficient in the absence of hard evidence for health impairment. Against this background, the government struck a compromise with mobile telecommunication network operators, who did not want to integrate stricter limit values for transmission stations as precautionary measures. The network operators' voluntary self-commitment included financing half the budget of the German Mobile Telecommunication Research Programme (2002-2008) under the lead management of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, which concluded that it was not required to change the position taken in 2001. The results of this programme provided the basis to continue the agreement of that year. With regard to health issues and all the other interests involved, this agreement was an acceptable and remarkably stable compromise. PMID:21923562

Schweikardt, Christoph; Gross, Dominik

2012-01-01

14

Radiation Protection in Canada  

PubMed Central

The main emphasis of a provincial radiation protection program is on ionizing radiation produced by machines, although assistance is given to the Federal Radiation Protection Division in its program relating to radioactive substances. The basis for the Saskatchewan program of radiation protection is the Radiological Health Act 1961. An important provision of the Act is annual registration of radiation equipment. The design of the registration form encourages a “do-it-yourself” radiation and electrical safety inspection. Installations are inspected every two years by a radiation health officer. Two hundred and twenty-one deficiencies were found during inspection of 224 items of radiation equipment, the commonest being failure to use personal film badges. Insufficient filtration of the beam, inadequate limitation of the beam, and unnecessary exposure of operators were other common faults. Physicians have a responsibility to weigh the potential advantages against the hazards when requesting radiographic or fluoroscopic procedures. PMID:14282164

Williams, N.

1965-01-01

15

Radiation Protection Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Environmental radiation exposure is here understood to be the exposure to natural or man-made sources of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation due to private\\u000a or professional activities, including radiation exposure incurred by medical examinations and treat­ments. Ultraviolet light\\u000a (UV) will be treated here as the main source of risk for non-ionizing radiation. Radiation protection concepts are the main strategies devised to

D. Harder; V. Klener; W. Atwell; M. Beno; E. W. Breitbart; C. Cremer; R. J. M. Fry; R. Greinert; D.-P. Häder; P. Knuschke; G. Obe; G. Reitz; P. Rettberg; F. Spurny; H. Tanooka; L. Tomášek; B. Volkmer

16

Radiation protection in space  

SciTech Connect

The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space.

Blakely, E.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fry, R.J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-02-01

17

Physics for Radiation Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A practical guide to the basic physics that radiation protection professionals need A much-needed working resource for health physicists and other radiation protection professionals, this volume presents clear, thorough, up-to-date explanations of the basic physics necessary to address real-world problems in radiation protection. Designed for readers with limited as well as basic science backgrounds, Physics for Radiation Protection emphasizes applied concepts and carefully illustrates all topics through examples as well as practice problems. Physics for Radiation Protection draws substantially on current resource data available for health physics use, providing decay schemes and emission energies for approximately 100 of the most common radionuclides encountered by practitioners. Excerpts of the Chart of the Nuclides, activation cross sections, fission yields, fission-product chains, photon attenuation coefficients, and nuclear masses are also provided. Coverage includes: * The atom as an energy system * An overview of the major discoveries in radiation physics * Extensive discussion of radioactivity, including sources and materials * Nuclear interactions and processes of radiation dose * Calculational methods for radiation exposure, dose, and shielding * Nuclear fission and production of activation and fission products * Specialty topics ranging from nuclear criticality and applied statistics to X rays * Extensive and current resource data cross-referenced to standard compendiums * Extensive appendices and more than 400 figures

Martin, James E.

2000-06-01

18

Radiation protection for nurses. Regulations and guidelines  

SciTech Connect

Rules and regulations of federal agencies and state radiation protection programs provide the bases for hospital policy regarding radiation safety for nurses. Nursing administrators should work with the radiation safety officer at their institutions to ensure that radiation exposures to staff nurses will be as low as reasonably achievable and that special consideration will be given to pregnant nurses. Nurses' fears about their exposure to radiation can be greatly reduced through education.

Jankowski, C.B. (Radiation Safety Office, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

1992-02-01

19

Data protection — retention policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A data retention policy is a bit of an enigmatic beast. Everyone knows what it is, and most companies recognize that it is vital to have a policy in place but what should it look like? What should be included in the policy and how much detail is required?

Rowan Middleton; Herbert Smith

2003-01-01

20

Radiation Shielding and Radiological Protection  

E-print Network

Radiation Shielding and Radiological Protection J. Kenneth Shultis Richard E. Faw Department@triad.rr.com Radiation Fields and Sources ................................................ . Radiation Field Variables........................................................... .. Direction and Solid Angle Conventions ......................................... .. Radiation Fluence

Shultis, J. Kenneth

21

Protection from Space Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exposures anticipated for our astronauts in the anticipated Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) will be significantly higher (both annual and carrier) than any other occupational group. In addition, the exposures in deep space result largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little experience. Some evidence exists indicating that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate [1,2]. The purpose of this presentation is to evaluate our current understanding of radiation protection with laboratory and flight experimental data and to discuss recent improvements in interaction models and transport methods.

Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Singleterry, R. C.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; Kim, M. Y.; Badavi, F. F.; Heinbockel, J. H.

2000-01-01

22

COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy COSPAR PLANETARY PROTECTION POLICY (20 October 2002; Amended 24 March 2005)  

E-print Network

COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy COSPAR PLANETARY PROTECTION POLICY (20 October 2002; Amended 24) therefore, COSPAR maintains and promulgates this planetary protection policy for the reference of spacefaring nations, both as an international standard on procedures to avoid organic

23

Impact of the 1980 BEIR-III report on low-level radiation risk assessment, radiation protection guides, and public health policy  

SciTech Connect

The author deals with the scientific basis for establishing appropriate radiation protection guides, and this effect on evaluation of societal activities concerned with the health effects in human populations exposed to low-level radiation. Methodology is discussed for estimating risks of radio-induced cancer and genetically related ill-health in man, the sources of data, the dose-response models used, and the precision ascribed to the process. (PSB)

Fabrikant, J.I.

1981-06-01

24

Radiation Protection in Canada  

PubMed Central

The current status of radiation protection in Canada is discussed in the second of a three-part series and particular emphasis is placed on the role of the Radiation Protection Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare. Administrative and operational control procedures have been developed, involving prior approval of health safeguards in the radioisotope user's facilities and techniques, and systematic monitoring and inspection. Where necessary, a medical follow-up of accidents and excessive radiation exposures is carried out. In 1963 more than 1600 radioisotope licences were issued. Filmmonitoring service was provided to about 15,500 isotope and x-ray workers. Semiautomatic handling procedures have been developed to meet the increasing demand for film-monitoring services. Monitoring and inspection services have been provided for x-ray workers, and a committee has been formed to develop administrative procedures for health and safety control in x-ray work. Committees have also been set up to review the health and safety aspects of the operation of nuclear reactors and particle accelerators. PMID:14146856

Bird, P. M.

1964-01-01

25

Conference on radiation protection standards and regulatory issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This conference presents information on radiation standards development, federal interagency radiation policy coordination, industry radiological protection performance, and radiation injury claims. Other topics include: risk approaches in setting radiation standards, ALARA programs for nuclear power plants, robotic inspection systems in nuclear power plants, and the characterization of the temporary radiation workforce at US nuclear power plants. A pilot project, NEDS,

Humbrecht

1984-01-01

26

Chemical Protection Against Radiation Damage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses potential war time and medical uses for chemical compounds giving protection against radiation damage. Describes compounds known to protect, research aimed at discovering such compounds, and problems of toxicity. (EB)

Campaigne, Ernest

1969-01-01

27

Pregnancy and Radiation Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating oncologist, other team and family members should carefully discuss for the decision of abortion. Important factors must be considered such as the stage and aggressiveness of the tumour, the location of the tumour, the stage of pregnancy, various therapies etc.

Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.

2010-01-01

28

Pregnancy and Radiation Protection  

SciTech Connect

Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating oncologist, other team and family members should carefully discuss for the decision of abortion. Important factors must be considered such as the stage and aggressiveness of the tumour, the location of the tumour, the stage of pregnancy, various therapies etc.

Gerogiannis, J. [Nicosia General Hospital, Nicosia (Cyprus); Stefanoyiannis, A. P. [University General Hospital of Athens 'Attikon', Athens (Greece)

2010-01-21

29

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OXFORD DATA PROTECTION POLICY  

E-print Network

data) of the College who shall in this policy be referred to as the "College Community". This policy1 UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OXFORD DATA PROTECTION POLICY The information and guidelines within this policy are important as this policy aims to ensure all University College Oxford ("the College") members

Henderson, Gideon

30

Policy offers protection from harassment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We face a number of legal and ethical issues in our work as scientists and as AGU members. To uphold the highest ethical standards in our professional activities, the Council has adopted policies on free access to published material, ethics in publishing, and misconduct in science. But what about guidelines to govern the personal behavior that constitutes harassment, sexual or otherwise?For years the AGU headquarters staff has had a policy that offers protection from harassment and rules for dealing with it, but the membership went without one until 1994. That year the Council adopted a policy that extends to the membership as well as to the staff and the vendors they encounter at meetings. The law only requires a policy to prevent harassment in the workplace, but the Council felt that a harassment policy was particularly important for members because the subtle behavior that can constitute harassment is most likely to occur at events that combine work and social interaction, such as the meetings, conferences, and training seminars that AGU members attend.

McNutt, Marcia

31

New Approaches to Radiation Protection  

PubMed Central

Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given prior to radiation exposure. Mitigators can protect against radiation injury when given after exposure but before symptoms appear. Radioprotectors and mitigators can potentially improve the outcomes of radiotherapy for cancer treatment by allowing higher doses of radiation and/or reduced damage to normal tissues. Such compounds can also potentially counteract the effects of accidental exposure to radiation or deliberate exposure (e.g., nuclear reactor meltdown, dirty bomb, or nuclear bomb explosion); hence they are called radiation countermeasures. Here, we will review the general principles of radiation injury and protection and describe selected examples of radioprotectors/mitigators ranging from small-molecules to proteins to cell-based treatments. We will emphasize agents that are in more advanced stages of development. PMID:25653923

Rosen, Eliot M.; Day, Regina; Singh, Vijay K.

2015-01-01

32

Radiation Protection Guidance Hospital Staff  

E-print Network

Page 1 Radiation Protection Guidance For Hospital Staff Prepared for Stanford The privilege to use ionizing radiation at Stanford University, Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Lucile Packard with radioactive materials or radiation devices are responsible for knowing and adhering to applicable requirements

Kay, Mark A.

33

Page 1 of 37 CHILD PROTECTION POLICY  

E-print Network

children H. Guidelines on child abuse, neglect Defining abuse, neglect Guidelines on how to respond to suspected child abuse #12;Page 2 of 37 Signs and symptoms of child abuse I. Standard reporting procedure JPage 1 of 37 CHILD PROTECTION POLICY Introduction Principles informing the child protection policy

O'Mahony, Donal E.

34

Radiation Protection Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... have been contaminated or used for disposal of radioactive material. We also account for the shielding provided by buildings for a person working or living at a site that has been cleaned up. Health Effects This page describes the effects of radiation exposure.

35

Protection against solar ultraviolet radiation.  

PubMed

Interest in protection against solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) among the general public in Australia has been increasing steadily as a result of the 'SunSmart' campaigns run by the various state cancer councils. This increasing awareness is due in part to the requirements for occupational protection of outdoor workers and to provision of UVR protection for the recreational market. Behaviour outdoors can significantly affect exposure to solar UVR and use of items of personal protection can provide a substantial reduction in the UVR dose received. The protective properties of sunscreens, sunglasses, hats and clothing against UVR have been the subject of considerable research for some time, and over the last few years interest has extended to the provision of shade structures and the UVR protection provided by various commonly used materials. These materials include shadecloth, plastics, glass, windscreens and applicable tints. Australia has rigorous standards covering protection and UVR, in particular for sunscreens [Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand, Sunscreen products-evaluation and classification, Report No. AS 2604, Sydney/Wellington, 1993.], sunglasses [Standards Australia, Sunglasses and fashion spectacles-nonprescription types, Report No. AS 1067.1, Sydney, 1990.], protective eyewear [Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand, Eye protectors for industrial applications, Report No. AS/NZS 1337, Sydney/Wellington, 1992.] and shadecloth [Standards Australia, Synthetic shadecloth, Report No. AS 4174, Sydney, 1994.]. Compliance with the sunglass standard became mandatory in 1988 and UVR protection provided by sunglasses has increased substantially since then. In July 1996 a standard on 'sun protective textiles' [Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand, Sun protective clothing-evaluation and classification, Report No. AS/NZS 4399, Sydney, 1996.] incorporating ultraviolet protection factors (UPFs) and a rating scheme with protection categories, was introduced; this was the first of its kind in the world. Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL) UPF swing tags with UVR protection advice from the Australian Cancer Society on the reverse side are used to denote the amount of protection against solar UVR provided by clothing. To date in excess of 5 million ARL swing tags have been issued. Work on the various standards is continuing. The maximum allowed 'sun protection factor' (SPF) limit for sunscreens may be increased to SPF 30 + in the near future, and additions to the sun protective textiles standard are also planned. This paper discusses measurement methods, results, the rationale used in formulating the Australian Standards and the current state of UVR protection in Australia. PMID:9920424

Gies, P H; Roy, C R; Toomey, S; McLennan, A

1998-11-01

36

1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

Not Available

1993-12-31

37

Policy #3011 Identity Theft Protection Program 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

Policy #3011 ­ Identity Theft Protection Program 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY University Policy Policy #3011 IDENTITY THEFT PROTECTION PROGRAM Responsible Oversight Executive: Vice President of this policy is to develop an Identity Theft Prevention Program (hereinafter referred to as "Program

38

Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued radiation protection standards for the potential spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste disposal system in Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These standards are found in Part 197 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 197). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 directed, and gave the authority to, EPA to

2002-01-01

39

Radiation protection in Nuclear Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the emerging critical point in Nuclear Medicine radiation protection are presented. Shielding issues regarding cyclotron installations, as well as safe delivery of radionuclides and management of gaseous effluents are addressed. Manipulation of beta and positron emitting radionuclides is also discussed, with reference to the problem of correct assessment of personal dose to the extremities. In all these

Mario Marengo; S. Orsola-Malpighi

40

IEDWorking Paper 1 Environmental Protection, Energy Policy  

E-print Network

degradation. Mitigating climate change, transforming the energy systems in developing countries and financing should focus on. Furthermore, one can argue that new technologies to increase energy efficiencyIEDWorking Paper 1 April 2007 Environmental Protection, Energy Policy and Poverty Reduction

Fischlin, Andreas

41

Policy Name: Policy on the Personal Information Protection and Electronic  

E-print Network

the Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act of Ontario ("FIPPA"), is unaffected by this Policy of PIPEDA. Other questions of freedom of information and protection of privacy at the University in ensuring compliance by the University with PIPEDA will be provided by the Freedom of Information

Dawson, Jeff W.

42

Operational Radiation Protection in High-Energy Physics Accelerators  

SciTech Connect

An overview of operational radiation protection (RP) policies and practices at high-energy electron and proton accelerators used for physics research is presented. The different radiation fields and hazards typical of these facilities are described, as well as access control and radiation control systems. The implementation of an operational RP programme is illustrated, covering area and personnel classification and monitoring, radiation surveys, radiological environmental protection, management of induced radioactivity, radiological work planning and control, management of radioactive materials and wastes, facility dismantling and decommissioning, instrumentation and training.

Rokni, S.H.; Fasso, A.; Liu, J.C.; /SLAC

2012-04-03

43

Forcing the issue on radiation policy  

SciTech Connect

For those frustrated by an inability to get a fair hearing on evidence that challenges current radiation policy, the recent case of a group of tobacco interests suing the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Federal court on its policy on second-hand smoke has important implications for radiation policy. The issue was only tangentially about tobacco; its main thrust was at EPA`s arbitrary and capricious rule-making process. The EPA is at least as vulnerable to the same charges in the radiation area, particularly with respect to radon. Radiation protection is associated in many people`s minds with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), but other agencies have also been involved. Radon, like second-hand smoke, has been tolerated for generations, and EPA has the burden of proving that it is a public hazard. The law and the unwritten rules of science are quite explicit in defining what must be done to make such a finding. In the case of radon, there is no prior basis for public concern. In fact, the public uses radium spas with radon concentrations up to one million times as high as the EPA permissible limit. In many countries, such spa usage is formally prescribed by physicians and paid for by national health insurance. The health effects, if any, from radon, as from second-hand smoke, are hard to quantify. But, this does not justify--in either case--the EPA`s straying from its published criteria and procedures for testing whether such health effects occur. A Federal court has now demonstrated its willingness to judge and strike down the EPA`s actions regarding second-hand smoke on their own merits, without attempting to be an arbiter of science. The result is a welcome breath of fresh air and an object lesson for those concerned about the mounting costs of treating radon as a major public health hazard.

Rockwell, T. [MPR Associates, Chevy Chase, MD (United States)

1999-09-01

44

[Radiation protection in radiation oncology. Yesterday, today, and tomorrow].  

PubMed

Publications about radiation protection issues are not very frequent in the 100-year-old history of Strahlentherapie und Onkologie. While at the beginning of the last century the problems of radiation protection were determined by the technical development of radiation therapy, the importance of radiation protection measures and knowledge about radiation protection by the persons involved has clearly increased. A new challenge is treating patients according to radiation safety issues to avoid the risk of stochastic late effects, such as radiation-induced secondary tumors. PMID:22907582

Herrmann, Th; Müller, R

2012-11-01

45

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PREGNANCY POLICY FOR RADIATION WORKERS  

E-print Network

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PREGNANCY POLICY FOR RADIATION WORKERS POLICY: Under applicable regulations her pregnancy. A copy of this policy shall be distributed to each department or laboratory at Columbia of the embryo/fetus of a declared pregnant woman and the Columbia University pregnancy policy should be included

Jia, Songtao

46

Science, policy advocacy, and marine protected areas.  

PubMed

Much has been written in recent years regarding whether and to what extent scientists should engage in the policy process, and the focus has been primarily on the issue of advocacy. Despite extensive theoretical discussions, little has been done to study attitudes toward and consequences of such advocacy in particular cases. We assessed attitudes toward science and policy advocacy in the case of marine protected areas (MPAs) on the basis of a survey of delegates at the First International Marine Protected Areas Congress. Delegates were all members of the international marine conservation community and represented academic, government, and nongovernmental organizations. A majority of respondents believed science is objective but only a minority believed that values can be eliminated from science. Respondents showed only partial support of positivist principles of science. Almost all respondents supported scientists being integrated into MPA policy making, whereas half of the respondents agreed that scientists should actively advocate for particular MPA policies. Scientists with a positivist view of science supported a minimal role for scientists in policy, whereas government staff with positivist beliefs supported an advocacy or decision-making role for scientists. Policy-making processes for MPAs need to account for these divergent attitudes toward science and advocacy if science-driven and participatory approaches are to be reconciled. PMID:19016824

Gray, Noella J; Campbell, Lisa M

2009-04-01

47

EPA's Radiation Protection Standards Protecting the Environment from  

E-print Network

, and include provisions to protect groundwater from radioactive contamination. · Uranium Mill Wastes: EPA for disposing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from the nation's nuclear power pEPA's Radiation Protection Standards Protecting the Environment from Radioactive Materials EPA

48

Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program  

SciTech Connect

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

2007-08-09

49

78 FR 59982 - Revisions to Radiation Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...NRC-2012-0268] Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR...that Occupational Radiation Exposures Are As...

2013-09-30

50

10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20...REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation...

2012-01-01

51

10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20...REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation...

2014-01-01

52

10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20...REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation...

2010-01-01

53

10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20...REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation...

2013-01-01

54

10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20...REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation...

2011-01-01

55

Institute of Nuclear Technology & Radiation Protection  

E-print Network

Institute of Nuclear Technology & Radiation Protection annual Report 2010 #12;#12;ANNUAL REPORT.A.Papazoglou DeputyDirector:A.Stubos #12;#12;PREFACE Transferring know how from Nuclear Technology to other areas for the Institute of Nuclear Technology ­ Radiation Protection over the last decades. This is demonstrated

56

Institute of Nuclear Technology & Radiation Protection  

E-print Network

Institute of Nuclear Technology & Radiation Protection annual Report 2009 #12;#12;ANNUAL REPORT story for the Institute of Nuclear Technology ­ Radiation Protection over the last decades and technologically advanced services. Al- though the Nuclear Research Reactor formed the basis of the Institute when

57

Role of the International Radiation Protection Association.  

PubMed

Global concerns over energy supply and climate change have given rise to an increase in uranium prospecting, mining and extraction. The changing world economy is spreading the use of advanced nuclear and radiation-related technologies to many parts of the world, giving rise to global initiatives on nuclear energy and operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The emerging global nuclear safety regime promotes and encourages high standards of radiation safety worldwide. These developments call for increasing capacity and capabilities in radiation protection expertise and continue to present both challenges and opportunities to the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), an association of 46 societies representing 58 countries with an individual membership of approximately 17,000. IRPA's objectives include: (1) assisting the development of competent radiation protection programs; (2) fostering the exchange of scientific and technical information through its international and regional congresses; (3) promoting the scientific and professional recognition of the radiation protection expert; and (4) supporting continuing education programs at each IRPA congress. IRPA has adopted a Code of Ethics and Guiding Principles for the Conduct of Stakeholder Engagement. Recently work began to develop guidance for maintaining and improving current levels of radiation protection and transferring this culture to future radiation protection professionals. These IRPA projects are developed through the Associate Society Forum discussions that are held at each IRPA international and regional congress. Finally, IRPA maintains a close working relationship with various international organizations and is also represented on the Inter-Agency Committee on Radiation Safety. PMID:21399420

Kase, Kenneth R; Metcalf, Phil

2011-01-01

58

Protection and measurement in radiation therapy.  

PubMed

In radiation therapy, unlike most other applications involving radiation, the intention is to deliver high doses of radiation to diseased tissue, constrained by the effects of radiation to healthy tissue. With regard to patient exposure, the radiation protection framework of justification, optimization, and limitation is a direct part of the prescription process of radiation therapy. Staff and public exposures are typically far below occupational maximum permissible exposures. However, a number of other issues arise in radiation therapy that fall into the category of radiation protection. After an historical review, this paper discusses several contemporary and emerging concerns within radiation therapy, including fetal dose, secondary malignancies, and dose to implantable devices, all of which involve accurate dose assessment outside the intended treatment volume. Other concerns include quality and safety, molecularly based disease assessment and treatment, and other novel treatment strategies. The paper ends with a discussion of the interplay between best practices and regulatory oversight. PMID:25551506

Sutlief, Steven G

2015-02-01

59

Vulnerability analysis For evaluating quality of protection of security policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of security policies, specifically access control policies, plays an important part in securing the network by ensuring that policies are correct and consistent. Quality of protection (QoP) of a policy depends on a number of factors. Thus it is desirable to have one unified score based on these factors to judge the quality of the policy and to compare

Muhammad Abedin; Syeda Nessa; Ehab Al-shaer; Latifur Khan

2006-01-01

60

Setting standards for radiation protection: A time for change  

SciTech Connect

In 1950, the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommended that ``certain radiation effects are irreversible and cumulative.`` Furthermore, the ICRP ``strongly recommended that every effort be made to reduce exposures to all types of ionizing radiations to the lowest possible level.`` Then in 1954, the ICRP published its assumption that human response to ionizing radiation was linear with dose, together with the recommendation that exposures be kept as low as practicable. These concepts are still the foundation of radiation protection policy today, even though, as Evans has stated, ``The linear non-threshold (LNT) model was adopted specifically on a basis of mathematical simplicity, not from radio-biological data.... Groups responsible for setting standards for radiation protection should be abreast of new developments and new data as they are published; however, this does not seem to be the case. For example, there have been many reports in scientific, peer-reviewed, and other publications during the last three decades that have shown the LNT model and the policy of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) to be invalid. However, none of these reports has been refuted or even discussed by standard-setting groups. We believe this mandates a change in the standard-setting process.

Patterson, H.W.; Hickman, D.P.

1996-01-01

61

Capturing opportunities and meeting challenges in radiation protection.  

PubMed

This summary of the 2014 Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP) captures the opportunities presented during the Warren K. Sinclair Keynote Address, the Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture, and the six scientific sessions including the subsequent questions and answers. It captures the important issues that emerge in these opportunities and discusses the challenges that they bring to radiation protection. These opportunities arise in the basic sciences; in operational areas such as emerging technologies, preparing for the improbable but possible event, industry and medicine; and in education, communication and policy. The challenges include identifying the most important aspects of radiation protection and measurement, prioritizing them in accordance with the NCRP mission, and gaining support for the activities of the NCRP to address these issues in the fulfillment of its charter. PMID:25551512

Kase, Kenneth R

2015-02-01

62

10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

2011-01-01

63

10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

2012-01-01

64

10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

2011-01-01

65

10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

2013-01-01

66

10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

2013-01-01

67

10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

2012-01-01

68

10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

2012-01-01

69

10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

2010-01-01

70

10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

2010-01-01

71

10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

2014-01-01

72

10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

2014-01-01

73

10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

2013-01-01

74

10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

2010-01-01

75

10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

2014-01-01

76

10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

2011-01-01

77

Radiation protection at synchrotron radiation facilities.  

PubMed

A synchrotron radiation (SR) facility typically consists of an injector, a storage ring, and SR beamlines. The latter two features are unique to SR facilities, when compared to other types of accelerator facilities. The SR facilities have the characteristics of low injection beam power, but high stored beam power. The storage ring is generally above ground with people occupying the experimental floor around a normally thin concrete ring wall. This paper addresses the radiation issues, in particular the shielding design, associated with the storage ring and SR beamlines. Normal and abnormal beam losses for injection and stored beams, as well as typical storage ring operation, are described. Ring shielding design for photons and neutrons from beam losses in the ring is discussed. Radiation safety issues and shielding design for SR beamlines, considering gas bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation, are reviewed. Radiation source terms and the methodologies for shielding calculations are presented. PMID:11843084

Liu, J C; Vylet, V

2001-01-01

78

Protecting the GEO Environment: Policies and Practices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geosynchronous orbital regime has long been recognized as a unique space resource, dictating special measures to ensure its continuing use for future generations. During the past 20 years a variety of national and international policies have been developed to preserve this environment. A review of current practices involving the deployment and disposal of geosynchronous spacecraft, associated upper stages and apogee kick motors, and geosynchronous orbit transfer objects indicates both positive and negative trends. Most spacecraft operators are indeed performing end-of-mission maneuvers, but the boost altitudes normally fall short of policy guidelines. Russia, a major operator in geosynchronous orbit, maneuvers only 1 in 3 spacecraft out of the region, while China has never refired a spacecraft above GEO. The viability of voluntary protection measures for this regime depends upon the responsible actions of the aerospace community as a whole.

Johnson, Nicholas L.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

79

Radiation worker protection by exposure scheduling.  

PubMed

The discovery of the protective adaptive response of cells to a low dose of radiation suggests applications to radiation worker/first responder protection. Its use in cancer radiotherapy has been discussed in a separate publication. This paper describes simple changes in scheduling that can make use of these beneficial adaptive effects for protection. No increase in total exposure is necessary, only a simple change in the timing of radiation exposure. A low dose of radiation at a sufficient dose rate will trigger the adaptive response. This in turn will offer a considerable protection against the damage from a subsequent high dose. A simple scenario is discussed as well as a brief review of the experimental basis of the adaptive response. PMID:22461756

Blankenbecler, Richard

2011-01-01

80

76 FR 4258 - Occupational Radiation Protection; Revision  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...CFR Part 835 Federal buildings and facilities, Nuclear energy, Nuclear materials, Nuclear power plants and reactors, Nuclear safety, Occupational safety and health, Radiation protection, and Reporting and recordkeeping requirements....

2011-01-25

81

76 FR 20489 - Occupational Radiation Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...CFR Part 835 Federal buildings and facilities, Nuclear energy, Nuclear materials, Nuclear power plants and reactors, Nuclear safety, Occupational safety and health, Radiation protection, and Reporting and recordkeeping requirements....

2011-04-13

82

Protective effects in radiation modification of elastomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saturated character of ethylene/octene thermoplastic elastomers demands an application of nonconventional methods of crosslinking connections between chains of molecules. These are organic peroxides, usually in the presence of coagents or an application of ionizing radiation. Several approaches (radiation, peroxide, peroxide/plus radiation and radiation/plus peroxide) were applied in crosslinking of elastomere Engage 8200. Attention was directed to the protection effects by aromatic peroxides and by photo- and thermostabilizers on radiolysis of elastomers. Role of dose of radiation, dose rate of radiation as well as the role of composition of elastomere on the radiation yield of hydrogen and absorbtion of oxygen was investigated. DRS method was used to follow postirradiation degradation. Influence of crosslinking methods on properties of elastomers is described. Results were interpreted from the point of view of protective actions of aromatic compounds.

G?uszewski, Wojciech; Zagórski, Zbigniew P.; Rajkiewicz, Maria

2014-12-01

83

SOI microdosemetry for mixed field radiation protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation protection in mixed neutron\\/gamma fields produced by radiation sources is relevant in many industrial applications such as bore hole logging and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis, security applications and neutron radiography. Online monitoring of the dose equivalent received from a neutron\\/gamma source would permit real time dosemetry in industrial and medical applications. A silicon on insulator (SOI) microdosemeter has

D. A. Prokopovich; M. I. Reinhard; I. M. Cornelius; A. B. Rosenfeld

2008-01-01

84

RADIATION BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS FOR RADIATION PROTECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT The opportunity to write a historical review of the field of radiation biology allows for the viewing of the development and maturity of a field of study, thereby being able to provide the appropriate context for the earlier years of research and its findings. The...

85

Accreditation of ionizing radiation protection programs  

SciTech Connect

There are over one million workers in the United States who have the potential to be exposed to ionizing radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to determine accurately the quantity of radiation to which they may have been exposed. This quantity if measured by personnel dosimeters that are carried by individuals requiring radiation monitoring. Accreditation of the organizations which evaluate this quantity provides official recognition of the competence of these organizations. Accreditation programs in the field of ionizing radiation protection have been in operation for a number of years, and their experience has demonstrated that such programs can help to improve performance.

McDonald, J.C.; Swinth, K.L.; Selby, J.M.

1991-10-01

86

Research priorities for occupational radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

The Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research concludes that the most urgently needed research is that leading to the resolution of the potential effects of low-level ionizing radiation. This is the primary driving force in setting appropriate radiation protection standards and in directing the emphasis of radiation protection efforts. Much has already been done in collecting data that represents a compendium of knowledge that should be fully reviewed and understood. It is imperative that health physics researchers more effectively use that data and apply the findings to enhance understanding of the potential health effects of low-level ionizing radiation and improve the risk estimates upon which current occupational radiation protection procedures and requirements depend. Research must be focused to best serve needs in the immediate years ahead. Only then will we get the most out of what is accomplished. Beyond the above fundamental need, a number of applied research areas also have been identified as national priority issues. If effective governmental focus is achieved on several of the most important national priority issues, important occupational radiation protection research will be enhanced, more effectively coordinated, and more quickly applied to the work environment. Response in the near term will be enhanced and costs will be reduced by: developing microprocessor-aided {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} instruments to simplify the use and processing of radiation data; developing more sensitive, energy-independent, and tissue-equivalent dosimeters to more accurately quantify personnel dose; and developing an improved risk assessment technology base. This can lead to savings of millions of dollars in current efforts needed to ensure personnel safety and to meet new, more stringent occupational guidelines.

Not Available

1994-02-01

87

49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193...Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection. Each LNG container...following exceptions: (a) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated...

2014-10-01

88

49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193...Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection. Each LNG container...following exceptions: (a) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated...

2013-10-01

89

49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193...Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection. Each LNG container...following exceptions: (a) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated...

2010-10-01

90

49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193...Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection. Each LNG container...following exceptions: (a) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated...

2012-10-01

91

49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193...Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection. Each LNG container...following exceptions: (a) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated...

2011-10-01

92

School Sun Protection Policies: Measure Development and Assessments in Two Regions of the United States  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected in 2005-2007 from public school districts that enrolled in a randomized trial evaluating a policy promotion program. METHODS Written policies were collected from 103 of 112 school districts in Colorado and Southern California prior to randomization. We developed methods for selecting policy headings/sections topics likely to contain sun safety policies for students and for assessing the presence, strength, and intent of policies. Trained coders assessed the content of each policy document. RESULTS Overall, 31% of districts had a policy addressing sun safety, most commonly, protective clothing, hats, sunscreen, and education at baseline. More California districts (51.9%) had these policies than Colorado districts (7.8%, p<.001). Policy scores were highest in districts with fewer Caucasian students (b=-0.02, p=.022) in Colorado (b=-0.02, p=.007) but not California (b=0.01, p=.299). CONCLUSION The protocol for assessing sun safety policy in board-approved written policy documents had several advantages over surveys of school officials. Sun protection policies were uncommon and limited in scope in 2005-2007. California has been more active at legislating school policy than Colorado. School district policies remain a largely untapped method for promoting the sun protection of children. PMID:23061553

Buller, David B.; French, Simone A.; Buller, Mary K.; Ashley, Jeff L.

2012-01-01

93

Beyond the social protection paradigm: social policy in Africa's development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract?The experience of sub-Saharan Africa with social development in the period between 1981 and 2005 has been grim, indeed. Over the period, policy focus has turned from a wider vision of social policy to narrow social protection concerns. This is what we refer to as the social protection paradigm (SPP). We offer an assessment of the paradigm. In its place,

Jimi O. Adesina

2011-01-01

94

IMPLEMENTING MARINE PROTECTED AREAS POLICY: LESSONS FROM CANADA AND  

E-print Network

i IMPLEMENTING MARINE PROTECTED AREAS POLICY: LESSONS FROM CANADA AND AUSTRALIA by Jodi Stark B Report No. 369 Jodi Stark, 2004 S I M O N F R A S E R U N I V E R S I T Y Fall, 2004 All rights reserved: Implementing Marine Protected Areas Policy: Lessons From Canada And Australia Report No. 369 Examining

95

Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

Not Available

1991-01-01

96

Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer  

SciTech Connect

The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

1983-03-01

97

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's current radiation protection guidelines date from 1970, when the career limit was set at 400 rem. Today, using the same approach, but with the current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain. Also, there is considerably more information about the radiation environments to be experienced in different missions than previously. Since 1970 women have joined the ranks. For these and other reasons it was necessary to reexamine the radiation protection guidelines. This task was undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75 (NCRP SC 75). Below the magnetosphere the radiation environment varies with altitude and orbit inclination. In outer space missions galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 100 rem (4.0Sv) for a 24 year old female to 400 rem for a 55 year old male compared to the previous single limit of 400 rem (4.0 Sv). The career limit for the lens of the eye was reduced from 600 to 400 rem (6.0 to 4.0 Sv.)

Fry, R. J. M.; Nachtwey, D. S.

1986-01-01

98

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem).

Fry, R. J.; Nachtwey, D. S.

1988-01-01

99

Proposed Amendments to the Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed amendments to its radiation protection standards for the potential spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste disposal system in Yucca Mountain, Nevada on 22 August 2005. The original standards are found in Part 197 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 197). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 directed,

2006-01-01

100

Polymer-composite materials for radiation protection.  

PubMed

Unwanted exposures to high-energy or ionizing radiation can be hazardous to health. Prolonged or accumulated radiation dosage from either particle-emissions such as alpha/beta, proton, electron, neutron emissions, or high-energy electromagnetic waves such as X-rays/? rays, may result in carcinogenesis, cell mutations, organ failure, etc. To avoid occupational hazards from these kinds of exposures, researchers have traditionally used heavy metals or their composites to attenuate the radiation. However, protective gear made of heavy metals are not only cumbersome but also are capable of producing more penetrative secondary radiations which requires additional shielding, increasing the cost and the weight factor. Consequently, significant research efforts have been focused toward designing efficient, lightweight, cost-effective, and flexible shielding materials for protection against radiation encountered in various industries (aerospace, hospitals, and nuclear reactors). In this regard, polymer composites have become attractive candidates for developing materials that can be designed to effectively attenuate photon or particle radiation. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art of polymer composites reinforced with micro/nanomaterials, for their use as radiation shields. PMID:23009182

Nambiar, Shruti; Yeow, John T W

2012-11-01

101

ME 361F Radiation and Radiation Protection Laboratory ABET EC2000 syllabus  

E-print Network

ME 361F­ Radiation and Radiation Protection Laboratory Page 1 ABET EC2000 syllabus ME 361F­ Radiation and Radiation Protection Laboratory Summer 2009 Required or Elective: Elective 2008-2010 Catalog Data: Introduction to the application of radiation and radiation protection instrumentation. Lecture

Ben-Yakar, Adela

102

Special radiation protection aspects of medical accelerators.  

PubMed

Radiation protection aspects relevant to medical accelerators are discussed. An overview is first given of general safety requirements. Next, shielding and labyrinth design are discussed in some detail for the various types of accelerators, devoting more attention to hadron machines as they are far less conventional than electron linear accelerators. Some specific aspects related to patient protection are also addressed. Finally, induced radioactivity in accelerator components and shielding walls is briefly discussed. Three classes of machines are considered: (1) medical electron linacs for 'conventional' radiation therapy, (2) low energy cyclotrons for production of radionuclides mainly for medical diagnostics and (3) medium energy cyclotrons and synchrotrons for advanced radiation therapy with protons or light ion beams (hadron therapy). PMID:11843087

Silari, M

2001-01-01

103

Controversial issues confronting the BEIR III committee: implications for radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the state-of-the-art for conducting risk assessment studies, especially known and unknown factors relative to radioinduced cancer or other diseases, sources of scientific and epidemiological data, dose-response models used, and uncertainties which limit precision of estimation of excess radiation risks. These are related to decision making for radiation protection policy. (PSB)

Fabrikant, J.I.

1981-05-01

104

77 FR 66650 - Proposed Revisions to Radiation Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Proposed Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR...that Occupational Radiation Exposures Are As...

2012-11-06

105

Shielded radiation protection quantities beyond LEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recommended that the quantities used to evaluate health risk to astronauts due to radiation exposure be effective dose and gray-equivalent. The NCRP recommends that effective dose be the limiting quantity for prevention of stochastic effects. Effective dose is a measure of whole body exposure, a weighted average of dose equivalent to a number body tissues for which the NCRP has adopted tissue weighting factors recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). For deterministic effects, the NCRP has recommended that gray-equivalent be used. Gray-equivalent is evaluated for specific critical organs and is the weighted sum of absorbed dose from field components to that organ using the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) number for that field component. RBE numbers recommended by the NCRP are used. The NCRP has provided effective dose limits as well as limits for gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO) for astronauts in low earth orbit (LEO). As yet, no such limits have been defined for astronaut operations beyond LEO. In this study, the radiation protection quantities, effective dose and gray-equivalent to the eyes, skin, and BFO, are calculated for several environments beyond LEO. The lunar surface and Martian environments are included. For each environment, these radiation protection quantities are calculated behind varying amounts of various types of shielding materials. The results are compared to the exposure limits for LEO, since limits have not yet been defined for interplanetary missions. The benefits of using shielding material containing hydrogen and choosing optimal mission times are discussed.

Clowdsley, M. S.; Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M. Y.; Anderson, B. M.; Nealy, J. E.

106

Radiation protection at high energy electron accelerators.  

PubMed

An overview is presented of radiation protection at high energy electron accelerator facilities. By 'high energy' is meant the energy domain beyond a few tens of MeV, where electromagnetic showers are the determining and dominant factor for beam interactions with matter. The basic components of electron accelerators are described and their potential impact on radiation safety. The paper then concentrates on sources of prompt radiation which distinguish these machines from other accelerator facilities and briefly describe other features such as shielding or safety systems as relevant to electron machines. A more comprehensive description of these aspects can be found elsewhere in these proceedings. In addition, general concepts presented in this review are complemented and illustrated by specific examples in the authors' synchrotron radiation work in these proceedings. PMID:11843083

Vylet, V; Liu, J C

2001-01-01

107

Issues in deep space radiation protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exposures in deep space are largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little biological experience. Mounting evidence indicates that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate for GCR ions. The available biological data indicates that aluminum alloy structures may generate inherently unhealthy internal spacecraft environments in the thickness range for space applications. Methods for optimization of spacecraft shielding and the associated role of materials selection are discussed. One material which may prove to be an important radiation protection material is hydrogenated carbon nanofibers. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Tripathi, R. K.; Singleterry, R. C.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Thibeault, S. A.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Schimmerling, W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; Noor, A. K.; Kim, M. Y.; Badavi, F. F.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.

2001-01-01

108

Radiation Protection Using Carbon Nanotube Derivatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BHA and BHT are well-known food preservatives that are excellent radical scavengers. These compounds, attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), could serve as excellent radical traps. The amino-BHT groups can be associated with SWNTs that have carbolyxic acid groups via acid-base association or via covalent association. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection or cellular stress mitigation via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds of SWNTs and their derivatives. It works by reducing the number of free radicals within or nearby a cell, tissue, organ, or living organism. This reduces the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including (but not limited to) cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. These derivatives can show an unusually high scavenging ability, which could prove efficacious in protecting living systems from radical-induced decay. This technique could be used to protect healthy cells in a living biological system from the effects of radiation therapy. It could also be used as a prophylactic or antidote for radiation exposure due to accidental, terrorist, or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons; high-altitude or space travel (where radiation exposure is generally higher than desired); or in any scenario where exposure to radiation is expected or anticipated. This invention s ultimate use will be dependent on the utility in an overall biological system where many levels of toxicity have to be evaluated. This can only be assessed at a later stage. In vitro toxicity will first be assessed, followed by in vivo non-mammalian screening in zebra fish for toxicity and therapeutic efficacy.

Conyers, Jodie L., Jr.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward

2010-01-01

109

Global view on radiation protection in medicine.  

PubMed

When planning good management of ionising radiation in medicine, key factors such as ensuring that health professionals work together and convincing them that radiation protection (RP) represents a substantial part of the quality management system in their clinical practice are of utmost importance. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation has decided that one of the thematic priorities will be medical radiation exposure of patients. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has recently updated the report on RP in medicine and continues to work on focused documents centred on specific areas where advice is needed. The roles of the International Atomic Energy Agency, World Health Organization and the European Commission, in the area of RP in medicine, are described in the present document. The industry, the standardisation organisations as well as many scientific and professional societies are also dedicating significant effort to radiation safety aspects in medicine. Some of the efforts and priorities contemplated in RP in medicine over the coming years are suggested. The best outcome will be accomplished when all the actors, i.e. medical doctors, other health professionals, regulators, health authorities and the industry manage to work together. PMID:21725079

Vano, E

2011-09-01

110

Chemical protection against ionizing radiation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The scientific literature on radiation-protective drugs is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms involved in determining the sensitivity of biological material to ionizing radiation and mechanisms of chemical radioprotection. In Section I, the types of radiation are described and the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems are reviewed. The effects of ionizing radiation are briefly contrasted with the effects of non-ionizing radiation. Section II reviews the contributions of various natural factors which influence the inherent radiosensitivity of biological systems. Inlcuded in the list of these factors are water, oxygen, thiols, vitamins and antioxidants. Brief attention is given to the model describing competition between oxygen and natural radioprotective substances (principally, thiols) in determining the net cellular radiosensitivity. Several theories of the mechanism(s) of action of radioprotective drugs are described in Section III. These mechanisms include the production of hypoxia, detoxication of radiochemical reactive species, stabilization of the radiobiological target and the enhancement of damage repair processes. Section IV describes the current strategies for the treatment of radiation injury. Likely areas in which fruitful research might be performed are described in Section V. 495 references.

Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.; Adamson, L.F.

1984-08-01

111

Radiation protection at nuclear fuel cycle facilities.  

PubMed

Radiation protection methodologies concerning individual monitoring, workplace monitoring and environmental monitoring in nuclear fuel facilities have been developed and applied to facilities in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories (NCL) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) for over 40 y. External exposure to photon, beta ray and neutron and internal exposure to alpha emitter are important issues for radiation protection at these facilities. Monitoring of airborne and surface contamination by alpha and beta/photon emitters at workplace is also essential to avoid internal exposure. A critical accident alarm system developed by JAEA has been proved through application at the facilities for a long time. A centralised area monitoring system is effective for emergency situations. Air and liquid effluents from facilities are monitored by continuous monitors or sampling methods to comply with regulations. Effluent monitoring has been carried out for 40 y to assess the radiological impacts on the public and the environment due to plant operation. PMID:21498413

Endo, Kuniaki; Momose, Takumaro; Furuta, Sadaaki

2011-07-01

112

US NRC discussion of options to revise radiation protection recommendations.  

PubMed

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is continuing the process of engaging stakeholders on issues associated with possible changes to the radiation protection regulations contained in 10 CFR Part 20, and other parts of the NRC regulations, to increase alignment with international recommendations. The Commission is particularly seeking to explore implications, as appropriate and where scientifically justified, of greater alignment with the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission for Radiological Protection. Other information from national and international sources is also being considered. Given that the NRC regulations provide adequate protection, the discussion has been focusing on discerning the benefits and burdens associated with revising the radiation protection regulatory framework. NRC, through three Federal Register Notices, has officially solicited comments on a series of key issues, and has conducted a series of facilitated workshops to encourage feedback from a wide range of stakeholders. The issues include the use of updated scientific methodologies and terminology, the occupational dose limits, and the use of the concepts of constraints in optimisation. NRC staff provided a policy paper with recommendations to the Commission on April 25, 2012 (NRC, 2012). PMID:23089031

Cool, D A

2012-01-01

113

Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program  

SciTech Connect

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

none,

2013-04-30

114

Radiation protection training for diverse general employee populations  

SciTech Connect

Radiation protection training for the general employee at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has undergone a great deal of restructuring in the last two years. The number of personnel totally dedicated to nuclear facilities is less than a fifth of our employees and the percentage of contracted employees who are dedicated radiation workers is much smaller. However, the aging of our facilities and increasing emphasis on environmental control means that everyone needs to understand the basics of radiation protection. In accordance with changing DOE guidelines and internal ORNL policies, greater emphasis has been placed on keeping training focused on current issues, training the total workforce, and requiring some type of testing or feedback mechanism. This report describes efforts to instill respect, but not fear, of radiation in the work environment. Flexible tools are being developed to meet this objective for several diverse general employee populations. Continuing efforts include consideration of computer-based training for retraining, developing additional modules for specialized groups and jobs, and testing/documentation appropriate to each population segment. 6 refs.

Copenhaver, E.D.; Houser, B.S.

1986-01-01

115

Science Goals in Radiation Protection for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation presents major challenges to future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Health risks of concern include cancer, degenerative and performance risks to the central nervous system, heart and lens, and the acute radiation syndromes. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) contain high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, which have been shown to cause qualitatively distinct biological damage compared to terresterial radiation, such as X-rays or gamma-rays, causing risk estimates to be highly uncertain. The biological effects of solar particle events (SPE) are similar to terresterial radiation except for their biological dose-rate modifiers; however the onset and size of SPEs are difficult to predict. The high energies of GCR reduce the effectiveness of shielding, while SPE s can be shielded however the current gap in radiobiological knowledge hinders optimization. Methods used to project risks on Earth must be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting health risks from space radiation, and thus impact mission requirements and costs. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies probabilistic risk assessments and uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts and to mission design. The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in radiation risk projection models. Exploration science goals in radiation protection are centered on ground-based research to achieve the necessary biological knowledge, and in the development of new technologies to improve SPE monitoring and optimize shielding. Radiobiology research is centered on a ground based program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and HZE nuclei at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) located at DoE s Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, NY. We describe recent NSRL results that are closing the knowledge gap in HZE radiobiology and improving exploration risk estimates. Linking probabilistic risk assessment to research goals makes it possible to express risk management objectives in terms of quantitative metrics, which include the number of days in space without exceeding a given risk level within well defined confidence limits, and probabilistic assessments of the effectiveness of design trade spaces such as material type, mass, solar cycle, crew selection criteria, and biological countermeasures. New research in SPE alert and risk assessment, individual radiation sensitivity, and biological countermeasure development are described.

Cucinotta, Francs A.

2008-01-01

116

Orion spacecraft: crew radiation protection strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Project Constellation aims to return humans to the Moon by the year 2020, using a new generation of manned spacecraft. The Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) is the Constellation component inhabited by the crew during the trans-lunar transit and return trip. The ionizing radiation environment is significantly harsher in interplanetary space than in LEO, thus posing an increased risk for detrimental health effects. Minimizing crew radiation exposure on board Orion has been addressed by the prime contractor Lockheed Martin starting as early as the design phase of the vehicle. Radiation analysis of the CEV CAD models containing material and mass density information is used to assess the effective dose incurred by crew members. Ray-tracing is employed to reduce the 3D vehicle geometry and detailed anatomical models to sets of layered shielding configurations. Radiation transport is then modeled using 1-D analytical codes such as HZETRN. Shielding optimization is addressed iteratively, by evaluating the radiation exposure impacts of different protection strategies such as design changes (i.e., material selection), crew repositioning and cabin reconfiguration, and deploying individual shielding.

Gaza, Razvan; Cooper, Tim; Hussein, Hesham; Jarvis, Kandy; Mytyk, Anna; Patel, Chirag; Reddell, Brandon; Shelfer, Tad

117

Radiation Protection for Lunar Mission Scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary analyses of shielding requirements to protect astronauts from the harmful effects of radiation on both short-term and long-term lunar missions have been performed. Shielding needs for both solar particle events (SPEs) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposure are discussed for transit vehicles and surface habitats. This work was performed under the aegis of two NASA initiatives. The first study was an architecture trade study led by Langley Research Center (LaRC) in which a broad range of vehicle types and mission scenarios were compared. The radiation analysis for this study primarily focused on the additional shielding mass required to protect astronauts from the rare occurrence of a large SPE. The second study, led by Johnson Space Center (JSC), involved the design of lunar habitats. Researchers at LaRC were asked to evaluate the changes to mission architecture that would be needed if the surface stay were lengthened from a shorter mission duration of 30 to 90 days to a longer stay of 500 days. Here, the primary radiation concern was GCR exposure. The methods used for these studies as well as the resulting shielding recommendations are discussed. Recommendations are also made for more detailed analyses to minimize shielding mass, once preliminary vehicle and habitat designs have been completed. Here, methodologies are mapped out and available radiation analysis tools are described. Since, as yet, no dosimetric limits have been adopted for missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO), radiation exposures are compared to LEO limits. Uncertainties associated with the LEO career effective dose limits and the effects of lowering these limits on shielding mass are also discussed.

Clowdsley, Martha S.; Nealy, John E.; Wilson, John W.; Anderson, Brooke M.; Anderson, Mark S.; Krizan, Shawn A.

2005-01-01

118

A proposed new policy for planetary protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A critical review of the present policy was conducted with emphasis on its application to future planetary exploration. The probable impact of recent data on the implementation of the present policy was also assessed. The existing policy and its implementation were found to: be excessive for certain missions (e.g., Voyager), neglect the contamination hazard posed by the bulk constituent organics of spacecraft, be ambiguous for certain missions (e.g., Pioneer Venus), and treat all extraterrestrial sample return missions alike. The major features of the proposed policy are planet/mission combinations, a qualitative top level statement, and implementation by exception rather than rule. The concept of planet/mission categories permits the imposition of requirements according to both biological interest in the target planet and the relative contamination hazard of the mission type.

Barengoltz, J. B.; Bergstrom, S. L.; Hobby, G. L.; Stabekis, P. D.

1981-01-01

119

The Seven (Or More) Deadly (Or Not So Deadly) Sins of Radiation Protection  

SciTech Connect

This editorial considers the errors that can occur in the routine practice of radiation protection in the workplace. This work provides a tool and an incentive for radiation protection professionals to mentally examine their radiation protection responsibilities to identify actions they may take to improve their part of the practice of radiation protection for the benefit of humankind. We introduce a rating tool that is patterned after the IAEA International Nuclear Event Scale.?Sins? discussed include ignorance of the radiological situation, failure to integrate safety management, disabling safety interlocks, warning devices, access controls, omission of''reasonable'' from the policy of''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA), extrapolation of risk beyond reason, using radiation exposure as an excuse for terminating an unwanted pregnancy, escalation of safety requirements beyond reason, failure to average a concentration standard, not responding to concerns (of workers, public, patient s, etc.), over-training, and substitution of prescriptive procedures for judgment. Readers are encouraged to look at their radiation protection activities and judge which ones do not make sense from the viewpoint of protecting people against radiation. It is likely that readers will find more than one radiation protection activity that bears scrutiny.

Strom, Daniel J.; Stansbury, Paul S.

2000-06-01

120

Uncertainty Analysis in Space Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation is comprised of high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, protons, and secondary radiation including neutrons. The uncertainties in estimating the health risks from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are a major limitation to the length of space missions, the evaluation of potential risk mitigation approaches, and application of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle. For long duration space missio ns, risks may approach radiation exposure limits, therefore the uncertainties in risk projections become a major safety concern and methodologies used for ground-based works are not deemed to be sufficient. NASA limits astronaut exposures to a 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) and protects against uncertainties in risks projections using an assessment of 95% confidence intervals in the projection model. We discuss NASA s approach to space radiation uncertainty assessments and applications for the International Space Station (ISS) program and design studies of future missions to Mars and other destinations. Several features of NASA s approach will be discussed. Radiation quality descriptions are based on the properties of radiation tracks rather than LET with probability distribution functions (PDF) for uncertainties derived from radiobiology experiments at particle accelerators. The application of age and gender specific models for individual astronauts is described. Because more than 90% of astronauts are never-smokers, an alternative risk calculation for never-smokers is used and will be compared to estimates for an average U.S. population. Because of the high energies of the GCR limits the benefits of shielding and the limited role expected for pharmaceutical countermeasures, uncertainty reduction continues to be the optimal approach to improve radiation safety for space missions.

Cucinotta, Francis A.

2011-01-01

121

76 FR 40777 - Interim Enforcement Policy for Certain Fire Protection Issues  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Interim Enforcement Policy for Certain Fire Protection Issues AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Policy on enforcement discretion for certain fire protection issues to extend the enforcement...that are transitioning to use the National Fire Protection Association Standard...

2011-07-12

122

Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued radiation protection standards for the potential spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste disposal system in Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These standards are found in Part 197 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 197). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 directed, and gave the authority to, EPA to take this action based upon input from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). The final standards were published in the Federal Register (66 FR 32073) on 13 June 2001. The 40 CFR Part 197 standards have four major parts: (1) individual-protection during storage activities; (2) individual-protection following closure of the repository; (3) human-intrusion; and (4) ground-water protection. The storage standard is 150 microsieverts (Sv) annual committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) to any member of the general public. The disposal standards are: (1) 150 Sv annual CEDE for the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) for 10,000 years after disposal; (2) 150 Sv received by the RMEI within 10,000 years after disposal as a result of human intrusion; and (3) the levels of radionuclides in the ground water cannot exceed 40 Sv from beta and gamma emitters, 5 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) of radium-226 and -228, and 15 pCi/L of gross alpha activity. There are also requirements related to the post-10,000-year period, the basis of compliance judgments, and performance assessments. The Agency has published its responses to the comments received, its technical background document, and its economic impact analysis. In addition to printed form, the documents are available on the World Wide Web at http://www.epa.gov/radiation/yucca/index.html.

Clark, R. L.

2002-02-27

123

RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION IN THE 2000s -THEORY AND PRACTICE Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, 13th  

E-print Network

RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION IN THE 2000s - THEORY AND PRACTICE Nordic Society for Radiation Protection of radiologi- cal protection for intervention and as complementary, rather than alternative, to those with the development of society. 1 INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION, Protection of the Public

124

Radiation policy: a decision-making model.  

PubMed

Priority setting in radiation policy is complex because it depends to a large extent on risk perception. It has been shown repeatedly that the public is much more sensitive to potential harmful sequelae of radiation than to those of other environmental pollutants. Thus, cancer risk, particularly at low doses, has become a sociopolitical issue. The principle that radiation causes cancer, is life shortening, and causes an array of other pathologic disorders, is well accepted yet the quantification of sequelae at the lower end point of the dose-response curve is still controversial. The presence of a significant carcinogenic effect at very low doses has strong financial implications. Sociopolitical and economic values play a major role in the interpretation of available data. Thus, the use of nuclear energy is a function of risk/benefit, pressures, available alternatives, and cost. Three case studies--nuclear plant workers, children irradiated for an essentially benign condition, and food safety--are used to illustrate polar policy decisions. PMID:9467089

Modan, B

1997-12-01

125

Trade Policy Reforms and the Structure of Protection in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the current state of the trade policy regime in Vietnam against the backdrop of market-oriented policy reforms undertaken over the past one-and-a-half decades. The core of the paper is an in-depth analysis of the structure of protection, focusing on both incentives for import-competing production and the bias in the incentive structure against export production compared to import-competing

Prema-chandra Athukorala

2006-01-01

126

The reference individual of radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

The 70-kg {open_quotes}standard man{close_quotes} representing a typical Western adult male has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s. In 1949 at the Chalk River conference, health physicists from the U.S., UK, and Canada agreed on the concept of a standard man to facilitate comparison of internal dose estimates. The 70-kg standard man included specifications of the masses of 25 organs and tissues, total body content of 15 elements, total water intake and output, water content of the body, and some anatomical and physiological data for the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. In 1959, in its Publication 2{sup 2} on permissible doses for internal radiation the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) modified standard man. In 1963 the ICRP established a task group to revise and extend the standard man concept. The name was changed later to Reference Man and the task group`s work was published in 1975 as ICRP Publication 23{sup 3}. Publication 23 similar to Publication 2, updates and documents the sources of the data. Data on women, children, and fetuses were also collected, where available, but these data were limited primarily to anatomical data and only a few reference values were established for these groups. Information assembled during the course of the effort on the Reference Man report was used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to construct a mathematical representation of the body (a phantom) that was suitable for use with Monte Carlo methods in the calculation of organ doses. That effort was undertaken to improve estimates of dose from photon-emitting radionuclides residing within organs, so-called internal emitters. The phantom, although updated throughout the years, remains today as the basis for organ dose estimates in nuclear medicine and radiation protection and underlies the radiation risk data derived from the epidemiologic studies of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Eckerman, K.F.; Cristy, M.

1995-12-31

127

RADIATION SAFETY COMMITTEE The Radiation Safety Committee shall advise the Provost on all policy matters relating to radiation safety;  

E-print Network

RADIATION SAFETY COMMITTEE Functions The Radiation Safety Committee shall advise the Provost on all policy matters relating to radiation safety; formulate campus radiation safety policies in compliance the Risk Manager) monitor the performance of the Radiation Safety Officer as it relates to implementation

Sze, Lawrence

128

Safety Policy Arrangement 54-2011 Ionising Radiation Management Policy Statement  

E-print Network

Safety Policy Arrangement 54-2011 Ionising Radiation Management Policy Statement The University of Dundee is committed to ensuring risks from sources of ionising radiation are managed effectively. Arrangements All work involving sources of ionising radiation will be carried out in accordance

Davidson, Fordyce A.

129

Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: Composition of Accelerator Radiation Fields; Shielding of Electrons and Photons at Accelerators; Shielding of Hadrons at Accelerators; Low Energy Prompt Radiation Phenomena; Induced Radioactivity at Accelerators; Topics in Radiation Protection Instrumentation at Accelerators; and Accelerator Radiation Protection Program Elements.

Cossairt, J.D.

1993-11-01

130

Space Weather Status for Exploration Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during an exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and in free space, for example, may differ by orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for the ability to conduct exploration operations. We present a current status of developing operational concepts for manned exploration and expectations for asset viability and available predictive and characterization toolsets.

Fry, Dan J.; Lee, Kerry; Zapp, Neal; Barzilla, Janet; Dunegan, Audrey; Johnson, Steve; Stoffle, Nicholas

2011-01-01

131

Revised planetary protection policy for solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to control contamination of planets by terrestrial microorganisms and organic constituents, U.S. planetary missions have been governed by a planetary protection (or planetary quarantine) policy which has changed little since 1972. This policy has recently been reviewed in light of new information obtained from planetary exploration during the past decade and because of changes to, or uncertainties in, some parameters used in the existing quantitative approach. On the basis of this analysis, a revised planetary protection policy with the following key features is proposed: deemphasizing the use of mathematical models and quantitative analyses; establishing requirements for target planet/mission type (i.e., Orbiter, Lander, etc.) combinations; considering sample return missions a separate category; simplifying documentation; and imposing implementing procedures (i.e., trajectory biasing, cleanroom assembly, spacecraft sterilization, etc.) by exception, i.e., only if the planet/mission combination warrants such controls.

Devincenzi, D. L.; Stabekis, P. D.

1984-01-01

132

Environmental Policy Beliefs of Stakeholders in Protected Area Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices.

Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

2007-04-01

133

Environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management.  

PubMed

Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices. PMID:17265109

Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

2007-04-01

134

Overview of the 2008 COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In January 2008 the COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection held a Policy Workshop in Mont?al, Canada to consider a number of recommendations that had been suggested at prior e Panel business meetings for updating and clarifying the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy that had been adopted at the World Space Congress in 2002. One particular element of the Policy that was due for clarification was the definition of "Special Regions" on Mars, which was discussed by the Panel at a Special Regions Colloquium in Rome in September 2008, and which was recommended for updating by both the US National Research Council's Committee on Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars and by a Special Regions Science Analysis Group organized by NASA under its Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group in 2006. In other business, the Workshop also discussed and adopted wording to reflect the planetary protection considerations associated with future human missions to Mars (subsequent to several NASA and ESA workshops defining those), and addressed the planetary protection categorizations of both Venus and the Earth's Moon. The Workshop also defined a plan to move forward on the categorization of Outer Planet Satellites (to be done in conjunction with SC's B and F), and revised certain portions of the wording of the 1983 version of the COSPAR policy statement, emphasized full participation by all national members in planetary protection decisions and the need to study the ethical considerations of space exploration, and provided for a traceable version of the policy to be assembled and maintained by the Panel. This talk will review the Mont?al Workshop, and use its themes to introduce the remaining speakers in the session. e

Rummel, John

135

Radiation safety standards and their application: international policies and current issues.  

PubMed

This paper briefly describes the current policies of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation and the International Commission on Radiological Protection and how these policies are converted into international radiation safety standards by the International Atomic Energy Agency, which is the only global organization-within the United Nations family of international agencies-with a statutory mandate not only to establish such standards but also to provide for their application. It also summarizes the current status of the established corpus of such international standards, and of it foreseeable evolution, as well as of legally binding undertakings by countries around the world that are linked to these standards. Moreover, this paper also reviews some major current global issues related to the application of international standards, including the following: strengthening of national infrastructures for radiation safety, including technical cooperation programs for assisting developing countries; occupational radiation safety challenges, including the protection of pregnant workers and their unborn children, dealing with working environments with high natural radiation levels, and occupational attributability of health effects (probability of occupational causation); restricting discharges of radioactive substances into the environment: reviewing current international policies vis-a-vis the growing concern on the radiation protection of the "environment;" radiological protection of patients undergoing radiodiagnostic and radiotherapeutic procedures: the current International Action Plan; safety and security of radiation sources: post-11 September developments; preparedness and response to radiation emergencies: enhancing the international network; safe transport of radioactive materials: new apprehensions; safety of radioactive waste management: concerns and connections with radiation protection; and radioactive residues remaining after the termination of activities: radiation protection response to the forthcoming wave of decommissioning of installations with radioactive materials. The ultimate aim of this paper is to encourage information exchange, cooperation, and collaboration within the radiation protection professional community. In particular, the paper tries to facilitate consolidation of the growing international regime on radiation safety, including the expansion of legally binding undertakings by countries, the strengthening of the current corpus of international radiation safety standards, and the development of international provisions for ensuring the proper worldwide application of these standards, such as a system of international appraisals by peer review. PMID:15303062

González, Abel J

2004-09-01

136

48 CFR 252.225-7043 - Antiterrorism/force protection policy for defense contractors outside the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Antiterrorism/force protection policy for defense contractors...Clauses 252.225-7043 Antiterrorism/force protection policy for defense contractors...the following clause: Antiterrorism/Force Protection Policy for Defense...

2010-10-01

137

48 CFR 252.225-7043 - Antiterrorism/force protection policy for defense contractors outside the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Antiterrorism/force protection policy for defense contractors outside...Antiterrorism/force protection policy for defense contractors outside...Antiterrorism/Force Protection Policy for Defense Contractors Outside...requirements of the Embassy of their nationality; (3) Provide,...

2012-10-01

138

48 CFR 252.225-7043 - Antiterrorism/force protection policy for defense contractors outside the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Antiterrorism/force protection policy for defense contractors outside...Antiterrorism/force protection policy for defense contractors outside...Antiterrorism/Force Protection Policy for Defense Contractors Outside...requirements of the Embassy of their nationality; (3) Provide,...

2014-10-01

139

48 CFR 252.225-7043 - Antiterrorism/force protection policy for defense contractors outside the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Antiterrorism/force protection policy for defense contractors outside...Antiterrorism/force protection policy for defense contractors outside...Antiterrorism/Force Protection Policy for Defense Contractors Outside...requirements of the Embassy of their nationality; (3) Provide,...

2013-10-01

140

48 CFR 252.225-7043 - Antiterrorism/force protection policy for defense contractors outside the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Antiterrorism/force protection policy for defense contractors outside...Antiterrorism/force protection policy for defense contractors outside...Antiterrorism/Force Protection Policy for Defense Contractors Outside...requirements of the Embassy of their nationality; (3) Provide,...

2011-10-01

141

78 FR 5813 - 2013 Assuring Radiation Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...adequacy of State radiation control programs; overseeing radiation laboratory capabilities; (3) controlling residual radioactivity levels from decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities; (4) determining the propriety of delegating...

2013-01-28

142

Solar access protection, energy policy and the zoning process  

SciTech Connect

It is suggested that existing zoning structures can be easily adapted to the role of solar access protection. The modification of conventional zoning, accomplished with newer land-use concepts, such as transferable development rights, will help to overcome its inherent weaknesses of lack of flexibility and potential inequity. When state and federal energy policies are considered in their proper perspective by zoning agencies, existing zoning structures can be implemented in a way that avoids any barriers to solar collector installations. In this way, the zoning process will be an extremely valuable aid to the encouragement, promotion, and protection of solar power installations, contributing directly toward the conservation of energy resources

Hirsen, J.

1980-01-01

143

Prevent Eye Damage - Protect Yourself from UV Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most Americans understand the link between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and skin cancer. Many are less aware of the connection between UV radiation andeye damage. With increased levels of UV radiation reaching the Earths surface,largely due to stratospheric ozone layer depletion, it is important to take thenecessary precautions to protect your eyes.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (; )

2008-04-25

144

Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 97, No. 1, pp. 6973 (2001)  

E-print Network

69 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 97, No. 1, pp. 69­73 (2001) Nuclear Technology Publishing BIOMARKERS SPECIFIC TO DENSELY-IONISING (HIGH LET) RADIATIONS D. J. Brenner, N. Okladnikova, P. Hande, L -- There have been several suggestions of biomarkers that are specific to high LET radiation. Such a biomarker

Brenner, David Jonathan

145

Wild Horse Protection Policies: Environmental and Animal Ethics in Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild horse protection policies in the United States and the Netherlands reflect ethical claims and scientific arguments, often cast as opposing positions favoring the integrity of self-sustaining ecosystems versus the welfare of individual animals. Neither holistic eco-centric, nor individualistic bio-centric ethical claims provide guidance to public sector practitioners who care for wild horses removed from U.S. public rangelands and living

Christine M. Reed

2008-01-01

146

A review of the history of U.S. radiation protection regulations, recommendations, and standards.  

PubMed

Shortly after the discovery of x rays by Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen in 1895, and the isolation of the element radium by Pierre and Marie Curie three years later, the fascination with and potential for an array of uses of ionizing radiation in medicine, science, and technology was born. As with any new technology, there was a need to balance both the beneficial and potential detrimental effects of uses of these new technologies for the advancement of humankind. In the early days, radiation hazards were not well understood. Over the decades increasing concerns in the scientific community and lay population demanded that standardized guidance and recommendations be developed for the use of ionizing radiation. Today, U.S. radiation protection standards and recommendations to protect the occupational worker, members of the general public, and the environment are numerous and complex. This review summarizes the history of the development and application of radiation protection standards and regulations to assure the safe use of radiation and radioactive materials. The evolution and roles of international and national scientific recommending and regulatory organizations that shape U.S. radiation protection policy are described and discussed. PMID:15650586

Jones, Cynthia Gillian

2005-02-01

147

10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. 35.24 Section...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of §...

2013-01-01

148

48 CFR 952.223-72 - Radiation protection and nuclear criticality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiation protection and nuclear criticality...Provisions and Clauses 952.223-72 Radiation protection and nuclear criticality...section 274 of the Atomic Energy Act): Radiation Protection and Nuclear...

2010-10-01

149

10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

2012-01-01

150

10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. 35.24 Section...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of §...

2014-01-01

151

48 CFR 952.223-72 - Radiation protection and nuclear criticality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radiation protection and nuclear criticality...Provisions and Clauses 952.223-72 Radiation protection and nuclear criticality...section 274 of the Atomic Energy Act): Radiation Protection and Nuclear...

2013-10-01

152

10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. 35.24 Section...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of §...

2010-01-01

153

42 CFR 37.43 - Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment...Examinations § 37.43 Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment...recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements in NCRP...

2010-10-01

154

10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

2014-01-01

155

48 CFR 952.223-72 - Radiation protection and nuclear criticality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radiation protection and nuclear criticality...Provisions and Clauses 952.223-72 Radiation protection and nuclear criticality...section 274 of the Atomic Energy Act): Radiation Protection and Nuclear...

2014-10-01

156

10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

2010-01-01

157

42 CFR 37.43 - Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment...Examinations § 37.43 Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment...recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements in NCRP...

2012-10-01

158

78 FR 19148 - Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and Licensing Conditions for Dry Storage...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...72 [NRC-2013-0051] Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and Licensing...SFST-ISG-26A), Revision 0, ``Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and Licensing...staff when reviewing the shielding and radiation protection portions of applications...

2013-03-29

159

10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

2011-01-01

160

48 CFR 952.223-72 - Radiation protection and nuclear criticality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radiation protection and nuclear criticality...Provisions and Clauses 952.223-72 Radiation protection and nuclear criticality...section 274 of the Atomic Energy Act): Radiation Protection and Nuclear...

2011-10-01

161

10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. 35.24 Section...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of §...

2011-01-01

162

10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. 35.24 Section...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of §...

2012-01-01

163

48 CFR 952.223-72 - Radiation protection and nuclear criticality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radiation protection and nuclear criticality...Provisions and Clauses 952.223-72 Radiation protection and nuclear criticality...section 274 of the Atomic Energy Act): Radiation Protection and Nuclear...

2012-10-01

164

10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

2013-01-01

165

42 CFR 37.43 - Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment...Examinations § 37.43 Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment...recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements in NCRP...

2011-10-01

166

The impact of the Chernobyl accident on radiation protection.  

PubMed

The science of radiation protection is a fundamental outgrowth of peaceful and military applications of ionizing radiation and the use of nuclear energy. Scientific progress in radiation protection has not, however, been as dramatic as progress in other scientific endeavors, because many users of ionizing radiation have perceived that the major technical and institutional problems have already been solved. This misperception is not based on solid fact and is not shared by radiation protection professionals, who have a broader vision of both past achievements and problems remaining in this area. Experience gained as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident has highlighted new problems and demonstrated the urgency of finding better answers to some old questions. This paper addresses the future impact of the recent Chernobyl accident on the science of radiation protection. In summary, the accident demonstrated that particular emphasis should be directed toward: Improvement of dosimetric and health-effects models for predicting the consequences of exposure of the public to low doses of ionizing radiation. Development of optimized, realistic countermeasures and improvement in emergency preparedness. Education of the public, including students, scientists and politicians with regard to radiation protection issues. Development of advanced computer programs and radiation instruments for evaluating reactor accidents and their consequences. Transfer of learned concepts, methods and approaches to other scientific fields, such as environmental sciences, toxicology, pharmacology, etc. PMID:3410679

Paretzke, H G

1988-08-01

167

Impact of the Chernobyl accident on radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

The science of radiation protection is a fundamental outgrowth of peaceful and military applications of ionizing radiation and the use of nuclear energy. Scientific progress in radiation protection has not, however, been as dramatic as progress in other scientific endeavors, because many users of ionizing radiation have perceived that the major technical and institutional problems have already been solved. This misperception is not based on solid fact and is not shared by radiation protection professionals, who have a broader vision of both past achievements and problems remaining in this area. Experience gained as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident has highlighted new problems and demonstrated the urgency of finding better answers to some old questions. This paper addresses the future impact of the recent Chernobyl accident on the science of radiation protection. In summary, the accident demonstrated that particular emphasis should be directed toward: Improvement of dosimetric and health-effects models for predicting the consequences of exposure of the public to low doses of ionizing radiation. Development of optimized, realistic countermeasures and improvement in emergency preparedness. Education of the public, including students, scientists and politicians with regard to radiation protection issues. Development of advanced computer programs and radiation instruments for evaluating reactor accidents and their consequences. Transfer of learned concepts, methods and approaches to other scientific fields, such as environmental sciences, toxicology, pharmacology, etc.

Paretzke, H.G.

1988-08-01

168

Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection  

SciTech Connect

In the first chapter, terminology, physical and radiological quantities, and units of measurement used to describe the properties of accelerator radiation fields are reviewed. The general considerations of primary radiation fields pertinent to accelerators are discussed. The primary radiation fields produced by electron beams are described qualitatively and quantitatively. In the same manner the primary radiation fields produced by proton and ion beams are described. Subsequent chapters describe: shielding of electrons and photons at accelerators; shielding of proton and ion accelerators; low energy prompt radiation phenomena; induced radioactivity at accelerators; topics in radiation protection instrumentation at accelerators; and accelerator radiation protection program elements.

Cossairt, J.D.

1996-10-01

169

Discourse and policy making on consumer protection in the areas of mobile telecommunication and tanning.  

PubMed

Perceived health risks from electromagnetic fields in mobile telecommunication and from UV radiation in tanning have become regulation issues in Germany during the last decade. Health risk messages from government expert bodies and the main stakeholders in these areas as well as subsequent consumer protection policy making are investigated. Publications and websites of government expert bodies and the main stakeholders as well as debates in Federal Parliament were analysed to compare argumentation patterns and parliamentary decision-making processes. In both areas, the public received competing health risk messages from the industries and their critics. As a government expert body, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) held the view that alleged health risks from electromagnetic telecommunication were not proven, and propagated the precautionary principle. This opinion did not endanger the agreement of 2001 between the government and mobile telecommunication operators. After the failure to obtain voluntary commitment from the tanning industry, by contrast, the BfS recommended stricter consumer protection legislation, which was subsequently implemented. The BfS was in a key position to demand the prerogative of interpretation concerning mutually excluding health risk messages and to provide the argumentation which led the way to non-ionic radiation health protection measures. PMID:23763237

Schweikardt, Christoph; Rosentreter, Michael; Gross, Dominik

2012-01-01

170

Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

Radiological Control Managers' Council

2008-06-01

171

RADIATION CONTROL GUIDE rev 12/99 1-1 RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAM  

E-print Network

RADIATION CONTROL GUIDE rev 12/99 1-1 CHAPTER 1 RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAM I. INTRODUCTION In view of increased utilization of ionizing and nonionizing radiation at the University of Florida, a university-wide radiation control program was established in September, l960. The primary responsibilities

Wu, Dapeng Oliver

172

Radiobiology and gray science: flaws in landmark new radiation protections.  

PubMed

The International Commission on Radiological Protection--whose regularly updated recommendations are routinely adopted as law throughout the globe--recently issued the first-ever ICRP protections for the environment. These draft 2005 proposals are significant both because they offer the commission's first radiation protections for any non-human parts of the planet and because they will influence both the quality of radiation risk assessment and environmental protection, as well as the global costs of nuclear-weapons cleanup, reactor decommissioning and radioactive waste management. This piece argues that the 2005 recommendations are scientifically and ethically flawed, or gray, in at least three respects: first, in largely ignoring scientific journals while employing mainly "gray literature;" second, in relying on non-transparent dose estimates and models, rather than on actual radiation measurements; and third, in ignoring classical ethical constraints on acceptable radiation risk. PMID:15915855

Shrader-Frechette, Kristin

2005-04-01

173

Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation  

MedlinePLUS

... from vehicles and engines, radon, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, climate change, and radiation protection. OAR is ... Interstate Rule Clean Air Mercury Rule Ground-level ozone Lead in air New Source Review Nitrogen oxides ...

174

Radiation Protection Using Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Derivatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention is a means of radiation protection, or cellular oxidative stress mitigation, via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds, specifically single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and their derivatives. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection by reducing the number of free radicals within, or nearby, organelles, cells, tissue, organs, or living organisms, thereby reducing the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components (i.e., RNA, mitochondria, membranes, etc.) that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including but not limited to cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. In addition, this innovation could be used as a prophylactic or antidote for accidental radiation exposure, during high-altitude or space travel where exposure to radiation is anticipated, or to protect from exposure from deliberate terrorist or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons.

Tour, James M.; Lu, Meng; Lucente-Schultz, Rebecca; Leonard, Ashley; Doyle, Condell Dewayne; Kosynkin, Dimitry V.; Price, Brandi Katherine

2011-01-01

175

Basis for radiation protection of the nuclear worker  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of the standards for protection of persons who work in areas that have a potential for radiation exposure. A review is given of the units of radiation exposure and dose equivalent and of the value of the maximum permissible dose limits for occupational exposure. Federal Regulations and Regulatory Guides for radiation protection are discussed. Average occupational equivalent doses experienced in several operations typical of the United States Nuclear Industry are presented and shown to be significantly lower than the maximum permissible. The concept of maintaining radiation doses to As-Low-As-Reasonably-Achievable is discussed and the practice of imposing engineering and administrative controls to provide effective radiation protection for the nuclear worker is described.

Guevara, F.A.

1982-01-01

176

Using computer-based training to facilitate radiation protection review  

SciTech Connect

In a national laboratory setting, it is necessary to provide radiation protection overview and training to diverse parts of the laboratory population. This includes employees at research reactors, accelerators, waste facilities, radiochemical isotope processing, and analytical laboratories, among others. In addition, our own radiation protection and monitoring staffs must be trained. To assist in the implementation of this full range of training, ORNL has purchased prepackaged computer-based training in health physics and technical mathematics with training modules that can be selected from many topics. By selection of specific modules, appropriate radiation protection review packages can be determined to meet many individual program needs. Because our radiation protection personnel must have some previous radiation protection experience or the equivalent of an associate's degree in radiation protection for entry level, the computer-based training will serve primarily as review of major principles. Others may need very specific prior training to make the computer-based training effective in their work situations. 4 refs.

Abercrombie, J.S.; Copenhaver, E.D.

1989-01-01

177

Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ?, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins. Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation IgG preparations - prospective effective antidote/countermeasure for ?-irradiation, heavy ions irradiation, neutron irradiation. Recommendations for treatment and immune-prophylaxis of CNS injury, induced by radiation, were proposed. Specific immune therapy and specific immune prophylaxis reduce symptoms of ACvRS. This manuscript summarizes the results of experiments and considering possibility for blocking toxicological mechanisms of action of Radiation and Radiation Neurotoxins and prevention or diminishing clinical signs of injury of CNS. Experimental data suggest that Antiradiation vaccine and Antiradiation IgG with specific antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins, Cytotoxins protect CNS against high doses of radiation.

Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

178

Radiation protection for manned space activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth's natural radiation environment poses a hazard to manned space activities directly through biological effects and indirectly through effects on materials and electronics. The following standard practices are indicated that address: (1) environment models for all radiation species including uncertainties and temporal variations; (2) upper bound and nominal quality factors for biological radiation effects that include dose, dose rate, critical organ, and linear energy transfer variations; (3) particle transport and shielding methodology including system and man modeling and uncertainty analysis; (4) mission planning that includes active dosimetry, minimizes exposure during extravehicular activities, subjects every mission to a radiation review, and specifies operational procedures for forecasting, recognizing, and dealing with large solar flaes.

Jordan, T. M.

1983-01-01

179

Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 100, Nos 14, pp. 207209 (2002)  

E-print Network

207 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 100, Nos 1­4, pp. 207­209 (2002) Nuclear Technology for radiation detectors and solid state dosemeters. In previous work, mainly thermoluminescence (TL) methods§ School of Physics & Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel Nuclear Technology Division

Chen, Reuven

180

Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1979 and 1980  

SciTech Connect

Public concern over the effects of low-level radiation and other aspects of the use of nuclear energy has grown in recent years, and the demand for radiation protection has continued to increase. Radiation Protection Enrollments and Degrees presents the results of the latest survey of institutions offering degree programs in this field. Students obtaining such degrees are vital to the development of industry, medicine, research, power production, construction, and agriculture. These surveys assist state and federal governments in their search for such personnel.

Gove, R.M.; Little, J.R.; Shirley, D.L.

1981-07-01

181

UWE Religion and Belief Policy Policy to protect against discrimination on the grounds of religion, belief or non-belief.  

E-print Network

UWE Religion and Belief Policy Policy to protect against discrimination on the grounds of religion, belief or non-belief. Religion and Belief Policy Statement As part of UWE's core commitment to promoting and staff of all religions or beliefs, or who have no belief, can thrive. The University seeks to ensure

West of England, University of the

182

Viewpoint on proposed radiation-protection standards  

SciTech Connect

The proposed revision of 10CFR20 is discussed from a personal perspective. A brief historical review of the development of radiation standards is presented, and arguments against the proposed de minimis level elaborated upon. (ACR)

Auxier, J.A.

1982-01-01

183

Simple Benchmark Specifications for Space Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report defines space radiation benchmark specifications. This specification starts with simple, monoenergetic, mono-directional particles on slabs and progresses to human models in spacecraft. This report specifies the models and sources needed to what the team performing the benchmark needs to produce in a report. Also included are brief descriptions of how OLTARIS, the NASA Langley website for space radiation analysis, performs its analysis.

Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.; Aghara, Sukesh K.

2013-01-01

184

49 CFR Appendix B to Part 218 - Statement of Agency Enforcement Policy on Blue Signal Protection for Utility Employees  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Statement of Agency Enforcement Policy on Blue Signal Protection for Utility Employees...Statement of Agency Enforcement Policy on Blue Signal Protection for Utility Employees...train or yard crew exclusion from required blue signal protection for utility...

2010-10-01

185

75 FR 59160 - Radiation Protection Regulations and Guidance; Public Meetings and Request for Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...NRC-2009-0279] Radiation Protection Regulations...the current NRC radiation protection regulations...public, the nuclear industry, the...and internal radiation exposures. Currently, nuclear power plant...

2010-09-27

186

47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application...cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2013-10-01

187

47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application...cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2012-10-01

188

47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application...cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2010-10-01

189

47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application...cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2014-10-01

190

10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. 35.2024 Section...of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a) A...duties, and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by §...

2014-01-01

191

10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. 35.2024 Section...of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a) A...duties, and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by §...

2012-01-01

192

10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. 35.2024 Section...of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a) A...duties, and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by §...

2011-01-01

193

47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application...cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2011-10-01

194

10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. 35.2024 Section...of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a) A...duties, and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by §...

2013-01-01

195

Flexible shielding system for radiation protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modular construction of low cost flexible radiation shielding panels consists of water filled steels cans, zinc bromide windows, turntable unit, master-slave manipulators, and interlocking lead bricks. Easy modifications of shielding wall thicknesses are obtained by rearranging overall geometry of portable components.

Babin, A.

1972-01-01

196

46 CFR 308.207 - War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. 308...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.207...

2011-10-01

197

46 CFR 308.207 - War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. 308...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.207...

2010-10-01

198

46 CFR 308.207 - War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. 308...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.207...

2013-10-01

199

46 CFR 308.207 - War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. 308...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.207...

2012-10-01

200

Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H. [eds.

1991-10-01

201

Proceedings of the Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21-24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S.; Casson, W. H.

1991-10-01

202

U.S. radiation protection: role of national and international recommendations and opportunities for collaboration (harmony, not dissonance).  

PubMed

For much of the 20th century, U.S. radiation protection policies were similar to those elsewhere in the world, in large part because the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) were closely aligned. In the 1970s, several U.S. regulations were released at about the same time as the 1977 recommendations from ICRP. The regulatory development process in the United States can be lengthy with ample opportunities for public involvement. While such deliberation is essential and beneficial, the rulemaking process does not lend itself to making frequent technical updates to rules. For this reason, many of the current radiation protection regulations in the United States are out of step with current recommendations of the ICRP and NCRP. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are considering updates to important radiation protection regulations. These regulatory development actions could present the United States with an opportunity for incorporating the latest science into the U.S. system of radiation protection and provide for consideration of the latest recommendations of ICRP and NCRP. In particular, a revision of the recommendations in NCRP Report No. 116 (Limitation of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation) could provide U.S. agencies with useful advice to be considered in these rulemakings. PMID:25551510

Boyd, Michael A

2015-02-01

203

Protecting Lunar Colonies From Space Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When Apollo 7 astronaut Walter Cunningham blasted off from Earth on 11 October 1968, the last thing he was thinking about was radiation risks or any risks at all. “Fear doesn’t even enter your mind because you have confidence in yourself, your own ability, your training, and your knowledge,” Cunningham told Space Weather. As a crew member of the first manned mission in the Apollo program and the first three-man American space mission, Cunningham spent 11 days in Earth orbit, testing life-support, propulsion, and control systems on a redesigned command module. In retrospect, compared with immediate risks such as those associated with launch and reentry, “exposure to radiation, which could have long-term effects—we just never gave that a thought,” Cunningham said.

Kumar, Mohi

2009-08-01

204

Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts  

SciTech Connect

This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

Not Available

1991-12-31

205

Shielding and Radiation Protection in Ion Beam Therapy Facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation protection is a key aspect of any radiotherapy (RT) department and is made even more complex in ion beam therapy (IBT) by the large facility size, secondary particle spectra and intricate installation of these centers. In IBT, large and complex radiation producing devices are used and made available to the public for treatment. It is thus the responsibility of the facility to put in place measures to protect not only the patient but also the general public, occupationally and nonoccupationally exposed personnel working within the facility, and electronics installed within the department to ensure maximum safety while delivering maximum up-time.

Wroe, Andrew J.; Rightnar, Steven

206

Yucca Mountain Standards: EPA's Radiation Protection Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Yucca Mountain Home Page furnishes information about the EPA's role in this Nevada-based "underground geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste." The site answers frequently asked questions about the repository and supplies an overview of the various roles of federal agencies. The publications section includes detailed articles (in html or .pdf format) on radioactive waste disposal and the standards and regulations surrounding radioactive waste management. For another Yucca Mountain site, see the October 1, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering.

207

Dental-service Dental Radiation Safety and Protection: Program guide  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the program guide for Dental Radiation Safety and Protection is to assist VA dental personnel in developing radiologic procedures that ensure maximum safety for their patients and themselves. In order to do this, the authors have included a summary of the biological hazards associated with exposure to x-radiation, provided information on patient exposure levels associated with dental X-ray units, and explained the methods for reducing patient and staff exposure to X-rays.

Not Available

1991-08-27

208

Ultraviolet radiation protection: current available resources in photoprotection.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet radiation can damage the DNA, cause immunosuppression, chemical and histological alterations in the epidermis, early photoaging, cataracts and carcinogenesis, among others. Photoprotection prevents these and other harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation. Sunscreens, protective clothing, proper accessories and safe sun exposure are essential photoprotection tools. The main forms of photoprotection are presented and discussed in this article, including sunscreens containing organic and inorganic filters, the assessment of their efficacy and current developments on the topic. PMID:21987140

Balogh, Tatiana Santana; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Pedriali, Carla Aparecida; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Baby, André Rolim

2011-01-01

209

School Sun-Protection Policies--Does Being SunSmart Make a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluate the comprehensiveness of primary school sun-protection policies in tropical North Queensland, Australia. Pre-determined criteria were used to assess publicly available sun-protection policies from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.3°S; n = 43), Cairns (16.9°S; n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.3°S; n = 23) during 2009-2012.…

Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L.; Buettner, Petra; Nowak, Madeleine

2014-01-01

210

Critical Analysis of Active Shielding Methods for Space Radiation Protection  

E-print Network

harmful space radiations. Designs affording protection from either solar energetic particle event protons and limits. At times the proponents of these designs make very optimistic assumptions about the abilities for deep space missions are sporadic solar energetic particle events (SPEs) and the ever-present Galactic

Shepherd, Simon

211

Protection against ionizing radiation by antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of antioxidants to reduce the cellular damage induced by ionizing radiation has been studied in animal models for more than 50 years. The application of antioxidant radioprotectors to various human exposure situations has not been extensive although it is generally accepted that endogenous antioxidants, such as cellular non-protein thiols and antioxidant enzymes, provide some degree of protection. This

Joseph F. Weiss; Michael R. Landauer

2003-01-01

212

Nuclear Technology Series. Course 17: Radiation Protection II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

213

Nuclear Technology Series. Course 2: Radiation Protection I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

214

Radiation protection for human missions to the Moon and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation protection assessments are performed for advanced Lunar and Mars manned missions. The Langley cosmic ray transport code and the nucleon transport code are used to quantify the transport and attenuation of galactic cosmic rays and solar proton flares through various shielding media. Galactic cosmic radiation at solar maximum and minimum, as well as various flare scenarios are considered. Propagation data for water, aluminum, liquid hydrogen, lithium hydride, lead, and lunar and Martian regolith (soil) are included. Shield thickness and shield mass estimates required to maintain incurred doses below 30 day and annual limits (as set for Space Station Freedom and used as a guide for space exploration) are determined for simple geometry transfer vehicles. On the surface of Mars, dose estimates are presented for crews with their only protection being the carbon dioxide atmosphere and for crews protected by shielding provided by Martian regolith for a candidate habitat.

Simonsen, Lisa C.; Nealy, John E.

1991-01-01

215

Radar commentary: Use of linear no-threshold hypothesis in radiation protection regulation in the United States.  

PubMed

Radiation protection recommendations advanced by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, and many times adopted into regulations by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, need to be based on scientifically justified assumptions and conclusions. The linear no-threshold model assigns risk to every radiation exposure above zero dose and is the current basis for setting radiation protection standards worldwide. This hypothesis is vigorously challenged by many individuals but just as vigorously defended in spite of the uncertainties surrounding health effects at low dose levels. It is clear that at radiation doses below 100 mSv, the effects, if any, are so low as to be unobservable and perhaps, therefore, unknowable. However, the linear no-threshold hypothesis is used routinely to formulate regulatory dose limits for workers and the general public and to derive stochastic radiogenic risk estimates at low doses. This note will show that while the linear no-threshold hypothesis may play a legitimate role in setting radiation protection standards and operating policies, such as establishing dose limits or as part of an operational "as low as is reasonably achievable" (ALARA) policy, it is inappropriate for use in estimating possible cancer risks associated with low-level radiation exposures. It will also demonstrate that the raising, not lowering, of current regulatory dose limits is more solidly supported by the actual observed data on radiation dose and effects. The authors submit that the misuse of the linear no-threshold model for predicting radiation effects in exposed individuals and populations should be discontinued. PMID:22134084

Siegel, Jeffry A; Stabin, Michael G

2012-01-01

216

Protection from radiation-induced apoptosis by the radioprotector amifostine (WR-2721) is radiation dose dependent.  

PubMed

The radioprotective agent amifostine is a free radical scavenger that can protect cells from the damaging effects of ionising radiation when administered prior to radiation exposure. However, amifostine has also been shown to protect cells from chromosomal mutations when administered after radiation exposure. As apoptosis is a common mechanism by which cells with mutations are removed from the cell population, we investigated whether amifostine stimulates apoptosis when administered after radiation exposure. We chose to study a relatively low dose which is the maximum radiation dose for radiation emergency workers (0.25 Gy) and a high dose relevant to radiotherapy exposures (6 Gy). Mice were administered 400 mg/kg amifostine 30 min before, or 3 h after, whole-body irradiation with 0.25 or 6 Gy X-rays and apoptosis was analysed 3 or 7 h later in spleen and bone marrow. We observed a significant increase in radiation-induced apoptosis in the spleen of mice when amifostine was administered before or after 0.25 Gy X-rays. In contrast, when a high dose of radiation was used (6 Gy), amifostine caused a reduction in radiation-induced apoptosis 3 h post-irradiation in spleen and bone marrow similar to previously published studies. This is the first study to investigate the effect of amifostine on radiation-induced apoptosis at a relatively low radiation dose and the first to demonstrate that while amifostine can reduce apoptosis from high doses of radiation, it does not mediate the same effect in response to low-dose exposures. These results suggest that there may be a dose threshold at which amifostine protects from radiation-induced apoptosis and highlight the importance of examining a range of radiation doses and timepoints. PMID:24459009

Ormsby, Rebecca J; Lawrence, Mark D; Blyth, Benjamin J; Bexis, Katrina; Bezak, Eva; Murley, Jeffrey S; Grdina, David J; Sykes, Pamela J

2014-02-01

217

Habitat Design Considerations for Implementing Solar Particle Event Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation protection is an important habitat design consideration for human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. Fortunately, radiation shelter concepts can effectively reduce astronaut exposure for the relatively low proton energies of solar particle events, enabling moderate duration missions of several months before astronaut exposure (galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event) approaches radiation exposure limits. In order to minimize habitat mass for increasingly challenging missions, design of radiation shelters must minimize dedicated, single-purpose shielding mass by leveraging the design and placement of habitat subsystems, accommodations, and consumables. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems RadWorks Storm Shelter Team has recently designed and performed radiation analysis on several low dedicated mass shelter concepts for a year-long mission. This paper describes habitat design considerations identified during the study's radiation analysis. These considerations include placement of the shelter within a habitat for improved protection, integration of human factors guidance for sizing shelters, identification of potential opportunities for habitat subsystems to compromise on individual subsystem performances for overall vehicle mass reductions, and pre-configuration of shelter components for reduced deployment times.

Simon, Mathew A.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Walker, Steven A.

2013-01-01

218

School Sun-Protection Policies: Measure Development and Assessments in 2 Regions of the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun-safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected…

Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; French, Simone A.; Buller, Mary K.; Ashley, Jeff L.

2012-01-01

219

Realization of the COSPAR planetary protection policy in the Phobos-Grunt mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article provides a description of the activities aimed at the COSPAR planetary protection policy realization in the Phobos-Grunt mission. The results confirm that COSPAR requirements for Mars' protection against Earth-microbe contamination and Earth's protection against supposed hazards due to delivery of alien soil samples, are met.

Khamidullina, N. M.

2012-12-01

220

Space and radiation protection: scientific requirements for space research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ionizing radiation poses a significant risk to humans living and working in space. The major sources of radiation are solar disturbances and galactic cosmic rays. The components of this radiation are energetic charged particles, protons, as well as fully ionized nuclei of all elements. The biological effects of these particles cannot be extrapolated in a straightforward manner from available data on x-rays and gamma-rays. A radiation protection program that meets the needs of spacefaring nations must have a solid scientific basis, capable not only of predicting biological effects, but also of making reliable estimates of the uncertainty in these predictions. A strategy leading to such predictions is proposed, and scientific requirements arising from this strategy are discussed.

Schimmerling, W.

1995-01-01

221

The Dose Window for Radiation-Induced Protective Adaptive Responses  

PubMed Central

Adaptive responses to low doses of low LET radiation occur in all organisms thus far examined, from single cell lower eukaryotes to mammals. These responses reduce the deleterious consequences of DNA damaging events, including radiation-induced or spontaneous cancer and non-cancer diseases in mice. The adaptive response in mammalian cells and mammals operates within a certain window that can be defined by upper and lower dose thresholds, typically between about 1 and 100 mGy for a single low dose rate exposure. However, these thresholds for protection are not a fixed function of total dose, but also vary with dose rate, additional radiation or non-radiation stressors, tissue type and p53 functional status. Exposures above the upper threshold are generally detrimental, while exposures below the lower threshold may or may not increase either cancer or non-cancer disease risk. PMID:20585438

Mitchel, Ronald E. J.

2009-01-01

222

The dose window for radiation-induced protective adaptive responses.  

PubMed

Adaptive responses to low doses of low LET radiation occur in all organisms thus far examined, from single cell lower eukaryotes to mammals. These responses reduce the deleterious consequences of DNA damaging events, including radiation-induced or spontaneous cancer and non-cancer diseases in mice. The adaptive response in mammalian cells and mammals operates within a certain window that can be defined by upper and lower dose thresholds, typically between about 1 and 100 mGy for a single low dose rate exposure. However, these thresholds for protection are not a fixed function of total dose, but also vary with dose rate, additional radiation or non-radiation stressors, tissue type and p53 functional status. Exposures above the upper threshold are generally detrimental, while exposures below the lower threshold may or may not increase either cancer or non-cancer disease risk. PMID:20585438

Mitchel, Ronald E J

2010-01-01

223

42 CFR 37.45 - Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment. 37.45 Section 37...Radiographic Examinations § 37.45 Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment. Except as...

2014-10-01

224

42 CFR 37.45 - Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment. 37.45 Section 37...Radiographic Examinations § 37.45 Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment. Except as...

2013-10-01

225

Viewpoint: Policy Requirements for Protecting Wildlife from Endocrine Disruptors  

PubMed Central

Man-made endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) present a threat to biodiversity, even in remote areas. To date, numerous wildlife species have been affected by EDCs in the environment, but it is likely that many more species are suffering effects that have not yet been reported. Impaired reproduction, damaged brain function, and deficits of the immune system are of particular concern. In order to bring all endocrine-disrupting chemicals under control, the development of screens and tests to identify EDCs must be expedited. However, the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) considers that sufficient information is already available to merit action on several such substances. In addition, it must be recognized that proving the mechanism of action for some chemicals may take decades. Therefore, it is important to enable certain chemicals to be brought under stricter control on the basis of strong suspicion of endocrine disruption or biochemical signaling disruption. Furthermore, the risk assessment process itself also must be modified, and some suggestions are discussed in this article. WWF maintains that any effect that could reasonably be expected to affect the population level should be taken forward in environmental risk characterization, in particular, behavioral effects should be given more consideration. Current chemical management policies are not protective, and we argue for modifications in them to be made. PMID:16818260

Lyons, Gwynne

2006-01-01

226

The Policy Effects of the Radiation on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Were humans,to build a colony on Mars it would be important to understand the nature of radiation on the Martian surface and the effects it would have on the colonists. Once the designers of the colony understand all of these effects, they will realize that it is of paramount importance to protect the colonists from the mutagenic affects of

Kevin P. Donahue

227

Meteoroid Protection Methods for Spacecraft Radiators Using Heat Pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various aspects of achieving a low mass heat pipe radiator for the nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft were studied. Specific emphasis was placed on a concept applicable to a closed Brayton cycle power sub-system. Three aspects of inter-related problems were examined: (1) the armor for meteoroid protection, (2) emissivity of the radiator surface, and (3) the heat pipe itself. The study revealed several alternatives for the achievement of the stated goal, but a final recommendation for the best design requires further investigation.

Ernst, D. M.

1979-01-01

228

Medicinal protection with Chinese herb-compound against radiation damage  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were carried out on mice and the subjects irradiated for cancer therapy to evaluate the protective efficacy of a Chinese medicinal herb-compound (CMHC). The lethality and the degree of leucopenia caused by radiation in mice medicated with CMHC were significantly less in comparison with control mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). CMHC significantly improved the WBC and the thrombocytes in irradiated workers (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). The WBC count of 40 patients under radiotherapy while treated with CMHC recovered from 3450 +/- 77/c.mm to 5425 +/- 264/c.mm (p less than 0.001); whereas, in the control group, without any medication, the WBC count dropped significantly (p less than 0.001). Our results revealed the applicabilities of CMHC in protection against radiation damage in spaceflight and in other fields.

Zhang, R.J.; Qian, J.K.; Yang, G.H.; Wang, B.Z.; Wen, X.L. (Institute of Space Medico-Engineering, Beijing (China))

1990-08-01

229

Stable Nitroxide Radicals Protect Lipid Acyl Chains From Radiation Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focused on protective activity of two six-membered-ring nitroxide radicals, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (Tempo) and 4-hydroxy-Tempo (Tempol), against radiation damage to acyl chain residues of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) of small unilamellar vesicles (SUV). SUV were ?-irradiated (10–12 kGy) under air at ambient temperature in the absence and presence of nitroxides. Acyl chain composition of the phospholipids before and after irradiation

Ayelet M. Samuni; Yechezkel Barenholz

1997-01-01

230

78 FR 20103 - Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-1064; FRL-9797-6] Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and...soliciting public comments for 60 days, on Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and...Federal Guidance Report No. 9, ``Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic...

2013-04-03

231

International workshop on non-ionizing radiation protection in medicine.  

PubMed

An international workshop brought together a range of stakeholders to consider protection from non-ionizing radiation used in medicine, research and cosmetics. Presentations on specific topics were followed by a general discussion on possible improvements in protection. Participants considered that adherence to science-based, harmonized exposure guidelines to limit exposures for clinical staff and other workers was a key prerequisite to safety in all situations. In addition, to engender an awareness of the risks involved to both the patient as well as the operator, equipment should be operated only by suitably qualified persons who have received appropriate training in the safe use of that device. This training should be carried out under the auspices of an accredited safety provider, and preferably offer a recognized qualification. Specific advice included the necessity for correct eye protection with higher power optical radiation sources, and avoiding the use of ultrasound for all exposures without medical benefit. Finally, the possibility of a harmonized approach to safety for both non-ionizing and ionizing radiation was considered worthy of further discussion. PMID:24320477

Sienkiewicz, Zenon

2013-11-01

232

Pharmacological Protection From Radiation {+-} Cisplatin-Induced Oral Mucositis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate if two pharmacological agents, Tempol and D-methionine (D-met), are able to prevent oral mucositis in mice after exposure to ionizing radiation {+-} cisplatin. Methods and Materials: Female C3H mice, {approx}8 weeks old, were irradiated with five fractionated doses {+-} cisplatin to induce oral mucositis (lingual ulcers). Just before irradiation and chemotherapy, mice were treated, either alone or in combination, with different doses of Tempol (by intraperitoneal [ip] injection or topically, as an oral gel) and D-met (by gavage). Thereafter, mice were sacrificed and tongues were harvested and stained with a solution of Toluidine Blue. Ulcer size and tongue epithelial thickness were measured. Results: Significant lingual ulcers resulted from 5 Multiplication-Sign 8 Gy radiation fractions, which were enhanced with cisplatin treatment. D-met provided stereospecific partial protection from lingual ulceration after radiation. Tempol, via both routes of administration, provided nearly complete protection from lingual ulceration. D-met plus a suboptimal ip dose of Tempol also provided complete protection. Conclusions: Two fairly simple pharmacological treatments were able to markedly reduce chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. This proof of concept study suggests that Tempol, alone or in combination with D-met, may be a useful and convenient way to prevent the severe oral mucositis that results from head-and-neck cancer therapy.

Cotrim, Ana P. [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yoshikawa, Masanobu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Sunshine, Abraham N.; Zheng Changyu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Sowers, Anastasia L.; Thetford, Angela D.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B. [Radiation Biology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Baum, Bruce J., E-mail: bbaum@dir.nidcr.nih.gov [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

2012-07-15

233

Opportunities for scientists to influence policy: when does radiation metrology matter in development of national policy?  

PubMed

Accurate measurements of radiation and radioactivity rarely rise to the level of national policy. The things that matter most to ordinary citizens do not normally include questions of science and technology. Citizens are more often concerned with issues close to home relating to commerce, health, safety, security and the environment. When questions of confidence in measurements arise, they are first directed to the ministry that has responsibilities in that area. When the required uncertainty in field measurements challenges the capability of the regulatory authorities, the National Metrology Institute may be asked to develop transfer standards to enhance the capabilities of the ministry with the mission lead. In this paper, we will consider eight instances over the past nine decades in which questions in radiation and radionuclide metrology in the US did rise to the level that they influenced decisions on national policy. These eight examples share some common threads. Radioactivity and ionizing radiation are useful tools in many disciplines, but can often represent potential or perceived threats to health and public safety. When unforeseen applications of radiation arise, or when environmental radioactivity from natural and man-made sources presents a possible health hazard, the radiation metrologists may be called upon to provide the technical underpinning for policy development. PMID:24369891

Coursey, Bert M

2014-05-01

234

RADIATION SAFETY POLICY Effective Date: April 4, 2012 Originating Office: Office of the  

E-print Network

RADIATION SAFETY POLICY Effective Date: April 4, 2012 Originating Office: Office of the Vice emitted from nuclear substances, radiation devices and radiation-emitting devices is an essential tool with nuclear substances or radiation-emitting devices are expected to comply with this Policy and procedures

Doedel, Eusebius

235

A High-Throughput Screen for Alpha Particle Radiation Protectants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Alpha-particle-emitting elements are of increasing importance as environmental and occupational carcinogens, toxic components of radiation dispersal devices and accidents, and potent therapeutics in oncology. Alpha particle radiation differs from radiations of lower linear energy transfer in that it predominantly damages DNA via direct action. Because of this, radical scavengers effective for other radiations have had only limited effect in mitigating alpha particle toxicity. We describe here a simple assay and a pilot screen of 3,119 compounds in a high-throughput screen (HTS), using the alpha-particle-emitting isotope, 225Ac, for the discovery of compounds that might protect mammalian cells from alpha particles through novel mechanisms. The assay, which monitored the viability of a myeloid leukemic cell line upon alpha particle exposure, was robust and reproducible, yielding a Z' factor of 0.66 and a signal-to-noise ratio of nearly 10 to 1. Surprisingly, 1 compound emerged from this screen, epoxy-4,5-?-dihydroxysantonin (EDHS), that showed considerable protective activity. While the value of EDHS remains to be determined, its discovery is a proof of concept and validation of the utility of this HTS methodology. Further application of the described assay could yield compounds useful in minimizing the toxicity and carcinogenesis associated with alpha particle exposure. PMID:20658946

Seideman, Jonathan H.; Shum, David; Djaballah, Hakim

2010-01-01

236

Medical radiation exposure and accidents. Dosimetry and radiation protection. Do we only benefit the patient?  

PubMed

This article presents and discusses new information on the old Hippocratic moto of "...not to harm but to benefit the patient". Some radiation accidents are due to medical errors. Millions of medical tests exposing radiation are performed every day worldwide increasing and sometimes exceeding the annual permissible dose administered to the general population. Public authorities are now seriously concerned about medical radiation overused. In U.S.A. both the House of Representatives and the Food and Drug Administration have recently delt with this problem. Others and we have suggested before and the International Atomic Energy Agency now proposes: a "Smart Card" for every individual who receives medical radiation. In this card the amount of medical radiation administered will be recorded. It is time to issue rules for protection of the public from medical radiation overdose. PMID:20808982

Grammaticos, Philip; Lyra, Maria

2010-01-01

237

A comparison of campfire impacts and policies in seven protected areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using resource-monitoring data from seven protected areas, the effectiveness of three campfire policies-campfire ban, designated campfires, and unregulated campfires-were assessed based on the number of fire sites and the amount of tree damage. Results indicate that unregulated campfire policies permitted substantial numbers of fire sites and tree damage in campsites, although fire bans did not eliminate or even substantially decrease these problems. A designated campfire policy was effective in decreasing number of fire sites, but little difference was found among policies regarding tree damage. Given the importance of campfires to visitor experiences, campfire prohibitions could be viewed as unnecessarily restrictive based on their limited success in preventing resource damage. Conclusions encourage protected-area managers to consider designated campfire policies and prohibitions on axes, hatchets, and saws to better meet resource protection and visitor experience mandates.

Reid, S.E.; Marion, J.L.

2005-01-01

238

Envitonmental monitoring and radiation protection in Škocjan Caves, Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Škocjan Caves were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1986, due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data. Relation of background radiation to carrying capacity will be explained. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. A system of education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection will be presented as well.

Debevec Gerjeviè, V.; Jovanovi?, P.

2012-04-01

239

?-Tocopherol succinate protects mice against radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of ?-tocopherol succinate (?-TS) in protecting mice from gastrointestinal syndrome induced by total-body irradiation. CD2F1 mice were injected subcutaneously with 400 mg/kg of ?-TS and exposed to different doses of (60)Co ? radiation, and 30-day survival was monitored. Jejunum sections were analyzed for crypts and villi, PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis), and apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling - TUNEL). The crypt regeneration in irradiated mice was evaluated by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Bacterial translocation from gut to heart, spleen and liver in ?-TS-treated and irradiated mice was evaluated by bacterial culture on sheep blood agar, colistin-nalidixic acid, and xylose-lysine-desoxycholate medium. Our results demonstrate that ?-TS enhanced survival in a significant number of mice irradiated with 9.5, 10, 11 and 11.5 Gy (60)Co ? radiation when administered 24 h before radiation exposure. ?-TS also protected the intestinal tissue of irradiated mice in terms of crypt and villus number, villus length and mitotic figures. TS treatment decreased the number of TUNEL- and PUMA-positive cells and increased the number of BrdU-positive cells in jejunum compared to vehicle-treated mice. Further, ?-TS inhibited gut bacterial translocation to the heart, spleen and liver in irradiated mice. Our data suggest that ?-TS protects mice from radiation-induced gastrointestinal damage by inhibiting apoptosis, promoting regeneration of crypt cells, and inhibiting translocation of gut bacteria. PMID:22013885

Singh, Pankaj K; Wise, Stephen Y; Ducey, Elizabeth J; Fatanmi, Oluseyi O; Elliott, Thomas B; Singh, Vijay K

2012-02-01

240

Federal policy and the endangered species act: the politics, perceptions, and technologies of protecting sea turtles  

E-print Network

FEDERAL POLICY AND THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT: THE POLITICS PERCEPTIONS, AND TECHNOLOGIES OF PROTECTING SEA TURTLES A Thesis by ALAN DEAN RISENHOOVER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences PEDERAL POLICY AND THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT: THE POLITICS, PERCEPTIONS~ AND TECHNOLOGIES OP PROTECTING SEA TURTLES A Thesis ALAN DEAN...

Risenhoover, Alan Dean

1990-01-01

241

Indoor Air Quality Program California State University, Fullerton has adopted a policy to protect employees and  

E-print Network

Indoor Air Quality Program I. Policy California State University, Fullerton has adopted a policy to protect employees and the public from unsafe indoor air quality (IAQ). The overall safety of faculty by conditions. D. Review construction plans with regard to proposed Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning

de Lijser, Peter

242

HOW TO COMPLY WITH POLICY 3-703 (Identity Theft Protection Program)  

E-print Network

HOW TO COMPLY WITH POLICY 3-703 (Identity Theft Protection Program) Arizona State University new Policy 3-703 (Identity Theft Prevention Program) is intended to comply with Federal Trade Commission (FTC) requirements and to address risks associated with identity theft. To ensure compliance

Rhoads, James

243

Radiation protection and dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technological advances that occurred during the last few decades paved the way to the dissemination of CT-based procedures in radiology, to an increasing number of procedures in interventional radiology and cardiology as well as to new techniques and hybrid modalities in nuclear medicine and in radiotherapy. These technological advances encompass the exposure of patients and medical staff to unprecedentedly high dose values that are a cause for concern due to the potential detrimental effects of ionizing radiation to the human health. As a consequence, new issues and challenges in radiological protection and dosimetry in the medical applications of ionizing radiation have emerged. The scientific knowledge of the radiosensitivity of individuals as a function of age, gender and other factors has also contributed to raising the awareness of scientists, medical staff, regulators, decision makers and other stakeholders (including the patients and the public) for the need to correctly and accurately assess the radiation induced long-term health effects after medical exposure. Pediatric exposures and their late effects became a cause of great concern. The scientific communities of experts involved in the study of the biological effects of ionizing radiation have made a strong case about the need to undertake low dose radiation research and the International System of Radiological Protection is being challenged to address and incorporate issues such as the individual sensitivities, the shape of dose-response relationship and tissue sensitivity for cancer and non-cancer effects. Some of the answers to the radiation protection and dosimetry issues and challenges in the medical applications of ionizing radiation lie in computational studies using Monte Carlo or hybrid methods to model and simulate particle transport in the organs and tissues of the human body. The development of sophisticated Monte Carlo computer programs and voxel phantoms paves the way to an accurate dosimetric assessment of the medical applications of ionizing radiation. In this paper, the aforementioned topics will be reviewed. The current status and the future trends in the implementation of the justification and optimization principles, pillars of the International System of Radiological Protection, in the medical applications of ionizing radiation will be discussed. Prospective views will be provided on the future of the system of radiological protection and on dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation.

Vaz, Pedro

2014-11-01

244

A biokinetic model for zinc for use in radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

The physiology of the essential trace element zinc has been studied extensively in human subjects using kinetic analysis of time-dependent measurements of administered zinc tracers. A number of biokinetic models describing zinc exchange between plasma and tissues and loss of systemic zinc in excreta have been developed from the derived data. More rudimentary biokinetic models for zinc have been developed to estimate radiation doses from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc. The latter models are designed to provide broadly accurate estimates of cumulative decays of zinc radioisotopes in tissues and are not intended as realistic descriptions of the directions of movement of zinc in the body. This paper reviews biokinetic data for zinc and proposes a physiologically meaningful biokinetic model for systemic zinc for use in radiation protection. The proposed model bears some resemblance to zinc models developed in physiological studies but depicts a finer division of systemic zinc and is based on a broader spectrum of data than previous models. The proposed model and current radiation protection model for zinc yield broadly similar estimates of effective dose from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc but substantially different dose estimates for several individual tissues, particularly the liver.

Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL

2012-01-01

245

Radiation Protection Studies for LCLS Tune Up Dump  

SciTech Connect

The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is a pioneer fourth generation hard x-ray free electron laser that shall start to deliver laser pulses in 2009. Among other components of LCLS that present radiation protection concerns, the tune up dump (tdund) is of special interest because it also constitutes an issue for machine protection, as it is placed close to radiation sensitive components, like electronic devices and permanent magnets in the undulators. This paper first introduces the stopper of tdund looking at the heat load, and then it describes the shielding around the dump necessary to maintain the prompt and residual dose within design values. Next, preliminary comparisons of the magnetization loss in a dedicated on-site magnet irradiation experiment with FLUKA simulations serve to characterize the magnetic response to radiation of magnets like those of LCLS. The previous knowledge, together with the limit for the allowed demagnetization, are used to estimate the lifetime of the undulator. Further simulations provide guidelines on which lifetime can be expected for an electronic device placed at a given distance of tdund.

Santana-Leitner, M.; Fass, A.; Mao, S.; Nuhn, H.D.; /SLAC; Roesler, S.; /CERN; Rokni, S.; Vollaire, J.; /SLAC

2010-04-29

246

GLBTIQ Teachers in Australian Education Policy: Protections, Suspicions, and Restrictions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognition of human rights on the basis of sexual orientation, gender identity and intersex status by the United Nations has led to the development of new policies concerning homophobia and transphobia in educational contexts. This paper examines new Australian education policies impacting gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer…

Jones, Tiffany; Gray, Emily; Harris, Anne

2014-01-01

247

Standing up the National Ignition Facility radiation protection program.  

PubMed

Operation of the NIF requires a large and varied number of routine and infrequent activities involving contaminated and radioactive systems, both in servicing online equipment and offline refurbishment of components. Routine radiological operations include up to several dozen entries into contaminated systems per day, multiple laboratories refurbishing radiologically impacted parts, handling of tens of curies of tritium, and (eventually) tens of workers spending most of their day working in radiation areas and handling moderately activated parts. Prior to the introduction of radioactive materials and neutron producing experiments (capable of causing activation), very few of the operating staff had any radiological qualifications or experience. To support the full NIF operating program, over 600 radiological workers needed to be trained, and a functional and large-scale radiological protection program needed to be put in place. It quickly became evident that there was a need to supplement the LLNL site radiological protection staff with additional radiological controls technicians and a radiological protection staff within NIF operations to manage day-to-day activities. This paper discusses the approach taken to stand up the radiological protection program and some lessons learned. PMID:23629066

Kohut, Thomas R; Thacker, Rick L; Beale, Richard M; Dillon, Jon T

2013-06-01

248

Chromatin Compaction Protects Genomic DNA from Radiation Damage  

PubMed Central

Genomic DNA is organized three-dimensionally in the nucleus, and is thought to form compact chromatin domains. Although chromatin compaction is known to be essential for mitosis, whether it confers other advantages, particularly in interphase cells, remains unknown. Here, we report that chromatin compaction protects genomic DNA from radiation damage. Using a newly developed solid-phase system, we found that the frequency of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in compact chromatin after ionizing irradiation was 5–50-fold lower than in decondensed chromatin. Since radical scavengers inhibited DSB induction in decondensed chromatin, condensed chromatin had a lower level of reactive radical generation after ionizing irradiation. We also found that chromatin compaction protects DNA from attack by chemical agents. Our findings suggest that genomic DNA compaction plays an important role in maintaining genomic integrity. PMID:24130727

Takata, Hideaki; Hanafusa, Tomo; Mori, Toshiaki; Shimura, Mari; Iida, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Kenichi; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Maeshima, Kazuhiro

2013-01-01

249

The IHS diagnostic X-ray equipment radiation protection program  

SciTech Connect

The Indian Health Service (IHS) operates or contracts with Tribal groups to operate 50 hospitals and approximately 165 primary ambulatory care centers. These facilities contain approximately 275 medical and 800 dental diagnostic x-ray machines. IHS environmental health personnel in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) developed a diagnostic x-ray protection program including standard survey procedures and menu-driven calculations software. Important features of the program include the evaluation of equipment performance collection of average patient entrance skin exposure (ESE) measurements for selected procedures, and quality assurance. The ESE data, collected using the National Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) protocol, will be presented. The IHS Diagnostic X-ray Radiation Protection Program is dynamic and is adapting to changes in technology and workload.

Knapp, A.; Byrns, G.; Suleiman, O.

1994-05-01

250

Implications of radiation dose and exposed populations on radiation protection in the 21st century.  

PubMed

Radiation is in the public eye because of Fukushima, computed tomography examinations, airport screenings, and possible terrorist attacks. What if the Boston Marathon pressure cooker had also contained a radioactive source? Nuclear power may be on the resurgence. Because of the increasing uses of radiation, the increases in population exposures, and the increasing knowledge of radiation effects, constant vigilance is needed to keep up with the changing times. Psychosocial disorders associated with the inappropriate (but real) fear of radiation need to be recognized as radiation detriments. Radiation risk communication, radiation education, and communication must improve at all levels: to members of the public, to the media, to other scientists, and to radiation professionals. Stakeholders must continue to be involved in all radiation protection initiatives. Finally, we are at a crisis as the number of war babies (me) and baby boomers (you?) who are also radiation professionals continues its rapid decline, and there are few in the pipeline to fill the current and looming substantial need: "The old road is rapidly agin'" (Dylan). NCRP has begun the WARP initiative-Where Are the Radiation Professionals?-an attempt to rejuvenate the pipeline of future professionals before the trickle becomes tiny drops. A Workshop was held in July 2013 with government agencies, military, private sector, universities, White House representatives, and societies to develop a coordinated and national action plan. A "Manhattan Project" is needed to get us "Back to the Future" in terms of the funding levels that existed in years past that provided the necessary resources to train, engage, and retain (a.k.a., jobs) the radiation professionals needed for the nation. If we don't keep swimmin' (Disney's Nemo) we'll "sink like a stone" (Dylan).Introduction of Implications of Radiation Dose and Exposed Populations (Video 2:06, http://links.lww.com/HP/A25). PMID:24378509

Boice, John D

2014-02-01

251

Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation  

PubMed Central

Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A “sclerojuglonic” compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

Kora?, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

2011-01-01

252

Tufts University Policy to Protect Children and Prevent Abuse EXECUTIVE SUMMARY  

E-print Network

1 Tufts University Policy to Protect Children and Prevent Abuse EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Child abuse's protective service agencies each year. Yet, it is estimated that a lot of abuse, particularly child sexual to minimize the threat of child abuse and to respond promptly and effectively should abuse be observed

Dennett, Daniel

253

Policy Name PHIP (Personal Health Information Protection) Originating/Responsible Department University Secretariat  

E-print Network

Policy Name PHIP (Personal Health Information Protection) Originating/Responsible Department the Personal Health Information Protection Act, 2004 (PHIPA) and to outline the obligations of all health professionals and patients of the Carleton University Health and Counselling Services. It is not meant

Carleton University

254

Coordinated and Evidence-Based Policy and Practice for Protecting Children outside of Family Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2011 U.S. Government Evidence Summit on Protecting Children Outside of Family Care brought together leading researchers and technical experts to assess the available evidence to inform policies, strategies, and programs relevant to protecting children outside of family care in lower and middle income countries. While child vulnerabilities are…

Boothby, Neil; Balster, Robert L.; Goldman, Philip; Wessells, Michael G.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Huebner, Gillian; Garbarino, James

2012-01-01

255

Protection against radiation oxidative damage in mice by Triphala.  

PubMed

Protection against whole body gamma-irradiation (WBI) of Swiss mice orally fed with Triphala (TPL), an Ayurvedic formulation, in terms of mortality of irradiated animals as well as DNA damage at cellular level has been investigated. It was found that radiation induced mortality was reduced by 60% in mice fed with TPL (1g/kg body weight/day) orally for 7 days prior to WBI at 7.5 Gy followed by post-irradiation feeding for 7 days. An increase in xanthine oxidoreductase activity and decrease in superoxide dismutase activity was observed in the intestine of mice exposed to WBI, which, however, reverted back to those levels of sham-irradiated controls, when animals were fed with TPL for 7 days prior to irradiation. These data have suggested the prevention of oxidative damage caused by whole body radiation exposure after feeding of animals with TPL. To further understand the mechanisms involved, the magnitude of DNA damage was studied by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) in blood leukocytes and splenocytes obtained from either control animals or those fed with TPL for 7 days followed by irradiation. Compared to irradiated animals without administering TPL, the mean tail length was reduced about three-fold in blood leukocytes of animals fed with TPL prior to irradiation. Although, similar protection was observed in splenocytes of TPL fed animals, the magnitude of prevention of DNA damage was significantly higher than that observed in leukocytes. It has been concluded that TPL protected whole body irradiated mice and TPL induced protection was mediated through inhibition of oxidative damage in cells and organs. TPL seems to have potential to develop into a novel herbal radio-protector for practical applications. PMID:16860592

Sandhya, T; Lathika, K M; Pandey, B N; Bhilwade, H N; Chaubey, R C; Priyadarsini, K I; Mishra, K P

2006-10-10

256

New concept of IEC standards for radiation protection dosemeters.  

PubMed

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) develops new standards for radiation protection dosemeters which follow a new concept. They are much more flexible in detail, but still ensure the same measurement quality. They are, for example, no longer specific for the detector type, but rather specific for the measurement task, e.g. for individual monitoring with active direct-reading instruments. Another example is that they are flexible with respect to the ranges of influence quantities. The conceptual changes are described in this paper, together with the advantages this new concept provides for manufacturers, users and legislators. PMID:18420572

Ambrosi, P; Behrens, R

2008-01-01

257

Operational radiation protection issues specific to high-intensity beams.  

PubMed

This paper describes operational radiation protection issues specific to high-intensity accelerators, aimed at the radiological safety of high-intensity accelerators during construction and operation. The paper is composed of chapters on safety characteristics, radiological safety design and safety management systems of high-intensity accelerators. The Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) is taken as a reference, because J-PARC was recently completed after collecting and referring to experiences with existing accelerator facilities all over the world. PMID:19778937

Nakashima, Hiroshi

2009-11-01

258

Radiation protection issues in galactic cosmic ray risk assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation protection involves the limitation of exposure to below threshold doses for direct (or deterministic) effects and a knowledge of the risk of stochastic effects after low doses. The principal stochastic risk associated with low dose rate galactic cosmic rays is the increased risk of cancer. Estimates of this risk depend on two factors (a) estimates of cancer risk for low-LET radiation and (b) values of the appropriate radiation weighting factors, WR, for the high-LET radiations of galactic cosmic rays. Both factors are subject to considerable uncertainty. The low-LET cancer risk derived from the late effects of the atomic bombs is vulnerable to a number of uncertainties including especially that from projection in time, and from extrapolation from high to low dose rate. Nevertheless, recent low dose studies of workers and others tend to confirm these estimates. WR, relies on biological effects studied mainly in non-human systems. Additional laboratory studies could reduce the uncertainties in WR and thus produce a more confident estimate of the overall risk of galactic cosmic rays.

Sinclair, W. K.

1994-01-01

259

Public policies for managing urban growth and protecting open space: policy instruments and lessons learned in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public sector in the United States has responded to growing concern about the social and environmental costs of sprawling development patterns by creating a wide range of policy instruments designed to manage urban growth and protect open space. These techniques have been implemented at the local, regional, state and, to a limited extent, national levels. This paper provides a

David N. Bengston; Jennifer O. Fletcher; Kristen C. Nelson

2004-01-01

260

Comment on “Policy offers protection from harassment” [by Marcia McNutt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regarding “Policy Offers Protection From Harassment” (Eos, October 15, 1996), I am disturbed that the AGU has extended its harassment policy to its membership at “events that combine work and social interaction, such as the meetings, conferences, and seminars that AGU members attend.” As a woman, I have always found the so-called protections extended to females and other supposedly vulnerable groups to be intrusive and patronizing, but this policy in particular goes too far by trying to sponsor aspects of members' social behavior.I am old enough to remember the days when one responded to uncomfortable situations by drawing on one's own resources. A sense of one's inviolable self developed over time, and meaningful self-esteem derived from an ability to cope with the world. Now, cowering from jokes and recoiling from eye contact, the modern geoscientist apparently requires a patron for protection—a shining knight in the form of this new policy.

Hickman, Martha H.

261

Threat of ultraviolet radiation to the eye--how to protect against it  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effects of exposure of the eye to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to provide information from which protective criteria and standards may be established. To accomplish this purpose, the article discusses ultraviolet radiation, absorption of UV radiation by the eye, the effects of ocular exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and how to protect the eye against exposure to UV radiation.

Pitts, D.G.

1981-12-01

262

Integrated analysis of policy options for protection of groundwater quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is directed at providing an integrated framework that a regional authority should use when assessing the potential impacts of any policy initiative directed at improving groundwater quality. In particular, a policy model is developed relying on three decision components (a farm-level production decisions model, a household decisions model and a regional policy decision model) where the objective is one of identifying the trade-offs that a regional authority will be confronted with as it strives to balance the preferences of farmers and households while endeavoring to maximize net economic welfare. The basic rule developed indicates that the regional authority must choose a policy whereby any increase (decrease) in regional income is just equal to the decrease (increase) in net benefits to households.

Uri, Noel D.; Huang, Wen-Yuan

1990-05-01

263

47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided...human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2012-10-01

264

47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided...human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2011-10-01

265

47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided...human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2013-10-01

266

47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided...human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2014-10-01

267

Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 97, No. 3, pp. 279-285 (2001)  

E-print Network

1 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 97, No. 3, pp. 279-285 (2001) Nuclear Technology Publishing Topics under Debate IS THE LINEAR-NO-THRESHOLD HYPOTHESIS APPROPRIATE FOR USE IN RADIATION PROTECTION? D. C. McDonald, Moderator INTRODUCTION There are few things more important to the practice of radiation

Brenner, David Jonathan

268

47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided...human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2010-10-01

269

Health physics/radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1985  

SciTech Connect

The 1985 health physics/radiation protection survey included 64 institutions. Sixty-one institutions reported enrollments and degrees awarded; however, 5 of these programs are officially closed but are allowing enrolled students to complete their degree. Two institutions reported their programs were inactive. One institution's program was suspended, having reported the last degree awarded in 1984. Total enrollments in undergraduate and graduate health physics or radiation protection programs decreased from 1984 by 7%. Undergraduate enrollments decreased by 5% to 381; masters candidates decreased by 16% to 527, and doctoral candidates increased by 20% to 216, in large part a result of new foreign graduate students. Of the known placement, by far the largest group of bachelor's graduates continued for further study (27%). The largest employment category was nuclear utilities that recruited 22% of the new bachelor's, compared to only 15% in 1984. Foreign national enrollment at the undergraduate level changed little from 1984. The number of women enrolled in health physics declined at both the baccalaureate and masters degree levels in 1985. However, the number of women pursuing the Ph.D. degree increased by 6 and remained at 16%. Minority participation in 1985 remained the same low level as in past years with only slight variation, primarily among Hispanic US citizens at the undergraduate level and Asian American or Pacific Islanders who generally declined in participation.

Not Available

1986-04-01

270

Mechanisms of radiation interaction with DNA: Potential implications for radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the US Department of Energy conducts a broad multidisciplinary research program which includes basic biophysics, biophysical chemistry, molecular and cellular biology as well as experimental animal studies and opportunistic human studies. This research is directed at understanding how low levels of radiation of various qualities produce the spectrum of biological effects that are seen for such exposures. This workshop was entitled ''Mechanisms of Radiation Interaction with DNA: Potential Implications for Radiation Protection.'' It ws jointly sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Commission of European Communities. The aim of the workshop was to review the base of knowledge in the area of mechanisms of radiation action at the DNA level, and to explore ways in which this information can be applied to the development of scientifically sound concepts and procedures for use in the field of radiation protection. The overview of research provided by this multidisciplinary group will be helpful to the Office in program planning. This report includes a summary of the presentations, extended abstracts, the meeting agenda, research recommendations, and a list of participants. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base.

Not Available

1988-01-01

271

Regulation of radiation protection of the patient: how and how much, the current Belgian situation.  

PubMed

Regulation of radiation protection has always been a cornerstone to protect the patient when exposed to ionising radiation. However, large differences exist between the implementation of international approved recommendations. Even when a well-established supra-national legislative format exists, further translation is always adapted to a suitable level of the medical sector in a country. Actual trends are given for the Belgian situation, where the legislation on radiation protection in medicine is currently under revision. PMID:21733857

Clarijs, Tom

2011-09-01

272

Developing the radiation protection safety culture in the UK.  

PubMed

In the UK, as elsewhere, there is potential to improve how radiological challenges are addressed through improvement in, or development of, a strong radiation protection (RP) safety culture. In preliminary work in the UK, two areas have been identified as having a strong influence on UK society: the healthcare and nuclear industry sectors. Each has specific challenges, but with many overlapping common factors. Other sectors will benefit from further consideration.In order to make meaningful comparisons between these two principal sectors, this paper is primarily concerned with cultural aspects of RP in the working environment and occupational exposures rather than patient doses.The healthcare sector delivers a large collective dose to patients each year, particularly for diagnostic purposes, which continues to increase. Although patient dose is not the focus, it must be recognised that collective patient dose is inevitably linked to collective occupational exposure, especially in interventional procedures.The nuclear industry faces major challenges as work moves from operations to decommissioning on many sites. This involves restarting work in the plants responsible for the much higher radiation doses of the 1960/70s, but also performing tasks that are considerably more difficult and hazardous than those original performed in these plants.Factors which influence RP safety culture in the workplace are examined, and proposals are considered for a series of actions that may lead to an improvement in RP culture with an associated reduction in dose in many work areas. These actions include methods to improve knowledge and awareness of radiation safety, plus ways to influence management and colleagues in the workplace. The exchange of knowledge about safety culture between the nuclear industry and medical areas may act to develop RP culture in both sectors, and have a wider impact in other sectors where exposures to ionising radiations can occur. PMID:24894330

Cole, P; Hallard, R; Broughton, J; Coates, R; Croft, J; Davies, K; Devine, I; Lewis, C; Marsden, P; Marsh, A; McGeary, R; Riley, P; Rogers, A; Rycraft, H; Shaw, A

2014-06-01

273

Analysis and Research about Cloud Computing Security Protect Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces cloud computing concepts and main features, and analyzes the security of cloud computing and the security strategies are proposed for security issues related to cloud computing. Keywords—Cloud computing; Cloud security; Security policy I. INTRODUCTION With the increasing popularity of the network and the rapid development of IT technology, network storage and network computing services also continuously go

Haoyong Lv; Yin Hu

2011-01-01

274

Radiation-based techniques for use in the border protection context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most airline travelers will be familiar with the current overt passenger examination procedures: metal detectors and small tunnel X-ray examination systems. The mix of overt and covert systems used to prevent dangerous goods and contraband from passing through the portal is constantly changing, dictated by policy decisions made by governments. The United States of America and the European Union are the largest regulatory bodies, and their procedures are adopted by smaller countries: Australia, for example.This paper discusses a wide variety of techniques used by Border Protection Agencies. Most of these examination systems involve the use of the emission, absorption, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation and descriptions of these systems will comprise the bulk of this paper.However, a brief discussion of the use of neutron scattering will be given to demonstrate how systems for the examination of large objects may develop in the future.

Creagh, Dudley

2014-02-01

275

Nuclear fragmentation measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fragmentation measurements are necessary in hadrontherapy and space radiation protection, to predict the effects of the ion nuclear interactions within the human body. Nowadays, a very limited set of carbon fragmentation cross sections has been measured and in particular, to our knowledge, no double differential fragmentation cross sections at intermediate energies are available in literature. We have measured the double differential cross sections and the angular distributions of the secondary fragments produced in the {sup 12}C fragmentation at 62 AMeV on a thin carbon target. The experimental data have been also used to benchmark the prediction capability of the Geant4 Monte Carlo code at intermediate energies, where it was never tested before.

De Napoli, M. [INFN - Sezione di Catania (Italy); Agodi, C.; Blancato, A. A.; Cavallaro, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy); Battistoni, G. [INFN - Sezione di Milano (Italy); Bondi, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Nicolosi, D.; Raciti, G.; Tropea, S. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy); Giacoppo, F. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Morone, M. C. [Dipartimento di Biopatologia e Diagnostica per Immagini, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Pandola, L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy); Rapisarda, E. [Nuclear and Radiation Physics Section, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Celestijnenlaan Heverlee (Belgium); Romano, F. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy) and Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi Roma (Italy); and others

2013-04-19

276

[Scrap metal and ionizing radiation hazard: prevention and protection].  

PubMed

The numerous accidents occurred in companies that melt scrap metals have shown that the hazard caused by the presence of radioactive materials--or 'orphan sources'--may have serious consequences on standard production, with great economic and social damage. Italian Legislative Decree No. 100/11 establishes the skills required for the safe management of scrap metals in the whole production cycle, thus requiring the involvement of experts in radiation protection. The paper details the procedures that shall be implemented in the companies that melt scrap metals. Said procedures involve several professional roles: managers, department heads and occupational physicians. The paper describes the general characteristics of the instruments used, staff training programs and the experience gained in 15 years of activity. PMID:23405723

Giugni, U

2012-01-01

277

The All-or-Nothing Anti-Theft Policy - Theft Protection for Pervasive Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many application scenarios for pervasive computing, theft is a serious security threat. In this paper we present the all-or-nothing anti-theft policy aimed at providing theft protection for pervasive computing. The overall idea behind the all-or-nothing anti-theft policy is to chain devices together in friendly networks so that any device will only work when it can see all of its

Jakob Illeborg Pagter; Michael Østergaard Pedersen

2007-01-01

278

RADIATION SAFETY POLICY MANUAL Prepared and issued under the auspices of  

E-print Network

RADIATION SAFETY POLICY MANUAL Prepared and issued under the auspices of THE RADIATION SAFETY COMMITTEE June 1996 For additional information, contact THE RADIATION SAFETY OFFICER Radiological Health Department 260 S Central Campus Drive, Room 100 581-6141 #12;i Foreword Ionizing radiation provides

Tipple, Brett

279

UV radiation and freshwater zooplankton: damage, protection and recovery  

PubMed Central

While many laboratory and field studies show that zooplankton are negatively affected when exposed to high intensities of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), most studies also indicate that zooplankton are well adapted to cope with large variations in their UVR exposure in the pelagic zone of lakes. The response mechanisms of zooplankton are diverse and efficient and may explain the success and richness of freshwater zooplankton in optically variable waters. While no single behavioural or physiological protection mechanism seems to be superior, and while several unexplained and contradictory patterns exist in zooplankton UVR ecology, recent increases in our understanding are consistent with UVR playing an important role for zooplankton. This review examines the variability in freshwater zooplankton responses to UVR, with a focus on crustacean zooplankton (Cladocera and Copepoda). We present an overview of UVR-induced damages, and the protection and recovery mechanisms freshwater zooplankton use when exposed to UVR. We review the current knowledge of UVR impact on freshwater zooplankton at species and community levels, and discuss briefly how global change over the last three decades has influenced the UVR milieu in lakes. PMID:21516254

Rautio, Milla; Tartarotti, Barbara

2011-01-01

280

Relationship-Based Access Control: Protection Model and Policy Language  

E-print Network

. Categories and Subject Descriptors D.4.6 [Security and Protection]: Access Controls General Terms Security (SNSs). An SNS is essentially an information sharing system that explicitly tracks the social network.g., professional relationships between health service providers and their clients). An SNS maintains a social

281

The impact of mining activities on Mongolia's protected areas: a status report with policy recommendations.  

PubMed

Mongolia's protected areas cover 20.5 million ha or 13.1% of its national territory. Existing and proposed protected areas, however, are threatened by mining. Mining impacts on Mongolia's protected areas are diverse and include licensed and unlicensed mineral activities in protected areas, buffer zone disturbance, and prevention of the establishment of proposed protected areas. Review of United States, Canadian, and Australian policies revealed 9 basic approaches to resolving conflicts between protected areas and mining. Four approaches suitable for Mongolia are granting land trades and special dispensations in exchange for mineral licenses in protected areas; granting protected status to all lapsed mineral licenses in protected areas; voluntary forfeiting of mineral licenses in protected areas in exchange for positive corporate publicity; and prohibiting all new mineral activities in existing and proposed protected areas. Mining is Mongolia's most important industry, however, and the long-term benefits of preserving Mongolia's natural heritage must be considered and weighed against the economic benefits and costs of mining activities. PMID:16639889

Farrington, John D

2005-07-01

282

The need to include animal protection in public health policies  

PubMed Central

Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

Akhtar, Aysha

2013-01-01

283

Protective roles of cytokines against radiation: Induction of mitochondrial MnSOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress such as radiation can trigger the production of cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin (LT). The increased cytokine levels may in turn induce the synthesis of protein(s) that protect against subsequent killing by oxidative stress. Indeed, pretreatment of animals with TNF or LT can protect them against lethal doses of radiation and the alopecia that results

Grace H. W. Wong

1995-01-01

284

University of Maryland Policy on the Collection, Use and Protection of ID Numbers  

E-print Network

University of Maryland Policy on the Collection, Use and Protection of ID Numbers (Approved of Maryland prohibits the use of SSN on University identification cards. Section 7(b) of the Privacy Act of Maryland, also require that when any Federal, State, or local government agency requests an individual

Gruner, Daniel S.

285

The Contemporary State of Child Protection Policy and Practice in England and Wales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies and analyzes central tensions and themes that characterize child protection policy in England and Wales. Outlines conflicting messages that have been prevalent in debates about child abuse since the early 1980s. Analyzes in detail the 1989 Children Act, the 1991 Criminal Justice Act, Working Together (1991), and the Memorandum of Good…

Parton, Nigel; Otway, Olive

1995-01-01

286

POLICY PERSPECTIVE Coral reef quality and recreation fees in marine protected areas  

E-print Network

, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA Keywords Coral reefs; diving; economics; financing; management; marine for diving in MPAs, but an excessive reliance on tourism for funding MPA management could expose coral reefsPOLICY PERSPECTIVE Coral reef quality and recreation fees in marine protected areas Jeffrey Wielgus

Gerber, Leah R.

287

Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC)  

SciTech Connect

Enclosed are proceedings of the workshop on Internal Dosimetry held on Atlanta, Georgia in April 1992. The recommendations from the Workshop were considered by the CIRRPC Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research in identifying those areas to be undertaken by individual Federal Agencies or in cooperative efforts. This document presents summaries of the following sessions: A.1 Applications and limitations of ICRP and other metabolic models, A.2 Applications and implementation of proposed ICRP lung model, A.3 Estimates of intake from repetitive bioassay data, A.4 Chelation models for plutonium urinalysis data, B.1 Transuranium/uranium registry data, B.2 Autopsy tissue analysis, B.3 Bioassay / Whole body counting, B.4 Data base formatting and availability, C.1 An overview of calculational techniques in use today, C.2 The perfect code, C.3 Dose calculations based on individuals instead of averages, C.4 From macro dosimetry to micro dosimetry.

Not Available

1994-05-10

288

Radiation terrorism: what society needs from the radiobiology–radiation protection and radiation oncology communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Society’s and individuals’ concerns about the adverse effects from radiation are logically amplified many times when radiological terrorism is considered. The spectrum of events include industrial sabotage, the use of an explosive or non-explosive radiological dispersal device, the placement of a radiological exposure device in a public facility and the use of an improvised nuclear device. The consequences of an

C Norman Coleman; Gerald W Parker

2009-01-01

289

Radiation terrorism: what society needs from the radiobiology-radiation protection and radiation oncology communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Society's and individuals' concerns about the adverse effects from radiation are logically amplified many times when radiological terrorism is considered. The spectrum of events include industrial sabotage, the use of an explosive or non-explosive radiological dispersal device, the placement of a radiological exposure device in a public facility and the use of an improvised nuclear device. The consequences of an

C. Norman Coleman; Gerald W. Parker

2009-01-01

290

Radiation Protection Program Environmental Health and Safety Department  

E-print Network

.................................................................. 11 3.1. Mines Management ................................................................................................... 13 3.7. Radiation Producing Equipment Supervisor ............................................................. 13 3.8. Radiation Producing Equipment Operators

291

Protective legislation, ionizing radiation and health: a new appraisal and international survey  

SciTech Connect

Restrictive regulations (protective legislation) on employment conditions of female workers limiting maximum hours of work and prohibiting certain toxic exposures have existed for decades. In some countries, such as the United States, Canada and the Nordic countries, the growth of civil rights and equal opportunity legislation has led to their elimination, either in fact or in practice, and only a small number of disparate regulations for male and female workers still exist. Most other industrialized countries, as well as the International Labour Office of the United Nations, still have active restrictive rules for women's employment. However, restrictive regulation is an area of active policy debate around the world. International examples of the debate on protective legislation are given here. A specific case study of the occupational health standards governing exposure to ionizing radiation is used and its technical rationale discussed as an illustration of the basic issues. These include: overbroad categorization of all women as potential childbearers, no matter what their childbearing intentions; failure to recognize the full range of potential adverse health effects to males; disparate application of the restrictive regulations, generally to occupations or areas of employment that are traditionally held by men, while traditional female jobs with the same exposures are excluded from the regulatory restriction.

Stellman, J.M.

1987-01-01

292

Development of the 3DHZETRN code for space radiation protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space radiation protection requires computationally efficient shield assessment methods that have been verified and validated. The HZETRN code is the engineering design code used for low Earth orbit dosimetric analysis and astronaut record keeping with end-to-end validation to twenty percent in Space Shuttle and International Space Station operations. HZETRN treated diffusive leakage only at the distal surface limiting its application to systems with a large radius of curvature. A revision of HZETRN that included forward and backward diffusion allowed neutron leakage to be evaluated at both the near and distal surfaces. That revision provided a deterministic code of high computational efficiency that was in substantial agreement with Monte Carlo (MC) codes in flat plates (at least to the degree that MC codes agree among themselves). In the present paper, the 3DHZETRN formalism capable of evaluation in general geometry is described. Benchmarking will help quantify uncertainty with MC codes (Geant4, FLUKA, MCNP6, and PHITS) in simple shapes such as spheres within spherical shells and boxes. Connection of the 3DHZETRN to general geometry will be discussed.

Wilson, John; Badavi, Francis; Slaba, Tony; Reddell, Brandon; Bahadori, Amir; Singleterry, Robert

293

Modern new nuclear fuel characteristics and radiation protection aspects.  

PubMed

The glut of fissile material from reprocessing plants and from the conclusion of the cold war has provided the opportunity to design new fuel types to beneficially dispose of such stocks by generating useful power. Thus, in addition to the normal reactor core complement of enriched uranium fuel assemblies, two other types are available on the world market. These are the ERU (enriched recycled uranium) and the MOX (mixed oxide) fuel assemblies. Framatome ANP produces ERU fuel assemblies by taking feed material from reprocessing facilities and blending this with highly enriched uranium from other sources. MOX fuel assemblies contain plutonium isotopes, thus exploiting the higher neutron yield of the plutonium fission process. This paper describes and evaluates the gamma, spontaneous and alpha reaction neutron source terms of these non-irradiated fuel assembly types by defining their nuclear characteristics. The dose rates which arise from these terms are provided along with an overview of radiation protection aspects for consideration in transporting and delivering such fuel assemblies to power generating utilities. PMID:16381693

Terry, Ian R

2005-01-01

294

Standards for protection against radiation, 10 CFR Part 20  

SciTech Connect

On may 21, 1991, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued a revision to its standards for protection against ionizing radiation, 10 CFR Part 20. Although the revised part ({section}{section} 20.1001-20.2401) became effective on June 20, 1991, licensees may defer implementation of the revised rule until January 1, 1993. Licensees continue to be required to comply with the provisions of {section}{section} 20.1-20.601 until the time they adopt the provisions of {section}{section} 20.1001-20.2401. Therefore, between June 20, 1991 and January 1, 1993 both the provisions of {section}{section} 20.1-20.601 and {section}{section} 20.1001-20.2401 are in effect. This NUREG presents a comparative text of the provisions of the revised Part 20 ({section}{section} 20.1001-20. 2401) to the text of {section}{section} 20.1-20.601 for use by the NRC staff and NRC licensees. 2 refs.

Cool, D.A.; Peterson, H.T. Jr.

1991-10-01

295

Water protection in the Baltic Sea and the Chesapeake Bay: Institutions, policies and efficiency.  

PubMed

The Baltic Sea and the Chesapeake Bay share many characteristics. Both are shallow, brackish marine areas that suffer from eutrophication. Successful policies targeting point source pollution have lowered nutrient loads in both areas, but achieving the desired marine quality will require further abatement: efforts may be extended to more complicated and expensive pollution sources, notably agricultural nonpoint loads. Despite their ecological similarities, the two watersheds have different histories and institutional settings and have thus adopted different policies. Comparing and contrasting the policies reveal ways to improve the efficiency of each and ways to avoid the path of trial and error. No comparison of the parallel protection efforts, which involve expenditures of hundreds of millions of dollars annually, has been carried out to date. The present paper analyzes the policies applied in the two regions, distilling the results into six recommendations for future steps in preserving what are valuable sea areas. PMID:25752532

Iho, Antti; Ribaudo, Marc; Hyytiäinen, Kari

2015-04-15

296

FP7 Euratom Work Programme Call title: Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection  

E-print Network

Coordination and Support Action(s) (supporting) Fission-3.2Medical uses of radiation: Fission-2008-3.2.1: The risk of early and late health effects from the use of radiation therapy Small or mediumFP7 Euratom Work Programme Call Fiche Call title: Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection Call

De Cindio, Fiorella

297

THE ORIGIN AND OPERATION OF THE NEW JERSEY STATE COMMISSION ON RADIATION PROTECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin, function, responsibilities, actions, and possible future ; activities of the New Jersey Commission on Radiation Protection are described. ; The Commission has broad authority to formulate and adopt a code of regulations ; which it considers necessary to prevent unnecessary radiation, defined in the ; legislative act as any exposure to varied ionizing radiations which is or can

Sonnenblick

1962-01-01

298

Ionizing and Nonionizing Radiation Protection. Module SH-35. Safety and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student module on ionizing and nonionizing radiation protection is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module describes various types of ionizing and nonionizing radiation, and the situations in the workplace where potential hazards from radiation may exist. Following the introduction, 13 objectives (each keyed to a…

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

299

POLICY ON THE PROTECTION OF DIGNITY AT WORK AND STUDY 1 Policy Statement  

E-print Network

that if harassment or bullying does occur, adequate procedures are readily available to deal with the problem the policy to all members of staff and students. Regard any incident of harassment or bullying as a serious of authority bullying someone in a lesser position, but bullying of people in a more senior position by people

Bearhop, Stuart

300

Radiation Symbols  

MedlinePLUS

Radiation Protection Basics Health Effects Ionizing & Non-Ionizing Radiation Understanding Radiation: Radiation Symbols Radiation Protection Basics Main Page History of Radiation Protection Radiation Warning Symbols Radiation Warning Sign Gallery ...

301

Main principles of radiation protection and their applications in waste management  

SciTech Connect

The average exposure for an individual from such background in the United States is about 300 mrem per year with approximately 200 mrem of this coming from radon exposure alone. In addition to the natural sources of background radiation, a very small amount of the background radiation occurs due to the nuclear weapons test fallout. Manmade sources of radiation also include certain consumer products, industrial and research use of radioisotopes, medical X-rays, and radiopharmaceuticals. When all sources, natural and man-made, are taken into account, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has estimated that the average annual dose to individuals in the US population is 360 mrem (NCRP Report No. 93). In this report the fundamental principles of radiation protection are reviewed, as well as the relevant laws and regulations in the United States and discuss application of radiation protection in radioactive waste management.

Devgun, J.S.

1993-09-01

302

Multi-national findings on radiation protection of children.  

PubMed

This article reviews issues of radiation protection in children in 52 low-resource countries. Extensive information was obtained through a survey by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); wide-ranging information was available from 40 countries and data from the other countries pertained to frequency of pediatric CT examinations. Of note is that multi-detector CT (MDCT) was available in 77% of responses to the survey, typically nodal centers in these countries. Nearly 75% of these scanners were reported to have dose displays. The pediatric CT usage was lower in European facilities as compared to Asian and African facilities, where usage was twice as high. The most frequently scanned body part was the head. Frequent use of 120 kVp was reported in children. The ratio of maximum to minimum CT dose index volume (CTDIvol) values varied between 15 for abdomen CT in the age group 5-10 years and 100 for chest CT in the age group <1 year. In 8% of the CT systems, CTDI values for pediatric patients were higher than those for adults in at least one age group and for one type of examination. Use of adult protocols for children was associated with CTDIw or CTDIvol values in children that were double those of adults for head and chest examination and 50% higher for abdomen examination. Patient dose records were kept in nearly half of the facilities, with the highest frequency in Europe (55% of participating facilities), and in 49% of Asian, 36% of Latin American and 14% of African facilities. The analysis of the first-choice examinations in seven clinical conditions showed that practice was in accordance with guidelines for only three of seven specified clinical conditions. PMID:25304707

Rehani, Madan M

2014-10-01

303

Photoprotection beyond Ultraviolet Radiation – Effective Sun Protection Has to Include Protection against Infrared A Radiation-Induced Skin Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar radiation is well known to damage human skin, for example by causing premature skin ageing (i.e. photoageing). We have recently learned that this damage does not result from ultraviolet (UV) radiation alone, but also from longer wavelengths, in particular near-infrared radiation (IRA radiation, 760–1,440 nm). IRA radiation accounts for more than one third of the solar energy that reaches

P. Schroeder; C. Calles; T. Benesova; F. Macaluso; J. Krutmann

2010-01-01

304

Spacecraft Radiator Freeze Protection Using a Regenerative Heat Exchanger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An active thermal control system architecture has been modified to include a regenerative heat exchanger (regenerator) inboard of the radiator. Rather than using a radiator bypass valve a regenerative heat exchanger is placed inboard of the radiators. A regenerator cold side bypass valve is used to set the return temperature. During operation, the regenerator bypass flow is varied, mixing cold radiator return fluid and warm regenerator outlet fluid to maintain the system setpoint. At the lowest heat load for stable operation, the bypass flow is closed off, sending all of the flow through the regenerator. This lowers the radiator inlet temperature well below the system set-point while maintaining full flow through the radiators. By using a regenerator bypass flow control to maintain system setpoint, the required minimum heat load to avoid radiator freezing can be reduced by more than half compared to a radiator bypass system.

Ungar, Eugene K.; Schunk, Richard G.

2011-01-01

305

Selenomethionine protects against adverse biological effects induced by space radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionizing radiation-induced adverse biological effects impose serious challenges to astronauts during extended space travel. Of particular concern is the radiation from highly energetic, heavy, charged particles known as HZE particles. The objective of the present study was to characterize HZE particle radiation-induced adverse biological effects and evaluate the effect of d-selenomethionine (SeM) on the HZE particle radiation-induced adverse biological effects.

Ann R. Kennedy; Jeffrey H. Ware; Jun Guan; Jeremiah J. Donahue; John E. Biaglow; Zhaozong Zhou; Jelena Stewart; Marcelo Vazquez; X. Steven Wan

2004-01-01

306

The problem of radiation protection in x-ray diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

UDC 615.47.03:616-073.75 X-ray diagnosis and therapy have an adverse radiation effect on people. This particularly concerns x-ray diagnosis, because about 50% of the entire population undergoes annual prophylactic or diagnostic x-ray examination. Therefore, radiation safety of x-ray diagnosis is of particular importance. Indeed, average effective dose of background radiation is 1.0-1.5 mSv and radiation dose received by an average person

R. V. Stavitskii

1995-01-01

307

Non-coherent near infrared radiation protects normal human dermal fibroblasts from solar ultraviolet toxicity.  

PubMed

The sun is the most important and universal source of non-ionizing radiation shed on human populations. Life evolved on Earth bathed by this radiation. Solar UV damages cells, leading to deleterious conditions such as photoaging and carcinogenesis in human skin. During the process of evolution, the cells selected dark- and light-dependent repair mechanisms as a defence against these hazardous effects. This study describes the induction by non-coherent infrared radiation (700-2000 nm), in the absence of rising temperature, of a strong cellular defense against solar UV cytotoxicity as well as induction of cell mitosis. Blocking mitoses with arabinoside-cytosine or protein synthesis with cycloheximide did not abolish the protection, leading to the conclusion that this protection is independent of cell division and of protein neosynthesis. The protection provided by infrared radiation against solar UV radiation is shown to be a long-lasting (at least 24 h) and cumulatif phenomenon. Infrared radiation does not protect the lipids in cellular membranes against UVA induced peroxidation. The protection is not mediated by heat shock proteins. Living organisms on the Earth's surface are bathed by infrared radiation every day, before being submitted to solar UV. Thus, we propose that this as yet undescribed natural process of cell protection against solar UV, acquired and preserved through evolutional selection, plays an important role in life maintenance. Understanding and controlling this mechanism could provide important keys to the prevention of solar UV damage of human skin. PMID:9764844

Menezes, S; Coulomb, B; Lebreton, C; Dubertret, L

1998-10-01

308

Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most effect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

Lin, Zi-wei

2004-01-01

309

Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space exploration.

Lin, Zi-Wei

2004-01-01

310

Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

Lin, Zi-Wei

2004-01-01

311

Protection from solar UV radiation - how important is what you wear and how you wear it?  

Microsoft Academic Search

How fabric properties and conditions of wear affect UV transmission is reviewed and recommendations for manufacture and selection of sun protective garments are discussed. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been identified as the \\

C. A. Wilson

312

Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation-protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A Practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

1989-04-01

313

Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

1989-04-01

314

Synthesis and evaluation of novel tetrapropoxycalix[4]arene enones and cinnamates for protection from ultraviolet radiation.  

PubMed

A series of novel calix[4]arene enones (5-7) and cinnamates (12-14) have been synthesized and evaluated for ensuring protection from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Spectroscopic analyses has revealed that compound 6 absorbs ultraviolet radiations between 280 and 350 nm with an absorption maximum at 312 nm. Its molar absorption coefficient (?) (>5 × 10(4)M(-1)cm(-1)) and bandwidth are larger than those for the commercially used sun protectants (oxybenzone (OB), 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (OMC) and avobenzone). The in vitro Sun Protection Factor (SPF) measurement revealed an SPF of 5.2 at 2% concentration of 6 in home made emulsion formulations while combination of 2% each of 6 and OMC gave an SPF of 8.8. Lower sun protection seems to be compensated by significant protection from more harmful UVA radiations (UVA/UVB absorbance ratio of 0.62). PMID:21803597

Chawla, H M; Pant, Nalin; Kumar, Satish; Mrig, Sarika; Srivastava, Bindu; Kumar, Naresh; Black, D Stc

2011-10-01

315

Proposed Amendments to the Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed amendments to its radiation protection standards for the potential spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste disposal system in Yucca Mountain, Nevada on 22 August 2005. The original standards are found in Part 197 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 197). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 directed, and gave the authority to, EPA to take this action based upon input from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). The final original standards were published in the Federal Register (66 FR 32073) on 13 June 2001. In July 2004, a Federal court remanded part of the standards to EPA for reconsideration. The 40 CFR Part 197 standards, as issued in 2001, have four major parts: (1) individual-protection during storage activities; (2) individual-protection following closure of the repository; (3) human-intrusion; and (4) ground-water protection. The storage standard is 150 micro-sieverts ({mu}Sv) (15 mrem) annual committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) to any member of the general public. The disposal standards are: (1) 150 {mu}Sv (15 mrem) annual CEDE for the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) for 10,000 years after disposal; (2)150 {mu}Sv (15 mrem) annual CEDE received by the RMEI within 10,000 years after disposal as a result of human intrusion; and (3) the levels of radionuclides in the ground water cannot cause annual individual doses to exceed: (1) 40 {mu}Sv (4 mrem) per year from beta and gamma emitters or (2) 5 pico-curies per liter (pCi/L) of radium-226 and -228 or 15 pCi/L of gross alpha activity. There were also requirements related to the post-10,000-year period, the basis of compliance judgments, and performance assessments. The Agency's proposed amendments would retain the individual-protection standard established in the 2001 standards, up to 10,000 years. In addition, the compliance period for the individual-protection and human-intrusion standards would be increased to 1 million years and the annual CEDE limit between 10,000 and 1 million years would be 3.5 mSv (350 mrem). There are also proposed requirements for the way performance assessments will be conducted. Finally, the dose calculation methodology would be updated to an ICRP 60 and 72 basis instead of ICRP 26 and 30. The comment period on the proposed amendments ended 21 November 2005. The Agency is analyzing the comments and will publish its responses when issuing the final standards. The proposed standards and the support documents are available at http://www.epa.gov/radiation/yucca/index.html. The docket containing all of the comments is under Docket ID EPA-HQ-OAR-2005-0083 at: http://www.regulations.gov. (author)

Clark, L. [U.S. Public Health Service, Team Leader for the Yucca Mountain Standards, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (6608J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. 20460-0001 (United States)

2006-07-01

316

38th Lauriston S. Taylor lecture: on the shoulders of giants - radiation protection over 50 years.  

PubMed

Most advances in science, technology, and radiation protection are not truly new ideas but rather build upon a foundation of prior work and achievements by earlier generations of scientists and researchers. This paper summarizes major achievements over the last 50-70 y in the various areas involved in radiation protection as well as giving information about some of those who were, and are, significant contributors. PMID:25551488

Mettler, Fred A

2015-02-01

317

The Australasian Radiation Protection Society's Position Statement on Risks from Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation  

PubMed Central

Controversy continues on whether or not ionizing radiation is harmful at low doses, with unresolved scientific uncertainty about effects below a few tens of millisieverts. To settle what regulatory controls should apply in this dose region, an assumption has to be made relating dose to the possibility of harm or benefit. The position of the Australasian Radiation Protection Society on this matter is set out in a statement adopted by the Society in 2005. Its salient features are: •There is insufficient evidence to establish a dose-effect relationship for doses that are less than a few tens of millisieverts in a year. A linear extrapolation from higher dose levels should be assumed only for the purpose of applying regulatory controls.• Estimates of collective dose arising from individual doses that are less than some tens of millisieverts in a year should not be used to predict numbers of fatal cancers.•The risk to an individual of doses significantly less than 100 microsieverts in a year is so small, if it exists at all, that regulatory requirements to control exposure at this level are not warranted. PMID:18648567

Higson, Donald

2007-01-01

318

Process for producing radiation-induced self-terminating protective coatings on a substrate  

DOEpatents

A gas and radiation are used to produce a protective coating that is substantially void-free on the molecular scale, self-terminating, and degradation resistant. The process can be used to deposit very thin (.apprxeq.5-20 .ANG.) coatings on critical surfaces needing protection from degradative processes including, corrosion and contamination.

Klebanoff, Leonard E. (Dublin, CA)

2001-01-01

319

A Fuzzy Logic Enhanced Environmental Protection Education Model for Policies Decision Support in Green Community Development  

PubMed Central

This study proposes the promotion of environmental protection education among communities as a solution to the serious problems of high energy consumption and carbon emissions around the world. Environmental protection education has direct and lasting influences on everyone in society; therefore, it is helpful in our fight against many serious problems caused by high energy consumption. In this study, the Delphi method and the fuzzy logic theory are used to develop a quantizing assessment model based on qualitative analysis. This model can be used to assess the results and influences of community residents' participation in environmental protection education on green community development. In addition, it can be used to provide references for governing authorities in their decision making of green community development policies. PMID:24363614

2013-01-01

320

Relevant aspects of radiation protection in oil and gas well logging.  

PubMed

Radiation sources have being widely used in industrial applications, but their inappropriate use presents a large potential for hazards to human health and the environment. These hazards can be minimised by development of specific radiation protection rules and adequate procedures for the handling, use and storage of radiation sources, which should be established in a national normative framework. Recently, due to discovery of new oil and gas reservoirs on the Brazilian continental shelf, especially in deep water and the pre-salt layer, there has been a large and rapid increase in the use of radiation sources for well logging. Generic radiation protection regulations have been used for licensing the use of radiation sources for well logging, but these are not comprehensive or technically suitable for this purpose. Therefore it is necessary to establish specific Brazilian safety regulations for this purpose. In this work, an assessment is presented of the relevant radiation protection aspects of nuclear well logging not covered by generic regulations, with the aim of contributing to the future development of specific safety regulations for the licensing of radioactive facilities for oil and gas well logging in Brazil. The conclusions of this work relate to four areas, which include the specific requirements to control (1) radiation sources, (2) radiation survey meters and (3) access to radiation workplaces and (4) to control and identify the workers who are occupationally exposed. PMID:24080901

Gomes, R S; Lopes Gomes, J D R; Costa, M L L; Miranda, M V F E S

2013-12-01

321

Measurements of the effectiveness of antenna screens for protection of the head from mobile phone radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements have been taken of the electromagnetic field distribution around a mobile phone which was transmitting CW at 890 MHz. The measurements were taken using a mobile phone with a short monopole antenna and were then repeated with a reflector (that is supposed to protect the head from radiation) interposed between the head and the radiating antenna. Measurements of field

S. Jenvey

1998-01-01

322

The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of doses to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers.

Fry, R. J. M.

323

The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight  

SciTech Connect

This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of does to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers.

Fry, R.J.M.

1993-04-01

324

The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight  

SciTech Connect

This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of does to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers.

Fry, R.J.M.

1993-01-01

325

New nuclear build and evolving radiation protection challenges.  

PubMed

Radiological protection has continued to evolve in order to meet emerging challenges and will continue to do so. This paper will discuss the scientific and social challenges that will or may be faced by the radiological protection community in the coming 10 to 20 y and how these may affect what is expected to be a renewed interest in building and operating nuclear power plants for electricity generation. PMID:21399418

Lazo, Edward

2011-01-01

326

Legislative and policy challenges for the protection of biodiversity and bushland habitats: An evidence-based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balancing the needs of biodiversity in the context of ESD remains a challenging and ongoing issue for consent authorities, developers and scientists alike. This article explores some of practical, scientific, legislative and policy issues facing the protection of biodiversity in the context of urbanisation. The application of legislative and policy instruments to environmental decision-making needs to be complemented with more

Mark Patrick Taylor

2008-01-01

327

There Is Water Everywhere: How News Framing Amplifies the Effect of Ecological Worldviews on Preference for Flooding Protection Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the interactive effect of worldviews and media frames on policy preference. Using flooding as a case study, we examine the interplay of ecological worldviews and news framed as either emphasizing harmony with nature or mastery over nature on individuals' preference for flood protection policy. A total of 255 undergraduate students participated in

Timothy K. F. Fung; Dominique Brossard; Isabella Ng

2011-01-01

328

On the Use of Transcendence as an Apologia Strategy: The Case of Johnson Controls and Its Fetal Protection Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the organizational use of transcendent appeals to redefine "sin" into a "virtue." Analyzes Johnson Controls' apologia after critics charged that its "fetal protection policy" was discriminatory. Examines the redefinitions and ultimate terms invoked by the company to justify its choice of policy. (PA)

Hearit, Keith Michael

1997-01-01

329

THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER QUALITY TRADING POLICY: NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ADVOCACY GROUPS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental non-profit organizations in the United States (U.S.) are in the early stages of reacting to a revolutionary water pollution control policy. In January 2003, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with the support of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, announced its Water Quality Trading Policy (the Policy) encouraging the trading of surplus water pollutant reduction credits. In doing so,

Sean Blacklocke; Ben Dziegielewski

330

Strategic effects of future environmental policy commitments: climate change, solar radiation management and correlated air pollutants.  

PubMed

We study the effects of environmental policy commitments in a futuristic world in which solar radiation management (SRM) can be utilized to reduce climate change damages. Carbon and sulfur dioxide emissions (correlated pollutants) can be reduced through tradable permits. We show that if nations simultaneously commit to carbon permit policies, national SRM levels rise with carbon quotas. Alternatively, if they simultaneously commit to SRM policies, the global temperature falls with each unit increase in the global SRM level. A nation always wishes to be a leader in policymaking, but prefers carbon to SRM policymaking. The globe prefers SRM policy commitments. PMID:25528270

Qu, Jingwen; Silva, Emilson Caputo Delfino

2015-03-15

331

Low-Dose-Radiation Stimulated Natural Chemical and Biological Protection Against Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Research is being conducted world-wide related to chemoprevention of future lung cancer among smokers. The fact that low doses and dose rates of some sparsely ionizing forms of radiation (e.g., x rays, gamma rays, and beta radiation) stimulate transient natural chemical and biological protection against cancer in high-risk individuals is little known. The cancer preventative properties relate to radiation adaptive response (radiation hormesis) and involve stimulated protective biological signaling (a mild stress response). The biological processes associated with the protective signaling are now better understood and include: increased availability of efficient DNA double-strand break repair (p53-related and in competition with normal apoptosis), stimulated auxiliary apoptosis of aberrant cells (presumed p53-independent), and stimulated protective immune functions. This system of low-dose radiation activated natural protection (ANP) requires an individual-specific threshold level of mild stress and when invoked can efficiently prevent the occurrence of cancers as well as other genomic-instability-associated diseases. In this paper, low, essentially harmless doses of gamma rays spread over an extended period are shown via use of a biological-based, hormetic relative risk (HRR) model to be highly efficient in preventing lung cancer induction by alpha radiation from inhaled plutonium. PMID:18846259

Scott, B. R.

2008-01-01

332

Final report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination, 1984-1995  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). The committee was established to address national and international issues involving ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Three sections are included in the report: a summary of CIRRPC`s history structure, and operations; CIRRPC`s most significant activities, findings and recommendations on national radiation issues of sufficient importance and scope to require interagency attention; topics for future consideration by Federal agencies.

NONE

1995-09-01

333

Prevent Eye Damage: Protect Yourself from UV Radiation  

MedlinePLUS

... With increased levels of UV radiation reaching the Earth’s surface, largely due to stratospheric ozone layer depletion, ... do I need to wear sunglasses? A: Every day, even on cloudy days. Snow, water, sand, and ...

334

Radiation protection aspects of the operation in a cyclotron facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activated accelerator cyclotron components and the radioisotope production may impact on the personnel radiation exposure of the workers during the routine maintenance and emergency repair procedures and any modification of the equipment. Since the adherence of the principle of ALARA (as low as reasonable achievable) constitutes a major objective of the cyclotron management, it has become imperative to investigate the radiation levels at the workplace and the probable health effects to the worker caused by radiation exposure. The data analysis in this study was based on the individual monitoring records during the period from 2007 to 2011. Monitoring of the workplace was also performed using gamma and neutron detectors to determine the dose rate in various predetermined spots. The results of occupational radiation exposures were analysed and compared with the values established in national standards and international recommendations. Important guidelines have been developed to reduce the individual dose.

Silva, P. P. N.; Carneiro, J. C. G. G.

2014-02-01

335

Nuclear Fragmentation Processes Relevant for Human Space Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for human space explorations such-as a moon base or a trip to Mars. Models have been developed in order to predict the radiation exposure to astronauts and to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials, and a key ingredient in these models is the physics of nuclear fragmentations. We have developed a semi-analytical method to determine which partial cross sections of nuclear fragmentations most affect the radiation dose behind shielding materials due to exposure to galactic cosmic rays. The cross sections thus determined will require more theoretical and/or experimental studies in order for us to better predict, reduce and mitigate the radiation exposure in human space explorations.

Lin, Zi-Wei

2007-01-01

336

ULTRAVIOLET PROTECTIVE COMPOUNDS AS A RESPONSE TO ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Life on Earth has evolved adaptations to many environmental stresses over the epochs. One consistent stress has been exposure to ultraviolet radiation. In response to UVR organisms have adapted myriad responses; behavioral, morphological and physiological. Behaviorally, some orga...

337

CIRRPC: Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination. Eighth annual report  

SciTech Connect

CIRRPC`s eighth year was marked by the completion of several CIRRPC projects, including: An independent study on the possible health effects of extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields; a report evaluating the uncertainties identified in a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report on the biological effects of ionizing radiation and their impact on the report`s application to Federal risk assessment; an analysis of the use of two reports on radiation risk assessment from NAS and the United Nations; and an update of Part 11 of ORAU`s radiation protection fact sheets, a compilation of major US radiation protection standards and guides. CIRRPC also sponsored a workshop on internal dosimetry and provided financial support to the 1991 Health Physics Society Summer School on the biological basis of radiation protection practice. The program highlights are briefly described in this report.

Young, A.L. [Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-12-01

338

UNCORRECTEDPROOF Please cite this article in press as: Park, W.G., International patent protection: 19602005, Res Policy (2008),  

E-print Network

UNCORRECTEDPROOF Please cite this article in press as: Park, W.G., International patent protection­6 Research Policy xxx (2008) xxx­xxx Available online at www.sciencedirect.com International patent; accepted 29 January 2008 4 Abstract5 This note provides an update to the index of patent protection

Lansky, Joshua

2008-01-01

339

The Relationship between Sun Protection Policy and Associated Practices in a National Sample of Early Childhood Services in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limiting exposure to sunlight during childhood can significantly reduce the risk of skin cancer. This was the first national study to assess the sun protection policies and practices of early childhood services across Australia. It also examined the key predictors of services' sun protection practices. In 2007, 1017 respondents completed a…

Ettridge, Kerry A.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Rayner, Joanne M.; Wilson, Carlene J.

2011-01-01

340

The road to radiation protection: a rocky path.  

PubMed

Radiation has intrigued us with its magnificent properties of imaging and healing. But this discovery, like many others, came with a heavy price. The pioneers of this form of energy themselves often succumbed to its devastating effects and hence, paved a way for future generations to be wary of it, while continuing to use it. This paper attempts to salute those masters who have helped make the radiation world a safer place to live and work in. PMID:25654052

Khare, Pooja; Nair, Preeti; Khare, Amit; Singh, Vandana; Chatterjee, Rhiti

2014-12-01

341

The Road To Radiation Protection: A Rocky Path  

PubMed Central

Radiation has intrigued us with its magnificent properties of imaging and healing. But this discovery, like many others, came with a heavy price. The pioneers of this form of energy themselves often succumbed to its devastating effects and hence, paved a way for future generations to be wary of it, while continuing to use it. This paper attempts to salute those masters who have helped make the radiation world a safer place to live and work in. PMID:25654052

Nair, Preeti; Khare, Amit; Singh, Vandana; Chatterjee, Rhiti

2014-01-01

342

Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Atoll (2002-2004)  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Enewetak Island (Figure 1) (Bell et al., 2002). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance programs are helping meet the informational needs of the U.S. DOE and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Our updated environmental assessments provide a strong scientific basis for predicting future change in exposure conditions especially in relation to changes in lifestyle, diet and/or land-use patterns. This information has important implications in addressing questions about existing (and future) radiological conditions on the islands, in determining the cost and estimating the effectiveness of potential remedial measures, and in general policy support considerations. Perhaps most importantly, the recently established individual radiological surveillance programs provide affected atoll communities with an unprecedented level of radiation protection monitoring where, for the first time, local resources are being made available to monitor resettled and resettling populations on a continuous basis. As a hard copy supplement to Marshall Islands Program website (http://eed.llnl.gov/mi/), this document provides an overview of the individual radiation protection monitoring program established for the Enewetak Atoll population group along with a full disclosure of all verified measurement data (2002-2004). Readers are advised that an additional feature of the associated web site is a provision where users are able calculate and track doses delivered to volunteers (de-identified information only) participating in the Marshall Islands Radiological Surveillance Program.

Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Johannes, K; Henry, D

2006-01-17

343

Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Rongelap Atoll (2002-2004)  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Rongelap Atoll (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance programs are helping meet the informational needs of the U.S. DOE and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Our updated environmental assessments provide a strong scientific basis for predicting future change in exposure conditions especially in relation to changes in lifestyle, diet and/or land-use patterns. This information has important implications in addressing questions about existing (and future) radiological conditions on the islands, in determining as well as the implementation, cost and effectiveness of potential intervention options, and in general policy support considerations. Perhaps most importantly, the recently established individual radiological surveillance programs provide affected atoll communities with an unprecedented level of radiation protection monitoring where, for the first time, local resources are being made available to monitor resettled and resettling populations on a continuous basis. As a hard copy supplement to Marshall Islands Program website (http://eed.llnl.gov/mi/), this document provides an overview of the individual radiation protection monitoring program established for resettlement workers living on Rongelap Island along with a full disclosure of all verified measurement data (2002-2004). Readers are advised that an additional feature of the associated web site is a provision where users are able calculate and track doses delivered to volunteers (de-identified information only) participating the Marshall Islands Radiological Surveillance Program.

Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Arelong, E; Langinbelik, S

2006-01-17

344

Oceanic protection of prebiotic organic compounds from UV radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is frequently stated that UV light would cause massive destruction of prebiotic organic compounds because of the absence of an ozone layer. The elevated UV flux of the early sun compounds this problem. This applies to organic compounds of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin. Attempts to deal with this problem generally involve atmospheric absorbers. We show here that prebiotic organic polymers as well as several inorganic compounds are sufficient to protect oceanic organic molecules from UV degradation. This aqueous protection is in addition to any atmospheric UV absorbers and should be a ubiquitous planetary phenomenon serving to increase the size of planetary habitable zones.

Cleaves, H. J.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

345

Beneficial effects of cellular autofluorescence following ionization radiation: Hypothetical approaches for radiation protection and enhancing radiotherapy effectiveness.  

PubMed

Ionization radiation (IR) is a main part of modern technologies with a double-edge sword manner. Finding the most feasible therapies to reduce adverse effects of IR and also enhancing radiotherapy effectiveness is a debating issue that has been challenged and studied for years. The main aim of the present hypothetical research was to theorize and suggest a new biological radiation protection approach and also increasing radiotherapy outcomes based on cellular autofluorescence following IR. In this hypothesis, we suggested that this cellular autofluorescence can activate some synthetic drugs called photo-activated agents that are injected in human body after radiation exposures scenarios. Photo activated agents can activate biological pathways such as DNA repair and immunostimulation pathways, bystander signals blocking, and so survive cells and tissues. In the other hand, light emitted by cellular response to radiation can be used as like as photodynamic therapy and therefore more cancer cells killing via apoptosis and necrosis. These ideas can be performed in future using more animal and in vivo/in vitro studies and clinical trials. In conclusion, cellular autofluorescence after radiation exposure can be used as a source for activation specific drugs for radiation protection and also radiation therapy effectiveness. These hypothetical therapeutic approaches can be served as personalized therapy based on individual radiosensitivity. PMID:25613566

Abdollahi, Hamid

2015-03-01

346

Linear attenuation coefficient and build up factor of MCP-96 alloy for radiation shielding and protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Build-up factors and linear attenuation coefficients of MCP-96 alloy are determined for radiation shielding and protection, using ^60Co and ^137Cs gamma emitters. A narrow collimated beam of ?-rays is passed through various thicknesses of MCP-96 alloy and the attenuation in the intensity of the beam is determined. The thickness of the 4 x 4 cm^2 blocks varies from 0.5 cm to 6 cm. Plotting the thickness of the alloy and the corresponding intensity of the beam allowed us to determine its linear attenuation coefficient. The narrow beam geometry is then replaced by broad beam geometry by removing the collimator and the radiation beam is able to interact with the MCP-96 alloy at all possible positions facing the radiation source. Additional radiations obtained by the detector as a result from the scattering of radiation develops the build-up factor. The buildup factor is then calculated using the attenuated beam received by the detector in the broad beam geometry and in the narrow beam geometry. The buildup factor is found to be dependent on the thickness of the MCP-96 attenuator, the beam energy and the source to attenuator distance. These values are providing ways for dose correction in radiation oncology and radiation shielding and protection when MCP-96 is used as tissue compensator or for radiation protection purposes.

Hopkins, Deidre; Maqbool, Muhammad; Islam, Mohammed

2009-10-01

347

Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Utrok Atoll (2003-2004)  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance programs are helping meet the informational needs of the U.S. DOE and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Our updated environmental assessments provide a strong scientific basis for predicting future change in exposure conditions especially in relation to changes in life-style, diet and/or land-use patterns. This information has important implications in addressing questions about existing (and future) radiological conditions on the islands, in determining the cost and the effectiveness of potential remedial measures, and in general policy support considerations. Perhaps most importantly, the recently established individual radiological surveillance programs provide affected atoll communities with an unprecedented level of radiation protection monitoring where, for the first time, local resources are being made available to monitor resettled and resettling populations on a continuous basis. As a hard copy supplement to Marshall Islands Program website (http://eed.llnl.gov/mi/), this document provides an overview of the individual radiation surveillance monitoring program established for the Utrok Atoll population group along with a full disclosure of all verified measurement data (2003-2004). The Utrok whole body counting facility has been temporarily stationed on Majuro Atoll and, in cooperation with the Utrok Atoll Local Government, serves as a national facility open to the general public. Readers are advised that an additional feature of the associated website is a provision whereby users are able to calculate and track radiation doses delivered to volunteers (de-identified information only) participating in the Marshall Islands Radiological Surveillance Program.

Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Tibon, S; Chee, L

2006-01-17

348

Modern Methods of Real-Time Gamma Radiation Monitoring for General Personal Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time radiation detectors become an essential part of emergency personnel who may have to respond to unknown accidents, incidents or terrorist attacks, which could involve radioactive material. More and more ordinary citizens are interested in personal radiation protection as well. Reasons include lost sources, nuclear industrial accidents, nuclear or radiological terrorism and the possibility of nuclear weapons being used in a war. People want to have the ability to measure it for themselves and they want to be notified when the radiation levels are increased. To meet this demand, considerable research into new sensors is underway, including efforts to enhance the sensor performance through both the material properties and manufacturing technologies. Deep understanding of physical properties of the materials under the influence of radiation exposure is vital for the effective design of dosimeter devices. Detection of radiation is based on the fact that both the electrical and the optical properties of the materials undergo changes upon the exposure to ionizing radiation. It is believed that radiation causes structural defects. The influence of radiation depends on both the dose and the parameters of the films including their thickness: the degradation is more severe for the higher dose and the thinner films. This paper presents overview of modern methods of real-time gamma radiation monitoring for personal protection of radiation workers and general public and suggests further developments in this area.

Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

349

The IHS diagnostic X-ray equipment radiation protection program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian Health Service (IHS) operates or contracts with Tribal groups to operate 50 hospitals and approximately 165 primary ambulatory care centers. These facilities contain approximately 275 medical and 800 dental diagnostic x-ray machines. IHS environmental health personnel in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) developed a diagnostic x-ray protection program

A. Knapp; G. Byrns; O. Suleiman

1994-01-01

350

Baseline survey of sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy in early childhood settings in Queensland, Australia.  

PubMed

Excessive exposure to sunlight during early childhood increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Self-administered questionnaires exploring sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy were mailed to the directors/coordinators/senior teachers of all known early childhood services in Queensland, Australia, in 2002 (n = 1383; 56.5% response). Most (73.7%) services had a written sun-protection policy (SPP). However, 40.6% of pre-schools and kindergartens had not developed a written SPP. Most directors had moderate knowledge about sun-protection (median score: 7/12 [IQR 6, 8]), but few understood the UV index, the sun-protection factor rating for sunscreens or the association between childhood sun-exposure, mole development and melanoma. Pre-school teachers had lower knowledge scores than directors of long day care centers and other services (P = 0.0005). Staff members reportedly wore sun-protective hats, clothing and sunglasses more often than children. However, sunscreen use was higher among children than staff. Directors' knowledge scores predicted reported hat, clothing, sunscreen and shade utilization among children. Remoteness impacted negatively on director's knowledge (P = 0.043) and written SPP development (P = 0.0005). Higher composite sun-protection scores were reported for children and staff from services with written sun-protection policies. SPP development and increased sun-protection knowledge of directors may improve reported sun-protective behaviors of children and staff of early childhood services. PMID:16880216

Harrison, Simone L; Saunders, V; Nowak, M

2007-04-01

351

The Food Marketing Defense Model: Integrating Psychological Research to Protect Youth and Inform Public Policy  

PubMed Central

Marketing practices that promote calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods directly to children and adolescents present significant public health risk. Worldwide, calls for government action and industry change to protect young people from the negative effects of food marketing have increased. Current proposals focus on restricting television advertising to children under 12 years old, but current psychological models suggest that much more is required. All forms of marketing pose considerable risk; adolescents are also highly vulnerable; and food marketing may produce far-reaching negative health outcomes. We propose a food marketing defense model that posits four necessary conditions to effectively counter harmful food marketing practices: awareness, understanding, ability and motivation to resist. A new generation of psychological research is needed to examine each of these processes, including the psychological mechanisms through which food marketing affects young people, to identify public policy that will effectively protect them from harmful influence. PMID:20182647

Harris, Jennifer L.; Brownell, Kelly D.; Bargh, John A.

2009-01-01

352

CDDO-Me Protects Normal Lung and Breast Epithelial Cells but Not Cancer Cells from Radiation  

PubMed Central

Although radiation therapy is commonly used for treatment for many human diseases including cancer, ionizing radiation produces reactive oxygen species that can damage both cancer and healthy cells. Synthetic triterpenoids, including CDDO-Me, act as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant modulators primarily by inducing the transcription factor Nrf2 to activate downstream genes containing antioxidant response elements (AREs). In the present series of experiments, we determined if CDDO-Me can be used as a radioprotector in normal non-cancerous human lung and breast epithelial cells, in comparison to lung and breast cancer cell lines. A panel of normal non-cancerous, partially cancer progressed, and cancer cell lines from both lung and breast tissue was exposed to gamma radiation with and without pre-treatment with CDDO-Me. CDDO-Me was an effective radioprotector when given ?18 hours before radiation in epithelial cells (average dose modifying factor (DMF)?=?1.3), and Nrf2 function was necessary for CDDO-Me to exert these radioprotective effects. CDDO-Me did not protect cancer lines tested from radiation-induced cytotoxicity, nor did it protect experimentally transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) with progressive oncogenic manipulations. CDDO-Me also protected human lymphocytes against radiation-induced DNA damage. A therapeutic window exists in which CDDO-Me protects normal cells from radiation by activating the Nrf2 pathway, but does not protect experimentally transformed or cancer cell lines. This suggests that use of this oral available, non-toxic class of drug can protect non-cancerous healthy cells during radiotherapy, resulting in better outcomes and less toxicity for patients. PMID:25536195

El-Ashmawy, Mariam; Delgado, Oliver; Cardentey, Agnelio; Wright, Woodring E.; Shay, Jerry W.

2014-01-01

353

Reduction in radiation-induced brain injury by use of pentobarbital or lidocaine protection  

SciTech Connect

To determine if barbiturates would protect brain at high doses of radiation, survival rates in rats that received whole-brain x-irradiation during pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia were compared with those of control animals that received no medication and of animals anesthetized with ketamine. The animals were shielded so that respiratory and digestive tissues would not be damaged by the radiation. Survival rates in rats that received whole-brain irradiation as a single 7500-rad dose under pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia was increased from between from 0% and 20% to between 45% and 69% over the 40 days of observation compared with the other two groups (p less than 0.007). Ketamine anesthesia provided no protection. There were no notable differential effects upon non-neural tissues, suggesting that pentobarbital afforded protection through modulation of ambient neural activity during radiation exposure. Neural suppression during high-dose cranial irradiation protects brain from acute and early delayed radiation injury. Further development and application of this knowledge may reduce the incidence of radiation toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS) and may permit the safe use of otherwise unsafe doses of radiation in patients with CNS neoplasms.

Oldfield, E.H.; Friedman, R.; Kinsella, T.; Moquin, R.; Olson, J.J.; Orr, K.; DeLuca, A.M. (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1990-05-01

354

Protective mechanisms and acclimation to solar ultraviolet-B radiation in Oenothera stricta  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plant adaptations ameliorating or repairing the damaging effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on plant tissue were investigated. The degree of phenotype plasticity in UV protective mechanisms and acclimation in relation to the natural solar UV-B radiation flux and in an enhanced UV-B irradiance environment was also examined. Mechanisms by which plants avoid radiation, adaptations altering the path of radiation incident on the leaf, and repair processes were considered. Attenuation of UV-B by tissues, UV-B irradiation into the leaf, and the effects of UV-B on photosynthesis were investigated.

Robberecht, R.; Caldwell, M. M.

1981-01-01

355

A Hypothesis on Biological Protection from Space Radiation Through the Use of Therapeutic Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation proposes a hypothesis to use therapeutic gases in space to enhance the biological protection for astronauts from space radiation. The fundamental role in how radiation causes biological damage appears to be radiolysis, the dissociation of water by radiation. A chain of events appears to cause molecular and biological transformations that ultimately manifest into medical diseases. The hypothesis of this work is that applying medical gases may increase resistance to radiation, by possessing the chemical properties that effectively improve the radical scavenging and enhance bond repair and to induce biological processes which enhance and support natural resistance and repair mechanisms.

Schoenfeld, Michael

2011-01-01

356

Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 84, Nos. 14, pp. 131133 (1999)  

E-print Network

by vacuum UV (VUV) radiation(3) . In the present work the photo- transferred thermoluminescence (PTTL) of Ca on the tem- perature was measured between LNT and RT. Effects of optical and thermal bleaching as well as the dose dependences of the PTTL intensities were also investi- gated. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE The nominally

Chen, Reuven

357

Experimental Determination of Ultraviolet Radiation Protection of Common Materials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aiming at a better understanding of the problems associated with the depletion of the ozone layer, we propose several experiments to be performed by students of different levels: secondary and first-year undergraduate students. The oxidation of iodide induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, generated by a mercury lamp, is used as an indicator for…

Tavares, Susana C. A.; da Silva, Joaquim C. G. Esteves; Paiva, Joao

2007-01-01

358

[Current problems of chemical radiation protection of organisms].  

PubMed

The classification has been proposed for antiradiation protective agents which are divided into four groups: I. Radioprotectors; II. Adaptogens; III. Absorbents; IV. The means of Rehabilitations. Radioprotectors in turn are subdivided into myelo-, entero- and cerebroprotectors. Adaptogens act as stimulators of radioresistance. These are natural protectors which are perspective for chemical protection under low-level ionizing irradiation. Natural protectors influence regulatory systems of exposed organisms, mobilize endogenous background of radioresistance (EBR), immunity and intensivity the total non-specific resistance of organism (TNRO). Natural protectors (extracted from cells, plants, animals) are low- or nontoxic and can be used with food. Absorbents, the means of protection from internal irradiation, are subdivided into the drugs which prevents incorporation of radioiodine by thyroid gland and absorption of radionuclides (137Cs, 90Sr, 239Pu, 241Am) in the digestive tract. The main features which distinguish radioprotective drugs of different mechanisms on human organisms are presented. The main which different programs of reability on invalids-Chernobyl. PMID:10366942

Kudriashov, Iu B; Goncharenko, E N

1999-01-01

359

Radiation Protection Studies of International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Space Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication describes recent investigations that evaluate radiation shielding characteristics of NASA's and the Russian Space Agency's space suits. The introduction describes the suits and presents goals of several experiments performed with them. The first chapter provides background information about the dynamic radiation environment experienced at ISS and summarized radiation health and protection requirements for activities in low Earth orbit. Supporting studies report the development and application of a computer model of the EMU space suit and the difficulty of shielding EVA crewmembers from high-energy reentrant electrons, a previously unevaluated component of the space radiation environment. Chapters 2 through 6 describe experiments that evaluate the space suits' radiation shielding characteristics. Chapter 7 describes a study of the potential radiological health impact on EVA crewmembers of two virtually unexamined environmental sources of high-energy electrons-reentrant trapped electrons and atmospheric albedo or "splash" electrons. The radiological consequences of those sources have not been evaluated previously and, under closer scrutiny. A detailed computational model of the shielding distribution provided by components of the NASA astronauts' EMU is being developed for exposure evaluation studies. The model is introduced in Chapters 8 and 9 and used in Chapter 10 to investigate how trapped particle anisotropy impacts female organ doses during EVA. Chapter 11 presents a review of issues related to estimating skin cancer risk form space radiation. The final chapter contains conclusions about the protective qualities of the suit brought to light form these studies, as well as recommendations for future operational radiation protection.

Cucinotta, Francis A. (Editor); Shavers, Mark R. (Editor); Saganti, Premkumar B. (Editor); Miller, Jack (Editor)

2003-01-01

360

Low Doses of Radiation are Protective In Vitro and In Vivo: Evolutionary Origins  

PubMed Central

Research reports using cells from bacteria, yeast, alga, nematodes, fish, plants, insects, amphibians, birds and mammals, including wild deer, rodents or humans show non-linear radio-adaptive processes in response to low doses of low LET radiation. Low doses increased cellular DNA double-strand break repair capacity, reduced the risk of cell death, reduced radiation or chemically-induced chromosomal aberrations and mutations, and reduced spontaneous or radiation-induced malignant transformation in vitro. In animals, a single low, whole body dose of low LET radiation, increased cancer latency and restored a portion of the life that would have been lost due to either spontaneous or radiation-induced cancer in the absence of the low dose. In genetically normal fetal mice, a prior low dose protected against radiation-induced birth defects. In genetically normal adultmale mice, a low dose prior to a high dose protected the offspring of the mice from heritable mutations produced by the large dose. The results show that low doses of low-LET radiation induce protective effects and that these induced responses have been tightly conserved throughout evolution, suggesting that they are basic responses critical to life. The results also argue strongly that the assumption of a linear increase in risk with increasing dose in humans is unlikely to be correct, and that low doses actually reduce risk. PMID:18648638

Mitchel, R.E.J.

2006-01-01

361

Knowledge, skills, and abilities for key radiation protection positions at DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

This document provides detailed qualification criteria for contractor key radiation protection personnel. Although federal key radiation protection positions are also identified, qualification standards for federal positions are provided in DOE O 360.1 and the DOE Technical Qualifications Program. Appendices B and D provide detailed listings for knowledge, skills, and abilities for contractor and DOE federal key radiation protection positions. This information may be used in developing position descriptions and individual development plans. Information provided in Appendix C may be useful in developing performance measures and assessing an individual`s performance in his or her specific position. Additionally, Federal personnel may use this information to augment their Office/facility qualification standards under the Technical Qualifications Program.

NONE

1997-01-01

362

Protective surface coatings on semiconductor nuclear radiation detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface states on germanium p-i-n junctions have been investigated using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and collimated beams of 60 keV gamma-rays. The DLTS spectra have a characteristic signature for each surface treatment but the spectra are complex and not readily interpretable as to suitability for radiation detectors. Collimated gamma-ray beams give a direct measure of surface channel effects and

W. L. Hansen; E. E. Haller; G. S. Hubbard

1980-01-01

363

Protective surface coatings on semiconductor nuclear radiation detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface states on germanium p-i-n junctions have been investigated using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and collimated beams of 60 keV gamma-rays. The DLTS spectra have a characteristic signature for each surface treatment but the spectra are complex and not readily interpretable as to suitability for radiation detectors. Collimated gamma-ray beams give a direct measure of surface channel effects and

W. L. Hansen; E. E. Haller; G. S. Hubbard

1979-01-01

364

Protective clothing: Fire and radiation environments. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning clothing design, fabrication, and testing for personal protection from exposure to flames and radiation. Citations discuss the treatment of fibers and textiles, testing for physiological tolerances, and methods of decontamination after exposure. Discussed also are user acceptance and proper use of protective clothing by firefighters, nuclear energy personnel, and others. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-11-01

365

A Survey of Georgia Adult Protective Service Staff: Implications for Older Adult Injury Prevention and Policy  

PubMed Central

Background: The aging population is a rapidly growing demographic. Isolation and limited autonomy render many of the elderly vulnerable to abuse, neglect and exploitation. As the population grows, so does the need for Adult Protective Services (APS). This study was conducted to examine current knowledge of older adult protection laws in Georgia among APS staff and to identify training opportunities to better prepare the APS workforce in case detection and intervention. Methods: The Georgia State University Institute of Public Health faculty developed a primary survey in partnership with the Georgia Division of Aging Services’ leadership to identify key training priority issues for APS caseworkers and investigators. A 47-item electronic questionnaire was delivered to all APS employees via work-issued email accounts. We conducted descriptive analyses, t-tests and chi-square analyses to determine APS employees’ baseline knowledge of Georgia’s elder abuse policies, laws and practices, as well as examine associations of age, ethnicity, and educational attainment with knowledge. We used a p-value of 0.05 and 95% confidence intervals to determine statistical significance of analyses performed. Result: Ninety-two out of 175 APS staff responded to the survey (53% response rate). The majority of respondents were Caucasian (56%) women (92%). For over half the survey items, paired sample t-tests revealed significant differences between what APS staff reported as known and what APS staff members indicated they needed to know more about in terms of elder abuse and current policies. Chi-square tests revealed that non-Caucasians significantly preferred video conferencing as a training format (44% compared to 18%), [?2(1) = 7.102, p < .008], whereas Caucasians preferred asynchronous online learning formats (55% compared to 28%) [?2(1) =5.951, p < .015]. Conclusion: Results from this study provide the Georgia Division of Aging with insight into specific policy areas that are not well understood by APS staff. Soliciting input from intended trainees allows public health educators to tailor and improve training sessions. Trainee input may result in optimization of policy implementation, which may result in greater injury prevention and protection of older adults vulnerable to abuse, neglect and exploitation. PMID:21731795

Strasser, Sheryl M.; Kerr, Judith; King, Patricia S; Payne, Brian; Beddington, Sarah; Pendrick, Danielle; Leyda, Elizabeth; McCarty, Frances

2011-01-01

366

The mechanisms of protection of antioxidants on Nostoc sphaeroides against UV-B radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UV radiation is one of space harmful factor for earth organisms in space exploration In the present work we studied on the role of antioxidant system in Nostoc sphaeroides K u tz Cyanobacteria and the effects of exogenous antioxidant molecules on its photosynthetic rate under UV-B radiation It was found that UV-B radiation decreased the photosynthetic activity of cyanobacterium but promoted the activity of antioxidant system to protect photosystem II PSII and exogenous antioxidant sodium nitroprusside SNP N-acetylcysteine NAC had an obvious protection on PSII activity under UV-B radiation The activity of SOD Superoxide Dismutase EC 1 15 1 1 CAT Catalase EC 1 11 1 6 POD Peroxidase EC 1 11 1 7 and content of MDA and ASC were improved by 0 5mM and 1mM SNP but 0 1mM SNP decreased the activity of antioxide system Exogenous NAC addition decreased the activity of SOD POD CAT and the content MDA and ASC but exogenous NAC addition increased the content of GSH The results suggested that exogenous SNP and NAC may protect algae by different mechanisms in which SNP maybe play double roles as sources of reactive free radicals or ROS scavengers in formation of algae s protection of PSII under UV-B radiation while NAC does function as antioxidant reagent or precursor of glutathione which could protect PSII directly from UV-B radiation Keyword antioxidant system exogenous or endogenous antioxidant Nostoc sphaeroides photosynthesis UV-B radiation

Wang, G. H.

367

[Radiation protection issues in brachytherapic treatment of prostatic cancer].  

PubMed

Brachytherapy is an effective radiotherapeutic treatment for localized prostatic cancer. The permanent brachytherapy is a particular kind of radiotherapy which, US guided, uses permanently implanted seeds containing radioactive sources (Pd103 or I 125). The procedure is minimally invasive and allows to obtain high percentage of success which is comparable to surgery. The possibility to confine permanent radioactive implants in a well delimitated area doesn't exclude the exposition of both the medical staff and family's members of implanted patients. The radiation exposure involves the medical physicists, the radiotherapists, the Medical Radiology Technician, the anaesthetists, the surgeons, the professional nurses but also, after the brachytherapy treatment, public and family members, comforters and cares. It's necessary to consider radiation safety aspects of brachytherapy in order to reduce the risks of exposition. At the end, several studies showed that cremation of bodies could be a possible radiation source that remains in the patient's ashes, potentially inhaled by crematorium staff or members of the public. PMID:18409959

Bellia, M; Bellia, S; Ciantia, F; Luca, N; Serafino, L; Occhipinti, A; Bona, R; Mannino, G

2007-01-01

368

Baicalein protects mice against radiation-induced DNA damages and genotoxicity.  

PubMed

Baicalein is the major flavonoid extracted from the root of Scutellaria baicaleins. This flavonoid is used extensively in Chinese herbal medicine. In the present study baicalein is evaluated for its radioprotective properties. Human blood cells when exposed to the ?-radiation ex vivo in presence of baicalein underwent the reduced DNA damage compared to the control. Baicalein administration prior to the whole-body ?-radiation (4 Gy) exposure of mice resulted in protecting the damage to the DNA as measured in their blood cells by alkaline comet assay. Mice when exposed to the radiation (whole body; 1.7 Gy) resulted in damage to the bone marrow as measured by micronucleated reticulocyte (MNRET) formation. Baicalein pre-treatment reduces the radiation induced damage to the bone marrow cells, as there was decrease in the percentage MNRET formation. These findings indicate radio-protecting ability of baicalein. PMID:23606056

Gandhi, Nitin Motilal

2013-07-01

369

Joint research towards a better radiation protection-highlights of the Fifth MELODI Workshop.  

PubMed

MELODI is the European platform dedicated to low-dose radiation risk research. From 7 October through 10 October 2013 the Fifth MELODI Workshop took place in Brussels, Belgium. The workshop offered the opportunity to 221 unique participants originating from 22 countries worldwide to update their knowledge and discuss radiation research issues through 118 oral and 44 poster presentations. In addition, the MELODI 2013 workshop was reaching out to the broader radiation protection community, rather than only the low-dose community, with contributions from the fields of radioecology, emergency and recovery preparedness, and dosimetry. In this review, we summarise the major scientific conclusions of the workshop, which are important to keep the MELODI strategic research agenda up-to-date and which will serve to establish a joint radiation protection research roadmap for the future. PMID:25431966

Aerts, A M; Impens, N R E N; Baatout, S; Benotmane, M A; Camps, J; Dabin, J M; Derradji, H; Grosche, B; Horemans, N; Jourdain, J-R; Moreels, M; Perko, T; Quintens, R; Repussard, J; Rühm, W; Schneider, T; Struelens, L; Hardeman, F

2014-12-01

370

Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1-4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)- presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

Villagomez Casimiro, Mariana; Ruiz Trejo, Cesar; Espejo Fonseca, Ruby

2014-11-01

371

Protecting the radiation-damaged skin from friction: a mini review  

PubMed Central

Radiation-induced skin reactions are an unavoidable side effect of external beam radiation therapy, particularly in areas prone to friction and excess moisture such as the axilla, head and neck region, perineum and skin folds. Clinical studies investigating interventions for preventing or managing these reactions have largely focussed on formulations with moisturising, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and wound healing properties. However, none of these interventions has emerged as a consistent candidate for best practice. Much less emphasis has been placed on evaluating ways to protect the radiation-damaged skin from friction and excess moisture. This mini review analyses the clinical evidence for barrier products that form a protective layer by adhering very closely to the skin folds and do not cause further trauma to the radiation-damaged skin upon removal. A database search identified only two types of barrier products that fitted these criteria and these were tested in two case series and six controlled clinical trials. Friction protection was most effective when the interventions were used from the start of treatment and continued for several weeks after completion of treatment. Soft silicone dressings (Mepilex Lite and Mepitel Film) and Cavilon No Sting Barrier Film, but not Cavilon Moisturizing Barrier Cream, decreased skin reaction severity, most likely due to differences in formulation and skin build-up properties. It seems that prophylactic use of friction protection of areas at risk could be a worthwhile addition to routine care of radiation-damaged skin.

Herst, Patries M

2014-01-01

372

Oral PEG 15–20 protects the intestine against radiation: role of lipid rafts  

PubMed Central

Intestinal injury following abdominal radiation therapy or accidental exposure remains a significant clinical problem that can result in varying degrees of mucosal destruction such as ulceration, vascular sclerosis, intestinal wall fibrosis, loss of barrier function, and even lethal gut-derived sepsis. We determined the ability of a high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol-based copolymer, PEG 15–20, to protect the intestine against the early and late effects of radiation in mice and rats and to determine its mechanism of action by examining cultured rat intestinal epithelia. Rats were exposed to fractionated radiation in an established model of intestinal injury, whereby an intestinal segment is surgically placed into the scrotum and radiated daily. Radiation injury score was decreased in a dose-dependent manner in rats gavaged with 0.5 or 2.0 g/kg per day of PEG 15–20 (n = 9–13/group, P < 0.005). Complementary studies were performed in a novel mouse model of abdominal radiation followed by intestinal inoculation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), a common pathogen that causes lethal gut-derived sepsis following radiation. Mice mortality was decreased by 40% in mice drinking 1% PEG 15–20 (n = 10/group, P < 0.001). Parallel studies were performed in cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells treated with PEG 15–20 before radiation. Results demonstrated that PEG 15–20 prevented radiation-induced intestinal injury in rats, prevented apoptosis and lethal sepsis attributable to P. aeruginosa in mice, and protected cultured intestinal epithelial cells from apoptosis and microbial adherence and possible invasion. PEG 15–20 appeared to exert its protective effect via its binding to lipid rafts by preventing their coalescence, a hallmark feature in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to radiation. PMID:19833862

Valuckaite, Vesta; Zaborina, Olga; Long, Jason; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Wang, Junru; Holbrook, Christopher; Zaborin, Alexander; Drabik, Kenneth; Katdare, Mukta; Mauceri, Helena; Weichselbaum, Ralph; Firestone, Millicent A.; Lee, Ka Yee; Chang, Eugene B.; Matthews, Jeffrey

2009-01-01

373

Oral PEG 15-20 protects the intestine against radiation : role of lipid rafts.  

SciTech Connect

Intestinal injury following abdominal radiation therapy or accidental exposure remains a significant clinical problem that can result in varying degrees of mucosal destruction such as ulceration, vascular sclerosis, intestinal wall fibrosis, loss of barrier function, and even lethal gut-derived sepsis. We determined the ability of a high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol-based copolymer, PEG 15-20, to protect the intestine against the early and late effects of radiation in mice and rats and to determine its mechanism of action by examining cultured rat intestinal epithelia. Rats were exposed to fractionated radiation in an established model of intestinal injury, whereby an intestinal segment is surgically placed into the scrotum and radiated daily. Radiation injury score was decreased in a dose-dependent manner in rats gavaged with 0.5 or 2.0 g/kg per day of PEG 15-20 (n = 9-13/group, P < 0.005). Complementary studies were performed in a novel mouse model of abdominal radiation followed by intestinal inoculation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), a common pathogen that causes lethal gut-derived sepsis following radiation. Mice mortality was decreased by 40% in mice drinking 1% PEG 15-20 (n = 10/group, P < 0.001). Parallel studies were performed in cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells treated with PEG 15-20 before radiation. Results demonstrated that PEG 15-20 prevented radiation-induced intestinal injury in rats, prevented apoptosis and lethal sepsis attributable to P. aeruginosa in mice, and protected cultured intestinal epithelial cells from apoptosis and microbial adherence and possible invasion. PEG 15-20 appeared to exert its protective effect via its binding to lipid rafts by preventing their coalescence, a hallmark feature in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to radiation.

Valuckaite, V.; Zaborina, O.; Long, J.; Hauer-Jensen, M.; Wang, J.; Holbrook, C.; Zaborin, A.; Drabik, K.; Katdare, M.; Mauceri, H.; Weichselbaum, R.; Firestone, M. A.; Lee, K. Y.; Chang, E. B.; Matthews, J.; Alverdy, J. C.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Arkansas

2009-12-01

374

A biokinetic model for manganese for use in radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

The ICRP is updating its recommendations regarding occupational exposure to radionuclides including the biokinetic models used to derive dose coefficients and assess bioassay data for internally deposited radionuclides. This report reviews biokinetic data for manganese and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic manganese consistent with the current database. The model provides a more detailed and biologically realistic description of the movement of absorbed manganese in the body than the model currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The proposed model and current ICRP model yield broadly similar estimates of dose per unit activity of inhaled or ingested radio-manganese but differ substantially with regard to interpretation of bioassay data.

Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL

2011-01-01

375

Protecting policy space for public health nutrition in an era of international investment agreements  

PubMed Central

Abstract Philip Morris has recently brought claims against Australia (2011) and Uruguay (2010) under international investment agreements (IIAs). The claims allege that Philip Morris is entitled to compensation following the introduction of innovative tobacco packaging regulations to reduce smoking and prevent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Since tobacco control measures are often viewed as a model for public health nutrition measures, the claims raise the question of how investment law governs the latter. This paper begins to answer this question and to explain how governments can proactively protect policy space for public health nutrition in an era of expanding IIAs. The authors first consider the main interventions proposed to reduce diet-related NCDs and their intersection with investment in the food supply chain. They then review the nature of investment regimes and relevant case law and examine ways to maximize policy space for public health nutrition intervention within this legal context. As foreign investment increases across the food-chain and more global recommendations discouraging the consumption of unhealthful products are issued, investment law will increase in importance as part of the legal architecture governing the food supply. The implications of investment law for public health nutrition measures depend on various factors: the measures themselves, the terms of the applicable agreements, the conditions surrounding the foreign investment and the policies governing agricultural support. This analysis suggests that governments should adopt proactive measures – e.g. the clarification of terms and reliance on exceptions – to manage investment and protect their regulatory autonomy with respect to public health nutrition. PMID:24623907

McGrady, Benn

2014-01-01

376

Research on radiation protection in the application of new technologies for proton and heavy ion radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Particle radiotherapy using proton and heavy ion beams has shown improved clinical results and is a promising cancer therapy which is expected to gradually spread in Japan. There are, however, no special regulations for radiotherapy treatment facilities. They have been operated under the same safety regulations as for a research facility using a research accelerator. Significantly high-energy radiation is necessary for particle radiotherapy compared with conventional radiation therapy. The treatment facility, therefore, should have a large accelerator, which is installed in a room with a thick shield wall. Data on radiation protection for such high energy medical facilities is fragmentary and insufficient. In this study, we examined the necessity of other regulations for the safe operation of medical facilities for particle radiotherapy. First, we measured activation levels of the therapeutic devices and of patients. Next the safety level of the medical facility was evaluated from the viewpoint of radiation protection. We have confirmed the facilities can be safely operated by present regulations given in the Law Concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazards due to Radiation Isotopes, etc. or the Law for Health Protection and Medical Care. PMID:21976255

Tujii, Hirohiko; Akagi, Takashi; Akahane, Keiichi; Uwamino, Yoshitomo; Ono, Tatsuya; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Kohno, Ryosuke; Sakae, Takeji; Shimizu, Masakazu; Urakabe, Eriko; Nakayama, Takashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Nishio, Teiji; Noshizawa, Kanae; Nishizawa, Kunihide; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Yamashita, Haruo; Yonai, Shunsuke

2009-01-01

377

Contributions of occupational epidemiologic studies to radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

Early evidence of health effects of occupational radiation exposure contributed importantly to the establishment of exposure standards, especially for internal emitters. Standards derived in this manner for radium body burdens and for air concentrations of radon and its daughters were especially influential. The body burden limits for plutonium and other bone-seeking radionuclides were based upon the radium standard. The exposure controls instituted as a consequence of those early limits have reduced the exposure of worker populations to the extent that the current, more sophisticated epidemiologic studies will probably not influence the revision of existing standards. The justification for conducting such studies is discussed.

Marks, S.

1982-01-01

378

Intercomparison of radiation protection instrumentation in a pulsed neutron field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the EURADOS working group 11, an intercomparison of active neutron survey meters was performed in a pulsed neutron field (PNF). The aim of the exercise was to evaluate the performances of various neutron instruments, including commercially available rem-counters, personal dosemeters and instrument prototypes. The measurements took place at the cyclotron of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH. The cyclotron is routinely used for proton therapy of ocular tumours, but an experimental area is also available. For the therapy the machine accelerates protons to 68 MeV. The interaction of the proton beam with a thick tungsten target produces a neutron field with energy up to about 60 MeV. One interesting feature of the cyclotron is that the beam can be delivered in bursts, with the possibility to modify in a simple and flexible way the burst length and the ion current. Through this possibility one can obtain radiation bursts of variable duration and intensity. All instruments were placed in a reference position and irradiated with neutrons delivered in bursts of different intensity. The analysis of the instrument response as a function of the burst charge (the total electric charge of the protons in the burst shot onto the tungsten target) permitted to assess for each device the dose underestimation due to the time structure of the radiation field. The personal neutron dosemeters were exposed on a standard PMMA slab phantom and the response linearity was evaluated.

Caresana, M.; Denker, A.; Esposito, A.; Ferrarini, M.; Golnik, N.; Hohmann, E.; Leuschner, A.; Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Manessi, G.; Mayer, S.; Ott, K.; Röhrich, J.; Silari, M.; Trompier, F.; Volnhals, M.; Wielunski, M.

2014-02-01

379

Radiation protection system at the RIKEN RI beam factory.  

PubMed

The RIKEN RI (radioactive isotope) Beam Factory is scheduled to commence operations in 2006, and its maximum energy will be 400 MeV u(-1) for ions lighter than Ar and 350 MeV u(-1) for uranium. The beam intensity will be 1 pmicroA (6 x 10(12) particles s(-1)) for any element at the goal. For the hands-on-maintenance and the rational shield thickness of the building, the beam loss must be controlled with several kinds of monitors. Three types of radiation monitors will be installed. The first one consists of a neutron dose equivalent monitor and an ionisation chamber, which are commercially available area monitors. The second one is a conventional hand-held dose equivalent monitor wherein the logarithmic signal is read by a programmable logic controller based on the radiation safety interlock system (HIS). The third one is a simple plastic scintillator called a beam loss monitor. All the monitors have threshold levels for alarm and beam stop, and HIS reads all these signals. PMID:16381729

Uwamino, Y; Fujita, S; Sakamoto, H; Ito, S; Fukunishi, N; Yabutani, T; Yamano, T; Fukumura, A

2005-01-01

380

Sulfur compounds in therapy: Radiation-protective agents, amphetamines, and mucopolysaccharide sulfation  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur-containing compounds have been used in the search for whole-body radiation-protective compounds, in the design of amphetamine derivatives that retain appetite-suppressive effects but lack most behavioral effects characteristic of amphetamines, and in the search for the cause of kidney stone formation in recurrently stoneforming patients. Organic synthetic procedures were used to prepare radiation-protective compounds having a variety of sulfur-containing functional groups, and to prepare amphetamine derivatives having electron-attracting sulfur functions. In the case of the kidney stone causation research, isolation of urinary mucopolysaccharides (MPS) from recurrently stoneforming patients was carried out and the extent of sulfation of the MPS was determined by electrophoresis. Whole-body radiation-protective agents with a high degree of protection against lethal doses of gamma-radiation in mice were found in a series of quinolinium and pyridinium bis(methylthio) and methylthio amino derivatives. Mechanism studies showed that the copper complexes of these agents mimicked the beneficial action of superoxide dismutase. Electron-attracting sulfur-containing functions on amphetamine nitrogen, as well as 4'-amino nitrogen provided amphetamine derivatives with good appetite-suppressant effects and few or no adverse behavioral effects. Higher than normal levels of sulfation of the urinary MPS of stone formers suggested a cause for recurrent kidney stone formation. A sulfation inhibitor was found to prevent recurrence of stone formation and inhibit growth of existing stones. The inclusion of various sulfur-containing functions in organic molecules yielded compounds having whole-body radiation protection from lethal doses of gamma-radiation in animals. The presence of electron-attracting sulfur functions in amphetamine gave derivatives that retained appetite-suppressant effects and eliminated most adverse behavioral effects.

Foye, W.O. (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences, Boston (United States))

1992-09-01

381

A review of the scientific basis for radiation protection of the patient.  

PubMed

The use of ionising radiation in medicine is the single largest man-made source of population exposure. Individual and collective doses to patients arising from the medical use of ionising radiations continue to rise significantly year on year. This is due to the increasing use of medical imaging procedures in modern healthcare systems as well as the continued development of new high dose techniques. This paper reviews the scientific basis for the principles of radiation protection as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. These principles attempt to include exposures arising from both medical and non-medical applications within a common framework and have evolved over many years and changing socio-economic considerations. In particular, the concepts of justification and ALARA (doses should be as low as reasonably achievable), which underpin the principles for medical exposures are assessed in terms of their applicability to the scientific process and relevance to a rapidly changing technologically-led healthcare system. Radiation protection is an integral component of patient safety in medical practices and needs to be evidence based and amenable to the scientific process. The limitations imposed by the existing philosophy of radiation protection to the development of a quantitative framework for adequately assessing the performance of medical imaging systems are highlighted. In particular, medical practitioners will require quantitative guidance as to the risk-benefits arising from modern X-ray imaging methods if they are to make rational judgements as to the applicability of modern high-dose techniques to particular diagnostic and therapeutic tasks. At present such guidance is variable due to the lack of a rational framework for assessing the clinical impact of medical imaging techniques. The possible integration of radiation protection concepts into fundamental bio-medical imaging research activities is discussed. PMID:21846654

Moores, B M; Regulla, D

2011-09-01

382

Building the basis for a comprehensive radiation protection program for a multi-program laboratory  

SciTech Connect

An explicit, workplace-specific training has been developed, implemented, and documented for all radiation workers. In addition to the radiation worker personnel located at reactors, accelerators, radiochemical laboratories, and waste treatment areas, we have trained other personnel who work in areas where a lesser potential for radiological/chemical exposure exists. These workforces include construction crews, site restoration crews, contracted special services such as scoping and site characterization teams, and short-term visitors. We are developing a comprehensive, integrated approach to radiation protection training suited for a multi-purpose research laboratory. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Copenhaver, E.D.

1987-01-01

383

University of Pittsburgh researchers find experimental drug could protect some cancer patients from radiation side effects:  

Cancer.gov

A drug under development at the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) and the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine could protect the cells of Fanconi anemia patients from damage caused by radiation treatment for head and neck cancers, a new study suggests.

384

Nuclear Technology Series. Radiation Protection Technician. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary radiation protection technician program is designed for use with courses 17-22 of thirty-five included in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians, and operators; and to assist planners,…

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

385

Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Island Resettlement Support (May-December 2001)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former US test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. Using pooled resources of the US Department of Energy

D Hickman; C Conrado; T Brown; J Brunk; A Marchetti; C Cox; R Martinelli; S Kehl; K Johannes; D Henry; R T Bell; G Petersen

2002-01-01

386

Tea, coffee, and cocoa as ultraviolet radiation protectants for beet armyworm nucleopolyhedrovirus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The addition of 1% (wt/v) aqueous extracts of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), coffee (Coffea arabica L.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), green, and black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) (Ericales: Theaceae) provided excellent ultraviolet (UV) radiation protection for the beet armyworm, Spodo...

387

INVITED EDITORIAL: Protection of the environment from the effects of ionising radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It will not have escaped the notice of the readers of this journal that the subject of radiological protection of the environment - explicitly of wild plants and animals from radiation exposure, as opposed to the more frequently accepted interpretation in terms of the possible resultant impacts on humans arising from contamination by radionuclides - has an increased profile on

Dennis Woodhead

2002-01-01

388

A polysilazane coating protecting polyimide from atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation erosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polysilazane coating was prepared on polyimide substrate by the polymeric precursor method to protect space materials from attack of atomic oxygen (AO) and vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV) in low earth orbit (LEO) environment. Erosion kinetics, surface morphologies, and surface composition investigation indicate that this polysilazane coating possesses excellent AO resistance, and displays low shrinkage tendency in AO exposure. The

Longfei Hu; Meishuan Li; Caihong Xu; Yongming Luo; Yanchun Zhou

2009-01-01

389

Development of Curricula for Nuclear Radiation Protection, Nuclear Instrumentation, and Nuclear Materials Processing Technologies. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to assist two-year postsecondary educational institutions in providing technical specialty courses for preparing nuclear technicians. As a result of project activities, curricula have been developed for five categories of nuclear technicians and operators: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and…

Hull, Daniel M.

390

University of Tennessee Health Science Center Radiation Safety Policy  

E-print Network

. Radioactive wastes are to be disposed of in accordance with the Radiation Safety Office procedures. 13. Before work area and dispose of radioactive waste. 14. Survey work areas during and after work/17/2009 Safe use of Radioactive Materials Purpose: To outline general safety requirements for the use

Cui, Yan

391

Pharmacologically blocking p53-dependent apoptosis protects intestinal stem cells and mice from radiation.  

PubMed

Exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation (IR) leads to debilitating and dose-limiting gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Using three-dimensional mouse crypt culture, we demonstrated that p53 target PUMA mediates radiation-induced apoptosis via a cell-intrinsic mechanism, and identified the GSK-3 inhibitor CHIR99021 as a potent radioprotector. CHIR99021 treatment improved Lgr5+ cell survival and crypt regeneration after radiation in culture and mice. CHIR99021 treatment specifically blocked apoptosis and PUMA induction and K120 acetylation of p53 mediated by acetyl-transferase Tip60, while it had no effect on p53 stabilization, phosphorylation or p21 induction. CHIR99021 also protected human intestinal cultures from radiation by PUMA but not p21 suppression. These results demonstrate that p53 posttranslational modifications play a key role in the pathological and apoptotic response of the intestinal stem cells to radiation and can be targeted pharmacologically. PMID:25858503

Wang, Xinwei; Wei, Liang; Cramer, Julie M; Leibowitz, Brian J; Judge, Colleen; Epperly, Michael; Greenberger, Joel; Wang, Fengchao; Li, Linheng; Stelzner, Matthias G; Dunn, James C Y; Martin, Martin G; Lagasse, Eric; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Jian

2015-01-01

392

DIM (3,3?-diindolylmethane) confers protection against ionizing radiation by a unique mechanism  

PubMed Central

DIM (3,3?-diindolylmethane), a small molecule compound, is a proposed cancer preventive agent that can be safely administered to humans in repeated doses. We report that administration of DIM in a multidose schedule protected rodents against lethal doses of total body irradiation up to 13 Gy, whether DIM dosing was initiated before or up to 24 h after radiation. Physiologic submicromolar concentrations of DIM protected cultured cells against radiation by a unique mechanism: DIM caused rapid activation of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a nuclear kinase that regulates responses to DNA damage (DDR) and oxidative stress. Subsequently, multiple ATM substrates were phosphorylated, suggesting that DIM induces an ATM-dependent DDR-like response, and DIM enhanced radiation-induced ATM signaling and NF-?B activation. DIM also caused activation of ATM in rodent tissues. Activation of ATM by DIM may be due, in part, to inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A, an upstream regulator of ATM. In contrast, DIM did not protect human breast cancer xenograft tumors against radiation under the conditions tested. In tumors, ATM was constitutively phosphorylated and was not further stimulated by radiation and/or DIM. Our findings suggest that DIM is a potent radioprotector and mitigator that functions by stimulating an ATM-driven DDR-like response and NF-?B survival signaling. PMID:24127581

Fan, Saijun; Meng, Qinghui; Xu, Jiaying; Jiao, Yang; Zhao, Lin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Brown, Milton L.; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Rosen, Eliot M.

2013-01-01

393

Dying Cells Protect Survivors from Radiation-Induced Cell Death in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

We report a phenomenon wherein induction of cell death by a variety of means in wing imaginal discs of Drosophila larvae resulted in the activation of an anti-apoptotic microRNA, bantam. Cells in the vicinity of dying cells also become harder to kill by ionizing radiation (IR)-induced apoptosis. Both ban activation and increased protection from IR required receptor tyrosine kinase Tie, which we identified in a genetic screen for modifiers of ban. tie mutants were hypersensitive to radiation, and radiation sensitivity of tie mutants was rescued by increased ban gene dosage. We propose that dying cells activate ban in surviving cells through Tie to make the latter cells harder to kill, thereby preserving tissues and ensuring organism survival. The protective effect we report differs from classical radiation bystander effect in which neighbors of irradiated cells become more prone to death. The protective effect also differs from the previously described effect of dying cells that results in proliferation of nearby cells in Drosophila larval discs. If conserved in mammals, a phenomenon in which dying cells make the rest harder to kill by IR could have implications for treatments that involve the sequential use of cytotoxic agents and radiation therapy. PMID:24675716

Bilak, Amber; Uyetake, Lyle; Su, Tin Tin

2014-01-01

394

DIM (3,3'-diindolylmethane) confers protection against ionizing radiation by a unique mechanism.  

PubMed

DIM (3,3'-diindolylmethane), a small molecule compound, is a proposed cancer preventive agent that can be safely administered to humans in repeated doses. We report that administration of DIM in a multidose schedule protected rodents against lethal doses of total body irradiation up to 13 Gy, whether DIM dosing was initiated before or up to 24 h after radiation. Physiologic submicromolar concentrations of DIM protected cultured cells against radiation by a unique mechanism: DIM caused rapid activation of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a nuclear kinase that regulates responses to DNA damage (DDR) and oxidative stress. Subsequently, multiple ATM substrates were phosphorylated, suggesting that DIM induces an ATM-dependent DDR-like response, and DIM enhanced radiation-induced ATM signaling and NF-?B activation. DIM also caused activation of ATM in rodent tissues. Activation of ATM by DIM may be due, in part, to inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A, an upstream regulator of ATM. In contrast, DIM did not protect human breast cancer xenograft tumors against radiation under the conditions tested. In tumors, ATM was constitutively phosphorylated and was not further stimulated by radiation and/or DIM. Our findings suggest that DIM is a potent radioprotector and mitigator that functions by stimulating an ATM-driven DDR-like response and NF-?B survival signaling. PMID:24127581

Fan, Saijun; Meng, Qinghui; Xu, Jiaying; Jiao, Yang; Zhao, Lin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Brown, Milton L; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Rosen, Eliot M

2013-11-12

395

Ground radiation tests and flight atomic oxygen tests of ITO protective coatings for Galileo Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation simulation tests (protons and electrons) were performed along with atomic oxygen flight tests aboard the Shuttle to space qualify the surface protective coatings. The results, which contributed to the selection of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated polyester as the material for the thermal blankets of the Galileo Spacecraft, are given here. Two candidate materials, polyester and Fluorglas, were radiation-tested to determine changes at simulated Jovian radiation levels. The polyester exhibited a smaller weight loss (2.8) than the Fluorglas (8.8 percent). Other changes of polyester are given. During low-earth orbit, prior to transit to Jupiter, the thermal blankets would be exposed to atomic oxygen. Samples of uncoated and ITO-coated polyesters were flown on the Shuttle. Qualitative results are given which indicated that the ITO coating protected the underlying polyester.

Bouquet, Frank L.; Maag, Carl R.

1986-01-01

396

Pantothenol protects rats against some deleterious effects of gamma radiation.  

PubMed

Rats were exposed to gamma radiation from a 60Co source, receiving 0.25 Gy at weekly intervals. During 2 d before each irradiation, the animals received daily intragastric doses of 26 mg pantothenol or 15 mg beta-carotene per kg body weight. One hour after the third irradiation session, the animals were killed and their livers were analyzed. In animals not supplied with pantothenol, the irradiation resulted in a significant decrease of total liver lipids and a 50% decrease in phospholipids. Liver cholesterol was decreased by about 20%. Irradiation produced lipid peroxidation as expressed by doubling of the amounts of conjugated dienes and ketone dienes and of thiobarbituric acid reactive compounds. The amount of CoA in liver was decreased by 24% and that of reduced glutathione by 40%. The NAD+/NADH ratio was increased by 60% and the activity of NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) was decreased by 26%. The amount of pantothenic acid and its derivatives (expressed as pantolactone-generating compounds) in blood decreased by about 80%. In rats to which pantothenol was administered, the content of pantothenic acid in blood was tripled compared to nonirradiated (control) rats, and all the biochemical parameters measured in liver were the same as in nonirradiated animals. PMID:9607598

Slyshenkov, V S; Omelyanchik, S N; Moiseenok, A G; Trebukhina, R V; Wojtczak, L

1998-04-01

397

Nuclear data needs for radiation protection and therapy dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

New nuclear data are required for improved neutron and proton radiotherapy treatment planning as well as future applications of high-energy particle accelerators. Modern neutron radiotherapy employs energies extending to 70 MeV, while industrial applications such as transmutation and tritium breeding may generate neutrons exceeding energies of 100 MeV. Secondary neutrons produced by advanced proton therapy facilities can have energies as high as 250 MeV. Each use requires nuclear data for transport calculations and analysis of radiation effects (dosimetry). We discuss the nuclear data needs supportive of these applications including the different information requirements. As data in this energy region are sparse and likely to remain so, advanced nuclear model calculations can provide some of the needed information. ln this context, we present new evaluated nuclear data for C, N, and O. Additional experimental information, including integral and differential data, are required to confirm these results and to bound further calculations. We indicate the required new data to be measured and the difficulties in carrying out such experiments.

Chadwick, M.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); DeLuca, P.M. Jr. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept of Medical Physics; Haight, R.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-12-31

398

Effects of ionising radiation exposure on plants, fish and mammals: relevant data for environmental radiation protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop a framework for the assessment of the environmental impact of radiation, it is necessary to establish the relationship between exposure (dose rate, accumulated dose) and the effects that may be induced in plants and animals. With this purpose in mind, the data available on effects induced by ionising radiation in various wildlife groups have been reviewed

A. Real; S. Sundell-Bergman; J. F. Knowles; D. S. Woodhead; I. Zinger

2004-01-01

399

Radiation protection program for declared pregnant workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory.  

PubMed

This article presents an overview of Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Fetal Radiation Protection Program (FRP) that satisfies the requirements set forth in 10 CFR 835 and LANL's Radiation Protection Program. At LANL, the FRP is one of three components of the larger Reproductive Health Hazards Program, which also includes Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene. Although pregnant employees usually enter the program through Occupational Medicine, coordination with all three groups is achieved. The most important part of the FRP Program is performance of the workplace evaluation at the pregnant worker's workplace. At the meeting between the health physicist and the pregnant employee, the following topics are reviewed: risks to the embryo/fetus of working around sources of ionizing radiation; LANL's requirements and 10 CFR 835 regulations; her dose history; basic methods of radiation protection; and a detailed discussion of the work assignments/locations that enables the health physicist to complete an evaluation of the level of radiological hazards. Interface with her supervisor and the Operational Health Physics health physicist in charge of her work areas is essential in acquiring additional information. All of these data, including the radiation dose history and recommendations for possible work modifications or reassignment, are summarized in the workplace evaluation memo, which becomes part of the pregnant employee's medical file. Using input from LANL's legal staff, the author developed a document titled "Guidance to the Supervisors Regarding Fetal Radiation Protection and Reproductive Health Hazards," which instructs supervisors regarding the requirements and regulations, contact names for workplace evaluations, and, very importantly, how to avoid discriminatory behavior against pregnant employees. PMID:12751194

Clark, J Margo

2003-05-01

400

PHD Inhibition Mitigates and Protects Against Radiation-Induced Gastrointestinal Toxicity via HIF2  

PubMed Central

Radiation-induced gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity can be a major source of morbidity and mortality after radiation exposure. There is an unmet need for effective preventative or mitigative treatments against the potentially fatal diarrhea and water loss induced by radiation damage to the GI tract. We report that prolyl hydroxylase inhibition by genetic knockout or pharmacologic inhibition of all PHD isoforms by the small molecule dimethyloxyallylglycine (DMOG) increases HIF expression, improves epithelial integrity, reduces apoptosis, and increases intestinal angiogenesis, all of which are essential for radioprotection. HIF2, but not HIF1, is both necessary and sufficient to prevent radiation-induced GI toxicity and death. Increased VEGF expression contributes to the protective effects of HIF2, since inhibition of VEGF function reversed the radioprotection and radiomitigation afforded by DMOG. Additionally, mortality is reduced from abdominal or total body irradiation even when DMOG is given 24 hours after exposure. Thus, prolyl hydroxylase inhibition represents a new treatment strategy to protect against and mitigate GI toxicity from both therapeutic radiation and potentially lethal radiation exposures. PMID:24828078

Taniguchi, Cullen M.; Miao, Yu Rebecca; Diep, Anh N.; Wu, Colleen; Rankin, Erinn B.; Atwood, Todd F.; Xing, Lei; Giaccia, Amato J.

2014-01-01

401

DISEASE REPORTING POLICY To establish immediate reporting steps in order to protect public health in the event of an  

E-print Network

DISEASE REPORTING POLICY PURPOSE: To establish immediate reporting steps in order to protect public health in the event of an occurrence of certain diseases among members of the Institute community. DISEASE REPORTING FUNCTION: The Institute Nurse is designed as the person charged with notifying

402

Legislators Should not have Feared Title VII Pre-Emption of California's Temporary Transfer Alternative to Discriminatory Fetal Protection Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comment will argue that Congress did not intend to prohibit statutory accommodation of an individual pregnant employee's right to temporarily transfer from a hazardous work environment as an alternative to discriminatory fetal protection policies. Additionally, this comment argues that the California legislature's fear of pre-emption was premature. The legislature should amend the statute to require compliance by title VII

Constance Norton

2010-01-01

403

POLICY STATEMENT ON ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Queen's University is committed to the protection of the environment through the  

E-print Network

POLICY STATEMENT ON ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Queen's University is committed to the protection and research sites, pose minimal environmental impact and that any environmental risks and/or hazards of the environment through the implementation of an effective environmental management program. At a minimum

Ellis, Randy

404

Baseline Survey of Sun-Protection Knowledge, Practices and Policy in Early Childhood Settings in Queensland, Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Excessive exposure to sunlight during early childhood increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Self-administered questionnaires exploring sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy were mailed to the directors/co-ordinators/senior teachers of all known early childhood services in Queensland, Australia, in 2002 (n = 1383; 56.5% response).…

Harrison, Simone L.; Saunders, V.; Nowak, M.

2007-01-01

405

Smoking Policy The College of Charleston has the inherent power to protect itself and its property and to  

E-print Network

Smoking Policy The College of Charleston has the inherent power to protect itself and its property smoking on campus is adopted: A. Purpose: The College of Charleston promotes a safe, clean and healthy environment on all its property and prohibits smoking inside and at all designated smoke-free entranceways

Kasman, Alex

406

On the use of transcendence as an apologia strategy: The case of Johnson controls and its fetal protection policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

When charged with wrongdoing, most organizations rely on differientation strategies to extracate themselves from the crises that follow. Conversely, this essay focuses on the organizational use of transcendent appeals to redefine “sin” into a “virtue.”This study analyzes Johnson Controls' apologia after critics charged that its “fetal protection policy” was discriminatory, examining the redefinitions and ultimate terms invoked by the company

Keith Michael Hearit

1997-01-01

407

Repeated Nrf2 stimulation using sulforaphane protects fibroblasts from ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

Most of the cytotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation is mediated by radical-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Cellular protection from free radicals can be stimulated several fold by sulforaphane-mediated activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 that regulates more than 50 genes involved in the detoxification of reactive substances and radicals. Here, we report that repeated sulforaphane treatment increases radioresistance in primary human skin fibroblasts. Cells were either treated with sulforaphane for four hours once or with four-hour treatments repeatedly for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. Fibroblasts exposed to repeated-sulforaphane treatment showed a more pronounced dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated mRNA and reduced amount of radiation-induced free radicals compared with cells treated once with sulforaphane. In addition, radiation- induced DNA double-strand breaks measured by gamma-H2AX foci were attenuated following repeated sulforaphane treatment. As a result, cellular protection from ionizing radiation measured by the 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay was increased, specifically in cells exposed to repeated sulforaphane treatment. Sulforaphane treatment was unable to protect Nrf2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, indicating that the sulforaphane-induced radioprotection was Nrf2-dependent. Moreover, radioprotection by repeated sulforaphane treatment was dose-dependent with an optimal effect at 10 uM, whereas both lower and higher concentrations resulted in lower levels of radioprotection. Our data indicate that the Nrf2 system can be trained to provide further protection from radical damage. PMID:24603300

Mathew, Sherin T; Bergström, Petra; Hammarsten, Ola

2014-05-01

408

Protection from radiation-induced damage to spermatogenesis by hormone treatment  

SciTech Connect

Infertility caused by killing of the spermatogonial stem cells occurs frequently in men treated for cancer with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We investigated whether pretreatment of rats with testosterone plus estradiol, which reversibly inhibits the completion of spermatogenesis and protects spermatogonial stem cells from procarbazine-induced damage, would also protect these cells from radiation. Adult male LBNF rats were implanted for 6 weeks with capsules containing testosterone and estradiol and then irradiated with doses from 2.5-7.0 Gy. Controls were irradiated with 1.8-3.5 Gy. Implants were removed 1 day after irradiation, and all animals were killed 10 weeks later for assessment of stem cell survival by counting repopulating tubules in histological sections and by sperm head counts. At doses of 2.5 and 3.5 Gy the repopulation indices and sperm head counts were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the rats treated with testosterone and estradiol than in the controls. Protection factors calculated from the dose-response curves were in the range of 1.5-2.2. Elucidation of the mechanism of protection is essential to apply it to clinical situations. The fact that the spermatogonia are protected against radiation as well as procarbazine indicates that the mechanism does not involve drug delivery or metabolism. 32 refs., 3 figs.

Kurdoglu, B.; Wilson, G.; Parchuri, N.; Ye, W.; Meistrich, M.L. [Univ. of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

1994-07-01

409

The present status and trend of ionizing-radiation application on environment protection in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies in a large scale on ionizing-radiation application on environment protection and pollution control have been carried out for nearly 20 years in China. Desulphurization and denitrification of flue gas by electron-beam processing in coal-fired power stations are a successful industrial example and therefore, a wider use of ionizing radiation in air pollution control can be expected in the near future. In addition to e-beam and 60Co radiation, electric discharge was also a useful means for the air pollution control. There were some satisfied data in removing water polluters but it seems that radiation is the only one component in the technique used to treat wastewater.

Yonghua, Ding; Degui, Zheng; Aoshuang, Yan; Guanghua, Niu

2002-03-01

410

Radiation protective structure alternatives for habitats of a lunar base research outpost  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar and galactic cosmic radiation levels on the Moon pose a hazard to extended manned lunar missions. Lunar soil represents an available, economical material to be used for radiation shielding. Several alternatives have been suggested to use lunar soil to protect the inhabitants of a lunar base research outpost from radiation. The Universities Space Research Association has requested that a comparative analysis of the alternatives be performed, with the purpose of developing the most advantageous design. Eight alternatives have been analyzed, including an original design which was developed to satisfy the identified design criteria. The original design consists of a cylindrical module and airlock, partially buried in the lunar soil, at a depth sufficient to achieve adequate radiation shielding. The report includes descriptions of the alternatives considered, the method of analysis used, and the final design selected.

Bell, Fred J.; Foo, Lai T.; Mcgrew, William P.

1988-01-01

411

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 512 (2003) 4451 The HERMES silicon project--the radiation protection system  

E-print Network

it vulnerable to increased radiation levels which may be caused by beam instabilities. The Lambda Wheel detector detectors; Ionization chambers; Radiation protection; Accelerated beams 1. Introduction The HERMES enlarged by the recent upgrades of the HERMES-detector which include a dual-radiator RICH-detector [3

412

Current status of the application of ionizing radiation to environmental protection: I. Ionizing radiation sources, natural and drinking water purification (A Review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present-day applications of ionizing radiation to environmental protection are surveyed. This part of the review summarizes\\u000a new data on the ionizing radiation sources used in this area, on the radiation-chemical purification of polluted natural and\\u000a drinking water, and on the mechanisms of processes occurring in these systems under exposure to ionizing radiation. A particular\\u000a emphasis is placed on large-scale processes.

A. K. Pikaev

2000-01-01

413

Public Policy on Ground-Water Quality Protection. Proceedings of a National Conference (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, April 13-16, 1977).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains the papers presented at a National Conference on Ground Water Quality Protection Policy held in April of 1977. Paper titles include: (1) Magnitude of the Ground-Water Contamination Problem; (2) Limited Degredation as a Ground-Water Quality Policy; (3) Surface and Subsurface Mining: Policy Implications; (4) Oil Well…

Kerns, Waldon R., Ed.

414

Meeting Radiation Protection Requirements and Reducing Spacecraft Mass - A Multifunctional Materials Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both crew and radio-sensitive systems, especially electronics must be protected from the effects of the space radiation environment. One method of mitigating this radiation exposure is to use passive-shielding materials. In previous vehicle designs such as the International Space Station (ISS), materials such as aluminum and polyethylene have been used as parasitic shielding to protect crew and electronics from exposure, but these designs add mass and decrease the amount of usable volume inside the vehicle. Thus, it is of interest to understand whether structural materials can also be designed to provide the radiation shielding capability needed for crew and electronics, while still providing weight savings and increased useable volume when compared against previous vehicle shielding designs. In this paper, we present calculations and analysis using the HZETRN (deterministic) and FLUKA (Monte Carlo) codes to investigate the radiation mitigation properties of these structural shielding materials, which includes graded-Z and composite materials. This work is also a follow-on to an earlier paper, that compared computational results for three radiation transport codes, HZETRN, HETC, and FLUKA, using the Feb. 1956 solar particle event (SPE) spectrum. In the following analysis, we consider the October 1989 Ground Level Enhanced (GLE) SPE as the input source term based on the Band function fitting method. Using HZETRN and FLUKA, parametric absorbed doses at the center of a hemispherical structure on the lunar surface are calculated for various thicknesses of graded-Z layups and an all-aluminum structure. HZETRN and FLUKA calculations are compared and are in reasonable (18% to 27%) agreement. Both codes are in agreement with respect to the predicted shielding material performance trends. The results from both HZETRN and FLUKA are analyzed and the radiation protection properties and potential weight savings of various materials and materials lay-ups are compared.

Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Reddell, Brandon; Rojdev, Kristina; Franklin, Jennifer

2010-01-01

415

Mucosal protective effects of vitamin E and misoprostol during acute radiation-induced enteritis in rats.  

PubMed

Cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation on gastrointestinal epithelium may be mediated by oxygen free radicals. Therapeutic intervention directed toward oxidant scavenging and increasing tissue oxygen tension may provide a novel approach to management. We investigated the effects of a nonenzymatic oxygen radical scavenger (vitamin E) and an exogenous PGE1 analog known to increase mucosal blood flow (misoprostol) on acute radiation enteritis. Rats were pretreated with: (1) vitamin E, (2) misoprostol, or (3) a combination of both agents prior to 10 Gy abdominal radiation. Three days following irradiation, net fluid absorption using in vivo isolated loops, mucosal histology, and mucosal morphometry using a computerized videoplan were determined in jejunum, ileum, and colon. Nonirradiated control intestine demonstrated net fluid absorption in all segments, which was not altered by vitamin E and/or misoprostol treatment. Irradiation significantly reduced net fluid absorption in jejunum, ileum, and colon. Vitamin E administered prior to irradiation maintained jejunal, ileal, and colonic fluid absorption near control levels. In contrast misoprostol or a combination of vitamin E and misoprostol did not provide protection against the injury caused by abdominal irradiation. Alterations in intestinal fluid absorption occurred without significant changes in histologic or morphometric appearance. In conclusion, ionizing radiation reduces in vivo intestinal fluid absorption without significant changes in histologic or morphometric appearance. Treatment with vitamin E, but not misoprostol, protects gastrointestinal mucosa against radiation-induced absorptive injury. PMID:1735337

Empey, L R; Papp, J D; Jewell, L D; Fedorak, R N

1992-02-01

416

Protective Effect of Anthocyanins from Lingonberry on Radiation-induced Damages  

PubMed Central

There is a growing concern about the serious harm of radioactive materials, which are widely used in energy production, scientific research, medicine, industry and other areas. In recent years, owing to the great side effects of anti-radiation drugs, research on the radiation protectants has gradually expanded from the previous chemicals to the use of natural anti-radiation drugs and functional foods. Some reports have confirmed that anthocyanins are good antioxidants, which can effectively eliminate free radicals, but studies on the immunoregulatory and anti-radiation effects of anthocyanins from lingonberry (ALB) are less reported. In this experiment, mice were given orally once daily for 14 consecutive days before exposure to 6 Gy of gamma-radiation and were sacrificed on the 7th day post-irradiation. The results showed that the selected dose of extract did not lead to acute toxicity in mice; while groups given anthocyanins orally were significantly better than radiation control group according to blood analysis; pretreatment of anthocyanins significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the thymus and spleen indices and spleen cell survival compared to the irradiation control group. Pretreatment with anthocyanins before irradiation significantly reduced the numbers of micronuclei (MN) in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs). These findings indicate that anthocyanins have immunostimulatory potential against immunosuppression induced by the radiation. PMID:23249859

Fan, Zi-Luan; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Zuo, Li-Li; Tian, Shuang-Qi

2012-01-01

417

On the potential impact of the newly proposed quality factors on space radiation protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recently proposed changes in the defined quality factor hold great potential for easing some of the protection requirements from electrons and protons in the near-Earth environment. At the same time, the high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) components play an even more important role which must be further evaluated. Several recommendations are made which need to be addressed before these new quality factors can be implemented into space radiation potection practice.

Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

1987-01-01

418

Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Rongelap Island Resettlement Support (1998-2001)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. Using pooled resources of the U.S. Department

Terry Hamilton; David Hickman; Cynthia Conrado; Thomas Brown; James Brunk; Alfredo Marchetti; Carolyn Cox; Roger Martinelli; Steven Kehl; Ericson Arelong; Simon Langinbelik; R. Thomas Bell; Gerald Petersen

2002-01-01

419

Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Atoll (2002-2004)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands.

T. F. Hamilton; S. R. Kehl; D. P. Hickman; T. A. Brown; A. A. Marchetti; R. E. Martinelli; K Johannes; D Henry

2006-01-01

420

Evaluation of Usability and Assessment Capabilities of an e-Learning System for Nursing Radiation Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the initial evaluation of EX-COFALE, an extension to an existing open-source, web-based adaptive e-learning system, namely COFALE developed and used for web-based education on radiation protection in our nursing department. COFALE, although offers facilities for adaptive content presentation, adaptive use of pedagogical devices and adaptive communication, it lacks facilities for adaptive student assessment. EX-COFALE remedies

Ioannis Hatzilygeroudis; Constantinos Koutsojannis; Nikolaos Papachristou

2007-01-01

421

Radiation protection potential of MOX-fuel doped with 231Pa and Cs radioisotopes.  

PubMed

The paper addresses the problem of MOX-fuel self-protection during full cycle of MOX-fuel management. Under conditions of the closed LWR cycle the proliferation-resistance levels were evaluated for fresh and spent MOX-fuel with 231Pa and Cs feed. As it follows from the paper results, combination of these two admixtures being doped into MOX-fuel is able to enhance the inherent radiation barrier and to weaken shortcomings of both proliferation deterrents. PMID:16381734

Kryuchkov, E F; Glebov, V B; Apse, V A; Shmelev, A N

2005-01-01

422

Linear attenuation coefficient and build up factor of MCP-96 alloy for radiation shielding and protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Build-up factors and linear attenuation coefficients of MCP-96 alloy are determined for radiation shielding and protection, using ^60Co and ^137Cs gamma emitters. A narrow collimated beam of gamma-rays is passed through various thicknesses of MCP-96 alloy and the attenuation in the intensity of the beam is determined. The thickness of the 4 x 4 cm^2 blocks varies from 0.5 cm

Deidre Hopkins; Muhammad Maqbool; Mohammed Islam

2009-01-01

423

Call Title: Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection Call Identifier: FP7-Fission-2009  

E-print Network

Call Title: Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection · Call Identifier: FP7-Fission-2009 · Date repartition (EUR million) 1 Fission-1 5.5 2 Fission-2 20.0 (of which EUR 1.0 million is reserved for topic Fission-2009-2.2.2) 3 Fission-3 18.0 4 Fission-5 & -7 5.405 Total 48.905 All budgetary figures

De Cindio, Fiorella

424

Melanin-Covered Nanoparticles for Protection of Bone Marrow During Radiation Therapy of Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Protection of bone marrow against radiotoxicity during radioimmunotherapy and in some cases external beam radiation therapy such as hemi-body irradiation would permit administration of significantly higher doses to tumors, resulting in increased efficacy and safety of treatment. Melanin, a naturally occurring pigment, possesses radioprotective properties. We hypothesized that melanin, which is insoluble, could be delivered to the bone marrow by intravenously administrated melanin-covered nanoparticles (MNs) because of the human body's 'self-sieving' ability, protecting it against ionizing radiation. Methods and Materials: The synthesis of MNs was performed via enzymatic polymerization of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and/or 5-S-cysteinyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine on the surface of 20-nm plain silica nanoparticles. The biodistribution of radiolabeled MNs in mice was done at 3 and 24 h. Healthy CD-1 mice (Charles River Laboratories International, Inc., Wilmington, MA) or melanoma tumor-bearing nude mice were given MNs intravenously, 50 mg/kg of body weight, 3 h before either whole-body exposure to 125 cGy or treatment with 1 mCi of {sup 188}Re-labeled 6D2 melanin-binding antibody. Results: Polymerization of melanin precursors on the surface of silica nanoparticles resulted in formation of a 15-nm-thick melanin layer as confirmed by light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence. The biodistribution after intravenous administration showed than MN uptake in bone marrow was 0.3% and 0.2% of injected dose per gram at 3 and 24 h, respectively, whereas pre-injection with pluronic acid increased the uptake to 6% and 3% of injected dose per gram, respectively. Systemic MN administration reduced hematologic toxicity in mice treated with external radiation or radioimmunotherapy, whereas no tumor protection by MNs was observed. Conclusions: MNs or similar structures provide a novel approach to protection of bone marrow from ionizing radiation based on prevention of free radical formation by melanin.

Schweitzer, Andrew D. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Howard Hughes Medical Institute-Medical Fellows Program, Chevy Chase, MD (United States); The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Revskaya, Ekaterina; Chu, Peter [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Pazo, Valeria [Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Friedman, Matthew [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Nosanchuk, Joshua D. [Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Cahill, Sean [Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Frases, Susana [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Casadevall, Arturo [Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Dadachova, Ekaterina, E-mail: edadacho@aecom.yu.ed [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)

2010-12-01

425

Timing of captopril administration determines radiation protection or radiation sensitization in a murine model of total body irradiation  

PubMed Central

Objective Angiotensin II (Ang II), a potent vasoconstrictor, affects the growth and development of hematopoietic cells. Mixed findings have been reported for the effects of ACE inhibitors on radiation-induced injury to the hematopoietic system. We investigated the consequences of different regimens of the ACE inhibitor captopril on radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. Methods C57BL/6 mice were either sham irradiated or were exposed to 60Co total body irradiation (0.6 Gy/min). Captopril was provided in the water for different time periods relative to irradiation. Results In untreated mice, the survival rate from 7.5 Gy was 50% at 30 days postirradiation. Captopril treatment for 7 days prior to irradiation resulted in radiosensitization with 100% lethality and a rapid decline of mature blood cells. In contrast, captopril treatment beginning 1 hour postirradiation and continuing for 30 days resulted in 100% survival, with improved recovery of mature blood cells and multilineage hematopoietic progenitors. In nonirradiated control mice captopril biphasically modulated Lin? marrow progenitor cell cycling. After 2 days, captopril suppressed G0-G1 transition and a greater number of cells entered a quiescent state. However, after 7 days of captopril treatment Linprogenitor cell cycling increased compared to untreated control mice. Conclusion These findings suggest that ACE inhibition affects hematopoietic recovery following radiation by modulating the hematopoietic progenitor cell cycle. The timing of captopril treatment relative to radiation exposure differentially affects the viability and repopulation capacity of spared hematopoietic stem cells and therefore can result in either radiation protection or radiation sensitization. PMID:20116413

Davis, Thomas A.; Landauer, Michael R.; Mog, Steven R.; Barshishat-Kupper, Michal; Zins, Stephen R.; Amare, Mihret F.; Day, Regina M.

2010-01-01

426

Protection of cellular DNA and membrane from ?-radiation-induced damages and enhancement in DNA repair by sesamol.  

PubMed

Sesamol (SM), a nutritional phenolic antioxidant compound present in sesame seeds, protected pBR 322 DNA from gamma radiation-induced damages. SM prevented gamma radiation-induced degradation of covalently closed circular form of plasmid DNA in a concentration-dependent manner. Also SM protected cellular DNA of mouse blood leukocytes exposed to 4?Gy gamma radiation, ex vivo, as revealed by the data from alkaline comet assay studies. SM (5 mM) showed a faster time-dependant decrease of the radiation-induced DNA damage in mouse blood leukocytes following postirradiation incubation ex vivo, which could be attributed to enhanced DNA repair. SM protected the biomembranes from radiation-induced lipid peroxidation. Thus, SM could act as a radioprotector for the biomembranes and cellular DNA against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation. PMID:21204756

Nair, Gopakumar Gopinathan; Nair, Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan

2010-12-01

427

Radiation protection systems for the final focus test beam at SLAC.  

PubMed

The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a new beam line at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center designed to test new beam optics concepts, hardware, and techniques necessary to achieve and measure the small spot sizes required for future generations of high-energy e+e- linear colliders. The FFTB takes a 47 GeVc-1, 1 kW electron beam at the end of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center linear accelerator and transports it to the FFTB beam dump. A radiation protection system was designed and installed for the FFTB with the primary goal that the integrated dose equivalent outside the shielding resulting from beam loss would not exceed 10 mSv y-1. This system is comprised of shielding, a beam containment system and a personnel protection system. This paper presents various aspects of radiation safety at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center that were considered in the design of the FFTB radiation protection system. Beam tests were conducted in which the performance of various beam containment devices and the shielding effectiveness were evaluated. Preliminary results from these tests are presented. PMID:8887529

Rokni, S H; Benson, E C; Burke, D L; Jenkins, T M; Liu, J C; Nelson, G; Nelson, W R; Smith, H E; Tenenbaum, P; Vylet, V; Walz, D R

1996-11-01

428

Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects. Final Rule. Technical Amendments. Federal Register, Department of Education, 34 CFR Part 97  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The agencies listed in this document are amending the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, which was published in the Federal Register on June 18, 1991, to change all references to the Office for Protection from Research Risks (OPRR) to the Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP); revise the footnote found at the end of…

National Archives and Records Administration, 2005

2005-01-01

429

Quercetin liposomes protect against radiation-induced pulmonary injury in a murine model.  

PubMed

In the present study, the hypothesis that quercetin liposomes are able to effectively protect against radiation-induced pulmonary injury in a murine model was tested. C57BL/6J mice receiving whole-thorax radiotherapy (16 Gy) were randomly divided into three groups: control, radiation therapy plus saline (RT+NS) and RT plus quercetin (RT+QU). At 1, 4, 8 and 24 weeks post-irradiation, lung injury was assessed by measuring oxidative damage and the extent of acute pneumonitis and late fibrosis. In the lung tissues from the RT+NS group, the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly elevated and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activities were significantly reduced; the total cell counts and inflammatory cell proportions in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 concentrations and the hydroxyproline (HP) content were significantly increased. Quercetin liposome administration significantly reduced the MDA content and increased SOD and GSH-PX activities in the lung tissues, and reduced the total cell counts and inflammatory cell proportions in the BALF, plasma TNF-? and TGF-?1 concentrations and the HP content in the lung tissues. A histological examination revealed suppression of the inflammatory response and reduced TGF-?1 expression and fibrosis scores. Radiation-induced oxidative damage ranged from pneumonitis to lung fibrosis. Quercetin liposomes were shown to protect against radiation-induced acute pneumonitis and late fibrosis, potentially by reducing oxidative damage. PMID:24137346

Liu, Hao; Xue, Jian-Xing; Li, Xing; Ao, Rui; Lu, You

2013-08-01

430

Inactivation of Kupffer Cells by Gadolinium Chloride Protects Murine Liver From Radiation-Induced Apoptosis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether the inhibition of Kupffer cells before radiotherapy (RT) would protect hepatocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis. Materials and Methods: A single 30-Gy fraction was administered to the upper abdomen of Sprague-Dawley rats. The Kupffer cell inhibitor gadolinium chloride (GdCl3; 10 mg/kg body weight) was intravenously injected 24 h before RT. The rats were divided into four groups: group 1, sham RT plus saline (control group); group 2, sham RT plus GdCl3; group 3, RT plus saline; and group 4, RT plus GdCl3. Liver tissue was collected for measurement of apoptotic cytokine expression and evaluation of radiation-induced liver toxicity by analysis of liver enzyme activities, hepatocyte micronucleus formation, apoptosis, and histologic staining. Results: The expression of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was significantly attenuated in group 4 compared with group 3 at 2, 6, 24, and 48 h after injection (p <0.05). At early points after RT, the rats in group 4 exhibited significantly lower levels of liver enzyme activity, apoptotic response, and hepatocyte micronucleus formation compared with those in group 3. Conclusion: Selective inactivation of Kupffer cells with GdCl3 reduced radiation-induced cytokine production and protected the liver against acute radiation-induced damage.

Du Shisuo; Qiang Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zeng Zhaochong, E-mail: zeng.zhaochong@zs-hospital.sh.c [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ke Aiwu; Ji Yuan [Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhang Zhengyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zeng Haiying [Department of Pathology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Liu Zhongshan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

2010-03-15

431

Irradiated esophageal cells are protected from radiation-induced recombination by MnSOD gene therapy.  

PubMed

Radiation-induced DNA damage is a precursor to mutagenesis and cytotoxicity. During radiotherapy, exposure of healthy tissues can lead to severe side effects. We explored the potential of mitochondrial SOD (MnSOD) gene therapy to protect esophageal, pancreatic and bone marrow cells from radiation-induced genomic instability. Specifically, we measured the frequency of homologous recombination (HR) at an integrated transgene in the Fluorescent Yellow Direct Repeat (FYDR) mice, in which an HR event can give rise to a fluorescent signal. Mitochondrial SOD plasmid/liposome complex (MnSOD-PL) was administered to esophageal cells 24 h prior to 29 Gy upper-body irradiation. Single cell suspensions from FYDR, positive control FYDR-REC, and negative control C57BL/6NHsd (wild-type) mouse esophagus, pancreas and bone marrow were evaluated by flow cytometry. Radiation induced a statistically significant increase in HR 7 days after irradiation compared to unirradiated FYDR mice. MnSOD-PL significantly reduced the induction of HR by radiation at day 7 and also reduced the level of HR in the pancreas. Irradiation of the femur and tibial marrow with 8 Gy also induced a significant increase in HR at 7 days. Radioprotection by intraesophageal administration of MnSOD-PL was correlated with a reduced level of radiation-induced HR in esophageal cells. These results demonstrate the efficacy of MnSOD-PL for suppressing radiation-induced HR in vivo. PMID:20334517

Niu, Yunyun; Wang, Hong; Wiktor-Brown, Dominika; Rugo, Rebecca; Shen, Hongmei; Huq, M Saiful; Engelward, Bevin; Epperly, Michael; Greenberger, Joel S

2010-04-01

432

Heat gain from thermal radiation through protective clothing with different insulation, reflectivity and vapour permeability.  

PubMed

The heat transferred through protective clothing under long wave radiation compared to a reference condition without radiant stress was determined in thermal manikin experiments. The influence of clothing insulation and reflectivity, and the interaction with wind and wet underclothing were considered. Garments with different outer materials and colours and additionally an aluminised reflective suit were combined with different number and types of dry and pre-wetted underwear layers. Under radiant stress, whole body heat loss decreased, i.e., heat gain occurred compared to the reference. This heat gain increased with radiation intensity, and decreased with air velocity and clothing insulation. Except for the reflective outer layer that showed only minimal heat gain over the whole range of radiation intensities, the influence of the outer garments' material and colour was small with dry clothing. Wetting the underclothing for simulating sweat accumulation, however, caused differing effects with higher heat gain in less permeable garments. PMID:20540842

Bröde, Peter; Kuklane, Kalev; Candas, Victor; Den Hartog, Emiel A; Griefahn, Barbara; Holmér, Ingvar; Meinander, Harriet; Nocker, Wolfgang; Richards, Mark; Havenith, George

2010-01-01

433

Applying cost analyses to drive policy that protects children. Mercury as a case study  

SciTech Connect

Exposure in prenatal life to methylmercury (MeHg) has become the topic of intense debate in the United States after the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a proposal in 2004 to reverse strict controls on emissions of mercury from coal-fired power plants that had been in effect for the preceding 15 years. This proposal failed to incorporate any consideration of the health impacts on children that would result from increased mercury emissions. We assessed the impact on children's health of industrial mercury emissions and found that between 316,588 and 637,233 babies are born with mercury-related losses of cognitive function ranging from 0.2 to 5.13 points. We calculated that decreased economic productivity resulting from diminished intelligence over a lifetime results in an aggregate economic cost in each annual birth cohort of $8.7 billion annually. $1.3 billion of this cost is attributable to mercury emitted from American coal-fired power plants. Downward shifts in intellectual quotient (IQ) are also associated with 1566 excess cases of mental retardation annually. This number accounts for 3.2% of MR cases in the United States. If the lifetime excess cost of a case of MR is $1,248,648 in 2000 dollars, then the cost of these excess cases of MR is $2.0 billion annually. Preliminary data suggest that more stringent mercury policy options would prevent thousands of cases of MR and billions of dollars over the next 25 years.

Leonardo Trasande; Clyde Schechter; Karla A. Haynes; Philip J. Landrigan [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States). Department of Community and Preventive Medicine

2006-09-15

434

Radiation risk and protection of patients in clinical SPECT/CT.  

PubMed

Clinical studies have demonstrated that hybrid single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT for various diagnostic issues has an added value as compared to SPECT alone. However, the combined acquisition of functional and anatomical images can substantially increase radiation exposure to patients, in particular when using a hybrid system with diagnostic CT capabilities. It is, therefore, essential to carefully balance the diagnostic needs and radiation protection requirements. To this end, the evidence on health effects induced by ionizing radiation is outlined. In addition, the essential concepts for estimating radiation doses and lifetime attributable cancer risks associated with SPECT/CT examinations are presented taking into account both the new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) as well as the most recent radiation risk models. Representative values of effective dose and lifetime attributable risk are reported for ten frequently used SPECT radiopharmaceuticals and five fully diagnostic partial-body CT examinations. A diagnostic CT scan acquired as part of a combined SPECT/CT examination contributes considerably to, and for some applications even dominates, the total patient exposure. For the common SPECT and CT examinations considered in this study, the lifetime attributable risk of developing a radiation-related cancer is less than 0.27 %/0.37 % for men/women older than 16 years, respectively, and decreases markedly with increasing age at exposure. Since there is no clinical indication for a SPECT/CT examination unless an emission scan has been indicated, the issue on justification comes down to the question of whether it is necessary to additionally acquire a low-dose CT for attenuation correction and anatomical localization of tracer uptake or even a fully diagnostic CT. In any case, SPECT/CT studies have to be optimized, e.g. by adapting dose reduction measures from state-of-the-art CT practice, and exposure levels should not exceed the national diagnostic reference levels for standard situations. PMID:24052089

Brix, Gunnar; Nekolla, Elke A; Borowski, Markus; Noßke, Dietmar

2014-05-01

435

[Personnel requirements of medical radiation physics in radiotherapy in comparison to the current guidelines "radiation protection in medicine" : Special consideration of intensity-modulated radiation therapy].  

PubMed

In 1994 and 1998 reports on staffing levels in medical radiation physics for radiation therapy were published by the "Deutsche Gesellschaft für Medizinische Physik" (DGMP, German Society for Medical Physics). Because of the technical and methodological progress, changes in recommended qualifications of staff and new governmental regulations, it was necessary to establish new staffing levels. The data were derived from a new survey in clinics. Some of the previously established results from the old reports were adapted to the new conditions by conversion.The staffing requirements were normalized to main components as in the earlier reports resulting in a simple method for calculation of staffing levels. The results were compared with the requirements in the "Richtlinie Strahlenschutz in der Medizin" (guidelines on radiation protection in medicine) and showed satisfactory agreement. PMID:24805160

Leetz, H-K; Eipper, H H; Gfirtner, H; Schneider, P; Welker, K

2014-08-01

436

Radiation Engineering Analysis of Shielding Materials to Assess Their Ability to Protect Astronauts in Deep Space From Energetic Particle Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis is performed on four typical materials (aluminum, liquid hydrogen, polyethylene, and water) to assess their impact on the length of time an astronaut can stay in deep space and not exceed a design basis radiation exposure of 150 mSv. A large number of heavy lift launches of pure shielding mass are needed to enable long duration, deep space missions to keep astronauts at or below the exposure value with shielding provided by the vehicle. Therefore, vehicle mass using the assumptions in the paper cannot be the sole shielding mechanism for long duration, deep space missions. As an example, to enable the Mars Design Reference Mission 5.0 with a 400 day transit to and from Mars, not including the 500 day stay on the surface, a minimum of 24 heavy lift launches of polyethylene at 89,375 lbm (40.54 tonnes) each are needed for the 1977 galactic cosmic ray environment. With the assumptions used in this paper, a single heavy lift launch of water or polyethylene can protect astronauts for a 130 day mission before exceeding the exposure value. Liquid hydrogen can only protect the astronauts for 160 days. Even a single launch of pure shielding material cannot protect an astronaut in deep space for more than 180 days using the assumptions adopted in the analysis. It is shown that liquid hydrogen is not the best shielding material for the same mass as polyethylene for missions that last longer than 225 days.

Singleterry, R. C.

2013-01-01

437

Russian-Norwegian Cooperation In Regulation of the Public Radiation Protection in the Northwest Russia - 12440  

SciTech Connect

In 1960's, the large technical bases of the Northern Fleet were arranged on the Kola Peninsula. These bases were involved in support of nuclear submarines performing acceptance and storage of radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Since 1985, the waste acceptance has been stopped and the technical bases changed their functions to serve as sites of temporary storage (STS). According to the RF Government Directive of 09 February 2000 No 220-r, the STS were put under Rosatom responsibility in order to conduct operations dealing with the SNF and RW management being accumulated during the naval activity and originated from dismantlement of nuclear submarines and surface ships equipped with nuclear powered installations, as well as to carry out environmental remediation of radiation hazardous facilities in this region. The international collaborative assistance is very important to increase effectiveness of such works. This paper includes the findings of cooperation between the Federal Medical Biological Agency (FMBA) and Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) in radiation protection of the public in the course of the STS remediation. Since 2004, the following works has been carried out in this direction: - radiation threat assessment and identification of the priority directions of radiation and hygienic studies; - radiation situation inspections on-site and within the coastal offshore waters at different stage of remediation; - development of the documents including the criteria for the STS remediation and guidelines for radiation monitoring to control the mentioned criteria compliance; - development of the radio-ecological geo-information system. The developed criteria consider four basic options of the STS remediation - renovation, conversion, conservation and liquidation. The main (dose) and derived remediation levels have been determined for each option. The resulted from monitoring radiation parameters - including contents of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 60}Co in samples of soil, vegetation, seawater, seaweeds, bottom sediments, invertebrates and vertebrates, gamma dose rate values - are integrated in the database, which is the component of the geo-information system. The developed regulative and methodical documents and the geo-information system have been introduced in Regional Management-120 under FMBA of Russia, which is responsible for the radiation safety supervision, Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology-120 under FMBA of Russia, which carries out regulatory radiation control, and in the operating organization involved in the STS remediation and responsible for radiation protection of workers and public. The works completed have permitted to solve the majority of problems in enhancement of radiation and hygienic supervision of SevRAO operation. However, some relevant questions in this area need additional efforts. In particular, in the course of specification of the design solutions, obtaining additional data on the radiation situation parameters and clarification of the prognostic assessments, the necessity will certainly arise to amend the regulatory documents taking the adopted design solutions into account. We are on the way to real results. Much has been done for the first time, and although it is difficult to foresee all future problems and challenges, our knowledge, experience and close cooperation permit to assess the prospects confidently. (authors)

Shandala, Nataliya; Seregin, Vladimir; Titov, Alexey; Kryuchkov, Viktor; Chizhov, Konstantin [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sneve, Malgorzata [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oslo (Norway)

2012-07-01

438

Radiation Dose Assessments of Solar Particle Events with Spectral Representation at High Energies for the Improvement of Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For radiation dose assessments of major solar particle events (SPEs), spectral functional forms of SPEs have been made by fitting available satellite measurements up to approx.100 MeV. However, very high-energy protons (above 500 MeV) have been observed with neutron monitors (NMs) in ground level enhancements (GLEs), which generally present the most severe radiation hazards to astronauts. Due to technical difficulties in converting NM data into absolutely normalized fluence measurements, those functional forms were made with little or no use of NM data. A new analysis of NM data has found that a double power law in rigidity (the so-called Band function) generally provides a satisfactory representation of the combined satellite and NM data from approx.10 MeV to approx.10 GeV in major SPEs (Tylka & Dietrich 2009). We use the Band function fits to re-assess human exposures from large SPEs. Using different spectral representations of large SPEs, variations of exposure levels were compared. The results can be applied to the development of approaches of improved radiation protection for astronauts, as well as the optimization of mission planning and shielding for future space missions.

Kim, Myung-Hee; Atwell, William; Tylka, Allan J.; Dietrich, William F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2010-01-01

439

A Hypothesis on Biological Protection from Space Radiation Through the Use of New Therapeutic Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation exposure to astronauts could be a significant obstacle for long duration manned space exploration because of current uncertainties regarding the extent of biological effects. Furthermore, concepts for protective shielding also pose a technically challenging issue due to the nature of cosmic radiation and current mass and power constraints with modern exploration technology. The concern regarding exposure to cosmic radiation is the biological damage it induces. As damage is associated with increased oxidative stress, it is important and would be enabling to mitigate and/or prevent oxidative stress prior to the development of clinical symptoms and disease. This paper hypothesizes a "systems biology" approach in which a combination of chemical and biological mitigation techniques are used conjunctively. It proposes using new, therapeutic, medical gases as both chemical radioprotectors for radical scavenging and biological signaling molecules for management of the body s response to exposure. From reviewing radiochemistry of water, biological effects of CO, H2, NO, and H2S gas, and mechanisms of radiation biology, it is concluded that this approach may have great therapeutic potential for radiation exposure. Furthermore, it also appears to have similar potential for curtailing the pathogenesis of other diseases in which oxidative stress has been implicated including, cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic inflammatory disease, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, parkinson s and alzheimer s disease, cataracts, and aging

Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Ansari,Rafat R.; Nakao, Atsunori; Wink, David

2011-01-01

440

A Hypothesis on Biological Protection from Space Radiation Through the Use of New Therapeutic Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation exposure to astronauts could be a significant obstacle for long duration manned space exploration because of current uncertainties regarding the extent of biological effects. Furthermore, concepts for protective shielding also pose a technically challenging issue due to the nature of cosmic radiation and current mass and power constraints with modern exploration technology. The concern regarding exposure to cosmic radiation is the biological damage it induces. As damage is associated with increased oxidative stress, it is important and would be enabling to mitigate and/or prevent oxidative stress prior to the development of clinical symptoms and disease. This paper hypothesizes a "systems biology" approach in which a combination of chemical and biological mitigation techniques are used conjunctively. It proposes using new, therapeutic, medical gases as both chemical radioprotectors for radical scavenging and biological signaling molecules for management of the body s response to exposure. From reviewing radiochemistry of water, biological effects of CO, H2, NO, and H2S gas, and mechanisms of radiation biology, it is concluded that this approach may have great therapeutic potential for radiation exposure. Furthermore, it also appears to have similar potential for curtailing the pathogenesis of other diseases in which oxidative stress has been implicated including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic inflammatory disease, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, Parkinson s and Alzheimer s disease, cataracts, and aging.

Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Ansari, Rafat R.; Nakao, Atsunori; Wink, David

2011-01-01

441

The argument for a unified approach to non-ionizing radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

In the next decade military equipment will be required to operate in severe electromagnetic environments. These environments are expected to contain most non-ionizing frequencies (D.C. to GHz), from hostile and/or non-hostile sources, and be severe enough to cause temporary upset or even catastrophic failure of electronic equipment. Over the past thirty years considerable emphasis has been placed on hardening critical systems to one or more of these non-ionizing radiation environments, the most prevalent being the nuclear-induced electromagnetic pulse (EMD). From this technology development there has evolved a hardening philosophy that applies to most of these non-ionizing radiation environments. The philosophy, which stresses the application of zonal shields plus penetration protection, can provide low-cost hardening against such diverse non-ionizing radiation as p-static, lightning, electromagnetic interference (EMI), EMP, high intensity radiated fields (HIRF), electromagnetic radiation (EMR), and high power microwaves (HPM). The objective in this paper is to describe the application of this philosophy to Army helicopters. The authors develop a unified specification complete with threat definitions and test methods which illustrates integration of EMP, lightning, and HIRF at the box qualification level. This paper is a summary of the effort documented in a cited reference.

Perala, R.A.; Rigden, G.J. (Electro Magnetic Applications, Inc., Lakewood, CO (United States)); Pfeffer, R.A. (Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency, Springfield, VA (United States))

1993-12-01

442

Pharmacologic approaches to protection against radiation-induced lethality and other damage.  

PubMed Central

Studies on mechanisms of radioprotection are leading to a more rational use of protectors for different applications. In considering the feasibility of radioprotectors that act through various mechanisms, it is necessary to distinguish the application needed, e.g., protection against accidental external or internal exposures, acute high-dose radiation injury or low doses over a long period, high-LET radiation exposures during space flight, and protection of normal tissues of cancer patients who are undergoing therapy. Protectors generally are classified as either sulfhydryl compounds, other antioxidants, or receptor-mediated agents (e.g., bioactive lipids, cytokines, and growth factors). This review focuses on comparative radioprotection and toxicity studies in mice using the most effective phosphorothioate agents designated as WR-compounds and other classes of protectors. The superiority of phosphorothioates (WR-2721, WR-151327) as radioprotectors appears to be related to their high affinity for DNA and the similarity in structure of phosphorothioate metabolites to polyamines, and their effects on processes related to DNA structure and synthesis. Drug tolerance levels are available from clinical trials using WR-2721 (amifostine) and provide a basis for discussions of the disadvantages of phosphorothioate administration outside a clinical setting. In this regard, arguments are presented against the current use of WR-2721 by Department of Energy personnel for planned radiation exposures during emergencies. Future research may demonstrate, however, that pharmacologic agents could be useful in accident scenarios, especially when used in combination with therapeutic measures. Assessment of potential prophylactic measures should consider compatibility with therapeutic measures currently in use or ones that might be available in the future for the treatment of radiation injuries. These include antiemetics, purified stem cells, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and other cytokines. Their potential usefulness against radiation-induced mutagenesis of pre- and postexposure administration of phosphorothioates and other classes of protectors should be corroborated in humans. PMID:9467066

Weiss, J F

1997-01-01

443

Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Island Resettlement Support (May-December 2001)  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former US test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. Using pooled resources of the US Department of Energy and local atoll governments, individual radiation protection programs have been developed in whole-body counting and plutonium urinalysis to assess potential intakes of radionuclides from residual fallout contamination. The whole-body counting systems are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians. Samples of urine are collected from resettlement workers and island residents under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using advanced accelerator based measurement technologies. This web site provides an overview of the methodologies, a full disclosure of the measurement data, and a yearly assessment of estimated radiation doses to resettlement workers and island residents.

Hamilton, T; Hickman, D; Conrado, C; Brown, T; Brunk, J; Marchetti, A; Cox, C; Martinelli, R; Kehl, S; Johannes, K; Henry, D; Bell, R T; Petersen, G

2002-06-01

444

Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Rongelap Island Resettlement Support (1998-2001)  

SciTech Connect

The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. Using pooled resources of the U.S. Department of Energy and local atoll governments, individual radiation protection programs have been developed in whole-body counting and plutonium urinalysis to assess potential intakes of radionuclides from residual fallout contamination. The whole-body counting systems are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians. Samples of urine are collected from resettlement workers and island residents under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LNLL) using advanced accelerator based measurement technologies. This web site provides an overview of the methodologies, a full disclosure of the measurement data, and a yearly assessment of estimated radiation doses to resettlement workers and island residents.

Hamilton, T; Hickman, D; Conrado, C; Brown, T; Brunk, J; Marchetti, A; Cox, C; Martinelli, R; Kehl, S; Arelong, E; Langinbelik, S; Bell, R T; Petersen, G

2002-05-01

445

The use of total detriment in radiation protection and its potential extension to other hazards  

SciTech Connect

Before publication of the 1977 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), radiation protection standards were based on dose limits to single organs. These dose limits were only loosely linked to the expected effects in the first two generations from gonadal doses and to the risk of fatal cancer from doses to specific organs. In 1977, the ICRP recommended the use of the ``effective dose equivalent (EDE),`` which is a method of summing the doses (weighted with relative risk coefficients) to all organs and tissues, and recommended an annual limit for EDE. Since the 1977 recommendations were published, a ``total risk`` or total detriment approach has been extended to include nonfatal cancers and genetic effects for all subsequent generations, i.e., the total health detriment from low doses of ionizing radiation. This paper discusses the development of this total health detriment from ionizing radiation exposures, and explores potential methods for using it with other hazards (such as exposures to other physical agents, hazardous chemicals, and fatal and nonfatal accidents) in calculating the total detriment to a worker.

Johnson, J.R.; Stansbury, P.S.; Selby, J.M.

1991-10-01

446

The use of total detriment in radiation protection and its potential extension to other hazards  

SciTech Connect

Before publication of the 1977 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), radiation protection standards were based on dose limits to single organs. These dose limits were only loosely linked to the expected effects in the first two generations from gonadal doses and to the risk of fatal cancer from doses to specific organs. In 1977, the ICRP recommended the use of the effective dose equivalent (EDE),'' which is a method of summing the doses (weighted with relative risk coefficients) to all organs and tissues, and recommended an annual limit for EDE. Since the 1977 recommendations were published, a total risk'' or total detriment approach has been extended to include nonfatal cancers and genetic effects for all subsequent generations, i.e., the total health detriment from low doses of ionizing radiation. This paper discusses the development of this total health detriment from ionizing radiation exposures, and explores potential methods for using it with other hazards (such as exposures to other physical agents, hazardous chemicals, and fatal and nonfatal accidents) in calculating the total detriment to a worker.

Johnson, J.R.; Stansbury, P.S.; Selby, J.M.

1991-10-01

447

(NCRP comments on radiation protection related reports, proposed standards, and meetings)  

SciTech Connect

Two NCRP Reports, two Annual Meeting Proceedings and one Commentary have been published during this period. NCRP Report No. 105, Radiation Protection for Medical and Allied Health Personnel is a rewrite and update of NCRP Report No. 48, which had the same title and which it supersedes. The primary objective of the new report is to update the material to include new radiation sources used in medicine. NCRP Report No. 106, Limit for Exposure to Hot Particles'' on the Skin was prepared in response to a request from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report addresses the potential biological effect of microscopic radioactive particles on the skin and reviews the presently available information on the subject. Proceedings No. 10, Radon, is the proceedings of the 24th Annual Meeting of the NCRP. Proceedings No. 11, Radiation Protection Today---The NCRP at Sixty Years is the proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the NCRP. Commentary No. 5, Review of the Publication, Living Without Landfills, was recently released. Also included is a list of NCRP committee reports which were released in the current reporting period.

Not Available

1991-01-01

448

Environmental Cues to Ultraviolet Radiation and Personal Sun Protection In Outdoor Winter Recreation  

PubMed Central

Objective The prevalence of ultraviolet radiation (UV) at North American ski resorts was predicted using temporal, seasonal, altitudinal, and meteorological factors and associated with a set of adult sun protection behaviors. Design UV observations and cross-sectional survey of adults on sun protection were collected. Setting Data were collected at 32 high-altitude ski areas located in Western North America in 2001–03. Participants The sample consisted of 3,937 adult skier or snowboarders. Main Outcome Measures Measurements of direct, reflected, and diffuse UV were performed at 487 measurement points using handheld meters and combined with self-reported and observed sun protection assessed for adults interviewed on chair lifts. Results The strongest predictors of UV were temporal proximity to noon, deviation from winter solstice, and clear skies. By contrast, altitude and latitude had more modest associations with UV and temperature had a small positive relationship with UV. Guest sun safety was inconsistently associated with UV: UV was positively related to adults wearing more sunscreen, reapplying it after two hours, and wearing protective eyewear but fewer adults exhibited many of the other sun protection behaviors, such as hats, protective clothing or lip balm, on days when UV was elevated. Guests took more sun safety precautions on clear-sky days but took steps to maintain body warmth on inclement days. Conclusions In future sun safety promotions, adults should be encouraged to wear sunscreen on cloudy days because UV is still high and conditions can change rapidly. They need reminders to rely more on season and time of day when judging UV and the need for sun safety. PMID:21079060

Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Scott, Michael D.; Maloy, Julie A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark D.

2012-01-01

449

Sun Protection Preferences and Behaviors among Young Adult Males during Maximum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure Activities  

PubMed Central

This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population. PMID:23912201

Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K.

2013-01-01

450

Primate study suggests pentobarbital may help protect the brain during radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Radiation therapy, an often indispensable treatment for a wide range of brain tumors, is a double-edged sword, especially when used to treat children. Research reported at the 72nd Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, in Atlanta, Ga., now suggests that pentobarbital and perhaps other barbiturates may help protect the brain from radiation-induced damage, especially to the pituitary and hypothalmus, where such damage can lead to serious, life-long problems for children. Jeffrey J. Olson, MD, now assistant professor of neurosurgery at Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, reported the results of a study of the radioprotective effects of pentobarbital on the brain of a primate, which he and colleagues at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recently completed.

Skolnick, A.

1990-08-01

451

Patient radiation dose and protection from cone-beam computed tomography  

PubMed Central

After over one decade development, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been widely accepted for clinical application in almost every field of dentistry. Meanwhile, the radiation dose of CBCT to patient has also caused broad concern. According to the literature, the effective radiation doses of CBCTs in nowadays market fall into a considerably wide range that is from 19 µSv to 1073 µSv and closely related to the imaging detector, field of view, and voxel sizes used for scanning. To deeply understand the potential risk from CBCT, this report also reviewed the effective doses from literatures on intra-oral radiograph, panoramic radiograph, lateral and posteroanterior cephalometric radiograph, multi-slice CT, and so on. The protection effect of thyroid collar and leaded glasses were also reviewed. PMID:23807928

2013-01-01

452

Protective effect of genistein on radiation-induced intestinal injury in tumor bearing mice  

PubMed Central

Background Radiation therapy is the most widely used treatment for cancer, but it causes the side effect of mucositis due to intestinal damage. We examined the protective effect of genistein in tumor-bearing mice after abdominal irradiation by evaluation of apoptosis and intestinal morphological changes. Methods Mouse colon cancer CT26 cells were subcutaneously injected at the flank of BALB/c mice to generate tumors. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with abdominal radiation at 5 and 10 Gy, and with genistein at 200 mg/kg body weight per day for 1 d before radiation. The changes in intestinal histology were evaluated 12 h and 3.5 d after irradiation. To assess the effect of the combination treatment on the cancer growth, the tumor volume was determined at sacrifice before tumor overgrowth occurred. Results Genistein significantly decreased the number of apoptotic nuclei compared with that in the irradiation group 12 h after 5 Gy irradiation. Evaluation of histological changes showed that genistein ameliorated intestinal morphological changes such as decreased crypt survival, villus shortening, and increased length of the basal lamina 3.5 d after 10 Gy irradiation. Moreover, the genistein-treated group exhibited more Ki-67-positive proliferating cells in the jejunum than the irradiated control group, and crypt depths were greater in the genistein-treated group than in the irradiated control group. The mean weight of the CT26 tumors was reduced in the group treated with genistein and radiation compared with the control group. Conclusion Genistein had a protective effect on intestinal damage induced by irradiation and delayed tumor growth. These results suggest that genistein is a useful candidate for preventing radiotherapy-induced intestinal damage in cancer patients. PMID:23672582

2013-01-01

453

CAN WE HAVE IT ALL? BALANCING ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND PUBLIC POLICY  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency is charged with the responsibility for protecting public health and safeguarding our natural environment. This mission, developed in the aftermath of Silent Spring, faces new challenges with the ever increasing human domination of ecosystem...

454

The response of antioxidant systems in Nostoc sphaeroides against UV-B radiation and the protective effects of exogenous antioxidants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UV radiation is one of many harmful factors found in space that are detrimental to organisms on earth in space exploration. In the present work, we examined the role of antioxidant system in Nostoc sphaeroides Kütz (Cyanobacterium) and the effects of exogenously applied antioxidant molecules on its photosynthetic rate under UV-B radiation. It was found that UV-B radiation promoted the activity of antioxidant system to protect photosystem II (PSII) and exogenously applied antioxidant: sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) had an obvious protection on PSII activity under UV-B radiation. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) and content of MDA (malondialdehyde) and ASC (ascorbate) were improved by 0.5 mM and 1 mM SNP, but 0.1 mM SNP decreased the activity of antioxidant system. Addition of exogenous NAC decreased the activity of SOD, POD, CAT and the content MDA and ASC. In contrast, exogenously applied NAC increased GSH content. The results suggest that exogenous SNP and NAC may protect algae by different mechanisms: SNP may play double roles as both sources of reactive free radicals as well as ROS scavengers in mediating the protective role of PSII on algae under UV-B radiation. On the other hand, NAC functions as an antioxidant or precursor of glutathione, which could protect PSII directly from UV-B radiation.

Wang, Gaohong; Hu, Chunxiang; Li, Dunhai; Zhang, Delu; Li, Xiaoyan; Chen, Kun; Liu, Yongding

455

Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Protects Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Against Ionizing Radiation in an Autocrine Manner  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is critical to embryogenesis and resistance to chemotherapy. We aimed to examine the role of Shh signaling in the response to radiation of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Methods and Materials: Response to ionizing radiation therapy (RT) was evaluated by clonogenic assay. Quantitative RT-polymerase chain reaction for patched-1 (PTCH-1) expression was performed. Cytosolic accumulation of Shh and nuclear translocation of Gli-1 were assessed by immunofluorescence. Gli-1 knockdown was done by RNA interference (RNAi). Immunoprecipitation was performed to detect Shh ligand in conditioned medium. Immunofluorescent stain for {gamma}-H2AX was used as an index of DNA double strand breaks (DSB). Expression of proteins related to DNA damage repair was assessed by Western blotting. Results: We found that Shh ligand could protect human HCC HA22T and Sk-Hep1 cells against RT. In HA22T cells, Shh ligand activated the Shh signaling with upregulation of Shh, PTCH-1, and Gli-1 expression. The nuclear translocation of Gli-1 further supports the activation of Gli-1. The radioprotection by Shh ligand was partly blocked by Shh antibody neutralization and was abolished by Gli-1 RNAi, suggesting a critical role of Shh signaling in radiation resistance. Furthermore, we noted that soluble factors secreted into conditioned medium, either constitutively or responding to radiation, by HA22T or Sk-Hep1 cells protected subsequent culturing cells against RT. Immunoprecipitation shows the presence of Shh peptide in conditioned medium. Intriguingly, antibody neutralization of Shh ligand or knockdown of Gli-1 reversed the radioprotective effect of conditioned medium. Furthermore, Shh ligand reduced the RT-induced phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase 1 and impaired the repair of DNA DSB. Conclusions: Activation of Shh signaling protects HCC cells against ionizing radiation in an autocrine manner. Impairment of DNA damage repair might involve mechanism of Shh-induced radioresistance. Targeting Shh signaling pathway may be a novel strategy to enhance the radioresponse of human HCC cells.

Chen, Yu-Jen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chin-Ping; Hsu, Ming-Ling; Shieh, Hui-Ru; Chao, Nicholas K. [Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chao, K.S. Clifford, E-mail: ksc2119@columbia.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

2011-07-01

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Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I protect intestinal cells from radiation induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

We studied whether programmed cell death (or apoptosis) is the predominant mechanism in radiation-induced cell damage to rat intestinal mucosa and investigated the mechanism of the protective effect of GH and IGF-I in the same model. Male albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups: controls, radiation, radiation plus GH and radiation plus IGF-I. Radiation was administered on the first day and on day 4. All animals were sacrificed and segments of the terminal ileum were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Apoptosis of the epithelial cells was identified at the cellular level by the TUNEL stain and was distinguished from necrosis by the characteristic