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Sample records for radiation protection policy

  1. Urgent Change Needed to Radiation Protection Policy.

    PubMed

    Cuttler, Jerry M

    2016-03-01

    Although almost 120 y of medical experience and data exist on human exposure to ionizing radiation, advisory bodies and regulators claim there are still significant uncertainties about radiation health risks that require extreme precautions be taken. Decades of evidence led to recommendations in the 1920s for protecting radiologists by limiting their daily exposure. These were shown in later studies to decrease both their overall mortality and cancer mortality below those of unexposed groups. In the 1950s, without scientific evidence, the National Academy of Sciences Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation (BEAR) Committee and the NCRP recommended that the linear no-threshold (LNT) model be used to assess the risk of radiation-induced mutations in germ cells and the risk of cancer in somatic cells. This policy change was accepted by the regulators of every country without a thorough review of its basis. Because use of the LNT model has created extreme public fear of radiation, which impairs vital medical applications of low-dose radiation in diagnostics and therapy and blocks nuclear energy projects, it is time to change radiation protection policy back into line with the data. PMID:26808879

  2. Radiation Protection Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A handbook which sets forth the Kennedy Space Center radiation protection policy is presented. The book also covers administrative direction and guidance on organizational and procedural requirements of the program. Only ionizing radiation is covered.

  3. Historical trends in radiation protection, policy and communications: 1964 to the present.

    PubMed

    Locke, Paul A

    2015-02-01

    The past 50 y have seen substantial developments in radiation epidemiology, technology, dosimetry, regulations, and protection efforts. During the last five decades, radiation communication has also evolved, growing more sophisticated as communication science and practice have advanced and matured. This talk covers the trends in radiation protection over the past 50 y, illustrated by progress in science and practice of risk communication and changes in societal expectations, and examines challenges that will confront radiation risk communication in the future. PMID:25551509

  4. (Radiation protection)

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1986-12-05

    I undertook this trip to attend the International Committee on Radiation Protection (ICRP) Committee 1 meeting held in Jerusalem. The items on the agenda were a number of reports on the following: (1) radiation effects on the developing brain, (2) RBEs for nonstochastic effects, (3) hereditary effects, (4) RBE for Auger electrons, (5) hormesis, (6) risk coefficient for radiation-induction of bladder cancer, (7) probability of causation of cancer, (8) biological basis for dose limitation to the skin, and (9) responses to questions relating to ICRP 26. On November 20, I visited Dr. S. B. Field at the MRC Cyclotron Unit at Hammersmith to discuss their new directions in research and to discuss journal editorships.

  5. BEIR-III report and its implications for radiation protection and public health policy

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-03-01

    A general background is given of the implications the BEIR-III Report may have on societal decision-making in the regulation of activities concerned with the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific basis for establishing appropriate radiation protection guides are discussed. (ACR)

  6. Commentary: Ethical Issues of Current Health-Protection Policies on Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzyński, Ludwik; Doss, Mohan; Feinendegen, Ludwig E.; Janiak, Marek K.; Miller, Mark L.; Sanders, Charles L.; Scott, Bobby R.; Ulsh, Brant; Vaiserman, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The linear no-threshold (LNT) model of ionizing-radiation-induced cancer is based on the assumption that every radiation dose increment constitutes increased cancer risk for humans. The risk is hypothesized to increase linearly as the total dose increases. While this model is the basis for radiation safety regulations, its scientific validity has been questioned and debated for many decades. The recent memorandum of the International Commission on Radiological Protection admits that the LNT-model predictions at low doses are “speculative, unproven, undetectable and ‘phantom’.” Moreover, numerous experimental, ecological, and epidemiological studies show that low doses of sparsely-ionizing or sparsely-ionizing plus highly-ionizing radiation may be beneficial to human health (hormesis/adaptive response). The present LNT-model-based regulations impose excessive costs on the society. For example, the median-cost medical program is 5000 times more cost-efficient in saving lives than controlling radiation emissions. There are also lives lost: e.g., following Fukushima accident, more than 1000 disaster-related yet non-radiogenic premature deaths were officially registered among the population evacuated due to radiation concerns. Additional negative impacts of LNT-model-inspired radiophobia include: refusal of some patients to undergo potentially life-saving medical imaging; discouragement of the study of low-dose radiation therapies; motivation for radiological terrorism and promotion of nuclear proliferation. PMID:24910586

  7. Commentary: ethical issues of current health-protection policies on low-dose ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzy?ski, Ludwik; Doss, Mohan; Feinendegen, Ludwig E; Janiak, Marek K; Miller, Mark L; Sanders, Charles L; Scott, Bobby R; Ulsh, Brant; Vaiserman, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    The linear no-threshold (LNT) model of ionizing-radiation-induced cancer is based on the assumption that every radiation dose increment constitutes increased cancer risk for humans. The risk is hypothesized to increase linearly as the total dose increases. While this model is the basis for radiation safety regulations, its scientific validity has been questioned and debated for many decades. The recent memorandum of the International Commission on Radiological Protection admits that the LNT-model predictions at low doses are "speculative, unproven, undetectable and 'phantom'." Moreover, numerous experimental, ecological, and epidemiological studies show that low doses of sparsely-ionizing or sparsely-ionizing plus highly-ionizing radiation may be beneficial to human health (hormesis/adaptive response). The present LNT-model-based regulations impose excessive costs on the society. For example, the median-cost medical program is 5000 times more cost-efficient in saving lives than controlling radiation emissions. There are also lives lost: e.g., following Fukushima accident, more than 1000 disaster-related yet non-radiogenic premature deaths were officially registered among the population evacuated due to radiation concerns. Additional negative impacts of LNT-model-inspired radiophobia include: refusal of some patients to undergo potentially life-saving medical imaging; discouragement of the study of low-dose radiation therapies; motivation for radiological terrorism and promotion of nuclear proliferation. PMID:24910586

  8. Protective Policy Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehrin, Donald D.

    1994-01-01

    Offers ways to help student affairs administrators understand protective policy laws and regulations. Looks at how such federal guidelines affect campus policies, practices, and procedures. Examines the Buckley Amendment, student consumer information, student right-to-know, campus security, and the Drug Free Schools and Communities Act. (Includes…

  9. Mobile phone health risk policy in Germany: the role of the federal government and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection.

    PubMed

    Schweikardt, Christoph; Gross, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    In order to establish a regulatory framework for a given technology important to society, the government must make decisions in the face of existing unknowingness. In the last decade, health risks originating from electromagnetic fields of mobile telecommunication transmitting stations and devices have become a regulation policy issue in Germany. This article investigates the role of the government and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection in regard to policy-making by analysing publications and Federal Parliament reports, hearings and debates. The government and Federal Parliament perceived the research situation in 2001 as insufficient in the absence of hard evidence for health impairment. Against this background, the government struck a compromise with mobile telecommunication network operators, who did not want to integrate stricter limit values for transmission stations as precautionary measures. The network operators' voluntary self-commitment included financing half the budget of the German Mobile Telecommunication Research Programme (2002-2008) under the lead management of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, which concluded that it was not required to change the position taken in 2001. The results of this programme provided the basis to continue the agreement of that year. With regard to health issues and all the other interests involved, this agreement was an acceptable and remarkably stable compromise. PMID:21923562

  10. Radiation protection in space.

    PubMed

    Reitz, G; Facius, R; Sandler, H

    1995-01-01

    Radiation environment, basic concepts of radiation protection, and specific aspects of the space radiation field are reviewed. The discussion of physico-chemical and subcellular radiation effects includes mechanisms of radiation action and cellular consequences. The discussion of radiobiological effects includes unique aspects of HZE particle effects, space flight findings, terrestrial findings, analysis of somatic radiation effects and effects on critical organs, and early and delayed effects. Other topics include the impact of the space flight environment, measurement of radiation exposure, establishing radiation protection limits, limitations in establishing space-based radiation exposure limits, radiation protection measures, and recommendations. PMID:11541474

  11. [Basis of radiation protection].

    PubMed

    Roth, J; Schweizer, P; Gückel, C

    1996-06-29

    After an introduction, three selected contributions to the 10th Course on Radiation Protection held at the University Hospital of Basel are presented. The principles of radiation protection and new Swiss legislation are discussed as the basis for radiological protection. Ways are proposed of reducing radiation exposure while optimizing the X-ray picture with a minimum dose to patient and personnel. Radiation effects from low doses. From the beginning, life on this planet has been exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources. For about one century additional irradiation has reached us from man-made sources as well. In Switzerland the overall annual radiation exposure from ambient and man-made sources amounts to about 4 mSv. The terrestrial and cosmic radiation and natural radionuclids in the body cause about 1.17 mSv (29%). As much as 1.6 mSv (40%) results from exposure to radon and its progenies, primarily inside homes. Medical applications contribute approximately 1 mSv (26%) to the annual radiation exposure and releases from atomic weapons, nuclear facilities and miscellaneous industrial operations yield less than 0.12 mSv (< 5%) to the annual dose. Observations of detrimental radiation effects from intermediate to high doses are challenged by observations of biopositive adaptive responses and hormesis following low dose exposure. The important question, whether cellular adaptive response or hormesis could cause beneficial effects to the human organism that would outweigh the detrimental effects attributed to low radiation doses, remains to be resolved. Whether radiation exerts a detrimental, inhibitory, modifying or even beneficial effect is likely to result from identical molecular lesions but to depend upon their quantity, localization and time scale of initiation, as well as the specific responsiveness of the cellular systems involved. For matters of radiation protection the bionegative radiation effects are classified as deterministic effects or stochastic effects respectively. The various histopathological reactions of tissues and organs following localized tissue irradiation, and the radiation syndromes following total body irradiation, constitute the deterministic effects. There will be a threshold below which deterministic effects do not appear and spontaneous incidences are not known. For low dose risk considerations deterministic effects are of no significance. Genetic effects and carcinogenesis are said to be stochastic effects. Characteristically the probability of stochastic effects increases with dose but the severity of the effects is independent of the dose. The shape of the dose-response relationship at intermediate to high dose levels is linear-quadratic. For exposure to low doses the response becomes linear, as is to be expected for a linear-quadratic function at low dose. No threshold is assumed for stochastic effects. The estimate of probability of fatal cancer by the ICRP is 4 x 10(-2) per Sv for the working population and 5 x 10(-2) per Sv for the total population. Their estimate of probability of serious hereditary disorders within the first two generations is 1 x 10(-2) per Sv. The highest probability coefficient is attributed to mental retardation following exposure in utero. Within the sensitive period at 8-15 weeks of gestation, a risk probability of 40 x 10(-2) per Sv is assumed but a threshold at 0.1 Sv is not excluded. Conclusions drawn from experiments, clinical observations and epidemiological studies following intermediate to high radiation exposures attribute a mutagenic and carcinogenic competence to all radiation doses. Microdosimetric considerations support this assumption. This conclusion cannot be confirmed experimentally nor by epidemiological studies of populations living under different conditions from natural sources of radiation. Nevertheless, a change in the present restrictive radiation protection policy does not yet appear appropriate. PMID:8711464

  12. Radiation protection challenges facing the federal agencies.

    PubMed

    Jones, C Rick

    2004-09-01

    In the United States, federal agencies are responsible for setting national policy and performance expectations for radiation protection programs. National policy establishes a regulatory regime, under which society can realize the beneficial uses of radiation while at the same time protecting workers, the public, and environment from the potential hazards of radiation. The challenges facing federal agencies continue to revolve around finding the right balance between benefit and adverse impact. Federal agencies are petitioned to support the research community to provide a sound scientific basis for informing the decision-making process related to radiation protection policy. The federal agencies are further challenged to consider the deliberations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) who bring together the best technical minds in the field to consider the latest scientific information and provide recommendations for establishing comprehensive and coherent radiation protection programs. The uncertainty inherent in research and the conservatism in the models and recommendations of the ICRP and NCRP should be transparent and communicated because determining the level of uncertainty and the degree of conservatism acceptable to society is a challenge for, and the responsibility of, the federal agencies in creating performance-based policies in public health and radiation protection. It is through the federal government's open, inclusive, and democratic processes where society strikes the balance that defines adequate radiation protection policy, builds public trust, and allows the radiation protection professionals to properly implement and manage that policy. PMID:15303063

  13. Radiation Protection in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Williams, N.

    1965-01-01

    The main emphasis of a provincial radiation protection program is on ionizing radiation produced by machines, although assistance is given to the Federal Radiation Protection Division in its program relating to radioactive substances. The basis for the Saskatchewan program of radiation protection is the Radiological Health Act 1961. An important provision of the Act is annual registration of radiation equipment. The design of the registration form encourages a “do-it-yourself” radiation and electrical safety inspection. Installations are inspected every two years by a radiation health officer. Two hundred and twenty-one deficiencies were found during inspection of 224 items of radiation equipment, the commonest being failure to use personal film badges. Insufficient filtration of the beam, inadequate limitation of the beam, and unnecessary exposure of operators were other common faults. Physicians have a responsibility to weigh the potential advantages against the hazards when requesting radiographic or fluoroscopic procedures. PMID:14282164

  14. Radiation protection in space

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, E.A.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1995-02-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space.

  15. Environmental Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Y.; Osaki, S.; Vincze, A.

    The environmental distribution of radionuclides, released from nuclear facilities and other sources, and the principles of the emergency countermeasures for radiation protection of the public and workers are discussed in this chapter. The concentration levels of radionuclides in various aquatic and terrestrial environments and the exposure levels of the population due to the various sources of radiation (natural and artificial radionuclides, cosmic radiation, diagnostic medical examinations, atmospheric nuclear tests, etc.) are presented.

  16. Radiation protection for nurses. Regulations and guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, C.B. )

    1992-02-01

    Rules and regulations of federal agencies and state radiation protection programs provide the bases for hospital policy regarding radiation safety for nurses. Nursing administrators should work with the radiation safety officer at their institutions to ensure that radiation exposures to staff nurses will be as low as reasonably achievable and that special consideration will be given to pregnant nurses. Nurses' fears about their exposure to radiation can be greatly reduced through education.

  17. Impact of the 1980 BEIR-III report on low-level radiation risk assessment, radiation protection guides, and public health policy

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-06-01

    The author deals with the scientific basis for establishing appropriate radiation protection guides, and this effect on evaluation of societal activities concerned with the health effects in human populations exposed to low-level radiation. Methodology is discussed for estimating risks of radio-induced cancer and genetically related ill-health in man, the sources of data, the dose-response models used, and the precision ascribed to the process. (PSB)

  18. Radiation Protection in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bird, P. M.

    1964-01-01

    The current status of radiation protection in Canada is discussed in the second of a three-part series and particular emphasis is placed on the role of the Radiation Protection Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare. Administrative and operational control procedures have been developed, involving prior approval of health safeguards in the radioisotope user's facilities and techniques, and systematic monitoring and inspection. Where necessary, a medical follow-up of accidents and excessive radiation exposures is carried out. In 1963 more than 1600 radioisotope licences were issued. Filmmonitoring service was provided to about 15,500 isotope and x-ray workers. Semiautomatic handling procedures have been developed to meet the increasing demand for film-monitoring services. Monitoring and inspection services have been provided for x-ray workers, and a committee has been formed to develop administrative procedures for health and safety control in x-ray work. Committees have also been set up to review the health and safety aspects of the operation of nuclear reactors and particle accelerators. PMID:14146856

  19. Policy offers protection from harassment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Marcia

    We face a number of legal and ethical issues in our work as scientists and as AGU members. To uphold the highest ethical standards in our professional activities, the Council has adopted policies on free access to published material, ethics in publishing, and misconduct in science. But what about guidelines to govern the personal behavior that constitutes harassment, sexual or otherwise?For years the AGU headquarters staff has had a policy that offers protection from harassment and rules for dealing with it, but the membership went without one until 1994. That year the Council adopted a policy that extends to the membership as well as to the staff and the vendors they encounter at meetings. The law only requires a policy to prevent harassment in the workplace, but the Council felt that a harassment policy was particularly important for members because the subtle behavior that can constitute harassment is most likely to occur at events that combine work and social interaction, such as the meetings, conferences, and training seminars that AGU members attend.

  20. Pregnancy and Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating oncologist, other team and family members should carefully discuss for the decision of abortion. Important factors must be considered such as the stage and aggressiveness of the tumour, the location of the tumour, the stage of pregnancy, various therapies etc.

  1. Pregnancy and Radiation Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.

    2010-01-21

    Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating oncologist, other team and family members should carefully discuss for the decision of abortion. Important factors must be considered such as the stage and aggressiveness of the tumour, the location of the tumour, the stage of pregnancy, various therapies etc.

  2. Personal Radiation Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Mark; Vinci, Victoria

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the personal radiation protection system (PRPS), which has been invented for use on the International Space Station and other spacecraft. The PRPS comprises walls that can be erected inside spacecraft, where and when needed, to reduce the amount of radiation to which personnel are exposed. The basic structural modules of the PRPS are pairs of 1-in. (2.54-cm)-thick plates of high-density polyethylene equipped with fasteners. The plates of each module are assembled with a lap joint. The modules are denoted bricks because they are designed to be stacked with overlaps, in a manner reminiscent of bricks, to build 2-in. (5.08-cm)-thick walls of various lengths and widths. The bricks are of two varieties: one for flat wall areas and one for corners. The corner bricks are specialized adaptations of the flat-area bricks that make it possible to join walls perpendicular to each other. Bricks are attached to spacecraft structures and to each other by use of straps that can be tightened to increase the strengths and stiffnesses of joints.

  3. Chemical Protection Against Radiation Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campaigne, Ernest

    1969-01-01

    Discusses potential war time and medical uses for chemical compounds giving protection against radiation damage. Describes compounds known to protect, research aimed at discovering such compounds, and problems of toxicity. (EB)

  4. Ecological indicator organisms for environmental protection policy.

    PubMed

    Wessels Boer, J G

    1983-09-01

    Environmental protection policy strives to maintain an environment favourable to human health, agriculture, and the preservation of natural heritage. Infringements upon the environment have been either by sudden deliberate action of man (construction, land reclamation, dams, etc.) or by gradual, insipid stress of chemical and physical agents (chemical substances, heat, noise, radiation, etc.). Indeliberate unwanted stress upon the environment may be measured either by observing biological effects on indicator organisms or by chemically analyzing contaminants in these organisms. In this respect the author pleads for modest, cost-efficient monitoring programmes of limited duration and providing policy related information in a direct way. Biological effect monitoring programmes show limited prospects at this moment. PMID:24259106

  5. Radiation protection guidelines for radiation emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, E.T.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    The system of dose limitation and present guidance for emergency workers and guidance for intervention on behalf of the public are discussed. There are three elements for the system of dose limitation: justification, optimization and dose limits. The first element is basically a political process in this country. Justification is based on a risk-benefit analysis, and justification of the use of radioactive materials or radiation is generally not within the authority of radiation protection managers. Radiation protection managers typically assess detriments or harm caused by radiation exposure and have very little expertise in assessing the benefits of a particular practice involving nuclear material.

  6. Radiation protection of the public: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the historical development of radiation protection standards for the public, the present system in the United States for limiting radiation exposures of the public primarily by means of environmental radiation standards for specific practices or sources, and recent developments that may affect future standards and policies for radiation protection of the public. The radiobiological and epidemiological basis for radiation protection standards and policies is emphasized. Difficulties associated with the current regulatory framework are discussed, and proposal for addressing these difficulties are presented. 16 refs., 1 tab.

  7. New Approaches to Radiation Protection

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Eliot M.; Day, Regina; Singh, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given prior to radiation exposure. Mitigators can protect against radiation injury when given after exposure but before symptoms appear. Radioprotectors and mitigators can potentially improve the outcomes of radiotherapy for cancer treatment by allowing higher doses of radiation and/or reduced damage to normal tissues. Such compounds can also potentially counteract the effects of accidental exposure to radiation or deliberate exposure (e.g., nuclear reactor meltdown, dirty bomb, or nuclear bomb explosion); hence they are called radiation countermeasures. Here, we will review the general principles of radiation injury and protection and describe selected examples of radioprotectors/mitigators ranging from small-molecules to proteins to cell-based treatments. We will emphasize agents that are in more advanced stages of development. PMID:25653923

  8. New approaches to radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Eliot M; Day, Regina; Singh, Vijay K

    2014-01-01

    Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given prior to radiation exposure. Mitigators can protect against radiation injury when given after exposure but before symptoms appear. Radioprotectors and mitigators can potentially improve the outcomes of radiotherapy for cancer treatment by allowing higher doses of radiation and/or reduced damage to normal tissues. Such compounds can also potentially counteract the effects of accidental exposure to radiation or deliberate exposure (e.g., nuclear reactor meltdown, dirty bomb, or nuclear bomb explosion); hence they are called radiation countermeasures. Here, we will review the general principles of radiation injury and protection and describe selected examples of radioprotectors/mitigators ranging from small-molecules to proteins to cell-based treatments. We will emphasize agents that are in more advanced stages of development. PMID:25653923

  9. Ethical issues in radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Shrader-Frechette, K; Persson, L

    1997-08-01

    In this note the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection and risk assessment/management, the authors review ethical thinking on five key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these five issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) Equity vs. Efficiency, (2) Health vs. Economics, (3) Individual Rights vs. Societal Benefits, (4) Due Process vs. Necessary Sacrifice, and (5) Stakeholder Consent vs. Management Decisions. PMID:9228174

  10. Radiation sensitizing and radiation protective agents in experimental radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrus, J.L.; Halpern, J.; Bardos, T.; Chmielwicz, Z.F.; Klein, E.

    1988-01-01

    It appears that AB-132 potentiates radiation effects, and the local application of AET (MEG) protects the intestinal tract, the bladder and the skin against radiation toxicity. Combined use of selective radiation sensitizing and protecting agents may be considered for clinical studies.

  11. IAEA Occupational Radiation Protection Programme.

    PubMed

    Cruz Suárez, R; Gustafsson, M; Mrabit, K

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the IAEA Occupational Protection Programme is to promote and assist in establishing an internationally harmonised approach for optimising occupational radiation protection. Guidance for IAEA Member States is provided through the hierarchical Safety Standards Series: Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. A set of three Safety Guides on occupational radiation protection has been published, jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the International Labour Office. Complementary advice, either topic specific or practice specific, is published as Safety Reports in other IAEA publications. In view of the technical difficulties associated with the introduction of the new radiation quantities for measurements and reporting, the IAEA assists its Member States by offering annual dosimetry intercomparisons. The purpose of this paper is to present the current and future IAEA activities in support of occupational radiation protection in the IAEA Member States. PMID:11586723

  12. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maisin, J. R.

    Some of the problems related to chemical protection against ionizing radiation are discussed with emphasis on : definition, classification, degree of protection, mechanisms of action and toxicity. Results on the biological response modifyers (BRMs) and on the combination of nontoxic (i.e. low) doses of sulphydryl radioprotectors and BRMs are presented.

  13. Radiation Protection in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Brown, John R.; Jarvis, Anita A.

    1964-01-01

    A recent survey was carried out with respect to radiobiological and radiological health projects in Canada. Letters of inquiry, followed by two questionnaires, were sent out to every institution where radiation research was likely to have been undertaken. Approximately 75% of those contacted replied. Of the total of 200 studies, 84% were classified as biological and medical studies, the remaining 16% as environmental radiation studies. Responses to the inquiry stressed the inadequacy of the present governmental budget for radiation research, the need for higher salaries for research workers, and the necessity of a more intensive teaching program for technicians and professional personnel. The granting of longer-term grants, rather than annually renewable grants, is urged. PMID:14226104

  14. [Radiation protection in interventional radiology].

    PubMed

    Adamus, R; Loose, R; Wucherer, M; Uder, M; Galster, M

    2016-03-01

    The application of ionizing radiation in medicine seems to be a safe procedure for patients as well as for occupational exposition to personnel. The developments in interventional radiology with fluoroscopy and dose-intensive interventions require intensified radiation protection. It is recommended that all available tools should be used for this purpose. Besides the options for instruments, x‑ray protection at the intervention table must be intensively practiced with lead aprons and mounted lead glass. A special focus on eye protection to prevent cataracts is also recommended. The development of cataracts might no longer be deterministic, as confirmed by new data; therefore, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has lowered the threshold dose value for eyes from 150 mSv/year to 20 mSv/year. Measurements show that the new values can be achieved by applying all X‑ray protection measures plus lead-containing eyeglasses. PMID:26913507

  15. Protection against solar ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Gies, P H; Roy, C R; Toomey, S; McLennan, A

    1998-11-01

    Interest in protection against solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) among the general public in Australia has been increasing steadily as a result of the 'SunSmart' campaigns run by the various state cancer councils. This increasing awareness is due in part to the requirements for occupational protection of outdoor workers and to provision of UVR protection for the recreational market. Behaviour outdoors can significantly affect exposure to solar UVR and use of items of personal protection can provide a substantial reduction in the UVR dose received. The protective properties of sunscreens, sunglasses, hats and clothing against UVR have been the subject of considerable research for some time, and over the last few years interest has extended to the provision of shade structures and the UVR protection provided by various commonly used materials. These materials include shadecloth, plastics, glass, windscreens and applicable tints. Australia has rigorous standards covering protection and UVR, in particular for sunscreens [Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand, Sunscreen products-evaluation and classification, Report No. AS 2604, Sydney/Wellington, 1993.], sunglasses [Standards Australia, Sunglasses and fashion spectacles-nonprescription types, Report No. AS 1067.1, Sydney, 1990.], protective eyewear [Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand, Eye protectors for industrial applications, Report No. AS/NZS 1337, Sydney/Wellington, 1992.] and shadecloth [Standards Australia, Synthetic shadecloth, Report No. AS 4174, Sydney, 1994.]. Compliance with the sunglass standard became mandatory in 1988 and UVR protection provided by sunglasses has increased substantially since then. In July 1996 a standard on 'sun protective textiles' [Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand, Sun protective clothing-evaluation and classification, Report No. AS/NZS 4399, Sydney, 1996.] incorporating ultraviolet protection factors (UPFs) and a rating scheme with protection categories, was introduced; this was the first of its kind in the world. Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL) UPF swing tags with UVR protection advice from the Australian Cancer Society on the reverse side are used to denote the amount of protection against solar UVR provided by clothing. To date in excess of 5 million ARL swing tags have been issued. Work on the various standards is continuing. The maximum allowed 'sun protection factor' (SPF) limit for sunscreens may be increased to SPF 30 + in the near future, and additions to the sun protective textiles standard are also planned. This paper discusses measurement methods, results, the rationale used in formulating the Australian Standards and the current state of UVR protection in Australia. PMID:9920424

  16. 1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

  17. [Radiation protection in interventional cardiology].

    PubMed

    Durán, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    INTERVENTIONAL: cardiology progress makes each year a greater number of procedures and increasing complexity with a very good success rate. The problem is that this progress brings greater dose of radiation not only for the patient but to occupationally exposed workers as well. Simple methods for reducing or minimizing occupational radiation dose include: minimizing fluoroscopy time and the number of acquired images; using available patient dose reduction technologies; using good imaging-chain geometry; collimating; avoiding high-scatter areas; using protective shielding; using imaging equipment whose performance is controlled through a quality assurance programme; and wearing personal dosimeters so that you know your dose. Effective use of these methods requires both appropriate education and training in radiation protection for all interventional cardiology personnel, and the availability and use of appropriate protective tools and equipment. Regular review and investigation of personnel monitoring results, accompanied as appropriate by changes in how procedures are performed and equipment used, will ensure continual improvement in the practice of radiation protection in the interventional suite. PMID:26169040

  18. 77 FR 17563 - Low Flow Protection Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Low Flow Protection Policy AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: As... Susquehanna River Basin Commission (Commission) approved the release of a proposed Low Flow Protection...

  19. Radiation protection standards in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Warren K.

    Radiation protection standards for the individual exposed to ionizing radiation in his/her daily work have evolved over more than 50 years since the first recommendations on limits by the NCRP and the ICRP. Initial standards were based on the absence of observable harm, notably skin erythema, but have since been modified as other concerns, such as leukemia and genetic effects, became more important. More recently, the general carcinogenic effect of radiation has become the principal concern at low doses. Genetic effects are also of concern in the younger individual. Modern radiation protection practices take both of these risks into account. Quantification of these risks improves as new information emerges. The study of the Japanese survivors of the atomic bombs continues to yield new information and the recent revisions in the dosimetry are about to be completed. The special circumstances of space travel suggest approaches to limits not unlike those for radiation workers on the ground. One approach is to derive a career limit based on the risks of accident faced by many nonradiation workers in a lifetime. The career limit can be apportioned according to the type of mission. The NCRP is considering this and other approaches to the specification of radiation standards in space.

  20. Radiation safety and nuclear medicine policies and procedures.

    PubMed

    Berman, C G

    1999-07-01

    There is a growing concern over possible adverse effects from medical applications of ionizing radiation. Hospital personnel must be educated in procedures to minimize exposure to themselves and their patients. Basic radiation safety procedures to protect personnel and patients are discussed. Examples of the nuclear medicine policies and procedures used for lymphatic mapping are provided. PMID:10448699

  1. Future of Radiation Protection Regulations.

    PubMed

    Doss, Mohan

    2016-03-01

    THERE IS considerable disagreement in the scientific community regarding the carcinogenicity of low-dose radiation (LDR), with publications supporting opposing points of view. However, major flaws have been identified in many of the publications claiming increased cancer risk from LDR. The data generally recognized as the most important for assessing radiation effects in humans, the atomic bomb survivor data, are often cited to raise LDR cancer concerns. However, these data no longer support the linear no-threshold (LNT) model after the 2012 update but are consistent with radiation hormesis. Thus, a resolution of the controversy regarding the carcinogenicity of LDR appears to be imminent, with the rejection of the LNT model and acceptance of radiation hormesis. Hence, for setting radiation protection regulations, an alternative approach to the present one based on the LNT model is needed. One approach would be to determine the threshold dose for the carcinogenic effect of radiation from existing data and establish regulations to ensure radiation doses are kept well below the threshold dose. This can be done by setting dose guidelines specifying safe levels of radiation doses, with the requirement that these safe levels, referred to as guidance levels, not be exceeded significantly. Using this approach, a dose guidance level of 10 cGy for acute radiation exposures and 10 cGy y for exposures over extended periods of time are recommended. The concept of keeping doses as low as reasonably achievable, known as ALARA, would no longer be required for low-level radiation exposures not expected to exceed the dose guidance levels significantly. These regulations would facilitate studies using LDR for prevention and treatment of diseases. Results from such studies would be helpful in refining dose guidance levels. The dose guidance levels would be the same for the public and radiation workers to ensure everyone's safety. PMID:26808881

  2. Applied radiation biology and protection

    SciTech Connect

    Granier, R.; Gambini, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Written by two eminent expects in the field with many years of teaching experience between them, this book presents a concise coverage of the physical and biological basics of radiation biology and protection. The book begins with a description of the methods of particle detection and dosimetric evaluation. The effects of ionizing radiation on man are treated from the initial physico-chemical phase of interaction to their conceivable pathological consequences. Regulations, limits and safeguards on nuclear power plants, radioisotope installations and medical centers which make use of ionizing radiation are given and the risks of exposure to natural, industrial and scientific radiation sources evaluated. The final chapter takes a look at some of the more important nuclear accidents, including Windscale, Three Mile Island, and Chernobyl, and describes basic procedures to be carried out in the eventuality of a nuclear emergency. Twelve chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  3. Protection against radiation (biological, pharmacological, chemical, physical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saksonov, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological protection for astronauts from penetrating radiation on long-term space flights is discussed. The status of pharmacochemical protection, development of protective substances, medical use of protective substances, protection for spacecraft ecologic systems, adaptogens and physical conditioning, bone marrow transplants and local protection are discussed. Combined use of local protection and pharmacochemical substances is also briefly considered.

  4. Planetary protection policy (U.S.A.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D.

    1992-01-01

    Through existing treaty obligations of the United States, NASA is committed to exploring space while avoiding biological contamination of the planets, and to the protection of the earth against harm from materials returned from space. Because of the similarities between Mars and earth, plans for the exploration of Mars evoke discussions of these Planetary Protection issues. U.S. Planetary Protection Policy will be focused on the preservation of these goals in an arena that will change with the growth of scientific knowledge about the Martian environment. Early opportunities to gain the appropriate data will be used to guide later policy implementation. Because human presence on Mars will result in the end of earth's separation from the Martian environment, it is expected that precursor robotic missions will address critical planetary protection concerns before humans arrive.

  5. Space radiation protection: Destination Mars.

    PubMed

    Durante, Marco

    2014-04-01

    National space agencies are planning a human mission to Mars in the XXI century. Space radiation is generally acknowledged as a potential showstopper for this mission for two reasons: a) high uncertainty on the risk of radiation-induced morbidity, and b) lack of simple countermeasures to reduce the exposure. The need for radiation exposure mitigation tools in a mission to Mars is supported by the recent measurements of the radiation field on the Mars Science Laboratory. Shielding is the simplest physical countermeasure, but the current materials provide poor reduction of the dose deposited by high-energy cosmic rays. Accelerator-based tests of new materials can be used to assess additional protection in the spacecraft. Active shielding is very promising, but as yet not applicable in practical cases. Several studies are developing technologies based on superconducting magnetic fields in space. Reducing the transit time to Mars is arguably the best solution but novel nuclear thermal-electric propulsion systems also seem to be far from practical realization. It is likely that the first mission to Mars will employ a combination of these options to reduce radiation exposure. PMID:26432587

  6. Emerging issues in cospar's planetary protection policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, J. D.; Stabekis, P. D.

    At the World Space Congress in October 2002 the COSPAR Bureau and Council approved a new, consolidated planetary protection policy for COSPAR. This document has subsequently been made available via the Internet on COSPAR's website , with the intention that it be used as an international consensus standard regarding the prevention of biological contamination due to solar system exploration missions. The availability of this policy has been quite useful in forging the terms for international partnerships involving such missions, as well, and NASA now routinely references the COSPAR policy as the basis for planetary protection activities in cooperative missions to other solar system bodies. Nonetheless, in the extremely dynamic (and beneficial) circumstances that solar system exploration has been dealing with, there are good reasons to suggest improvements to the existing policy at this time. Some of these improvements are related to minor inconsistencies, flaws, or oversights in the existing document, some are called for by new mission concepts and technology, and others are suggested by the overarching goals and expanded mission set being considered by the world's space agencies since the consolidated policy was issued. This paper will identify issues in all of these categories, and suggest items that will later be addressed in the work of the COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection - either at this meeting of COSPAR, or subsequent to further deliberations involving meetings, workshops, or symposia sponsored by the Panel.

  7. Cancer complexity and radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Mossman, Kenneth L

    2014-07-01

    Management of radiological risks typically encountered in environmental and occupational settings is challenging because of uncertainties in the magnitude of the risks and the benefits of risk reduction. In practice, radiation dose instead of risk is measured. However, the relationship between dose and risk is not straightforward because cancer (the major health effect of concern at low doses) is a disease of complexity. Risks at small doses (defined as less than 100 mSv) can never be known exactly because of the inherent uncertainties in cancer as a complex disease. Tumors are complex because of the nonlinear interactions that occur among tumor cells and between the tumor and its local tissue environment. This commentary reviews evidence for cancer complexity and what complexity means for radiation protection. A complexity view of cancer does not mean we must abandon our current system of protection. What it does mean is that complexity requires new ways of thinking about control of cancer-the ideas that cancers can occur without cause, cancers behave unpredictably, and calculated cancer risks following small doses of radiation are highly uncertain. PMID:24849905

  8. Operational Radiation Protection in High-Energy Physics Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Rokni, S.H.; Fasso, A.; Liu, J.C.; /SLAC

    2012-04-03

    An overview of operational radiation protection (RP) policies and practices at high-energy electron and proton accelerators used for physics research is presented. The different radiation fields and hazards typical of these facilities are described, as well as access control and radiation control systems. The implementation of an operational RP programme is illustrated, covering area and personnel classification and monitoring, radiation surveys, radiological environmental protection, management of induced radioactivity, radiological work planning and control, management of radioactive materials and wastes, facility dismantling and decommissioning, instrumentation and training.

  9. 78 FR 5813 - 2013 Assuring Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of grant funds for the support of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) radiation protection program. The goal of the 2013 Assuring Radiation Protection will be to coordinate Federal, State, and Tribal activities to achieve effective solutions to present and future radiation control problems. The recipient of......

  10. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

    2007-08-09

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

  11. Protecting the GEO Environment: Policies and Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The geosynchronous orbital regime has long been recognized as a unique space resource, dictating special measures to ensure its continuing use for future generations. During the past 20 years a variety of national and international policies have been developed to preserve this environment. A review of current practices involving the deployment and disposal of geosynchronous spacecraft, associated upper stages and apogee kick motors, and geosynchronous orbit transfer objects indicates both positive and negative trends. Most spacecraft operators are indeed performing end-of-mission maneuvers, but the boost altitudes normally fall short of policy guidelines. Russia, a major operator in geosynchronous orbit, maneuvers only 1 in 3 spacecraft out of the region, while China has never refired a spacecraft above GEO. The viability of voluntary protection measures for this regime depends upon the responsible actions of the aerospace community as a whole.

  12. Anticarcinogenesis and radiation protection 2

    SciTech Connect

    Nygaard, O.F.; Upton, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    The dramatic decrease in the incidence of stomach cancer in industrialized countries during the past 50 years, which is yet to be fully explained, and the observation that carcinogenesis in laboratory animals can be inhibited by antioxidants, retinoids, and caloric restriction, among other influences, challenge us to press on in the search for practical means to prevent cancer. It is in relation to this goal that the studies summarized in this book have special significance. This book is based on the invited and contributed papers presented at the Third International Conference on Anticarcinogenesis and Radiation Protection, held on October 15--21, 1989, in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia. They cover a broad range of investigations into the mechanisms and inhibition of carcinogenesis. In keeping with recent advances in our understanding of the importance of oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes in carcinogenesis, many of the reports focus on mutations and related changes at the level of DNA. At the same time, however, other reports deal with nutritional, immunological, endocrinological, and epidemiological aspects. In all, the various reports address carcinogenesis and its inhibition at virtually every level of biological organization. Included in this compendium are timely reviews of diverse and promising research strategies for cancer prevention, as pursued by investigators in different parts of the world.

  13. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The original recommendations for radiation protection guidelines were made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1970. Since that time the US crews have become more diverse in their makeup and much has been learned about both radiation-induced cancer and other late effects. While far from adequate there is now some understanding of the risks that high-Z and -energy (HZE) particles pose. For these reasons it was time to reconsider the radiation protection guidelines for space workers. This task was undertaken recently by National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). 42 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Role of the International Radiation Protection Association.

    PubMed

    Kase, Kenneth R; Metcalf, Phil

    2011-01-01

    Global concerns over energy supply and climate change have given rise to an increase in uranium prospecting, mining and extraction. The changing world economy is spreading the use of advanced nuclear and radiation-related technologies to many parts of the world, giving rise to global initiatives on nuclear energy and operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The emerging global nuclear safety regime promotes and encourages high standards of radiation safety worldwide. These developments call for increasing capacity and capabilities in radiation protection expertise and continue to present both challenges and opportunities to the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), an association of 46 societies representing 58 countries with an individual membership of approximately 17,000. IRPA's objectives include: (1) assisting the development of competent radiation protection programs; (2) fostering the exchange of scientific and technical information through its international and regional congresses; (3) promoting the scientific and professional recognition of the radiation protection expert; and (4) supporting continuing education programs at each IRPA congress. IRPA has adopted a Code of Ethics and Guiding Principles for the Conduct of Stakeholder Engagement. Recently work began to develop guidance for maintaining and improving current levels of radiation protection and transferring this culture to future radiation protection professionals. These IRPA projects are developed through the Associate Society Forum discussions that are held at each IRPA international and regional congress. Finally, IRPA maintains a close working relationship with various international organizations and is also represented on the Inter-Agency Committee on Radiation Safety. PMID:21399420

  15. Setting standards for radiation protection: A time for change

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, H.W.; Hickman, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1950, the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommended that ``certain radiation effects are irreversible and cumulative.`` Furthermore, the ICRP ``strongly recommended that every effort be made to reduce exposures to all types of ionizing radiations to the lowest possible level.`` Then in 1954, the ICRP published its assumption that human response to ionizing radiation was linear with dose, together with the recommendation that exposures be kept as low as practicable. These concepts are still the foundation of radiation protection policy today, even though, as Evans has stated, ``The linear non-threshold (LNT) model was adopted specifically on a basis of mathematical simplicity, not from radio-biological data.... Groups responsible for setting standards for radiation protection should be abreast of new developments and new data as they are published; however, this does not seem to be the case. For example, there have been many reports in scientific, peer-reviewed, and other publications during the last three decades that have shown the LNT model and the policy of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) to be invalid. However, none of these reports has been refuted or even discussed by standard-setting groups. We believe this mandates a change in the standard-setting process.

  16. Capturing opportunities and meeting challenges in radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Kase, Kenneth R

    2015-02-01

    This summary of the 2014 Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP) captures the opportunities presented during the Warren K. Sinclair Keynote Address, the Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture, and the six scientific sessions including the subsequent questions and answers. It captures the important issues that emerge in these opportunities and discusses the challenges that they bring to radiation protection. These opportunities arise in the basic sciences; in operational areas such as emerging technologies, preparing for the improbable but possible event, industry and medicine; and in education, communication and policy. The challenges include identifying the most important aspects of radiation protection and measurement, prioritizing them in accordance with the NCRP mission, and gaining support for the activities of the NCRP to address these issues in the fulfillment of its charter. PMID:25551512

  17. RADIATION BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS FOR RADIATION PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    The opportunity to write a historical review of the field of radiation biology allows for the viewing of the development and maturity of a field of study, thereby being able to provide the appropriate context for the earlier years of research and its findings. The...

  18. Optimal Climate Protection Policies Under Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M.; Barth, V.; Hasselmann, K.; Hooss, G.

    A cost-benefit analysis for greenhouse warming based on a globally integrated cou- pled climate-macro economic cost model SIAM2 (Structural Integrated Assessment Model) is used to compute optimal paths of global CO2 emissions. The aim of the model is to minimize the net time-integrated sum of climate damage and mitigation costs (or maximize the economic and social welfare). The climate model is repre- sented by a nonlinear impulse-response model (NICCS) calibrated against a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model and a three-dimensional global carbon cycle model. The latest version of the economic module is based a macro economic growth model, which is designed to capture not only the interactions between cli- mate damages and economic development, but also the conflicting goals of individual firms and society (government). The model includes unemployment, limited fossil fuel resources, endogenous and stochastic exogenous technological development (unpre- dictable labor or fuel efficiency innovations of random impact amplitude at random points in time). One objective of the project is to examine optimal climate protection policies in the presence of uncertainty. A stochastic model is introduced to simulate the development of technology as well as climate change and climate damages. In re- sponse to this (stochastic) prediction, the fiscal policy is adjusted gradually in a series of discrete steps. The stochastic module includes probability-based methods, sensitiv- ity studies and formal szenario analysis.

  19. Clear Film Protects Against Ultraviolet Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, A.; Yavrouian, A.

    1983-01-01

    Acrylic film contains screeing agent filtering ultraviolet radiation up to 380 nanometers in wavelength but passes other components of Sunlight. Film used to protect such materials as rubber and plastics degraded by ultraviolet light. Used as protective cover on outdoor sheets or pipes made of such materials as polyethylene or polypropylene and on solar cells.

  20. Radiation Protection Quantities for Near Earth Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowdsley, Martha S.; Wilson, John W.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.

    2004-01-01

    As humans travel beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field and mission durations grow, risk due to radiation exposure will increase and may become the limiting factor for such missions. Here, the dosimetric quantities recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for the evaluation of health risk due to radiation exposure, effective dose and gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO), are calculated for several near Earth environments. These radiation protection quantities are evaluated behind two different shielding materials, aluminum and polyethylene. Since exposure limits for missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) have not yet been defined, results are compared to limits recommended by the NCRP for LEO operations.

  1. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination 10th anniversary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Ten years ago, on April 9, 1984, the Science Advisor to the President, and Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, established the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC) to meet the need for an interagency committee to address Congressionally mandated and agency-identified issues related to radiation research and policy. CIRRPC replaced the Committee on Interagency Radiation Policy, a committee of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology, and assumed the responsibilities of the Interagency Radiation Research Committee and the Radiation Policy Council, whose charters had expired. Since then, CIRRPC has been recognized as an effective and respected mechanism for coordinating radiation policy among Federal agencies and as an efficient coordinator and evaluator of Federal efforts on designated radiation research projects. In the last 10 years, CIRRPC has established various Policy and Science Subpanels to undertake the oftentimes difficult task of resolving and coordinating agency policies and responses to issues dealing with radiation. These subpanels addressed such issues as the metrication of radiation units, the policy impact of the radioepidemiological tables, naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials, radon protection and health effects, predisaster planning for human health effects research, and ionizing radiation risk assessment. These subpanels and their work represent CIRRPC`s continuing effort to seek a common position on issues of national significance and interest.

  2. Accreditation of ionizing radiation protection programs

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.C.; Swinth, K.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1991-10-01

    There are over one million workers in the United States who have the potential to be exposed to ionizing radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to determine accurately the quantity of radiation to which they may have been exposed. This quantity if measured by personnel dosimeters that are carried by individuals requiring radiation monitoring. Accreditation of the organizations which evaluate this quantity provides official recognition of the competence of these organizations. Accreditation programs in the field of ionizing radiation protection have been in operation for a number of years, and their experience has demonstrated that such programs can help to improve performance.

  3. School Sun Protection Policies: Measure Development and Assessments in Two Regions of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Buller, David B.; French, Simone A.; Buller, Mary K.; Ashley, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected in 2005-2007 from public school districts that enrolled in a randomized trial evaluating a policy promotion program. METHODS Written policies were collected from 103 of 112 school districts in Colorado and Southern California prior to randomization. We developed methods for selecting policy headings/sections topics likely to contain sun safety policies for students and for assessing the presence, strength, and intent of policies. Trained coders assessed the content of each policy document. RESULTS Overall, 31% of districts had a policy addressing sun safety, most commonly, protective clothing, hats, sunscreen, and education at baseline. More California districts (51.9%) had these policies than Colorado districts (7.8%, p<.001). Policy scores were highest in districts with fewer Caucasian students (b=-0.02, p=.022) in Colorado (b=-0.02, p=.007) but not California (b=0.01, p=.299). CONCLUSION The protocol for assessing sun safety policy in board-approved written policy documents had several advantages over surveys of school officials. Sun protection policies were uncommon and limited in scope in 2005-2007. California has been more active at legislating school policy than Colorado. School district policies remain a largely untapped method for promoting the sun protection of children. PMID:23061553

  4. Research priorities for occupational radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research concludes that the most urgently needed research is that leading to the resolution of the potential effects of low-level ionizing radiation. This is the primary driving force in setting appropriate radiation protection standards and in directing the emphasis of radiation protection efforts. Much has already been done in collecting data that represents a compendium of knowledge that should be fully reviewed and understood. It is imperative that health physics researchers more effectively use that data and apply the findings to enhance understanding of the potential health effects of low-level ionizing radiation and improve the risk estimates upon which current occupational radiation protection procedures and requirements depend. Research must be focused to best serve needs in the immediate years ahead. Only then will we get the most out of what is accomplished. Beyond the above fundamental need, a number of applied research areas also have been identified as national priority issues. If effective governmental focus is achieved on several of the most important national priority issues, important occupational radiation protection research will be enhanced, more effectively coordinated, and more quickly applied to the work environment. Response in the near term will be enhanced and costs will be reduced by: developing microprocessor-aided {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} instruments to simplify the use and processing of radiation data; developing more sensitive, energy-independent, and tissue-equivalent dosimeters to more accurately quantify personnel dose; and developing an improved risk assessment technology base. This can lead to savings of millions of dollars in current efforts needed to ensure personnel safety and to meet new, more stringent occupational guidelines.

  5. Has radiation protection become a health hazard?

    SciTech Connect

    Rockwell, T.

    1996-12-31

    Scientists and engineers have a responsibility to speak out when their findings and recommendations lead to public harm. This can happen in several ways. One is when the media misinterpret or sensationalize a scientific fact misleading the public and creating unwarranted fear. Another is when regulations or public policy decision are purportedly based on scientific data but are, in fact, scientifically invalid. Fear of radiation has been far more detrimental to health than radiation itself. The author knows of no deaths to the public from accidental release of radiation, but the consequences of fear have been deadly.

  6. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  7. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  8. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  9. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  10. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  11. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  12. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, R. J. M.; Nachtwey, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    NASA's current radiation protection guidelines date from 1970, when the career limit was set at 400 rem. Today, using the same approach, but with the current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain. Also, there is considerably more information about the radiation environments to be experienced in different missions than previously. Since 1970 women have joined the ranks. For these and other reasons it was necessary to reexamine the radiation protection guidelines. This task was undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75 (NCRP SC 75). Below the magnetosphere the radiation environment varies with altitude and orbit inclination. In outer space missions galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 100 rem (4.0Sv) for a 24 year old female to 400 rem for a 55 year old male compared to the previous single limit of 400 rem (4.0 Sv). The career limit for the lens of the eye was reduced from 600 to 400 rem (6.0 to 4.0 Sv.)

  13. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, R. J.; Nachtwey, D. S.

    1988-01-01

    The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem).

  14. Apollo experience report: Protection against radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, R. A.; Benson, R. E.; Bailey, J. V.; Barnes, C. M.

    1973-01-01

    Radiation protection problems on earth and in space are discussed. Flight through the Van Allen belts and into space beyond the geomagnetic shielding was recognized as hazardous before the advent of manned space flight. Specialized dosimetry systems were developed for use on the Apollo spacecraft, and systems for solar-particle-event warning and dose projection were devised. Radiation sources of manmade origin on board the Apollo spacecraft present additional problems. Methods applied to evaluate and control or avoid the various Apollo radiation hazards are discussed.

  15. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  16. Polymer-composite materials for radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Shruti; Yeow, John T W

    2012-11-01

    Unwanted exposures to high-energy or ionizing radiation can be hazardous to health. Prolonged or accumulated radiation dosage from either particle-emissions such as alpha/beta, proton, electron, neutron emissions, or high-energy electromagnetic waves such as X-rays/? rays, may result in carcinogenesis, cell mutations, organ failure, etc. To avoid occupational hazards from these kinds of exposures, researchers have traditionally used heavy metals or their composites to attenuate the radiation. However, protective gear made of heavy metals are not only cumbersome but also are capable of producing more penetrative secondary radiations which requires additional shielding, increasing the cost and the weight factor. Consequently, significant research efforts have been focused toward designing efficient, lightweight, cost-effective, and flexible shielding materials for protection against radiation encountered in various industries (aerospace, hospitals, and nuclear reactors). In this regard, polymer composites have become attractive candidates for developing materials that can be designed to effectively attenuate photon or particle radiation. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art of polymer composites reinforced with micro/nanomaterials, for their use as radiation shields. PMID:23009182

  17. 78 FR 59982 - Revisions to Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... FR 66650), the NRC published for public comment the proposed revisions to four sections in Chapter 12... COMMISSION Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Standard review... Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition'': Section 12.1, ``Assuring that Occupational...

  18. 76 FR 20489 - Occupational Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... 14, 1993, (58 FR 65485), amending 10 CFR part 835. In the June 8, 2007, (72 FR 31903) amendment to... 8-hour per day exposure scenario on January 25, 2011 (76 FR 4258). Today's final rule modifies 10...-45 Occupational Radiation Protection AGENCY: Office of Health, Safety and Security, Department...

  19. 76 FR 4258 - Occupational Radiation Protection; Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... are given in appendix C. DOE first published, a final rule on December 14, 1993, (58 FR 65485), amending 10 CFR part 835. In the June 8, 2007, (72 FR 31903) amendment to part 835, DOE revised the values... Part 835 RIN 1901-AA-95 Occupational Radiation Protection; Revision AGENCY: Department of...

  20. A proposed new policy for planetary protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barengoltz, J. B.; Bergstrom, S. L.; Hobby, G. L.; Stabekis, P. D.

    1981-01-01

    A critical review of the present policy was conducted with emphasis on its application to future planetary exploration. The probable impact of recent data on the implementation of the present policy was also assessed. The existing policy and its implementation were found to: be excessive for certain missions (e.g., Voyager), neglect the contamination hazard posed by the bulk constituent organics of spacecraft, be ambiguous for certain missions (e.g., Pioneer Venus), and treat all extraterrestrial sample return missions alike. The major features of the proposed policy are planet/mission combinations, a qualitative top level statement, and implementation by exception rather than rule. The concept of planet/mission categories permits the imposition of requirements according to both biological interest in the target planet and the relative contamination hazard of the mission type.

  1. Prevent Eye Damage: Protect Yourself from UV Radiation

    MedlinePlus

    PREVENT EYE DAMAGE Protect Yourself from UV Radiation M ost Americans understand the link between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and skin cancer. ... of the connection between UV radiation and eye damage. With increased levels of UV radiation reaching the ...

  2. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4)...

  3. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4)...

  4. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4)...

  5. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4)...

  6. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4)...

  7. Prenatal radiation exposure policy: A labor arbitration

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.J. )

    1990-07-01

    A policy on prenatal radiation exposure at two nuclear power plants was revised to give better assurance of compliance with NCRP recommendations on fetal radiation exposure. This action was taken after publication of NCRP 91 in June 1987 to provide better assurance that a total dose equivalent limit to an embryo-fetus be no greater than 0.5 mSv (0.05 rem) in any month and no more than 5 mSv (500 mrem) for a gestation period. For any female worker to receive radiation exposure greater than 1.5 mSv (0.15 rem) in a month at these nuclear power plants, she was asked to initiate an administrative request for radiation exposure in excess of this limit. In this request, she was asked to acknowledge that she was aware of the guidance in U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 8.13. A worker who had the potential for radiation exposure in excess of 1.5 mSv (0.15 rem) refused to process this request and was consequently denied overtime work. She filed a grievance for denial of overtime, and this grievance was submitted for labor arbitration in June 1988. The arbitration decision and its basis and related NRC actions are discussed.

  8. Shielded radiation protection quantities beyond LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clowdsley, M. S.; Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M. Y.; Anderson, B. M.; Nealy, J. E.

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recommended that the quantities used to evaluate health risk to astronauts due to radiation exposure be effective dose and gray-equivalent. The NCRP recommends that effective dose be the limiting quantity for prevention of stochastic effects. Effective dose is a measure of whole body exposure, a weighted average of dose equivalent to a number body tissues for which the NCRP has adopted tissue weighting factors recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). For deterministic effects, the NCRP has recommended that gray-equivalent be used. Gray-equivalent is evaluated for specific critical organs and is the weighted sum of absorbed dose from field components to that organ using the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) number for that field component. RBE numbers recommended by the NCRP are used. The NCRP has provided effective dose limits as well as limits for gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO) for astronauts in low earth orbit (LEO). As yet, no such limits have been defined for astronaut operations beyond LEO. In this study, the radiation protection quantities, effective dose and gray-equivalent to the eyes, skin, and BFO, are calculated for several environments beyond LEO. The lunar surface and Martian environments are included. For each environment, these radiation protection quantities are calculated behind varying amounts of various types of shielding materials. The results are compared to the exposure limits for LEO, since limits have not yet been defined for interplanetary missions. The benefits of using shielding material containing hydrogen and choosing optimal mission times are discussed.

  9. Radiation Protection Using Carbon Nanotube Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conyers, Jodie L., Jr.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward

    2010-01-01

    BHA and BHT are well-known food preservatives that are excellent radical scavengers. These compounds, attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), could serve as excellent radical traps. The amino-BHT groups can be associated with SWNTs that have carbolyxic acid groups via acid-base association or via covalent association. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection or cellular stress mitigation via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds of SWNTs and their derivatives. It works by reducing the number of free radicals within or nearby a cell, tissue, organ, or living organism. This reduces the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including (but not limited to) cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. These derivatives can show an unusually high scavenging ability, which could prove efficacious in protecting living systems from radical-induced decay. This technique could be used to protect healthy cells in a living biological system from the effects of radiation therapy. It could also be used as a prophylactic or antidote for radiation exposure due to accidental, terrorist, or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons; high-altitude or space travel (where radiation exposure is generally higher than desired); or in any scenario where exposure to radiation is expected or anticipated. This invention s ultimate use will be dependent on the utility in an overall biological system where many levels of toxicity have to be evaluated. This can only be assessed at a later stage. In vitro toxicity will first be assessed, followed by in vivo non-mammalian screening in zebra fish for toxicity and therapeutic efficacy.

  10. Neutron spectrometry for radiation protection: Three examples

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhagen, P.

    1995-12-31

    Workers and the general public are exposed to neutron radiation from a variety of sources, including fission and fusion reactors, accelerators, the nuclear fuel and nuclear weapons cycles, and cosmic rays in space, in aircraft and on the earth. Because the health effects of neutrons depend strongly on their energy, neutron spectrometry is essential for accurate risk-related neutron dosimetry. In addition, the penetration of neutrons through protective shielding changes their energy and can be difficult to calculate reliably, so the measurement of energy spectra is often needed to verify neutron transport calculations. The Environmental Measurements Laboratory has been measuring neutron energy spectra for over 20 years, primarily with multisphere (or Bonner sphere) spectrometers. Because of this experience, the Laboratory has responded to a number of requests to provide reference neutron energy spectra at critical locations in or near nuclear facilities and radiation fields. This talk will describe the author`s instruments and three recent examples of their use: outside the Princeton Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), up to two kilometers from the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) bare reactor, and in a Canadian Forces jet aircraft at commercial aviation altitudes. All of these studies have implications beyond routine occupational radiation protection. For example, the APRF measurements are part of the broad effort to resolve the discrepancy between measured and calculated thermal neutron activation at Hiroshima, one of the most important unsolved problems in radiation dosimetry.

  11. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.; Adamson, L.F.

    1984-08-01

    The scientific literature on radiation-protective drugs is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms involved in determining the sensitivity of biological material to ionizing radiation and mechanisms of chemical radioprotection. In Section I, the types of radiation are described and the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems are reviewed. The effects of ionizing radiation are briefly contrasted with the effects of non-ionizing radiation. Section II reviews the contributions of various natural factors which influence the inherent radiosensitivity of biological systems. Inlcuded in the list of these factors are water, oxygen, thiols, vitamins and antioxidants. Brief attention is given to the model describing competition between oxygen and natural radioprotective substances (principally, thiols) in determining the net cellular radiosensitivity. Several theories of the mechanism(s) of action of radioprotective drugs are described in Section III. These mechanisms include the production of hypoxia, detoxication of radiochemical reactive species, stabilization of the radiobiological target and the enhancement of damage repair processes. Section IV describes the current strategies for the treatment of radiation injury. Likely areas in which fruitful research might be performed are described in Section V. 495 references.

  12. Issues in deep space radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Tripathi, R. K.; Singleterry, R. C.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Thibeault, S. A.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Schimmerling, W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; Noor, A. K.; Kim, M. Y.; Badavi, F. F.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.

    2001-01-01

    The exposures in deep space are largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little biological experience. Mounting evidence indicates that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate for GCR ions. The available biological data indicates that aluminum alloy structures may generate inherently unhealthy internal spacecraft environments in the thickness range for space applications. Methods for optimization of spacecraft shielding and the associated role of materials selection are discussed. One material which may prove to be an important radiation protection material is hydrogenated carbon nanofibers. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Porous material for protection from electromagnetic radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmina, Olga E-mail: bdushkina89@mail.ru; Dushkina, Maria E-mail: bdushkina89@mail.ru; Suslyaev, Valentin; Semukhin, Boris

    2014-11-14

    It is shown that the porous glass crystalline material obtained by a low temperature technology can be used not only for thermal insulation, but also for lining of rooms as protective screens decreasing harmful effect of electromagnetic radiation as well as to establish acoustic chambers and rooms with a low level of electromagnetic background. The material interacts with electromagnetic radiation by the most effective way in a high frequency field (above 100 GHz). At the frequency of 260 GHz the value of the transmission coefficient decreases approximately in a factor times in comparison with foam glass.

  14. Controversial issues confronting the BEIR III committee: implications for radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art for conducting risk assessment studies, especially known and unknown factors relative to radioinduced cancer or other diseases, sources of scientific and epidemiological data, dose-response models used, and uncertainties which limit precision of estimation of excess radiation risks. These are related to decision making for radiation protection policy. (PSB)

  15. Planetary protection policy overview and application to future missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D.

    1989-01-01

    The current status of planetary protection (quarantine) policy within NASA is discussed, together with the issues of planetary protection and back-contamination as related to future missions. The policy adopted by COSPAR in 1984 (and recently reaffirmed by the NASA Administrator) for application to all unmanned missions to other solar system bodies and all manned and unmanned sample return missions is examined. Special attention is given to the implementation of the policy and to the specific quarantine-related constraints on spacecraft involved in solar system exploration that depend on the nature of the mission and the identity of the target body.

  16. Radiation protection at nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

    PubMed

    Endo, Kuniaki; Momose, Takumaro; Furuta, Sadaaki

    2011-07-01

    Radiation protection methodologies concerning individual monitoring, workplace monitoring and environmental monitoring in nuclear fuel facilities have been developed and applied to facilities in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories (NCL) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) for over 40 y. External exposure to photon, beta ray and neutron and internal exposure to alpha emitter are important issues for radiation protection at these facilities. Monitoring of airborne and surface contamination by alpha and beta/photon emitters at workplace is also essential to avoid internal exposure. A critical accident alarm system developed by JAEA has been proved through application at the facilities for a long time. A centralised area monitoring system is effective for emergency situations. Air and liquid effluents from facilities are monitored by continuous monitors or sampling methods to comply with regulations. Effluent monitoring has been carried out for 40 y to assess the radiological impacts on the public and the environment due to plant operation. PMID:21498413

  17. Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-04-30

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  18. Science Goals in Radiation Protection for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francs A.

    2008-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Health risks of concern include cancer, degenerative and performance risks to the central nervous system, heart and lens, and the acute radiation syndromes. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) contain high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, which have been shown to cause qualitatively distinct biological damage compared to terresterial radiation, such as X-rays or gamma-rays, causing risk estimates to be highly uncertain. The biological effects of solar particle events (SPE) are similar to terresterial radiation except for their biological dose-rate modifiers; however the onset and size of SPEs are difficult to predict. The high energies of GCR reduce the effectiveness of shielding, while SPE s can be shielded however the current gap in radiobiological knowledge hinders optimization. Methods used to project risks on Earth must be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting health risks from space radiation, and thus impact mission requirements and costs. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies probabilistic risk assessments and uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts and to mission design. The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in radiation risk projection models. Exploration science goals in radiation protection are centered on ground-based research to achieve the necessary biological knowledge, and in the development of new technologies to improve SPE monitoring and optimize shielding. Radiobiology research is centered on a ground based program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and HZE nuclei at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) located at DoE s Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, NY. We describe recent NSRL results that are closing the knowledge gap in HZE radiobiology and improving exploration risk estimates. Linking probabilistic risk assessment to research goals makes it possible to express risk management objectives in terms of quantitative metrics, which include the number of days in space without exceeding a given risk level within well defined confidence limits, and probabilistic assessments of the effectiveness of design trade spaces such as material type, mass, solar cycle, crew selection criteria, and biological countermeasures. New research in SPE alert and risk assessment, individual radiation sensitivity, and biological countermeasure development are described.

  19. Estrogen Protects against Radiation-Induced Cataractogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dynlacht, Joseph R.; Valluri, Shailaja; Lopez, Jennifer; Greer, Falon; DesRosiers, Colleen; Caperell-Grant, Andrea; Mendonca, Marc S.; Bigsby, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Cataractogenesis is a complication of radiotherapy when the eye is included in the treatment field. Low doses of densely ionizing space radiation may also result in an increased risk of cataracts in astronauts. We previously reported that estrogen (17-β-estradiol), when administered to ovariectomized rats commencing 1 week before γ irradiation of the eye and continuously thereafter, results in a significant increase in the rate and incidence of cataract formation and a decreased latent period compared to an ovariectomized control group. We therefore concluded that estrogen accelerates progression of radiation-induced opacification. We now show that estrogen, if administered continuously, but commencing after irradiation, protects against radiation cataractogenesis. Both the rate of progression and incidence of cataracts were greatly reduced in ovariectomized rats that received estrogen treatment after irradiation compared to ovariectomized rats. As in our previous study, estradiol administered 1 week prior to irradiation at the time of ovariectomy and throughout the period of observation produced an enhanced rate of cataract progression. Estrogen administered for only 1 week prior to irradiation had no effect on the rate of progression but resulted in a slight reduction in the incidence. We conclude that estrogen may enhance or protect against radiation cataractogenesis, depending on when it is administered relative to the time of irradiation, and may differentially modulate the initiation and progression phases of cataractogenesis. These data have important implications for astronauts and radiotherapy patients. PMID:19138041

  20. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of...

  1. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of...

  2. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of...

  3. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with...

  4. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of...

  5. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with...

  6. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with...

  7. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of...

  8. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with...

  9. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with...

  10. Proposal to revise the planetary protection policy language for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogul, Rakesh; Stabekis, Pericles

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we propose revisions to the planetary protection policy language related to Mars exploration. Analysis of the planetary protection policy documents from both NASA and COSPAR reveals that particular phrases (or sections) associated with the Category III and Category IV requirements are ambiguous and/or potentially misleading. Therefore, revised language for specific sections of NASA NPR 8020.12D and the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy will be presented. For NASA NPR 8020.12D, the proposed language changes will revise and extend upon the sections relating to organic materials reporting and archiving (2.3.1C), the Mars impact requirements for orbiters, flybys, and cruise stages (5.3.1.2), the numerical bioburden requirements for Mars orbiters (5.3.1.4), and the bioburden limits for Mars landers (5.3.2.1-5.3.2.4). Further, our proposed change to the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy centers upon the total bioburden limits for off-nominal landings in the Martian special regions. Together, the proposed language changes will ultimately serve to update, clarify, and better coordinate the domestic and international policy documents for planetary protection.

  11. Orion spacecraft: crew radiation protection strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaza, Razvan; Cooper, Tim; Hussein, Hesham; Jarvis, Kandy; Mytyk, Anna; Patel, Chirag; Reddell, Brandon; Shelfer, Tad

    NASA's Project Constellation aims to return humans to the Moon by the year 2020, using a new generation of manned spacecraft. The Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) is the Constellation component inhabited by the crew during the trans-lunar transit and return trip. The ionizing radiation environment is significantly harsher in interplanetary space than in LEO, thus posing an increased risk for detrimental health effects. Minimizing crew radiation exposure on board Orion has been addressed by the prime contractor Lockheed Martin starting as early as the design phase of the vehicle. Radiation analysis of the CEV CAD models containing material and mass density information is used to assess the effective dose incurred by crew members. Ray-tracing is employed to reduce the 3D vehicle geometry and detailed anatomical models to sets of layered shielding configurations. Radiation transport is then modeled using 1-D analytical codes such as HZETRN. Shielding optimization is addressed iteratively, by evaluating the radiation exposure impacts of different protection strategies such as design changes (i.e., material selection), crew repositioning and cabin reconfiguration, and deploying individual shielding.

  12. Radiation Protection for Lunar Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowdsley, Martha S.; Nealy, John E.; Wilson, John W.; Anderson, Brooke M.; Anderson, Mark S.; Krizan, Shawn A.

    2005-01-01

    Preliminary analyses of shielding requirements to protect astronauts from the harmful effects of radiation on both short-term and long-term lunar missions have been performed. Shielding needs for both solar particle events (SPEs) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposure are discussed for transit vehicles and surface habitats. This work was performed under the aegis of two NASA initiatives. The first study was an architecture trade study led by Langley Research Center (LaRC) in which a broad range of vehicle types and mission scenarios were compared. The radiation analysis for this study primarily focused on the additional shielding mass required to protect astronauts from the rare occurrence of a large SPE. The second study, led by Johnson Space Center (JSC), involved the design of lunar habitats. Researchers at LaRC were asked to evaluate the changes to mission architecture that would be needed if the surface stay were lengthened from a shorter mission duration of 30 to 90 days to a longer stay of 500 days. Here, the primary radiation concern was GCR exposure. The methods used for these studies as well as the resulting shielding recommendations are discussed. Recommendations are also made for more detailed analyses to minimize shielding mass, once preliminary vehicle and habitat designs have been completed. Here, methodologies are mapped out and available radiation analysis tools are described. Since, as yet, no dosimetric limits have been adopted for missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO), radiation exposures are compared to LEO limits. Uncertainties associated with the LEO career effective dose limits and the effects of lowering these limits on shielding mass are also discussed.

  13. Uncertainty Analysis in Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Space radiation is comprised of high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, protons, and secondary radiation including neutrons. The uncertainties in estimating the health risks from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are a major limitation to the length of space missions, the evaluation of potential risk mitigation approaches, and application of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle. For long duration space missio ns, risks may approach radiation exposure limits, therefore the uncertainties in risk projections become a major safety concern and methodologies used for ground-based works are not deemed to be sufficient. NASA limits astronaut exposures to a 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) and protects against uncertainties in risks projections using an assessment of 95% confidence intervals in the projection model. We discuss NASA s approach to space radiation uncertainty assessments and applications for the International Space Station (ISS) program and design studies of future missions to Mars and other destinations. Several features of NASA s approach will be discussed. Radiation quality descriptions are based on the properties of radiation tracks rather than LET with probability distribution functions (PDF) for uncertainties derived from radiobiology experiments at particle accelerators. The application of age and gender specific models for individual astronauts is described. Because more than 90% of astronauts are never-smokers, an alternative risk calculation for never-smokers is used and will be compared to estimates for an average U.S. population. Because of the high energies of the GCR limits the benefits of shielding and the limited role expected for pharmaceutical countermeasures, uncertainty reduction continues to be the optimal approach to improve radiation safety for space missions.

  14. Radiation protectants: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Seed, Thomas M

    2005-11-01

    In today's heightened nuclear/biological/chemical threat environment, there is an increased need to have safe and effective means to protect not only special high-risk service groups, but also the general population at large, from the health hazards of unintended ionizing radiation exposures. An unfulfilled dream has been to have a globally effective pharmacologic that could be easily taken orally without any undue side effects prior to a suspected or impending nuclear/radiological event; such an ideal radioprotective agent has yet to be identified, let alone fully developed and approved for human use. No one would argue against the fact that this is problematic and needs to be corrected, but where might the ultimate solution to this difficult problem be found? Without question, representative species of the aminothiol family [e.g., Amifostine (MedImmune, Gaithersburg, Maryland)] have proven to be potent cytoprotectants for normal tissues subjected to irradiation or to radiomimetic chemicals. Although Amifostine is currently used clinically, drug toxicity, limited times of protection, and unfavorable routes of administration, all serve to limit the drug's utility in nonclinical settings. A full range of research and development strategies is being employed currently in the hunt for new safe and effective radioprotectants. These include: (1) large scale screening of new chemical classes or natural products; (2) restructuring/reformulating older protectants with proven efficacies but unwanted toxicities; (3) using nutraceuticals that are only moderately protective but are essentially nontoxic; (4) using low dose combinations of potentially toxic but efficacious agents that protect through different routes to foster radioprotective synergy; and (5) accepting a lower level of drug efficacy in lieu of reduced toxicity, banking on the premise that the protection afforded can be leveraged by post-exposure therapies. Although it is difficult to predict which of these strategies will ultimately prove to be successful, it is certain that the probability of a useful protectant being fielded is increased significantly. This is due to the resurgence of interest in radiation protection, increased resources being expended by federal agencies, and by the Food and Drug Administration's willingness to innovate relative to new approval guidance. PMID:16217197

  15. Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Little, J R; Shirley, D L; Blair, L M

    1982-05-01

    This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the degrees awarded in academic year 1980-81 from 61 U.S. universities offering degree programs in radiation protection or related areas that would enable students to work in the health physics field. The report includes historical survey data for the last decade and provides information such as trends by degree level, foreign national student participation, female and minority student participation, and placement of graduates. Also included is a listing of the universities by type of program and number of students.

  16. New radiation protection calibration facility at CERN.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Markus; Carbonez, Pierre; Pozzi, Fabio; Silari, Marco; Vincke, Helmut

    2014-10-01

    The CERN radiation protection group has designed a new state-of-the-art calibration laboratory to replace the present facility, which is >20 y old. The new laboratory, presently under construction, will be equipped with neutron and gamma sources, as well as an X-ray generator and a beta irradiator. The present work describes the project to design the facility, including the facility placement criteria, the 'point-zero' measurements and the shielding study performed via FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:24327753

  17. Radiation monitoring policy at the advanced light source

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, R.; Heinzelman, K.; Perdue, G.

    1998-02-04

    When the accelerator first began operation it was decided that, until we had the necessary dosimetry data to decide otherwise, we would badge the entire worker and experimental population. Each person was issued a dosimetry badge that contained 4 TLD elements. Badges were processed on a monthly basis. After three years of analyzing a total of 65,000 TLD elements, the decision was made to modify the radiation monitoring policy at the ALS. Only those individuals in the workforce that have any potential for exposure, no matter how small, would be badged. Subsequently, DOE conducted an independent review of the ALS radiation monitoring and dosimetry program. This review concluded that the ALS program, if expanded as proposed, would be adequate under the 10 CFR 835 Rule to establish radiation exposures to an acceptable level of confidence. The review team recommended the ALS provide more comprehensive documentation on the basis for its radiation protection and monitoring program. This document describes the technical justification for that program.

  18. European activities in radiation protection in medicine.

    PubMed

    Simeonov, Georgi

    2015-07-01

    The recently published Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom ('new European Basic Safety Standards', EU BSS) modernises and consolidates the European radiation protection legislation by taking into account the latest scientific knowledge, technological progress and experience with implementing the current legislation and by merging five existing Directives into a single piece of legislation. The new European BSS repeal previous European legislation on which the national systems for radiation protection in medicine of the 28 European Union (EU) Member States are based, including the 96/29/Euratom 'BSS' and the 97/43/Euratom 'Medical Exposure' Directives. While most of the elements of the previous legislation have been kept, there are several legal changes that will have important influence over the regulation and practice in the field all over Europe-these include, among others: (i) strengthening the implementation of the justification principle and expanding it to medically exposed asymptomatic individuals, (ii) more attention to interventional radiology, (iii) new requirements for dose recording and reporting, (iv) increased role of the medical physics expert in imaging, (v) new set of requirements for preventing and following up on accidents and (vi) new set of requirements for procedures where radiological equipment is used on people for non-medical purposes (non-medical imaging exposure). The EU Member States have to enforce the new EU BSS before January 2018 and bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with it. The European Commission has certain legal obligations and powers to verify the compliance of the national measures with the EU laws and, wherever necessary, issue recommendations to, or open infringement cases against, national governments. In order to ensure timely and coordinated implementation of the new European legal requirements for radiation protection, the Commission is launching several actions including promotion and dissemination activities, exchange and discussion fora and provision of guidance. These actions will be based on previous experiences and will rely on the results of recent and ongoing EU-funded projects. Important stakeholders including the Euratom Article 31 Group, the association of the Heads of European Radiological protection Competent Authorities (HERCA) and different European professional and specialty organisations will be involved. PMID:25870434

  19. Future Outlook for Child Protection Policies in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agathonos-Georgopoulu, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Explores current and future challenges to children in Europe. Social trends and the impact on European family life are analyzed, including having smaller families and delaying childbearing. Discusses the need to collect data on children in the European Union and to establish pan-European child protection policies. (CR)

  20. The reference individual of radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Cristy, M.

    1995-12-31

    The 70-kg {open_quotes}standard man{close_quotes} representing a typical Western adult male has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s. In 1949 at the Chalk River conference, health physicists from the U.S., UK, and Canada agreed on the concept of a standard man to facilitate comparison of internal dose estimates. The 70-kg standard man included specifications of the masses of 25 organs and tissues, total body content of 15 elements, total water intake and output, water content of the body, and some anatomical and physiological data for the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. In 1959, in its Publication 2{sup 2} on permissible doses for internal radiation the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) modified standard man. In 1963 the ICRP established a task group to revise and extend the standard man concept. The name was changed later to Reference Man and the task group`s work was published in 1975 as ICRP Publication 23{sup 3}. Publication 23 similar to Publication 2, updates and documents the sources of the data. Data on women, children, and fetuses were also collected, where available, but these data were limited primarily to anatomical data and only a few reference values were established for these groups. Information assembled during the course of the effort on the Reference Man report was used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to construct a mathematical representation of the body (a phantom) that was suitable for use with Monte Carlo methods in the calculation of organ doses. That effort was undertaken to improve estimates of dose from photon-emitting radionuclides residing within organs, so-called internal emitters. The phantom, although updated throughout the years, remains today as the basis for organ dose estimates in nuclear medicine and radiation protection and underlies the radiation risk data derived from the epidemiologic studies of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

  1. The Seven (Or More) Deadly (Or Not So Deadly) Sins of Radiation Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.; Stansbury, Paul S.

    2000-06-01

    This editorial considers the errors that can occur in the routine practice of radiation protection in the workplace. This work provides a tool and an incentive for radiation protection professionals to mentally examine their radiation protection responsibilities to identify actions they may take to improve their part of the practice of radiation protection for the benefit of humankind. We introduce a rating tool that is patterned after the IAEA International Nuclear Event Scale.?Sins? discussed include ignorance of the radiological situation, failure to integrate safety management, disabling safety interlocks, warning devices, access controls, omission of''reasonable'' from the policy of''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA), extrapolation of risk beyond reason, using radiation exposure as an excuse for terminating an unwanted pregnancy, escalation of safety requirements beyond reason, failure to average a concentration standard, not responding to concerns (of workers, public, patient s, etc.), over-training, and substitution of prescriptive procedures for judgment. Readers are encouraged to look at their radiation protection activities and judge which ones do not make sense from the viewpoint of protecting people against radiation. It is likely that readers will find more than one radiation protection activity that bears scrutiny.

  2. Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. L.

    2002-02-27

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued radiation protection standards for the potential spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste disposal system in Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These standards are found in Part 197 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 197). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 directed, and gave the authority to, EPA to take this action based upon input from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). The final standards were published in the Federal Register (66 FR 32073) on 13 June 2001. The 40 CFR Part 197 standards have four major parts: (1) individual-protection during storage activities; (2) individual-protection following closure of the repository; (3) human-intrusion; and (4) ground-water protection. The storage standard is 150 microsieverts (Sv) annual committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) to any member of the general public. The disposal standards are: (1) 150 Sv annual CEDE for the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) for 10,000 years after disposal; (2) 150 Sv received by the RMEI within 10,000 years after disposal as a result of human intrusion; and (3) the levels of radionuclides in the ground water cannot exceed 40 Sv from beta and gamma emitters, 5 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) of radium-226 and -228, and 15 pCi/L of gross alpha activity. There are also requirements related to the post-10,000-year period, the basis of compliance judgments, and performance assessments. The Agency has published its responses to the comments received, its technical background document, and its economic impact analysis. In addition to printed form, the documents are available on the World Wide Web at http://www.epa.gov/radiation/yucca/index.html.

  3. Overview of radiation protection at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.; Britvich, G.; Bull, J.; Coulson, L.; Coyne, J.; Mokhov, N.; Romero, V.; Stapleton, G.

    1994-03-01

    The radiation protection program at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory is described. After establishing a set of stringent design guidelines for radiation protection, both normal and accidental beam losses for each accelerator were estimated. From these parameters, shielding requirements were specified using Monte-Carlo radiation transport codes. A groundwater activation model was developed to demonstrate compliance with federal drinking water standards. Finally, the environmental radiation monitoring program was implemented to determine the effect of the facility operation on the radiation environment.

  4. Radiation protection guidelines for the skin

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    With the exception of the function of cells in the skin associated with immunocompetence nonstochastic effects have been well characterized and threshold doses are known with a precision appropriate for setting radiation protection standards. A dose limitation of 0.5 Sv per year and a working lifetime dose limit of 20 Sv should protect the worker population adequately and therefore, the current protection standards are quite adequate. The risk estimate for skin cancer is very dependent on the selection of the projection model and on the mortality rate assumed. Based on the relative risk model, a mortality rate of 0.2% and summing risks for both UVR exposed and shielded skin the risk is about twice (1.94/10{sup {minus}4} Sv{sup {minus}1}) that which ICRP derived in 1977. With the absolute model the risk is considerably less, about 0.5/10{sup {minus}4} Sv{sup {minus}1}. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Environmental Policy Beliefs of Stakeholders in Protected Area Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices.

  6. Environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management.

    PubMed

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices. PMID:17265109

  7. Overview of the 2008 COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, John

    In January 2008 the COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection held a Policy Workshop in Montŕal, Canada to consider a number of recommendations that had been suggested at prior e Panel business meetings for updating and clarifying the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy that had been adopted at the World Space Congress in 2002. One particular element of the Policy that was due for clarification was the definition of "Special Regions" on Mars, which was discussed by the Panel at a Special Regions Colloquium in Rome in September 2008, and which was recommended for updating by both the US National Research Council's Committee on Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars and by a Special Regions Science Analysis Group organized by NASA under its Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group in 2006. In other business, the Workshop also discussed and adopted wording to reflect the planetary protection considerations associated with future human missions to Mars (subsequent to several NASA and ESA workshops defining those), and addressed the planetary protection categorizations of both Venus and the Earth's Moon. The Workshop also defined a plan to move forward on the categorization of Outer Planet Satellites (to be done in conjunction with SC's B and F), and revised certain portions of the wording of the 1983 version of the COSPAR policy statement, emphasized full participation by all national members in planetary protection decisions and the need to study the ethical considerations of space exploration, and provided for a traceable version of the policy to be assembled and maintained by the Panel. This talk will review the Montŕal Workshop, and use its themes to introduce the remaining speakers in the session. e

  8. 49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Siting Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection...) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated using Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) report...

  9. 49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Siting Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection...) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated using Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) report...

  10. 49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Siting Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection...) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated using Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) report...

  11. 49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Siting Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection...) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated using Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) report...

  12. 49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Siting Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection...) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated using Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) report...

  13. 77 FR 66650 - Proposed Revisions to Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Standard... (NRC or the Commission) is revising the following sections in Chapter 12, ``Radiation Protection'' and... Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition,'' Section 12.1, ``Assuring that Occupational Radiation Exposures Are...

  14. 46 CFR 308.207 - War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. 308... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.207 War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. The standard form of war risk protection and indemnity insurance policy, Form...

  15. 46 CFR 308.207 - War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. 308... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.207 War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. The standard form of war risk protection and indemnity insurance policy, Form...

  16. 46 CFR 308.207 - War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. 308... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.207 War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. The standard form of war risk protection and indemnity insurance policy, Form...

  17. 46 CFR 308.207 - War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. 308... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.207 War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. The standard form of war risk protection and indemnity insurance policy, Form...

  18. 46 CFR 308.207 - War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. 308... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.207 War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. The standard form of war risk protection and indemnity insurance policy, Form...

  19. Space Radiation Protection, Space Weather, and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, Neal; Fry, Dan; Lee, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during a deep space exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon may differ by multiple orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for our ability to conduct exploration operations. With these differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, we present the status of the efforts currently underway as the required development to enable exploration operations. The changes in the operating environment as crewed operations begin to stretch away from the Earth are changing the way we think about the lines between research and operations . The real, practical work to enable a permanent human presence away from Earth has already begun

  20. Space Radiation Protection, Space Weather, and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, Neal; Rutledge, R.; Semones, E. J.; Johnson, A. S.; Guetersloh, S.; Fry, D.; Stoffle, N.; Lee, K.

    2008-01-01

    Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight -- and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during an exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon may differ by multiple orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for our ability to conduct exploration operations. With these differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, we present the status of the efforts currently underway as the required development to enable exploration operations. The changes in the operating environment as crewed operations begin to stretch away from the Earth are changing the way we think about the lines between "research" and "operations". The real, practical work to enable a permanent human presence away from Earth has already begun.

  1. Space Weather Status for Exploration Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Dan J.; Lee, Kerry; Zapp, Neal; Barzilla, Janet; Dunegan, Audrey; Johnson, Steve; Stoffle, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during an exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and in free space, for example, may differ by orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for the ability to conduct exploration operations. We present a current status of developing operational concepts for manned exploration and expectations for asset viability and available predictive and characterization toolsets.

  2. Radiation safety standards and their application: international policies and current issues.

    PubMed

    González, Abel J

    2004-09-01

    This paper briefly describes the current policies of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation and the International Commission on Radiological Protection and how these policies are converted into international radiation safety standards by the International Atomic Energy Agency, which is the only global organization-within the United Nations family of international agencies-with a statutory mandate not only to establish such standards but also to provide for their application. It also summarizes the current status of the established corpus of such international standards, and of it foreseeable evolution, as well as of legally binding undertakings by countries around the world that are linked to these standards. Moreover, this paper also reviews some major current global issues related to the application of international standards, including the following: strengthening of national infrastructures for radiation safety, including technical cooperation programs for assisting developing countries; occupational radiation safety challenges, including the protection of pregnant workers and their unborn children, dealing with working environments with high natural radiation levels, and occupational attributability of health effects (probability of occupational causation); restricting discharges of radioactive substances into the environment: reviewing current international policies vis-a-vis the growing concern on the radiation protection of the "environment;" radiological protection of patients undergoing radiodiagnostic and radiotherapeutic procedures: the current International Action Plan; safety and security of radiation sources: post-11 September developments; preparedness and response to radiation emergencies: enhancing the international network; safe transport of radioactive materials: new apprehensions; safety of radioactive waste management: concerns and connections with radiation protection; and radioactive residues remaining after the termination of activities: radiation protection response to the forthcoming wave of decommissioning of installations with radioactive materials. The ultimate aim of this paper is to encourage information exchange, cooperation, and collaboration within the radiation protection professional community. In particular, the paper tries to facilitate consolidation of the growing international regime on radiation safety, including the expansion of legally binding undertakings by countries, the strengthening of the current corpus of international radiation safety standards, and the development of international provisions for ensuring the proper worldwide application of these standards, such as a system of international appraisals by peer review. PMID:15303062

  3. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Composition of Accelerator Radiation Fields; Shielding of Electrons and Photons at Accelerators; Shielding of Hadrons at Accelerators; Low Energy Prompt Radiation Phenomena; Induced Radioactivity at Accelerators; Topics in Radiation Protection Instrumentation at Accelerators; and Accelerator Radiation Protection Program Elements.

  4. Improved Spacecraft Materials for Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Shinn, J. L.; Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Thibeault, Sheila Ann; Kim, M.-H. Y.; Heinbockel, John H.; Badhwar, Gautam D.

    2001-01-01

    Methods by which radiation shielding is optimized need to be developed and materials of improved shielding characteristics identified and validated. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are very penetrating and the energy absorbed by the astronaut behind the shield is nearly independent of shield composition and even the shield thickness. However, the mix of particles in the transmitted beam changes rapidly with shield material composition and thickness. This results in part from the breakup of the high-energy heavy ions of the GCR which make contributions to biological effects out of proportion to their deposited energy. So the mixture of particles in the radiation field changes with shielding and the control of risk contributions from dominant particle types is critical to reducing the hazard to the astronaut. The risk of biological injury for a given particle type depends on the type of biological effect and is specific to cell or tissue type. Thus, one is faced with choosing materials which may protect a given tissue against a given effect but leave unchanged or even increase the risk of other effects in the same tissue or increase the risks to other adjacent tissues of a different type in the same individual. The optimization of shield composition will then be tied to a specific tissue and risk to that tissue. Such peculiarities arise from the complicated mixture of particles, the nature of their biological response, and the details of their interaction with material constituents. Aside from the understanding of the biological response to specific components, one also needs an accurate understanding of the radiation emerging from the shield material. This latter subject has been a principal element of this project. In the past ten years our understanding of space radiation interactions with materials has changed radically, with a large impact on shield design. For example, the NCRP estimated that only 2 g/sq cm. of aluminum would be required to meet the annual 500 mSv limit for the exposure of the blood forming organs (this limit is strictly for LEO but can be used as a guideline for the Mars mission analysis). The current estimates require aluminum shield thicknesses above 50 g/sq cm., which is impractical. In such a heavily shielded vehicle, the neutrons produced throughout the vehicle also contribute significantly to the exposure and this demands greater care in describing the angular dependence of secondary particle production processes. As such the continued testing of databases and transport procedures in laboratory and spaceflight experiments has continued. This has been the focus of much of the last year's activity and has resulted in improved neutron prediction capability. These new methods have also improved our understanding of the surface environment of Mars. The Mars 2003 NRA HEDS related surface science requirements were driven by the need to validate predictions on the upward flux of neutrons produced in the Martian regolith and bedrock made by the codes developed under this project. The codes used in the surface environment definition are also being used to look at in situ resources for the development of construction material for Martian surface facilities. For example, synthesis of polyimides and polyethylene as binders of regolith for developing basic structural elements has been studied and targets built for accelerator beam testing of radiation shielding properties. Preliminary mechanical tests have also been promising. Improved spacecraft materials have been identified (using the criteria reported by this project at the last conference) as potentially important for future shielding materials. These are liquid hydrogen, hydrogenated nanofibers, liquid methane, LiH, Polyethylene, Polysulfone, and Polyetherimide (in order of decreasing shield performance). Some of the materials are multifunctional and are required for other onboard systems. We are currently preparing software for trade studies with these materials relative to the Mars Reference Mission as required in the project's final year.

  5. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Eze, Cletus Uche; Abonyi, Livinus Chibuzo; Njoku, Jerome; Irurhe, Nicholas Kayode; Olowu, Oluwabola

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective cross sectional survey. Convenience sampling technique was used to select four x-ray diagnostic centres in four tertiary hospitals in Lagos metropolis. Data were analysed with Epi- info software, version 3.5.1. Results: Average score on assessment of knowledge was 73%. Most modern radiation protection instruments were lacking in all the centres studied. Application of shielding devices such as gonad shield for protection was neglected mostly in government hospitals. Most x-ray machines were quite old and evidence of quality assurance tests performed on such machines were lacking. Conclusion: Radiographers within Lagos metropolis showed an excellent knowledge of radiation protection within the study period. Adherence to radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos metropolis during the period studied was, however, poor. Radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria should embrace current trends in radiation protection and make more concerted efforts to apply their knowledge in protecting themselves and patients from harmful effects of ionising radiation. PMID:24665152

  6. Revision to Planetary Protection Policy for Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVincenzi, D. L.; Stabekis, P.; Barengoltz, J.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Under existing COSPAR policy adopted in 1984, missions to Mars (landers, probes, and some orbiters) are designated as Category IV missions. As such, the procedures for implementing planetary protection requirements could include trajectory biasing, cleanrooms, bioload reduction, sterilization of hardware, and bioshields, i. e. requirements could be similar to Viking. However, in 1992, a U. S. National Academy of Sciences study recommended that controls on forward contamination of Mars be tied to specific mission objectives. The report recommended that Mars landers with life detection instruments be subject to at least Viking-level sterilization procedures for bioload reduction, while spacecraft (including orbiters) without life detection instruments be subject to at least Viking-level pre sterilization procedures for bioload reduction but need not be sterilized. In light of this, it is proposed that the current policy's Category IV missions and their planetary protection requirements be divided into two subcategories as follows: Category IV A, for missions comprising landers and probes without life detection experiments and some orbiters, which will meet a specified bioburden limit for exposed surfaces; Category IV B, for landers and probes with life detection experiments, which will require complete system sterilization. For Category IV A missions, bioburden specifications will be proposed and implementing procedures discussed. A resolution will be proposed to modify the existing COSPAR policy to reflect these changes. Similar specifications, procedures, and resolution for Category IV B missions will be the subject of a later study.

  7. Cost and effectiveness of methods of radiation protection in x-ray diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Russell, J G

    1985-01-01

    A financial assessment is made of the detriment from ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography. The possible dose reductions available with different techniques of radiation protection are assessed and expressed both as a percentage and as actual value. The cost is calculated of these methods of protection. The use of carbon fibre materials is shown to be particularly advantageous. It is stressed that government policy in the United Kingdom is advocating cost-effective methods of health promotion, and these applications are attractive from this viewpoint. PMID:3933884

  8. U.K. Data Protection in the Context of European Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratford, Jean Slemmons; Stratford, Juri

    1998-01-01

    Examines the established data protection policy in the United Kingdom, to provide some context and background against which to judge existing and evolving U.S. policies. The Data Protection Act of 1984, the Council of Europe Convention on Data Protection, and the European Union Data Protection Directive are discussed. Online sources of further…

  9. Discourse and policy making on consumer protection in the areas of mobile telecommunication and tanning.

    PubMed

    Schweikardt, Christoph; Rosentreter, Michael; Gross, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Perceived health risks from electromagnetic fields in mobile telecommunication and from UV radiation in tanning have become regulation issues in Germany during the last decade. Health risk messages from government expert bodies and the main stakeholders in these areas as well as subsequent consumer protection policy making are investigated. Publications and websites of government expert bodies and the main stakeholders as well as debates in Federal Parliament were analysed to compare argumentation patterns and parliamentary decision-making processes. In both areas, the public received competing health risk messages from the industries and their critics. As a government expert body, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) held the view that alleged health risks from electromagnetic telecommunication were not proven, and propagated the precautionary principle. This opinion did not endanger the agreement of 2001 between the government and mobile telecommunication operators. After the failure to obtain voluntary commitment from the tanning industry, by contrast, the BfS recommended stricter consumer protection legislation, which was subsequently implemented. The BfS was in a key position to demand the prerogative of interpretation concerning mutually excluding health risk messages and to provide the argumentation which led the way to non-ionic radiation health protection measures. PMID:23763237

  10. Impact of the Chernobyl accident on radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Paretzke, H.G.

    1988-08-01

    The science of radiation protection is a fundamental outgrowth of peaceful and military applications of ionizing radiation and the use of nuclear energy. Scientific progress in radiation protection has not, however, been as dramatic as progress in other scientific endeavors, because many users of ionizing radiation have perceived that the major technical and institutional problems have already been solved. This misperception is not based on solid fact and is not shared by radiation protection professionals, who have a broader vision of both past achievements and problems remaining in this area. Experience gained as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident has highlighted new problems and demonstrated the urgency of finding better answers to some old questions. This paper addresses the future impact of the recent Chernobyl accident on the science of radiation protection. In summary, the accident demonstrated that particular emphasis should be directed toward: Improvement of dosimetric and health-effects models for predicting the consequences of exposure of the public to low doses of ionizing radiation. Development of optimized, realistic countermeasures and improvement in emergency preparedness. Education of the public, including students, scientists and politicians with regard to radiation protection issues. Development of advanced computer programs and radiation instruments for evaluating reactor accidents and their consequences. Transfer of learned concepts, methods and approaches to other scientific fields, such as environmental sciences, toxicology, pharmacology, etc.

  11. Groundwater protection policies and practices in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Chave, P A

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarises the main objectives for groundwater protection and describes the system adopted in the UK. Groundwater is essential as a source of drinking-water, even in countries with high rainfall; it is used for irrigation and industrial purposes; and it often comprises the base flow of rivers under dry conditions. Water quality is threatened by industry, landfill leachate, agricultural contamination and mine drainage. Quantity is threatened by over-abstraction. The UK uses a risk-based concept of vulnerability to pollution and over-abstraction. A groundwater protection policy has been devised providing guidance on those activities which require control in groundwater protection zones, reflecting the vulnerability of the aquifer. The zones make use of the travel time of contaminants to the water abstraction point. All major activities such as water abstraction, waste disposal, and spreading of agricultural materials may thus be assessed in terms of their risk to the groundwater, and suitable precautions may be taken. Groundwater, once polluted, is an asset which is difficult and expensive to replace. Vulnerability assessment is a useful tool to assist in its protection. PMID:10842809

  12. NCRP Program Area Committee 7: Radiation Education, Risk Communication, Outreach, and Policy.

    PubMed

    Becker, S M; Locke, P A

    2016-02-01

    Recognizing the central importance of effective communication, education, and policy across all of the domains of radiation safety and radiation protection, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) established a new committee in 2013. Program Area Committee 7 (PAC 7) was created to develop projects and provide guidance on "Radiation Education, Risk Communication, Outreach, and Policy." After identifying individuals with relevant expertise who were willing to serve, the Committee held its inaugural meeting in 2014. In 2015, the Committee increased its membership and began carrying out an expanded program of activities. One area of activity has involved providing input and feedback on risk communication issues to NCRP and other agencies. Another area of work has involved liaising with other NCRP committees (e.g., Council Committee 1 and PAC 3) to help incorporate psychosocial and risk communication issues into projects. Future efforts of NCRP's newest PAC are expected to include the development of authoritative reports and commentaries dealing with critical issues and challenges in radiation risk communication, education, and policy. PMID:26717162

  13. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    In the first chapter, terminology, physical and radiological quantities, and units of measurement used to describe the properties of accelerator radiation fields are reviewed. The general considerations of primary radiation fields pertinent to accelerators are discussed. The primary radiation fields produced by electron beams are described qualitatively and quantitatively. In the same manner the primary radiation fields produced by proton and ion beams are described. Subsequent chapters describe: shielding of electrons and photons at accelerators; shielding of proton and ion accelerators; low energy prompt radiation phenomena; induced radioactivity at accelerators; topics in radiation protection instrumentation at accelerators; and accelerator radiation protection program elements.

  14. Radiation protection for manned space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, T. M.

    1983-01-01

    The Earth's natural radiation environment poses a hazard to manned space activities directly through biological effects and indirectly through effects on materials and electronics. The following standard practices are indicated that address: (1) environment models for all radiation species including uncertainties and temporal variations; (2) upper bound and nominal quality factors for biological radiation effects that include dose, dose rate, critical organ, and linear energy transfer variations; (3) particle transport and shielding methodology including system and man modeling and uncertainty analysis; (4) mission planning that includes active dosimetry, minimizes exposure during extravehicular activities, subjects every mission to a radiation review, and specifies operational procedures for forecasting, recognizing, and dealing with large solar flaes.

  15. Radiation protection for human interplanetary spaceflight and planetary surface operations

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, B.C.

    1993-12-31

    Radiation protection issues are reviewed for five categories of radiation exposure during human missions to the moon and Mars: trapped radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays, solar flare particle events, planetary surface emissions, and on-board radiation sources. Relative hazards are dependent upon spacecraft and vehicle configurations, flight trajectories, human susceptibility, shielding effectiveness, monitoring and warning systems, and other factors. Crew cabins, interplanetary mission modules, surface habitats, planetary rovers, and extravehicular mobility units (spacesuits) provide various degrees of protection. Countermeasures that may be taken are reviewed relative to added complexity and risks that they could entail, with suggestions for future research and analysis.

  16. Refinement of planetary protection policy for Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devincenzi, D. L.; Stabekis, P.; Barengoltz, J.

    1996-01-01

    Under existing COSPAR policy adopted in 1984, missions to Mars (landers, probes, and some orbiters) are designated as Category IV missions. As such, the procedures for implementing planetary protection requirements could include trajectory biasing, cleanrooms, bioload reduction, sterilization of hardware, and bioshields. In 1992, a U.S. National Research Council study recommended that controls on forward contamination of Mars be tied to specific mission objectives. The report recommended that Mars landers with life detection instruments be subject to at least Viking-level sterilization procedures for bioload reduction, while spacecraft (including orbiters) without life detection instruments be subject to at least Viking-level pre-sterilization procedures for bioload reduction but need not be sterilized. In light of this, it is proposed that the current policy's Category IV and its planetary protection requirements be divided into two sub-categories as follows: Category IVa, for missions comprising landers and probes without life detection experiments, which will meet a specified bioburden limit for exposed surfaces, and Category IVb, for landers and probes with life detection experiments, which will require sterilization of landed systems. In addition, Category III orbiter mission specifications are expanded to be consistent with these recommendations.

  17. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Radiological Control Managers' Council

    2008-06-01

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

  18. Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ϒ, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins. Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation IgG preparations - prospective effective antidote/countermeasure for ϒ-irradiation, heavy ions irradiation, neutron irradiation. Recommendations for treatment and immune-prophylaxis of CNS injury, induced by radiation, were proposed. Specific immune therapy and specific immune prophylaxis reduce symptoms of ACvRS. This manuscript summarizes the results of experiments and considering possibility for blocking toxicological mechanisms of action of Radiation and Radiation Neurotoxins and prevention or diminishing clinical signs of injury of CNS. Experimental data suggest that Antiradiation vaccine and Antiradiation IgG with specific antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins, Cytotoxins protect CNS against high doses of radiation.

  19. Radiobiology and gray science: flaws in landmark new radiation protections.

    PubMed

    Shrader-Frechette, Kristin

    2005-04-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection--whose regularly updated recommendations are routinely adopted as law throughout the globe--recently issued the first-ever ICRP protections for the environment. These draft 2005 proposals are significant both because they offer the commission's first radiation protections for any non-human parts of the planet and because they will influence both the quality of radiation risk assessment and environmental protection, as well as the global costs of nuclear-weapons cleanup, reactor decommissioning and radioactive waste management. This piece argues that the 2005 recommendations are scientifically and ethically flawed, or gray, in at least three respects: first, in largely ignoring scientific journals while employing mainly "gray literature;" second, in relying on non-transparent dose estimates and models, rather than on actual radiation measurements; and third, in ignoring classical ethical constraints on acceptable radiation risk. PMID:15915855

  20. "Child Panic", Risk and Child Protection: An Examination of Policies from New South Wales and Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Judyth; Mellor, Lise

    2005-01-01

    In this paper child protection policies from two Australian states (New South Wales and Queensland) are analyzed as exemplars of policy response to risk-consciousness. In particular, child protection policies from the Departments of Education in NSW and QLD are viewed alongside state Codes of Conduct for government employees. Clearly there is a…

  1. Radiation Protection Using Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tour, James M.; Lu, Meng; Lucente-Schultz, Rebecca; Leonard, Ashley; Doyle, Condell Dewayne; Kosynkin, Dimitry V.; Price, Brandi Katherine

    2011-01-01

    This invention is a means of radiation protection, or cellular oxidative stress mitigation, via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds, specifically single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and their derivatives. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection by reducing the number of free radicals within, or nearby, organelles, cells, tissue, organs, or living organisms, thereby reducing the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components (i.e., RNA, mitochondria, membranes, etc.) that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including but not limited to cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. In addition, this innovation could be used as a prophylactic or antidote for accidental radiation exposure, during high-altitude or space travel where exposure to radiation is anticipated, or to protect from exposure from deliberate terrorist or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons.

  2. Radiation protection aspects of EMITEL Encyclopaedia of Medical Physics.

    PubMed

    Stoeva, M; Tabakov, S; Lewis, C; Tabakova, V; Thurston, J; Smith, P

    2015-07-01

    The Encyclopaedia of Medical Physics EMITEL was developed under the EU pilot project European Medical Imaging Technology e-Encyclopaedia for Lifelong Learning. This large reference material includes 3400 articles on 2100 pages supported by thousands of illustrations. All materials are available free at the website, www.emitel2.eu. The articles are grouped in seven categories--physics of: X-ray diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, radiation protection and general terms. The radiation protection part of EMITEL includes 450 articles. These were organised in several sub-groups including: nuclear and atomic physics; ionizing radiation interactions and biological effects; radiation detection and measurement; dosimetric quantities and units; and general radiation protection and international bodies. EMITEL project was developed over 3 y and attracted as contributors 250+ senior specialists from 35 countries. After its successful launching, EMITEL is actively used by thousands of professionals around the world. PMID:25848099

  3. Using computer-based training to facilitate radiation protection review

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, J.S.; Copenhaver, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    In a national laboratory setting, it is necessary to provide radiation protection overview and training to diverse parts of the laboratory population. This includes employees at research reactors, accelerators, waste facilities, radiochemical isotope processing, and analytical laboratories, among others. In addition, our own radiation protection and monitoring staffs must be trained. To assist in the implementation of this full range of training, ORNL has purchased prepackaged computer-based training in health physics and technical mathematics with training modules that can be selected from many topics. By selection of specific modules, appropriate radiation protection review packages can be determined to meet many individual program needs. Because our radiation protection personnel must have some previous radiation protection experience or the equivalent of an associate's degree in radiation protection for entry level, the computer-based training will serve primarily as review of major principles. Others may need very specific prior training to make the computer-based training effective in their work situations. 4 refs.

  4. Viewpoint on proposed radiation-protection standards

    SciTech Connect

    Auxier, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The proposed revision of 10CFR20 is discussed from a personal perspective. A brief historical review of the development of radiation standards is presented, and arguments against the proposed de minimis level elaborated upon. (ACR)

  5. Simple Benchmark Specifications for Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.; Aghara, Sukesh K.

    2013-01-01

    This report defines space radiation benchmark specifications. This specification starts with simple, monoenergetic, mono-directional particles on slabs and progresses to human models in spacecraft. This report specifies the models and sources needed to what the team performing the benchmark needs to produce in a report. Also included are brief descriptions of how OLTARIS, the NASA Langley website for space radiation analysis, performs its analysis.

  6. Space activities and radiation protection of crew members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straube, Ulrich; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Facius, Rainer; Reiter, Thomas; Kehl, Marcel; Damann, M. D. Volker; Tognini, Michel

    Personnel working as crew in space-based activities e.g. professional astronauts and cosmo-nauts but also -to a certain extend-space flight participants ("space tourists"), demand health and safety considerations that have to include radiation protection measures. The radiation environment that a crew is exposed to during a space flight, differs significantly to that found on earth including commercial aviation, mainly due to the presence of heavy charged particles with great potential for biological damage. The exposure exceeds those routinely received by terrestrial radiation workers. A sequence of activities has to be conducted targeting to mitigate adverse effects of space radiation. Considerable information is available and applied through the joint efforts of the Space Agencies that are involved in the operations of the International Space Station, ISS. This presentation will give an introduction to the current measures for ra-diation monitoring and protection of astronauts of the European Space Agency (ESA). It will include information: on the radiation protection guidelines that shall ensure the proper imple-mentation and execution of radiation protection measures, the operational hardware used for radiation monitoring and personal dosimetry on ISS, as well as information about operational procedures that are applied.

  7. An analysis of public-interest group positions on radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Florig, H Keith

    2006-11-01

    The history of radiation risk management is replete with contentious public debate between public interest groups and the technical community of radiation protection professionals. To promote a deeper understanding of this phenomenon, this paper describes the rationales and values underlying public-interest group positions in one radiation risk domain (low-level waste) and contrasts them with those of the technical community. Public interest group objections to recycling of radioactivity-contaminated materials and to discarding of other low-level wastes are made on fairness, risk assessment, and energy-policy grounds. Concerns about procedural fairness stem from the continuing use of top-down expert-driven, rather than deliberative, systems for low-level waste policy-making. Concerns about distributional fairness arise because the benefits and risks of alterative low-level waste policies accrue to different stakeholders. Risk assessment is faulted for failure to acknowledge hidden subjective assumptions (e.g., on screening vigilance in materials recycling, on integrity of disposal facilities in the far future). Skepticism of technological risk management arises from a history peppered with unexpected untoward events that lay outside the design bases of protection systems. Finally, public interest groups view low-level waste issues as part of a larger debate on wise and legitimate energy policy, and are reluctant to support measures that provide relief to a nuclear industry that, in their view, established itself outside the democratic process. PMID:17033464

  8. Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1979 and 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Gove, R.M.; Little, J.R.; Shirley, D.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public concern over the effects of low-level radiation and other aspects of the use of nuclear energy has grown in recent years, and the demand for radiation protection has continued to increase. Radiation Protection Enrollments and Degrees presents the results of the latest survey of institutions offering degree programs in this field. Students obtaining such degrees are vital to the development of industry, medicine, research, power production, construction, and agriculture. These surveys assist state and federal governments in their search for such personnel.

  9. Radiation protection, radiation safety and radiation shielding assessment of HIE-ISOLDE.

    PubMed

    Romanets, Y; Bernardes, A P; Dorsival, A; Gonçalves, I F; Kadi, Y; di Maria, S; Vaz, P; Vlachoudis, V; Vollaire, J

    2013-07-01

    The high intensity and energy ISOLDE (HIE-ISOLDE) project is an upgrade to the existing ISOLDE facility at CERN. The foreseen increase in the nominal intensity and the energy of the primary proton beam of the existing ISOLDE facility aims at increasing the intensity of the produced radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The currently existing ISOLDE facility uses the proton beam from the proton-synchrotron booster with an energy of 1.4 GeV and an intensity up to 2 μA. After upgrade (final stage), the HIE-ISOLDE facility is supposed to run at an energy up to 2 GeV and an intensity up to 4 μA. The foreseen upgrade imposes constrains, from the radiation protection and the radiation safety point of view, to the existing experimental and supply areas. Taking into account the upgraded energy and intensity of the primary proton beam, a new assessment of the radiation protection and radiation safety of the HIE-ISOLDE facility is necessary. Special attention must be devoted to the shielding assessment of the beam dumps and of the experimental areas. In this work the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo particle transport simulation program FLUKA was used to perform the computation of the ambient dose equivalent rate distribution and of the particle fluxes in the projected HIE-ISOLDE facility (taking into account the upgrade nominal primary proton beam energy and intensity) and the shielding assessment of the facility, with the aim of identifying in the existing facility (ISOLDE) the critical areas and locations where new or reinforced shielding may be necessary. The consequences of the upgraded proton beam parameters on the operational radiation protection of the facility were studied. PMID:23516267

  10. Flexible shielding system for radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babin, A.

    1972-01-01

    Modular construction of low cost flexible radiation shielding panels consists of water filled steels cans, zinc bromide windows, turntable unit, master-slave manipulators, and interlocking lead bricks. Easy modifications of shielding wall thicknesses are obtained by rearranging overall geometry of portable components.

  11. Radiation Protection for Manned Interplanetary Missions - Radiation Sources, Risks, Remedies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facius, R.; Reitz, G.

    Health risks in interplanetary explorative missions differ in two major features significantly from those during the manned missions experienced so far. For one, presently available technologies lead to durations of such missions significantly longer than so far encountered - with the added complication that emergency returns are ruled out. Thus radiation exposures and hence risks for late radiation sequelae like cancer increase proportional to mission duration - similar like most other health and many technical risks too. Secondly, loss of the geomagnetic shielding available in low earth orbits (LEO) does increase the radiation dose rates from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) since significant fractions of the GCR flux below about 10 GeV/n now can reach the space vehicle. In addition, radiation from solar particle events (SPE) which at most in polar orbit segments can contribute to the radiation exposure during LEO missions now can reach the spaceship unattenuated. Radiation doses from extreme SPEs can reach levels where even early acute radiation sickness might ensue - with the added risks from potentially associated crew performance decrements. In contrast to the by and large predictable GCR contribution, the doses and hence risks from large SPEs can only stochastically be assessed. Mission designers face the task to contain the overall health risk within acceptable limits. Towards this end they have to transport the particle fluxes of the radiation fields in free space through the walls of the spaceship and through the tissue of the astronaut to the radiation sensitive organs. To obtain a quantity which is useful for risk assessment, the radiobiological effectiveness as well as the specific sensitivity of a given organ has to be accounted for in such transport calculations which of course require a detailed knowledge of the spatial distribution and the atomic composition of the surrounding shielding material. In doing so the mission designer encounters two major difficulties in addition to those connected with the knowledge of the external radiation fields and the cross sections necessary for the transport calculations. The radiobiological effectiveness of the GCR heavy ions is to a large extent only nominally known with large error margins. Furthermore, the reference risk, late cancer mortality, usually only materializes many years after the mission, in contrast to the risk from early radiation sickness or the other health risks, including those from prolonged exposure to weightlessness. 1 Given these large radiobiological uncertainties of space radiation risk assessment, a first and most effective countermeasure consists of research directed at their diminishment. Furthermore, a new risk criterion is needed which allows a unified quantitative treatment of all health and technical risks arising during the mission as well as the risk of late radiogenic cancer mortality many years after the mission. Countermeasures to reduce radiation exposure comprise judicious planning of the mission with respect to solar activity, skilful utilization and optimization of shielding materials, and research into advanced propulsion systems capable to cut down transit times in free space. Finally, research into means to reduce sensitivity to radiation health effects e.g. by chemical substances and nutritional additives constitutes the third class of possible countermeasures. Arguably, the single most effective among these measures would be reduction of transit time in free space. 2

  12. Reduction of the radiation dose received by interventional cardiologists following training in radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Abatzoglou, I; Koukourakis, M; Konstantinides, S

    2013-06-01

    The University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis was established in 2003 to cover Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Districts of Northern Greece. The hospital has two interventional cardiology units and the occupational radiation exposure of the cardiologists was the highest of all specialties using ionising radiation. In order to aid in decreasing the radiation dose levels, a seminar was organised for all personnel working in interventional radiology field. After this, an important reduction of the radiation dose of the cardiologists was noted. Training in radiation protection is essential to reduce the radiation doses and consequently the deterministic and stochastic effects of ionising radiation of cardiologists working in interventional radiology. PMID:23185068

  13. Protection against ionizing radiation with eicosanoids

    SciTech Connect

    Steel, L.K.; Catravas, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are extremely diverse in their pharmacological activities. They exhibit both antagonistic as well as cytoprotective properties in the pathogenesis of inflammation. Participation of PGs as chemical mediators in the regulation of immune responses and inflammation are increasingly apparent. The antagonistic properties of PGs have been implicated in a variety of symptoms resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation. Post-irradiation increases in small bowel motility, diarrhea, flatulence, abdominal pain, mucositis, and esophagitis have been attributed, in part, to excessive PG production. In contrast, exogenous PGs, particularly of the E type, have been shown to be cytoprotective against a variety of damaging agents, and a deficiency of endogeneous PG has been suggested to contribute to increase susceptibility to injury. These findings have provided much of the impetus to examine the potential cytoprotective effects of PGs in radiation injury.

  14. Protecting Lunar Colonies From Space Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2009-08-01

    When Apollo 7 astronaut Walter Cunningham blasted off from Earth on 11 October 1968, the last thing he was thinking about was radiation risks or any risks at all. “Fear doesn’t even enter your mind because you have confidence in yourself, your own ability, your training, and your knowledge,” Cunningham told Space Weather. As a crew member of the first manned mission in the Apollo program and the first three-man American space mission, Cunningham spent 11 days in Earth orbit, testing life-support, propulsion, and control systems on a redesigned command module. In retrospect, compared with immediate risks such as those associated with launch and reentry, “exposure to radiation, which could have long-term effects—we just never gave that a thought,” Cunningham said.

  15. Radiation terrorism: what society needs from the radiobiology-radiation protection and radiation oncology communities.

    PubMed

    Coleman, C Norman; Parker, Gerald W

    2009-06-01

    Society's and individuals' concerns about the adverse effects from radiation are logically amplified many times when radiological terrorism is considered. The spectrum of events include industrial sabotage, the use of an explosive or non-explosive radiological dispersal device, the placement of a radiological exposure device in a public facility and the use of an improvised nuclear device. The consequences of an event relate to the physical and medical damage of the event itself, the financial impact, and the acute and long-term medical consequences, including fear of radiation-induced cancer. The magnitude of a state-sponsored nuclear event is so great that limited detailed response planning had been done in the past, as compared to the work now ongoing. Planning is done on the basis of scenario modelling. Medical response planning includes medical triage, distribution of victims to care by experienced physicians, developing medical countermeasures to mitigate or treat radiation injury, counselling and appropriately following exposed or potentially exposed people, and helping the local community develop confidence in their own response plan. Optimal response must be based on the best available science. This requires scientists who can define, prioritise and address the gaps in knowledge with the range of expertise from basic physics to biology to translational research to systems expertise to response planning to healthcare policy to communications. Not only are there unique needs and career opportunities, but there is also the opportunity for individuals to serve their communities and country with education regarding radiation effects and by formulating scientifically based government policy. PMID:19454803

  16. Importance of establishing radiation protection culture in Radiology Department

    PubMed Central

    Ploussi, Agapi; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios P

    2016-01-01

    The increased use of ionization radiation for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, the rapid advances in computed tomography as well as the high radiation doses delivered by interventional procedures have raised serious safety and health concerns for both patients and medical staff and have necessitated the establishment of a radiation protection culture (RPC) in every Radiology Department. RPC is a newly introduced concept. The term culture describes the combination of attitudes, beliefs, practices and rules among the professionals, staff and patients regarding to radiation protection. Most of the time, the challenge is to improve rather than to build a RPC. The establishment of a RPC requires continuing education of the staff and professional, effective communication among stakeholders of all levels and implementation of quality assurance programs. The RPC creation is being driven from the highest level. Leadership, professionals and associate societies are recognized to play a vital role in the embedding and promotion of RPC in a Medical Unit. The establishment of a RPC enables the reduction of the radiation dose, enhances radiation risk awareness, minimizes unsafe practices, and improves the quality of a radiation protection program. The purpose of this review paper is to describe the role and highlight the importance of establishing a strong RPC in Radiology Departments with an emphasis on promoting RPC in the Interventional Radiology environment. PMID:26981223

  17. Importance of establishing radiation protection culture in Radiology Department.

    PubMed

    Ploussi, Agapi; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios P

    2016-02-28

    The increased use of ionization radiation for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, the rapid advances in computed tomography as well as the high radiation doses delivered by interventional procedures have raised serious safety and health concerns for both patients and medical staff and have necessitated the establishment of a radiation protection culture (RPC) in every Radiology Department. RPC is a newly introduced concept. The term culture describes the combination of attitudes, beliefs, practices and rules among the professionals, staff and patients regarding to radiation protection. Most of the time, the challenge is to improve rather than to build a RPC. The establishment of a RPC requires continuing education of the staff and professional, effective communication among stakeholders of all levels and implementation of quality assurance programs. The RPC creation is being driven from the highest level. Leadership, professionals and associate societies are recognized to play a vital role in the embedding and promotion of RPC in a Medical Unit. The establishment of a RPC enables the reduction of the radiation dose, enhances radiation risk awareness, minimizes unsafe practices, and improves the quality of a radiation protection program. The purpose of this review paper is to describe the role and highlight the importance of establishing a strong RPC in Radiology Departments with an emphasis on promoting RPC in the Interventional Radiology environment. PMID:26981223

  18. [Study on Intelligent Automatic Tracking Radiation Protection Curtain].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Longyang; Han, Jindong; Ou, Minjian; Chen, Jinlong

    2015-09-01

    In order to overcome the shortcomings of traditional X-ray inspection taking passive protection mode, this paper combines the automatic control technology, puts forward a kind of active protection X-ray equipment. The device of automatic detection of patients receiving X-ray irradiation part, intelligent adjustment in patients and shooting device between automatic tracking radiation protection device height. The device has the advantages of automatic adjustment, anti-radiation device, reduce the height of non-irradiated area X-ray radiation and improve the work efficiency. Testing by the professional organization, the device can decrease more than 90% of X-ray dose for patients with non-irradiated area. PMID:26904877

  19. Research issues for radiation protection for man during prolonged spaceflight

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, J.J.; Hagan, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    For the purpose of this article, radiation protection is defined as any physical, chemical, biological, or pharmacological modality that accomplishes the goal of protecting the astronaut from radiation hazard or increases his ability to assist other astronauts or spacecraft. Thoughtful examination of these largely operational considerations led to identification of medical and radiobiological research required to support the industrialization of near-Earth space. The scope of these research efforts involves thematic issues that have been defined after review of the available preliminary research from several scientific disciplines that relate to the problem of radiation protection in space. This article serves to highlight areas of research requiring further investigation. While certain of these needs for research are driven by the planned orbits involving small designated astronaut populations and well-defined durations that may be specific to the military, it is the use of geostationary orbits, permanent lunar basing, and the proposed Mars mission that form the primary basis for these operational considerations.

  20. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  1. Occupational radiation protection of health workers in imaging.

    PubMed

    Vano, E

    2015-04-01

    Occupational radiological protection (RP) is still a challenge in several clinical practices. ICRP has included specific recommendations and advice for occupational protection in most of the documents published in recent years and its current programme of work includes the preparation of documents with specific contents on Occupational Protection. Different professional groups and different medical specialists need dedicated training, supervision and advice to optimise their practices. Many medical specialties outside the imaging departments are still using fluoroscopically guided procedures in surgical theatres without the appropriate RP tools. In addition to the stochastic radiation risks, the new thresholds for tissue reactions proposed by ICRP, and especially the ones for the lens of the eyes and the cerebrovascular system, are a matter of concern for some groups of health workers. More support from medical physics and radiation protection experts regarding occupational issues in the medical field will be needed in the coming years. PMID:25480840

  2. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Oughton, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of valuing the environment and implications for the definition of harm and monetary valuation of environmental goods; second, difficulties with scientific uncertainty and applications of the precautionary principle; and third, issues concerned with the distribution of risk and its relevance for participation in decision-making. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors. PMID:12590067

  3. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  4. [The radiologist's responsibilities for the radiation protection of patients].

    PubMed

    Etard, C

    2010-11-01

    The obligations of the radiologist for the radiation protection of patients include a review of the appropriateness of the examination and optimization of the protocol. Both internal and external quality assurance programs are mandatory. The specific tasks and their frequency are defined by the AFSSAPS. The radiology report of procedures performed over radiosensitive regions must include the delivered dose. The imaging technique must be optimized based on published guidelines or law for the most frequent examinations. All radiologists should be familiar with radiation protection. Incidents should be reported to the Nuclear Safety Authority. PMID:21178893

  5. Protective Effect of Chitin Urocanate Nanofibers against Ultraviolet Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Ikuko; Yoneda, Toshikazu; Omura, Yoshihiko; Osaki, Tomohiro; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Azuma, Kazuo; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Tsuka, Takeshi; Murahata, Yusuke; Ito, Norihiko; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Minami, Saburo

    2015-01-01

    Urocanic acid is a major ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing chromophore. Chitins are highly crystalline structures that are found predominantly in crustacean shells. Alpha-chitin consists of microfibers that contain nanofibrils embedded in a protein matrix. Acid hydrolysis is a common method used to prepare chitin nanofibrils (NFs). We typically obtain NFs by hydrolyzing chitin with acetic acid. However, in the present study, we used urocanic acid to prepare urocanic acid chitin NFs (UNFs) and examined its protective effect against UVB radiation. Hos: HR-1 mice coated with UNFs were UVB irradiated (302 nm, 150 mJ/cm2), and these mice showed markedly lower UVB radiation-induced cutaneous erythema than the control. Additionally, sunburn cells were rarely detected in the epidermis of UNFs-coated mice after UVB irradiation. Although the difference was not as significant as UNFs, the number of sunburn cells in mice treated with acetic acid chitin nanofibrils (ANFs) tended to be lower than in control mice. These results demonstrate that ANFs have a protective effect against UVB and suggest that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of NFs influence the protective effect of ANFs against UVB radiation. The combination of NFs with other substances that possess UV-protective effects, such as urocanic acid, may provide an enhanced protective effect against UVB radiation. PMID:26703629

  6. Synchrotron radiation shielding design and ICRP radiological protection quantities.

    PubMed

    Bassey, Bassey; Moreno, Beatriz; Chapman, Dean

    2015-06-01

    Protection and operational quantities as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) are the two sets of quantities recommended for use in radiological protection for external radiation. Since the '80s, the protection quantities have evolved from the concept of dose equivalent to effective dose equivalent to effective dose, and the associated conversion coefficients have undergone changes. In this work, the influence of three different versions of ICRP photon dose conversion coefficients in the synchrotron radiation shielding calculations of an experimental enclosure has been examined. The versions are effective dose equivalent (ICRP Publication 51), effective dose (ICRP Publication 74), and effective dose (ICRP Publication 116) conversion coefficients. The sources of the synchrotron radiation white beam into the enclosure were a bending magnet, an undulator and a wiggler. The ranges of photons energy from these sources were 10-200 keV for the bending magnet and undulator, and 10-500 keV for the wiggler. The design criterion aimed a radiation leakage less than 0.5 µSv h(-1) from the enclosure. As expected, larger conversion coefficients in ICRP Publication 51 lead to higher calculated dose rates. However, the percentage differences among the calculated dose rates get smaller once shielding is added, and the choice of conversion coefficients set did not affect the final shielding decision. PMID:25906251

  7. Ultraviolet radiation protection: current available resources in photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Balogh, Tatiana Santana; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Pedriali, Carla Aparecida; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Baby, André Rolim

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation can damage the DNA, cause immunosuppression, chemical and histological alterations in the epidermis, early photoaging, cataracts and carcinogenesis, among others. Photoprotection prevents these and other harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation. Sunscreens, protective clothing, proper accessories and safe sun exposure are essential photoprotection tools. The main forms of photoprotection are presented and discussed in this article, including sunscreens containing organic and inorganic filters, the assessment of their efficacy and current developments on the topic. PMID:21987140

  8. A management system integrating radiation protection and safety supporting safety culture in the hospital.

    PubMed

    Almén, A; Lundh, C

    2015-04-01

    Quality assurance has been identified as an important part of radiation protection and safety for a considerable time period. A rational expansion and improvement of quality assurance is to integrate radiation protection and safety in a management system. The aim of this study was to explore factors influencing the implementing strategy when introducing a management system including radiation protection and safety in hospitals and to outline benefits of such a system. The main experience from developing a management system is that it is possible to create a vast number of common policies and routines for the whole hospital, resulting in a cost-efficient system. One of the key benefits is the involvement of management at all levels, including the hospital director. Furthermore, a transparent system will involve staff throughout the organisation as well. A management system supports a common view on what should be done, who should do it and how the activities are reviewed. An integrated management system for radiation protection and safety includes key elements supporting a safety culture. PMID:25429027

  9. Viewpoint: Policy Requirements for Protecting Wildlife from Endocrine Disruptors

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Gwynne

    2006-01-01

    Man-made endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) present a threat to biodiversity, even in remote areas. To date, numerous wildlife species have been affected by EDCs in the environment, but it is likely that many more species are suffering effects that have not yet been reported. Impaired reproduction, damaged brain function, and deficits of the immune system are of particular concern. In order to bring all endocrine-disrupting chemicals under control, the development of screens and tests to identify EDCs must be expedited. However, the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) considers that sufficient information is already available to merit action on several such substances. In addition, it must be recognized that proving the mechanism of action for some chemicals may take decades. Therefore, it is important to enable certain chemicals to be brought under stricter control on the basis of strong suspicion of endocrine disruption or biochemical signaling disruption. Furthermore, the risk assessment process itself also must be modified, and some suggestions are discussed in this article. WWF maintains that any effect that could reasonably be expected to affect the population level should be taken forward in environmental risk characterization, in particular, behavioral effects should be given more consideration. Current chemical management policies are not protective, and we argue for modifications in them to be made. PMID:16818260

  10. School Sun-Protection Policies: Measure Development and Assessments in 2 Regions of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; French, Simone A.; Buller, Mary K.; Ashley, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun-safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected…

  11. Ascorbic acid (AA) metabolism in protection against radiation damage

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, R.C.; Koch, M.J.

    1986-03-05

    The possibility is considered that AA protects tissues against radiation damage by scavenging free radicals that result from radiolysis of water. A physiologic buffer (pH 6.7) was incubated with /sup 14/C-AA and 1 mM thiourea (to slow spontaneous oxidation of AA). Aliquots were assayed by HPLC and scintillation spectrometry to identify the /sup 14/C-label. Samples exposed to Cobalt-60 radiation had a half time of AA decay of < 3 minutes compared with nonirradiated samples (t/sub 1/2/ > 30 minutes) indicating that AA scavenges radiation-induced free radicals and forms the ascorbate free radical (AFR). Pairs of /sup 14/C-AFR disproportionate, with the net effect of /sup 14/C-dehydroascorbic acid formation from /sup 14/C-AA. Having established that AFR result from ionizing radiation in an aqueous solution, the possibility was evaluated that a tissue factor reduces AFR. Cortical tissue from the kidneys of male rats was minced, homogenized in buffer and centrifuged at 8000 xg. The supernatant was found to slow the rate of radiation-induced AA degradation by > 90% when incubated at 23/sup 0/C in the presence of 15 ..mu..M /sup 14/C-AA. Samples of supernatant maintained at 100/sup 0/C for 10 minutes or precipitated with 5% PCA did not prevent radiation-induced AA degradation. AA may have a specific role in scavenging free radicals generated by ionizing radiation and thereby protect body tissues.

  12. Policy and practice in Myanmar's protected area system.

    PubMed

    Myint Aung, U

    2007-07-01

    Myanmar's protected area (PA) system began nearly 150 years ago under royal patronage. Park policies and practices, embodied in 19 pieces of legislation developed sporadically during and after the colonial period. As a result of the FAO-UNDP's Nature Conservation and National Parks Project (1981-1985) the government established the Nature & Wildlife Conservation Division and placed it within the Forest Department as the agency responsible for PA management. As a consequence the number of parks increased from 14 to 33. Myanmar's median park size is less than 50 km(2), but only five parks (15%) are larger than 1000 km(2). Most parks conserve terrestrial habitats; parks encompassing inland wetlands, mangrove, and marine habitats are limited in number and size. Existing PAs unequally represent Myanmar's ecosystems; the Malay Transition, Burmese coast, Burmese Transition and Cardamom Mountains bio-units are under-represented within the system. The effective total PA size (i.e., area of all parks less the area of 13 paper parks) is currently about 2.1%. Budgetary support for parks increased 11% since 1996, but is insufficient to address park needs, particularly in remote parks that are understaffed. Limited education and training of PA staff is a major factor limiting effective park management. Fifty-eight percent of park wardens are educated as foresters, and 42% have university degrees. The average posting in a park is 4 years, which is less than ideal for management continuity. Recommended actions to secure Myanmar's PAs include evaluation and reformulation of policies, increasing representation of Myanmar's habitats within the PA system, management planning, and standardizing protocols for anti-poaching patrols and other forms of law enforcement. Improved leadership training for wardens and range forest officers can also improve park management. Funding for community relations and more integrated management of parks and people can reduce conflicts, while environmental education and outreach activities can provide some needed services. Finally, new ways and means are needed to support these activities. Myanmar's PAs need creative and sustainable means of support, including partnerships with non-government organizations to supplement traditional means of support. PMID:16979284

  13. U.S. radiation protection: role of national and international recommendations and opportunities for collaboration (harmony, not dissonance).

    PubMed

    Boyd, Michael A

    2015-02-01

    For much of the 20th century, U.S. radiation protection policies were similar to those elsewhere in the world, in large part because the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) were closely aligned. In the 1970s, several U.S. regulations were released at about the same time as the 1977 recommendations from ICRP. The regulatory development process in the United States can be lengthy with ample opportunities for public involvement. While such deliberation is essential and beneficial, the rulemaking process does not lend itself to making frequent technical updates to rules. For this reason, many of the current radiation protection regulations in the United States are out of step with current recommendations of the ICRP and NCRP. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are considering updates to important radiation protection regulations. These regulatory development actions could present the United States with an opportunity for incorporating the latest science into the U.S. system of radiation protection and provide for consideration of the latest recommendations of ICRP and NCRP. In particular, a revision of the recommendations in NCRP Report No. 116 (Limitation of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation) could provide U.S. agencies with useful advice to be considered in these rulemakings. PMID:25551510

  14. Optimal shield mass distribution for space radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, M. P.

    1972-01-01

    Computational methods have been developed and successfully used for determining the optimum distribution of space radiation shielding on geometrically complex space vehicles. These methods have been incorporated in computer program SWORD for dose evaluation in complex geometry, and iteratively calculating the optimum distribution for (minimum) shield mass satisfying multiple acute and protected dose constraints associated with each of several body organs.

  15. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 17: Radiation Protection II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control

  16. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 2: Radiation Protection I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control

  17. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 2: Radiation Protection I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  18. Protection against ionizing radiation by antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Joseph F; Landauer, Michael R

    2003-07-15

    The potential of antioxidants to reduce the cellular damage induced by ionizing radiation has been studied in animal models for more than 50 years. The application of antioxidant radioprotectors to various human exposure situations has not been extensive although it is generally accepted that endogenous antioxidants, such as cellular non-protein thiols and antioxidant enzymes, provide some degree of protection. This review focuses on the radioprotective efficacy of naturally occurring antioxidants, specifically antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals, and how they might influence various endpoints of radiation damage. Results from animal experiments indicate that antioxidant nutrients, such as vitamin E and selenium compounds, are protective against lethality and other radiation effects but to a lesser degree than most synthetic protectors. Some antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals have the advantage of low toxicity although they are generally protective when administered at pharmacological doses. Naturally occurring antioxidants also may provide an extended window of protection against low-dose, low-dose-rate irradiation, including therapeutic potential when administered after irradiation. A number of phytochemicals, including caffeine, genistein, and melatonin, have multiple physiological effects, as well as antioxidant activity, which result in radioprotection in vivo. Many antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals have antimutagenic properties, and their modulation of long-term radiation effects, such as cancer, needs further examination. In addition, further studies are required to determine the potential value of specific antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals during radiotherapy for cancer. PMID:12821279

  19. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 17: Radiation Protection II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  20. The importance and unique aspects of radiation protection in medicine.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Ola; Czarwinski, Renate; Mettler, Fred

    2010-10-01

    Radiation protection in medicine has unique aspects and is an essential element of medical practice. Medical uses of radiation occur throughout the world, from large cities to rural clinics. It has been estimated that the number of medical procedures using radiation grew from about 1.7 billion in 1980 to almost 4 billion in 2007. In spite of these large numbers, there are many parts of the world without adequate equipment, where the ability to perform additional medical procedures would likely result in a net benefit. Medicine accounts for more than 99.9% of the per caput effective dose from man-made sources. The goal in medical exposure is not to give the lowest dose, but to provide the correct dose to enable the practitioner to make the diagnosis or cure a tumour. Too little or too much dose is problematic and the risk of any given procedure ranges from negligible to potentially fatal. Radiation protection in medicine must deal with the issues of not having dose limits, purposely exposing sensitive subgroups, and purposely using doses that could cause deterministic effects. Radiation accidents involving medical uses have accounted for more acute radiation deaths than from any other source including Chernobyl. Many physicians have little or no training in radiation protection, and many have no qualified medical physics support. In many countries, medical radiation devices and uses are only minimally regulated and the rapidly evolving technology is a challenge. Medicine also accounts for the largest number of occupationally exposed workers and collective dose. PMID:20638808

  1. Radiation protection for human missions to the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonsen, Lisa C.; Nealy, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation protection assessments are performed for advanced Lunar and Mars manned missions. The Langley cosmic ray transport code and the nucleon transport code are used to quantify the transport and attenuation of galactic cosmic rays and solar proton flares through various shielding media. Galactic cosmic radiation at solar maximum and minimum, as well as various flare scenarios are considered. Propagation data for water, aluminum, liquid hydrogen, lithium hydride, lead, and lunar and Martian regolith (soil) are included. Shield thickness and shield mass estimates required to maintain incurred doses below 30 day and annual limits (as set for Space Station Freedom and used as a guide for space exploration) are determined for simple geometry transfer vehicles. On the surface of Mars, dose estimates are presented for crews with their only protection being the carbon dioxide atmosphere and for crews protected by shielding provided by Martian regolith for a candidate habitat.

  2. CIRRPC (Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination) member agency participation in international radiation activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The member agencies of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC) have considered what role the Committee might play in assuring that US participation in international organizations is consistent with US radiation policy and in encouraging cooperation in research and information exchange. The Executive Committee agreed that a first step in addressing such a potential involvement would be to compile certain basic information on the Federal government's present participation in international programs. Each of the CIRRPC member agencies has provided information on points of contact within the agency having liaison with international organizations and having an interest in radiation matters, staff attendance at international meetings on radiation matters, and a listing of international organizations which routinely invite agency representatives to participate in such meetings. This report is composed of information obtained from the CIRRPC member agencies.

  3. Habitat Design Considerations for Implementing Solar Particle Event Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Mathew A.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Walker, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation protection is an important habitat design consideration for human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. Fortunately, radiation shelter concepts can effectively reduce astronaut exposure for the relatively low proton energies of solar particle events, enabling moderate duration missions of several months before astronaut exposure (galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event) approaches radiation exposure limits. In order to minimize habitat mass for increasingly challenging missions, design of radiation shelters must minimize dedicated, single-purpose shielding mass by leveraging the design and placement of habitat subsystems, accommodations, and consumables. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems RadWorks Storm Shelter Team has recently designed and performed radiation analysis on several low dedicated mass shelter concepts for a year-long mission. This paper describes habitat design considerations identified during the study's radiation analysis. These considerations include placement of the shelter within a habitat for improved protection, integration of human factors guidance for sizing shelters, identification of potential opportunities for habitat subsystems to compromise on individual subsystem performances for overall vehicle mass reductions, and pre-configuration of shelter components for reduced deployment times.

  4. Glutamine protects Chinese Hamster Ovary cells from radiation killing

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, R.; Matthews, R.; Ercal, N.; Krishnan, K. )

    1994-01-01

    Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were propagated in vitro and exposed to varying doses of ionizing radiation. The surviving fraction of cells was determined, being found to be a function of the radiation dose. The cell survival curves obtained as a function of radiation dose were modified by the inclusion of varying doses of glutamine in the medium, with glutamine demonstrating a radioprotective effect. The radioprotectant effect of glutamine for CHO cells was more pronounced at higher radiation doses. These results support the idea that glutamine protects body systems such as the gut more directly as a radioprotector as opposed to a more indirect route, such as preventing bacterial translocation from the gut. 16 refs.

  5. Radiation protection and regulations for the nuclear medicine physician.

    PubMed

    Chen, Man Yu

    2014-05-01

    As authorized users of radioactive material, nuclear medicine (NM) physicians play a leading role in the use and management of these agents. Regarding patient management, NM physicians are responsible for ensuring both the appropriateness of exams and the associated patient doses. Along with radiologists, NM physicians are the ones developing and implementing processes that provide guidance to and dialog with referring physicians to ensure that patients receive the most appropriate type of imaging exams. Regarding regulatory compliance, in collaboration with radiation safety officers, NM physicians are the ones educating their staff about principles of radiation protection and radiation safety with adherence to regulations from agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Transportation, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Food and Drug Administration. On occasion, these regulations and standards can be difficult to comprehend. This article is intended to serve as a condensed guide for NM physicians who are in the process of applying for a radioactive materials license, establishing a new radiation protection program, or want to ensure continued compliance and maintenance of safety and security of licensed materials in the clinical or research settings. PMID:24832587

  6. Isolation, characterization, and radiation protection of Sipunculus nudus L. polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Shen, Xianrong; Liu, Yuming; Zhang, Junling; He, Ying; Liu, Qiong; Jiang, Dingwen; Zong, Jie; Li, Jiamei; Hou, Dengyong; Chen, Wei; Wang, Qingrong; Luo, Qun; Li, Kexian

    2016-02-01

    Sipunculus nudus Linnaeus polysaccharide (SNP) was purified from S. nudus L. via NaOH extraction, trichloroacetic acid deproteination, DEAE-cellulose 52 and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. The monosaccharide analysis and molecular weight was detected with HPLC. FT-IR, 1H spectrum and 13C NMR spectrum were performed to detect the chemical characteristics. The antioxidant activity was assayed in vitro. The radiation protection effects were detected on mice. The results showed that SNP was composed of mannose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, arabinose and fucose, and the average molecular weight was 680 kDa. Above the concentration of 10 mg/mL, SNP showed powerful scavenging activity on hydroxyl radical. In the animals irradiated with a 7.5 Gy γ-rays, the 90 mg/kg and the 270 mg/kg SNP groups survived significantly longer than the radiation control group. In the animals irradiated with a 4.0 Gy γ-rays, SNP showed significant protection effect. The contents of DNA in bone marrow cells were significantly increased by SNP treatment, and the micronucleus rates of 30 mg/kg and 270 mg/kg SNP groups were decrease significantly compared to the radiation control group. These findings suggest that SNP possesses marked antioxidant and bone marrow damage protection capacity which play important roles in the prevention of radiation damage. PMID:26645147

  7. GLBTIQ Teachers in Australian Education Policy: Protections, Suspicions, and Restrictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tiffany; Gray, Emily; Harris, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of human rights on the basis of sexual orientation, gender identity and intersex status by the United Nations has led to the development of new policies concerning homophobia and transphobia in educational contexts. This paper examines new Australian education policies impacting gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer…

  8. Radar commentary: Use of linear no-threshold hypothesis in radiation protection regulation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jeffry A; Stabin, Michael G

    2012-01-01

    Radiation protection recommendations advanced by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, and many times adopted into regulations by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, need to be based on scientifically justified assumptions and conclusions. The linear no-threshold model assigns risk to every radiation exposure above zero dose and is the current basis for setting radiation protection standards worldwide. This hypothesis is vigorously challenged by many individuals but just as vigorously defended in spite of the uncertainties surrounding health effects at low dose levels. It is clear that at radiation doses below 100 mSv, the effects, if any, are so low as to be unobservable and perhaps, therefore, unknowable. However, the linear no-threshold hypothesis is used routinely to formulate regulatory dose limits for workers and the general public and to derive stochastic radiogenic risk estimates at low doses. This note will show that while the linear no-threshold hypothesis may play a legitimate role in setting radiation protection standards and operating policies, such as establishing dose limits or as part of an operational "as low as is reasonably achievable" (ALARA) policy, it is inappropriate for use in estimating possible cancer risks associated with low-level radiation exposures. It will also demonstrate that the raising, not lowering, of current regulatory dose limits is more solidly supported by the actual observed data on radiation dose and effects. The authors submit that the misuse of the linear no-threshold model for predicting radiation effects in exposed individuals and populations should be discontinued. PMID:22134084

  9. Mechanisms of radiation interaction with DNA: Potential implications for radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, W.K.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of presentations and discussions which took place at the US Department of Energy/Commission of European Communities (DOE/CEC) workshop on ''Mechanisms of Radiation Interaction with DNA: Potential Implications for Radiation Protection,'' held at San Diego, California, January 21-22, 1987, is provided. The Department has traditionally supported fundamental research on interactions of ionizing radiation with different biological systems and at all levels of biological organization. The aim of this workshop was to review the base of knowledge in the area of mechanisms of radiation action at the DNA level, and to explore ways in which this information can be applied to the development of scientifically sound concepts and procedures for use in the field of radiation protection.

  10. Current issues and actions in radiation protection of patients.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Ola; Malone, Jim; Rehani, Madan; McLean, Donald; Czarwinski, Renate

    2010-10-01

    Medical application of ionizing radiation is a massive and increasing activity globally. While the use of ionizing radiation in medicine brings tremendous benefits to the global population, the associated risks due to stochastic and deterministic effects make it necessary to protect patients from potential harm. Current issues in radiation protection of patients include not only the rapidly increasing collective dose to the global population from medical exposure, but also that a substantial percentage of diagnostic imaging examinations are unnecessary, and the cumulative dose to individuals from medical exposure is growing. In addition to this, continued reports on deterministic injuries from safety related events in the medical use of ionizing radiation are raising awareness on the necessity for accident prevention measures. The International Atomic Energy Agency is engaged in several activities to reverse the negative trends of these current issues, including improvement of the justification process, the tracking of radiation history of individual patients, shared learning of safety significant events, and the use of comprehensive quality audits in the clinical environment. PMID:20638809

  11. Improved radiation protection for physicians performing cardiac catheterization

    SciTech Connect

    Gertz, E.W.; Wisneski, J.A.; Gould, R.G.; Akin, J.R.

    1982-12-01

    Physicians and their assistants performing diagnostic angiography must be concerned with the radiation exposure they receive. The introduction of hemiaxial projections for imaging has increased diagnostic accuracy but has also greatly increased the physicians' exposure to scattered radiation. This increase is especially critical for the eyes and thyroid of the physician who routinely performs these procedures. To reduce such exposure a ceiling-suspended shield (60 x 45 cm), made of 6.4 mm glass with a 19.5 kg/m2 (4 lb/ft2) lead equivalency, was developed. During procedures the shield is interposed between the physician and the region of the patient acting as the source of scattered radiation. The degree of radiation protection to the operator was assessed by measuring the distribution of scattered radiation in the vicinity of the operator with and without the shield. The effectiveness of the shield was determined in the 30 degrees right anterior oblique (RAO), 5 degrees left anterior oblique (LAO), 35 degrees LAO, and 50 degrees LAO-15 degrees cranial angulations. At critical heights such as the level of the eyes and thyroid, scattered radiation levels were reduced by 85% or greater in all angulations. Without interfering with the physician's ability to observe the patient or manipulate the catheter, this shield can significantly reduce the physician's exposure to radiation.

  12. Meteoroid Protection Methods for Spacecraft Radiators Using Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of achieving a low mass heat pipe radiator for the nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft were studied. Specific emphasis was placed on a concept applicable to a closed Brayton cycle power sub-system. Three aspects of inter-related problems were examined: (1) the armor for meteoroid protection, (2) emissivity of the radiator surface, and (3) the heat pipe itself. The study revealed several alternatives for the achievement of the stated goal, but a final recommendation for the best design requires further investigation.

  13. Issues in Space Radiation Protection: Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M.; Schimmerling, W.; Badavi, F. F.; Thibeault, S. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Shinn, J. L.; Kiefer, R.

    1995-01-01

    With shielding from cosmic heavy ions, one is faced with limited knowledge about the physical properties and biological responses of these radiations. Herein, the current status of space shielding technology and its impact on radiation health is discussed in terms of conventional protection practice and a test biological response model. The impact of biological response on optimum materials selection for cosmic ray shielding is presented in terms of the transmission characteristics of the shield material. Although liquid hydrogen gas is an optimum shield material, evaluation of the effectiveness of polymeric structural materials must await improvement in our knowledge of both the biological response and the nuclear processes.

  14. 48 CFR 252.225-7043 - Antiterrorism/force protection policy for defense contractors outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... protection policy for defense contractors outside the United States. 252.225-7043 Section 252.225-7043... Antiterrorism/force protection policy for defense contractors outside the United States. As prescribed in 225.7403-2, use the following clause: Antiterrorism/Force Protection Policy for Defense Contractors...

  15. Medicinal protection with Chinese herb-compound against radiation damage

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, R.J.; Qian, J.K.; Yang, G.H.; Wang, B.Z.; Wen, X.L. )

    1990-08-01

    Experiments were carried out on mice and the subjects irradiated for cancer therapy to evaluate the protective efficacy of a Chinese medicinal herb-compound (CMHC). The lethality and the degree of leucopenia caused by radiation in mice medicated with CMHC were significantly less in comparison with control mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). CMHC significantly improved the WBC and the thrombocytes in irradiated workers (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). The WBC count of 40 patients under radiotherapy while treated with CMHC recovered from 3450 +/- 77/c.mm to 5425 +/- 264/c.mm (p less than 0.001); whereas, in the control group, without any medication, the WBC count dropped significantly (p less than 0.001). Our results revealed the applicabilities of CMHC in protection against radiation damage in spaceflight and in other fields.

  16. Pyridoxamine protects intestinal epithelium from ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Thotala, Dinesh; Chetyrkin, Sergei; Hudson, Billy; Hallahan, Dennis; Voziyan, Paul; Yazlovitskaya, Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are the major cause of biological tissue damage during the exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The existing strategies to protect normal tissues from detrimental effects of IR suffer from several shortcomings including high toxic side effects, unfavorable administration routs or low efficacy. These shortcomings emphasize a need for radioprotective treatments that combine effectiveness with safety and ease of use. In this paper, we demonstrate that pyridoxamine, a ROS and RCS scavenger with a very favorable safety profile, can inhibit IR-induced gastrointestinal endothelial apoptosis in cell culture and in animal model. Pyridoxamine was more effective at protecting from radiation-induced apoptosis compared to Amifostine, a synthetic thiol compound and the only FDA approved radioprotector. We suggest that PM has a potential as an effective and safe radioprotective agent. PMID:19540915

  17. NCRP Program Area Committee 4: Radiation Protection in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Brink, James A; Miller, Donald L

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee (PAC) 4 deals with issues in radiation protection in healthcare settings. NCRP Statement No. 11 was published at the end of 2014, and three active scientific committees (SC) are at work--SC 4-5, SC 4-7, and SC 4-8. PAC 4 is also considering a number of topics that could be addressed by new scientific committees in the future. PMID:26717159

  18. A comparison of campfire impacts and policies in seven protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, S.E.; Marion, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Using resource-monitoring data from seven protected areas, the effectiveness of three campfire policies-campfire ban, designated campfires, and unregulated campfires-were assessed based on the number of fire sites and the amount of tree damage. Results indicate that unregulated campfire policies permitted substantial numbers of fire sites and tree damage in campsites, although fire bans did not eliminate or even substantially decrease these problems. A designated campfire policy was effective in decreasing number of fire sites, but little difference was found among policies regarding tree damage. Given the importance of campfires to visitor experiences, campfire prohibitions could be viewed as unnecessarily restrictive based on their limited success in preventing resource damage. Conclusions encourage protected-area managers to consider designated campfire policies and prohibitions on axes, hatchets, and saws to better meet resource protection and visitor experience mandates.

  19. Information Policy in the European Community: Balancing Protection and Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillince, J. A. A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses European Community policy relating to information technology and the information industry. Topics addressed include the information services industry; transborder information flow, including electronic mail, data owner responsibility, and software piracy; digital data networks; electronic data interchange; telecommunications; information…

  20. Pharmacological Protection From Radiation {+-} Cisplatin-Induced Oral Mucositis

    SciTech Connect

    Cotrim, Ana P.; Yoshikawa, Masanobu; Sunshine, Abraham N.; Zheng Changyu; Sowers, Anastasia L.; Thetford, Angela D.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B.; Baum, Bruce J.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate if two pharmacological agents, Tempol and D-methionine (D-met), are able to prevent oral mucositis in mice after exposure to ionizing radiation {+-} cisplatin. Methods and Materials: Female C3H mice, {approx}8 weeks old, were irradiated with five fractionated doses {+-} cisplatin to induce oral mucositis (lingual ulcers). Just before irradiation and chemotherapy, mice were treated, either alone or in combination, with different doses of Tempol (by intraperitoneal [ip] injection or topically, as an oral gel) and D-met (by gavage). Thereafter, mice were sacrificed and tongues were harvested and stained with a solution of Toluidine Blue. Ulcer size and tongue epithelial thickness were measured. Results: Significant lingual ulcers resulted from 5 Multiplication-Sign 8 Gy radiation fractions, which were enhanced with cisplatin treatment. D-met provided stereospecific partial protection from lingual ulceration after radiation. Tempol, via both routes of administration, provided nearly complete protection from lingual ulceration. D-met plus a suboptimal ip dose of Tempol also provided complete protection. Conclusions: Two fairly simple pharmacological treatments were able to markedly reduce chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. This proof of concept study suggests that Tempol, alone or in combination with D-met, may be a useful and convenient way to prevent the severe oral mucositis that results from head-and-neck cancer therapy.

  1. The IAEA's activities on radiation protection in interventional cardiology.

    PubMed

    Rehani, Mm

    2007-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under its mandate of developing and applying standards of radiation safety has initiated a number of activities in recent years on radiation protection in interventional cardiology. These activities are implemented through four mechanisms, namely training, providing information through the website, research projects and assistance to Member States through Technical Cooperation (TC) projects. Major international initiatives have been taken in the area of training where more than half a dozen regional training courses have been conducted for cardiologists from over 50 countries. Additionally four national training events for over 300 medical and paramedical staff members involved in interventional procedures were held. The training material is freely available on CD from the IAEA. The newly established website provides information on radiation protection issues [1]. Two coordinated research projects have just been completed where peak skin doses to patients undergoing high dose interventional procedures were studied and factors to manage patient doses were identified. The technical cooperation projects involving protection in cardiac interventional procedures have 30 countries as participants. PMID:21614275

  2. Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S.

    1988-11-01

    The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  3. School Sun-Protection Policies--Does Being SunSmart Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L.; Buettner, Petra; Nowak, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the comprehensiveness of primary school sun-protection policies in tropical North Queensland, Australia. Pre-determined criteria were used to assess publicly available sun-protection policies from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.3°S; n = 43), Cairns (16.9°S; n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.3°S; n = 23) during 2009-2012.…

  4. Protection from heat radiation in open-hearth shops

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomenko, D.I.; Duganov, G.V.; Ilyushchenko, V.I.; Markin, A.D.

    1988-05-01

    Heat radiation studies in open-hearth shops during operations related to servicing the tap hole and cold-charging the furnace were conducted with consideration of the following factors: the capacity of the furnaces; the campaign of the furnace relative to the projected campaign for different furnace capacities; and the variety of manual tasks performed during a shift. Measurements of the thermal radiation were generalized and represented in the form of a nomogram. The results of thermal diagnosis of work stations on the rear platforms of open-hearth furnaces and the cabin of the cold-charging cranes led to the development and introduction of measures to protect workers from heat radiation and improve their working conditions.

  5. A High-Throughput Screen for Alpha Particle Radiation Protectants

    PubMed Central

    Seideman, Jonathan H.; Shum, David; Djaballah, Hakim

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Alpha-particle-emitting elements are of increasing importance as environmental and occupational carcinogens, toxic components of radiation dispersal devices and accidents, and potent therapeutics in oncology. Alpha particle radiation differs from radiations of lower linear energy transfer in that it predominantly damages DNA via direct action. Because of this, radical scavengers effective for other radiations have had only limited effect in mitigating alpha particle toxicity. We describe here a simple assay and a pilot screen of 3,119 compounds in a high-throughput screen (HTS), using the alpha-particle-emitting isotope, 225Ac, for the discovery of compounds that might protect mammalian cells from alpha particles through novel mechanisms. The assay, which monitored the viability of a myeloid leukemic cell line upon alpha particle exposure, was robust and reproducible, yielding a Z' factor of 0.66 and a signal-to-noise ratio of nearly 10 to 1. Surprisingly, 1 compound emerged from this screen, epoxy-4,5-?-dihydroxysantonin (EDHS), that showed considerable protective activity. While the value of EDHS remains to be determined, its discovery is a proof of concept and validation of the utility of this HTS methodology. Further application of the described assay could yield compounds useful in minimizing the toxicity and carcinogenesis associated with alpha particle exposure. PMID:20658946

  6. [Protection of cadaver tissues exposed to high gamma radiation].

    PubMed

    Matus-Jiménez, J; Flores-Fletes, J R; Carrillo, A

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissue is the most widely used tissue for the treatment of various conditions. As a result of this, allografts are used at an increasing frequency and processes for their harvest, preservation and sterilization have improved. The sterilization method that grants the greatest sterilization is high-dose gamma radiation, which destroys prions and any microorganism thus assuring that patients will not experience any infection. But given that radiation use has proven to deteriorate bone and tendon tissue, efforts have been made to protect the latter. One way to do this is a commercially available substance called Clearant. Studies conducted elsewhere have found that it does protect bone and tendon tissue. This study was therefore conducted with allograft samples exposed to high-dose radiation. Its purpose was to assess, with photon microscopy using various dyes and electron microscopy, the presence of color changes as well as the destruction of the anatomical structure. The same tissue was followed-up throughout the process until it was placed in the patient. The review found no structural changes in bone and tendon tissues exposed to high radiation doses (60 kilograys) when the Clearant process was used, and concluded that the former may be used safely in orthopedic or traumatologic diseases. PMID:24707605

  7. Medical radiation exposure and accidents. Dosimetry and radiation protection. Do we only benefit the patient?

    PubMed

    Grammaticos, Philip; Lyra, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This article presents and discusses new information on the old Hippocratic moto of "...not to harm but to benefit the patient". Some radiation accidents are due to medical errors. Millions of medical tests exposing radiation are performed every day worldwide increasing and sometimes exceeding the annual permissible dose administered to the general population. Public authorities are now seriously concerned about medical radiation overused. In U.S.A. both the House of Representatives and the Food and Drug Administration have recently delt with this problem. Others and we have suggested before and the International Atomic Energy Agency now proposes: a "Smart Card" for every individual who receives medical radiation. In this card the amount of medical radiation administered will be recorded. It is time to issue rules for protection of the public from medical radiation overdose. PMID:20808982

  8. 78 FR 20103 - Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures AGENCY..., on Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures. This document is Federal Guidance Report No. 14. It replaces Federal Guidance Report No. 9, ``Radiation Protection...

  9. 78 FR 19148 - Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and Licensing Conditions for Dry Storage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 72 Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and...-ISG-26A), Revision 0, ``Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and Licensing Conditions for... to NRC staff when reviewing the shielding and radiation protection portions of applications...

  10. [Estimation of X-radiation protective coats in abdominal angiography].

    PubMed

    Koshida, Kichiro; Sota, Takumi; Noto, Kimiya; Fukuda, Atsushi; Matsubara, Kosuke; Nakagawa, Hiroto; Kawabata, Chikako

    2005-07-20

    Medical personnel involved in abdominal angiography are exposed not only to direct radiation but also scattered radiation from inspection tables, patients, image intensifiers, and the beam-limiting system (collimator), among others. Japanese standard JISZ4831 prescribes protective coats of at least 0.25 mm lead equivalent, which is the uniform thickness of lead equivalent. The most commonly used protective coats are 0.25 mm Pb, 0.35 mm Pb, or 0.5 mm Pb in thickness. The weight of a typical protective coat is about 3 kg. While some coats weigh up to 6 kg, wearing such heavy coats becomes physically burdensome as inspection time increases. The trade-off between physical burden and protection was considered by analyzing the X-ray intensity distribution and attenuation rate of scattered radiation in each position assumed by the medical staff. In the case of inspections performed at an x-ray tube voltage of 80 kV, it may be possible to reduce the weight of the lead rubber apron by about 33%. Namely, the lead thickness can be reduced uniformly by 0.20 mm Pb at 70 cm and 0.05 mm Pb at 100 cm, when the shielding capability of a 0.25 mm thick Pb layer is accepted as the standard at 40 cm above the gonad position. The same range of permeated X-ray dose for the gonad position may be reduced as well. In the case of 110 kV, when the lead thicknesses are 0.30 mm Pb at 40 cm and 70 cm, and 0.10 mm Pb at 100 cm, it is possible to reduce the weight of the lead rubber apron by about 28%. PMID:16049412

  11. Development of accelerator radiation protection at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Toohig, T.

    1993-11-01

    The design of the Superconducting Super Collider evolved over a series of studies from 1984 to 1989. Considerations of concentration of radiation sources and provisions for operational control and monitoring of radiation were determining elements in the design concepts for the facility. The development of the designs involved an extension of the range of applicability of energy deposition and radiation shielding codes beyond the 3 TeV level of the proposed UNK collider to 20 TeV for single beam effects and to 40 TeV in the collision regions. This extrapolation was complicated by the newly discovered, very energetic muons from short-lived states associated with heavy quark states. The design guideline for radiation protection was specified to be 10 mRem/yr, 10% of the Federal limit. In order to limit the amount of land required for the facility, which would extend over some 250 mi. sq., the configuration of the land to be acquired was tailored to the requirements for radiation containment below the levels of the guideline.

  12. Handbook of engineering control methods for occupational radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Orn, M.K.

    1992-01-01

    Sources of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation are widely used in industrial, medical, military, and other applications. In the workplace, the task of assuring the safety of workers exposed to radiation sources is generally assigned to the safety professional, industrial hygienist, or an engineer in some other discipline. Rarely do employers outside the nuclear industry have the luxury of a staff health physicist in the workplace. Consultants may be called in to provide initial assessments of the hazards and to assist with complex problems, but the day-to-day problem solving is usually a function of the safety professional or other professional with the responsibility for safety. The primary purpose of this book is to provide a practical reference for safety professionals that addresses the application of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation protection standards and the quantitative methods for evaluating and designing engineering controls to meet those standards. Although the emphasis of this book is on control methods, it is necessary to understand the physical nature of the radiation exposure, its units of measure, and its biological effects in order to apply the appropriate control methods. Consequently, a brief treatment of these topics precedes the discussion of control methods for each type of radiation exposure.

  13. Experimental and theoretical study of organometallic radiation-protective materials adapted to radiation sources with a complex isotopic composition

    SciTech Connect

    Russkikh, I. M.; Seleznev, E. N.; Tashlykov, O. L. Shcheklein, S. E.

    2015-12-15

    The significance of optimizing the content of components of a radiation-protective material, which is determined by the isotopic composition of radioactive contamination, depending on the reactor type, operating time, and other factors is demonstrated. The results of computational and experimental investigation of the gamma-radiation attenuation capacity of homogenous radiation-protective materials with different fillers are reported.

  14. Coordinated and Evidence-Based Policy and Practice for Protecting Children outside of Family Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boothby, Neil; Balster, Robert L.; Goldman, Philip; Wessells, Michael G.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Huebner, Gillian; Garbarino, James

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 U.S. Government Evidence Summit on Protecting Children Outside of Family Care brought together leading researchers and technical experts to assess the available evidence to inform policies, strategies, and programs relevant to protecting children outside of family care in lower and middle income countries. While child vulnerabilities are

  15. Coordinated and Evidence-Based Policy and Practice for Protecting Children outside of Family Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boothby, Neil; Balster, Robert L.; Goldman, Philip; Wessells, Michael G.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Huebner, Gillian; Garbarino, James

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 U.S. Government Evidence Summit on Protecting Children Outside of Family Care brought together leading researchers and technical experts to assess the available evidence to inform policies, strategies, and programs relevant to protecting children outside of family care in lower and middle income countries. While child vulnerabilities are…

  16. 76 FR 40777 - Interim Enforcement Policy for Certain Fire Protection Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Register notice Date Brief description 69 FR 33684 June 16, 2004 Describes the initial interim Enforcement Policy on fire protection. 70 FR 2662 January 14, 2005 Revises the submittal date for licensees to receive enforcement discretion for existing identified fire protection program noncompliant issues. 71...

  17. A biokinetic model for zinc for use in radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2012-01-01

    The physiology of the essential trace element zinc has been studied extensively in human subjects using kinetic analysis of time-dependent measurements of administered zinc tracers. A number of biokinetic models describing zinc exchange between plasma and tissues and loss of systemic zinc in excreta have been developed from the derived data. More rudimentary biokinetic models for zinc have been developed to estimate radiation doses from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc. The latter models are designed to provide broadly accurate estimates of cumulative decays of zinc radioisotopes in tissues and are not intended as realistic descriptions of the directions of movement of zinc in the body. This paper reviews biokinetic data for zinc and proposes a physiologically meaningful biokinetic model for systemic zinc for use in radiation protection. The proposed model bears some resemblance to zinc models developed in physiological studies but depicts a finer division of systemic zinc and is based on a broader spectrum of data than previous models. The proposed model and current radiation protection model for zinc yield broadly similar estimates of effective dose from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc but substantially different dose estimates for several individual tissues, particularly the liver.

  18. Radiation Protection Studies for LCLS Tune Up Dump

    SciTech Connect

    Santana-Leitner, M.; Fass, A.; Mao, S.; Nuhn, H.D.; Roesler, S.; Rokni, S.; Vollaire, J.; /SLAC

    2010-04-29

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is a pioneer fourth generation hard x-ray free electron laser that shall start to deliver laser pulses in 2009. Among other components of LCLS that present radiation protection concerns, the tune up dump (tdund) is of special interest because it also constitutes an issue for machine protection, as it is placed close to radiation sensitive components, like electronic devices and permanent magnets in the undulators. This paper first introduces the stopper of tdund looking at the heat load, and then it describes the shielding around the dump necessary to maintain the prompt and residual dose within design values. Next, preliminary comparisons of the magnetization loss in a dedicated on-site magnet irradiation experiment with FLUKA simulations serve to characterize the magnetic response to radiation of magnets like those of LCLS. The previous knowledge, together with the limit for the allowed demagnetization, are used to estimate the lifetime of the undulator. Further simulations provide guidelines on which lifetime can be expected for an electronic device placed at a given distance of tdund.

  19. Highly Catalytic Nanodots with Renal Clearance for Radiation Protection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Jinxuan; Wang, Junying; Yang, Jiang; Chen, Jie; Shen, Xiu; Deng, Jiao; Deng, Dehui; Long, Wei; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Liu, Changlong; Li, Meixian

    2016-04-26

    Ionizing radiation (gamma and X-ray) is widely used in industry and medicine, but it can also pose a significant hazardous effect on health and induce cancer, physical deformity, and even death, due to DNA damage and invasion of free radicals. There is therefore an urgent unmet demand in designing highly efficient radioprotectants with synergetic integration of effective renal clearance and low toxicity. In this study, we designed ultrasmall (sub-5 nm) highly catalytically active and cysteine-protected MoS2 dots as radioprotectants and investigated their application in protection against ionizing radiation. In vivo preclinical studies showed that the surviving fraction of MoS2-treated mice can appreciably increase to up to 79% when they were exposed to high-energy ionizing radiation. Furthermore, MoS2 dots can contribute in cleaning up the accumulated free radicals within the body, repairing DNA damage, and recovering all vital chemical and biochemical indicators, suggesting their unique role as free radical scavengers. MoS2 dots showed rapid and efficient urinary excretion with more than 80% injected dose eliminated from the body after 24 h due to their ultrasmall hydrodynamic size and did not cause any noticeable toxic responses up to 30 days. PMID:27018632

  20. Radiation protection performance indicators at the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko.

    PubMed

    Janzekovic, Helena

    2006-06-01

    Nuclear power plant safety performance indicators are developed "by nuclear operating organisations to monitor their own performance and progress, to set their own challenging goals for improvement, and to gain additional perspective on performance relative to that of other plants". In addition, performance indicators are widely used by regulatory authorities although the use is not harmonised. Two basic performance indicators related to good radiation protection practice are collective radiation exposure and volume of low-level radioactive waste. In 2000, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, a Westinghouse pressurised water reactor with electrical output 700 MW, finished an extensive modernisation including the replacement of both steam generators. While the annual volume of low-level radioactive waste does not show a specific trend related to modernisation, the annual collective dose reached maximum, i.e. 2.60 man Sv, and dropped to 1.13 man Sv in 2001. During the replacement of the steam generators in 2000, the dose associated with this activity was 1.48 man Sv. The annual doses in 2002 and 2003 were 0.53 and 0.80 man Sv, respectively, nearing thus the goal set by the US Institute of Nuclear Power Operators, which is 0.65 man Sv. Therefore, inasmuch as collective dose as the radiation protection performance indicator are concerned, the modernisation of the Krsko nuclear power plant was a success. PMID:16832974

  1. Radiation protection and dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2014-11-01

    The technological advances that occurred during the last few decades paved the way to the dissemination of CT-based procedures in radiology, to an increasing number of procedures in interventional radiology and cardiology as well as to new techniques and hybrid modalities in nuclear medicine and in radiotherapy. These technological advances encompass the exposure of patients and medical staff to unprecedentedly high dose values that are a cause for concern due to the potential detrimental effects of ionizing radiation to the human health. As a consequence, new issues and challenges in radiological protection and dosimetry in the medical applications of ionizing radiation have emerged. The scientific knowledge of the radiosensitivity of individuals as a function of age, gender and other factors has also contributed to raising the awareness of scientists, medical staff, regulators, decision makers and other stakeholders (including the patients and the public) for the need to correctly and accurately assess the radiation induced long-term health effects after medical exposure. Pediatric exposures and their late effects became a cause of great concern. The scientific communities of experts involved in the study of the biological effects of ionizing radiation have made a strong case about the need to undertake low dose radiation research and the International System of Radiological Protection is being challenged to address and incorporate issues such as the individual sensitivities, the shape of dose-response relationship and tissue sensitivity for cancer and non-cancer effects. Some of the answers to the radiation protection and dosimetry issues and challenges in the medical applications of ionizing radiation lie in computational studies using Monte Carlo or hybrid methods to model and simulate particle transport in the organs and tissues of the human body. The development of sophisticated Monte Carlo computer programs and voxel phantoms paves the way to an accurate dosimetric assessment of the medical applications of ionizing radiation. In this paper, the aforementioned topics will be reviewed. The current status and the future trends in the implementation of the justification and optimization principles, pillars of the International System of Radiological Protection, in the medical applications of ionizing radiation will be discussed. Prospective views will be provided on the future of the system of radiological protection and on dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation.

  2. Implications of radiation dose and exposed populations on radiation protection in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Boice, John D

    2014-02-01

    Radiation is in the public eye because of Fukushima, computed tomography examinations, airport screenings, and possible terrorist attacks. What if the Boston Marathon pressure cooker had also contained a radioactive source? Nuclear power may be on the resurgence. Because of the increasing uses of radiation, the increases in population exposures, and the increasing knowledge of radiation effects, constant vigilance is needed to keep up with the changing times. Psychosocial disorders associated with the inappropriate (but real) fear of radiation need to be recognized as radiation detriments. Radiation risk communication, radiation education, and communication must improve at all levels: to members of the public, to the media, to other scientists, and to radiation professionals. Stakeholders must continue to be involved in all radiation protection initiatives. Finally, we are at a crisis as the number of war babies (me) and baby boomers (you?) who are also radiation professionals continues its rapid decline, and there are few in the pipeline to fill the current and looming substantial need: "The old road is rapidly agin'" (Dylan). NCRP has begun the WARP initiative-Where Are the Radiation Professionals?-an attempt to rejuvenate the pipeline of future professionals before the trickle becomes tiny drops. A Workshop was held in July 2013 with government agencies, military, private sector, universities, White House representatives, and societies to develop a coordinated and national action plan. A "Manhattan Project" is needed to get us "Back to the Future" in terms of the funding levels that existed in years past that provided the necessary resources to train, engage, and retain (a.k.a., jobs) the radiation professionals needed for the nation. If we don't keep swimmin' (Disney's Nemo) we'll "sink like a stone" (Dylan).Introduction of Implications of Radiation Dose and Exposed Populations (Video 2:06, http://links.lww.com/HP/A25). PMID:24378509

  3. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Korać, Radava R; Khambholja, Kapil M

    2011-07-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A "sclerojuglonic" compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

  4. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation

    PubMed Central

    Korać, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

    2011-01-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A “sclerojuglonic” compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

  5. Contribution to the radiation protection for sunglasses standards.

    PubMed

    Masili, Mauro; Schiabel, Homero; Ventura, Liliane

    2015-04-01

    Literature establishes safe limits on the exposure of the eyes to ultraviolet radiation, for the range of 180-400 nm, including spectrally weighted and the total ultraviolet radiant exposure. Most standards for sunglasses protection only require ultraviolet protection in the spectral range of 280-380 nm to ensure the limits for effective spectrally weighted radiant exposure. Calculations of these limits were performed for 27 Brazilian state capitals, and they led to a change in the upper UVA limit to 400 nm on the 2013 review of the Brazilian standard. Moreover, because the sunlight irradiance in Brazil is quite high, integration over the 280- to 400-nm range yields an ultraviolet radiant exposure that is an average of 49% greater than that for the 280- to 380-nm range. These conclusions suggest revision on the standards. PMID:25205833

  6. Development of a radiation protection competency framework, a consultancies perspective.

    PubMed

    Bryant, P A

    2016-03-01

    The UK nuclear industry is suffering heightened concerns of a skills gap. This has led to companies, and in particular consultancies recruiting increasing numbers of graduates and less experienced staff. The following paper provides an overview of an approach to developing a radiation protection based competency framework within a consultancy with the aim of supporting the identification of the required initiatives to support the development of staff, their careers, and the profession. It is hoped this will provide useful guidance for organisations that are embarking on establishing a training and development programme. PMID:26638895

  7. New concept of IEC standards for radiation protection dosemeters.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, P; Behrens, R

    2008-01-01

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) develops new standards for radiation protection dosemeters which follow a new concept. They are much more flexible in detail, but still ensure the same measurement quality. They are, for example, no longer specific for the detector type, but rather specific for the measurement task, e.g. for individual monitoring with active direct-reading instruments. Another example is that they are flexible with respect to the ranges of influence quantities. The conceptual changes are described in this paper, together with the advantages this new concept provides for manufacturers, users and legislators. PMID:18420572

  8. Issues In Space Radiation Protection: Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M.; Schimmerling, W.; Badavi, F. F.; Thibeault, S. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Shinn, J. L.; Kiefer, R.

    1995-01-01

    When shielding from cosmic heavy ions, one is faced with limited knowledge about the physical properties and biological responses of these radiations. Herein, the current health is discussed in terms of conventional protection practice and a test biological response model. The impact of biological response on optimum materials selection for cosmic ray shielding is presented in terms of the transmission characteristics of the shield material. Although liquid hydrogen is an optimum shield material, evaluation of the effectiveness of polymeric structural materials must await improvement in our knowledge of both the biological response and the nuclear processes.

  9. Radiation Protection Aspects of the SPES Project at LNL

    SciTech Connect

    Sarchiapone, L.; Zafiropoulos, D.

    2011-12-13

    The SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) project will be built at the National Laboratories in Legnaro (Italy) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN). Its goal will be the development of radioactive ion beams and the consequent re-acceleration with the existing linac to perform forefront research in nuclear physics. Radiation protection aspects are being considered at every stage of the project, e.g. civil construction planning, control system design and special technological plants. These aspects have been studied with the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA and are presented in this paper.

  10. Results of a Division of Radiation Protection scrap yard exercise.

    PubMed

    James, J D

    2001-02-01

    For years the Division of Radiation Protection (DRP) has participated in exercises, which are required by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to demonstrate our ability to deal with an accident at a nuclear power plant. These demonstrations are defined by objectives and are structured such that they offer little opportunity to practice for real-world radiological events in the exercise. Since real-world radiological incidents do occur throughout the year, this exercise was designed to be as realistic as possible. A scrap yard incident was chosen as the most probable type of event. The exercise was conducted on May 5 and 6, 1999. PMID:11197512

  11. Radiation protection issues in galactic cosmic ray risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, W K

    1994-01-01

    Radiation protection involves the limitation of exposure to below threshold doses for direct (or deterministic) effects and a knowledge of the risk of stochastic effects after low doses. The principal stochastic risk associated with low dose rate galactic cosmic rays is the increased risk of cancer. Estimates of this risk depend on two factors (a) estimates of cancer risk for low-LET radiation and (b) values of the appropriate radiation weighting factors, WR, for the high-LET radiations of galactic cosmic rays. Both factors are subject to considerable uncertainty. The low-LET cancer risk derived from the late effects of the atomic bombs is vulnerable to a number of uncertainties including especially that from projection in time, and from extrapolation from high to low dose rate. Nevertheless, recent low dose studies of workers and others tend to confirm these estimates. WR, relies on biological effects studied mainly in non-human systems. Additional laboratory studies could reduce the uncertainties in WR and thus produce a more confident estimate of the overall risk of galactic cosmic rays. PMID:11538038

  12. Radiation protection issues in galactic cosmic ray risk assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    Radiation protection involves the limitation of exposure to below threshold doses for direct (or deterministic) effects and a knowledge of the risk of stochastic effects after low doses. The principal stochastic risk associated with low dose rate galactic cosmic rays is the increased risk of cancer. Estimates of this risk depend on two factors (a) estimates of cancer risk for low-LET radiation and (b) values of the appropriate radiation weighting factors, WR, for the high-LET radiations of galactic cosmic rays. Both factors are subject to considerable uncertainty. The low-LET cancer risk derived from the late effects of the atomic bombs is vulnerable to a number of uncertainties including especially that from projection in time, and from extrapolation from high to low dose rate. Nevertheless, recent low dose studies of workers and others tend to confirm these estimates. WR, relies on biological effects studied mainly in non-human systems. Additional laboratory studies could reduce the uncertainties in WR and thus produce a more confident estimate of the overall risk of galactic cosmic rays.

  13. APPLICATIONS OF THE PHOTONUCLEAR FRAGMENTATION MODEL TO RADIATION PROTECTION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel Degtiarenko

    1996-01-01

    In order to provide radiation protection systems for high energy electron accelerators it is necessary to define the yields of hadrons produced when the electron beam interacts with a fixed target. In practical terms this will occur when any beam or fraction of the beam is lost from the accelerator orbit or when any fraction of the beam is intercepted by a target inserted in the path of the beam or when the beam is totally absorbed by a beam dump. The electron and gamma yields from these interactions are well characterized and amenable to calculation utilizing Monte Carlo shower codes. However, the yield of hadrons has been less well defined. Neutron production has received most attention because of its importance to radiation shielding. Production mechanisms such as the giant dipole and the quasi-deuteron resonances have provided valuable information for total neutron yields for electron beams at energies less than about 400 MeV. For electron beams at energies extending to 10 GeV it is necessary to include the higher energy resonance structures and the various intranuclear production channels that are available for the production of higher energy neutrons. The production model described in this paper permits the calculation of laboratory angle and energy of all hadrons produced when an electron beam of energy between 100 MeV and 10 GeV interacts with a fixed target. This model can be used as an event generator for Monte Carlo codes used for many radiation protection purposes including calculation of radiation shielding.

  14. The need to include animal protection in public health policies.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2013-11-01

    Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

  15. The need to include animal protection in public health policies

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2013-01-01

    Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

  16. Measuring scatter radiation in diagnostic X rays for radiation protection purposes.

    PubMed

    Vlachos, Ioannis; Tsantilas, Xenophon; Kalyvas, Nektarios; Delis, Harry; Kandarakis, Ioannis; Panayiotakis, George

    2015-07-01

    During the last decades, radiation protection and dosimetry in medical X-ray imaging practice has been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to measure secondary radiation in a conventional radiographic room, in terms of ambient dose rate equivalent H*(10) and its dependence on the radiographic exposure parameters such as X-ray tube voltage, tube current and distance. With some exceptions, the results indicated that the scattered radiation was uniform in the space around the water cylindrical phantom. The results also showed that the tube voltage and filtration affect the dose rate due to the scatter radiation. Finally, the scattered X-ray energy distribution was experimentally calculated. PMID:25911405

  17. Mechanisms of radiation interaction with DNA: Potential implications for radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the US Department of Energy conducts a broad multidisciplinary research program which includes basic biophysics, biophysical chemistry, molecular and cellular biology as well as experimental animal studies and opportunistic human studies. This research is directed at understanding how low levels of radiation of various qualities produce the spectrum of biological effects that are seen for such exposures. This workshop was entitled ''Mechanisms of Radiation Interaction with DNA: Potential Implications for Radiation Protection.'' It ws jointly sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Commission of European Communities. The aim of the workshop was to review the base of knowledge in the area of mechanisms of radiation action at the DNA level, and to explore ways in which this information can be applied to the development of scientifically sound concepts and procedures for use in the field of radiation protection. The overview of research provided by this multidisciplinary group will be helpful to the Office in program planning. This report includes a summary of the presentations, extended abstracts, the meeting agenda, research recommendations, and a list of participants. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base.

  18. Low Dose Radiation Adaptive Protection to Control Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Doss, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Concerns have been expressed recently regarding the observed increased DNA damage from activities such as thinking and exercise. Such concerns have arisen from an incomplete accounting of the full effects of the increased oxidative damage. When the effects of the induced adaptive protective responses such as increased antioxidants and DNA repair enzymes are taken into consideration, there would be less endogenous DNA damage during the subsequent period of enhanced defenses, resulting in improved health from the thinking and exercise activities. Low dose radiation (LDR), which causes oxidative stress and increased DNA damage, upregulates adaptive protection systems that may decrease diseases in an analogous manner. Though there are ongoing debates regarding LDR’s carcinogenicity, with two recent advisory committee reports coming to opposite conclusions, data published since the time of the reports have overwhelmingly ruled out its carcinogenicity, paving the way for consideration of its potential use for disease reduction. LDR adaptive protection is a promising approach to control neurodegenerative diseases, for which there are no methods of prevention or cure. Preparation of a compelling ethics case would pave the way for LDR clinical studies and progress in dealing with neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24910585

  19. On being understood: clarity and jargon in radiation protection.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Strom DJ; Watson CR

    2002-03-01

    While much of the language used to express the concepts of radiation protection works effectively, there are many ill-chosen names and phrases and much jargon that permeate our professional speech and writing. From the oxymoron "internal exposure" to the "snarl word" "decay," there is much room for improvement. This essay identifies many of the problems and suggests solutions. We examine the kinds of confusions that can result from using familiar words with unfamiliar meanings and the need for neology. We offer insights into specific and unambiguous naming of physical quantities and explore the seemingly unlimited kinds of "dose." We disaggregate exposure from irradiation following intakes, and unmask units like "gram rad per microcurie hour." We call for a definition of radiation weighting factor that doesn't result in a violation of the law of conservation of energy. We examine the subtleties of distinguishing between radiation and radioactive materials. Some words, such as "exposure," have multiple meanings, while at other times there are different words or phrases with the same meaning, such as "critical level" and "decision level" or "detection level" and "minimum detectable amount." Sometimes phrases are used whose meaning is unclear or not agreed upon, such as "lower limit of detection." Sometimes there are words that are simply not apt, such as "disintegration" applied to the emission of a subatomic particle from a nucleus.

  20. On being understood: clarity and jargon in radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Strom, Daniel J; Watson, Charles R

    2002-03-01

    While much of the language used to express the concepts of radiation protection works effectively, there are many ill-chosen names and phrases and much jargon that permeate our professional speech and writing. From the oxymoron "internal exposure" to the "snarl word" "decay," there is much room for improvement. This essay identifies many of the problems and suggests solutions. We examine the kinds of confusions that can result from using familiar words with unfamiliar meanings and the need for neology. We offer insights into specific and unambiguous naming of physical quantities and explore the seemingly unlimited kinds of "dose." We disaggregate exposure from irradiation following intakes, and unmask units like "gram rad per microcurie hour." We call for a definition of radiation weighting factor that doesn't result in a violation of the law of conservation of energy. We examine the subtleties of distinguishing between radiation and radioactive materials. Some words, such as "exposure," have multiple meanings, while at other times there are different words or phrases with the same meaning, such as "critical level" and "decision level" or "detection level" and "minimum detectable amount." Sometimes phrases are used whose meaning is unclear or not agreed upon, such as "lower limit of detection." Sometimes there are words that are simply not apt, such as "disintegration" applied to the emission of a subatomic particle from a nucleus. PMID:11845840

  1. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-10

    Enclosed are proceedings of the workshop on Internal Dosimetry held on Atlanta, Georgia in April 1992. The recommendations from the Workshop were considered by the CIRRPC Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research in identifying those areas to be undertaken by individual Federal Agencies or in cooperative efforts. This document presents summaries of the following sessions: A.1 Applications and limitations of ICRP and other metabolic models, A.2 Applications and implementation of proposed ICRP lung model, A.3 Estimates of intake from repetitive bioassay data, A.4 Chelation models for plutonium urinalysis data, B.1 Transuranium/uranium registry data, B.2 Autopsy tissue analysis, B.3 Bioassay / Whole body counting, B.4 Data base formatting and availability, C.1 An overview of calculational techniques in use today, C.2 The perfect code, C.3 Dose calculations based on individuals instead of averages, C.4 From macro dosimetry to micro dosimetry.

  2. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authority and responsibilities for the radiation... MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.24 Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of § 20.1101 of...

  3. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authority and responsibilities for the radiation... MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.24 Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of § 20.1101 of...

  4. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authority and responsibilities for the radiation... MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.24 Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of § 20.1101 of...

  5. Developing the radiation protection safety culture in the UK.

    PubMed

    Cole, P; Hallard, R; Broughton, J; Coates, R; Croft, J; Davies, K; Devine, I; Lewis, C; Marsden, P; Marsh, A; McGeary, R; Riley, P; Rogers, A; Rycraft, H; Shaw, A

    2014-06-01

    In the UK, as elsewhere, there is potential to improve how radiological challenges are addressed through improvement in, or development of, a strong radiation protection (RP) safety culture. In preliminary work in the UK, two areas have been identified as having a strong influence on UK society: the healthcare and nuclear industry sectors. Each has specific challenges, but with many overlapping common factors. Other sectors will benefit from further consideration.In order to make meaningful comparisons between these two principal sectors, this paper is primarily concerned with cultural aspects of RP in the working environment and occupational exposures rather than patient doses.The healthcare sector delivers a large collective dose to patients each year, particularly for diagnostic purposes, which continues to increase. Although patient dose is not the focus, it must be recognised that collective patient dose is inevitably linked to collective occupational exposure, especially in interventional procedures.The nuclear industry faces major challenges as work moves from operations to decommissioning on many sites. This involves restarting work in the plants responsible for the much higher radiation doses of the 1960/70s, but also performing tasks that are considerably more difficult and hazardous than those original performed in these plants.Factors which influence RP safety culture in the workplace are examined, and proposals are considered for a series of actions that may lead to an improvement in RP culture with an associated reduction in dose in many work areas. These actions include methods to improve knowledge and awareness of radiation safety, plus ways to influence management and colleagues in the workplace. The exchange of knowledge about safety culture between the nuclear industry and medical areas may act to develop RP culture in both sectors, and have a wider impact in other sectors where exposures to ionising radiations can occur. PMID:24894330

  6. RNA protects a nucleoprotein complex against radiation damage.

    PubMed

    Bury, Charles S; McGeehan, John E; Antson, Alfred A; Carmichael, Ian; Gerstel, Markus; Shevtsov, Mikhail B; Garman, Elspeth F

    2016-05-01

    Radiation damage during macromolecular X-ray crystallographic data collection is still the main impediment for many macromolecular structure determinations. Even when an eventual model results from the crystallographic pipeline, the manifestations of radiation-induced structural and conformation changes, the so-called specific damage, within crystalline macromolecules can lead to false interpretations of biological mechanisms. Although this has been well characterized within protein crystals, far less is known about specific damage effects within the larger class of nucleoprotein complexes. Here, a methodology has been developed whereby per-atom density changes could be quantified with increasing dose over a wide (1.3-25.0 MGy) range and at higher resolution (1.98 Å) than the previous systematic specific damage study on a protein-DNA complex. Specific damage manifestations were determined within the large trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) bound to a single-stranded RNA that forms a belt around the protein. Over a large dose range, the RNA was found to be far less susceptible to radiation-induced chemical changes than the protein. The availability of two TRAP molecules in the asymmetric unit, of which only one contained bound RNA, allowed a controlled investigation into the exact role of RNA binding in protein specific damage susceptibility. The 11-fold symmetry within each TRAP ring permitted statistically significant analysis of the Glu and Asp damage patterns, with RNA binding unexpectedly being observed to protect these otherwise highly sensitive residues within the 11 RNA-binding pockets distributed around the outside of the protein molecule. Additionally, the method enabled a quantification of the reduction in radiation-induced Lys and Phe disordering upon RNA binding directly from the electron density. PMID:27139628

  7. RNA protects a nucleoprotein complex against radiation damage

    PubMed Central

    Bury, Charles S.; McGeehan, John E.; Antson, Alfred A.; Carmichael, Ian; Gerstel, Markus; Shevtsov, Mikhail B.; Garman, Elspeth F.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation damage during macromolecular X-ray crystallographic data collection is still the main impediment for many macromolecular structure determinations. Even when an eventual model results from the crystallographic pipeline, the manifestations of radiation-induced structural and conformation changes, the so-called specific damage, within crystalline macromolecules can lead to false interpretations of biological mechanisms. Although this has been well characterized within protein crystals, far less is known about specific damage effects within the larger class of nucleoprotein complexes. Here, a methodology has been developed whereby per-atom density changes could be quantified with increasing dose over a wide (1.3–25.0 MGy) range and at higher resolution (1.98 Å) than the previous systematic specific damage study on a protein–DNA complex. Specific damage manifestations were determined within the large trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) bound to a single-stranded RNA that forms a belt around the protein. Over a large dose range, the RNA was found to be far less susceptible to radiation-induced chemical changes than the protein. The availability of two TRAP molecules in the asymmetric unit, of which only one contained bound RNA, allowed a controlled investigation into the exact role of RNA binding in protein specific damage susceptibility. The 11-fold symmetry within each TRAP ring permitted statistically significant analysis of the Glu and Asp damage patterns, with RNA binding unexpectedly being observed to protect these otherwise highly sensitive residues within the 11 RNA-binding pockets distributed around the outside of the protein molecule. Additionally, the method enabled a quantification of the reduction in radiation-induced Lys and Phe disordering upon RNA binding directly from the electron density. PMID:27139628

  8. Policy on protection of the environment: Proposed regulatory policy. Consultative document Number C-223 (E)

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This policy document describes principles and factors that guide the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission in preventing unreasonable risks to the environment associated with the development, production, and use of nuclear energy and the production, possession, and use of nuclear substances, prescribed equipment, and prescribed information, in a manner consistent with Canada`s international obligations. Includes glossary.

  9. The relationship between sun protection policies and practices in schools with primary-age students: the role of school demographics, policy comprehensiveness and SunSmart membership.

    PubMed

    Dono, J; Ettridge, K A; Sharplin, G R; Wilson, C J

    2014-02-01

    Schools can implement evidence-based sun protection policies that guide practices to help protect children from harmful sun exposure. This national study assessed the relationship between the existence and comprehensiveness of written policies and the comprehensiveness of sun protection practices. The impact of school demographics on the strength of the relationship was also examined, as was the possibility that 'SunSmart' membership would have an additional impact on practices, beyond having any formal policy. In 2011-12, staff members of 1573 schools catering to primary-age students completed a self-administered survey about sun protection policies and practices (response rate of 57%). Results showed that schools with a written policy had more comprehensive practices than schools without a written policy. The relationship between having a written policy and sun protection practices was stronger for remote schools compared with metropolitan and regional schools, and for schools catering to both primary and secondary students compared with primary students only. In addition, policy comprehensiveness was associated with practice comprehensiveness, and SunSmart membership was indirectly related to practice comprehensiveness via policy comprehensiveness. These results indicate that written policies relate to practice comprehensiveness, but the strength of the association can vary according to the characteristics of the organization. PMID:24270814

  10. Nuclear fragmentation measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    De Napoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Blancato, A. A.; Cavallaro, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V.; Battistoni, G.; Bondi, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Nicolosi, D.; Raciti, G.; Tropea, S.; Giacoppo, F.; Morone, M. C.; Pandola, L.; Rapisarda, E.; Romano, F.; and others

    2013-04-19

    Nuclear fragmentation measurements are necessary in hadrontherapy and space radiation protection, to predict the effects of the ion nuclear interactions within the human body. Nowadays, a very limited set of carbon fragmentation cross sections has been measured and in particular, to our knowledge, no double differential fragmentation cross sections at intermediate energies are available in literature. We have measured the double differential cross sections and the angular distributions of the secondary fragments produced in the {sup 12}C fragmentation at 62 AMeV on a thin carbon target. The experimental data have been also used to benchmark the prediction capability of the Geant4 Monte Carlo code at intermediate energies, where it was never tested before.

  11. The impact of mining activities on Mongolia's protected areas: a status report with policy recommendations.

    PubMed

    Farrington, John D

    2005-07-01

    Mongolia's protected areas cover 20.5 million ha or 13.1% of its national territory. Existing and proposed protected areas, however, are threatened by mining. Mining impacts on Mongolia's protected areas are diverse and include licensed and unlicensed mineral activities in protected areas, buffer zone disturbance, and prevention of the establishment of proposed protected areas. Review of United States, Canadian, and Australian policies revealed 9 basic approaches to resolving conflicts between protected areas and mining. Four approaches suitable for Mongolia are granting land trades and special dispensations in exchange for mineral licenses in protected areas; granting protected status to all lapsed mineral licenses in protected areas; voluntary forfeiting of mineral licenses in protected areas in exchange for positive corporate publicity; and prohibiting all new mineral activities in existing and proposed protected areas. Mining is Mongolia's most important industry, however, and the long-term benefits of preserving Mongolia's natural heritage must be considered and weighed against the economic benefits and costs of mining activities. PMID:16639889

  12. Protection policy for Hawaii's native wildlife during geothermal energy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, Lee

    1986-09-01

    Hawaii possesses abundant geothermal resources and rare native wildlife. Geothermal energy development has not posed a threat to native wildlife in the past, but development potential has recently reached a level at which concern for native wildlife is warranted. Potential geothermal resource areas in Hawaii intersect important native forest and endangered species habitat. The ability of existing laws to constrain development in these areas is in question. State and federal endangered species and environmental reporting laws have little ability to constrain geothermal development on private land. Hawaii's Land Use Law had been viewed by conservationists as protecting natural areas important to native wildlife, but recent decisions of the state Land Board sharply challenge this view. While this dispute was being resolved in the courts, the state legislature passed the Geothermal Subzone Act of 1983. Wildlife value was assessed in the geothermal subzone designation process mandated by this act, but the subzones designated primarily reflected inappropriate developer influence. All areas in which there was developer interest received subzone designation, and no area in which there was no developer interest was subzoned. This overriding emphasis on developer interest violated the intent of the sub-zone act, and trivialized the importance of other assessment criteria, among them native wildlife values.

  13. Regulation of radiation protection of the patient: how and how much, the current Belgian situation.

    PubMed

    Clarijs, Tom

    2011-09-01

    Regulation of radiation protection has always been a cornerstone to protect the patient when exposed to ionising radiation. However, large differences exist between the implementation of international approved recommendations. Even when a well-established supra-national legislative format exists, further translation is always adapted to a suitable level of the medical sector in a country. Actual trends are given for the Belgian situation, where the legislation on radiation protection in medicine is currently under revision. PMID:21733857

  14. UV radiation and freshwater zooplankton: damage, protection and recovery

    PubMed Central

    Rautio, Milla; Tartarotti, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    While many laboratory and field studies show that zooplankton are negatively affected when exposed to high intensities of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), most studies also indicate that zooplankton are well adapted to cope with large variations in their UVR exposure in the pelagic zone of lakes. The response mechanisms of zooplankton are diverse and efficient and may explain the success and richness of freshwater zooplankton in optically variable waters. While no single behavioural or physiological protection mechanism seems to be superior, and while several unexplained and contradictory patterns exist in zooplankton UVR ecology, recent increases in our understanding are consistent with UVR playing an important role for zooplankton. This review examines the variability in freshwater zooplankton responses to UVR, with a focus on crustacean zooplankton (Cladocera and Copepoda). We present an overview of UVR-induced damages, and the protection and recovery mechanisms freshwater zooplankton use when exposed to UVR. We review the current knowledge of UVR impact on freshwater zooplankton at species and community levels, and discuss briefly how global change over the last three decades has influenced the UVR milieu in lakes. PMID:21516254

  15. 14 CFR 298.30 - Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS... protection. (a) Every air taxi and commuter air carrier shall cause to be displayed continuously in a..., containing a statement setting forth the air taxi and commuter air carrier's policy on baggage liability...

  16. 77 FR 35464 - Extension of Comment Period-Proposed Low Flow Protection Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Extension of Comment Period--Proposed Low Flow Protection Policy AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC) extended the comment deadline for its proposed Low Flow...

  17. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation...

  18. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation...

  19. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation...

  20. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation...

  1. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation...

  2. Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

  3. Neutron, Proton, and Photonuclear Cross Sections for Radiation Therapy and Radiation Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.

    1998-09-10

    The authors review recent work at Los Alamos to evaluate neutron, proton, and photonuclear cross section up to 150 MeV (to 250 MeV for protons), based on experimental data and nuclear model calculations. These data are represented in the ENDF format and can be used in computer codes to simulate radiation transport. They permit calculations of absorbed dose in the body from therapy beams, and through use of kerma coefficients allow absorbed dose to be estimated for a given neutron energy distribution. For radiation protection, these data can be used to determine shielding requirements in accelerator environments, and to calculate neutron, proton, gamma-ray, and radionuclide production. Illustrative comparisons of the evaluated cross section and kerma coefficient data with measurements are given.

  4. General Principles of Radiation Protection in Fields of Diagnostic Medical Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    After the rapid development of medical equipment including CT or PET-CT, radiation doses from medical exposure are now the largest source of man-made radiation exposure. General principles of radiation protection from the hazard of ionizing radiation are summarized as three key words; justification, optimization, and dose limit. Because medical exposure of radiation has unique considerations, diagnostic reference level is generally used as a reference value, instead of dose limits. In Korea, medical radiation exposure has increased rapidly. For medical radiation exposure control, Korea has two separate control systems. Regulation is essential to control medical radiation exposure. Physicians and radiologists must be aware of the radiation risks and benefits associated with medical exposure, and understand and implement the principles of radiation protection for patients. The education of the referring physicians and radiologists is also important. PMID:26908991

  5. 42 CFR 37.43 - Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 1000). Where no applicable regulations exist, roentgenographic equipment, its use and the... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection against radiation emitted by... § 37.43 Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment. Except as...

  6. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each...

  7. 42 CFR 37.45 - Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment. 37.45 Section 37.45 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....45 Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment. Except as otherwise specified...

  8. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each...

  9. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each...

  10. 42 CFR 37.43 - Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CFR part 1000). Where no applicable regulations exist, roentgenographic equipment, its use and the... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protection against radiation emitted by... § 37.43 Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment. Except as...

  11. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each...

  12. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each...

  13. 42 CFR 37.43 - Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR part 1000). Where no applicable regulations exist, roentgenographic equipment, its use and the... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection against radiation emitted by... § 37.43 Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment. Except as...

  14. Modern new nuclear fuel characteristics and radiation protection aspects.

    PubMed

    Terry, Ian R

    2005-01-01

    The glut of fissile material from reprocessing plants and from the conclusion of the cold war has provided the opportunity to design new fuel types to beneficially dispose of such stocks by generating useful power. Thus, in addition to the normal reactor core complement of enriched uranium fuel assemblies, two other types are available on the world market. These are the ERU (enriched recycled uranium) and the MOX (mixed oxide) fuel assemblies. Framatome ANP produces ERU fuel assemblies by taking feed material from reprocessing facilities and blending this with highly enriched uranium from other sources. MOX fuel assemblies contain plutonium isotopes, thus exploiting the higher neutron yield of the plutonium fission process. This paper describes and evaluates the gamma, spontaneous and alpha reaction neutron source terms of these non-irradiated fuel assembly types by defining their nuclear characteristics. The dose rates which arise from these terms are provided along with an overview of radiation protection aspects for consideration in transporting and delivering such fuel assemblies to power generating utilities. PMID:16381693

  15. Development of the 3DHZETRN code for space radiation protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John; Badavi, Francis; Slaba, Tony; Reddell, Brandon; Bahadori, Amir; Singleterry, Robert

    Space radiation protection requires computationally efficient shield assessment methods that have been verified and validated. The HZETRN code is the engineering design code used for low Earth orbit dosimetric analysis and astronaut record keeping with end-to-end validation to twenty percent in Space Shuttle and International Space Station operations. HZETRN treated diffusive leakage only at the distal surface limiting its application to systems with a large radius of curvature. A revision of HZETRN that included forward and backward diffusion allowed neutron leakage to be evaluated at both the near and distal surfaces. That revision provided a deterministic code of high computational efficiency that was in substantial agreement with Monte Carlo (MC) codes in flat plates (at least to the degree that MC codes agree among themselves). In the present paper, the 3DHZETRN formalism capable of evaluation in general geometry is described. Benchmarking will help quantify uncertainty with MC codes (Geant4, FLUKA, MCNP6, and PHITS) in simple shapes such as spheres within spherical shells and boxes. Connection of the 3DHZETRN to general geometry will be discussed.

  16. State employment protection statutes for victims of domestic violence: public policy's response to domestic violence as an employment matter.

    PubMed

    Swanberg, Jennifer E; Ojha, Mamta U; Macke, Caroline

    2012-02-01

    Evidence indicates that domestic violence has negative consequences on victims' employment; yet employers lag in recognizing this as a workplace issue. To address the problem, some states have established several policy solutions. To understand the scope of the public sector's response to domestic violence as a workplace issue, a content analysis of state-level employment protection policies for domestic violence victims (N = 369) was conducted. Results indicate three broad policy categories: (a) policies that offer work leave for victims; (b) policies that aim to reduce employment discrimination of domestic violence victims; and (c) policies that aim to increase awareness and safety in the workplace. Subcategories emerged within each of these three categories. Implementation of employment protection policies varies significantly across states. Implications for workplaces, practitioners, and policy leaders are discussed. PMID:22203636

  17. Anti-apoptotic peptides protect against radiation-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, Kevin W.; Muenzer, Jared T.; Chang, Kathy C.; Davis, Chris G.; McDunn, Jonathan E.; Coopersmith, Craig M.; Hilliard, Carolyn A.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Grigsby, Perry W.; Hunt, Clayton R. . E-mail: chunt@radonc.wustl.edu

    2007-04-06

    The risk of terrorist attacks utilizing either nuclear or radiological weapons has raised concerns about the current lack of effective radioprotectants. Here it is demonstrated that the BH4 peptide domain of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL can be delivered to cells by covalent attachment to the TAT peptide transduction domain (TAT-BH4) and provide protection in vitro and in vivo from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Isolated human lymphocytes treated with TAT-BH4 were protected against apoptosis following exposure to 15 Gy radiation. In mice exposed to 5 Gy radiation, TAT-BH4 treatment protected splenocytes and thymocytes from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Most importantly, in vivo radiation protection was observed in mice whether TAT-BH4 treatment was given prior to or after irradiation. Thus, by targeting steps within the apoptosis signaling pathway it is possible to develop post-exposure treatments to protect radio-sensitive tissues.

  18. The policy and politics of environmental protection in the Republic of Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines the emergence, development, and institutionalization of environmental policy in the Republic of Korea. The Park Chunghee regime's commitment to rapid industrialization resulted in extensive damage to the environment. In the 1970s, there was no substantial effort to deal with pollution. As a reaction to several serious pollution crises, President Park ordered the establishment of the Office of Environment in May 1979. An examination of the policy process that established the Office of Environment reveals the characteristics of policy making in an authoritarian regime: the wide decision making authority of the president, the dominance of the executive branch, the passive role of the legislature, and the near exclusion of the public. This study argues that the 1980s governmental officials responsible for environmental policy have gone through a learning process and have adapted to the pervasive noncompliance of businesses. Despite some successes, however, they have not been able to significantly improve environmental conditions in Korea. First, the supremacy of economic growth goals continue to dictate national priorities. One result of this is that the tasks of the Office of Environment have been impeded by other powerful government agencies such as the Economic Planning Board and the Ministry of Commerce and Industry. Second, businesses have exploited regulatory ambiguity and the ambivalence of administrators to evade environmental policies. Thirdly, environmental protection has not become a major political issue. The public has perceived the importance of environmental protection, as of 1985 they tacitly agreed that the pursuit of economic growth is a more urgent task. This case study on Korea shows the possibility and limits of environmental protection in a rapidly industrializing country.

  19. 47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.83 Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application for a ship earth station that will cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess...

  20. 47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.83 Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application for a ship earth station that will cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess...

  1. 47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided with transmitters for ship... help prevent human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

  2. 47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided with transmitters for ship... help prevent human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

  3. 47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.83 Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application for a ship earth station that will cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess...

  4. 47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided with transmitters for ship... help prevent human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

  5. 47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.83 Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application for a ship earth station that will cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess...

  6. 47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided with transmitters for ship... help prevent human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

  7. 47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided with transmitters for ship... help prevent human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

  8. 47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.83 Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application for a ship earth station that will cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess...

  9. Ionizing and Nonionizing Radiation Protection. Module SH-35. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on ionizing and nonionizing radiation protection is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module describes various types of ionizing and nonionizing radiation, and the situations in the workplace where potential hazards from radiation may exist. Following the introduction, 13 objectives (each keyed to a…

  10. Protective legislation, ionizing radiation and health: a new appraisal and international survey

    SciTech Connect

    Stellman, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Restrictive regulations (protective legislation) on employment conditions of female workers limiting maximum hours of work and prohibiting certain toxic exposures have existed for decades. In some countries, such as the United States, Canada and the Nordic countries, the growth of civil rights and equal opportunity legislation has led to their elimination, either in fact or in practice, and only a small number of disparate regulations for male and female workers still exist. Most other industrialized countries, as well as the International Labour Office of the United Nations, still have active restrictive rules for women's employment. However, restrictive regulation is an area of active policy debate around the world. International examples of the debate on protective legislation are given here. A specific case study of the occupational health standards governing exposure to ionizing radiation is used and its technical rationale discussed as an illustration of the basic issues. These include: overbroad categorization of all women as potential childbearers, no matter what their childbearing intentions; failure to recognize the full range of potential adverse health effects to males; disparate application of the restrictive regulations, generally to occupations or areas of employment that are traditionally held by men, while traditional female jobs with the same exposures are excluded from the regulatory restriction.

  11. Comment on “Policy offers protection from harassment” [by Marcia McNutt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, Martha H.

    Regarding “Policy Offers Protection From Harassment” (Eos, October 15, 1996), I am disturbed that the AGU has extended its harassment policy to its membership at “events that combine work and social interaction, such as the meetings, conferences, and seminars that AGU members attend.” As a woman, I have always found the so-called protections extended to females and other supposedly vulnerable groups to be intrusive and patronizing, but this policy in particular goes too far by trying to sponsor aspects of members' social behavior.I am old enough to remember the days when one responded to uncomfortable situations by drawing on one's own resources. A sense of one's inviolable self developed over time, and meaningful self-esteem derived from an ability to cope with the world. Now, cowering from jokes and recoiling from eye contact, the modern geoscientist apparently requires a patron for protection—a shining knight in the form of this new policy.

  12. Spacecraft Radiator Freeze Protection Using a Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Schunk, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    An active thermal control system architecture has been modified to include a regenerative heat exchanger (regenerator) inboard of the radiator. Rather than using a radiator bypass valve a regenerative heat exchanger is placed inboard of the radiators. A regenerator cold side bypass valve is used to set the return temperature. During operation, the regenerator bypass flow is varied, mixing cold radiator return fluid and warm regenerator outlet fluid to maintain the system setpoint. At the lowest heat load for stable operation, the bypass flow is closed off, sending all of the flow through the regenerator. This lowers the radiator inlet temperature well below the system set-point while maintaining full flow through the radiators. By using a regenerator bypass flow control to maintain system setpoint, the required minimum heat load to avoid radiator freezing can be reduced by more than half compared to a radiator bypass system.

  13. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Climate change National Analytical Radiation Environmental Laboratory National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory National Center for Radiation ... outdoor air quality, industrial air pollution, pollution from vehicles and engines, radon, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, ...

  14. Radiation safety and protection of neonates in radiological examinations

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshizumi, T.T.; Drummond, K.T.; Freeman, J.O.; Mullett, M.D.

    1987-05-01

    Radiation reduction methods in neonatal radiographic examinations are discussed. Studies performed on radiation exposures to the neonates, scattered radiation level, exposure to the nursery personnel, effectiveness of the various shielding methods, uniformity of the x-ray field, heel effect, and skin exposure estimation are described. In summary, recommendations for exposure reduction based on our experimental findings as well as on the ALARA concept of radiation safety are provided.

  15. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination second annual report, July 1, 1985--June 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Young, A.L.

    1996-06-30

    This is the second annual report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). CIRRPC was established on April 9, 1984, to replace the Committee on Interagency Radiation Policy and was assigned responsibilities of the former Interagency Radiation Research Committee and former Radiation Policy Council. CIRRPC is chartered under the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (FCCSET) and reports to the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), Executive Office of the President. Its overall charge is to coordinate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation research, and provide advice on the formulation of radiation policy. During CIRRPC`s second year, the member agencies have called upon this interagency resource to assist in coordinating science and policy issues and to provide a vehicle to accomplish multiagency tasks.

  16. Report on policy and activities concerning public awareness of health effects of low-level radiation

    SciTech Connect

    1986-11-01

    In the summer of 1986, the Executive Committee authorized a study limited to determining policy and practices relevant to dissemination of information to the public on radiation health effects in three federal agencies. This report summarizes findings on two broad questions related to the communication issue: What, if any, are the policies under which federal agencies operate in disseminating information on health effects of radiation and what are the current programs and activities designed to provide the public information on health effects of radiation.

  17. Final report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination, 1984-1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This document is the final report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). The committee was established to address national and international issues involving ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Three sections are included in the report: a summary of CIRRPC`s history structure, and operations; CIRRPC`s most significant activities, findings and recommendations on national radiation issues of sufficient importance and scope to require interagency attention; topics for future consideration by Federal agencies.

  18. Strategic effects of future environmental policy commitments: climate change, solar radiation management and correlated air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jingwen; Silva, Emilson Caputo Delfino

    2015-03-15

    We study the effects of environmental policy commitments in a futuristic world in which solar radiation management (SRM) can be utilized to reduce climate change damages. Carbon and sulfur dioxide emissions (correlated pollutants) can be reduced through tradable permits. We show that if nations simultaneously commit to carbon permit policies, national SRM levels rise with carbon quotas. Alternatively, if they simultaneously commit to SRM policies, the global temperature falls with each unit increase in the global SRM level. A nation always wishes to be a leader in policymaking, but prefers carbon to SRM policymaking. The globe prefers SRM policy commitments. PMID:25528270

  19. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation. PMID:26157675

  20. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2015-06-01

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation. PMID:26157675

  1. Radiation exposure in gastroenterology: improving patient and staff protection.

    PubMed

    Ho, Immanuel K H; Cash, Brooks D; Cohen, Henry; Hanauer, Stephen B; Inkster, Michelle; Johnson, David A; Maher, Michael M; Rex, Douglas K; Saad, Abdo; Singh, Ajaypal; Rehani, Madan M; Quigley, Eamonn M

    2014-08-01

    Medical imaging involving the use of ionizing radiation has brought enormous benefits to society and patients. In the past several decades, exposure to medical radiation has increased markedly, driven primarily by the use of computed tomography. Ionizing radiation has been linked to carcinogenesis. Whether low-dose medical radiation exposure will result in the development of malignancy is uncertain. This paper reviews the current evidence for such risk, and aims to inform the gastroenterologist of dosages of radiation associated with commonly ordered procedures and diagnostic tests in clinical practice. The use of medical radiation must always be justified and must enable patients to be exposed at the lowest reasonable dose. Recommendations provided herein for minimizing radiation exposure are based on currently available evidence and Working Party expert consensus. PMID:24842339

  2. Protecting care home residents from mistreatment and abuse: on the need for policy.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    With a rising older person population with increasing life expectancies, the demand for care homes will increase in the future. Older people in care homes are particularly vulnerable due to their dependencies related to cognitive and/or functional self-care challenges. Although many care homes provide good care, maltreatment and abuse of older people can and does occur. One major step in preventing and addressing maltreatment in care homes is having comprehensive and responsive policy, which delineates national expectations that are locally implemented. This paper examines the literature related to maltreatment in care homes and argues for policy based on a multisystems approach. Policy needs to firstly acknowledge and address general societal issues which tacitly impact on older person care delivery, underpin how care homes and related systems should be operationalized, and finally delineate expected standards and outcomes for individual experience of care. Such a policy demands attention at every level of the health care and societal system. Furthermore, contemporary issues central to policy evolution in care homes are discussed, such as safeguarding education and training and fostering organization whistle-blowing protection. PMID:26640391

  3. Protecting care home residents from mistreatment and abuse: on the need for policy

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    With a rising older person population with increasing life expectancies, the demand for care homes will increase in the future. Older people in care homes are particularly vulnerable due to their dependencies related to cognitive and/or functional self-care challenges. Although many care homes provide good care, maltreatment and abuse of older people can and does occur. One major step in preventing and addressing maltreatment in care homes is having comprehensive and responsive policy, which delineates national expectations that are locally implemented. This paper examines the literature related to maltreatment in care homes and argues for policy based on a multisystems approach. Policy needs to firstly acknowledge and address general societal issues which tacitly impact on older person care delivery, underpin how care homes and related systems should be operationalized, and finally delineate expected standards and outcomes for individual experience of care. Such a policy demands attention at every level of the health care and societal system. Furthermore, contemporary issues central to policy evolution in care homes are discussed, such as safeguarding education and training and fostering organization whistle-blowing protection. PMID:26640391

  4. Review and challenges of policies of environmental protection and sustainable development in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun-Min; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2008-09-01

    China is confronted with the dual task of developing its national economy and protecting its ecological environment. Since the 1980s, China's policies on environmental protection and sustainable development have experienced five changes: (1) progression from the adoption of environmental protection as a basic state policy to the adoption of sustainable development strategy; (2) changing focus from pollution control to ecological conservation equally; (3) shifting from end-of-pipe treatment to source control; (4) moving from point source treatment to regional environmental governance; and (5) a turn away from administrative management-based approaches and towards a legal means and economic instruments-based approach. Since 1992, China has set down sustainable development as a basic national strategy. However, environmental pollution and ecological degradation in China have continued to be serious problems and have inflicted great damage on the economy and quality of life. The beginning of the 21st century is a critical juncture for China's efforts towards sustaining rapid economic development, intensifying environmental protection efforts, and curbing ecological degradation. As the largest developing country, China's policies on environmental protection and sustainable development will be of primary importance not only for China, but also the world. Realizing a completely well-off society by the year 2020 is seen as a crucial task by the Chinese government and an important goal for China's economic development in the new century, however, attaining it would require a four-fold increase over China's year 2000 GDP. Therefore, speeding up economic development is a major mission during the next two decades and doing so will bring great challenges in controlling depletion of natural resources and environmental pollution. By taking a critical look at the development of Chinese environmental policy, we try to determine how best to coordinate the relationship between the environment and the economy in order to improve quality of life and the sustainability of China's resources and environment. Examples of important measures include: adjustment of economic structure, reform of energy policy, development of environmental industry, pollution prevention and ecological conservation, capacity building, and international cooperation and public participation. PMID:17767999

  5. [Radiation protection. Implications for clinical practice on the new regulations governing roentgen ray irradiation and radioprotection].

    PubMed

    Nestle, U; Berlich, J

    2006-08-01

    In 2001 or 2002, the legislator made substantial alterations to the "Röntgenverordnung" [regulations governing use of roentgen ray radiation] and "Strahlenschutzverordnung" [regulations governing radiation protection]. This was done to bring German law in line with EU Directives 96/29/Euratom (basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation) and 97/43/Euratom (health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionizing radiation in relation to medical exposure). Proper use of radiation in medicine requires that those involved in its application are aware of the biological effect of radiation. When staff and others are protected good organization and appropriate technology at the workplace can achieve a great deal. In the new directives, the radiation protection for the patient is quantified and the responsibility of the physician is clearly pointed out. The most important aim is uniform quality throughout Europe in radiological diagnosis and radiation protection. PMID:17180754

  6. A fuzzy logic enhanced environmental protection education model for policies decision support in green community development.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Sung-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes the promotion of environmental protection education among communities as a solution to the serious problems of high energy consumption and carbon emissions around the world. Environmental protection education has direct and lasting influences on everyone in society; therefore, it is helpful in our fight against many serious problems caused by high energy consumption. In this study, the Delphi method and the fuzzy logic theory are used to develop a quantitizing assessment model based on qualitative analysis. This model can be used to assess the results and influences of community residents' participation in environmental protection education on green community development. In addition, it can be used to provide references for governing authorities in their decision making of green community development policies. PMID:24363614

  7. A Fuzzy Logic Enhanced Environmental Protection Education Model for Policies Decision Support in Green Community Development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes the promotion of environmental protection education among communities as a solution to the serious problems of high energy consumption and carbon emissions around the world. Environmental protection education has direct and lasting influences on everyone in society; therefore, it is helpful in our fight against many serious problems caused by high energy consumption. In this study, the Delphi method and the fuzzy logic theory are used to develop a quantizing assessment model based on qualitative analysis. This model can be used to assess the results and influences of community residents' participation in environmental protection education on green community development. In addition, it can be used to provide references for governing authorities in their decision making of green community development policies. PMID:24363614

  8. Main principles of radiation protection and their applications in waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.

    1993-09-01

    The average exposure for an individual from such background in the United States is about 300 mrem per year with approximately 200 mrem of this coming from radon exposure alone. In addition to the natural sources of background radiation, a very small amount of the background radiation occurs due to the nuclear weapons test fallout. Manmade sources of radiation also include certain consumer products, industrial and research use of radioisotopes, medical X-rays, and radiopharmaceuticals. When all sources, natural and man-made, are taken into account, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has estimated that the average annual dose to individuals in the US population is 360 mrem (NCRP Report No. 93). In this report the fundamental principles of radiation protection are reviewed, as well as the relevant laws and regulations in the United States and discuss application of radiation protection in radioactive waste management.

  9. Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-wei

    2004-01-01

    Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most effect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

  10. Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei

    2004-01-01

    Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space exploration.

  11. Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei

    2004-01-01

    Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

  12. CIRRPC: Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination. Eighth annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Young, A.L.

    1992-12-01

    CIRRPC`s eighth year was marked by the completion of several CIRRPC projects, including: An independent study on the possible health effects of extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields; a report evaluating the uncertainties identified in a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report on the biological effects of ionizing radiation and their impact on the report`s application to Federal risk assessment; an analysis of the use of two reports on radiation risk assessment from NAS and the United Nations; and an update of Part 11 of ORAU`s radiation protection fact sheets, a compilation of major US radiation protection standards and guides. CIRRPC also sponsored a workshop on internal dosimetry and provided financial support to the 1991 Health Physics Society Summer School on the biological basis of radiation protection practice. The program highlights are briefly described in this report.

  13. Radiation Protection of the Child from Diagnostic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Leung, Rebecca S

    2015-01-01

    In recent years due to the technological advances in imaging techniques, which have undoubtedly improved diagnostic accuracy and resulted in improved patient care, the utilization of ionizing radiation in diagnostic imaging has significantly increased. Computed tomography is the major contributor to the radiation burden, but fluoroscopy continues to be a mainstay in paediatric radiology. The rise in the use of ionizing radiation is of particular concern with regard to the paediatric population, as they are up to 10 times more sensitive to the effects of radiation than adults, due to their increased tissue radiosensitivity, increased cumulative lifetime radiation dose and longer lifetime in which to manifest the effects. This article will review the estimated radiation risk to the child from diagnostic imaging and summarise the various methods through which both the paediatrician and radiologist can practice the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle, which underpins the safe practice of radiology. Emphasis is on the justification for an examination, i.e. weighing of benefits versus radiation risk, on the appropriate utilization of other, non-ionizing imaging modalities such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, and on optimisation of a clinically indicated examination. It is essential that the paediatrician and radiologist work together in this decision making process for the mutual benefit of the patient. The appropriate practical application of ALARA in the workplace is crucial to the radiation safety of our paediatric patients. PMID:26219738

  14. The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of does to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers.

  15. The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1993-04-01

    This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of does to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers.

  16. Forging Planetary Protection Requirements for the Next Decade: Policies and Discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, J. D.

    2004-12-01

    Preventing the biological contamination of sensitive areas on other bodies of the solar system while protecting the Earth from the potential hazard of returned samples from locations that might support an indigenous biota are both of critical importance to the future success of science and exploration missions. In 2002, the ICSU Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) published an international consensus planetary protection policy that outlines requirements to achieve these goals, driven by a desire to preserve science opportunities and by simple prudence. Translating such a policy into requirements at both the mission and subsystem level, however, requires a more intimate understanding of both the sources of contamination and the accessible habitats on other worlds than is now the case--and it may always be that way. As the array of prospective missions grows, new data from current missions and the reexamination of previous results will drive future planetary protection concerns and attendant requirements. A framework for assessing required contamination control measures for space missions must be developed to be robust to our emerging understanding of potential extraterrestrial habitats, while making full use of the increased understanding of biology that we see envision today--particularly those aspects of biology that could affect the survival of Earth microbes on other worlds. Likewise, the development of a greater understanding of biology and its potential can help guide requirements for testing a returned sample for possible biohazards. Current thinking on a strategy to provide such a framework will be provided in this discussion.

  17. Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

    1989-04-01

    AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation-protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A Practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

  18. Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

    1989-04-01

    AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

  19. Risk and protection: the discourse of confinement in contemporary mental health policy.

    PubMed

    Moon, G

    2000-09-01

    Confinement has regained respectability in the discourses of contemporary UK mental health policy. This development reflects concern about violent offences by people with mental health problems and is rooted in claims about the 'failure' of community care. Confinement is presented as a strategic response to the risks and dangers posed by particular fractions of the population of mental health service users. Using two key policy statements issued by the Department of Health and associated discussions in the health services management press, the confinement theme is explored and assessed. The paper notes its emergence as a consequence of the spatial impacts of deinstitutionalization and its specific origins in response to violent offences by people with mental health problems. The notion that the growing emphasis on confinement presages a return to the asylum is considered and rejected. Rather, the paper stresses the importance of discourses of protection, safety, risk and dangerousness in understanding the turn to confinement. PMID:10936778

  20. On the Retirement of E.P. Goldfinch, Founder of Radiation Protection Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Joseph C.; Horowitz, Yigal S.

    2004-08-01

    This special issue of Radiation Protection Dosimetry commemorates the many years of service Eddie has dedicated to the international radiation protection community. Beginning with its first issue in 1981, Eddie led RPD to its current prominence with a guiding hand and Solomon-like wisdom, coupled with keen common sense which will be sorely missed. But, there is no doubt that the journal he created will continue to flourish in the foreseeable future.

  1. Proposed Amendments to the Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, L.

    2006-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed amendments to its radiation protection standards for the potential spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste disposal system in Yucca Mountain, Nevada on 22 August 2005. The original standards are found in Part 197 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 197). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 directed, and gave the authority to, EPA to take this action based upon input from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). The final original standards were published in the Federal Register (66 FR 32073) on 13 June 2001. In July 2004, a Federal court remanded part of the standards to EPA for reconsideration. The 40 CFR Part 197 standards, as issued in 2001, have four major parts: (1) individual-protection during storage activities; (2) individual-protection following closure of the repository; (3) human-intrusion; and (4) ground-water protection. The storage standard is 150 micro-sieverts ({mu}Sv) (15 mrem) annual committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) to any member of the general public. The disposal standards are: (1) 150 {mu}Sv (15 mrem) annual CEDE for the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) for 10,000 years after disposal; (2)150 {mu}Sv (15 mrem) annual CEDE received by the RMEI within 10,000 years after disposal as a result of human intrusion; and (3) the levels of radionuclides in the ground water cannot cause annual individual doses to exceed: (1) 40 {mu}Sv (4 mrem) per year from beta and gamma emitters or (2) 5 pico-curies per liter (pCi/L) of radium-226 and -228 or 15 pCi/L of gross alpha activity. There were also requirements related to the post-10,000-year period, the basis of compliance judgments, and performance assessments. The Agency's proposed amendments would retain the individual-protection standard established in the 2001 standards, up to 10,000 years. In addition, the compliance period for the individual-protection and human-intrusion standards would be increased to 1 million years and the annual CEDE limit between 10,000 and 1 million years would be 3.5 mSv (350 mrem). There are also proposed requirements for the way performance assessments will be conducted. Finally, the dose calculation methodology would be updated to an ICRP 60 and 72 basis instead of ICRP 26 and 30. The comment period on the proposed amendments ended 21 November 2005. The Agency is analyzing the comments and will publish its responses when issuing the final standards. The proposed standards and the support documents are available at http://www.epa.gov/radiation/yucca/index.html. The docket containing all of the comments is under Docket ID EPA-HQ-OAR-2005-0083 at: http://www.regulations.gov. (author)

  2. Relevant aspects of radiation protection in oil and gas well logging.

    PubMed

    Gomes, R S; Lopes Gomes, J D R; Costa, M L L; Miranda, M V F E S

    2013-12-01

    Radiation sources have being widely used in industrial applications, but their inappropriate use presents a large potential for hazards to human health and the environment. These hazards can be minimised by development of specific radiation protection rules and adequate procedures for the handling, use and storage of radiation sources, which should be established in a national normative framework. Recently, due to discovery of new oil and gas reservoirs on the Brazilian continental shelf, especially in deep water and the pre-salt layer, there has been a large and rapid increase in the use of radiation sources for well logging. Generic radiation protection regulations have been used for licensing the use of radiation sources for well logging, but these are not comprehensive or technically suitable for this purpose. Therefore it is necessary to establish specific Brazilian safety regulations for this purpose. In this work, an assessment is presented of the relevant radiation protection aspects of nuclear well logging not covered by generic regulations, with the aim of contributing to the future development of specific safety regulations for the licensing of radioactive facilities for oil and gas well logging in Brazil. The conclusions of this work relate to four areas, which include the specific requirements to control (1) radiation sources, (2) radiation survey meters and (3) access to radiation workplaces and (4) to control and identify the workers who are occupationally exposed. PMID:24080901

  3. Nuclear Fragmentation Processes Relevant for Human Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for human space explorations such-as a moon base or a trip to Mars. Models have been developed in order to predict the radiation exposure to astronauts and to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials, and a key ingredient in these models is the physics of nuclear fragmentations. We have developed a semi-analytical method to determine which partial cross sections of nuclear fragmentations most affect the radiation dose behind shielding materials due to exposure to galactic cosmic rays. The cross sections thus determined will require more theoretical and/or experimental studies in order for us to better predict, reduce and mitigate the radiation exposure in human space explorations.

  4. Radiation protection aspects of the operation in a cyclotron facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, P. P. N.; Carneiro, J. C. G. G.

    2014-02-01

    The activated accelerator cyclotron components and the radioisotope production may impact on the personnel radiation exposure of the workers during the routine maintenance and emergency repair procedures and any modification of the equipment. Since the adherence of the principle of ALARA (as low as reasonable achievable) constitutes a major objective of the cyclotron management, it has become imperative to investigate the radiation levels at the workplace and the probable health effects to the worker caused by radiation exposure. The data analysis in this study was based on the individual monitoring records during the period from 2007 to 2011. Monitoring of the workplace was also performed using gamma and neutron detectors to determine the dose rate in various predetermined spots. The results of occupational radiation exposures were analysed and compared with the values established in national standards and international recommendations. Important guidelines have been developed to reduce the individual dose.

  5. ULTRAVIOLET PROTECTIVE COMPOUNDS AS A RESPONSE TO ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life on Earth has evolved adaptations to many environmental stresses over the epochs. One consistent stress has been exposure to ultraviolet radiation. In response to UVR organisms have adapted myriad responses; behavioral, morphological and physiological. Behaviorally, some orga...

  6. Prevent Eye Damage: Protect Yourself from UV Radiation

    MedlinePlus

    ... radiation from daily activities, including reflections off of snow, pavement, and other surfaces, can burn the front ... of the eyes lens that can blur vision. Snow Blindness (Photokeratitis): A temporary but painful burn to ...

  7. Training of interventional cardiologists in radiation protection--the IAEA's initiatives.

    PubMed

    Rehani, Madan M

    2007-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has initiated a major international initiative to train interventional cardiologists in radiation protection as a part of its International Action Plan on the radiological protection of patients. A simple programme of two days' training has been developed, covering possible and observed radiation effects among patients and staff, international standards, dose management techniques, examples of good and bad practice and examples indicating prevention of possible injuries as a result of good practice of radiation protection. The training material is freely available on CD from the IAEA. The IAEA has conducted two events in 2004 and 2005 and number of events are planned in 2006. The survey conducted among the cardiologists participating in these programmes indicates that over 80% of them were attending such a structured programme on radiation protection for the first time. As the magnitude of X-ray usage in cardiology grows to match that in interventional radiology, the standards of training on radiation effects, radiation physics and radiation protection in interventional cardiology should also match those in interventional radiology. PMID:16624432

  8. The Road To Radiation Protection: A Rocky Path

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Preeti; Khare, Amit; Singh, Vandana; Chatterjee, Rhiti

    2014-01-01

    Radiation has intrigued us with its magnificent properties of imaging and healing. But this discovery, like many others, came with a heavy price. The pioneers of this form of energy themselves often succumbed to its devastating effects and hence, paved a way for future generations to be wary of it, while continuing to use it. This paper attempts to salute those masters who have helped make the radiation world a safer place to live and work in. PMID:25654052

  9. The Food Marketing Defense Model: Integrating Psychological Research to Protect Youth and Inform Public Policy

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Brownell, Kelly D.; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Marketing practices that promote calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods directly to children and adolescents present significant public health risk. Worldwide, calls for government action and industry change to protect young people from the negative effects of food marketing have increased. Current proposals focus on restricting television advertising to children under 12 years old, but current psychological models suggest that much more is required. All forms of marketing pose considerable risk; adolescents are also highly vulnerable; and food marketing may produce far-reaching negative health outcomes. We propose a food marketing defense model that posits four necessary conditions to effectively counter harmful food marketing practices: awareness, understanding, ability and motivation to resist. A new generation of psychological research is needed to examine each of these processes, including the psychological mechanisms through which food marketing affects young people, to identify public policy that will effectively protect them from harmful influence. PMID:20182647

  10. [The nursing scientific production and the protective policies for the adolescent].

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Aurea Christina de Paula; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho

    2005-01-01

    This article was elaborated from the dissertation of when we carry through an analysis of thesis of doctorate in nursing, and has as objective to present the boarding of the politics of protection to the adolescence carried through for the authors of these thesis, aiming to contribute for the reflection of nursing professionals on the importance of the knowledge of these policies in their care practice. After a bibliographical survey in the Center of Studies and Research in Nursing it was identified 12 thesis that had constituted our sample and through the thematic analysis we evidence that, in general way, although some authors cite the legislation of assistance and protection to the health of the adolescents they do not carry through reflections that contribute for adequacy of the assistance given to the group for nursing professionals. PMID:16514953

  11. Process for producing radiation-induced self-terminating protective coatings on a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2001-01-01

    A gas and radiation are used to produce a protective coating that is substantially void-free on the molecular scale, self-terminating, and degradation resistant. The process can be used to deposit very thin (.apprxeq.5-20 .ANG.) coatings on critical surfaces needing protection from degradative processes including, corrosion and contamination.

  12. Plant Phenolics as Radiation Protectants For The Beet Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen phenolics were tested as ultraviolet (UV) protectants for the nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner). After 30 minute exposure to UVB/UVB radiation, eleven SeMNPV/phenolic combinations provided good to excellent UV protection when used at a concentra...

  13. 75 FR 59160 - Radiation Protection Regulations and Guidance; Public Meetings and Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ...The NRC is conducting a series of public meetings, in the format of facilitated roundtable workshops, to solicit early public input on major issues associated with potential updates to NRC's radiation protection regulations and guidance in light of recommendations presented in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 (2007). To aid in that process, the NRC......

  14. 42 CFR 37.45 - Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment. 37.45 Section 37.45 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment. Except as otherwise specified in § 37.41 and §...

  15. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 27.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 29.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  19. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 27.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  1. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 27.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 29.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 29.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 27.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 29.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 29.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  9. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 27.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  10. Radiation protection by a new chemical entity, Ex-Rad: efficacy and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sanchita P; Perkins, Michael W; Hieber, Kevin; Kulkarni, Shilpa; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Reddy, E Premkumar; Reddy, M V Ramana; Maniar, Manoj; Seed, Thomas; Kumar, K Sree

    2009-02-01

    Ex-Rad is among a series of small molecule kinase inhibitors developed for modifying cell cycle distribution patterns in cancer cells subjected to radiation therapy, and it has been identified as a potential candidate for radiation protection studies. We have investigated its radioprotective efficacy using mouse and in vitro models. Thirty-day survival studies with C3H/HeN male mice revealed 88% survival when 500 mg/kg of Ex-Rad was injected subcutaneously 24 h and 15 min before gamma irradiation with 8.0 Gy. To understand Ex-Rad's mechanism of action, we also studied its radioprotective efficacy in lung fibroblast (HFL-1), skin fibroblast (AG1522) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Colony-forming assays indicated that Ex-Rad protected cells from radiation damage after exposure to (60)Co gamma radiation. A study using single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE; also known as the alkaline comet assay) showed that Ex-Rad protected cells from radiation-induced DNA damage. Western blot analyses indicated that the radiation protection provided by Ex-Rad resulted in reduced levels of pro-apoptosis proteins such as p53 as well as its downstream regulators p21, Bax, c-Abl and p73, indicating that Ex-Rad could rescue cells from ionizing radiation-induced p53-dependent apoptosis. In conclusion, it appears that Ex-Rad's radioprotective mechanisms involve prevention of p53-dependent and independent radiation-induced apoptosis. PMID:19267542

  11. PROTECTIVE MECHANISMS AND ACCLIMATION TO SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET-B RADIATION IN 'OENOTHERA STRICTA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mechanisms of plant protection and acclimation to potentially damaging solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation incident on the Earth's surface were examined in Oenothera stricta. Attenuation of this radiation in the upper leaf epidermis reduces the penetration of UV-B ra...

  12. The Relationship between Sun Protection Policy and Associated Practices in a National Sample of Early Childhood Services in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettridge, Kerry A.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Rayner, Joanne M.; Wilson, Carlene J.

    2011-01-01

    Limiting exposure to sunlight during childhood can significantly reduce the risk of skin cancer. This was the first national study to assess the sun protection policies and practices of early childhood services across Australia. It also examined the key predictors of services' sun protection practices. In 2007, 1017 respondents completed a…

  13. The Relationship between Sun Protection Policy and Associated Practices in a National Sample of Early Childhood Services in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettridge, Kerry A.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Rayner, Joanne M.; Wilson, Carlene J.

    2011-01-01

    Limiting exposure to sunlight during childhood can significantly reduce the risk of skin cancer. This was the first national study to assess the sun protection policies and practices of early childhood services across Australia. It also examined the key predictors of services' sun protection practices. In 2007, 1017 respondents completed a

  14. Basic radiation protection training for nurses and paramedical personnel: Belgian experience and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Clarijs, T; Coeck, M; Van Bladel, Lodewijk; Fremout, An

    2015-07-01

    When using ionising radiation for medical diagnosis or treatment of patients, understanding of relevant radiation protection principles and issues is indispensable. In Belgium, nurses and paramedical staff are required to acquire knowledge for protecting the patient against the detrimental effects of ionising radiation by means of a vocational training course. The experience with and challenges for this training course are presented here from a lecturer's point of view, together with a proposal for a future approach that harmonises the training content, its level and quality, according to European recommended standards. PMID:25821209

  15. Contribution of Compton Scattering in Problems Associated with Measuring the Surface Density of Radiation Protection Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapranov, B. I.; Mudrov, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyses the ratio between the number of Compton-scattered quanta excited in elements of radiation protection coatings by isotope Am-241 and the number of fluorescence quanta excited in in the same elements, taking into account the fluorescence yield coefficient and the distance between the energy of primary radiation quanta (60 keV) and the energy of absorption K-edge. The paper shows that the number of scattered quanta exceeds the number of fluorescent quanta from K-level in all elements. The obtained values define the ratio of scattered and fluorescent quanta in any radiation protection coatings with a known chemical composition.

  16. Oceanic protection of prebiotic organic compounds from UV radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleaves, H. J.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    It is frequently stated that UV light would cause massive destruction of prebiotic organic compounds because of the absence of an ozone layer. The elevated UV flux of the early sun compounds this problem. This applies to organic compounds of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin. Attempts to deal with this problem generally involve atmospheric absorbers. We show here that prebiotic organic polymers as well as several inorganic compounds are sufficient to protect oceanic organic molecules from UV degradation. This aqueous protection is in addition to any atmospheric UV absorbers and should be a ubiquitous planetary phenomenon serving to increase the size of planetary habitable zones.

  17. United States nuclear industry perspective on useful improvements to radiation protection principles.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ralph L

    2004-09-01

    The current radiation protection framework provides an adequate basis for protecting workers, the public and the environment. Nevertheless, international and national radiation protection organizations are presently engaged in updating, clarifying and enhancing radiation protection principles-and rightly so, given our culture of pursuing excellence in radiation safety through a process of continuous improvement. Accordingly, the nuclear energy industry appreciates the opportunity to provide its perspective on this effort. The nuclear energy industry's perspective is shaped in several ways-as an operator, we carry out a primary responsibility for protecting human health and safety and the environment; as a licensee, we are responsible for complying with government regulations; and as an energy producer, we are responsible for the safe, reliable, and economic generation of electricity for consumers. Our objective in regard to improving radiation protection principles is to help promote an outcome that has a clearly articulated basis in science, is flexible in regard to how it might be applied to a very wide range of current and future regulated activities, and is practical and cost-effective in terms of how it can be implemented and maintained. PMID:15303064

  18. Modernisation and consolidation of the European radiation protection legislation: the new Euratom Basic Safety Standards Directive.

    PubMed

    Mundigl, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    With the publication of new basic safety standards for the protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation, foreseen in Article 2 and Article 30 of the Euratom Treaty, the European Commission modernises and consolidates the European radiation protection legislation. A revision of the Basic Safety Standards was needed in order (1) to take account of the scientific and technological progress since 1996 and (2) to consolidate the existing set of Euratom radiation protection legislation, merging five Directives and upgrading a recommendation to become legally binding. The new Directive offers in a single coherent document basics safety standards for radiation protection, which take account of the most recent advances in science and technology, cover all relevant radiation sources, including natural radiation sources, integrate protection of workers, members of the public, patients and the environment, cover all exposure situations, planned, existing, emergency, and harmonise numerical values with international standards. After the publication of the Directive in the beginning of 2014, Member States have 4 y to transpose the Directive into national legislation and to implement the requirements therein. PMID:25227437

  19. Protecting policy space for public health nutrition in an era of international investment agreements

    PubMed Central

    McGrady, Benn

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Philip Morris has recently brought claims against Australia (2011) and Uruguay (2010) under international investment agreements (IIAs). The claims allege that Philip Morris is entitled to compensation following the introduction of innovative tobacco packaging regulations to reduce smoking and prevent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Since tobacco control measures are often viewed as a model for public health nutrition measures, the claims raise the question of how investment law governs the latter. This paper begins to answer this question and to explain how governments can proactively protect policy space for public health nutrition in an era of expanding IIAs. The authors first consider the main interventions proposed to reduce diet-related NCDs and their intersection with investment in the food supply chain. They then review the nature of investment regimes and relevant case law and examine ways to maximize policy space for public health nutrition intervention within this legal context. As foreign investment increases across the food-chain and more global recommendations discouraging the consumption of unhealthful products are issued, investment law will increase in importance as part of the legal architecture governing the food supply. The implications of investment law for public health nutrition measures depend on various factors: the measures themselves, the terms of the applicable agreements, the conditions surrounding the foreign investment and the policies governing agricultural support. This analysis suggests that governments should adopt proactive measures – e.g. the clarification of terms and reliance on exceptions – to manage investment and protect their regulatory autonomy with respect to public health nutrition. PMID:24623907

  20. The Knowledge of Radiation and the Attitude Towards Radio-Protection among Urology Residents in India

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to radiation is a hazard and precautions are necessary to limit it. This study was done to assess the knowledge of radiation and the attitude towards radio-protection among urology residents in India. Materials and Methods A questionnaire was administered to assess the knowledge and attitude of urology residents who came from all over the country to attend a clinical meeting at Apollo Gleneagles Hospital, Kolkata, India. Results All the respondents agreed to being exposed to radiation, with 78.2% using radiation in more than five cases a week. Only 65.2% always took some steps for radio-protection. Lead aprons and thyroid shields were the most common radiation protection devices used. None of the residents ever used lead gloves or protective eye glasses or dosimeters. An 82.6% felt that they did not have adequate knowledge, 85.4% of residents did not receive any formal classes regarding the risk of radiation, 21.7% either rarely or never moved out of the operating room when the radiation was being used, 42.4% did not know that the SI unit of the equivalent absorbed dose of radiation & 52.1% did not know about the amount of radiation delivered to an adult during a contrast enhanced CT scan of the abdomen. Conclusion Results of the present study reveal that the urology residents of India lack knowledge about the risks of radiation exposure. Majority of them did not take necessary precautions to limit their exposure to radiation. PMID:26816919

  1. Radiation protection issues related to Canadian museum operations.

    PubMed

    Waller, Edward J; Cole, David; Jamieson, Terry

    2008-02-01

    Museums in Canada have been found to possess radioactive items. The origin of the radiation can be broadly categorized as either natural (generally, radioactive ores) or anthropogenic (generally, luminous gauges). Radioluminescent gauges, especially bearing radium (226Ra), can also generate significant radiation fields. This is especially true if many gauges are located in close proximity. In addition, the radon may out-gas from these gauges, and generate a loose contamination problem in enclosed spaces (such as display cases). Radioactive ores, bearing naturally occurring uranium and thorium, can generate radiation fields many times greater than the ambient background levels. In addition, they will increase the ambient radon level and potentially generate loose contamination. In this paper, we discuss the specific results of radiological decommissioning at three museums: the National Air Force Museum of Canada (Trenton, Ontario); the Quebec Air and Space Museum (Montreal, PQ); and the Canadian Museum of Nature (Aylmer, PQ). In addition, a radiological survey performed at Canadian Forces Detachment Mountain View (Mountain View, Ontario) of surplus aircraft is included. The primary conclusion is that museums holding radioactive materials may have detectable levels of loose Ra and progeny contamination. They, therefore, have a requirement to be surveyed for loose contamination periodically with the potential for periodic decontamination caused by radon out-gassing. In addition, public access to displays bearing radioactive material should generally be restricted, and comprehensive radiation safety and security programs at museum facilities should be developed and enacted. PMID:18192793

  2. Experimental Determination of Ultraviolet Radiation Protection of Common Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavares, Susana C. A.; da Silva, Joaquim C. G. Esteves; Paiva, Joao

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at a better understanding of the problems associated with the depletion of the ozone layer, we propose several experiments to be performed by students of different levels: secondary and first-year undergraduate students. The oxidation of iodide induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, generated by a mercury lamp, is used as an indicator for

  3. Experimental Determination of Ultraviolet Radiation Protection of Common Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavares, Susana C. A.; da Silva, Joaquim C. G. Esteves; Paiva, Joao

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at a better understanding of the problems associated with the depletion of the ozone layer, we propose several experiments to be performed by students of different levels: secondary and first-year undergraduate students. The oxidation of iodide induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, generated by a mercury lamp, is used as an indicator for…

  4. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Rongelap Atoll (2002-2004)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Arelong, E; Langinbelik, S

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Rongelap Atoll (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance programs are helping meet the informational needs of the U.S. DOE and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Our updated environmental assessments provide a strong scientific basis for predicting future change in exposure conditions especially in relation to changes in lifestyle, diet and/or land-use patterns. This information has important implications in addressing questions about existing (and future) radiological conditions on the islands, in determining as well as the implementation, cost and effectiveness of potential intervention options, and in general policy support considerations. Perhaps most importantly, the recently established individual radiological surveillance programs provide affected atoll communities with an unprecedented level of radiation protection monitoring where, for the first time, local resources are being made available to monitor resettled and resettling populations on a continuous basis. As a hard copy supplement to Marshall Islands Program website (http://eed.llnl.gov/mi/), this document provides an overview of the individual radiation protection monitoring program established for resettlement workers living on Rongelap Island along with a full disclosure of all verified measurement data (2002-2004). Readers are advised that an additional feature of the associated web site is a provision where users are able calculate and track doses delivered to volunteers (de-identified information only) participating the Marshall Islands Radiological Surveillance Program.

  5. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Atoll (2002-2004)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Johannes, K; Henry, D

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Enewetak Island (Figure 1) (Bell et al., 2002). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance programs are helping meet the informational needs of the U.S. DOE and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Our updated environmental assessments provide a strong scientific basis for predicting future change in exposure conditions especially in relation to changes in lifestyle, diet and/or land-use patterns. This information has important implications in addressing questions about existing (and future) radiological conditions on the islands, in determining the cost and estimating the effectiveness of potential remedial measures, and in general policy support considerations. Perhaps most importantly, the recently established individual radiological surveillance programs provide affected atoll communities with an unprecedented level of radiation protection monitoring where, for the first time, local resources are being made available to monitor resettled and resettling populations on a continuous basis. As a hard copy supplement to Marshall Islands Program website (http://eed.llnl.gov/mi/), this document provides an overview of the individual radiation protection monitoring program established for the Enewetak Atoll population group along with a full disclosure of all verified measurement data (2002-2004). Readers are advised that an additional feature of the associated web site is a provision where users are able calculate and track doses delivered to volunteers (de-identified information only) participating in the Marshall Islands Radiological Surveillance Program.

  6. Modern Methods of Real-Time Gamma Radiation Monitoring for General Personal Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

    Real-time radiation detectors become an essential part of emergency personnel who may have to respond to unknown accidents, incidents or terrorist attacks, which could involve radioactive material. More and more ordinary citizens are interested in personal radiation protection as well. Reasons include lost sources, nuclear industrial accidents, nuclear or radiological terrorism and the possibility of nuclear weapons being used in a war. People want to have the ability to measure it for themselves and they want to be notified when the radiation levels are increased. To meet this demand, considerable research into new sensors is underway, including efforts to enhance the sensor performance through both the material properties and manufacturing technologies. Deep understanding of physical properties of the materials under the influence of radiation exposure is vital for the effective design of dosimeter devices. Detection of radiation is based on the fact that both the electrical and the optical properties of the materials undergo changes upon the exposure to ionizing radiation. It is believed that radiation causes structural defects. The influence of radiation depends on both the dose and the parameters of the films including their thickness: the degradation is more severe for the higher dose and the thinner films. This paper presents overview of modern methods of real-time gamma radiation monitoring for personal protection of radiation workers and general public and suggests further developments in this area.

  7. SIScaR-GPU: fast simulation and visualization of intraoperative scattered radiation to support radiation protection training.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Markus; Dresing, Klaus; Ludwig, Wolfram; Ahrens, Christoph Alexander; Bott, Oliver J

    2012-01-01

    Scattered radiation caused by the intraoperative use of mobile image intensifier systems (referred to as "C-arms") is the main source of radiation exposure for operating room personnel and surgeons. To keep this possibly harmful exposure at a minimum level, a deliberate use of radiation, knowledge about distribution of scattered radiation and appropriate behavior pattern are indispensable. Therefore in several countries knowledge concerning these aspects is taught in mandatory courses on radiation protection. Currently this teaching is typically based on non-interactive didactical methods (texts, pictures and videos). Because of the complexity of the knowledge field this restriction might lead to an insufficient understanding of the facts, an inappropriate behavior and therefore to an avoidable radiation exposure. This paper presents a new software module, which is able to simulate and visualize intraoperative radiation distribution and the resulting dose values for the attending persons within a few seconds (less than 30s). The developed components, which simulate the radiation transport using a graphics processing unit three times faster than comparable approaches, were integrated exemplarily in the computer based C-arm training system virtX. This extended training system improves the teaching through a prompt visual feedback on non-trivial scattered radiation facts in freely adoptable situations. PMID:22874337

  8. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Utrok Atoll (2003-2004)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Tibon, S; Chee, L

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance programs are helping meet the informational needs of the U.S. DOE and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Our updated environmental assessments provide a strong scientific basis for predicting future change in exposure conditions especially in relation to changes in life-style, diet and/or land-use patterns. This information has important implications in addressing questions about existing (and future) radiological conditions on the islands, in determining the cost and the effectiveness of potential remedial measures, and in general policy support considerations. Perhaps most importantly, the recently established individual radiological surveillance programs provide affected atoll communities with an unprecedented level of radiation protection monitoring where, for the first time, local resources are being made available to monitor resettled and resettling populations on a continuous basis. As a hard copy supplement to Marshall Islands Program website (http://eed.llnl.gov/mi/), this document provides an overview of the individual radiation surveillance monitoring program established for the Utrok Atoll population group along with a full disclosure of all verified measurement data (2003-2004). The Utrok whole body counting facility has been temporarily stationed on Majuro Atoll and, in cooperation with the Utrok Atoll Local Government, serves as a national facility open to the general public. Readers are advised that an additional feature of the associated website is a provision whereby users are able to calculate and track radiation doses delivered to volunteers (de-identified information only) participating in the Marshall Islands Radiological Surveillance Program.

  9. Linear attenuation coefficient and build up factor of MCP-96 alloy for radiation shielding and protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Deidre; Maqbool, Muhammad; Islam, Mohammed

    2009-10-01

    Build-up factors and linear attenuation coefficients of MCP-96 alloy are determined for radiation shielding and protection, using ^60Co and ^137Cs gamma emitters. A narrow collimated beam of γ-rays is passed through various thicknesses of MCP-96 alloy and the attenuation in the intensity of the beam is determined. The thickness of the 4 x 4 cm^2 blocks varies from 0.5 cm to 6 cm. Plotting the thickness of the alloy and the corresponding intensity of the beam allowed us to determine its linear attenuation coefficient. The narrow beam geometry is then replaced by broad beam geometry by removing the collimator and the radiation beam is able to interact with the MCP-96 alloy at all possible positions facing the radiation source. Additional radiations obtained by the detector as a result from the scattering of radiation develops the build-up factor. The buildup factor is then calculated using the attenuated beam received by the detector in the broad beam geometry and in the narrow beam geometry. The buildup factor is found to be dependent on the thickness of the MCP-96 attenuator, the beam energy and the source to attenuator distance. These values are providing ways for dose correction in radiation oncology and radiation shielding and protection when MCP-96 is used as tissue compensator or for radiation protection purposes.

  10. Protection of humans against malaria by immunization with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Stephen L; Goh, Lucy M L; Luke, Thomas C; Schneider, Imogene; Le, Thong P; Doolan, Denise L; Sacci, John; de la Vega, Patricia; Dowler, Megan; Paul, Chris; Gordon, Daniel M; Stoute, Jose A; Church, L W Preston; Sedegah, Martha; Heppner, D Gray; Ballou, W Ripley; Richie, Thomas L

    2002-04-15

    During 1989-1999, 11 volunteers were immunized by the bites of 1001-2927 irradiated mosquitoes harboring infectious sporozoites of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) strain NF54 or clone 3D7/NF54. Ten volunteers were first challenged by the bites of Pf-infected mosquitoes 2-9 weeks after the last immunization, and all were protected. A volunteer challenged 10 weeks after the last immunization was not protected. Five previously protected volunteers were rechallenged 23-42 weeks after a secondary immunization, and 4 were protected. Two volunteers were protected when rechallenged with a heterologous Pf strain (7G8). In total, there was protection in 24 of 26 challenges. These results expand published findings demonstrating that immunization by exposure to thousands of mosquitoes carrying radiation-attenuated Pf sporozoites is safe and well tolerated and elicits strain-transcendent protective immunity that persists for at least 42 weeks. PMID:11930326

  11. Radiation protection design considerations for man in geosynchronous orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossi, M. L.; Stauber, M. C.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of preliminary studies which have been carried out to identify design requirements and mission constraints imposed by the geosynchronous radiation environment. The radiation species of dominant impact are the trapped electrons and solar flare particles. The criterion used in the conducted shielding design analysis has been to limit the skin dose to 100 rems for 3 months. The analysis included the optimization of an electron/bremsstrahlung shield for residence within the vehicle, the minimization of the dose received in extravehicular activity, and the calculation of special shield requirements for solar flares. An investigation was conducted of the potential benefits accruing from a three-layered composite shield with part of the aluminum layer replaced with a lower atomic number material. The materials considered were polyethylene, carbon, beryllium, and lithium hydride.

  12. [Experimental study of radiation protective efficacy of Vinca alkaloid drugs].

    PubMed

    Krasil'nikov, I I; Zhakovko, E B; Chigareva, N G

    1994-01-01

    In experiments with rats and dogs exposed to whole-body nonlethal and lethal gamma-radiation (2; 2,9 or 7.5 Gy) the radioprotective efficacy Vinca alkaloids drugs was investigated. It has been shown that enterally administered Vincanor (10 mg/kg over a three-day period) increased the radioresistance of animals. The prolonged radioprotective effect of Vincanor are discussed with regard to the phenomenon of sequential partial DNA synthesis inhibition in radiosensitive tissues. PMID:8069381

  13. Radiation protection considerations for endocavitary X ray units

    SciTech Connect

    Purdy, J.A.; Prasad, S.C.; Walz, B.J.; Cotter, G.W.

    1985-12-01

    Application of a contact X ray therapy unit for endocavitary irradiation of selected rectal carcinomas is gaining acceptance as a treatment of choice. The patient is placed on a proctoscopic table in the surgical suite and the anus is anesthetized and dilated to allow insertion of a 3 cm diameter proctoscope designed to admit the X ray tube. The measured half-value layer for 50 kVp X rays filtered by 1.0 mm of aluminum was determined to be 0.65 mm of aluminium. The dose rate at the end of the 4.0 cm source-skin-distance (SSD) cone was measured to be on the order of 1000 rad/minute. Radiation surveys performed for several treatment geometries indicate that exposure rate levels in the environs immediately around the patient can be quite high. Radiation measurements were made for the following locations: where the radiotherapist stands holding the X ray tube; at the side of the patient where the technologist or any supporting personnel might stand; and at the patient's posterior surface in the direction where the anesthesiologist might stand. Radiation levels ranged from 0.001 to 1.0 roentgen (R) per hour and depend primarily on the depth and angle of the X ray tube inserted into the rectum.

  14. Protecting Children from Exposure to Lead: Old Problem, New Data, and New Policy Needs. Social Policy Report. Volume 24, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Claire; Winsler, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The detrimental effects of lead exposure in children have been known for over 100 years. Although a few initial measures implemented about 30 years ago were effective in somewhat reducing levels of lead exposure in children, relatively little has been done recently from a policy perspective to protect children from lead. We now know from recent…

  15. Protective mechanisms and acclimation to solar ultraviolet-B radiation in Oenothera stricta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robberecht, R.; Caldwell, M. M.

    1981-01-01

    Plant adaptations ameliorating or repairing the damaging effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on plant tissue were investigated. The degree of phenotype plasticity in UV protective mechanisms and acclimation in relation to the natural solar UV-B radiation flux and in an enhanced UV-B irradiance environment was also examined. Mechanisms by which plants avoid radiation, adaptations altering the path of radiation incident on the leaf, and repair processes were considered. Attenuation of UV-B by tissues, UV-B irradiation into the leaf, and the effects of UV-B on photosynthesis were investigated.

  16. A Hypothesis on Biological Protection from Space Radiation Through the Use of Therapeutic Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation proposes a hypothesis to use therapeutic gases in space to enhance the biological protection for astronauts from space radiation. The fundamental role in how radiation causes biological damage appears to be radiolysis, the dissociation of water by radiation. A chain of events appears to cause molecular and biological transformations that ultimately manifest into medical diseases. The hypothesis of this work is that applying medical gases may increase resistance to radiation, by possessing the chemical properties that effectively improve the radical scavenging and enhance bond repair and to induce biological processes which enhance and support natural resistance and repair mechanisms.

  17. Strategies for engaging with future radiation protection professionals: a public outreach case study.

    PubMed

    Cole, P; Gornall, B T; Wood, M D; Whitcher, R; Bannon, A; Bloomer, S; Fear, J; Hale, H; Humphries, J; Hunak, S; Jones, C; Matthewman, C; Matthews, A; Slater, S; Stephens, C; Stewart, J

    2015-12-01

    It is evident that there is a nuclear skills shortage within the UK, and logically it can be assumed that the shortfall extends to the radiation protection arena. Plans for nuclear new-build and the decommissioning of existing nuclear sites will require many more people with radiological knowledge and practical competencies. This converts to a nuclear industry requirement in the order of 1000 new recruits per year over at least the next ten years, mainly as new apprentices and graduates. At the same time, the strong demand for persons with radiation protection know-how in the non-nuclear and health care sectors is unlikely to diminish. The task of filling this skills gap is a significant one and it will require a determined effort from many UK stakeholders. The Society for Radiological Protection (SRP) has adopted a strategy in recent years to help address this skills gap. The aim is to engage the interest of secondary school students in the science of radiation and inspire them to follow a career in radiation protection. This paper presents the reasoning behind this strategy and, in an 'outreach case study', describes the establishment of the annual SRP Schools Event. This event is becoming an important addition to the national efforts aimed at increasing the numbers of skilled UK radiation protection professionals over the forthcoming decades. PMID:26444019

  18. Anti-apoptotic peptides protect against radiation-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Kevin W; Muenzer, Jared T; Chang, Kathy C; Davis, Chris G; McDunn, Jonathan E; Coopersmith, Craig M; Hilliard, Carolyn A; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Grigsby, Perry W; Hunt, Clayton R

    2007-04-01

    The risk of terrorist attacks utilizing either nuclear or radiological weapons has raised concerns about the current lack of effective radioprotectants. Here it is demonstrated that the BH4 peptide domain of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL can be delivered to cells by covalent attachment to the TAT peptide transduction domain (TAT-BH4) and provide protection in vitro and in vivo from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Isolated human lymphocytes treated with TAT-BH4 were protected against apoptosis following exposure to 15Gy radiation. In mice exposed to 5Gy radiation, TAT-BH4 treatment protected splenocytes and thymocytes from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Most importantly, in vivo radiation protection was observed in mice whether TAT-BH4 treatment was given prior to or after irradiation. Thus, by targeting steps within the apoptosis signaling pathway it is possible to develop post-exposure treatments to protect radio-sensitive tissues. PMID:17307150

  19. Repeated Nrf2 stimulation using sulforaphane protects fibroblasts from ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Sherin T.; Bergström, Petra; Hammarsten, Ola

    2014-05-01

    Most of the cytotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation is mediated by radical-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Cellular protection from free radicals can be stimulated several fold by sulforaphane-mediated activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 that regulates more than 50 genes involved in the detoxification of reactive substances and radicals. Here, we report that repeated sulforaphane treatment increases radioresistance in primary human skin fibroblasts. Cells were either treated with sulforaphane for four hours once or with four-hour treatments repeatedly for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. Fibroblasts exposed to repeated-sulforaphane treatment showed a more pronounced dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated mRNA and reduced amount of radiation-induced free radicals compared with cells treated once with sulforaphane. In addition, radiation- induced DNA double-strand breaks measured by gamma-H2AX foci were attenuated following repeated sulforaphane treatment. As a result, cellular protection from ionizing radiation measured by the 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay was increased, specifically in cells exposed to repeated sulforaphane treatment. Sulforaphane treatment was unable to protect Nrf2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, indicating that the sulforaphane-induced radioprotection was Nrf2-dependent. Moreover, radioprotection by repeated sulforaphane treatment was dose-dependent with an optimal effect at 10 uM, whereas both lower and higher concentrations resulted in lower levels of radioprotection. Our data indicate that the Nrf2 system can be trained to provide further protection from radical damage. - Highlights: • Repeated treatment with sulforaphane protects fibroblasts from ionizing radiation • Repeated sulforaphane treatment attenuates radiation induced ROS and DNA damage • Sulforaphane mediated protection is Nrf2 dependent.

  20. CDDO-Me Protects Normal Lung and Breast Epithelial Cells but Not Cancer Cells from Radiation

    PubMed Central

    El-Ashmawy, Mariam; Delgado, Oliver; Cardentey, Agnelio; Wright, Woodring E.; Shay, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    Although radiation therapy is commonly used for treatment for many human diseases including cancer, ionizing radiation produces reactive oxygen species that can damage both cancer and healthy cells. Synthetic triterpenoids, including CDDO-Me, act as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant modulators primarily by inducing the transcription factor Nrf2 to activate downstream genes containing antioxidant response elements (AREs). In the present series of experiments, we determined if CDDO-Me can be used as a radioprotector in normal non-cancerous human lung and breast epithelial cells, in comparison to lung and breast cancer cell lines. A panel of normal non-cancerous, partially cancer progressed, and cancer cell lines from both lung and breast tissue was exposed to gamma radiation with and without pre-treatment with CDDO-Me. CDDO-Me was an effective radioprotector when given ∼18 hours before radiation in epithelial cells (average dose modifying factor (DMF) = 1.3), and Nrf2 function was necessary for CDDO-Me to exert these radioprotective effects. CDDO-Me did not protect cancer lines tested from radiation-induced cytotoxicity, nor did it protect experimentally transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) with progressive oncogenic manipulations. CDDO-Me also protected human lymphocytes against radiation-induced DNA damage. A therapeutic window exists in which CDDO-Me protects normal cells from radiation by activating the Nrf2 pathway, but does not protect experimentally transformed or cancer cell lines. This suggests that use of this oral available, non-toxic class of drug can protect non-cancerous healthy cells during radiotherapy, resulting in better outcomes and less toxicity for patients. PMID:25536195

  1. The role of the ICRP in radiation protection--a view from industry.

    PubMed

    Henrichs, K

    2003-01-01

    It is the objective of this paper to discuss some aspects concerning the role and importance of the ICRP. Here, this is done with a background of practical radiation protection in industry. The author organises and controls radiation protection for a worldwide operating company, for which efficiently realised radiation safety is as relevant for its workplaces as for its products and services. According to the author's subjective observation, the ICRP has a decreasing importance in operational radiation protection. However, there are growing demands on the ICRP as it is the only basis for internationally compatible regulations and standards. It is the merit of the ICRP that an international comparison of legal protection systems and concepts should give a much more homogeneous picture than that for any other safety and protection issue. The most valuable asset of the ICRP is its credibility as a scientific authority solely committed to the effective protection of people. But its success also brings with it an obligation: there is an increasing need for more effective communication to non-experts. This and other expectations for the future are briefly discussed. PMID:14526922

  2. Reduction in radiation-induced brain injury by use of pentobarbital or lidocaine protection

    SciTech Connect

    Oldfield, E.H.; Friedman, R.; Kinsella, T.; Moquin, R.; Olson, J.J.; Orr, K.; DeLuca, A.M. )

    1990-05-01

    To determine if barbiturates would protect brain at high doses of radiation, survival rates in rats that received whole-brain x-irradiation during pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia were compared with those of control animals that received no medication and of animals anesthetized with ketamine. The animals were shielded so that respiratory and digestive tissues would not be damaged by the radiation. Survival rates in rats that received whole-brain irradiation as a single 7500-rad dose under pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia was increased from between from 0% and 20% to between 45% and 69% over the 40 days of observation compared with the other two groups (p less than 0.007). Ketamine anesthesia provided no protection. There were no notable differential effects upon non-neural tissues, suggesting that pentobarbital afforded protection through modulation of ambient neural activity during radiation exposure. Neural suppression during high-dose cranial irradiation protects brain from acute and early delayed radiation injury. Further development and application of this knowledge may reduce the incidence of radiation toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS) and may permit the safe use of otherwise unsafe doses of radiation in patients with CNS neoplasms.

  3. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed.

  4. Protection of normal tissues with 2-aminoethylisothiouronium during local pelvic radiation in monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrus, C.M.; Ambrus, J.L.; Friedman, M.; Pickren, J.W.; Mirand, E.A.; Kishel, S.P.

    1983-06-01

    Intestinal and bladder injury are the main limiting factors to radiation therapy in patients with pelvic neoplasms. 2-Amino-ethylisothiouronium (AET) is a radiation-protective agent when given systemically but absorbs poorly from the intestines. Accordingly, it was explored for the local protection of the bowel and bladder during radiation to the pelvis. Radiation localized to the pelvis in various high fractionated doses and various schedules was applied to pairs of stumptailed monkeys (Macaca arctoides): one was always a control; and the other was treated with AET. AET was applied to the bladder through a catheter and to the rectum with a cotton tampon during the time of radiation. After radiation, AET was removed by repeated washings. Control animals developed hemorrhage, diarrhea, and emaciation and died at various times after completion of the radiation course; biopsy of rectal mucosa showed severe radiation damage. AET-treated animals had only occult blood in the stools and suffered slight weight loss; rectal biopsies showed normal tissues 2 weeks after radiation.

  5. Radiation Protection Studies of International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A. (Editor); Shavers, Mark R. (Editor); Saganti, Premkumar B. (Editor); Miller, Jack (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This publication describes recent investigations that evaluate radiation shielding characteristics of NASA's and the Russian Space Agency's space suits. The introduction describes the suits and presents goals of several experiments performed with them. The first chapter provides background information about the dynamic radiation environment experienced at ISS and summarized radiation health and protection requirements for activities in low Earth orbit. Supporting studies report the development and application of a computer model of the EMU space suit and the difficulty of shielding EVA crewmembers from high-energy reentrant electrons, a previously unevaluated component of the space radiation environment. Chapters 2 through 6 describe experiments that evaluate the space suits' radiation shielding characteristics. Chapter 7 describes a study of the potential radiological health impact on EVA crewmembers of two virtually unexamined environmental sources of high-energy electrons-reentrant trapped electrons and atmospheric albedo or "splash" electrons. The radiological consequences of those sources have not been evaluated previously and, under closer scrutiny. A detailed computational model of the shielding distribution provided by components of the NASA astronauts' EMU is being developed for exposure evaluation studies. The model is introduced in Chapters 8 and 9 and used in Chapter 10 to investigate how trapped particle anisotropy impacts female organ doses during EVA. Chapter 11 presents a review of issues related to estimating skin cancer risk form space radiation. The final chapter contains conclusions about the protective qualities of the suit brought to light form these studies, as well as recommendations for future operational radiation protection.

  6. Intercomparison of radiation protection instrumentation in a pulsed neutron field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caresana, M.; Denker, A.; Esposito, A.; Ferrarini, M.; Golnik, N.; Hohmann, E.; Leuschner, A.; Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Manessi, G.; Mayer, S.; Ott, K.; Röhrich, J.; Silari, M.; Trompier, F.; Volnhals, M.; Wielunski, M.

    2014-02-01

    In the framework of the EURADOS working group 11, an intercomparison of active neutron survey meters was performed in a pulsed neutron field (PNF). The aim of the exercise was to evaluate the performances of various neutron instruments, including commercially available rem-counters, personal dosemeters and instrument prototypes. The measurements took place at the cyclotron of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH. The cyclotron is routinely used for proton therapy of ocular tumours, but an experimental area is also available. For the therapy the machine accelerates protons to 68 MeV. The interaction of the proton beam with a thick tungsten target produces a neutron field with energy up to about 60 MeV. One interesting feature of the cyclotron is that the beam can be delivered in bursts, with the possibility to modify in a simple and flexible way the burst length and the ion current. Through this possibility one can obtain radiation bursts of variable duration and intensity. All instruments were placed in a reference position and irradiated with neutrons delivered in bursts of different intensity. The analysis of the instrument response as a function of the burst charge (the total electric charge of the protons in the burst shot onto the tungsten target) permitted to assess for each device the dose underestimation due to the time structure of the radiation field. The personal neutron dosemeters were exposed on a standard PMMA slab phantom and the response linearity was evaluated.

  7. Protection from radiation injury by elemental diet: does added glutamine change the effect?

    PubMed Central

    McArdle, A H

    1994-01-01

    The feeding of a protein hydrolysate based 'elemental' diet supplemented with added glutamine did not provide superior protection to the small intestine of dogs subjected to therapeutic pelvic irradiation. Comparison of diets with and without the added glutamine showed significant protection of the intestine from radiation injury. Both histological examination and electron microscopy showed lack of tissue injury with both diets. The activity of the free radical generating enzymes, scavengers, and antioxidants were similar in the intestinal mucosa of dogs fed either diet. After radiation, however, the activity of xanthine oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase were significantly (p < 0.002) higher in the intestine of dogs fed elemental diet without the added glutamine. If the activities of these enzymes are important in the protection of the intestine from radiation injury, then the addition of extra glutamine may provide no benefit. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8125394

  8. Modification of silicone sealant to improve gamma radiation resistance, by addition of protective agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Pérez, Giovanni; Burillo, Guillermina

    2013-09-01

    Poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) sealant (SS) was modified with the addition of different protective compounds to conserve its physical-chemical properties during gamma irradiation. 2-Vinyl naphthalene (2-VN), bisphenol-A (BPA) and poly (vinyl carbazole) (PVK) were used to evaluate radiation protection through the crosslinking effect of radiation. The samples were irradiated with doses from 100 kGy to 500 kGy at room temperature in air, with a 60Co gamma source, and the changes in molecular weight, thermal behavior, elastic properties and infrared spectra (FTIR-ATR) absorbance analysis were determined. The molecular weight of unmodified silicone sealant increases with the absorbed dose because of crosslinking as predominant effect. However, the crosslinking effect was inhibited with the addition of protective agent due to the aromatic compounds present. Modified silicone sealant films present better radiation resistance than unmodified system.

  9. Knowledge, skills, and abilities for key radiation protection positions at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This document provides detailed qualification criteria for contractor key radiation protection personnel. Although federal key radiation protection positions are also identified, qualification standards for federal positions are provided in DOE O 360.1 and the DOE Technical Qualifications Program. Appendices B and D provide detailed listings for knowledge, skills, and abilities for contractor and DOE federal key radiation protection positions. This information may be used in developing position descriptions and individual development plans. Information provided in Appendix C may be useful in developing performance measures and assessing an individual`s performance in his or her specific position. Additionally, Federal personnel may use this information to augment their Office/facility qualification standards under the Technical Qualifications Program.

  10. Incorporating community and multiple perspectives in the development of acceptable drinking water source protection policy in catchments facing recreation demands.

    PubMed

    Syme, Geoffrey J; Nancarrow, Blair E

    2013-11-15

    The protection of catchment areas for drinking water quality has become an increasingly disputed issue in Australia and internationally. This is particularly the case in regard to the growing demand for nature based and rural recreation. Currently the policy for the protection of drinking water in Western Australia is to enforce a 2 km exclusion zone with a much larger surrounding area with limited and prescribed access to recreators. The debate between recreators and water management agencies has been lively, culminating in a recent state government enquiry. This paper describes the second phase of a three phase study to develop a methodology for defensible policy formulation which accounts for the points of view of all stakeholders. We examine general community, active recreators and professionals' views on the current policy of catchment protection and five proposed alternatives using a social judgement theory approach. Key attitudinal determinants of the preferences for policies were identified. Overall the recreators did not support the current policy despite strong support from both the general community and the professional group. Nevertheless, it was evident that there was some support by the community for policies that would enable a slight relaxation of current recreational exclusion. It was also evident that there was a significant proportion of the general community who were dissatisfied with current recreational opportunities and that, in future, it may be less easy to police exclusion zones even if current policy is maintained. The potential for future integration of recreational and water source protection is discussed as well as the benefits of community research in understanding policy preferences in this regard. PMID:23911764

  11. Sun protection policies of Australian primary schools in a region of high sun exposure.

    PubMed

    Harrison, S L; Garzón-Chavez, D R; Nikles, C J

    2016-06-01

    Queensland, Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Predetermined criteria were used to score the comprehensiveness of sun protection policies (SPP) of primary schools across Queensland. SPP were sought for schools in 10 regions (latitude range 16.3°S-28.1°S) from 2011 to 2014. Of the 723 schools sampled, 90.9% had a written SPP available publicly. Total SPP scores were low {mean 3.6 [95% CI: 3.4-3.9]; median 2 [interquartile range (IQR) 2, 4]}, with only 3.2% of schools achieving the maximum score of 12. Median SPP scores were higher in Northern and Central Queensland [both 2 (IQR 2, 6) and (IQR 2, 5), respectively] than in Southern Queensland [2 (IQR 2, 3); P = 0.004]. Clothing and hat-wearing were addressed in most policies (96% and 89%) while few schools used their SPP to plan outdoor events (5.2%) or reschedule activities to minimize sun exposure (11.7%). The SunSmart Schools program has been operating in Queensland for 17 years, and while most primary schools now have a written SPP, most are not comprehensive. Incentive-based approaches (5-star-rating award scheme and grants) may assist in addressing this issue, to reduce sun exposure of students and teachers. These data provide a baseline from which improvements in the comprehensiveness of school SPPs can be evaluated. PMID:27093982

  12. Oral PEG 15-20 protects the intestine against radiation : role of lipid rafts.

    SciTech Connect

    Valuckaite, V.; Zaborina, O.; Long, J.; Hauer-Jensen, M.; Wang, J.; Holbrook, C.; Zaborin, A.; Drabik, K.; Katdare, M.; Mauceri, H.; Weichselbaum, R.; Firestone, M. A.; Lee, K. Y.; Chang, E. B.; Matthews, J.; Alverdy, J. C.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Arkansas

    2009-12-01

    Intestinal injury following abdominal radiation therapy or accidental exposure remains a significant clinical problem that can result in varying degrees of mucosal destruction such as ulceration, vascular sclerosis, intestinal wall fibrosis, loss of barrier function, and even lethal gut-derived sepsis. We determined the ability of a high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol-based copolymer, PEG 15-20, to protect the intestine against the early and late effects of radiation in mice and rats and to determine its mechanism of action by examining cultured rat intestinal epithelia. Rats were exposed to fractionated radiation in an established model of intestinal injury, whereby an intestinal segment is surgically placed into the scrotum and radiated daily. Radiation injury score was decreased in a dose-dependent manner in rats gavaged with 0.5 or 2.0 g/kg per day of PEG 15-20 (n = 9-13/group, P < 0.005). Complementary studies were performed in a novel mouse model of abdominal radiation followed by intestinal inoculation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), a common pathogen that causes lethal gut-derived sepsis following radiation. Mice mortality was decreased by 40% in mice drinking 1% PEG 15-20 (n = 10/group, P < 0.001). Parallel studies were performed in cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells treated with PEG 15-20 before radiation. Results demonstrated that PEG 15-20 prevented radiation-induced intestinal injury in rats, prevented apoptosis and lethal sepsis attributable to P. aeruginosa in mice, and protected cultured intestinal epithelial cells from apoptosis and microbial adherence and possible invasion. PEG 15-20 appeared to exert its protective effect via its binding to lipid rafts by preventing their coalescence, a hallmark feature in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to radiation.

  13. Making parks make a difference: poor alignment of policy, planning and management with protected-area impact, and ways forward.

    PubMed

    Pressey, Robert L; Visconti, Piero; Ferraro, Paul J

    2015-11-01

    Policy and practice around protected areas are poorly aligned with the basic purpose of protection, which is to make a difference. The difference made by protected areas is their impact, defined in program evaluation as the outcomes arising from protection relative to the counterfactual of no protection or a different form of protection. Although impact evaluation of programs is well established in fields such as medicine, education and development aid, it is rare in nature conservation. We show that the present weak alignment with impact of policy targets and operational objectives for protected areas involves a great risk: targets and objectives can be achieved while making little difference to the conservation of biodiversity. We also review potential ways of increasing the difference made by protected areas, finding a poor evidence base for the use of planning and management 'levers' to better achieve impact. We propose a dual strategy for making protected areas more effective in their basic role of saving nature, outlining ways of developing targets and objectives focused on impact while also improving the evidence for effective planning and management. PMID:26460132

  14. Making parks make a difference: poor alignment of policy, planning and management with protected-area impact, and ways forward

    PubMed Central

    Pressey, Robert L.; Visconti, Piero; Ferraro, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Policy and practice around protected areas are poorly aligned with the basic purpose of protection, which is to make a difference. The difference made by protected areas is their impact, defined in program evaluation as the outcomes arising from protection relative to the counterfactual of no protection or a different form of protection. Although impact evaluation of programs is well established in fields such as medicine, education and development aid, it is rare in nature conservation. We show that the present weak alignment with impact of policy targets and operational objectives for protected areas involves a great risk: targets and objectives can be achieved while making little difference to the conservation of biodiversity. We also review potential ways of increasing the difference made by protected areas, finding a poor evidence base for the use of planning and management ‘levers’ to better achieve impact. We propose a dual strategy for making protected areas more effective in their basic role of saving nature, outlining ways of developing targets and objectives focused on impact while also improving the evidence for effective planning and management. PMID:26460132

  15. The mechanisms of protection of antioxidants on Nostoc sphaeroides against UV-B radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G. H.

    UV radiation is one of space harmful factor for earth organisms in space exploration In the present work we studied on the role of antioxidant system in Nostoc sphaeroides K u tz Cyanobacteria and the effects of exogenous antioxidant molecules on its photosynthetic rate under UV-B radiation It was found that UV-B radiation decreased the photosynthetic activity of cyanobacterium but promoted the activity of antioxidant system to protect photosystem II PSII and exogenous antioxidant sodium nitroprusside SNP N-acetylcysteine NAC had an obvious protection on PSII activity under UV-B radiation The activity of SOD Superoxide Dismutase EC 1 15 1 1 CAT Catalase EC 1 11 1 6 POD Peroxidase EC 1 11 1 7 and content of MDA and ASC were improved by 0 5mM and 1mM SNP but 0 1mM SNP decreased the activity of antioxide system Exogenous NAC addition decreased the activity of SOD POD CAT and the content MDA and ASC but exogenous NAC addition increased the content of GSH The results suggested that exogenous SNP and NAC may protect algae by different mechanisms in which SNP maybe play double roles as sources of reactive free radicals or ROS scavengers in formation of algae s protection of PSII under UV-B radiation while NAC does function as antioxidant reagent or precursor of glutathione which could protect PSII directly from UV-B radiation Keyword antioxidant system exogenous or endogenous antioxidant Nostoc sphaeroides photosynthesis UV-B radiation

  16. Tungsten nanoparticles influence on radiation protection properties of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrish, V. M.; Baranov, G. A.; Chayka, T. V.; Derbasova, N. M.; Lvov, A. V.; Matsuk, Y. M.

    2016-02-01

    In the presented article the results of the study of metal-polymer composites based on the ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene GUR 4122 with the addition of superdispersed tungsten nanopowders with 5, 10, 20, 40, and 50 mass percent content levels are given, their thermophysical, radiation-shielding, and mechanical properties are shown, and the influence of content levels of tungsten superdispersed nanopowders on these properties is analyzed. The conducted studies have shown the increase in the listed properties depending on the content level of tungsten superdispersed and nanopowders in the ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene GUR 4122. Owing to their properties, the obtained materials may be used in various fields, such as aviation, space technologies, mechanical engineering, etc.

  17. Joint research towards a better radiation protection-highlights of the Fifth MELODI Workshop.

    PubMed

    Aerts, A M; Impens, N R E N; Baatout, S; Benotmane, M A; Camps, J; Dabin, J M; Derradji, H; Grosche, B; Horemans, N; Jourdain, J-R; Moreels, M; Perko, T; Quintens, R; Repussard, J; Rühm, W; Schneider, T; Struelens, L; Hardeman, F

    2014-12-01

    MELODI is the European platform dedicated to low-dose radiation risk research. From 7 October through 10 October 2013 the Fifth MELODI Workshop took place in Brussels, Belgium. The workshop offered the opportunity to 221 unique participants originating from 22 countries worldwide to update their knowledge and discuss radiation research issues through 118 oral and 44 poster presentations. In addition, the MELODI 2013 workshop was reaching out to the broader radiation protection community, rather than only the low-dose community, with contributions from the fields of radioecology, emergency and recovery preparedness, and dosimetry. In this review, we summarise the major scientific conclusions of the workshop, which are important to keep the MELODI strategic research agenda up-to-date and which will serve to establish a joint radiation protection research roadmap for the future. PMID:25431966

  18. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mariana, Villagomez Casimiro E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx; Cesar, Ruiz Trejo E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx; Ruby, Espejo Fonseca

    2014-11-07

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1–4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)– presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

  19. Protecting the radiation-damaged skin from friction: a mini review

    SciTech Connect

    Herst, Patries M

    2014-06-15

    Radiation-induced skin reactions are an unavoidable side effect of external beam radiation therapy, particularly in areas prone to friction and excess moisture such as the axilla, head and neck region, perineum and skin folds. Clinical studies investigating interventions for preventing or managing these reactions have largely focussed on formulations with moisturising, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and wound healing properties. However, none of these interventions has emerged as a consistent candidate for best practice. Much less emphasis has been placed on evaluating ways to protect the radiation-damaged skin from friction and excess moisture. This mini review analyses the clinical evidence for barrier products that form a protective layer by adhering very closely to the skin folds and do not cause further trauma to the radiation-damaged skin upon removal. A database search identified only two types of barrier products that fitted these criteria and these were tested in two case series and six controlled clinical trials. Friction protection was most effective when the interventions were used from the start of treatment and continued for several weeks after completion of treatment. Soft silicone dressings (Mepilex Lite and Mepitel Film) and Cavilon No Sting Barrier Film, but not Cavilon Moisturizing Barrier Cream, decreased skin reaction severity, most likely due to differences in formulation and skin build-up properties. It seems that prophylactic use of friction protection of areas at risk could be a worthwhile addition to routine care of radiation-damaged skin.

  20. LAURISTON S. TAYLOR LECTURE ON RADIATION PROTECTION AND MEASURMENTS: WHAT MAKES PARTICLE RADIATION SO EFFECTIVE?

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, Eleanor A.

    2012-01-01

    The scientific basis for the physical and biological effectiveness of particle radiations has emerged from many decades of meticulous basic research. A diverse array of biologically relevant consequences at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organism level have been reported, but what are the key processes and mechanisms that make particle radiation so effective, and what competing processes define dose dependences? Recent studies have shown that individual genotypes control radiation-regulated genes and pathways in response to radiations of varying ionization density. The fact that densely ionizing radiations can affect different gene families than sparsely ionizing radiations, and that the effects are dose- and time-dependent has opened up new areas of future research. The complex microenvironment of the stroma, and the significant contributions of the immune response have added to our understanding of tissue-specific differences across the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum. The importance of targeted vs. nontargeted effects remain a thorny, but elusive and important contributor to chronic low dose radiation effects of variable LET that still needs further research. The induction of cancer is also LET-dependent, suggesting different mechanisms of action across the gradient of ionization density. The focus of this 35th Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture is to chronicle the step-by-step acquisition of experimental clues that have refined our understanding of what makes particle radiation so effective, with emphasis on the example of radiation effects on the crystalline lens of the human eye. PMID:23032880

  1. Application of some magnetic nanocompounds in the protection against sun radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sincai, Mariana; Argherie, Diana; Ganga, Diana; Bica, Doina; Vekas, Ladislau

    2007-04-01

    The protective effect of some magnetic nanocompounds against prolonged exposure to UV radiation was investigated. Research was carried in white mice whose auricles (ears) were treated with magnetic nanocompounds in various concentrations. After 8 h of exposure, small auricular fragments from treated and control animals were prepared for cytohistological studies. In animals treated with magnetic nanocompounds, no erythema or other UV-induced changes were noticed. The magnetic nanoparticles thus were UV protective and might be useful as a sunscreen.

  2. Shielding and radiation protection at the SSRL 3 GeV injector

    SciTech Connect

    Ipe, N.E.; Liu, J.C.

    1991-12-01

    The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) Injector is comprised of a linear accelerator (linac) capable of energies {le} 150 MeV, a 3 GeV booster synchrotron, and a beam line to transport the electrons into the storage ring SPEAR. The injector is shielded so that under normal operating conditions, the annual dose equivalent at the shield surface does not exceed 10 mSv. This paper describes the shielding and radiation protection at the injector.

  3. Health Risks From Low Doses and Low Dose-Rates of Ionizing Radiation. Session 5: Future of Radiation Protection Regulations.

    PubMed

    Cool, Donald A

    2016-03-01

    The system of radiological protection is a prospective approach to protection of individuals in all exposure situations. It must be applied equitably across all age groups and all populations. This is a very different circumstance from dose assessment for a particular individual where the unique characteristics of the individual and the exposure can be taken into account. Notwithstanding the ongoing discussions on the possible shape of the dose response at low doses and dose rates, the prospective system of protection has therefore historically used a linear assumption as a pragmatic, prudent and protective approach. These radiation protection criteria are not intended to be a demarcation between "safe" and "unsafe" and are the product of a risk-informed judgement that includes inputs from science, ethics, and experience. There are significant implications for different dose response relationships. A linear model allows for equal treatment of an exposure, irrespective of the previously accumulated exposure. In contrast, other models would predict different implications. Great care is therefore needed in separating the thinking around risk assessment from risk management, and prospective protection for all age groups and genders from retrospective assessment for a particular individual. In the United States, the prospective regulatory structure functions effectively because of assumptions that facilitate independent treatment of different types of exposures, and which provide pragmatic and prudent protection. While the a linear assumption may, in fact, not be consistent with the biological reality, the implications of a different regulatory model must be considered carefully. PMID:26808877

  4. The Zero Hunger and Brazil without Extreme Poverty programs: a step forward in Brazilian social protection policy.

    PubMed

    Paes-Sousa, Romulo; Vaitsman, Jeni

    2014-11-01

    Brazilian social protection programs have had consistent effects in reducing poverty and inequality among their respective target-groups: children, adolescents and pregnant and breastfeeding women. In 2011, the Brazil without Extreme Poverty program was launched as a strategy to eradicate extreme poverty by 2014. It makes the promotion of rights the core concept of the official political narrative. This study seeks to provide a systematic description of the Brazil without Extreme Poverty program and its initial results. A review of official documents and academic studies on the social protection programs was conducted. The Brazil without Extreme Poverty program represents an incremental approach to the social protection policies enacted by the previous administration. It advocates a multidimensional and focused approach, funded primarily by the federal government. The strategy subscribes to the international trend of associating social protection with employment and income generation policies. PMID:25351302

  5. Establishment of radiation protection boundaries for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nicoll, R.M. )

    1991-05-01

    Activities involving the possession and use of radioactive material require the application of controls to ensure the health and safety of the worker and general public. One of the first steps in adequately controlling any licensed activity is the establishment of zones and boundaries that will exist for purposes of restricting or regulating personnel radiological exposure. Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 20 (10 CFR 20) defines the 'restricted area' (RA) and prescribes the administrative and radiological protection controls pertinent to the RA. For nuclear power facilities, the determination of the physical relation of the RA boundary with other physical or administrative boundaries, such as the site boundary, the radiologically controlled area (RCA), and the exclusion area boundary, must be based on an evaluation that considers all applicable federal requirements and limits for each zone or boundary contained within or interfacing with the RA. This paper presents a discussion of the factors that should be considered and an evaluation methodology that can be utilized based on the generation of two-dimensional isodoses.

  6. Some recent data on chemical protection against ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatome, M.; Laval, J. D.; Roman, V.

    Once introduced in the organism, the radioprotectors are fastly degraded and that increases their toxicity, shortens their duration of action and renders them inactive after oral delivery. So, it was tried to protect them by their incorporation in vectors. When a cysteamine-liposomal suspension was orally delivered, it showed a radioprotective activity for about 4 hours. By using 35 S cysteamine, it was noted that its plasmatic concentration was increased. Freeze-drying of these preparations was a good mean of conservation if the samples were stored at 4°C. A good and sustained activity was also obtained after oral delivery of WR-2721 entrapped in microspheres. Otherwise, it was shown that after interacting with the polar heads of phospholipids, under determined conditions of pH and in fluid phase, aminothiols can penetrate inside the membrane and be entrapped in the internal medium of liposomes and as they penetrate, they can lessen the diffusion of oxygen in the lipidic bilayers.

  7. Establishment of radiation protection boundaries for nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, R M

    1991-05-01

    Activities involving the possession and use of radioactive material require the application of controls to ensure the health and safety of the worker and general public. One of the first steps in adequately controlling any licensed activity is the establishment of zones and boundaries that will exist for purposes of restricting or regulating personnel radiological exposure. Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 20 (10 CFR 20) defines the "restricted area" (RA) and prescribes the administrative and radiological protection controls pertinent to the RA. For nuclear power facilities, the determination of the physical relation of the RA boundary with other physical or administrative boundaries, such as the site boundary, the radiologically controlled area (RCA), and the exclusion area boundary, must be based on an evaluation that considers all applicable federal requirements and limits for each zone or boundary contained within or interfacing with the RA. This paper presents a discussion of the factors that should be considered and an evaluation methodology that can be utilized based on the generation of two-dimensional isodoses. PMID:2019508

  8. Nuclear data needs for radiation protection and therapy dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Haight, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    New nuclear data are required for improved neutron and proton radiotherapy treatment planning as well as future applications of high-energy particle accelerators. Modern neutron radiotherapy employs energies extending to 70 MeV, while industrial applications such as transmutation and tritium breeding may generate neutrons exceeding energies of 100 MeV. Secondary neutrons produced by advanced proton therapy facilities can have energies as high as 250 MeV. Each use requires nuclear data for transport calculations and analysis of radiation effects (dosimetry). We discuss the nuclear data needs supportive of these applications including the different information requirements. As data in this energy region are sparse and likely to remain so, advanced nuclear model calculations can provide some of the needed information. ln this context, we present new evaluated nuclear data for C, N, and O. Additional experimental information, including integral and differential data, are required to confirm these results and to bound further calculations. We indicate the required new data to be measured and the difficulties in carrying out such experiments.

  9. Radiation doses of employees of a Nuclear Medicine Department after implementation of more rigorous radiation protection methods.

    PubMed

    Piwowarska-Bilska, Hanna; Supinska, Aleksandra; Listewnik, Maria H; Zorga, Piotr; Birkenfeld, Bozena

    2013-11-01

    The appropriate radiation protection measures applied in departments of nuclear medicine should lead to a reduction in doses received by the employees. During 1991-2007, at the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Pomeranian Medical University (Szczecin, Poland), nurses received on average two-times higher (4.6 mSv) annual doses to the whole body than those received by radiopharmacy technicians. The purpose of this work was to examine whether implementation of changes in the radiation protection protocol will considerably influence the reduction in whole-body doses received by the staff that are the most exposed. A reduction in nurses' exposure by ~63 % took place in 2008-11, whereas the exposure of radiopharmacy technicians grew by no more than 22 % in comparison with that in the period 1991-2007. Proper reorganisation of the work in departments of nuclear medicine can considerably affect dose reduction and bring about equal distribution of the exposure. PMID:23615359

  10. Sulfur compounds in therapy: Radiation-protective agents, amphetamines, and mucopolysaccharide sulfation

    SciTech Connect

    Foye, W.O. )

    1992-09-01

    Sulfur-containing compounds have been used in the search for whole-body radiation-protective compounds, in the design of amphetamine derivatives that retain appetite-suppressive effects but lack most behavioral effects characteristic of amphetamines, and in the search for the cause of kidney stone formation in recurrently stoneforming patients. Organic synthetic procedures were used to prepare radiation-protective compounds having a variety of sulfur-containing functional groups, and to prepare amphetamine derivatives having electron-attracting sulfur functions. In the case of the kidney stone causation research, isolation of urinary mucopolysaccharides (MPS) from recurrently stoneforming patients was carried out and the extent of sulfation of the MPS was determined by electrophoresis. Whole-body radiation-protective agents with a high degree of protection against lethal doses of gamma-radiation in mice were found in a series of quinolinium and pyridinium bis(methylthio) and methylthio amino derivatives. Mechanism studies showed that the copper complexes of these agents mimicked the beneficial action of superoxide dismutase. Electron-attracting sulfur-containing functions on amphetamine nitrogen, as well as 4'-amino nitrogen provided amphetamine derivatives with good appetite-suppressant effects and few or no adverse behavioral effects. Higher than normal levels of sulfation of the urinary MPS of stone formers suggested a cause for recurrent kidney stone formation. A sulfation inhibitor was found to prevent recurrence of stone formation and inhibit growth of existing stones. The inclusion of various sulfur-containing functions in organic molecules yielded compounds having whole-body radiation protection from lethal doses of gamma-radiation in animals. The presence of electron-attracting sulfur functions in amphetamine gave derivatives that retained appetite-suppressant effects and eliminated most adverse behavioral effects.

  11. A review of the scientific basis for radiation protection of the patient.

    PubMed

    Moores, B M; Regulla, D

    2011-09-01

    The use of ionising radiation in medicine is the single largest man-made source of population exposure. Individual and collective doses to patients arising from the medical use of ionising radiations continue to rise significantly year on year. This is due to the increasing use of medical imaging procedures in modern healthcare systems as well as the continued development of new high dose techniques. This paper reviews the scientific basis for the principles of radiation protection as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. These principles attempt to include exposures arising from both medical and non-medical applications within a common framework and have evolved over many years and changing socio-economic considerations. In particular, the concepts of justification and ALARA (doses should be as low as reasonably achievable), which underpin the principles for medical exposures are assessed in terms of their applicability to the scientific process and relevance to a rapidly changing technologically-led healthcare system. Radiation protection is an integral component of patient safety in medical practices and needs to be evidence based and amenable to the scientific process. The limitations imposed by the existing philosophy of radiation protection to the development of a quantitative framework for adequately assessing the performance of medical imaging systems are highlighted. In particular, medical practitioners will require quantitative guidance as to the risk-benefits arising from modern X-ray imaging methods if they are to make rational judgements as to the applicability of modern high-dose techniques to particular diagnostic and therapeutic tasks. At present such guidance is variable due to the lack of a rational framework for assessing the clinical impact of medical imaging techniques. The possible integration of radiation protection concepts into fundamental bio-medical imaging research activities is discussed. PMID:21846654

  12. [Medical protection during radiation accidents: some results and lessons of the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Legeza, V I; Grebeniuk, A N; Zatsepin, V V

    2011-01-01

    Actions of medical radiation protection of liquidators of consequences of on Chernobyl atomic power station accident are analysed. It is shown, that during the early period of the accident medical protection of liquidators was provided by administration of radioprotectors, means of prophylaxis: of radioactive iodine incorporation and agent for preventing psychological and emotional stress. When carrying out decontamination and regenerative works, preparations which action is caused by increase of nonspecific resistance of an organism were applied. The lessons taken from the results of the Chernobyl accident, have allowed one to improve the system of medical protection and to introduce in practice new highly effective radioprotective agents. PMID:21520618

  13. Building the basis for a comprehensive radiation protection program for a multi-program laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Copenhaver, E.D.

    1987-01-01

    An explicit, workplace-specific training has been developed, implemented, and documented for all radiation workers. In addition to the radiation worker personnel located at reactors, accelerators, radiochemical laboratories, and waste treatment areas, we have trained other personnel who work in areas where a lesser potential for radiological/chemical exposure exists. These workforces include construction crews, site restoration crews, contracted special services such as scoping and site characterization teams, and short-term visitors. We are developing a comprehensive, integrated approach to radiation protection training suited for a multi-purpose research laboratory. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture: Radiation protection in the aftermath of a terrorist attack involving exposure to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    González, Abel J

    2005-11-01

    I would like to start this Twenty-Eighth Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture by expressing my gratitude to the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for this unique occasion. I feel particularly honored for this opportunity to address a highly specialized and qualified audience of professionals who are specifically interested in what appears to be a forthcoming worldwide challenge, namely radiological terrorism and managing its potential radiological consequences. PMID:16217186

  15. Los Alamos Science: Number 23, 1995. Radiation protection and the human radiation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, N.G.

    1995-12-31

    There are a variety of myths and misconceptions about the ionizing radiation that surrounds and penetrates us all. Dispel a few of these by taking a leisurely tour of radiation and its properties, of the natural and man-made sources of ionizing radiation, and of the way doses are calculated. By damaging DNA and inducing genetic mutations, ionizing radiation can potentially initiate a cell on the road to cancer. The authors review what is currently known about regulation of cellular reproduction, DNA damage and repair, cellular defense mechanisms, and the specific cancer-causing genes that are susceptible to ionizing radiation. A rapid survey of the data on radiation effects in humans shows that high radiation doses increase the risk of cancer, whereas the effects of low doses are very difficult to detect. The hypothetical risks at low doses, which are estimated from the atomic-bomb survivors, are compared to the low-dose data so that the reader can assess the present level of uncertainty. As part of the openness initiative, ten individuals who have worked with plutonium during various periods in the Laboratory`s history were asked to share their experiences including their accidental intakes. The history and prognosis of people who have had plutonium exposures is discussed by the Laboratory`s leading epidemiologist.

  16. Pharmacologically blocking p53-dependent apoptosis protects intestinal stem cells and mice from radiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinwei; Wei, Liang; Cramer, Julie M.; Leibowitz, Brian J.; Judge, Colleen; Epperly, Michael; Greenberger, Joel; Wang, Fengchao; Li, Linheng; Stelzner, Matthias G.; Dunn, James C. Y.; Martin, Martin G.; Lagasse, Eric; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation (IR) leads to debilitating and dose-limiting gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Using three-dimensional mouse crypt culture, we demonstrated that p53 target PUMA mediates radiation-induced apoptosis via a cell-intrinsic mechanism, and identified the GSK-3 inhibitor CHIR99021 as a potent radioprotector. CHIR99021 treatment improved Lgr5+ cell survival and crypt regeneration after radiation in culture and mice. CHIR99021 treatment specifically blocked apoptosis and PUMA induction and K120 acetylation of p53 mediated by acetyl-transferase Tip60, while it had no effect on p53 stabilization, phosphorylation or p21 induction. CHIR99021 also protected human intestinal cultures from radiation by PUMA but not p21 suppression. These results demonstrate that p53 posttranslational modifications play a key role in the pathological and apoptotic response of the intestinal stem cells to radiation and can be targeted pharmacologically. PMID:25858503

  17. Radiation Protection Enrollments and Degrees. Enrollments--Fall 1973. Degrees Granted July 1965-June 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC. Div. of Labor Relations.

    The demand for radiation protection personnel has increased during the past several years and can be expected to continue to increase for several years to come. This document gives the results of the latest survey of institutions offering degree programs in this field. Such a small segment of the total college enrollment is represented in health…

  18. 48 CFR 952.223-72 - Radiation protection and nuclear criticality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... nuclear criticality. 952.223-72 Section 952.223-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....223-72 Radiation protection and nuclear criticality. As prescribed in 923.7003 the clause set forth... contract or subcontract rather than by reliance upon Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing...

  19. 48 CFR 952.223-72 - Radiation protection and nuclear criticality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... nuclear criticality. 952.223-72 Section 952.223-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....223-72 Radiation protection and nuclear criticality. As prescribed in 923.7003 the clause set forth... contract or subcontract rather than by reliance upon Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing...

  20. 48 CFR 952.223-72 - Radiation protection and nuclear criticality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... nuclear criticality. 952.223-72 Section 952.223-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....223-72 Radiation protection and nuclear criticality. As prescribed in 923.7003 the clause set forth... contract or subcontract rather than by reliance upon Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing...

  1. Nuclear Technology Series. Radiation Protection Technician. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary radiation protection technician program is designed for use with courses 17-22 of thirty-five included in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians, and operators; and to assist planners,…

  2. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General §...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General §...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General §...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General §...

  6. Tea, coffee, and cocoa as ultraviolet radiation protectants for beet armyworm nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The addition of 1% (wt/v) aqueous extracts of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), coffee (Coffea arabica L.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), green, and black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) (Ericales: Theaceae) provided excellent ultraviolet (UV) radiation protection for the beet armyworm, Spodo...

  7. Development of Curricula for Nuclear Radiation Protection, Nuclear Instrumentation, and Nuclear Materials Processing Technologies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Daniel M.

    A study was conducted to assist two-year postsecondary educational institutions in providing technical specialty courses for preparing nuclear technicians. As a result of project activities, curricula have been developed for five categories of nuclear technicians and operators: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and

  8. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General §...

  9. [Agencies for radiation protection in Germany, Europe and worldwide. Responsibilities and relations between].

    PubMed

    Mller, W-U

    2013-01-01

    The complex radiation protection system is affected by various organisations. The most important bodies worldwide, in Europe and in Germany will be introduced including a description of their relationships. Three levels of responsibility have to be discriminated: the scientific, the philosophical/methodical, and the level of jurisdiction and regulations. PMID:23503761

  10. Development of Curricula for Nuclear Radiation Protection, Nuclear Instrumentation, and Nuclear Materials Processing Technologies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Daniel M.

    A study was conducted to assist two-year postsecondary educational institutions in providing technical specialty courses for preparing nuclear technicians. As a result of project activities, curricula have been developed for five categories of nuclear technicians and operators: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and…

  11. Operational radiation protection for astronauts and cosmonauts and correlated activities of ESA Medical Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straube, Ulrich; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Facius, Rainer; Fuglesang, Christer; Reiter, Thomas; Damann, Volker; Tognini, Michel

    2010-04-01

    Since the early times of human spaceflight radiation has been, besides the influence of microgravity on the human body, recognized as a main health concern to astronauts and cosmonauts. The radiation environment that the crew experiences during spaceflight differs significantly to that found on earth due to particles of greater potential for biological damage. Highly energetic charged particles, such as protons, helium nuclei ("alpha particles") and heavier ions up to iron, originating from several sources, as well as protons and electrons trapped in the Earth's radiation belts, are the main contributors. The exposure that the crew receives during a spaceflight significantly exceeds exposures routinely received by terrestrial radiation workers. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Astronaut Center (EAC) in Cologne, Germany, is home of the European Astronaut Corps. Part of the EAC is the Crew Medical Support Office (CMSO or HSF-AM) responsible for ensuring the health and well-being of the European Astronauts. A sequence of activities is conducted to protect astronauts and cosmonauts health, including those aiming to mitigate adverse effects of space radiation. All health related activities are part of a multinational Medical Operations (MedOps) concept, which is executed by the different Space Agencies participating in the human spaceflight program of the International Space Station (ISS). This article will give an introduction to the current measures used for radiation monitoring and protection of astronauts and cosmonauts. The operational guidelines that shall ensure proper implementation and execution of those radiation protection measures will be addressed. Operational hardware for passive and active radiation monitoring and for personal dosimetry, as well as the operational procedures that are applied, are described.

  12. The Extent of Public Education Nondiscrimination Policy Protections for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Ronald G.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines education and governmental nondiscrimination policies to determine the status of anti-homophobia protections in the 51 states. A review of existing case law literature is provided to illustrate the effect homophobia has on all students, regardless of their sexual orientation, and to induce the development of new public…

  13. 48 CFR 252.225-7043 - Antiterrorism/force protection policy for defense contractors outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antiterrorism/force protection policy for defense contractors outside the United States. 252.225-7043 Section 252.225-7043 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS...

  14. 41 CFR 102-75.945 - What is GSA's policy concerning the physical care, handling, protection, and maintenance of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is GSA's policy concerning the physical care, handling, protection, and maintenance of excess and surplus real property and related personal property? 102-75.945 Section 102-75.945 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations...

  15. 36 CFR 1256.100 - What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or contain copyrighted material? 1256.100 Section 1256.100 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE ACCESS TO...

  16. 36 CFR 1256.100 - What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or contain copyrighted material... Distribution of United States Information Agency Audiovisual Materials in the National Archives of the United States § 1256.100 What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have...

  17. Baseline Survey of Sun-Protection Knowledge, Practices and Policy in Early Childhood Settings in Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Simone L.; Saunders, V.; Nowak, M.

    2007-01-01

    Excessive exposure to sunlight during early childhood increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Self-administered questionnaires exploring sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy were mailed to the directors/co-ordinators/senior teachers of all known early childhood services in Queensland, Australia, in 2002 (n = 1383; 56.5% response).…

  18. Dying Cells Protect Survivors from Radiation-Induced Cell Death in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bilak, Amber; Uyetake, Lyle; Su, Tin Tin

    2014-01-01

    We report a phenomenon wherein induction of cell death by a variety of means in wing imaginal discs of Drosophila larvae resulted in the activation of an anti-apoptotic microRNA, bantam. Cells in the vicinity of dying cells also become harder to kill by ionizing radiation (IR)-induced apoptosis. Both ban activation and increased protection from IR required receptor tyrosine kinase Tie, which we identified in a genetic screen for modifiers of ban. tie mutants were hypersensitive to radiation, and radiation sensitivity of tie mutants was rescued by increased ban gene dosage. We propose that dying cells activate ban in surviving cells through Tie to make the latter cells harder to kill, thereby preserving tissues and ensuring organism survival. The protective effect we report differs from classical radiation bystander effect in which neighbors of irradiated cells become more prone to death. The protective effect also differs from the previously described effect of dying cells that results in proliferation of nearby cells in Drosophila larval discs. If conserved in mammals, a phenomenon in which dying cells make the rest harder to kill by IR could have implications for treatments that involve the sequential use of cytotoxic agents and radiation therapy. PMID:24675716

  19. Protecting health care workers from tuberculosis in China: a review of policy and practice in China and the United States.

    PubMed

    Chai, Shua J; Mattingly, Daniel C; Varma, Jay K

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis causes >1.7 million deaths worldwide each year and is frequently transmitted in hospitals. Outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis have led to illness and death among health care workers (HCWs) in many countries. Some countries, such as the United States, implemented occupational health policies that substantially reduced tuberculosis rates among HCWs. Inadequate tuberculosis infection control in China may contribute to its high burden of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, which are both the second highest worldwide. Occupational health policies in China for tuberculosis control can be strengthened. We reviewed the development and content of tuberculosis infection control policies in the United States and China. Sources included published academic literature, Chinese Ministry of Health policies, US government agency reports, legal databases, personal observations of hospitals, review of internet discussion sites, and discussions with HCWs and health care and law experts. In the United States, slow acceptance of the tuberculosis problem in HCWs resulted in decades of inaction. Tuberculosis infection control policies, based mostly on expert opinion, were implemented only after tuberculosis resurged in the 1980s. Effective evidence-based policies were developed only after multiple cycles of policy implementation, evaluation and revision. These policies have now substantially reduced occupational tuberculosis. In China, tuberculosis has not been formally recognized as an occupational disease, and data regarding the burden in HCWs are sparse. Vagueness of current labour laws and suboptimal alignment of infection control authority and expertise result in varied and sometimes absent protection of HCWs against tuberculosis. Formal evaluations of occupational tuberculosis policies have not been reported. By collecting data on its current HCW tuberculosis burden and infection control practices, refining policies, continually evaluating its policies based on accumulated evidence and rapidly identifying unsuspected tuberculosis cases, China can develop a more comprehensive strategy to ensure the health of HCWs and reduce transmission of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:22427258

  20. Effects of multilayer and multimaterial structures on space proton radiation protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianqun; Ma, Guoliang; Li, Xingji; Liu, Chaoming; Yang, Dezhuang; He, Shiyu

    2015-12-01

    An investigation of multilayer (and multimaterial) structures for space proton radiation protection is presented. In this research, both the role of the material itself on the shielding efficiency and the effect of the structure of the shield were considered. By using simulations with the software package Geant4, the shielding efficiencies for high energy protons were calculated for three different materials (aluminum, copper and tantalum) and for two multilayer structures. It was found that the optimum solar proton protection is obtained with a multilayer structure. In order to prove the validity of simulation results, 9 MeV proton irradiation experiments were performed. The good agreement between simulation results and experimental data confirms that the Geant4 code can be used to accurately calculate high-energy proton radiation protection.

  1. Inspection of cardiology departments in Norway: are they making it great in radiation protection?

    PubMed

    Silkoset, R D; Widmark, A; Friberg, E G

    2015-07-01

    Staff involved in interventional cardiology receive the highest occupational doses in Norway, and skin burns of patients have been reported. To identify the level of radiation protection (RP) for patients and staff, and compliance with the RP regulation, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority carried out inspections. The inspections were conducted (2013-14) as quality system reviews, based on document reviews, interviews, on-site inspections and observations of interventional procedures. The inspections revealed that most of the hospitals had non-compliances according to the RP regulation. Most deviations were associated with education in RP and follow-up of patients who had received high radiation doses. Lack of systematic optimisation of procedures and estimation of eye lens doses to evaluate the risk for cataracts were also common. Inspections turned out to increase the awareness of RP in cardiology and are identified as an effective tool for improving RP. PMID:25813484

  2. Ground radiation tests and flight atomic oxygen tests of ITO protective coatings for Galileo Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, Frank L.; Maag, Carl R.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation simulation tests (protons and electrons) were performed along with atomic oxygen flight tests aboard the Shuttle to space qualify the surface protective coatings. The results, which contributed to the selection of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated polyester as the material for the thermal blankets of the Galileo Spacecraft, are given here. Two candidate materials, polyester and Fluorglas, were radiation-tested to determine changes at simulated Jovian radiation levels. The polyester exhibited a smaller weight loss (2.8) than the Fluorglas (8.8 percent). Other changes of polyester are given. During low-earth orbit, prior to transit to Jupiter, the thermal blankets would be exposed to atomic oxygen. Samples of uncoated and ITO-coated polyesters were flown on the Shuttle. Qualitative results are given which indicated that the ITO coating protected the underlying polyester.

  3. Pathogenetic validation of the use of biological protective agents and early treatment in cases of radiation injury simulating radiation effects under space flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogozkin, V. D.; Varteres, V.; Sabo, L.; Groza, N.; Nikolov, I.

    1974-01-01

    In considering a radiation safety system for space flights, the various measures to protect man against radiation include drug prophylaxis. At the present time a great deal of experimental material has been accumulated on the prevention and treatment of radiation injuries. Antiradiation effectiveness has been established for sulfur- and nitrogen-containing substances, auxins, cyanides, polynucleotides, mucopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, aminosaccharides, synthetic polymers, vitamins, hormones, amino acids and other compounds which can be divided into two basic groups - biological and chemical protective agents.

  4. Assessment of secondary radiation and radiation protection in laser-driven proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Faby, Sebastian; Wilkens, Jan J

    2015-06-01

    This work is a feasibility study of a radiation treatment unit with laser-driven protons based on a state-of-the-art energy selection system employing four dipole magnets in a compact shielded beamline. The secondary radiation emitted from the beamline and its energy selection system and the resulting effective dose to the patient are assessed. Further, it is evaluated whether or not such a compact system could be operated in a conventional treatment vault for clinical linear accelerators under the constraint of not exceeding the effective dose limit of 1 mSv per year to the general public outside the treatment room. The Monte Carlo code Geant4 is employed to simulate the secondary radiation generated while irradiating a hypothetical tumor. The secondary radiation inevitably generated inside the patient is taken into account as well, serving as a lower limit. The results show that the secondary radiation emanating from the shielded compact therapy system would pose a serious secondary dose contamination to the patient. This is due to the broad energy spectrum and in particular the angular distribution of the laser-driven protons, which make the investigated beamline together with the employed energy selection system quite inefficient. The secondary radiation also cannot be sufficiently absorbed in a conventional linear accelerator treatment vault to enable a clinical operation. A promising result, however, is the fact that the secondary radiation generated in the patient alone could be very well shielded by a regular treatment vault, allowing the application of more than 100 fractions of 2 Gy per day with protons. It is thus theoretically possible to treat patients with protons in such treatment vaults. Nevertheless, the results show that there is a clear need for alternative more efficient energy selection solutions for laser-driven protons. PMID:25267383

  5. Method for protecting bone marrow against chemotherapeutic drugs and radiation therapy using transforming growth factor beta 1

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.R.; Ruscetti, F.W.; Wiltrout, R.

    1989-06-29

    Presented is a method for protecting hematopoietic stem cells from the myelotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs or radiation therapy, which comprises administering to a subject a therapeutically effective amount of transforming growth factor beta 1 for protecting bone marrow from the myelotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs or radiation therapy.

  6. New advances in protection against solar ultraviolet radiation in textiles for summer clothing.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, José; de Gálvez, María Victoria; Sánchez-Roldán, Cristina; Herrera-Ceballos, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Clothing is considered one of the most important tools for photoprotection against harmful solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The standard for sun-protective clothing is based on erythema despite other biological effects of UVR on the skin. We analyzed the potential protection against UVR in fabrics destined for summer clothing based on several action spectra. We examined 50 garments classified by type of fabric composition, structure of the fiber yarn and color. The ultraviolet protection factor was calculated based on fabric ultraviolet transmittance corrected for erythema according to the EU standard E-13758 as well as the UVA transmittance of fabrics. UVR protection was also analyzed in base of different action spectra as for previtamin D3, nonmelanoma skin cancer, photoimmunosuppression and photoaging. Most knitted fabrics used for sports T-shirts offered excellent ratings for ultraviolet protection while normal shirts showed very low ratings, particularly against photoaging. The cover is the most influential variable in fabric photoprotection, having an exponential relationship with the UPF. The relation between cover and UVA protection was linearly negative. Information about ultraviolet protection in textiles used for summer clothing should be included in labeling as some types of fabrics, especially those used for shirts, offer very low UVR protection. PMID:24861801

  7. Applying cost analyses to drive policy that protects children. Mercury as a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Leonardo Trasande; Clyde Schechter; Karla A. Haynes; Philip J. Landrigan

    2006-09-15

    Exposure in prenatal life to methylmercury (MeHg) has become the topic of intense debate in the United States after the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a proposal in 2004 to reverse strict controls on emissions of mercury from coal-fired power plants that had been in effect for the preceding 15 years. This proposal failed to incorporate any consideration of the health impacts on children that would result from increased mercury emissions. We assessed the impact on children's health of industrial mercury emissions and found that between 316,588 and 637,233 babies are born with mercury-related losses of cognitive function ranging from 0.2 to 5.13 points. We calculated that decreased economic productivity resulting from diminished intelligence over a lifetime results in an aggregate economic cost in each annual birth cohort of $8.7 billion annually. $1.3 billion of this cost is attributable to mercury emitted from American coal-fired power plants. Downward shifts in intellectual quotient (IQ) are also associated with 1566 excess cases of mental retardation annually. This number accounts for 3.2% of MR cases in the United States. If the lifetime excess cost of a case of MR is $1,248,648 in 2000 dollars, then the cost of these excess cases of MR is $2.0 billion annually. Preliminary data suggest that more stringent mercury policy options would prevent thousands of cases of MR and billions of dollars over the next 25 years.

  8. Public Policy on Ground-Water Quality Protection. Proceedings of a National Conference (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, April 13-16, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Waldon R., Ed.

    This publication contains the papers presented at a National Conference on Ground Water Quality Protection Policy held in April of 1977. Paper titles include: (1) Magnitude of the Ground-Water Contamination Problem; (2) Limited Degredation as a Ground-Water Quality Policy; (3) Surface and Subsurface Mining: Policy Implications; (4) Oil Well…

  9. Public Policy on Ground-Water Quality Protection. Proceedings of a National Conference (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, April 13-16, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Waldon R., Ed.

    This publication contains the papers presented at a National Conference on Ground Water Quality Protection Policy held in April of 1977. Paper titles include: (1) Magnitude of the Ground-Water Contamination Problem; (2) Limited Degredation as a Ground-Water Quality Policy; (3) Surface and Subsurface Mining: Policy Implications; (4) Oil Well

  10. The present status and trend of ionizing-radiation application on environment protection in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonghua, Ding; Degui, Zheng; Aoshuang, Yan; Guanghua, Niu

    2002-03-01

    Studies in a large scale on ionizing-radiation application on environment protection and pollution control have been carried out for nearly 20 years in China. Desulphurization and denitrification of flue gas by electron-beam processing in coal-fired power stations are a successful industrial example and therefore, a wider use of ionizing radiation in air pollution control can be expected in the near future. In addition to e-beam and 60Co radiation, electric discharge was also a useful means for the air pollution control. There were some satisfied data in removing water polluters but it seems that radiation is the only one component in the technique used to treat wastewater.

  11. Radiation protective structure alternatives for habitats of a lunar base research outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Fred J.; Foo, Lai T.; Mcgrew, William P.

    1988-01-01

    The solar and galactic cosmic radiation levels on the Moon pose a hazard to extended manned lunar missions. Lunar soil represents an available, economical material to be used for radiation shielding. Several alternatives have been suggested to use lunar soil to protect the inhabitants of a lunar base research outpost from radiation. The Universities Space Research Association has requested that a comparative analysis of the alternatives be performed, with the purpose of developing the most advantageous design. Eight alternatives have been analyzed, including an original design which was developed to satisfy the identified design criteria. The original design consists of a cylindrical module and airlock, partially buried in the lunar soil, at a depth sufficient to achieve adequate radiation shielding. The report includes descriptions of the alternatives considered, the method of analysis used, and the final design selected.

  12. Implications of scientific and technological developments for radiation protection in the next decade

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; Stansbury, P.S.; Paretzke, H.

    1993-01-01

    There are scientific and technological developments taking place that will affect the understanding of the interaction of ionizing radiation with matter, the ability to measure the important parameters of ionizing radiation, and the ability to model radioactivity transport, both in the human body and in the environment. This paper focuses on emerging scientific and technological developments that will impact radiation protection in the next decade. Emerging scientific developments included in this paper are new methods and better analytic capabilities in epidemiology, a better understanding of the interactions between ionizing radiation and the various cellular components and more realistic models to describe the uptake, distribution, retention and excretion of radionuclides in humans. Technological developments include instruments to measure radioactivity in the humans and the environment, and better software to calculate doses from these previously measured quantities.

  13. [Data protection, radiation protection and copyright: Problems of transferring results in assessment practice].

    PubMed

    Klemm, H-T

    2015-06-01

    In Germany, the medical assessor is subject to the law on contracts for work and services ("Werksvertragsrecht"). When a medical expert assesses a subject on behalf of a third party, there is no contractual relationship between them. In the field of private insurance law and in social insurance law, the medical expert is faced with various procedural requirements. Failing to meet these legal requirements often makes the assessment difficult or even impossible. The transfer of radiographs to the medical assessor is dealt with in the German X-ray regulations ("Röntgenverordnung"). The assessor, who is without doubt an examining doctor, has the right to have the radiographs temporarily made available (§ 28 et al.). Passing on the radiographs is all the more appropriate if by doing so additional X-ray examinations can be avoided. The right of access to medical data in the social security law, apart from X-ray regulations, is regulated by German Civil Code (BGB) § 810 and German Basic Law section 1 paragraph 1 in connection with section 2 paragraph 1 ("§ 810 BGB; Art. 1 Abs. 1, Art. 2 Abs. 1 GG"). In the absence of third party interest worthy of protection, the right of access to assessment records has to be granted to the subject, who will then authorize the examining medical expert to exercise this right. In private insurance law, only the private health insurance has its regulation concerning obtaining information about treatment or the access to medical assessments. In other types of insurance the medical assessor's right of access to medical examination data and/or the basis for medical findings can only be derived from secondary obligations as part of the insurance contract or directly from general constitutional personal rights. PMID:25971951

  14. Protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells by treatment with antioxidant agents

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, X. Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H.; Zhou, Zhaozong; Donahue, Jeremiah J.; Guan, Jun; Kennedy, Ann R. . E-mail: akennedy@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of antioxidant agents against space radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells. Methods and Materials: The effects of selected concentrations of N-acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, co-enzyme Q10, {alpha}-lipoic acid, L-selenomethionine, and vitamin E succinate on radiation-induced oxidative stress were evaluated in MCF10 human breast epithelial cells exposed to radiation with X-rays, {gamma}-rays, protons, or high mass, high atomic number, and high energy particles using a dichlorofluorescein assay. Results: The results demonstrated that these antioxidants are effective in protecting against radiation-induced oxidative stress and complete or nearly complete protection was achieved by treating the cells with a combination of these agents before and during the radiation exposure. Conclusion: The combination of antioxidants evaluated in this study is likely be a promising countermeasure for protection against space radiation-induced adverse biologic effects.

  15. On the use of age-specific effective dose coefficients in radiation protection of the public

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1998-11-01

    Current radiation protection standards for the public include a limit on effective dose in any year for individuals in critical groups. This paper considers the question of how the annual dose limit should be applied in controlling routine exposures of populations consisting of individuals of all ages. The authors assume that the fundamental objective of radiation protection is limitation of lifetime risk and, therefore, that standards for controlling routine exposures of the public should provide a reasonable correspondence with lifetime risk, taking into account the age dependence of intakes and doses and the variety of radionuclides and exposure pathways of concern. Using new calculations of the per capita (population-averaged) risk of cancer mortality per unit activity inhaled or ingested in the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Federal Guidance Report No. 13, the authors show that applying a limit on annual effective dose only to adults, which was the usual practice in radiation protection of the public before the development of age-specific effective dose coefficients, provides a considerably better correspondence with lifetime risk than applying the annual dose limit to the critical group of any age.

  16. Repeated Nrf2 stimulation using sulforaphane protects fibroblasts from ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sherin T; Bergström, Petra; Hammarsten, Ola

    2014-05-01

    Most of the cytotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation is mediated by radical-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Cellular protection from free radicals can be stimulated several fold by sulforaphane-mediated activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 that regulates more than 50 genes involved in the detoxification of reactive substances and radicals. Here, we report that repeated sulforaphane treatment increases radioresistance in primary human skin fibroblasts. Cells were either treated with sulforaphane for four hours once or with four-hour treatments repeatedly for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. Fibroblasts exposed to repeated-sulforaphane treatment showed a more pronounced dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated mRNA and reduced amount of radiation-induced free radicals compared with cells treated once with sulforaphane. In addition, radiation- induced DNA double-strand breaks measured by gamma-H2AX foci were attenuated following repeated sulforaphane treatment. As a result, cellular protection from ionizing radiation measured by the 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay was increased, specifically in cells exposed to repeated sulforaphane treatment. Sulforaphane treatment was unable to protect Nrf2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, indicating that the sulforaphane-induced radioprotection was Nrf2-dependent. Moreover, radioprotection by repeated sulforaphane treatment was dose-dependent with an optimal effect at 10 uM, whereas both lower and higher concentrations resulted in lower levels of radioprotection. Our data indicate that the Nrf2 system can be trained to provide further protection from radical damage. PMID:24603300

  17. History and Organizations for Radiological Protection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), an independent international organization established in 1925, develops, maintains, and elaborates radiological protection standards, legislation, and guidelines. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) provides scientific evidence. World Health Organization (WHO) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) utilise the ICRP recommendations to implement radiation protection in practice. Finally, radiation protection agencies in each country adopt the policies, and adapt them to each situation. In Korea, Nuclear Safety and Security Commission is the governmental body for nuclear safety regulation and Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety is a public organization for technical support and R&D in nuclear safety and radiation protection. PMID:26908987

  18. History and Organizations for Radiological Protection.

    PubMed

    Kang, Keon Wook

    2016-02-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), an independent international organization established in 1925, develops, maintains, and elaborates radiological protection standards, legislation, and guidelines. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) provides scientific evidence. World Health Organization (WHO) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) utilise the ICRP recommendations to implement radiation protection in practice. Finally, radiation protection agencies in each country adopt the policies, and adapt them to each situation. In Korea, Nuclear Safety and Security Commission is the governmental body for nuclear safety regulation and Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety is a public organization for technical support and R&D in nuclear safety and radiation protection. PMID:26908987

  19. Meeting Radiation Protection Requirements and Reducing Spacecraft Mass - A Multifunctional Materials Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Reddell, Brandon; Rojdev, Kristina; Franklin, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Both crew and radio-sensitive systems, especially electronics must be protected from the effects of the space radiation environment. One method of mitigating this radiation exposure is to use passive-shielding materials. In previous vehicle designs such as the International Space Station (ISS), materials such as aluminum and polyethylene have been used as parasitic shielding to protect crew and electronics from exposure, but these designs add mass and decrease the amount of usable volume inside the vehicle. Thus, it is of interest to understand whether structural materials can also be designed to provide the radiation shielding capability needed for crew and electronics, while still providing weight savings and increased useable volume when compared against previous vehicle shielding designs. In this paper, we present calculations and analysis using the HZETRN (deterministic) and FLUKA (Monte Carlo) codes to investigate the radiation mitigation properties of these structural shielding materials, which includes graded-Z and composite materials. This work is also a follow-on to an earlier paper, that compared computational results for three radiation transport codes, HZETRN, HETC, and FLUKA, using the Feb. 1956 solar particle event (SPE) spectrum. In the following analysis, we consider the October 1989 Ground Level Enhanced (GLE) SPE as the input source term based on the Band function fitting method. Using HZETRN and FLUKA, parametric absorbed doses at the center of a hemispherical structure on the lunar surface are calculated for various thicknesses of graded-Z layups and an all-aluminum structure. HZETRN and FLUKA calculations are compared and are in reasonable (18% to 27%) agreement. Both codes are in agreement with respect to the predicted shielding material performance trends. The results from both HZETRN and FLUKA are analyzed and the radiation protection properties and potential weight savings of various materials and materials lay-ups are compared.

  20. [MODIFICATION OF THE PROTON BEAM PHYSICAL PARAMETERS AND RADIOBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS BY ELEMENTS OF SPACECRAFT RADIATION PROTECTION].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A A; Molokanov, A G; Shurshakov, V A; Bulynina, T M; Liakhova, K N; Severiukhin, Yu S; Abrosimova, A N; Ushakov, I B

    2015-01-01

    The experiment was performed with outbred ICR (CD-1). female mice (SPF). The animals were irradiated by 171 MeV protons at a dose of 20 cGy. The spacecraft radiation protection elements used in the experiment were a construction of wet hygiene wipes called a "protective blind", and a glass plate imitating an ISS window. Physical obstacles on the path of 171 MeV protons increase their linear energy transfer leading to the absorbed dose elevation and strengthening of the radiobiological effect. In the experiment, two types of obstacles together raised the absorbed dose from 20 to 23.2 cGy. Chemically different materials (glass and water in the wipes) were found to exert unequal modifying effects on physical and biological parameters of the proton-irradiated mice. There was a distinct dose-dependent reduction of bone marrow cellularity within the dose range from 20 cGy to 23.2 cGy in 24 hours after exposure. No modifying effect of the radiation protection elements on spontaneous motor activity was discovered when compared with entrance protons. The group of animals protected by the glass plate exhibited normal orientative-trying reactions and weakened grip with the forelimbs. Rationalization of physical methods of spacecrew protection should be based as on knowledge in physical dosimetry (ionizing chambers, thermoluminescent, track detectors etc.), so the radiobiological criteria established in experiments with animals. PMID:26738306

  1. Attenuation of X and Gamma Rays in Personal Radiation Shielding Protective Clothing.

    PubMed

    Kozlovska, Michaela; Cerny, Radek; Otahal, Petr

    2015-11-01

    A collection of personal radiation shielding protective clothing, suitable for use in case of accidents in nuclear facilities or radiological emergency situations involving radioactive agents, was gathered and tested at the Nuclear Protection Department of the National Institute for Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Protection, Czech Republic. Attenuating qualities of shielding layers in individual protective clothing were tested via spectra measurement of x and gamma rays, penetrating them. The rays originated from different radionuclide point sources, the gamma ray energies of which cover a broad energy range. The spectra were measured by handheld spectrometers, both scintillation and High Purity Germanium. Different narrow beam geometries were adjusted using a special testing bench and a set of various collimators. The main experimentally determined quantity for individual samples of personal radiation shielding protective clothing was x and gamma rays attenuation for significant energies of the spectra. The attenuation was assessed comparing net peak areas (after background subtraction) in spectra, where a tested sample was placed between the source and the detector, and corresponding net peak areas in spectra, measured without the sample. Mass attenuation coefficients, which describe attenuating qualities of shielding layers materials in individual samples, together with corresponding lead equivalents, were determined as well. Experimentally assessed mass attenuation coefficients of the samples were compared to the referred ones for individual heavy metals. PMID:26425983

  2. Protection from radiation-induced damage to spermatogenesis by hormone treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kurdoglu, B.; Wilson, G.; Parchuri, N.; Ye, W.; Meistrich, M.L.

    1994-07-01

    Infertility caused by killing of the spermatogonial stem cells occurs frequently in men treated for cancer with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We investigated whether pretreatment of rats with testosterone plus estradiol, which reversibly inhibits the completion of spermatogenesis and protects spermatogonial stem cells from procarbazine-induced damage, would also protect these cells from radiation. Adult male LBNF rats were implanted for 6 weeks with capsules containing testosterone and estradiol and then irradiated with doses from 2.5-7.0 Gy. Controls were irradiated with 1.8-3.5 Gy. Implants were removed 1 day after irradiation, and all animals were killed 10 weeks later for assessment of stem cell survival by counting repopulating tubules in histological sections and by sperm head counts. At doses of 2.5 and 3.5 Gy the repopulation indices and sperm head counts were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the rats treated with testosterone and estradiol than in the controls. Protection factors calculated from the dose-response curves were in the range of 1.5-2.2. Elucidation of the mechanism of protection is essential to apply it to clinical situations. The fact that the spermatogonia are protected against radiation as well as procarbazine indicates that the mechanism does not involve drug delivery or metabolism. 32 refs., 3 figs.

  3. [Grounds for using cattle as one of reference organisms in the system of environmental protection from radiation].

    PubMed

    Budarkov, V A

    2009-01-01

    Taking into consideration the basic principles of environmental protection from radiation as stated in Publication 91 of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), we suggest cattle to be included into fauna reference species group. The choice is based upon cattle being a typical representative of specific ecosystems and may serve as an informative biological indicator and comparable with humans for its susceptibility to radiation effects. Cattle will receive some higher radiation doses as compared to humans due to its habitat, also earlier determined physiological and radiation constants for cattle are available. Furthermore, there are some data for the effects of radiation levels more than 10 times as higher than the natural ones upon cattle reproductive function and leucosis infection. Using cattle as one of reference organisms will not complicate considerably the systems for environmental protection against radiation as compared to the ones existing now, that will just modify and supplement them. PMID:19507686

  4. Can angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors protect against symptomatic radiation pneumonitis?

    PubMed

    Wang, L W; Fu, X L; Clough, R; Sibley, G; Fan, M; Bentel, G C; Marks, L B; Anscher, M S

    2000-04-01

    This study was designed to determine whether patients taking angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors while receiving radiation therapy for lung cancer are protected from developing symptomatic radiation pneumonitis. The records of 213 eligible patients receiving thoracic irradiation for lung cancer with curative intent at Duke University Medical Center from 1994-1997 were reviewed. Of the 213 patients, 26 (12.2%) were on ACE inhibitors (usually for the management of hypertension) during radiotherapy (group 1); the remaining 187 patients (group 2) were not. Patients were irradiated, with fields shaped to protect normal tissues, with total doses of 50-80 Gy. After treatment, patients were generally followed every 3 months for 2 years, then every 6 months thereafter. Symptomatic radiation pneumonitis was scored according to modified National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (i.e., radiographic changes alone were not sufficient for the diagnosis of pneumonitis). There was no difference in the incidence of pneumonitis between the two groups (P = 0.75). Fifteen percent of the patients on ACE inhibitors (group 1) developed symptomatic radiation-induced lung injury compared to 12% of the patients not receiving these drugs (group 2). Although patients in group 1 tended to develop pneumonitis slightly sooner than did patients in group 2, this difference also was not significant (P = 0. 8). Within the dose range prescribed for treating hypertension, ACE inhibitors do not appear to either decrease the incidence or delay the onset of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis among lung cancer patients receiving thoracic irradiation. PMID:10761000

  5. Protective Effect of Anthocyanins from Lingonberry on Radiation-induced Damages

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zi-Luan; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Zuo, Li-Li; Tian, Shuang-Qi

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the serious harm of radioactive materials, which are widely used in energy production, scientific research, medicine, industry and other areas. In recent years, owing to the great side effects of anti-radiation drugs, research on the radiation protectants has gradually expanded from the previous chemicals to the use of natural anti-radiation drugs and functional foods. Some reports have confirmed that anthocyanins are good antioxidants, which can effectively eliminate free radicals, but studies on the immunoregulatory and anti-radiation effects of anthocyanins from lingonberry (ALB) are less reported. In this experiment, mice were given orally once daily for 14 consecutive days before exposure to 6 Gy of gamma-radiation and were sacrificed on the 7th day post-irradiation. The results showed that the selected dose of extract did not lead to acute toxicity in mice; while groups given anthocyanins orally were significantly better than radiation control group according to blood analysis; pretreatment of anthocyanins significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the thymus and spleen indices and spleen cell survival compared to the irradiation control group. Pretreatment with anthocyanins before irradiation significantly reduced the numbers of micronuclei (MN) in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs). These findings indicate that anthocyanins have immunostimulatory potential against immunosuppression induced by the radiation. PMID:23249859

  6. Radiation Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  7. Radiation Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances and Toxics Sustainable ...

  8. Use of a Stilbene Brightener, Tinopal LPW, as a Radiation Protectant for Steinernema carpocapsae.

    PubMed

    Nickle, W R; Shapiro, M

    1992-09-01

    A stilbene fluorescent brightener, Tinopal LPW, was used as an ultraviolet (UV) protectant for the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (All strain). Irradiation of an aqueous suspension of nematodes produced a LC in 15.7 minutes under a sunlamp and in 31.7 minutes in direct sunlight. Irradiation by both sunlamp and sunlight of a suspension of nematodes in Tinopal LPW did not reduce their biological activity as measured by their ability to parasitize wax moth larvae after exposure of 8 hours and 4 hours, respectively. Tinopal LPW appeared promising as a radiation protectant. PMID:19283011

  9. Radiation protection during treatment of children with 131I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine

    SciTech Connect

    van der Steen, J.; Maessen, H.J.; Hoefnagel, C.A.; Marcuse, H.R.

    1986-04-01

    This paper describes the radiation protection procedures that were used in caring for three children treated with therapeutic amounts of 131I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine. Since it was not possible to leave a child alone in a shielded room for several days, the presence of one parent was requested during the treatment. The dose equivalent to the parent was kept to an acceptable level of approximately 1 mSv. This dose equivalent was almost completely due to external radiation since blocking of the parent's thyroid led to a negligible dose equivalent from internal contamination.

  10. Protection effects of condensed bromoacenaphthylene on radiation deterioration of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Y.; Hagiwara, M.; Kasai, N.

    1982-09-01

    As a continuation of a series of the studies on the flame and ..gamma..-radiation resistant modification of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM), condensed bromoacenaphthylene (con-BACN) as a newly developed flame retardant was synthesized and its effects on the radiation resistance of EPDM were investigated. The radiation resistance evaluated by measuring tensile properties of irradiated sheets of 2 mm thick was found improved greatly by adding con-BACN together with ordinary rubber ingredients but decreased by decabromodiphenylether (DBDPE) that has bromins in aromatic rings as con-BACN. When EPDM sheets of 1 mm thick were irradiated in oxygen at a dose rate of 1 X 10/sup 5/ rad/h, the weight swelling ratio increased with increasing dose, indicating that oxidative main chain scission is predominant under the irradiation conditions. On the other hand, crosslinking was shown to be predominant in nitrogen. From the results of the swelling experiments with different additives, it was concluded that DBDPE accelerates both the main chain scission in oxygen and the crosslinking in nitrogen. In contrast to this, con-BACN reduced the chain scission in oxygen. This observation was accounted by the assumption that the influence of the oxidative chain scission is partly compensated by the concurrent crosslinking which takes place through additions of con-BACN to substrate polymers even in the presence of oxygen.

  11. Fourth conference on radiation protection and dosimetry: Proceedings, program, and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Casson, W.H.; Thein, C.M.; Bogard, J.S.

    1994-10-01

    This Conference is the fourth in a series of conferences organized by staff members of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to improve communication in the field of radiation protection and dosimetry. Scientists, regulators, managers, professionals, technologists, and vendors from the United States and countries around the world have taken advantage of this opportunity to meet with their contemporaries and peers in order to exchange information and ideas. The program includes over 100 papers in 9 sessions, plus an additional session for works in progress. Papers are presented in external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, radiation protection programs and assessments, developments in instrumentation and materials, environmental and medical applications, and on topics related to standards, accreditation, and calibration. Individual papers are indexed separately on EDB.

  12. Applying cost analyses to drive policy that protects children: mercury as a case study.

    PubMed

    Trasande, Leonardo; Schechter, Clyde; Haynes, Karla A; Landrigan, Philip J

    2006-09-01

    Exposure in prenatal life to methylmercury (MeHg) has become the topic of intense debate in the United States after the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a proposal in 2004 to reverse strict controls on emissions of mercury from coal-fired power plants that had been in effect for the preceding 15 years. This proposal failed to incorporate any consideration of the health impacts on children that would result from increased mercury emissions. We assessed the impact on children's health of industrial mercury emissions and found that between 316,588 and 637,233 babies are born with mercury-related losses of cognitive function ranging from 0.2 to 5.13 points. We calculated that decreased economic productivity resulting from diminished intelligence over a lifetime results in an aggregate economic cost in each annual birth cohort of $8.7 billion annually (range: $0.7-$13.9 billion, 2000 dollars). $1.3 billion (range: $51 million-$2.0 billion) of this cost is attributable to mercury emitted from American coal-fired power plants. Downward shifts in intellectual quotient (IQ) are also associated with 1566 (range: 115-2675) excess cases of mental retardation (MR defined as IQ < 70) annually. This number accounts for 3.2% (range: 0.2-5.4%) of MR cases in the United States. If the lifetime excess cost of a case of MR (excluding individual productivity losses) is $1,248,648 in 2000 dollars, then the cost of these excess cases of MR is $2.0 billion annually (range: $143 million-$3.3 billion). Preliminary data suggest that more stringent mercury policy options would prevent thousands of cases of MR and billions of dollars over the next 25 years. PMID:17119266

  13. On the potential impact of the newly proposed quality factors on space radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1987-01-01

    The recently proposed changes in the defined quality factor hold great potential for easing some of the protection requirements from electrons and protons in the near-Earth environment. At the same time, the high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) components play an even more important role which must be further evaluated. Several recommendations are made which need to be addressed before these new quality factors can be implemented into space radiation potection practice.

  14. Melanin-Covered Nanoparticles for Protection of Bone Marrow During Radiation Therapy of Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, Andrew D.; Revskaya, Ekaterina; Chu, Peter; Pazo, Valeria; Friedman, Matthew; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Cahill, Sean; Frases, Susana; Casadevall, Arturo; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: Protection of bone marrow against radiotoxicity during radioimmunotherapy and in some cases external beam radiation therapy such as hemi-body irradiation would permit administration of significantly higher doses to tumors, resulting in increased efficacy and safety of treatment. Melanin, a naturally occurring pigment, possesses radioprotective properties. We hypothesized that melanin, which is insoluble, could be delivered to the bone marrow by intravenously administrated melanin-covered nanoparticles (MNs) because of the human body's 'self-sieving' ability, protecting it against ionizing radiation. Methods and Materials: The synthesis of MNs was performed via enzymatic polymerization of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and/or 5-S-cysteinyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine on the surface of 20-nm plain silica nanoparticles. The biodistribution of radiolabeled MNs in mice was done at 3 and 24 h. Healthy CD-1 mice (Charles River Laboratories International, Inc., Wilmington, MA) or melanoma tumor-bearing nude mice were given MNs intravenously, 50 mg/kg of body weight, 3 h before either whole-body exposure to 125 cGy or treatment with 1 mCi of {sup 188}Re-labeled 6D2 melanin-binding antibody. Results: Polymerization of melanin precursors on the surface of silica nanoparticles resulted in formation of a 15-nm-thick melanin layer as confirmed by light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence. The biodistribution after intravenous administration showed than MN uptake in bone marrow was 0.3% and 0.2% of injected dose per gram at 3 and 24 h, respectively, whereas pre-injection with pluronic acid increased the uptake to 6% and 3% of injected dose per gram, respectively. Systemic MN administration reduced hematologic toxicity in mice treated with external radiation or radioimmunotherapy, whereas no tumor protection by MNs was observed. Conclusions: MNs or similar structures provide a novel approach to protection of bone marrow from ionizing radiation based on prevention of free radical formation by melanin.

  15. Radiation protection potential of MOX-fuel doped with 231Pa and Cs radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Kryuchkov, E F; Glebov, V B; Apse, V A; Shmelev, A N

    2005-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of MOX-fuel self-protection during full cycle of MOX-fuel management. Under conditions of the closed LWR cycle the proliferation-resistance levels were evaluated for fresh and spent MOX-fuel with 231Pa and Cs feed. As it follows from the paper results, combination of these two admixtures being doped into MOX-fuel is able to enhance the inherent radiation barrier and to weaken shortcomings of both proliferation deterrents. PMID:16381734

  16. [Radiation protection in orthopaedics: implications for clinical practice of the new regulations governing roentgen ray irradiation and radioprotection].

    PubMed

    Nestle, U; Berlich, J

    2006-05-01

    In 2001 or 2002, the legislator made substantial alterations to the "Röntgenverordnung" [regulations governing use of roentgen ray radiation] and "Strahlenschutzverordnung" [regulations governing radiation protection]. This was done to bring German law in line with EU Directives 96/29/Euratom (basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation) and 97/43/Euratom (health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionizing radiation in relation to medical exposure). Proper use of radiation in medicine requires that those involved in its application are aware of the biological effects of radiation. When staff and others are protected good organization and appropriate technology at the workplace can achieve a great deal. In the new directives, the radiation protection for the patient is quantified and the responsibility of the physician is clearly pointed out. The most important aim is uniform quality throughout Europe in radiological diagnosis and radiation protection. PMID:16622706

  17. Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects. Final Rule. Technical Amendments. Federal Register, Department of Education, 34 CFR Part 97

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The agencies listed in this document are amending the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, which was published in the Federal Register on June 18, 1991, to change all references to the Office for Protection from Research Risks (OPRR) to the Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP); revise the footnote found at the end of…

  18. An appraisal of the need for infrared radiation protection in sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Diffey, Brian; Cadars, Benot

    2016-03-01

    Many sunscreens incorporate agents that are said to protect against infrared (IR) damage in the skin but we lack any real data on their benefit in the context of normal human behaviour in the sun. The object of this study was to examine typical IR exposure levels to the sun and industrial sources in order to decide whether there is a need for sunscreens to contain agents that protect against IR radiation, specifically the IR-A waveband. We reviewed claims currently made by products offering protection against IR-A and studies on the biological and clinical effects attributed to IR-A, and compared IR-A exposure levels from these studies with those typically received from the sun and from industrial sources. We found that annual levels of IR-A exposure resulting from typical behaviour in the sun are commensurate with those experienced occupationally by workers exposed to industrial sources of IR, such as steel and glass furnaces. Yet these workers appear to suffer little in the way of chronic skin damage. We conclude that there is not compelling evidence to demonstrate that observable, deleterious cutaneous effects are occurring at doses of solar IR radiation corresponding to those experienced by populations in their normal environments and for this reason we believe it is premature to incorporate IR protection into topical sunscreens and to make claims related to ageing of the skin that consumers may expect to see. PMID:26846677

  19. Sunscreens: topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against harmful effects of solar radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, M.A.

    1982-09-01

    This review deals with topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against the harmful effects of solar radiation. Two concerns about the deleterious effects of sun exposure involve: (1) acute effects (e.g., sunburn and drug-induced phototoxicity) and (2) potential long-term risks of repeated sun exposures leading to development of solar elastosis, keratoses, induction of both nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer, and alteration of immune responses and functions. Action spectra of normal and abnormal reactions of human skin to acute and chronic effects of solar radiation are presented with a view to helping the physician prescribe the appropriate sunscreens. Factors that influence acute effects of sunburn are reviewed. Various artificial methods effective in minimizing or preventing harmful effects of solar radiation, both in normal individuals and in patients with photosensitivity-related problems, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the commercially available chemical sunscreens and their properties. Sun protection factor (SPF) values of several brand-name formulations determined with a solar simulator under indoor conditions (laboratory) and with solar radiation under natural, field conditions are presented. Factors responsible for variations of SPF values observed under indoor and outdoor conditions are reviewed. Systemic photoprotective agents and their limitations are outlined. The photobiology of melanin pigmentation (the tanning reaction) is briefly discussed, with emphasis on the dangers of using quick-tanning lotions for stimulation of the tanning reaction.

  20. Fluence-based and microdosimetric event-based methods for radiation protection in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Stanley B.; Meinhold, C. B. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recently published a report (Report #137) that discusses various aspects of the concepts used in radiation protection and the difficulties in measuring the radiation environment in spacecraft for the estimation of radiation risk to space travelers. Two novel dosimetric methodologies, fluence-based and microdosimetric event-based methods, are discussed and evaluated, along with the more conventional quality factor/LET method. It was concluded that for the present, any reason to switch to a new methodology is not compelling. It is suggested that because of certain drawbacks in the presently-used conventional method, these alternative methodologies should be kept in mind. As new data become available and dosimetric techniques become more refined, the question should be revisited and that in the future, significant improvement might be realized. In addition, such concepts as equivalent dose and organ dose equivalent are discussed and various problems regarding the measurement/estimation of these quantities are presented.