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1

The LNT Debate in Radiation Protection: Science vs. Policy.  

PubMed

There is considerable interest in revisiting LNT theory as the basis for the system of radiation protection in the US and worldwide. Arguing the scientific merits of policy options is not likely to be fruitful because the science is not robust enough to support one theory to the exclusion of others. Current science cannot determine the existence of a dose threshold, a key piece to resolving the matter scientifically. The nature of the scientific evidence is such that risk assessment at small effective doses (defined as <100 mSv) is highly uncertain, and several policy alternatives, including threshold and non-linear dose-response functions, are scientifically defensible. This paper argues for an alternative approach by looking at the LNT debate as a policy question and analyzes the problem from a social and economic perspective. In other words, risk assessment and a strictly scientific perspective are insufficiently broad enough to resolve the issue completely. A wider perspective encompassing social and economic impacts in a risk management context is necessary, but moving the debate to the policy and risk management arena necessarily marginalizes the role of scientists. PMID:22740781

Mossman, Kenneth L

2012-01-01

2

The LNT Debate in Radiation Protection: Science vs. Policy  

PubMed Central

There is considerable interest in revisiting LNT theory as the basis for the system of radiation protection in the US and worldwide. Arguing the scientific merits of policy options is not likely to be fruitful because the science is not robust enough to support one theory to the exclusion of others. Current science cannot determine the existence of a dose threshold, a key piece to resolving the matter scientifically. The nature of the scientific evidence is such that risk assessment at small effective doses (defined as <100 mSv) is highly uncertain, and several policy alternatives, including threshold and non-linear dose-response functions, are scientifically defensible. This paper argues for an alternative approach by looking at the LNT debate as a policy question and analyzes the problem from a social and economic perspective. In other words, risk assessment and a strictly scientific perspective are insufficiently broad enough to resolve the issue completely. A wider perspective encompassing social and economic impacts in a risk management context is necessary, but moving the debate to the policy and risk management arena necessarily marginalizes the role of scientists. PMID:22740781

Mossman, Kenneth L.

2012-01-01

3

Radiation Protection Policy Section 1.8 1.8. Training  

E-print Network

Radiation Protection Policy Section 1.8 1.8. Training 1.8.1.All persons working with ionising radiations within the University of Exeter must receive training in the work they are to undertake. 1. At the end of this interview, the worker will sign a declaration that this section of the training

Mumby, Peter J.

4

RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR RADIATION PROTECTION AT TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY................................................................................................................I-1 B. Radiation Protection Program...............................................................................I-3 D. Radiation Safety Management

Zhang, Yuanlin

5

Radiation Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation protection is a very important aspect for the application of particle detectors in many different fields, like high energy physics, medicine, materials science, oil and mineral exploration, and arts, to name a few. The knowledge of radiation units, the experience with shielding, and information on biological effects of radiation are vital for scientists handling radioactive sources or operating accelerators or X-ray equipment. This article describes the modern radiation units and their conversions to older units which are still in use in many countries. Typical radiation sources and detectors used in the field of radiation protection are presented. The legal regulations in nearly all countries follow closely the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Tables and diagrams with relevant information on the handling of radiation sources provide useful data for the researcher working in this field.

Grupen, Claus

6

BEIR-III report and its implications for radiation protection and public health policy  

SciTech Connect

A general background is given of the implications the BEIR-III Report may have on societal decision-making in the regulation of activities concerned with the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific basis for establishing appropriate radiation protection guides are discussed. (ACR)

Fabrikant, J.I.

1980-03-01

7

Data Protection Policy Page 1 DATA PROTECTION POLICY  

E-print Network

Data Protection Policy Page 1 DATA PROTECTION POLICY POLICY STATEMENT The University intends to fully comply with all requirements of the Data Protection Act 1998 (,,Act) in so far as it affects the Universitys activities. SCOPE This Data Protection Policy: Covers the processing of all personal information

Greenlees, John

8

Commentary: Ethical Issues of Current Health-Protection Policies on Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation  

PubMed Central

The linear no-threshold (LNT) model of ionizing-radiation-induced cancer is based on the assumption that every radiation dose increment constitutes increased cancer risk for humans. The risk is hypothesized to increase linearly as the total dose increases. While this model is the basis for radiation safety regulations, its scientific validity has been questioned and debated for many decades. The recent memorandum of the International Commission on Radiological Protection admits that the LNT-model predictions at low doses are “speculative, unproven, undetectable and ‘phantom’.” Moreover, numerous experimental, ecological, and epidemiological studies show that low doses of sparsely-ionizing or sparsely-ionizing plus highly-ionizing radiation may be beneficial to human health (hormesis/adaptive response). The present LNT-model-based regulations impose excessive costs on the society. For example, the median-cost medical program is 5000 times more cost-efficient in saving lives than controlling radiation emissions. There are also lives lost: e.g., following Fukushima accident, more than 1000 disaster-related yet non-radiogenic premature deaths were officially registered among the population evacuated due to radiation concerns. Additional negative impacts of LNT-model-inspired radiophobia include: refusal of some patients to undergo potentially life-saving medical imaging; discouragement of the study of low-dose radiation therapies; motivation for radiological terrorism and promotion of nuclear proliferation. PMID:24910586

Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Doss, Mohan; Feinendegen, Ludwig E.; Janiak, Marek K.; Miller, Mark L.; Sanders, Charles L.; Scott, Bobby R.; Ulsh, Brant; Vaiserman, Alexander

2014-01-01

9

Data Protection Policy Version History Data Protection Policy  

E-print Network

Data Protection Policy Version History ­ Data Protection Policy Version Author Revisions Made Date and Strategy taken by James Newby to the Executive Board 2009. Information Compliance Unit 1 July 2009 #12;DATA PROTECTION POLICY 1. Introduction 1.1 The Data Protection Act 1998 applies to all personal information about

Doran, Simon J.

10

Mobile phone health risk policy in Germany: the role of the federal government and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection.  

PubMed

In order to establish a regulatory framework for a given technology important to society, the government must make decisions in the face of existing unknowingness. In the last decade, health risks originating from electromagnetic fields of mobile telecommunication transmitting stations and devices have become a regulation policy issue in Germany. This article investigates the role of the government and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection in regard to policy-making by analysing publications and Federal Parliament reports, hearings and debates. The government and Federal Parliament perceived the research situation in 2001 as insufficient in the absence of hard evidence for health impairment. Against this background, the government struck a compromise with mobile telecommunication network operators, who did not want to integrate stricter limit values for transmission stations as precautionary measures. The network operators' voluntary self-commitment included financing half the budget of the German Mobile Telecommunication Research Programme (2002-2008) under the lead management of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, which concluded that it was not required to change the position taken in 2001. The results of this programme provided the basis to continue the agreement of that year. With regard to health issues and all the other interests involved, this agreement was an acceptable and remarkably stable compromise. PMID:21923562

Schweikardt, Christoph; Gross, Dominik

2012-01-01

11

Radiation protection challenges facing the federal agencies.  

PubMed

In the United States, federal agencies are responsible for setting national policy and performance expectations for radiation protection programs. National policy establishes a regulatory regime, under which society can realize the beneficial uses of radiation while at the same time protecting workers, the public, and environment from the potential hazards of radiation. The challenges facing federal agencies continue to revolve around finding the right balance between benefit and adverse impact. Federal agencies are petitioned to support the research community to provide a sound scientific basis for informing the decision-making process related to radiation protection policy. The federal agencies are further challenged to consider the deliberations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) who bring together the best technical minds in the field to consider the latest scientific information and provide recommendations for establishing comprehensive and coherent radiation protection programs. The uncertainty inherent in research and the conservatism in the models and recommendations of the ICRP and NCRP should be transparent and communicated because determining the level of uncertainty and the degree of conservatism acceptable to society is a challenge for, and the responsibility of, the federal agencies in creating performance-based policies in public health and radiation protection. It is through the federal government's open, inclusive, and democratic processes where society strikes the balance that defines adequate radiation protection policy, builds public trust, and allows the radiation protection professionals to properly implement and manage that policy. PMID:15303063

Jones, C Rick

2004-09-01

12

US EPA Radiation Protection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is from the US Environmental Protection Agency on Radiation Protection. It gives an overview of the basics including: Exposure to Gamma Radiation, Health Effects, and Protecting People from Gamma Radiation A gamma ray is a packet of electromagnetic energy--a photon. Gamma photons are the most energetic photons in the electromagnetic spectrum. Gamma rays (gamma photons) are emitted from the nucleus of some unstable (radioactive) atoms.

2010-04-05

13

Regulatory aspects of radiation protection.  

PubMed

The paper introduces the projects launched by the European Community to foster prospects in dosimetry, radiation protection and best use of equipment in the medical field. These projects are put in perspective with the European legal framework for radiation protection, in particular, the Basic Safety Standards Directive, the Medical Exposures Directive and the Directive on High-Activity Sealed Sources. A summary is given of the overall mission statements of the commission services in the field of radiation protection, including the field of research, and how they relate to other actions in the overall health policy of the EU. In conclusion, a number of priority areas for future work in the medical field are highlighted. PMID:16461539

Janssens, A; Sarro Vaquero, M

2005-01-01

14

Environmental Radiation Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental distribution of radionuclides, released from nuclear facilities and other sources, and the principles of the emergency countermeasures for radiation protection of the public and workers are discussed in this chapter. The concentration levels of radionuclides in various aquatic and terrestrial environments and the exposure levels of the population due to the various sources of radiation (natural and artificial radionuclides, cosmic radiation, diagnostic medical examinations, atmospheric nuclear tests, etc.) are presented.

Maeda, Y.; Osaki, S.; Vincze, A.

15

Radiation protection for nurses. Regulations and guidelines  

SciTech Connect

Rules and regulations of federal agencies and state radiation protection programs provide the bases for hospital policy regarding radiation safety for nurses. Nursing administrators should work with the radiation safety officer at their institutions to ensure that radiation exposures to staff nurses will be as low as reasonably achievable and that special consideration will be given to pregnant nurses. Nurses' fears about their exposure to radiation can be greatly reduced through education.

Jankowski, C.B. (Radiation Safety Office, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

1992-02-01

16

Radiation protection and instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation was found not to be an operational problem during the Apollo program. Doses received by the crewmen of Apollo missions 7 through 17 were small because no major solar-particle events occurred during those missions. One small event was detected by a radiation sensor outside the Apollo 12 spacecraft, but no increase in radiation dose to the crewmen inside the spacecraft was detected. Radiation protection for the Apollo program was focused on both the peculiarities of the natural space radiation environment and the increased prevalence of manmade radiation sources on the ground and onboard the spacecraft. Radiation-exposure risks to crewmen were assessed and balanced against mission gain to determine mission constraints. Operational radiation evaluation required specially designed radiation detection systems onboard the spacecraft in addition to the use of satellite data, solar observatory support, and other liaison. Control and management of radioactive sources and radiation-generating equipment was important in minimizing radiation exposure of ground-support personnel, researchers, and the Apollo flight and backup crewmen.

Bailey, J. V.

1975-01-01

17

Radiation Shielding and Radiological Protection  

E-print Network

Radiation Shielding and Radiological Protection J. Kenneth Shultis Richard E. Faw Department@triad.rr.com Radiation Fields and Sources ................................................ . Radiation Field Variables........................................................... .. Direction and Solid Angle Conventions ......................................... .. Radiation Fluence

Shultis, J. Kenneth

18

Manifolds and Radiation Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past 40 years humans have travelled beyond Earth's atmosphere, orbiting the planets for extended periods of time and landing on the Moon. Humans have survived this overwhelming challenge but to assure future exploration of space further expertise in the long term survival in space must be obtained. The International Space Station (ISS) provides this opportunity and allows space scientist to fine-tune their knowledge and prepare for even bolder human space missions. In this work we focus on the aspect of radiation, perhaps the most complex one from a physical and physiological perspective. Travel beyond the Earth's atmosphere and especially to Moon and Mars requires a precise consideration of the radiation environment as radiation exposure could be a show-stopper. At the moment scientists have not yet developed complete and reliable systems for radiation protection. Most likely an adequate level of protection will be reached through an integrated countermeasure system which could include: shields, monitoring of the environment, drugs to protect from damage, etc.

Rossitto, Franco; Petrov, Vladislav M.; Ongaro, Filippo

19

Impact of the 1980 BEIR-III report on low-level radiation risk assessment, radiation protection guides, and public health policy  

SciTech Connect

The author deals with the scientific basis for establishing appropriate radiation protection guides, and this effect on evaluation of societal activities concerned with the health effects in human populations exposed to low-level radiation. Methodology is discussed for estimating risks of radio-induced cancer and genetically related ill-health in man, the sources of data, the dose-response models used, and the precision ascribed to the process. (PSB)

Fabrikant, J.I.

1981-06-01

20

Policy Name: Policy on the Personal Information Protection and Electronic  

E-print Network

Policy Name: Policy on the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, Canada Committee Date of Original Policy: May 24, 1995 Last Updated: November 2013 Mandatory Revision Date: November 2018 Contact: University Secretary Policy: [Note: This Policy replaces the policy known as "Access

Dawson, Jeff W.

21

Chemical Protection Against Radiation Damage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses potential war time and medical uses for chemical compounds giving protection against radiation damage. Describes compounds known to protect, research aimed at discovering such compounds, and problems of toxicity. (EB)

Campaigne, Ernest

1969-01-01

22

Pregnancy and Radiation Protection  

SciTech Connect

Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating oncologist, other team and family members should carefully discuss for the decision of abortion. Important factors must be considered such as the stage and aggressiveness of the tumour, the location of the tumour, the stage of pregnancy, various therapies etc.

Gerogiannis, J. [Nicosia General Hospital, Nicosia (Cyprus); Stefanoyiannis, A. P. [University General Hospital of Athens 'Attikon', Athens (Greece)

2010-01-21

23

Radiation Protection Guidance Hospital Staff  

E-print Network

Page 1 Radiation Protection Guidance For Hospital Staff Prepared for Stanford The privilege to use ionizing radiation at Stanford University, Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Lucile Packard with radioactive materials or radiation devices are responsible for knowing and adhering to applicable requirements

Kay, Mark A.

24

Optical Radiation: Laser Protection  

MedlinePLUS

... protection at all times. Determine the maximum power density, or intensity, lasers produce when workers are exposed ... following table shows the maximum power or energy density for which adequate protection is afforded by safety ...

25

CHEMICAL PROTECTION AGAINST IONIZING RADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work on chemical protection against radiation effects in mammals ; is reviewed, especially with respect to whole-body exposure to external radiation. ; This survey shows that many explanations are being offered to account for the ; action of radioprotective agents. In general, the proposed mechanisms are ; concerned with inactivation of radicals and other chemical intermediates, ; depletion of

R. L. Straube; H. M. Patt

1963-01-01

26

Radiation Protection in Interventional Radiology (*)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interventional procedures are used by a significant number of medical specialities. Radiation protection (RP) for patients and staff is one of the main issues in Interventional Radiology (IR). UNSCEAR, ICRP and IAEA have devoted significant time over the last years to improve radiation safety in IR. Several combined factors: prolonged localized fluoroscopy, multiple radiographic exposures, and repeated procedures can cause

Eliseo Vano

27

Radiation Protection Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... have been contaminated or used for disposal of radioactive material. We also account for the shielding provided by buildings for a person working or living at a site that has been cleaned up. Health Effects This page describes the effects of radiation exposure.

28

Policy #3011 Identity Theft Protection Program 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

Policy #3011 ­ Identity Theft Protection Program 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY University Policy Policy #3011 IDENTITY THEFT PROTECTION PROGRAM Responsible Oversight Executive: Vice President of this policy is to develop an Identity Theft Prevention Program (hereinafter referred to as "Program

29

Protection against solar ultraviolet radiation.  

PubMed

Interest in protection against solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) among the general public in Australia has been increasing steadily as a result of the 'SunSmart' campaigns run by the various state cancer councils. This increasing awareness is due in part to the requirements for occupational protection of outdoor workers and to provision of UVR protection for the recreational market. Behaviour outdoors can significantly affect exposure to solar UVR and use of items of personal protection can provide a substantial reduction in the UVR dose received. The protective properties of sunscreens, sunglasses, hats and clothing against UVR have been the subject of considerable research for some time, and over the last few years interest has extended to the provision of shade structures and the UVR protection provided by various commonly used materials. These materials include shadecloth, plastics, glass, windscreens and applicable tints. Australia has rigorous standards covering protection and UVR, in particular for sunscreens [Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand, Sunscreen products-evaluation and classification, Report No. AS 2604, Sydney/Wellington, 1993.], sunglasses [Standards Australia, Sunglasses and fashion spectacles-nonprescription types, Report No. AS 1067.1, Sydney, 1990.], protective eyewear [Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand, Eye protectors for industrial applications, Report No. AS/NZS 1337, Sydney/Wellington, 1992.] and shadecloth [Standards Australia, Synthetic shadecloth, Report No. AS 4174, Sydney, 1994.]. Compliance with the sunglass standard became mandatory in 1988 and UVR protection provided by sunglasses has increased substantially since then. In July 1996 a standard on 'sun protective textiles' [Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand, Sun protective clothing-evaluation and classification, Report No. AS/NZS 4399, Sydney, 1996.] incorporating ultraviolet protection factors (UPFs) and a rating scheme with protection categories, was introduced; this was the first of its kind in the world. Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL) UPF swing tags with UVR protection advice from the Australian Cancer Society on the reverse side are used to denote the amount of protection against solar UVR provided by clothing. To date in excess of 5 million ARL swing tags have been issued. Work on the various standards is continuing. The maximum allowed 'sun protection factor' (SPF) limit for sunscreens may be increased to SPF 30 + in the near future, and additions to the sun protective textiles standard are also planned. This paper discusses measurement methods, results, the rationale used in formulating the Australian Standards and the current state of UVR protection in Australia. PMID:9920424

Gies, P H; Roy, C R; Toomey, S; McLennan, A

1998-11-01

30

1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

Not Available

1993-12-31

31

Protection against radiation (biological, pharmacological, chemical, physical)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical, chemical, and biological protection for astronauts from penetrating radiation on long-term space flights is discussed. The status of pharmacochemical protection, development of protective substances, medical use of protective substances, protection for spacecraft ecologic systems, adaptogens and physical conditioning, bone marrow transplants and local protection are discussed. Combined use of local protection and pharmacochemical substances is also briefly considered.

Saksonov, P. P.

1975-01-01

32

Applied radiation biology and protection  

SciTech Connect

Written by two eminent expects in the field with many years of teaching experience between them, this book presents a concise coverage of the physical and biological basics of radiation biology and protection. The book begins with a description of the methods of particle detection and dosimetric evaluation. The effects of ionizing radiation on man are treated from the initial physico-chemical phase of interaction to their conceivable pathological consequences. Regulations, limits and safeguards on nuclear power plants, radioisotope installations and medical centers which make use of ionizing radiation are given and the risks of exposure to natural, industrial and scientific radiation sources evaluated. The final chapter takes a look at some of the more important nuclear accidents, including Windscale, Three Mile Island, and Chernobyl, and describes basic procedures to be carried out in the eventuality of a nuclear emergency. Twelve chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Granier, R.; Gambini, D.J.

1990-01-01

33

Planetary protection policy (U.S.A.)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through existing treaty obligations of the United States, NASA is committed to exploring space while avoiding biological contamination of the planets, and to the protection of the earth against harm from materials returned from space. Because of the similarities between Mars and earth, plans for the exploration of Mars evoke discussions of these Planetary Protection issues. U.S. Planetary Protection Policy will be focused on the preservation of these goals in an arena that will change with the growth of scientific knowledge about the Martian environment. Early opportunities to gain the appropriate data will be used to guide later policy implementation. Because human presence on Mars will result in the end of earth's separation from the Martian environment, it is expected that precursor robotic missions will address critical planetary protection concerns before humans arrive.

Rummel, John D.

1992-01-01

34

Planetary Protection Policy (U.S.A.).  

PubMed

Through existing treaty obligations of the United States, NASA is committed to exploring space while avoiding biological contamination of the planets, and to the protection of the Earth against harm from materials returned from space. Because of the similarities between Mars and Earth, plans for the exploration of Mars evoke discussions of these Planetary Protection issues. US Planetary Protection Policy will be focused on the preservation of these goals in an arena that will change with the growth of scientific knowledge about the martian environment. Early opportunities to gain the appropriate data will be used to guide later policy implementation. Because human presence on Mars will result in the end of Earth's separation from the martian environment, it is expected that precursor robotic missions will address critical planetary protection concerns before humans arrive. PMID:11538131

Rummel, J D

1992-01-01

35

Operational radiation protection in high-energy physics accelerators.  

PubMed

An overview of operational radiation protection (RP) policies and practices at high-energy electron and proton accelerators used for physics research is presented. The different radiation fields and hazards typical of these facilities are described, as well as access control and radiation control systems. The implementation of an operational RP programme is illustrated, covering area and personnel classification and monitoring, radiation surveys, radiological environmental protection, management of induced radioactivity, radiological work planning and control, management of radioactive materials and wastes, facility dismantling and decommissioning, instrumentation and training. PMID:19812129

Rokni, S H; Fassò, A; Liu, J C

2009-11-01

36

Radiation Protection Quantities for Near Earth Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

As humans travel beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field and mission durations grow, risk due to radiation exposure will increase and may become the limiting factor for such missions. Here, the dosimetric quantities recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for the evaluation of health risk due to radiation exposure, effective dose and gray-equivalent

Martha S. Clowdsley; John W. Wilson; Myung-Hee Kim; Brooke M. Anderson; John E. Nealy

37

Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program  

SciTech Connect

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

2007-08-09

38

78 FR 59982 - Revisions to Radiation Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...NRC-2012-0268] Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR...that Occupational Radiation Exposures Are As...

2013-09-30

39

10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20...REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation...

2012-01-01

40

10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20...REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation...

2010-01-01

41

10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20...REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation...

2013-01-01

42

10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.  

...Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20...REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation...

2014-01-01

43

10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20...REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation...

2011-01-01

44

Protecting the GEO Environment: Policies and Practices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geosynchronous orbital regime has long been recognized as a unique space resource, dictating special measures to ensure its continuing use for future generations. During the past 20 years a variety of national and international policies have been developed to preserve this environment. A review of current practices involving the deployment and disposal of geosynchronous spacecraft, associated upper stages and apogee kick motors, and geosynchronous orbit transfer objects indicates both positive and negative trends. Most spacecraft operators are indeed performing end-of-mission maneuvers, but the boost altitudes normally fall short of policy guidelines. Russia, a major operator in geosynchronous orbit, maneuvers only 1 in 3 spacecraft out of the region, while China has never refired a spacecraft above GEO. The viability of voluntary protection measures for this regime depends upon the responsible actions of the aerospace community as a whole.

Johnson, Nicholas L.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

45

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

SciTech Connect

The original recommendations for radiation protection guidelines were made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1970. Since that time the US crews have become more diverse in their makeup and much has been learned about both radiation-induced cancer and other late effects. While far from adequate there is now some understanding of the risks that high-Z and -energy (HZE) particles pose. For these reasons it was time to reconsider the radiation protection guidelines for space workers. This task was undertaken recently by National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). 42 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Fry, R.J.M.

1987-01-01

46

Role of the International Radiation Protection Association.  

PubMed

Global concerns over energy supply and climate change have given rise to an increase in uranium prospecting, mining and extraction. The changing world economy is spreading the use of advanced nuclear and radiation-related technologies to many parts of the world, giving rise to global initiatives on nuclear energy and operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The emerging global nuclear safety regime promotes and encourages high standards of radiation safety worldwide. These developments call for increasing capacity and capabilities in radiation protection expertise and continue to present both challenges and opportunities to the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), an association of 46 societies representing 58 countries with an individual membership of approximately 17,000. IRPA's objectives include: (1) assisting the development of competent radiation protection programs; (2) fostering the exchange of scientific and technical information through its international and regional congresses; (3) promoting the scientific and professional recognition of the radiation protection expert; and (4) supporting continuing education programs at each IRPA congress. IRPA has adopted a Code of Ethics and Guiding Principles for the Conduct of Stakeholder Engagement. Recently work began to develop guidance for maintaining and improving current levels of radiation protection and transferring this culture to future radiation protection professionals. These IRPA projects are developed through the Associate Society Forum discussions that are held at each IRPA international and regional congress. Finally, IRPA maintains a close working relationship with various international organizations and is also represented on the Inter-Agency Committee on Radiation Safety. PMID:21399420

Kase, Kenneth R; Metcalf, Phil

2011-01-01

47

Radiation Protection Program Environmental Health and Safety Department  

E-print Network

Radiation Protection Program 2012 Environmental Health and Safety Department #12;Radiation ................................................................................. 7 2.2. Radiation Emergency Procedures .................................................................................................. 11 3.2. Radiation Safety Officer

48

EPA's Radiation Protection Standards Protecting the Environment from  

E-print Network

plants. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has regulatory responsibility for licensing and oversight Regulatory Commission (NRC)--The NRC regulates the civilian uses of nuclear materials in the United States the EPA Radiation Protection website at: www.epa.gov/radiation Other Regulatory Agencies U.S. Nuclear

49

Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity.  

PubMed

Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of the relative contribution of each tissue to the radiation detriment of stochastic effects from whole-body low-linear energy transfer irradiations. The rounded values of tissue and radiation weighting factors are chosen by ICRP on the basis of available scientific data from radiation epidemiology and radiation biology, and they are therefore subject to adjustment as new scientific information becomes available. Effective dose is a single, risk-related dosimetric quantity, used prospectively for planning and optimisation purposes, and retrospectively for demonstrating compliance with dose limits and constraints. In practical radiation protection, it has proven to be extremely useful. PMID:23089010

Menzel, H-G; Harrison, J

2012-01-01

50

10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

2013-01-01

51

10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

2014-01-01

52

10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

2011-01-01

53

10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

2010-01-01

54

10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

2012-01-01

55

10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

2014-01-01

56

10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

2011-01-01

57

10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

2013-01-01

58

10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

2012-01-01

59

10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

2012-01-01

60

10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

2011-01-01

61

10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

2010-01-01

62

10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

2014-01-01

63

10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

2010-01-01

64

10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

2013-01-01

65

Protective effects in radiation modification of elastomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saturated character of ethylene/octene thermoplastic elastomers demands an application of nonconventional methods of crosslinking connections between chains of molecules. These are organic peroxides, usually in the presence of coagents or an application of ionizing radiation. Several approaches (radiation, peroxide, peroxide/plus radiation and radiation/plus peroxide) were applied in crosslinking of elastomere Engage 8200. Attention was directed to the protection effects by aromatic peroxides and by photo- and thermostabilizers on radiolysis of elastomers. Role of dose of radiation, dose rate of radiation as well as the role of composition of elastomere on the radiation yield of hydrogen and absorbtion of oxygen was investigated. DRS method was used to follow postirradiation degradation. Influence of crosslinking methods on properties of elastomers is described. Results were interpreted from the point of view of protective actions of aromatic compounds.

G?uszewski, Wojciech; Zagórski, Zbigniew P.; Rajkiewicz, Maria

2014-12-01

66

76 FR 20489 - Occupational Radiation Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR Part 835 Federal buildings and facilities, Nuclear energy, Nuclear materials, Nuclear power plants and reactors, Nuclear safety, Occupational safety and health, Radiation protection, and Reporting and recordkeeping requirements....

2011-04-13

67

76 FR 4258 - Occupational Radiation Protection; Revision  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR Part 835 Federal buildings and facilities, Nuclear energy, Nuclear materials, Nuclear power plants and reactors, Nuclear safety, Occupational safety and health, Radiation protection, and Reporting and recordkeeping requirements....

2011-01-25

68

Optimal Climate Protection Policies Under Uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cost-benefit analysis for greenhouse warming based on a globally integrated cou- pled climate-macro economic cost model SIAM2 (Structural Integrated Assessment Model) is used to compute optimal paths of global CO2 emissions. The aim of the model is to minimize the net time-integrated sum of climate damage and mitigation costs (or maximize the economic and social welfare). The climate model is repre- sented by a nonlinear impulse-response model (NICCS) calibrated against a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model and a three-dimensional global carbon cycle model. The latest version of the economic module is based a macro economic growth model, which is designed to capture not only the interactions between cli- mate damages and economic development, but also the conflicting goals of individual firms and society (government). The model includes unemployment, limited fossil fuel resources, endogenous and stochastic exogenous technological development (unpre- dictable labor or fuel efficiency innovations of random impact amplitude at random points in time). One objective of the project is to examine optimal climate protection policies in the presence of uncertainty. A stochastic model is introduced to simulate the development of technology as well as climate change and climate damages. In re- sponse to this (stochastic) prediction, the fiscal policy is adjusted gradually in a series of discrete steps. The stochastic module includes probability-based methods, sensitiv- ity studies and formal szenario analysis.

Weber, M.; Barth, V.; Hasselmann, K.; Hooss, G.

69

Clear Film Protects Against Ultraviolet Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acrylic film contains screeing agent filtering ultraviolet radiation up to 380 nanometers in wavelength but passes other components of Sunlight. Film used to protect such materials as rubber and plastics degraded by ultraviolet light. Used as protective cover on outdoor sheets or pipes made of such materials as polyethylene or polypropylene and on solar cells.

Gupta, A.; Yavrouian, A.

1983-01-01

70

The Physics of Radiation Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plane circular area of radius 500 m is uniformly contaminated by a nuclide mixture due to radioactive fallout. The mean energy of the emitted gamma radiation is 1 MeV and the surface activity is . How large is the radiation exposure of a person over flying the area, along a diameter, in a helicopter at a constant velocity of

Andy Bradley

1996-01-01

71

Shielded radiation protection quantities beyond LEO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recommended that the quantities used to evaluate health risk to astronauts due to radiation exposure be effective dose and gray-equivalent. The NCRP recommends that effective dose be the limiting quantity for prevention of stochastic effects. Effective dose is a measure of whole body exposure, a weighted average of dose equivalent

M. S. Clowdsley; J. W. Wilson; M. Y. Kim; B. M. Anderson; J. E. Nealy

2004-01-01

72

Radiation Protection Quantities for Near Earth Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As humans travel beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field and mission durations grow, risk due to radiation exposure will increase and may become the limiting factor for such missions. Here, the dosimetric quantities recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for the evaluation of health risk due to radiation exposure, effective dose and gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO), are calculated for several near Earth environments. These radiation protection quantities are evaluated behind two different shielding materials, aluminum and polyethylene. Since exposure limits for missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) have not yet been defined, results are compared to limits recommended by the NCRP for LEO operations.

Clowdsley, Martha S.; Wilson, John W.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.

2004-01-01

73

Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination 10th anniversary report  

SciTech Connect

Ten years ago, on April 9, 1984, the Science Advisor to the President, and Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, established the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC) to meet the need for an interagency committee to address Congressionally mandated and agency-identified issues related to radiation research and policy. CIRRPC replaced the Committee on Interagency Radiation Policy, a committee of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology, and assumed the responsibilities of the Interagency Radiation Research Committee and the Radiation Policy Council, whose charters had expired. Since then, CIRRPC has been recognized as an effective and respected mechanism for coordinating radiation policy among Federal agencies and as an efficient coordinator and evaluator of Federal efforts on designated radiation research projects. In the last 10 years, CIRRPC has established various Policy and Science Subpanels to undertake the oftentimes difficult task of resolving and coordinating agency policies and responses to issues dealing with radiation. These subpanels addressed such issues as the metrication of radiation units, the policy impact of the radioepidemiological tables, naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials, radon protection and health effects, predisaster planning for human health effects research, and ionizing radiation risk assessment. These subpanels and their work represent CIRRPC`s continuing effort to seek a common position on issues of national significance and interest.

Not Available

1994-06-01

74

Accreditation of ionizing radiation protection programs  

SciTech Connect

There are over one million workers in the United States who have the potential to be exposed to ionizing radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to determine accurately the quantity of radiation to which they may have been exposed. This quantity if measured by personnel dosimeters that are carried by individuals requiring radiation monitoring. Accreditation of the organizations which evaluate this quantity provides official recognition of the competence of these organizations. Accreditation programs in the field of ionizing radiation protection have been in operation for a number of years, and their experience has demonstrated that such programs can help to improve performance.

McDonald, J.C.; Swinth, K.L.; Selby, J.M.

1991-10-01

75

Trade policy mix: IPR protection and R&D subsidies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.?This paper analyses strategic R&D policy under circumstances where intellectual property rights protection resulting from firms' R&D investment is not perfect. By examining policy choices wherein a government chooses both R&D subsidies and IPR protection levels simultaneously, we show that it is optimal for a government to adopt sufficiently weak IPR protection and to subsidize R&D investments of domestic firms.

Moonsung Kang

2006-01-01

76

Research priorities for occupational radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

The Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research concludes that the most urgently needed research is that leading to the resolution of the potential effects of low-level ionizing radiation. This is the primary driving force in setting appropriate radiation protection standards and in directing the emphasis of radiation protection efforts. Much has already been done in collecting data that represents a compendium of knowledge that should be fully reviewed and understood. It is imperative that health physics researchers more effectively use that data and apply the findings to enhance understanding of the potential health effects of low-level ionizing radiation and improve the risk estimates upon which current occupational radiation protection procedures and requirements depend. Research must be focused to best serve needs in the immediate years ahead. Only then will we get the most out of what is accomplished. Beyond the above fundamental need, a number of applied research areas also have been identified as national priority issues. If effective governmental focus is achieved on several of the most important national priority issues, important occupational radiation protection research will be enhanced, more effectively coordinated, and more quickly applied to the work environment. Response in the near term will be enhanced and costs will be reduced by: developing microprocessor-aided {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} instruments to simplify the use and processing of radiation data; developing more sensitive, energy-independent, and tissue-equivalent dosimeters to more accurately quantify personnel dose; and developing an improved risk assessment technology base. This can lead to savings of millions of dollars in current efforts needed to ensure personnel safety and to meet new, more stringent occupational guidelines.

Not Available

1994-02-01

77

49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193...Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection. Each LNG container...following exceptions: (a) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated...

2013-10-01

78

49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193...Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection. Each LNG container...following exceptions: (a) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated...

2012-10-01

79

49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193...Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection. Each LNG container...following exceptions: (a) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated...

2011-10-01

80

Protection of research subjects with emphasis on protocols involving radiation.  

PubMed

Approval by an institutional review board (IRB) or human studies committee must be obtained prior to conducting human subject research. Historically this was not the case, and human subjects were injured as a result. Because there has been and still remains an inevitable conflict of interest for researchers, instititions that perform human research must follow regulations designed to protect human subjects contained in the Code of Federal Regulations, if the research is federally funded. Two federal agencies provide oversight for IRB activities: the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and a National Institutes of Health Office for Human Research Protection (OHRP), formerly the Office for Protection from Research Risks (OPRR). These agencies are charged with the implementation of rules related to ethical and legal obligations of researchers and their institutions. The institution's role, by means of an IRB, is to adhere to principles of the Belmont Report and to set forth ethical principles, policies, and procedures for protecting the rights and welfare of human subjects. The researchers' role is to conduct their research ethically while maximizing benefits and minimizing harm. Studies involving radiation exposure of human subjects add another level of risk that must be evaluated by an IRB with assistance of a radiation expert or radiation safety committee (RSC). This paper will look at regulatory aspects of human research, IRB responsibilities overall and as they relate to radiation exposure of subjects, and the role of the RSC. PMID:11316087

Classic, K L; Porter, B L; DiMagno, E P

2001-05-01

81

Has radiation protection become a health hazard?  

SciTech Connect

Scientists and engineers have a responsibility to speak out when their findings and recommendations lead to public harm. This can happen in several ways. One is when the media misinterpret or sensationalize a scientific fact misleading the public and creating unwarranted fear. Another is when regulations or public policy decision are purportedly based on scientific data but are, in fact, scientifically invalid. Fear of radiation has been far more detrimental to health than radiation itself. The author knows of no deaths to the public from accidental release of radiation, but the consequences of fear have been deadly.

Rockwell, T. [MPR Associates, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1996-12-31

82

Protecting superconducting qubits from radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We characterize a superconducting qubit before and after embedding it along with its package in an absorptive medium. We observe a drastic improvement in the effective qubit temperature and over a tenfold improvement in the relaxation time up to 5.7 ?s. Our results suggest the presence of external radiation inside the cryogenic apparatus can be a limiting factor for both qubit initialization and coherence. Calculations support the hypothesis that the relaxation is not limited by direct coupling of thermal photons to the qubit prior to embedding, but by dissipation arising from quasiparticle generation.

Córcoles, Antonio D.; Chow, Jerry M.; Gambetta, Jay M.; Rigetti, Chad; Rozen, J. R.; Keefe, George A.; Beth Rothwell, Mary; Ketchen, Mark B.; Steffen, M.

2011-10-01

83

Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer  

SciTech Connect

The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

1983-03-01

84

041510v1Transmission of Protected Health Information and Personal Identifying Information Policy Page 1  

E-print Network

041510v1Transmission of Protected Health Information and Personal Identifying Information Policy Page 1 Policy Version: Responsible University Officer Chief Information Officer Responsible Office Information Policy Policy Statement Protected Health Information (PHI) and Personal Identifying Information

Whitton, Mary C.

85

Apollo experience report: Protection against radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation protection problems on earth and in space are discussed. Flight through the Van Allen belts and into space beyond the geomagnetic shielding was recognized as hazardous before the advent of manned space flight. Specialized dosimetry systems were developed for use on the Apollo spacecraft, and systems for solar-particle-event warning and dose projection were devised. Radiation sources of manmade origin on board the Apollo spacecraft present additional problems. Methods applied to evaluate and control or avoid the various Apollo radiation hazards are discussed.

English, R. A.; Benson, R. E.; Bailey, J. V.; Barnes, C. M.

1973-01-01

86

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY INTERAGENCY WORKING GROUP ON MEDICAL RADIATION  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY INTERAGENCY WORKING GROUP ON MEDICAL RADIATION EPA 520 Radiation U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, D.C. 20460 October 1976 #12;PREFACE The authority of the Federal Radiation Council to provide radiation protection guidance was transferred to the Environmental

87

Proposed Amendments to the Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed amendments to its radiation protection standards for the potential spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste disposal system in Yucca Mountain, Nevada on 22 August 2005. The original standards are found in Part 197 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 197). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 directed,

2006-01-01

88

Page 1 of 3 Policy: Fire Protection Equipment Policy  

E-print Network

located throughout MSU is tested, as required by the applicable National Fire Protection Association (NFPA The regulatory documents MSU uses to test and maintain Fire Protection Equipment (FPE) throughout MSU are NFPA Standards and 2012 International Fire Code (IFC). All NFPA Standards listed by reference shall be considered

Dyer, Bill

89

Controversial issues confronting the BEIR III committee: implications for radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the state-of-the-art for conducting risk assessment studies, especially known and unknown factors relative to radioinduced cancer or other diseases, sources of scientific and epidemiological data, dose-response models used, and uncertainties which limit precision of estimation of excess radiation risks. These are related to decision making for radiation protection policy. (PSB)

Fabrikant, J.I.

1981-05-01

90

Research Policy Protection of Human Subjects in Research  

E-print Network

of conduct for human experimentation, federal and state statutes, DHHS and FDA regulations, policies References · Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Regulations, Policy for the Protection of Human is subject to requirements for prior submission to the FDA, or is not subject to requirements for prior

Loudon, Catherine

91

77 FR 66650 - Proposed Revisions to Radiation Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Proposed Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR...that Occupational Radiation Exposures Are As...

2012-11-06

92

Shielded radiation protection quantities beyond LEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recommended that the quantities used to evaluate health risk to astronauts due to radiation exposure be effective dose and gray-equivalent. The NCRP recommends that effective dose be the limiting quantity for prevention of stochastic effects. Effective dose is a measure of whole body exposure, a weighted average of dose equivalent to a number body tissues for which the NCRP has adopted tissue weighting factors recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). For deterministic effects, the NCRP has recommended that gray-equivalent be used. Gray-equivalent is evaluated for specific critical organs and is the weighted sum of absorbed dose from field components to that organ using the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) number for that field component. RBE numbers recommended by the NCRP are used. The NCRP has provided effective dose limits as well as limits for gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO) for astronauts in low earth orbit (LEO). As yet, no such limits have been defined for astronaut operations beyond LEO. In this study, the radiation protection quantities, effective dose and gray-equivalent to the eyes, skin, and BFO, are calculated for several environments beyond LEO. The lunar surface and Martian environments are included. For each environment, these radiation protection quantities are calculated behind varying amounts of various types of shielding materials. The results are compared to the exposure limits for LEO, since limits have not yet been defined for interplanetary missions. The benefits of using shielding material containing hydrogen and choosing optimal mission times are discussed.

Clowdsley, M. S.; Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M. Y.; Anderson, B. M.; Nealy, J. E.

93

Page 1 of 37 CHILD PROTECTION POLICY  

E-print Network

or emotional abuse or neglect and is further defined in section 1 of Appendix H of this policy; ,,Bullying Gallery; children attending summer schools or other programmes organised for children by College; #12;Page

O'Mahony, Donal E.

94

A proposed new policy for planetary protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A critical review of the present policy was conducted with emphasis on its application to future planetary exploration. The probable impact of recent data on the implementation of the present policy was also assessed. The existing policy and its implementation were found to: be excessive for certain missions (e.g., Voyager), neglect the contamination hazard posed by the bulk constituent organics of spacecraft, be ambiguous for certain missions (e.g., Pioneer Venus), and treat all extraterrestrial sample return missions alike. The major features of the proposed policy are planet/mission combinations, a qualitative top level statement, and implementation by exception rather than rule. The concept of planet/mission categories permits the imposition of requirements according to both biological interest in the target planet and the relative contamination hazard of the mission type.

Barengoltz, J. B.; Bergstrom, S. L.; Hobby, G. L.; Stabekis, P. D.

1981-01-01

95

Issues in deep space radiation protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exposures in deep space are largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little biological experience. Mounting evidence indicates that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate for GCR ions. The available biological data indicates that aluminum alloy structures may generate inherently unhealthy internal spacecraft environments in the thickness range for space applications. Methods for optimization of spacecraft shielding and the associated role of materials selection are discussed. One material which may prove to be an important radiation protection material is hydrogenated carbon nanofibers. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Tripathi, R. K.; Singleterry, R. C.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Thibeault, S. A.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Schimmerling, W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; Noor, A. K.; Kim, M. Y.; Badavi, F. F.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.

2001-01-01

96

Radiation Protection Using Carbon Nanotube Derivatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BHA and BHT are well-known food preservatives that are excellent radical scavengers. These compounds, attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), could serve as excellent radical traps. The amino-BHT groups can be associated with SWNTs that have carbolyxic acid groups via acid-base association or via covalent association. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection or cellular stress mitigation via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds of SWNTs and their derivatives. It works by reducing the number of free radicals within or nearby a cell, tissue, organ, or living organism. This reduces the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including (but not limited to) cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. These derivatives can show an unusually high scavenging ability, which could prove efficacious in protecting living systems from radical-induced decay. This technique could be used to protect healthy cells in a living biological system from the effects of radiation therapy. It could also be used as a prophylactic or antidote for radiation exposure due to accidental, terrorist, or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons; high-altitude or space travel (where radiation exposure is generally higher than desired); or in any scenario where exposure to radiation is expected or anticipated. This invention s ultimate use will be dependent on the utility in an overall biological system where many levels of toxicity have to be evaluated. This can only be assessed at a later stage. In vitro toxicity will first be assessed, followed by in vivo non-mammalian screening in zebra fish for toxicity and therapeutic efficacy.

Conyers, Jodie L., Jr.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward

2010-01-01

97

Planetary protection policy overview and application to future missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of planetary protection (quarantine) policy within NASA is discussed, together with the issues of planetary protection and back-contamination as related to future missions. The policy adopted by COSPAR in 1984 (and recently reaffirmed by the NASA Administrator) for application to all unmanned missions to other solar system bodies and all manned and unmanned sample return missions is examined. Special attention is given to the implementation of the policy and to the specific quarantine-related constraints on spacecraft involved in solar system exploration that depend on the nature of the mission and the identity of the target body.

Rummel, John D.

1989-01-01

98

Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program  

SciTech Connect

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

none,

2013-04-30

99

Thermoplastic constructional composite material for radiation protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of synthesis of filled metallooligomer powders on the basis of lead ethylsiliconate is considered by a method\\u000a of heterophase interaction, in siloksan chains of which chemically bound lead with a high concentration of atoms of lead is\\u000a contained. Thermoplastic constructional composite materials for radiation protection on the basis of a polystyrene polymeric\\u000a matrix modified by waterproof oligomer lead

V. I. Pavlenko; I. S. Epifanovskii; R. N. Yastrebinskii; O. V. Kuprieva

2011-01-01

100

US NRC discussion of options to revise radiation protection recommendations.  

PubMed

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is continuing the process of engaging stakeholders on issues associated with possible changes to the radiation protection regulations contained in 10 CFR Part 20, and other parts of the NRC regulations, to increase alignment with international recommendations. The Commission is particularly seeking to explore implications, as appropriate and where scientifically justified, of greater alignment with the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission for Radiological Protection. Other information from national and international sources is also being considered. Given that the NRC regulations provide adequate protection, the discussion has been focusing on discerning the benefits and burdens associated with revising the radiation protection regulatory framework. NRC, through three Federal Register Notices, has officially solicited comments on a series of key issues, and has conducted a series of facilitated workshops to encourage feedback from a wide range of stakeholders. The issues include the use of updated scientific methodologies and terminology, the occupational dose limits, and the use of the concepts of constraints in optimisation. NRC staff provided a policy paper with recommendations to the Commission on April 25, 2012 (NRC, 2012). PMID:23089031

Cool, D A

2012-01-01

101

Antihistamine provides sex-specific radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

Rats suffer an early transient performance decrement immediately after a sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation. However, it has been shown that males experience a more severe incapacitation than females. This sex difference has been attributed to the low estrogen levels in the male. In support of this notion, supplemental estrogens in castrated male rats have produced less-severe performance decrements post-irradiation. Antihistamines have also previously been shown to alleviate radiation's effect on behavior. The present study revealed that antihistamines are only effective in altering the behavioral incapacitation of sexually intact male subjects. This contrasts with previous work which indicates that estrogens can only benefit gonadectomized rats. These findings suggest that different mechanisms may underly antihistamine and estrogen radiation protection.

Mickley, G.A.

1981-04-01

102

Radiation Protection for Lunar Mission Scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary analyses of shielding requirements to protect astronauts from the harmful effects of radiation on both short-term and long-term lunar missions have been performed. Shielding needs for both solar particle events (SPEs) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposure are discussed for transit vehicles and surface habitats. This work was performed under the aegis of two NASA initiatives. The first study was an architecture trade study led by Langley Research Center (LaRC) in which a broad range of vehicle types and mission scenarios were compared. The radiation analysis for this study primarily focused on the additional shielding mass required to protect astronauts from the rare occurrence of a large SPE. The second study, led by Johnson Space Center (JSC), involved the design of lunar habitats. Researchers at LaRC were asked to evaluate the changes to mission architecture that would be needed if the surface stay were lengthened from a shorter mission duration of 30 to 90 days to a longer stay of 500 days. Here, the primary radiation concern was GCR exposure. The methods used for these studies as well as the resulting shielding recommendations are discussed. Recommendations are also made for more detailed analyses to minimize shielding mass, once preliminary vehicle and habitat designs have been completed. Here, methodologies are mapped out and available radiation analysis tools are described. Since, as yet, no dosimetric limits have been adopted for missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO), radiation exposures are compared to LEO limits. Uncertainties associated with the LEO career effective dose limits and the effects of lowering these limits on shielding mass are also discussed.

Clowdsley, Martha S.; Nealy, John E.; Wilson, John W.; Anderson, Brooke M.; Anderson, Mark S.; Krizan, Shawn A.

2005-01-01

103

76 FR 40777 - Interim Enforcement Policy for Certain Fire Protection Issues  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Interim Enforcement Policy for Certain Fire Protection Issues AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Policy on enforcement discretion for certain fire protection issues to extend the enforcement...that are transitioning to use the National Fire Protection Association Standard...

2011-07-12

104

Planetary protection policy overview and application to future missions.  

PubMed

The 1967 treaty on the peaceful uses of outer space reflected both concerns associated with the unknown nature of the space environment and the desire of the world scientific community to preserve the pristine nature of celestial objects until such times as they could be studied in an effective manner. Since 1967, NASA has issued policy directives that have adopted the guidelines of COSPAR for protecting the planets from contamination by Earth organisms and for protecting the Earth from the unknown. This paper presents the current status of planetary protection (quarantine) policy within NASA, and a prospectus on how planetary protection and back contamination issues might be addressed in relation to future missions envisioned for development by NASA either independently, or in cooperation with the space agencies of other nations. PMID:11537370

Rummel, J D

1989-01-01

105

Planetary protection policy overview and application to future missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1967 treaty on the peaceful uses of outer space reflected both concerns associated with the unknown nature of the space environment and the desire of the world scientific community to preserve the pristine nature of celestial objects until such time as they could be studied in an effective manner. Since 1967, NASA has issued policy directives that have adopted the guidelines of COSPAR for protecting the planets from contamination by Earth organisms and for protecting the Earth from the unknown. This paper presents the current status of planetary protection (quarantine) policy within NASA, and a prospectus on how planetary protection and back contamination issues might be addressed in relation to future missions envisioned for development by NASA either independently, or in cooperation with the space agencies of other nations.

Rummel, John D.

106

New radiation protection calibration facility at CERN.  

PubMed

The CERN radiation protection group has designed a new state-of-the-art calibration laboratory to replace the present facility, which is >20 y old. The new laboratory, presently under construction, will be equipped with neutron and gamma sources, as well as an X-ray generator and a beta irradiator. The present work describes the project to design the facility, including the facility placement criteria, the 'point-zero' measurements and the shielding study performed via FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:24327753

Brugger, Markus; Carbonez, Pierre; Pozzi, Fabio; Silari, Marco; Vincke, Helmut

2014-10-01

107

Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1981  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the degrees awarded in academic year 1980-81 from 61 U.S. universities offering degree programs in radiation protection or related areas that would enable students to work in the health physics field. The report includes historical survey data for the last decade and provides information such as trends by degree level, foreign national student participation, female and minority student participation, and placement of graduates. Also included is a listing of the universities by type of program and number of students.

Little, J R; Shirley, D L; Blair, L M

1982-05-01

108

RADIATION SAFETY COMMITTEE The Radiation Safety Committee shall advise the Provost on all policy matters relating to radiation safety;  

E-print Network

RADIATION SAFETY COMMITTEE Functions The Radiation Safety Committee shall advise the Provost on all policy matters relating to radiation safety; formulate campus radiation safety policies in compliance the Risk Manager) monitor the performance of the Radiation Safety Officer as it relates to implementation

Sze, Lawrence

109

Policy Forum Protecting Vulnerable Road Users from Injury  

E-print Network

Policy Forum Protecting Vulnerable Road Users from Injury Aymery Constant, Emmanuel Lagarde* Equipe areas, due to environ- mental, economic, and traffic congestion issues. In the United States, the latest by police forces in the aftermath of a crash involving a VRU has been documented using comparisons

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

110

California Wetland and Riparian Protection Policy Technical Advisory Team  

E-print Network

And Conservation Planning Llc Clifford Harvey 401 Certification & Wetlands Unit State Water Resources Control BoardCalifornia Wetland and Riparian Protection Policy Technical Advisory Team Name Title Organization Department Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Aaron Allen Chief, North Coast Branch

111

The Early Years Care and Education Centres Child Protection Policy  

E-print Network

The Early Years Care and Education Centres Child Protection Policy Category: Communication, emotional or sexual abuse. Guidelines: Responding to Child Abuse Any staff member is required to report suspected abuse. If a staff member suspects a child is being abused by a family member or other adult

Hickman, Mark

112

The reference individual of radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

The 70-kg {open_quotes}standard man{close_quotes} representing a typical Western adult male has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s. In 1949 at the Chalk River conference, health physicists from the U.S., UK, and Canada agreed on the concept of a standard man to facilitate comparison of internal dose estimates. The 70-kg standard man included specifications of the masses of 25 organs and tissues, total body content of 15 elements, total water intake and output, water content of the body, and some anatomical and physiological data for the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. In 1959, in its Publication 2{sup 2} on permissible doses for internal radiation the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) modified standard man. In 1963 the ICRP established a task group to revise and extend the standard man concept. The name was changed later to Reference Man and the task group`s work was published in 1975 as ICRP Publication 23{sup 3}. Publication 23 similar to Publication 2, updates and documents the sources of the data. Data on women, children, and fetuses were also collected, where available, but these data were limited primarily to anatomical data and only a few reference values were established for these groups. Information assembled during the course of the effort on the Reference Man report was used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to construct a mathematical representation of the body (a phantom) that was suitable for use with Monte Carlo methods in the calculation of organ doses. That effort was undertaken to improve estimates of dose from photon-emitting radionuclides residing within organs, so-called internal emitters. The phantom, although updated throughout the years, remains today as the basis for organ dose estimates in nuclear medicine and radiation protection and underlies the radiation risk data derived from the epidemiologic studies of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Eckerman, K.F.; Cristy, M.

1995-12-31

113

Radiation protection of workers: legal aspects in Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main legal and institutional aspects of the Brazilian Law concerned with the radiation protection of workers exposed to ionizing radiation (occupational exposure) are described. (Atomindex citation 21:050048)

T. M. M. Malheiros

1990-01-01

114

RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION IN THE 2000s -THEORY AND PRACTICE Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, 13th  

E-print Network

for the prolonged exposure, are the external cosmic radiation, the radionuclides produced by cosmic raysRADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION IN THE 2000s - THEORY AND PRACTICE Nordic Society for Radiation Protection and public officials that clearly state the risks of radiation exposure and what actions are appropriate

115

Radiation safety standards and their application: international policies and current issues.  

PubMed

This paper briefly describes the current policies of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation and the International Commission on Radiological Protection and how these policies are converted into international radiation safety standards by the International Atomic Energy Agency, which is the only global organization-within the United Nations family of international agencies-with a statutory mandate not only to establish such standards but also to provide for their application. It also summarizes the current status of the established corpus of such international standards, and of it foreseeable evolution, as well as of legally binding undertakings by countries around the world that are linked to these standards. Moreover, this paper also reviews some major current global issues related to the application of international standards, including the following: strengthening of national infrastructures for radiation safety, including technical cooperation programs for assisting developing countries; occupational radiation safety challenges, including the protection of pregnant workers and their unborn children, dealing with working environments with high natural radiation levels, and occupational attributability of health effects (probability of occupational causation); restricting discharges of radioactive substances into the environment: reviewing current international policies vis-a-vis the growing concern on the radiation protection of the "environment;" radiological protection of patients undergoing radiodiagnostic and radiotherapeutic procedures: the current International Action Plan; safety and security of radiation sources: post-11 September developments; preparedness and response to radiation emergencies: enhancing the international network; safe transport of radioactive materials: new apprehensions; safety of radioactive waste management: concerns and connections with radiation protection; and radioactive residues remaining after the termination of activities: radiation protection response to the forthcoming wave of decommissioning of installations with radioactive materials. The ultimate aim of this paper is to encourage information exchange, cooperation, and collaboration within the radiation protection professional community. In particular, the paper tries to facilitate consolidation of the growing international regime on radiation safety, including the expansion of legally binding undertakings by countries, the strengthening of the current corpus of international radiation safety standards, and the development of international provisions for ensuring the proper worldwide application of these standards, such as a system of international appraisals by peer review. PMID:15303062

González, Abel J

2004-09-01

116

77 FR 35464 - Extension of Comment Period-Proposed Low Flow Protection Policy  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the proposed Low Flow Protection Policy for public review and comment. The proposed policy was developed over the past year...standards associated with approved water withdrawals. SRBC will use the final policy and supporting technical...

2012-06-13

117

Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective cross sectional survey. Convenience sampling technique was used to select four x-ray diagnostic centres in four tertiary hospitals in Lagos metropolis. Data were analysed with Epi- info software, version 3.5.1. Results: Average score on assessment of knowledge was 73%. Most modern radiation protection instruments were lacking in all the centres studied. Application of shielding devices such as gonad shield for protection was neglected mostly in government hospitals. Most x-ray machines were quite old and evidence of quality assurance tests performed on such machines were lacking. Conclusion: Radiographers within Lagos metropolis showed an excellent knowledge of radiation protection within the study period. Adherence to radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos metropolis during the period studied was, however, poor. Radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria should embrace current trends in radiation protection and make more concerted efforts to apply their knowledge in protecting themselves and patients from harmful effects of ionising radiation. PMID:24665152

Eze, Cletus Uche; Abonyi, Livinus Chibuzo; Njoku, Jerome; Irurhe, Nicholas Kayode; Olowu, Oluwabola

2013-01-01

118

CONTRIBUTIONS TO RADIATION PROTECTION WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PULMONOLOGISTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

S>After discussing some of the basic principles of radiation protection, ; the most common hazards involving the use of diagnostic x rays in tuberculosis ; dispensaries and hospital are pointed out. It is stressed that the radiologist ; is the only person involved who needs to be thoroughly protected against ; radiation either from that emanating from the equipment or

K. Doray; G. Koczkas

1961-01-01

119

UV radiation transmittance: regular clothing versus sun-protective clothing.  

PubMed

There are many clothing options available for patients who are interested in limiting their exposure to UV radiation; however, these options can be confusing for patients. For dermatologists, there is limited clinical data regarding the advantages, if any, of sun-protective clothing. In this study, we examined the UV radiation transmittance of regular clothing versus sun-protective clothing. We found that regular clothing may match or even exceed sun-protective clothing in blocking the transmittance of UV radiation. These data will help dermatologists better counsel their patients on clothing options for sun protection. PMID:25279475

Bielinski, Kenneth; Bielinski, Nolan

2014-09-01

120

78 FR 5813 - 2013 Assuring Radiation Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...include: (1) Responding to radiation accidents or incidents...evaluating the adequacy of State radiation control programs; overseeing radiation laboratory capabilities...decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities; (4)...

2013-01-28

121

Protection by Indomethacin against Acute Radiation Esophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of radiation induced damage to the mucosal lining of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as mucositis, is not fully characterized. Prostaglandins may partially mediate the inflammatory response to radiation damage. The effect of the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor indomethacin on radiation induced esophagitis, pneumonitis, and tumor response was evaluated in the C3H mouse. The effects of indomethacin on radiation

Zelig Tochner; Margaret Barnes; James B. Mitchell; Kathy Orr; Eli Glatstein; Angelo Russo

1990-01-01

122

ELECTRONICS IN PROTECTION AGAINST NUCLEAR RADIATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation hazards and electronic means of detecting and measuring them ; are discussed in two categories: radiations from accelerators, reactors, and ; research sources, and radiations from fission product contamination of persons, ; objects, or environs. Dose toleramces are tabulated and discussed, and ; instruments for detection and measurement of x and gamma radiation, neutron flux ; measurement, hand monitoring,

Labeyrie

1958-01-01

123

Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 97, No. 1, pp. 6973 (2001)  

E-print Network

69 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 97, No. 1, pp. 69­73 (2001) Nuclear Technology Publishing BIOMARKERS SPECIFIC TO DENSELY-IONISING (HIGH LET) RADIATIONS D. J. Brenner, N. Okladnikova, P. Hande, L -- There have been several suggestions of biomarkers that are specific to high LET radiation. Such a biomarker

Brenner, David Jonathan

124

Prevent Eye Damage - Protect Yourself from UV Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most Americans understand the link between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and skin cancer. Many are less aware of the connection between UV radiation andeye damage. With increased levels of UV radiation reaching the Earths surface,largely due to stratospheric ozone layer depletion, it is important to take thenecessary precautions to protect your eyes.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (;)

2008-04-25

125

Discourse and policy making on consumer protection in the areas of mobile telecommunication and tanning.  

PubMed

Perceived health risks from electromagnetic fields in mobile telecommunication and from UV radiation in tanning have become regulation issues in Germany during the last decade. Health risk messages from government expert bodies and the main stakeholders in these areas as well as subsequent consumer protection policy making are investigated. Publications and websites of government expert bodies and the main stakeholders as well as debates in Federal Parliament were analysed to compare argumentation patterns and parliamentary decision-making processes. In both areas, the public received competing health risk messages from the industries and their critics. As a government expert body, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) held the view that alleged health risks from electromagnetic telecommunication were not proven, and propagated the precautionary principle. This opinion did not endanger the agreement of 2001 between the government and mobile telecommunication operators. After the failure to obtain voluntary commitment from the tanning industry, by contrast, the BfS recommended stricter consumer protection legislation, which was subsequently implemented. The BfS was in a key position to demand the prerogative of interpretation concerning mutually excluding health risk messages and to provide the argumentation which led the way to non-ionic radiation health protection measures. PMID:23763237

Schweikardt, Christoph; Rosentreter, Michael; Gross, Dominik

2012-01-01

126

Revision to Planetary Protection Policy for Mars Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under existing COSPAR policy adopted in 1984, missions to Mars (landers, probes, and some orbiters) are designated as Category IV missions. As such, the procedures for implementing planetary protection requirements could include trajectory biasing, cleanrooms, bioload reduction, sterilization of hardware, and bioshields, i. e. requirements could be similar to Viking. However, in 1992, a U. S. National Academy of Sciences study recommended that controls on forward contamination of Mars be tied to specific mission objectives. The report recommended that Mars landers with life detection instruments be subject to at least Viking-level sterilization procedures for bioload reduction, while spacecraft (including orbiters) without life detection instruments be subject to at least Viking-level pre sterilization procedures for bioload reduction but need not be sterilized. In light of this, it is proposed that the current policy's Category IV missions and their planetary protection requirements be divided into two subcategories as follows: Category IV A, for missions comprising landers and probes without life detection experiments and some orbiters, which will meet a specified bioburden limit for exposed surfaces; Category IV B, for landers and probes with life detection experiments, which will require complete system sterilization. For Category IV A missions, bioburden specifications will be proposed and implementing procedures discussed. A resolution will be proposed to modify the existing COSPAR policy to reflect these changes. Similar specifications, procedures, and resolution for Category IV B missions will be the subject of a later study.

DeVincenzi, D. L.; Stabekis, P.; Barengoltz, J.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

127

UV radiation effects over microorganisms and study of protective agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important subject of astrobiological interest is the study of the effect of ultraviolet radiation on microorganisms and their protection mechanisms against this damaging agent. UV radiation is considered highly mutagenic and sterilizing, especially during the period of origin of life on Earth when the absence of the ozone layer meant there was no effective protection against ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Ferric iron, the product of iron metabolism, as a consequence of its spectral properties, has been suggested to provide protection against radiation making the study of its protective effect on acidophilic microorganisms from the Tinto ecosystem of interest in order to gain information about its possible implications in the development of life during the Archaean as well on planets lacking a protective atmosphere such as Mars. The studies described in this paper constitute preliminary experiments.

Gómez Gómez, Felipe; Grau Carles, Agustín; Vazquez, Luis; Amils, Ricardo

2004-03-01

128

Protecting the ozone shield: A new public policy. Technical report, Jan-Dec 90  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the 1980's, public attention and concern have become increasingly focused on a number of specific environmental issues including the consequences of stratospheric ozone depletion cause by the release of CFC's and halons into the environment. This report discusses the policy issues relating to the use of CFC's and halons and their long-term impact on the environment. Stratospheric ozone protects the earth, and the life that dwells on it, from the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation (UVb). A prolonged increase in UVb radiation exposure can cause suppression of the immune system and an increase in the incidence of skin cancer and cataracts in human beings. High levels of UVb radiation can damage land and water based plant life including major food crops, and can cause an increase in smog formation, which has become a major problem in many urban areas.

Manz, P.C.

1991-04-01

129

A review of the history of U.S. radiation protection regulations, recommendations, and standards.  

PubMed

Shortly after the discovery of x rays by Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen in 1895, and the isolation of the element radium by Pierre and Marie Curie three years later, the fascination with and potential for an array of uses of ionizing radiation in medicine, science, and technology was born. As with any new technology, there was a need to balance both the beneficial and potential detrimental effects of uses of these new technologies for the advancement of humankind. In the early days, radiation hazards were not well understood. Over the decades increasing concerns in the scientific community and lay population demanded that standardized guidance and recommendations be developed for the use of ionizing radiation. Today, U.S. radiation protection standards and recommendations to protect the occupational worker, members of the general public, and the environment are numerous and complex. This review summarizes the history of the development and application of radiation protection standards and regulations to assure the safe use of radiation and radioactive materials. The evolution and roles of international and national scientific recommending and regulatory organizations that shape U.S. radiation protection policy are described and discussed. PMID:15891462

Jones, Cynthia G

2005-06-01

130

A review of the history of U.S. radiation protection regulations, recommendations, and standards.  

PubMed

Shortly after the discovery of x rays by Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen in 1895, and the isolation of the element radium by Pierre and Marie Curie three years later, the fascination with and potential for an array of uses of ionizing radiation in medicine, science, and technology was born. As with any new technology, there was a need to balance both the beneficial and potential detrimental effects of uses of these new technologies for the advancement of humankind. In the early days, radiation hazards were not well understood. Over the decades increasing concerns in the scientific community and lay population demanded that standardized guidance and recommendations be developed for the use of ionizing radiation. Today, U.S. radiation protection standards and recommendations to protect the occupational worker, members of the general public, and the environment are numerous and complex. This review summarizes the history of the development and application of radiation protection standards and regulations to assure the safe use of radiation and radioactive materials. The evolution and roles of international and national scientific recommending and regulatory organizations that shape U.S. radiation protection policy are described and discussed. PMID:15650586

Jones, Cynthia Gillian

2005-02-01

131

10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. 35.24 Section...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of §...

2010-01-01

132

42 CFR 37.43 - Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment...Examinations § 37.43 Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment...recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements in NCRP...

2012-10-01

133

10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

2012-01-01

134

42 CFR 37.43 - Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment...Examinations § 37.43 Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment...recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements in NCRP...

2010-10-01

135

48 CFR 952.223-72 - Radiation protection and nuclear criticality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radiation protection and nuclear criticality...Provisions and Clauses 952.223-72 Radiation protection and nuclear criticality...section 274 of the Atomic Energy Act): Radiation Protection and Nuclear...

2012-10-01

136

48 CFR 952.223-72 - Radiation protection and nuclear criticality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radiation protection and nuclear criticality...Provisions and Clauses 952.223-72 Radiation protection and nuclear criticality...section 274 of the Atomic Energy Act): Radiation Protection and Nuclear...

2011-10-01

137

10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. 35.24 Section...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of §...

2011-01-01

138

10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.  

...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. 35.24 Section...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of §...

2014-01-01

139

48 CFR 952.223-72 - Radiation protection and nuclear criticality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiation protection and nuclear criticality...Provisions and Clauses 952.223-72 Radiation protection and nuclear criticality...section 274 of the Atomic Energy Act): Radiation Protection and Nuclear...

2010-10-01

140

10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.  

...2014-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

2014-01-01

141

42 CFR 37.43 - Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment...Examinations § 37.43 Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment...recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements in NCRP...

2011-10-01

142

10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

2011-01-01

143

10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

2013-01-01

144

10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. 35.24 Section...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of §...

2013-01-01

145

10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. 35.24 Section...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of §...

2012-01-01

146

48 CFR 952.223-72 - Radiation protection and nuclear criticality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radiation protection and nuclear criticality...Provisions and Clauses 952.223-72 Radiation protection and nuclear criticality...section 274 of the Atomic Energy Act): Radiation Protection and Nuclear...

2013-10-01

147

Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection  

SciTech Connect

In the first chapter, terminology, physical and radiological quantities, and units of measurement used to describe the properties of accelerator radiation fields are reviewed. The general considerations of primary radiation fields pertinent to accelerators are discussed. The primary radiation fields produced by electron beams are described qualitatively and quantitatively. In the same manner the primary radiation fields produced by proton and ion beams are described. Subsequent chapters describe: shielding of electrons and photons at accelerators; shielding of proton and ion accelerators; low energy prompt radiation phenomena; induced radioactivity at accelerators; topics in radiation protection instrumentation at accelerators; and accelerator radiation protection program elements.

Cossairt, J.D.

1996-10-01

148

Groundwater protection policies and practices in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

This paper summarises the main objectives for groundwater protection and describes the system adopted in the UK. Groundwater is essential as a source of drinking-water, even in countries with high rainfall; it is used for irrigation and industrial purposes; and it often comprises the base flow of rivers under dry conditions. Water quality is threatened by industry, landfill leachate, agricultural contamination and mine drainage. Quantity is threatened by over-abstraction. The UK uses a risk-based concept of vulnerability to pollution and over-abstraction. A groundwater protection policy has been devised providing guidance on those activities which require control in groundwater protection zones, reflecting the vulnerability of the aquifer. The zones make use of the travel time of contaminants to the water abstraction point. All major activities such as water abstraction, waste disposal, and spreading of agricultural materials may thus be assessed in terms of their risk to the groundwater, and suitable precautions may be taken. Groundwater, once polluted, is an asset which is difficult and expensive to replace. Vulnerability assessment is a useful tool to assist in its protection. PMID:10842809

Chave, P A

2000-01-01

149

Radiation protection for human interplanetary spaceflight and planetary surface operations  

SciTech Connect

Radiation protection issues are reviewed for five categories of radiation exposure during human missions to the moon and Mars: trapped radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays, solar flare particle events, planetary surface emissions, and on-board radiation sources. Relative hazards are dependent upon spacecraft and vehicle configurations, flight trajectories, human susceptibility, shielding effectiveness, monitoring and warning systems, and other factors. Crew cabins, interplanetary mission modules, surface habitats, planetary rovers, and extravehicular mobility units (spacesuits) provide various degrees of protection. Countermeasures that may be taken are reviewed relative to added complexity and risks that they could entail, with suggestions for future research and analysis.

Clark, B.C. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States); [DLR Inst. of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne (Germany); [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

1993-12-31

150

Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

Radiological Control Managers' Council

2008-06-01

151

RADIATION CONTROL GUIDE rev 12/99 1-1 RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAM  

E-print Network

RADIATION CONTROL GUIDE rev 12/99 1-1 CHAPTER 1 RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAM I. INTRODUCTION In view of increased utilization of ionizing and nonionizing radiation at the University of Florida, a university-wide radiation control program was established in September, l960. The primary responsibilities

Wu, Dapeng Oliver

152

Radiobiology and gray science: flaws in landmark new radiation protections.  

PubMed

The International Commission on Radiological Protection--whose regularly updated recommendations are routinely adopted as law throughout the globe--recently issued the first-ever ICRP protections for the environment. These draft 2005 proposals are significant both because they offer the commission's first radiation protections for any non-human parts of the planet and because they will influence both the quality of radiation risk assessment and environmental protection, as well as the global costs of nuclear-weapons cleanup, reactor decommissioning and radioactive waste management. This piece argues that the 2005 recommendations are scientifically and ethically flawed, or gray, in at least three respects: first, in largely ignoring scientific journals while employing mainly "gray literature;" second, in relying on non-transparent dose estimates and models, rather than on actual radiation measurements; and third, in ignoring classical ethical constraints on acceptable radiation risk. PMID:15915855

Shrader-Frechette, Kristin

2005-04-01

153

Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 100, Nos 14, pp. 207209 (2002)  

E-print Network

207 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 100, Nos 1­4, pp. 207­209 (2002) Nuclear Technology of these crystals to solid state dosimetry was also investigated. EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUE A series of CsGd2F7 single

Chen, Reuven

154

Refinement of planetary protection policy for Mars missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under existing COSPAR policy adopted in 1984, missions to Mars (landers, probes, and some orbiters) are designated as Category IV missions. As such, the procedures for implementing planetary protection requirements could include trajectory biasing, cleanrooms, bioload reduction, sterilization of hardware, and bioshields. In 1992, a U.S. National Research Council study recommended that controls on forward contamination of Mars be tied to specific mission objectives. The report recommended that Mars landers with life detection instruments be subject to at least Viking-level sterilization procedures for bioload reduction, while spacecraft (including orbiters) without life detection instruments be subject to at least Viking-level pre-sterilization procedures for bioload reduction but need not be sterilized. In light of this, it is proposed that the current policy's Category IV and its planetary protection requirements be divided into two sub-categories as follows: Category IVa, for missions comprising landers and probes without life detection experiments, which will meet a specified bioburden limit for exposed surfaces, and Category IVb, for landers and probes with life detection experiments, which will require sterilization of landed systems. In addition, Category III orbiter mission specifications are expanded to be consistent with these recommendations.

DeVincenzi, D. L.; Stabekis, P.; Barengoltz, J.

1996-01-01

155

Status of radiation protection at different hospitals in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Nepal has a long history of medical radiology since1923 but unfortunately, we still do not have any Radiation Protection Infrastructure to control the use of ionizing radiations in the various fields. The objective of this study was an assessment of the radiation protection in medical uses of ionizing radiation. Twenty-eight hospitals with diagnostic radiology facility were chosen for this study according to patient loads, equipment and working staffs. Radiation surveys were also done at five different radiotherapy centers. Questionnaire for radiation workers were used; radiation dose levels were measured and an inventory of availability of radiation equipment made. A corollary objective of the study was to create awareness in among workers on possible radiation health hazard and risk. It was also deemed important to know the level of understanding of the radiation workers in order to initiate steps towards the establishment of Nepalese laws, regulation and code of radiological practice in this field. Altogether, 203 Radiation workers entertained the questionnaire, out of which 41 are from the Radiotherapy and 162 are from diagnostic radiology. The radiation workers who have participated in the questionnaire represent more than 50% of the radiation workers working in this field in Nepal. Almost all X-ray, CT and Mammogram installations were built according to protection criteria and hence found safe. Radiation dose level at the reference points for all the five Radiotherapy centers are within safe limit. Around 65% of the radiation workers have never been monitored for radiation. There is no quality control program in any of the surveyed hospitals except radiotherapy facilities. PMID:23293457

Adhikari, Kanchan P.; Jha, L.N.; Galan, Montenegro P.

2012-01-01

156

Radiation Protection Using Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Derivatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention is a means of radiation protection, or cellular oxidative stress mitigation, via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds, specifically single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and their derivatives. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection by reducing the number of free radicals within, or nearby, organelles, cells, tissue, organs, or living organisms, thereby reducing the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components (i.e., RNA, mitochondria, membranes, etc.) that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including but not limited to cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. In addition, this innovation could be used as a prophylactic or antidote for accidental radiation exposure, during high-altitude or space travel where exposure to radiation is anticipated, or to protect from exposure from deliberate terrorist or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons.

Tour, James M.; Lu, Meng; Lucente-Schultz, Rebecca; Leonard, Ashley; Doyle, Condell Dewayne; Kosynkin, Dimitry V.; Price, Brandi Katherine

2011-01-01

157

Using computer-based training to facilitate radiation protection review  

SciTech Connect

In a national laboratory setting, it is necessary to provide radiation protection overview and training to diverse parts of the laboratory population. This includes employees at research reactors, accelerators, waste facilities, radiochemical isotope processing, and analytical laboratories, among others. In addition, our own radiation protection and monitoring staffs must be trained. To assist in the implementation of this full range of training, ORNL has purchased prepackaged computer-based training in health physics and technical mathematics with training modules that can be selected from many topics. By selection of specific modules, appropriate radiation protection review packages can be determined to meet many individual program needs. Because our radiation protection personnel must have some previous radiation protection experience or the equivalent of an associate's degree in radiation protection for entry level, the computer-based training will serve primarily as review of major principles. Others may need very specific prior training to make the computer-based training effective in their work situations. 4 refs.

Abercrombie, J.S.; Copenhaver, E.D.

1989-01-01

158

Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ?, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins. Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation IgG preparations - prospective effective antidote/countermeasure for ?-irradiation, heavy ions irradiation, neutron irradiation. Recommendations for treatment and immune-prophylaxis of CNS injury, induced by radiation, were proposed. Specific immune therapy and specific immune prophylaxis reduce symptoms of ACvRS. This manuscript summarizes the results of experiments and considering possibility for blocking toxicological mechanisms of action of Radiation and Radiation Neurotoxins and prevention or diminishing clinical signs of injury of CNS. Experimental data suggest that Antiradiation vaccine and Antiradiation IgG with specific antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins, Cytotoxins protect CNS against high doses of radiation.

Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

159

Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 100, Nos 14, pp. 7174 (2002)  

E-print Network

71 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 100, Nos 1­4, pp. 71­74 (2002) Nuclear Technology Publishing (OSL) has become a very important method for radiation dosimetry. In many laboratories, it is replacing of this method for dosimetry and dating is basically dependent on this premise. There are, however, some reports

Chen, Reuven

160

Radiation protection of pronormoblasts and normoblasts by 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The pronormoblasts and normoblasts in Swiss albino mice were found to be very sensitive to radiation and their percentage was reduced drastically after exposure to gamma-rays. The degree of damage increased with increase in radiation dose. MPG reduced the initial damage and brought about an early and fast recovery. It is concluded that the drug protects the stem cells

M. R. Saini; P. Uma Devi

1980-01-01

161

Issuing Department: Human Subjects Protection Office Policy Number: 2011-006.5  

E-print Network

-007.0 for definition of the following: Vulnerable Population - Fetus Human Fetal Tissue Policy Human fetal tissue may2011-006.5 Issuing Department: Human Subjects Protection Office Policy Number: 2011-006.5 Policy is to describe when human fetal tissue may be used in transplant research. Definitions See policy 2011

Oliver, Douglas L.

162

An analysis of public-interest group positions on radiation protection.  

PubMed

The history of radiation risk management is replete with contentious public debate between public interest groups and the technical community of radiation protection professionals. To promote a deeper understanding of this phenomenon, this paper describes the rationales and values underlying public-interest group positions in one radiation risk domain (low-level waste) and contrasts them with those of the technical community. Public interest group objections to recycling of radioactivity-contaminated materials and to discarding of other low-level wastes are made on fairness, risk assessment, and energy-policy grounds. Concerns about procedural fairness stem from the continuing use of top-down expert-driven, rather than deliberative, systems for low-level waste policy-making. Concerns about distributional fairness arise because the benefits and risks of alterative low-level waste policies accrue to different stakeholders. Risk assessment is faulted for failure to acknowledge hidden subjective assumptions (e.g., on screening vigilance in materials recycling, on integrity of disposal facilities in the far future). Skepticism of technological risk management arises from a history peppered with unexpected untoward events that lay outside the design bases of protection systems. Finally, public interest groups view low-level waste issues as part of a larger debate on wise and legitimate energy policy, and are reluctant to support measures that provide relief to a nuclear industry that, in their view, established itself outside the democratic process. PMID:17033464

Florig, H Keith

2006-11-01

163

Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1979 and 1980  

SciTech Connect

Public concern over the effects of low-level radiation and other aspects of the use of nuclear energy has grown in recent years, and the demand for radiation protection has continued to increase. Radiation Protection Enrollments and Degrees presents the results of the latest survey of institutions offering degree programs in this field. Students obtaining such degrees are vital to the development of industry, medicine, research, power production, construction, and agriculture. These surveys assist state and federal governments in their search for such personnel.

Gove, R.M.; Little, J.R.; Shirley, D.L.

1981-07-01

164

Viewpoint on proposed radiation-protection standards  

SciTech Connect

The proposed revision of 10CFR20 is discussed from a personal perspective. A brief historical review of the development of radiation standards is presented, and arguments against the proposed de minimis level elaborated upon. (ACR)

Auxier, J.A.

1982-01-01

165

Preparing the radiation protection worker to meet multiple needs  

SciTech Connect

At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) the radiation protection worker aids in protecting personnel and their surrounding environment from the hazards of radiation. These individuals use their technical knowledge, skills, and abilities to survey and monitor various project-related activities. They must also provide guidance in project design, development, and implementation. These combined efforts assure that protective measures are taken in accordance with applicable standards. The ORNL performance-based training program enhances the skills of the worker. The program incorporates job specific information on the diverse facilities and activities monitored with basic fundamentals of radiation protection. Successful completion of this program includes passing both a qualification exam and an on-the-job skills review. This paper details the structure of such a program and explains the strategies taken to reach the program's goals. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

Abercrombie, J.S.; Thorpe, B.C.

1987-01-01

166

International action plan on the radiation protection of patients.  

PubMed

Realising that the major part of radiation protection efforts had been directed for over half a century at radiation protection of workers, and that there are major issues in relation to medical exposure, which contributes to over 95 % of the dose to the global population from man-made sources, with increasing individual patient doses in diagnostic examinations, unnecessary or inappropriate examinations and continued accidents in radiotherapy, the International Atomic Energy Agency established an International Action Plan (IAP) in 2002 in cooperation with international organisations and professional bodies. The achievements of the IAP, which include harmonised training material, guidance documents, a number of publications, a website on radiation protection of patients (http://rpop.iaea.org) and a series of actions in Member States that have shown positive impacts on patient protection, are summarised in this paper. PMID:21737440

Rehani, Madan M; Holmberg, Ola; Ortiz López, Pedro; Mettler, Fred

2011-09-01

167

Simple Benchmark Specifications for Space Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report defines space radiation benchmark specifications. This specification starts with simple, monoenergetic, mono-directional particles on slabs and progresses to human models in spacecraft. This report specifies the models and sources needed to what the team performing the benchmark needs to produce in a report. Also included are brief descriptions of how OLTARIS, the NASA Langley website for space radiation analysis, performs its analysis.

Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.; Aghara, Sukesh K.

2013-01-01

168

Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and policy coordination - first annual report, June 30, 1985  

SciTech Connect

This is the first annual report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). CIRRPC was established on April 9, 1984, by Dr. George A. Keyworth, II, Science Advisor to the President and Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). CIRRPC replaced the Committee on Interagency Radiation Policy and was assigned responsibilities of the former Interagency Radiation Research Committee and former Radiation Policy Council. CIRRPC is chartered under the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (FCCSET). Its overall charge is to coordinate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation research, and provide advice on the formulation of radiation policy.

Not Available

1985-06-30

169

Radiation protection, radiation safety and radiation shielding assessment of HIE-ISOLDE.  

PubMed

The high intensity and energy ISOLDE (HIE-ISOLDE) project is an upgrade to the existing ISOLDE facility at CERN. The foreseen increase in the nominal intensity and the energy of the primary proton beam of the existing ISOLDE facility aims at increasing the intensity of the produced radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The currently existing ISOLDE facility uses the proton beam from the proton-synchrotron booster with an energy of 1.4 GeV and an intensity up to 2 ?A. After upgrade (final stage), the HIE-ISOLDE facility is supposed to run at an energy up to 2 GeV and an intensity up to 4 ?A. The foreseen upgrade imposes constrains, from the radiation protection and the radiation safety point of view, to the existing experimental and supply areas. Taking into account the upgraded energy and intensity of the primary proton beam, a new assessment of the radiation protection and radiation safety of the HIE-ISOLDE facility is necessary. Special attention must be devoted to the shielding assessment of the beam dumps and of the experimental areas. In this work the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo particle transport simulation program FLUKA was used to perform the computation of the ambient dose equivalent rate distribution and of the particle fluxes in the projected HIE-ISOLDE facility (taking into account the upgrade nominal primary proton beam energy and intensity) and the shielding assessment of the facility, with the aim of identifying in the existing facility (ISOLDE) the critical areas and locations where new or reinforced shielding may be necessary. The consequences of the upgraded proton beam parameters on the operational radiation protection of the facility were studied. PMID:23516267

Romanets, Y; Bernardes, A P; Dorsival, A; Gonçalves, I F; Kadi, Y; di Maria, S; Vaz, P; Vlachoudis, V; Vollaire, J

2013-07-01

170

Radiation protection strategies in HERMES missions.  

PubMed

This paper describes the environment of radiations for the HERMES spaceplane and the doses received by men for several missions. Safeguard strategies are then studied to avoid dangerous dose levels. In particular, an anomalously large solar event with eruption of energetic protons may lead to inacceptable dose levels. Strategies, with regards to the orbits characteristics, are discussed. PMID:11537129

Bourdeaud'hui, J C; Feuillais, N; Contant, J M

1991-01-01

171

THE UNIVERSITY OF UTAH RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAM  

E-print Network

energy. Energetic Electrons Electrons are subatomic particles that normally possess one negative charge by which energy is emitted or propagated through space as particles or waves. Ionizing radiations are those (or any charged particle) passing through matter loses energy to the electrons of the atoms

Tipple, Brett

172

Radiation: risk and protection in manned space flight.  

PubMed

Space radiation is the primary source of hazard for orbital and interplanetary space flight. Radiation levels for different space mission durations, have been established in order to determine the level of hazard. The risk of exceeding the established levels should not be more than 1%. Radiation environment models have been developed to estimate these values. It is possible to build spacecraft shielding based on the calculation of doses and the risk of exceeding these. By reviewing various calculated estimates of the risk, the radiation hazard and the efficiency of protective measures can be established for specific flights. PMID:11543099

Petrov, V M; Kovalev, E E; Sakovich, V A

1981-01-01

173

10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. 35.2024 Section...of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a) A...duties, and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by §...

2011-01-01

174

47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application...cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2010-10-01

175

47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application...cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2013-10-01

176

10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. 35.2024 Section...of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a) A...duties, and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by §...

2013-01-01

177

10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. 35.2024 Section...of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a) A...duties, and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by §...

2010-01-01

178

47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application...cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2011-10-01

179

10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. 35.2024 Section...of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a) A...duties, and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by §...

2012-01-01

180

47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application...cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2012-10-01

181

75 FR 59160 - Radiation Protection Regulations and Guidance; Public Meetings and Request for Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...NRC-2009-0279] Radiation Protection Regulations...the current NRC radiation protection regulations...public, the nuclear industry, the...and internal radiation exposures. Currently, nuclear power plant...

2010-09-27

182

Halofuginone Mediated Protection against Radiation-Induced Leg Contracture  

PubMed Central

Fibrosis of normal tissues often accompanies radiation treatment of cancer. Activation of the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) signaling pathway is thought to play a major role in radiation-induced fibrosis and has prompted the development and assessment of low molecular weight inhibitors of the pathway. Previous studies with halofuginone have shown it to inhibit TGF-? signaling in vitro and protect mice from radiation-induced leg contraction (a model for soft tissue fibrosis). The current study confirms these findings for HaCaT cells stimulated with exogenous TGF-? treatment. Reducing the halifuginone treatment from 7 days/week (used previously) to 5 days/week post-radiation exposure provided significant protection against radiation-induced leg contraction in mice 3 and 4 months post-radiation treatment. Halofuginone treatment was shown to attenuate TGF-? signaling molecules taken from irradiated skin including TGF-?RII, pSmad3, Smad7, and TSP1. The latter, TSP1, a co-activator of TGF-? may serve as a suitable biomarker for monitoring the efficacy of halofuginone should it be evaluated in a clinical setting for protection against radiation-induced fibrosis. PMID:19578745

Ishii, Hisanari; Choudhuri, Rajani; Mathias, Askale; Sowers, Anastasia L.; Flanders, Kathleen C.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B.

2012-01-01

183

Protection against ionizing radiation with eicosanoids  

SciTech Connect

Prostaglandins (PGs) are extremely diverse in their pharmacological activities. They exhibit both antagonistic as well as cytoprotective properties in the pathogenesis of inflammation. Participation of PGs as chemical mediators in the regulation of immune responses and inflammation are increasingly apparent. The antagonistic properties of PGs have been implicated in a variety of symptoms resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation. Post-irradiation increases in small bowel motility, diarrhea, flatulence, abdominal pain, mucositis, and esophagitis have been attributed, in part, to excessive PG production. In contrast, exogenous PGs, particularly of the E type, have been shown to be cytoprotective against a variety of damaging agents, and a deficiency of endogeneous PG has been suggested to contribute to increase susceptibility to injury. These findings have provided much of the impetus to examine the potential cytoprotective effects of PGs in radiation injury.

Steel, L.K.; Catravas, G.N.

1988-01-01

184

Protecting Lunar Colonies From Space Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When Apollo 7 astronaut Walter Cunningham blasted off from Earth on 11 October 1968, the last thing he was thinking about was radiation risks or any risks at all. “Fear doesn’t even enter your mind because you have confidence in yourself, your own ability, your training, and your knowledge,” Cunningham told Space Weather. As a crew member of the first manned mission in the Apollo program and the first three-man American space mission, Cunningham spent 11 days in Earth orbit, testing life-support, propulsion, and control systems on a redesigned command module. In retrospect, compared with immediate risks such as those associated with launch and reentry, “exposure to radiation, which could have long-term effects—we just never gave that a thought,” Cunningham said.

Kumar, Mohi

2009-08-01

185

Research issues for radiation protection for man during prolonged spaceflight  

SciTech Connect

For the purpose of this article, radiation protection is defined as any physical, chemical, biological, or pharmacological modality that accomplishes the goal of protecting the astronaut from radiation hazard or increases his ability to assist other astronauts or spacecraft. Thoughtful examination of these largely operational considerations led to identification of medical and radiobiological research required to support the industrialization of near-Earth space. The scope of these research efforts involves thematic issues that have been defined after review of the available preliminary research from several scientific disciplines that relate to the problem of radiation protection in space. This article serves to highlight areas of research requiring further investigation. While certain of these needs for research are driven by the planned orbits involving small designated astronaut populations and well-defined durations that may be specific to the military, it is the use of geostationary orbits, permanent lunar basing, and the proposed Mars mission that form the primary basis for these operational considerations.

Conklin, J.J.; Hagan, M.P.

1987-01-01

186

Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H. [eds.

1991-10-01

187

Radiation Exposure and Protection in Multislice CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical progress in computed tomography (CT) has substantially increased the clinical efficacy of CT procedures and offered\\u000a promising new applications in diagnostic imaging. On the other hand, data from various national surveys have confirmed, as\\u000a a general pattern, the growing impact of CT as a major source of patient and population exposure. From a radiation-hygienic\\u000a point of view, it is

Christoph Hoeschen; Dieter Regulla; Maria Zankl; Helmut Schlattl; Gunnar Brix

188

Yucca Mountain Standards: EPA's Radiation Protection Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Yucca Mountain Home Page furnishes information about the EPA's role in this Nevada-based "underground geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste." The site answers frequently asked questions about the repository and supplies an overview of the various roles of federal agencies. The publications section includes detailed articles (in html or .pdf format) on radioactive waste disposal and the standards and regulations surrounding radioactive waste management. For another Yucca Mountain site, see the October 1, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering.

189

School Sun-Protection Policies--Does Being SunSmart Make a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluate the comprehensiveness of primary school sun-protection policies in tropical North Queensland, Australia. Pre-determined criteria were used to assess publicly available sun-protection policies from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.3°S; n = 43), Cairns (16.9°S; n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.3°S; n = 23) during 2009-2012.…

Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L.; Buettner, Petra; Nowak, Madeleine

2014-01-01

190

Shielding and Radiation Protection in Ion Beam Therapy Facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation protection is a key aspect of any radiotherapy (RT) department and is made even more complex in ion beam therapy (IBT) by the large facility size, secondary particle spectra and intricate installation of these centers. In IBT, large and complex radiation producing devices are used and made available to the public for treatment. It is thus the responsibility of the facility to put in place measures to protect not only the patient but also the general public, occupationally and nonoccupationally exposed personnel working within the facility, and electronics installed within the department to ensure maximum safety while delivering maximum up-time.

Wroe, Andrew J.; Rightnar, Steven

191

United States Office of Radiation and Indoor Air EPA 402-R-09-002 Environmental Protection Agency Radiation Protection Division (6608J) January 2009  

E-print Network

United States Office of Radiation and Indoor Air EPA 402-R-09-002 Environmental Protection Agency Radiation Protection Division U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC 20460 #12;i Preface.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute

192

Dental-service Dental Radiation Safety and Protection: Program guide  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the program guide for Dental Radiation Safety and Protection is to assist VA dental personnel in developing radiologic procedures that ensure maximum safety for their patients and themselves. In order to do this, the authors have included a summary of the biological hazards associated with exposure to x-radiation, provided information on patient exposure levels associated with dental X-ray units, and explained the methods for reducing patient and staff exposure to X-rays.

Not Available

1991-08-27

193

PERSPECTIVE ON THE USE OF LNT FOR RADIATION PROTECTION AND RISK ASSESSMENT BY THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY  

E-print Network

.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Jerome S. Puskin, PhD Center for Science and Technology, Radiation Protection Division, ORIA (6608J), EPA, Washington, DC The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) bases its risk future. INTRODUCTION The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for protecting

194

[Radiation Protection in Orthodontics: relevant data].  

PubMed

For the past 30 years X-Ray images have effected a veritable revolution in medical practice. Using them practitioners cannot only make reliable and precise diagnoses when they begin a course of treatment but also accurately follow the progress of therapy. Orthodontics is one of the specialties that has benefited from the innovations in medical radiography. At the same time we have learned more about the risks that the use of ionizing radiation entails and are, accordingly, basing our radiological practice on the ALARA principle ("As Low As Reasonably Achievable"). Even though this concept is embodied in much national and European legislation, practitioners will enhance their daily use of radiology by acquiring an understanding of the scientific basis for ALARA. PMID:22455646

Foucart, Jean-Michel; Felizardo, Rufino; Pizelle, Christophe

2012-03-01

195

Viewpoint: Policy Requirements for Protecting Wildlife from Endocrine Disruptors  

PubMed Central

Man-made endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) present a threat to biodiversity, even in remote areas. To date, numerous wildlife species have been affected by EDCs in the environment, but it is likely that many more species are suffering effects that have not yet been reported. Impaired reproduction, damaged brain function, and deficits of the immune system are of particular concern. In order to bring all endocrine-disrupting chemicals under control, the development of screens and tests to identify EDCs must be expedited. However, the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) considers that sufficient information is already available to merit action on several such substances. In addition, it must be recognized that proving the mechanism of action for some chemicals may take decades. Therefore, it is important to enable certain chemicals to be brought under stricter control on the basis of strong suspicion of endocrine disruption or biochemical signaling disruption. Furthermore, the risk assessment process itself also must be modified, and some suggestions are discussed in this article. WWF maintains that any effect that could reasonably be expected to affect the population level should be taken forward in environmental risk characterization, in particular, behavioral effects should be given more consideration. Current chemical management policies are not protective, and we argue for modifications in them to be made. PMID:16818260

Lyons, Gwynne

2006-01-01

196

Ascorbic acid (AA) metabolism in protection against radiation damage  

SciTech Connect

The possibility is considered that AA protects tissues against radiation damage by scavenging free radicals that result from radiolysis of water. A physiologic buffer (pH 6.7) was incubated with /sup 14/C-AA and 1 mM thiourea (to slow spontaneous oxidation of AA). Aliquots were assayed by HPLC and scintillation spectrometry to identify the /sup 14/C-label. Samples exposed to Cobalt-60 radiation had a half time of AA decay of < 3 minutes compared with nonirradiated samples (t/sub 1/2/ > 30 minutes) indicating that AA scavenges radiation-induced free radicals and forms the ascorbate free radical (AFR). Pairs of /sup 14/C-AFR disproportionate, with the net effect of /sup 14/C-dehydroascorbic acid formation from /sup 14/C-AA. Having established that AFR result from ionizing radiation in an aqueous solution, the possibility was evaluated that a tissue factor reduces AFR. Cortical tissue from the kidneys of male rats was minced, homogenized in buffer and centrifuged at 8000 xg. The supernatant was found to slow the rate of radiation-induced AA degradation by > 90% when incubated at 23/sup 0/C in the presence of 15 ..mu..M /sup 14/C-AA. Samples of supernatant maintained at 100/sup 0/C for 10 minutes or precipitated with 5% PCA did not prevent radiation-induced AA degradation. AA may have a specific role in scavenging free radicals generated by ionizing radiation and thereby protect body tissues.

Rose, R.C.; Koch, M.J.

1986-03-05

197

School Sun-Protection Policies: Measure Development and Assessments in 2 Regions of the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun-safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected…

Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; French, Simone A.; Buller, Mary K.; Ashley, Jeff L.

2012-01-01

198

Protection against ionizing radiation by antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of antioxidants to reduce the cellular damage induced by ionizing radiation has been studied in animal models for more than 50 years. The application of antioxidant radioprotectors to various human exposure situations has not been extensive although it is generally accepted that endogenous antioxidants, such as cellular non-protein thiols and antioxidant enzymes, provide some degree of protection. This

Joseph F. Weiss; Michael R. Landauer

2003-01-01

199

Optimal shield mass distribution for space radiation protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational methods have been developed and successfully used for determining the optimum distribution of space radiation shielding on geometrically complex space vehicles. These methods have been incorporated in computer program SWORD for dose evaluation in complex geometry, and iteratively calculating the optimum distribution for (minimum) shield mass satisfying multiple acute and protected dose constraints associated with each of several body organs.

Billings, M. P.

1972-01-01

200

Nuclear Technology Series. Course 17: Radiation Protection II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

201

Nuclear Technology Series. Course 2: Radiation Protection I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

202

Radiation protection for human missions to the Moon and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation protection assessments are performed for advanced Lunar and Mars manned missions. The Langley cosmic ray transport code and the nucleon transport code are used to quantify the transport and attenuation of galactic cosmic rays and solar proton flares through various shielding media. Galactic cosmic radiation at solar maximum and minimum, as well as various flare scenarios are considered. Propagation data for water, aluminum, liquid hydrogen, lithium hydride, lead, and lunar and Martian regolith (soil) are included. Shield thickness and shield mass estimates required to maintain incurred doses below 30 day and annual limits (as set for Space Station Freedom and used as a guide for space exploration) are determined for simple geometry transfer vehicles. On the surface of Mars, dose estimates are presented for crews with their only protection being the carbon dioxide atmosphere and for crews protected by shielding provided by Martian regolith for a candidate habitat.

Simonsen, Lisa C.; Nealy, John E.

1991-01-01

203

Radiation protection for human missions to the Moon and Mars  

SciTech Connect

Radiation protection assessments are performed for advanced Lunar and Mars manned missions. The Langley cosmic ray transport code and the nucleon transport code are used to quantify the transport and attenuation of galactic cosmic rays and solar proton flares through various shielding media. Galactic cosmic radiation at solar maximum and minimum, as well as various flare scenarios are considered. Propagation data for water, aluminum, liquid hydrogen, lithium hydride, lead, and lunar and Martian regolith (soil) are included. Shield thickness and shield mass estimates required to maintain incurred doses below 30 day and annual limits (as set for Space Station Freedom and used as a guide for space exploration) are determined for simple geometry transfer vehicles. On the surface of Mars, dose estimates are presented for crews with their only protection being the carbon dioxide atmosphere and for crews protected by shielding provided by Martian regolith for a candidate habitat.

Simonsen, L.C.; Nealy, J.E.

1991-02-01

204

ME 361F Radiation and Radiation Protection Laboratory ABET EC2000 syllabus  

E-print Network

-Ray Attenuation · Low-Level Gamma Ray Spectrometry · Reactor Health Physics · Neutron Shielding · Sodium Iodide Data: Introduction to the application of radiation and radiation protection instrumentation. Lecture the concepts and practical applications of health physics nuclear instrumentation. Topics Covered (# of classes

Ben-Yakar, Adela

205

Opportunities for scientists to influence policy: when does radiation metrology matter in development of national policy?  

PubMed

Accurate measurements of radiation and radioactivity rarely rise to the level of national policy. The things that matter most to ordinary citizens do not normally include questions of science and technology. Citizens are more often concerned with issues close to home relating to commerce, health, safety, security and the environment. When questions of confidence in measurements arise, they are first directed to the ministry that has responsibilities in that area. When the required uncertainty in field measurements challenges the capability of the regulatory authorities, the National Metrology Institute may be asked to develop transfer standards to enhance the capabilities of the ministry with the mission lead. In this paper, we will consider eight instances over the past nine decades in which questions in radiation and radionuclide metrology in the US did rise to the level that they influenced decisions on national policy. These eight examples share some common threads. Radioactivity and ionizing radiation are useful tools in many disciplines, but can often represent potential or perceived threats to health and public safety. When unforeseen applications of radiation arise, or when environmental radioactivity from natural and man-made sources presents a possible health hazard, the radiation metrologists may be called upon to provide the technical underpinning for policy development. PMID:24369891

Coursey, Bert M

2014-05-01

206

Habitat Design Considerations for Implementing Solar Particle Event Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation protection is an important habitat design consideration for human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. Fortunately, radiation shelter concepts can effectively reduce astronaut exposure for the relatively low proton energies of solar particle events, enabling moderate duration missions of several months before astronaut exposure (galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event) approaches radiation exposure limits. In order to minimize habitat mass for increasingly challenging missions, design of radiation shelters must minimize dedicated, single-purpose shielding mass by leveraging the design and placement of habitat subsystems, accommodations, and consumables. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems RadWorks Storm Shelter Team has recently designed and performed radiation analysis on several low dedicated mass shelter concepts for a year-long mission. This paper describes habitat design considerations identified during the study's radiation analysis. These considerations include placement of the shelter within a habitat for improved protection, integration of human factors guidance for sizing shelters, identification of potential opportunities for habitat subsystems to compromise on individual subsystem performances for overall vehicle mass reductions, and pre-configuration of shelter components for reduced deployment times.

Simon, Mathew A.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Walker, Steven A.

2013-01-01

207

Radar commentary: Use of linear no-threshold hypothesis in radiation protection regulation in the United States.  

PubMed

Radiation protection recommendations advanced by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, and many times adopted into regulations by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, need to be based on scientifically justified assumptions and conclusions. The linear no-threshold model assigns risk to every radiation exposure above zero dose and is the current basis for setting radiation protection standards worldwide. This hypothesis is vigorously challenged by many individuals but just as vigorously defended in spite of the uncertainties surrounding health effects at low dose levels. It is clear that at radiation doses below 100 mSv, the effects, if any, are so low as to be unobservable and perhaps, therefore, unknowable. However, the linear no-threshold hypothesis is used routinely to formulate regulatory dose limits for workers and the general public and to derive stochastic radiogenic risk estimates at low doses. This note will show that while the linear no-threshold hypothesis may play a legitimate role in setting radiation protection standards and operating policies, such as establishing dose limits or as part of an operational "as low as is reasonably achievable" (ALARA) policy, it is inappropriate for use in estimating possible cancer risks associated with low-level radiation exposures. It will also demonstrate that the raising, not lowering, of current regulatory dose limits is more solidly supported by the actual observed data on radiation dose and effects. The authors submit that the misuse of the linear no-threshold model for predicting radiation effects in exposed individuals and populations should be discontinued. PMID:22134084

Siegel, Jeffry A; Stabin, Michael G

2012-01-01

208

RADIATION SAFETY POLICY Effective Date: April 4, 2012 Originating Office: Office of the  

E-print Network

RADIATION SAFETY POLICY Effective Date: April 4, 2012 Originating Office: Office of the Vice-President, Services Supersedes /Amends: VRS-46/November 26, 2003 Policy Number: VPS-46 PREAMBLE Ionizing radiation emitted from nuclear substances, radiation devices and radiation-emitting devices is an essential tool

Doedel, Eusebius

209

The radiobiology/radiation protection interface in healthcare.  

PubMed

The current knowledge of radiation effects is reviewed and implications for its application in healthcare considered. The 21st L H Gray conference gathered leading experts in radiobiology, radiation epidemiology, radiation effect modelling, and the application of radiation in medicine to provide an overview of the subject. The latest radiobiology research in non-targeted effects such as genomic instability and the bystander effect challenge the old models, but the implications for health effects on humans are uncertain. Adaptive responses to external stresses, of which radiation is one, have been demonstrated in cells and animal models, but it is not known how these might modify human dose-effect relationships. Epidemiological evidence from the Japanese A-bomb survivors provides strong evidence that there is a linear relationship between the excess risk of cancer and organ dose that extends from about 50 mSv up to 2.5 Sv, and results from pooled data for multiple epidemiological studies indicate that risks extend down to doses of 20 mSv. Thus linear extrapolation of the A-bomb dose-effect data provides an appropriate basis for radiological protection standards at the present time. Risks from higher dose diagnostic procedures fall within the range in which health effects can be demonstrated. There is therefore reason for concern about the rise in the number of computed tomography (CT) scans performed in many countries, and in particular the use of CT for screening of asymptomatic individuals. New radiotherapy techniques allow high dose radiation fields to be conformed more effectively to target volumes, and reduce doses to critical organs, but they tend to give a higher and more uniform dose to the whole body which may increase the risk of second cancer. It is important that radiation protection practitioners keep abreast of developments in understanding of radiation effects and advise the medical community about the implications of fundamental research when planning medical applications for the future. PMID:19454808

Martin, C J; Sutton, D G; West, C M; Wright, E G

2009-06-01

210

Insights into the state of radiation protection among a subpopulation of Indian dental practitioners  

PubMed Central

Purpose Radiographs is an integral part of patient management in dentistry, despite their detrimental effects. As the literature pertaining to radiation protection among Indian dental practitioners is sparse, exploring such protection is needed. Materials and Methods All private dental practitioners in Mangalore, India were included in the study. A structured, pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire was employed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practices, previous training, perceptions towards the need to spread awareness, and willingness to gain and implement knowledge about radiation hazards and protection. Information regarding each respondent's age, gender, education, and type and duration of practice was collected. Results Overall, 87 out of 120 practitioners participated in the study. The mean knowledge, attitude, and practice scores were 9.54±2.54, 59.39±7.01, and 5.80±3.19, respectively. Overall, 25.3% of the respondents had undergone training in radiation protection, 98.9% perceived a need to spread awareness, and 94.3% were willing to improve their knowledge. Previous training showed a significant correlation with age, sex, and duration of practice; attitude was significantly correlated with education and type of practice; and knowledge scores showed a significant correlation with type of practice. Conclusion Although the knowledge and practices of respondents were poor, they had a positive attitude and were willing to improve their knowledge. Age, sex, and duration of practice were associated with previous training; education and type of practice with attitude scores; and type of practice with knowledge scores. The findings of this study suggest a policy is needed to ensure the adherence of dental practitioners to radiation protection guidelines. PMID:24380064

Binnal, Almas; Denny, Ceena; Ahmed, Junaid; Nayak, Vijayendra

2013-01-01

211

Mechanisms of radiation interaction with DNA: Potential implications for radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

An overview of presentations and discussions which took place at the US Department of Energy/Commission of European Communities (DOE/CEC) workshop on ''Mechanisms of Radiation Interaction with DNA: Potential Implications for Radiation Protection,'' held at San Diego, California, January 21-22, 1987, is provided. The Department has traditionally supported fundamental research on interactions of ionizing radiation with different biological systems and at all levels of biological organization. The aim of this workshop was to review the base of knowledge in the area of mechanisms of radiation action at the DNA level, and to explore ways in which this information can be applied to the development of scientifically sound concepts and procedures for use in the field of radiation protection.

Sinclair, W.K.; Fry, R.J.M.

1987-01-01

212

Issues in Space Radiation Protection: Galactic Cosmic Rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With shielding from cosmic heavy ions, one is faced with limited knowledge about the physical properties and biological responses of these radiations. Herein, the current status of space shielding technology and its impact on radiation health is discussed in terms of conventional protection practice and a test biological response model. The impact of biological response on optimum materials selection for cosmic ray shielding is presented in terms of the transmission characteristics of the shield material. Although liquid hydrogen gas is an optimum shield material, evaluation of the effectiveness of polymeric structural materials must await improvement in our knowledge of both the biological response and the nuclear processes.

Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M.; Schimmerling, W.; Badavi, F. F.; Thibeault, S. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Shinn, J. L.; Kiefer, R.

1995-01-01

213

42 CFR 37.45 - Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment. 37.45 Section 37...Radiographic Examinations § 37.45 Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment. Except as...

2013-10-01

214

Pyridoxamine protects intestinal epithelium from ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are the major cause of biological tissue damage during the exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The existing strategies to protect normal tissues from detrimental effects of IR suffer from several shortcomings including high toxic side effects, unfavorable administration routs or low efficacy. These shortcomings emphasize a need for radioprotective treatments that combine effectiveness with safety and ease of use. In this paper, we demonstrate that pyridoxamine, a ROS and RCS scavenger with a very favorable safety profile, can inhibit IR-induced gastrointestinal endothelial apoptosis in cell culture and in animal model. Pyridoxamine was more effective at protecting from radiation-induced apoptosis compared to Amifostine, a synthetic thiol compound and the only FDA approved radioprotector. We suggest that PM has a potential as an effective and safe radioprotective agent. PMID:19540915

Thotala, Dinesh; Chetyrkin, Sergei; Hudson, Billy; Hallahan, Dennis; Voziyan, Paul; Yazlovitskaya, Eugenia

2009-01-01

215

Medicinal protection with Chinese herb-compound against radiation damage  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were carried out on mice and the subjects irradiated for cancer therapy to evaluate the protective efficacy of a Chinese medicinal herb-compound (CMHC). The lethality and the degree of leucopenia caused by radiation in mice medicated with CMHC were significantly less in comparison with control mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). CMHC significantly improved the WBC and the thrombocytes in irradiated workers (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). The WBC count of 40 patients under radiotherapy while treated with CMHC recovered from 3450 +/- 77/c.mm to 5425 +/- 264/c.mm (p less than 0.001); whereas, in the control group, without any medication, the WBC count dropped significantly (p less than 0.001). Our results revealed the applicabilities of CMHC in protection against radiation damage in spaceflight and in other fields.

Zhang, R.J.; Qian, J.K.; Yang, G.H.; Wang, B.Z.; Wen, X.L. (Institute of Space Medico-Engineering, Beijing (China))

1990-08-01

216

A comparison of campfire impacts and policies in seven protected areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using resource-monitoring data from seven protected areas, the effectiveness of three campfire policies-campfire ban, designated campfires, and unregulated campfires-were assessed based on the number of fire sites and the amount of tree damage. Results indicate that unregulated campfire policies permitted substantial numbers of fire sites and tree damage in campsites, although fire bans did not eliminate or even substantially decrease these problems. A designated campfire policy was effective in decreasing number of fire sites, but little difference was found among policies regarding tree damage. Given the importance of campfires to visitor experiences, campfire prohibitions could be viewed as unnecessarily restrictive based on their limited success in preventing resource damage. Conclusions encourage protected-area managers to consider designated campfire policies and prohibitions on axes, hatchets, and saws to better meet resource protection and visitor experience mandates.

Reid, S.E.; Marion, J.L.

2005-01-01

217

Pharmacological Protection From Radiation {+-} Cisplatin-Induced Oral Mucositis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate if two pharmacological agents, Tempol and D-methionine (D-met), are able to prevent oral mucositis in mice after exposure to ionizing radiation {+-} cisplatin. Methods and Materials: Female C3H mice, {approx}8 weeks old, were irradiated with five fractionated doses {+-} cisplatin to induce oral mucositis (lingual ulcers). Just before irradiation and chemotherapy, mice were treated, either alone or in combination, with different doses of Tempol (by intraperitoneal [ip] injection or topically, as an oral gel) and D-met (by gavage). Thereafter, mice were sacrificed and tongues were harvested and stained with a solution of Toluidine Blue. Ulcer size and tongue epithelial thickness were measured. Results: Significant lingual ulcers resulted from 5 Multiplication-Sign 8 Gy radiation fractions, which were enhanced with cisplatin treatment. D-met provided stereospecific partial protection from lingual ulceration after radiation. Tempol, via both routes of administration, provided nearly complete protection from lingual ulceration. D-met plus a suboptimal ip dose of Tempol also provided complete protection. Conclusions: Two fairly simple pharmacological treatments were able to markedly reduce chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. This proof of concept study suggests that Tempol, alone or in combination with D-met, may be a useful and convenient way to prevent the severe oral mucositis that results from head-and-neck cancer therapy.

Cotrim, Ana P. [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yoshikawa, Masanobu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Sunshine, Abraham N.; Zheng Changyu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Sowers, Anastasia L.; Thetford, Angela D.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B. [Radiation Biology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Baum, Bruce J., E-mail: bbaum@dir.nidcr.nih.gov [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

2012-07-15

218

The IAEA's activities on radiation protection in interventional cardiology  

PubMed Central

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under its mandate of developing and applying standards of radiation safety has initiated a number of activities in recent years on radiation protection in interventional cardiology. These activities are implemented through four mechanisms, namely training, providing information through the website, research projects and assistance to Member States through Technical Cooperation (TC) projects. Major international initiatives have been taken in the area of training where more than half a dozen regional training courses have been conducted for cardiologists from over 50 countries. Additionally four national training events for over 300 medical and paramedical staff members involved in interventional procedures were held. The training material is freely available on CD from the IAEA. The newly established website provides information on radiation protection issues [1]. Two coordinated research projects have just been completed where peak skin doses to patients undergoing high dose interventional procedures were studied and factors to manage patient doses were identified. The technical cooperation projects involving protection in cardiac interventional procedures have 30 countries as participants. PMID:21614275

Rehani, MM

2007-01-01

219

Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S. [eds.

1988-11-01

220

United States Office of EPA-520/1-88-020 Environmental Protection Radiation Program September 1988  

E-print Network

. This report was prepared by the OFFICE OF RADIATION PROGRAMS U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Washington Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 Office of Radiation Programs U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyUnited States Office of EPA-520/1-88-020 Environmental Protection Radiation Program September 1988

221

Radiation protection and decision-making on cleanup of contaminated urban environments  

E-print Network

Radiation protection and decision-making on cleanup of contaminated urban environments Radiation protection and decisionRadiation protection and decision--making onmaking on cleanup of contaminated urban environmentscleanup of contaminated urban environments Per Hedemann Jensen Section of Applied Health Physics Risø

222

Tufts University Policy to Protect Children and Prevent Abuse EXECUTIVE SUMMARY  

E-print Network

1 Tufts University Policy to Protect Children and Prevent Abuse EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Child abuse, or the adults who observe or suspect the abuse are unsure of what to do. Tufts University believes, suspected, or disclosed. The policy identifies Tufts University Police as the designated agent to receive

Dennett, Daniel

223

A High-Throughput Screen for Alpha Particle Radiation Protectants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Alpha-particle-emitting elements are of increasing importance as environmental and occupational carcinogens, toxic components of radiation dispersal devices and accidents, and potent therapeutics in oncology. Alpha particle radiation differs from radiations of lower linear energy transfer in that it predominantly damages DNA via direct action. Because of this, radical scavengers effective for other radiations have had only limited effect in mitigating alpha particle toxicity. We describe here a simple assay and a pilot screen of 3,119 compounds in a high-throughput screen (HTS), using the alpha-particle-emitting isotope, 225Ac, for the discovery of compounds that might protect mammalian cells from alpha particles through novel mechanisms. The assay, which monitored the viability of a myeloid leukemic cell line upon alpha particle exposure, was robust and reproducible, yielding a Z' factor of 0.66 and a signal-to-noise ratio of nearly 10 to 1. Surprisingly, 1 compound emerged from this screen, epoxy-4,5-?-dihydroxysantonin (EDHS), that showed considerable protective activity. While the value of EDHS remains to be determined, its discovery is a proof of concept and validation of the utility of this HTS methodology. Further application of the described assay could yield compounds useful in minimizing the toxicity and carcinogenesis associated with alpha particle exposure. PMID:20658946

Seideman, Jonathan H.; Shum, David; Djaballah, Hakim

2010-01-01

224

Integrated analysis of policy options for protection of groundwater quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is directed at providing an integrated framework that a regional authority should use when assessing the potential impacts of any policy initiative directed at improving groundwater quality. In particular, a policy model is developed relying on three decision components (a farm-level production decisions model, a household decisions model and a regional policy decision model) where the objective is one of identifying the trade-offs that a regional authority will be confronted with as it strives to balance the preferences of farmers and households while endeavoring to maximize net economic welfare. The basic rule developed indicates that the regional authority must choose a policy whereby any increase (decrease) in regional income is just equal to the decrease (increase) in net benefits to households.

Uri, Noel D.; Huang, Wen-Yuan

1990-05-01

225

IMPLEMENTING MARINE PROTECTED AREAS POLICY: LESSONS FROM CANADA AND  

E-print Network

for other states interested in implementing MPA policy. #12;iv Acknowledgements My family ­ Mom, Dad and Boo giving me your time and attention when I needed it and never making me feel like a nuisance, even during

226

Information Policy in the European Community: Balancing Protection and Competition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses European Community policy relating to information technology and the information industry. Topics addressed include the information services industry; transborder information flow, including electronic mail, data owner responsibility, and software piracy; digital data networks; electronic data interchange; telecommunications; information…

Sillince, J. A. A.

1994-01-01

227

Irradiated Esophageal Cells are Protected from Radiation-Induced Recombination by MnSOD Gene Therapy  

E-print Network

Irradiated Esophageal Cells are Protected from Radiation-Induced Recombination by MnSOD Gene. Irradiated Esophageal Cells are Protected from Radiation- Induced Recombination by MnSOD Gene Therapy. Radiat in esophageal cells. These results demonstrate the efficacy of MnSOD-PL for suppressing radiation-induced HR

Engelward, Bevin

228

Policy Name PHIP (Personal Health Information Protection) Originating/Responsible Department University Secretariat  

E-print Network

Policy Name PHIP (Personal Health Information Protection) Originating/Responsible Department the Personal Health Information Protection Act, 2004 (PHIPA) and to outline the obligations of all health professionals and patients of the Carleton University Health and Counselling Services. It is not meant

Carleton University

229

Duke University School of Nursing CRU Policy for Human Subjects Protection (HSP) Certification and Training  

E-print Network

within the clinical research community at Duke, all Duke Medicine personnel (including School of NursingDuke University School of Nursing CRU Policy for Human Subjects Protection (HSP) Certification and Training Name: Human Subject Protection (HSP) Certification and Training Effective Date

Reif, John H.

230

Comment on “Policy offers protection from harassment” [by Marcia McNutt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regarding “Policy Offers Protection From Harassment” (Eos, October 15, 1996), I am disturbed that the AGU has extended its harassment policy to its membership at “events that combine work and social interaction, such as the meetings, conferences, and seminars that AGU members attend.” As a woman, I have always found the so-called protections extended to females and other supposedly vulnerable groups to be intrusive and patronizing, but this policy in particular goes too far by trying to sponsor aspects of members' social behavior.I am old enough to remember the days when one responded to uncomfortable situations by drawing on one's own resources. A sense of one's inviolable self developed over time, and meaningful self-esteem derived from an ability to cope with the world. Now, cowering from jokes and recoiling from eye contact, the modern geoscientist apparently requires a patron for protection—a shining knight in the form of this new policy.

Hickman, Martha H.

231

Radiation protection performance indicators at the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko.  

PubMed

Nuclear power plant safety performance indicators are developed "by nuclear operating organisations to monitor their own performance and progress, to set their own challenging goals for improvement, and to gain additional perspective on performance relative to that of other plants". In addition, performance indicators are widely used by regulatory authorities although the use is not harmonised. Two basic performance indicators related to good radiation protection practice are collective radiation exposure and volume of low-level radioactive waste. In 2000, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, a Westinghouse pressurised water reactor with electrical output 700 MW, finished an extensive modernisation including the replacement of both steam generators. While the annual volume of low-level radioactive waste does not show a specific trend related to modernisation, the annual collective dose reached maximum, i.e. 2.60 man Sv, and dropped to 1.13 man Sv in 2001. During the replacement of the steam generators in 2000, the dose associated with this activity was 1.48 man Sv. The annual doses in 2002 and 2003 were 0.53 and 0.80 man Sv, respectively, nearing thus the goal set by the US Institute of Nuclear Power Operators, which is 0.65 man Sv. Therefore, inasmuch as collective dose as the radiation protection performance indicator are concerned, the modernisation of the Krsko nuclear power plant was a success. PMID:16832974

Janzekovic, Helena

2006-06-01

232

Radiation Protection Studies for LCLS Tune Up Dump  

SciTech Connect

The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is a pioneer fourth generation hard x-ray free electron laser that shall start to deliver laser pulses in 2009. Among other components of LCLS that present radiation protection concerns, the tune up dump (tdund) is of special interest because it also constitutes an issue for machine protection, as it is placed close to radiation sensitive components, like electronic devices and permanent magnets in the undulators. This paper first introduces the stopper of tdund looking at the heat load, and then it describes the shielding around the dump necessary to maintain the prompt and residual dose within design values. Next, preliminary comparisons of the magnetization loss in a dedicated on-site magnet irradiation experiment with FLUKA simulations serve to characterize the magnetic response to radiation of magnets like those of LCLS. The previous knowledge, together with the limit for the allowed demagnetization, are used to estimate the lifetime of the undulator. Further simulations provide guidelines on which lifetime can be expected for an electronic device placed at a given distance of tdund.

Santana-Leitner, M.; Fass, A.; Mao, S.; Nuhn, H.D.; /SLAC; Roesler, S.; /CERN; Rokni, S.; Vollaire, J.; /SLAC

2010-04-29

233

Radiation protection and dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technological advances that occurred during the last few decades paved the way to the dissemination of CT-based procedures in radiology, to an increasing number of procedures in interventional radiology and cardiology as well as to new techniques and hybrid modalities in nuclear medicine and in radiotherapy. These technological advances encompass the exposure of patients and medical staff to unprecedentedly high dose values that are a cause for concern due to the potential detrimental effects of ionizing radiation to the human health. As a consequence, new issues and challenges in radiological protection and dosimetry in the medical applications of ionizing radiation have emerged. The scientific knowledge of the radiosensitivity of individuals as a function of age, gender and other factors has also contributed to raising the awareness of scientists, medical staff, regulators, decision makers and other stakeholders (including the patients and the public) for the need to correctly and accurately assess the radiation induced long-term health effects after medical exposure. Pediatric exposures and their late effects became a cause of great concern. The scientific communities of experts involved in the study of the biological effects of ionizing radiation have made a strong case about the need to undertake low dose radiation research and the International System of Radiological Protection is being challenged to address and incorporate issues such as the individual sensitivities, the shape of dose-response relationship and tissue sensitivity for cancer and non-cancer effects. Some of the answers to the radiation protection and dosimetry issues and challenges in the medical applications of ionizing radiation lie in computational studies using Monte Carlo or hybrid methods to model and simulate particle transport in the organs and tissues of the human body. The development of sophisticated Monte Carlo computer programs and voxel phantoms paves the way to an accurate dosimetric assessment of the medical applications of ionizing radiation. In this paper, the aforementioned topics will be reviewed. The current status and the future trends in the implementation of the justification and optimization principles, pillars of the International System of Radiological Protection, in the medical applications of ionizing radiation will be discussed. Prospective views will be provided on the future of the system of radiological protection and on dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation.

Vaz, Pedro

2014-11-01

234

Chromatin compaction protects genomic DNA from radiation damage.  

PubMed

Genomic DNA is organized three-dimensionally in the nucleus, and is thought to form compact chromatin domains. Although chromatin compaction is known to be essential for mitosis, whether it confers other advantages, particularly in interphase cells, remains unknown. Here, we report that chromatin compaction protects genomic DNA from radiation damage. Using a newly developed solid-phase system, we found that the frequency of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in compact chromatin after ionizing irradiation was 5-50-fold lower than in decondensed chromatin. Since radical scavengers inhibited DSB induction in decondensed chromatin, condensed chromatin had a lower level of reactive radical generation after ionizing irradiation. We also found that chromatin compaction protects DNA from attack by chemical agents. Our findings suggest that genomic DNA compaction plays an important role in maintaining genomic integrity. PMID:24130727

Takata, Hideaki; Hanafusa, Tomo; Mori, Toshiaki; Shimura, Mari; Iida, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Kenichi; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Maeshima, Kazuhiro

2013-01-01

235

The IHS diagnostic X-ray equipment radiation protection program  

SciTech Connect

The Indian Health Service (IHS) operates or contracts with Tribal groups to operate 50 hospitals and approximately 165 primary ambulatory care centers. These facilities contain approximately 275 medical and 800 dental diagnostic x-ray machines. IHS environmental health personnel in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) developed a diagnostic x-ray protection program including standard survey procedures and menu-driven calculations software. Important features of the program include the evaluation of equipment performance collection of average patient entrance skin exposure (ESE) measurements for selected procedures, and quality assurance. The ESE data, collected using the National Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) protocol, will be presented. The IHS Diagnostic X-ray Radiation Protection Program is dynamic and is adapting to changes in technology and workload.

Knapp, A.; Byrns, G.; Suleiman, O.

1994-05-01

236

Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation  

PubMed Central

Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A “sclerojuglonic” compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

Korac, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

2011-01-01

237

Genetic and epigenetic features in radiation sensitivity. Part II: implications for clinical practice and radiation protection.  

PubMed

Recent progress especially in the field of gene identification and expression has attracted greater attention to the genetic and epigenetic susceptibility to cancer, possibly enhanced by ionising radiation. This issue is especially important for radiation therapists since hypersensitive patients may suffer from adverse effects in normal tissues following standard radiation therapy, while normally sensitive patients could receive higher doses of radiation, offering a better likelihood of cure for malignant tumours. Although only a small percentage of individuals are "hypersensitive" to radiation effects, all medical specialists using ionising radiation should be aware of the aforementioned progress in medical knowledge. The present paper, the second of two parts, reviews human disorders known or strongly suspected to be associated with hypersensitivity to ionising radiation. The main tests capable of detecting such pathologies in advance are analysed, and ethical issues regarding genetic testing are considered. The implications for radiation protection of possible hypersensitivity to radiation in a part of the population are discussed, and some guidelines for nuclear medicine professionals are proposed. PMID:15692806

Bourguignon, Michel H; Gisone, Pablo A; Perez, Maria R; Michelin, Severino; Dubner, Diana; Giorgio, Marina Di; Carosella, Edgardo D

2005-03-01

238

Radiation Protection Aspects of the SPES Project at LNL  

SciTech Connect

The SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) project will be built at the National Laboratories in Legnaro (Italy) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN). Its goal will be the development of radioactive ion beams and the consequent re-acceleration with the existing linac to perform forefront research in nuclear physics. Radiation protection aspects are being considered at every stage of the project, e.g. civil construction planning, control system design and special technological plants. These aspects have been studied with the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA and are presented in this paper.

Sarchiapone, L.; Zafiropoulos, D. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro, PD (Italy)

2011-12-13

239

Operational radiation protection issues specific to high-intensity beams.  

PubMed

This paper describes operational radiation protection issues specific to high-intensity accelerators, aimed at the radiological safety of high-intensity accelerators during construction and operation. The paper is composed of chapters on safety characteristics, radiological safety design and safety management systems of high-intensity accelerators. The Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) is taken as a reference, because J-PARC was recently completed after collecting and referring to experiences with existing accelerator facilities all over the world. PMID:19778937

Nakashima, Hiroshi

2009-11-01

240

Issues In Space Radiation Protection: Galactic Cosmic Rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When shielding from cosmic heavy ions, one is faced with limited knowledge about the physical properties and biological responses of these radiations. Herein, the current health is discussed in terms of conventional protection practice and a test biological response model. The impact of biological response on optimum materials selection for cosmic ray shielding is presented in terms of the transmission characteristics of the shield material. Although liquid hydrogen is an optimum shield material, evaluation of the effectiveness of polymeric structural materials must await improvement in our knowledge of both the biological response and the nuclear processes.

Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M.; Schimmerling, W.; Badavi, F. F.; Thibeault, S. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Shinn, J. L.; Kiefer, R.

1995-01-01

241

Health physics/radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1983  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the degrees awarded in academic year 1982-83 from 66 U.S. universities offering degree programs in radiation protection or related areas that would enable graduates to work as health physicists. The report includes historical survey data for the last decade and provides information about enrollment and degree trends, foreign national student participation, female and minority student participation, and placement of graduates. Also included is a listing of the universities by type of program and number of students.

Not Available

1984-02-01

242

APPLICATIONS OF THE PHOTONUCLEAR FRAGMENTATION MODEL TO RADIATION PROTECTION PROBLEMS  

SciTech Connect

In order to provide radiation protection systems for high energy electron accelerators it is necessary to define the yields of hadrons produced when the electron beam interacts with a fixed target. In practical terms this will occur when any beam or fraction of the beam is lost from the accelerator orbit or when any fraction of the beam is intercepted by a target inserted in the path of the beam or when the beam is totally absorbed by a beam dump. The electron and gamma yields from these interactions are well characterized and amenable to calculation utilizing Monte Carlo shower codes. However, the yield of hadrons has been less well defined. Neutron production has received most attention because of its importance to radiation shielding. Production mechanisms such as the giant dipole and the quasi-deuteron resonances have provided valuable information for total neutron yields for electron beams at energies less than about 400 MeV. For electron beams at energies extending to 10 GeV it is necessary to include the higher energy resonance structures and the various intranuclear production channels that are available for the production of higher energy neutrons. The production model described in this paper permits the calculation of laboratory angle and energy of all hadrons produced when an electron beam of energy between 100 MeV and 10 GeV interacts with a fixed target. This model can be used as an event generator for Monte Carlo codes used for many radiation protection purposes including calculation of radiation shielding.

Pavel Degtiarenko

1996-01-01

243

Radiation protection issues in galactic cosmic ray risk assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation protection involves the limitation of exposure to below threshold doses for direct (or deterministic) effects and a knowledge of the risk of stochastic effects after low doses. The principal stochastic risk associated with low dose rate galactic cosmic rays is the increased risk of cancer. Estimates of this risk depend on two factors (a) estimates of cancer risk for low-LET radiation and (b) values of the appropriate radiation weighting factors, WR, for the high-LET radiations of galactic cosmic rays. Both factors are subject to considerable uncertainty. The low-LET cancer risk derived from the late effects of the atomic bombs is vulnerable to a number of uncertainties including especially that from projection in time, and from extrapolation from high to low dose rate. Nevertheless, recent low dose studies of workers and others tend to confirm these estimates. WR, relies on biological effects studied mainly in non-human systems. Additional laboratory studies could reduce the uncertainties in WR and thus produce a more confident estimate of the overall risk of galactic cosmic rays.

Sinclair, W. K.

1994-01-01

244

Considering Policies to Protect Children from TV Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the thinking behind three legislative proposals intended to protect children from the harmful effects of TV violence is fundamentally flawed. Analyzes a composite week of television programming. Finds that many children watch television after 9 P.M., and the lowest percentages of punishment for aggressive acts and major consequences to…

Potter, W. James; Warren, Ron

1996-01-01

245

78 FR 20103 - Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency) is announcing the availability of, and soliciting public comments for 60 days, on Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures. This document is Federal Guidance Report No. 14. It replaces Federal Guidance Report No. 9, ``Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic X-rays,'' which was released in October......

2013-04-03

246

Calculations of the Passage of Gamma?Quanta through a Polymer Radiation?Protective Composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the radiation-protective characteristics of a thermoplastic polystyrene composite material filled with a high-dispersion modified lead oxide as well as the dependences of the energy (flux) build-up and transmission factors and albedos on the energy and protective-shield thickness. Calculations of the integral characteristics of the radiation-protective properties of materials have been done.

V. I. Pavlenko; V. M. Lipkanskii; P. N. Yastrebinskii

2004-01-01

247

Health physics/radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1985  

SciTech Connect

The 1985 health physics/radiation protection survey included 64 institutions. Sixty-one institutions reported enrollments and degrees awarded; however, 5 of these programs are officially closed but are allowing enrolled students to complete their degree. Two institutions reported their programs were inactive. One institution's program was suspended, having reported the last degree awarded in 1984. Total enrollments in undergraduate and graduate health physics or radiation protection programs decreased from 1984 by 7%. Undergraduate enrollments decreased by 5% to 381; masters candidates decreased by 16% to 527, and doctoral candidates increased by 20% to 216, in large part a result of new foreign graduate students. Of the known placement, by far the largest group of bachelor's graduates continued for further study (27%). The largest employment category was nuclear utilities that recruited 22% of the new bachelor's, compared to only 15% in 1984. Foreign national enrollment at the undergraduate level changed little from 1984. The number of women enrolled in health physics declined at both the baccalaureate and masters degree levels in 1985. However, the number of women pursuing the Ph.D. degree increased by 6 and remained at 16%. Minority participation in 1985 remained the same low level as in past years with only slight variation, primarily among Hispanic US citizens at the undergraduate level and Asian American or Pacific Islanders who generally declined in participation.

Not Available

1986-04-01

248

47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided...human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2012-10-01

249

47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided...human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2011-10-01

250

47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided...human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2010-10-01

251

47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided...human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2013-10-01

252

Patterns of vegetation cover\\/dynamics in a protected Mediterranean mountain area: Influence of the ecological context and protection policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Mediterranean mountains, the abandonment of traditional land-uses is promoting a rapid forest expansion. This trend may be exacerbated by nature reserves, which further limit human disturbance in mountain contexts. We investigated whether ecological parameters, landscape structure, and management policy influenced vegetation cover\\/dynamics over a 14-year period in the Pollino National Park, a large protected area in southern Italy. Based

D. Gargano; A. Mingozzi; A. Massolo; S. Rinaldo; L. Bernardo

2012-01-01

253

The need to include animal protection in public health policies  

PubMed Central

Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

Akhtar, Aysha

2013-01-01

254

Mechanisms of radiation interaction with DNA: Potential implications for radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the US Department of Energy conducts a broad multidisciplinary research program which includes basic biophysics, biophysical chemistry, molecular and cellular biology as well as experimental animal studies and opportunistic human studies. This research is directed at understanding how low levels of radiation of various qualities produce the spectrum of biological effects that are seen for such exposures. This workshop was entitled ''Mechanisms of Radiation Interaction with DNA: Potential Implications for Radiation Protection.'' It ws jointly sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Commission of European Communities. The aim of the workshop was to review the base of knowledge in the area of mechanisms of radiation action at the DNA level, and to explore ways in which this information can be applied to the development of scientifically sound concepts and procedures for use in the field of radiation protection. The overview of research provided by this multidisciplinary group will be helpful to the Office in program planning. This report includes a summary of the presentations, extended abstracts, the meeting agenda, research recommendations, and a list of participants. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base.

Not Available

1988-01-01

255

RADIATION SAFETY POLICY MANUAL Prepared and issued under the auspices of  

E-print Network

RADIATION SAFETY POLICY MANUAL Prepared and issued under the auspices of THE RADIATION SAFETY COMMITTEE June 1996 For additional information, contact THE RADIATION SAFETY OFFICER Radiological Health Department 260 S Central Campus Drive, Room 100 581-6141 #12;i Foreword Ionizing radiation provides

Tipple, Brett

256

United States Office of Radiation and EPA 402-B-00-001 Environmental Protection Indoor Air August 2000  

E-print Network

United States Office of Radiation and EPA 402-B-00-001 Environmental Protection Indoor Air August 2000 Agency Radiation Protection at EPA The First 30 Years ...Protecting People and the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings

257

Federal policy and the endangered species act: the politics, perceptions, and technologies of protecting sea turtles  

E-print Network

. Dr. Lauriston R. King provided a large amount of motivation to explore the many facets of protecting endangered species and the insight to direct me to techniques for improving my understanding of those processes. Finally, I thank Dr. Clark E... Fisheries Service . . 49 Figure 2. Turtle Excluder Device Developed by the National Marine Fisheries Service 50 CH1LPTBR I INTRODUCTIOH The purpose of this study was to examine the evolution of federal policies for the protection of sea turtles...

Risenhoover, Alan Dean

2012-06-07

258

Developing the radiation protection safety culture in the UK.  

PubMed

In the UK, as elsewhere, there is potential to improve how radiological challenges are addressed through improvement in, or development of, a strong radiation protection (RP) safety culture. In preliminary work in the UK, two areas have been identified as having a strong influence on UK society: the healthcare and nuclear industry sectors. Each has specific challenges, but with many overlapping common factors. Other sectors will benefit from further consideration.In order to make meaningful comparisons between these two principal sectors, this paper is primarily concerned with cultural aspects of RP in the working environment and occupational exposures rather than patient doses.The healthcare sector delivers a large collective dose to patients each year, particularly for diagnostic purposes, which continues to increase. Although patient dose is not the focus, it must be recognised that collective patient dose is inevitably linked to collective occupational exposure, especially in interventional procedures.The nuclear industry faces major challenges as work moves from operations to decommissioning on many sites. This involves restarting work in the plants responsible for the much higher radiation doses of the 1960/70s, but also performing tasks that are considerably more difficult and hazardous than those original performed in these plants.Factors which influence RP safety culture in the workplace are examined, and proposals are considered for a series of actions that may lead to an improvement in RP culture with an associated reduction in dose in many work areas. These actions include methods to improve knowledge and awareness of radiation safety, plus ways to influence management and colleagues in the workplace. The exchange of knowledge about safety culture between the nuclear industry and medical areas may act to develop RP culture in both sectors, and have a wider impact in other sectors where exposures to ionising radiations can occur. PMID:24894330

Cole, P; Hallard, R; Broughton, J; Coates, R; Croft, J; Davies, K; Devine, I; Lewis, C; Marsden, P; Marsh, A; McGeary, R; Riley, P; Rogers, A; Rycraft, H; Shaw, A

2014-06-01

259

Nuclear fragmentation measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fragmentation measurements are necessary in hadrontherapy and space radiation protection, to predict the effects of the ion nuclear interactions within the human body. Nowadays, a very limited set of carbon fragmentation cross sections has been measured and in particular, to our knowledge, no double differential fragmentation cross sections at intermediate energies are available in literature. We have measured the double differential cross sections and the angular distributions of the secondary fragments produced in the {sup 12}C fragmentation at 62 AMeV on a thin carbon target. The experimental data have been also used to benchmark the prediction capability of the Geant4 Monte Carlo code at intermediate energies, where it was never tested before.

De Napoli, M. [INFN - Sezione di Catania (Italy); Agodi, C.; Blancato, A. A.; Cavallaro, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy); Battistoni, G. [INFN - Sezione di Milano (Italy); Bondi, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Nicolosi, D.; Raciti, G.; Tropea, S. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy); Giacoppo, F. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Morone, M. C. [Dipartimento di Biopatologia e Diagnostica per Immagini, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Pandola, L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy); Rapisarda, E. [Nuclear and Radiation Physics Section, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Celestijnenlaan Heverlee (Belgium); Romano, F. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy) and Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi Roma (Italy); and others

2013-04-19

260

Radiation-based techniques for use in the border protection context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most airline travelers will be familiar with the current overt passenger examination procedures: metal detectors and small tunnel X-ray examination systems. The mix of overt and covert systems used to prevent dangerous goods and contraband from passing through the portal is constantly changing, dictated by policy decisions made by governments. The United States of America and the European Union are the largest regulatory bodies, and their procedures are adopted by smaller countries: Australia, for example.This paper discusses a wide variety of techniques used by Border Protection Agencies. Most of these examination systems involve the use of the emission, absorption, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation and descriptions of these systems will comprise the bulk of this paper.However, a brief discussion of the use of neutron scattering will be given to demonstrate how systems for the examination of large objects may develop in the future.

Creagh, Dudley

2014-02-01

261

Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC)  

SciTech Connect

Enclosed are proceedings of the workshop on Internal Dosimetry held on Atlanta, Georgia in April 1992. The recommendations from the Workshop were considered by the CIRRPC Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research in identifying those areas to be undertaken by individual Federal Agencies or in cooperative efforts. This document presents summaries of the following sessions: A.1 Applications and limitations of ICRP and other metabolic models, A.2 Applications and implementation of proposed ICRP lung model, A.3 Estimates of intake from repetitive bioassay data, A.4 Chelation models for plutonium urinalysis data, B.1 Transuranium/uranium registry data, B.2 Autopsy tissue analysis, B.3 Bioassay / Whole body counting, B.4 Data base formatting and availability, C.1 An overview of calculational techniques in use today, C.2 The perfect code, C.3 Dose calculations based on individuals instead of averages, C.4 From macro dosimetry to micro dosimetry.

Not Available

1994-05-10

262

UV radiation and freshwater zooplankton: damage, protection and recovery  

PubMed Central

While many laboratory and field studies show that zooplankton are negatively affected when exposed to high intensities of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), most studies also indicate that zooplankton are well adapted to cope with large variations in their UVR exposure in the pelagic zone of lakes. The response mechanisms of zooplankton are diverse and efficient and may explain the success and richness of freshwater zooplankton in optically variable waters. While no single behavioural or physiological protection mechanism seems to be superior, and while several unexplained and contradictory patterns exist in zooplankton UVR ecology, recent increases in our understanding are consistent with UVR playing an important role for zooplankton. This review examines the variability in freshwater zooplankton responses to UVR, with a focus on crustacean zooplankton (Cladocera and Copepoda). We present an overview of UVR-induced damages, and the protection and recovery mechanisms freshwater zooplankton use when exposed to UVR. We review the current knowledge of UVR impact on freshwater zooplankton at species and community levels, and discuss briefly how global change over the last three decades has influenced the UVR milieu in lakes. PMID:21516254

Rautio, Milla; Tartarotti, Barbara

2011-01-01

263

Will Self-protection Policies Safeguard Emerging Markets from Crises? 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the usefulness of several proposed domestic measures for protecting emerg- ing market economies against financial crises. These new proposals go beyond traditional macroeco- nomic policies and include raising foreign currency reserves, establishing contingent lines of interna- tional credit, taxing short-term foreign capital flows, and instituting prudential capital controls. We pri- marily focus on the role of liquidity

Kenneth Kletzer

2000-01-01

264

Policy priorities in child protection: Perception of risk and agency strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing consensus among researchers and practitioners that the current emphasis on identification and investigation of child abuse may be counter?productive has been slow to produce changes at the policy level. Using the operation of interagency Area Child Protection Committees as an example, this paper suggests that professional and managerial perception of risk of public criticism or media exposure play

Robert Sanders; Sonia Jackson; Nigel Thomas

1997-01-01

265

United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (6608J) EPA 402-F-12-001 | September 2013 www.epa.gov/radiation/laws/190  

E-print Network

United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (6608J) EPA 402-F in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. #12;United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Radiation-12-001 | September 2013 www.epa.gov/radiation/laws/190 "Environmental Radiation Protection Standards

266

Protection policy for Hawaii's native wildlife during geothermal energy development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hawaii possesses abundant geothermal resources and rare native wildlife. Geothermal energy development has not posed a threat to native wildlife in the past, but development potential has recently reached a level at which concern for native wildlife is warranted. Potential geothermal resource areas in Hawaii intersect important native forest and endangered species habitat. The ability of existing laws to constrain development in these areas is in question. State and federal endangered species and environmental reporting laws have little ability to constrain geothermal development on private land. Hawaii's Land Use Law had been viewed by conservationists as protecting natural areas important to native wildlife, but recent decisions of the state Land Board sharply challenge this view. While this dispute was being resolved in the courts, the state legislature passed the Geothermal Subzone Act of 1983. Wildlife value was assessed in the geothermal subzone designation process mandated by this act, but the subzones designated primarily reflected inappropriate developer influence. All areas in which there was developer interest received subzone designation, and no area in which there was no developer interest was subzoned. This overriding emphasis on developer interest violated the intent of the sub-zone act, and trivialized the importance of other assessment criteria, among them native wildlife values.

Hannah, Lee

1986-09-01

267

POLICY ON THE PROTECTION OF DIGNITY AT WORK AND STUDY 1 Policy Statement  

E-print Network

to formal complaints. Monitor the number of cases arising and the effectiveness of the Policy. 2 Definition.3 This definition includes sexual and racial harassment, and bullying as well as any other form of personal harassment arising from disability, sexual orientation, age, #12;religion etc. Differences in attitude

Bearhop, Stuart

268

41 CFR 102-75.945 - What is GSA's policy concerning the physical care, handling, protection, and maintenance of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...policy concerning the physical care, handling, protection...excess and surplus real property and related personal...Excess and Surplus Real Property § 102-75.945...policy concerning the physical care, handling, protection...excess and surplus real property and related...

2012-01-01

269

41 CFR 102-75.945 - What is GSA's policy concerning the physical care, handling, protection, and maintenance of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...policy concerning the physical care, handling, protection...excess and surplus real property and related personal...Excess and Surplus Real Property § 102-75.945...policy concerning the physical care, handling, protection...excess and surplus real property and related...

2010-07-01

270

41 CFR 102-75.945 - What is GSA's policy concerning the physical care, handling, protection, and maintenance of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...policy concerning the physical care, handling, protection...excess and surplus real property and related personal...Excess and Surplus Real Property § 102-75.945...policy concerning the physical care, handling, protection...excess and surplus real property and related...

2011-01-01

271

41 CFR 102-75.945 - What is GSA's policy concerning the physical care, handling, protection, and maintenance of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...policy concerning the physical care, handling, protection...excess and surplus real property and related personal...Excess and Surplus Real Property § 102-75.945...policy concerning the physical care, handling, protection...excess and surplus real property and related...

2013-07-01

272

United States Air and Radiation EPA 402-R-97-006 Environmental Protection Agency (6601J) July 1997  

E-print Network

United States Air and Radiation EPA 402-R-97-006 Environmental Protection Agency (6601J) July 1997.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Radiation and Indoor Air Radiation Protection Division Center by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, it does not necessarily reflect the views of the Agency

273

Beam dumps design and local radiation protection at TERA synchrotron.  

PubMed

The realisation of the National Center of Hadrontherapy was funded by the Italian Government in 2002. The Centre will be built in the area of Pavia (Italy). The synchrotron designed in the framework of this programme will accelerate protons and carbon ions up to 250 MeV and 400 MeV u(-1), respectively. Some of the main aspects which were taken into account in the design of the acceleration system are the patient's safety and the beam control. From this point of view an important role is played by the beam dumps in the synchrotron ring and upstream of the extraction system. In particular, an horizontal and a vertical beam dump will be installed in the synchrotron ring: the former will be used for lowering the beam intensity and the latter for beam abortion. The dump at the extraction will absorb the particles during the mounting and the falling ramps of the synchrotron magnetic cycle, thus extracting only the flat top of the ion spill. Beam dumps can produce intense fields of secondary radiation (neutrons, charged light-hadrons and photons) and high rates of induced activity, since they can absorb the beam completely. Usually they have to be shielded to protect the electronics during machine operation and to attenuate the radiation dose below the limits imposed by the law when the personnel access to the synchrotron hall. The part of the shielding design of the beam dumps concerning with the acceleration of protons was made using Monte Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code. Both induced activity and secondary radiation were taken into account. The shields against secondary radiation produced by carbon ions were designed, referring only to secondary neutrons, taking double-differential distributions from the literature as sources for the FLUKA simulations. The induced activity from carbon ions interactions was estimated analytically, using the data generated by the EPAX 2 code. The dose-equivalent rates from the induced radionuclides were calculated at 1 m from the shielded dumps, taking into account the contribution of activated components of the synchrotron ring. PMID:16381716

Porta, A; Campi, F; Agosteo, S

2005-01-01

274

Radiation protection standards: The NRC (U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission) perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the role and viewpoint of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on radiation protection standards, specifically the major revision of 10CFR20 and the criteria for below regulatory concern. The NRC relies heavily on consensus standards and (especially in radiation protection) the recommendations of authoritative organizations such as the International Commission on Radiological

Congel

1989-01-01

275

Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

2010-01-01

276

Neutron, Proton, and Photonuclear Cross Sections for Radiation Therapy and Radiation Protection  

SciTech Connect

The authors review recent work at Los Alamos to evaluate neutron, proton, and photonuclear cross section up to 150 MeV (to 250 MeV for protons), based on experimental data and nuclear model calculations. These data are represented in the ENDF format and can be used in computer codes to simulate radiation transport. They permit calculations of absorbed dose in the body from therapy beams, and through use of kerma coefficients allow absorbed dose to be estimated for a given neutron energy distribution. For radiation protection, these data can be used to determine shielding requirements in accelerator environments, and to calculate neutron, proton, gamma-ray, and radionuclide production. Illustrative comparisons of the evaluated cross section and kerma coefficient data with measurements are given.

Chadwick, M.B.

1998-09-10

277

Modulating Radiation Resistance: Novel Protection Paradigms Based on Defenses against Ionizing Radiation in the Extremophile Deinococcus radiodurans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For Deinococcus radiodurans and other bacteria which are extremely resistant to ionizing radiation (IR) and desiccation, a mechanistic link exists between resistance, manganese accumulation, and protein protection. We have demonstrated that ultrafiltered,...

M. J. Daly

2010-01-01

278

Modern new nuclear fuel characteristics and radiation protection aspects.  

PubMed

The glut of fissile material from reprocessing plants and from the conclusion of the cold war has provided the opportunity to design new fuel types to beneficially dispose of such stocks by generating useful power. Thus, in addition to the normal reactor core complement of enriched uranium fuel assemblies, two other types are available on the world market. These are the ERU (enriched recycled uranium) and the MOX (mixed oxide) fuel assemblies. Framatome ANP produces ERU fuel assemblies by taking feed material from reprocessing facilities and blending this with highly enriched uranium from other sources. MOX fuel assemblies contain plutonium isotopes, thus exploiting the higher neutron yield of the plutonium fission process. This paper describes and evaluates the gamma, spontaneous and alpha reaction neutron source terms of these non-irradiated fuel assembly types by defining their nuclear characteristics. The dose rates which arise from these terms are provided along with an overview of radiation protection aspects for consideration in transporting and delivering such fuel assemblies to power generating utilities. PMID:16381693

Terry, Ian R

2005-01-01

279

Development of the 3DHZETRN code for space radiation protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space radiation protection requires computationally efficient shield assessment methods that have been verified and validated. The HZETRN code is the engineering design code used for low Earth orbit dosimetric analysis and astronaut record keeping with end-to-end validation to twenty percent in Space Shuttle and International Space Station operations. HZETRN treated diffusive leakage only at the distal surface limiting its application to systems with a large radius of curvature. A revision of HZETRN that included forward and backward diffusion allowed neutron leakage to be evaluated at both the near and distal surfaces. That revision provided a deterministic code of high computational efficiency that was in substantial agreement with Monte Carlo (MC) codes in flat plates (at least to the degree that MC codes agree among themselves). In the present paper, the 3DHZETRN formalism capable of evaluation in general geometry is described. Benchmarking will help quantify uncertainty with MC codes (Geant4, FLUKA, MCNP6, and PHITS) in simple shapes such as spheres within spherical shells and boxes. Connection of the 3DHZETRN to general geometry will be discussed.

Wilson, John; Badavi, Francis; Slaba, Tony; Reddell, Brandon; Bahadori, Amir; Singleterry, Robert

280

Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 97, No. 3, pp. 279-285 (2001)  

E-print Network

1 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 97, No. 3, pp. 279-285 (2001) Nuclear Technology Publishing of radioactive airborne particles, internal radiation dosimetry, and the dose-response relationships for internally deposited radionuclides. He is editor of the textbook, Internal Radiation Dosimetry, published

Brenner, David Jonathan

281

Multi-national findings on radiation protection of children.  

PubMed

This article reviews issues of radiation protection in children in 52 low-resource countries. Extensive information was obtained through a survey by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); wide-ranging information was available from 40 countries and data from the other countries pertained to frequency of pediatric CT examinations. Of note is that multi-detector CT (MDCT) was available in 77% of responses to the survey, typically nodal centers in these countries. Nearly 75% of these scanners were reported to have dose displays. The pediatric CT usage was lower in European facilities as compared to Asian and African facilities, where usage was twice as high. The most frequently scanned body part was the head. Frequent use of 120 kVp was reported in children. The ratio of maximum to minimum CT dose index volume (CTDIvol) values varied between 15 for abdomen CT in the age group 5-10 years and 100 for chest CT in the age group <1 year. In 8% of the CT systems, CTDI values for pediatric patients were higher than those for adults in at least one age group and for one type of examination. Use of adult protocols for children was associated with CTDIw or CTDIvol values in children that were double those of adults for head and chest examination and 50% higher for abdomen examination. Patient dose records were kept in nearly half of the facilities, with the highest frequency in Europe (55% of participating facilities), and in 49% of Asian, 36% of Latin American and 14% of African facilities. The analysis of the first-choice examinations in seven clinical conditions showed that practice was in accordance with guidelines for only three of seven specified clinical conditions. PMID:25304707

Rehani, Madan M

2014-10-01

282

[Assurance of safety and personal protection of the personnel working in conditions of external radiation exposure].  

PubMed

The article contains detailed analysis of current scientific approaches and practical achievements in organizing personal protection of the personnel working in conditions of external radiation exposure and air and surface contamination with radioactive substances. The ways of improvement of personal protection equipment are described. The incorrectness of attempts to create PPE from gamma radiation with the energy of over 0,1 MeV--which are currently quite common--is shown. Today the challenge of creating light PPE from beta radiation and soft photon radiation becomes more urgent due to decreasing the annual equivalent dose of occupational exposure of the crystalline lens from 150 to 20 mSv proposed by IAEA. This requires creation of light and usable protective visors (goggles) from beta radiation and photon radiation with the energy of up to 0,06 MeV. PMID:23210183

Rubtsov, V I; Klochkov, V N; Osanov, D P; Chibakov, I O

2012-01-01

283

Main principles of radiation protection and their applications in waste management  

SciTech Connect

The average exposure for an individual from such background in the United States is about 300 mrem per year with approximately 200 mrem of this coming from radon exposure alone. In addition to the natural sources of background radiation, a very small amount of the background radiation occurs due to the nuclear weapons test fallout. Manmade sources of radiation also include certain consumer products, industrial and research use of radioisotopes, medical X-rays, and radiopharmaceuticals. When all sources, natural and man-made, are taken into account, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has estimated that the average annual dose to individuals in the US population is 360 mrem (NCRP Report No. 93). In this report the fundamental principles of radiation protection are reviewed, as well as the relevant laws and regulations in the United States and discuss application of radiation protection in radioactive waste management.

Devgun, J.S.

1993-09-01

284

A Fuzzy Logic Enhanced Environmental Protection Education Model for Policies Decision Support in Green Community Development  

PubMed Central

This study proposes the promotion of environmental protection education among communities as a solution to the serious problems of high energy consumption and carbon emissions around the world. Environmental protection education has direct and lasting influences on everyone in society; therefore, it is helpful in our fight against many serious problems caused by high energy consumption. In this study, the Delphi method and the fuzzy logic theory are used to develop a quantizing assessment model based on qualitative analysis. This model can be used to assess the results and influences of community residents' participation in environmental protection education on green community development. In addition, it can be used to provide references for governing authorities in their decision making of green community development policies. PMID:24363614

2013-01-01

285

A fuzzy logic enhanced environmental protection education model for policies decision support in green community development.  

PubMed

This study proposes the promotion of environmental protection education among communities as a solution to the serious problems of high energy consumption and carbon emissions around the world. Environmental protection education has direct and lasting influences on everyone in society; therefore, it is helpful in our fight against many serious problems caused by high energy consumption. In this study, the Delphi method and the fuzzy logic theory are used to develop a quantitizing assessment model based on qualitative analysis. This model can be used to assess the results and influences of community residents' participation in environmental protection education on green community development. In addition, it can be used to provide references for governing authorities in their decision making of green community development policies. PMID:24363614

Hsueh, Sung-Lin

2013-01-01

286

Review and challenges of policies of environmental protection and sustainable development in China.  

PubMed

China is confronted with the dual task of developing its national economy and protecting its ecological environment. Since the 1980s, China's policies on environmental protection and sustainable development have experienced five changes: (1) progression from the adoption of environmental protection as a basic state policy to the adoption of sustainable development strategy; (2) changing focus from pollution control to ecological conservation equally; (3) shifting from end-of-pipe treatment to source control; (4) moving from point source treatment to regional environmental governance; and (5) a turn away from administrative management-based approaches and towards a legal means and economic instruments-based approach. Since 1992, China has set down sustainable development as a basic national strategy. However, environmental pollution and ecological degradation in China have continued to be serious problems and have inflicted great damage on the economy and quality of life. The beginning of the 21st century is a critical juncture for China's efforts towards sustaining rapid economic development, intensifying environmental protection efforts, and curbing ecological degradation. As the largest developing country, China's policies on environmental protection and sustainable development will be of primary importance not only for China, but also the world. Realizing a completely well-off society by the year 2020 is seen as a crucial task by the Chinese government and an important goal for China's economic development in the new century, however, attaining it would require a four-fold increase over China's year 2000 GDP. Therefore, speeding up economic development is a major mission during the next two decades and doing so will bring great challenges in controlling depletion of natural resources and environmental pollution. By taking a critical look at the development of Chinese environmental policy, we try to determine how best to coordinate the relationship between the environment and the economy in order to improve quality of life and the sustainability of China's resources and environment. Examples of important measures include: adjustment of economic structure, reform of energy policy, development of environmental industry, pollution prevention and ecological conservation, capacity building, and international cooperation and public participation. PMID:17767999

Zhang, Kun-Min; Wen, Zong-Guo

2008-09-01

287

Spacecraft Radiator Freeze Protection Using a Regenerative Heat Exchanger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An active thermal control system architecture has been modified to include a regenerative heat exchanger (regenerator) inboard of the radiator. Rather than using a radiator bypass valve a regenerative heat exchanger is placed inboard of the radiators. A regenerator cold side bypass valve is used to set the return temperature. During operation, the regenerator bypass flow is varied, mixing cold radiator return fluid and warm regenerator outlet fluid to maintain the system setpoint. At the lowest heat load for stable operation, the bypass flow is closed off, sending all of the flow through the regenerator. This lowers the radiator inlet temperature well below the system set-point while maintaining full flow through the radiators. By using a regenerator bypass flow control to maintain system setpoint, the required minimum heat load to avoid radiator freezing can be reduced by more than half compared to a radiator bypass system.

Ungar, Eugene K.; Schunk, Richard G.

2011-01-01

288

Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space exploration.

Lin, Zi-Wei

2004-01-01

289

Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most effect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

Lin, Zi-wei

2004-01-01

290

Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

Lin, Zi-Wei

2004-01-01

291

Radiation exposure in gastroenterology: improving patient and staff protection.  

PubMed

Medical imaging involving the use of ionizing radiation has brought enormous benefits to society and patients. In the past several decades, exposure to medical radiation has increased markedly, driven primarily by the use of computed tomography. Ionizing radiation has been linked to carcinogenesis. Whether low-dose medical radiation exposure will result in the development of malignancy is uncertain. This paper reviews the current evidence for such risk, and aims to inform the gastroenterologist of dosages of radiation associated with commonly ordered procedures and diagnostic tests in clinical practice. The use of medical radiation must always be justified and must enable patients to be exposed at the lowest reasonable dose. Recommendations provided herein for minimizing radiation exposure are based on currently available evidence and Working Party expert consensus. PMID:24842339

Ho, Immanuel K H; Cash, Brooks D; Cohen, Henry; Hanauer, Stephen B; Inkster, Michelle; Johnson, David A; Maher, Michael M; Rex, Douglas K; Saad, Abdo; Singh, Ajaypal; Rehani, Madan M; Quigley, Eamonn M

2014-08-01

292

10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...record of each radiation protection program change made in accordance with § 35.26...procedures; the effective date of the change; and the signature of the licensee management that reviewed and approved the...

2010-01-01

293

Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

1989-04-01

294

Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation-protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A Practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

1989-04-01

295

Report on policy and activities concerning public awareness of health effects of low-level radiation  

SciTech Connect

In the summer of 1986, the Executive Committee authorized a study limited to determining policy and practices relevant to dissemination of information to the public on radiation health effects in three federal agencies. This report summarizes findings on two broad questions related to the communication issue: What, if any, are the policies under which federal agencies operate in disseminating information on health effects of radiation and what are the current programs and activities designed to provide the public information on health effects of radiation.

NONE

1986-11-01

296

Synthesis and evaluation of novel tetrapropoxycalix[4]arene enones and cinnamates for protection from ultraviolet radiation.  

PubMed

A series of novel calix[4]arene enones (5-7) and cinnamates (12-14) have been synthesized and evaluated for ensuring protection from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Spectroscopic analyses has revealed that compound 6 absorbs ultraviolet radiations between 280 and 350 nm with an absorption maximum at 312 nm. Its molar absorption coefficient (?) (>5 × 10(4)M(-1)cm(-1)) and bandwidth are larger than those for the commercially used sun protectants (oxybenzone (OB), 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (OMC) and avobenzone). The in vitro Sun Protection Factor (SPF) measurement revealed an SPF of 5.2 at 2% concentration of 6 in home made emulsion formulations while combination of 2% each of 6 and OMC gave an SPF of 8.8. Lower sun protection seems to be compensated by significant protection from more harmful UVA radiations (UVA/UVB absorbance ratio of 0.62). PMID:21803597

Chawla, H M; Pant, Nalin; Kumar, Satish; Mrig, Sarika; Srivastava, Bindu; Kumar, Naresh; Black, D Stc

2011-10-01

297

There Is Water Everywhere: How News Framing Amplifies the Effect of Ecological Worldviews on Preference for Flooding Protection Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the interactive effect of worldviews and media frames on policy preference. Using flooding as a case study, we examine the interplay of ecological worldviews and news framed as either emphasizing harmony with nature or mastery over nature on individuals' preference for flood protection policy. A total of 255 undergraduate students participated in

Timothy K. F. Fung; Dominique Brossard; Isabella Ng

2011-01-01

298

On radiation protection at the LINAC-800 linear electron accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Automatic System of Radiation Safety Control (ASRSC) of the LINAC-800 linear electron accelerator is designed to ensure radiation safety for accelerator personnel during regular operations and in emergency cases. The results of calculating the emission power used to develop the ARPS are given. Both hardware and software components of the radiation control system are described. This paper also presents a description of the interlock and signalization system.

Balalykin, N. I.; Minashkin, V. F.; Nozdrin, M. A.; Shirkov, G. D.; Schegolev, V. Yu.

2012-07-01

299

CIRRPC: Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination. Eighth annual report  

SciTech Connect

CIRRPC`s eighth year was marked by the completion of several CIRRPC projects, including: An independent study on the possible health effects of extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields; a report evaluating the uncertainties identified in a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report on the biological effects of ionizing radiation and their impact on the report`s application to Federal risk assessment; an analysis of the use of two reports on radiation risk assessment from NAS and the United Nations; and an update of Part 11 of ORAU`s radiation protection fact sheets, a compilation of major US radiation protection standards and guides. CIRRPC also sponsored a workshop on internal dosimetry and provided financial support to the 1991 Health Physics Society Summer School on the biological basis of radiation protection practice. The program highlights are briefly described in this report.

Young, A.L. [Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-12-01

300

[Public policy, structures of the State and the advocacy of the right to health protection].  

PubMed

Not always public policies for the advocacy of citizen rights meet their goal, among other things, because between their formulation and their implementation there is a lack of appropriate structures to generate, articulate and execute these policies. This has been the case of Mexico regarding the advocacy of the rights of non smokers. Very few has been achieved in this matter in the past. This article lists some of the potential causes of the lack of implementation of public policies. At the same time, explores the highly dynamic nature of the health care system at the present and towards the future. The magnitude of the challenges faced by the health care system requires concerted actions of many actors, not only from the very health care system but also from outside. Thus, public policies have to be considered not just at the governmental level but at the state level. Therefore, the main argument of this paper is that given the need to respond to complex challenges to protect the health of the population and their rights in a very complex context, there is a need to formulate and implement state policies that require the intervention of the appropriate state structures to make sure that the design and execution leads to the expected achievements. One such structure at the state level, among others, is the General Health Council, an organization established in 1841, that was incorporated within the Mexican Constitution in 1917, depending directly from the President of Mexico as Head of State. This Council has been reinforced to improve its assigned role to better participate, along other state structures, in the formulation and implementation of public policies such as those for the advocacy of citizen rights. PMID:18604355

Ruelas-Barajas, Enrique; Gay-Molina, Juan Gabriel

2008-01-01

301

Prostate cancer risk and exposure to ultraviolet radiation: further support for the protective effect of sunlight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have suggested that exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation may be protective to some internal cancers including that in the prostate. We describe a confirmatory study in 212 prostatic adenocarcinoma and 135 benign prostatic hypertrophy patients designed to determine whether previous findings showing a protective effect for UV exposure could be reproduced. We used a validated questionnaire to obtain

Dhaval Bodiwala; Christopher J. Luscombe; Samson Liu; Mark Saxby; Michael French; Peter W. Jones; Anthony A. Fryer; Richard C. Strange

2003-01-01

302

A Policy Switching Approach to Consolidating Load Shedding and Islanding Protection Schemes  

E-print Network

In recent years there have been many improvements in the reliability of critical infrastructure systems. Despite these improvements, the power systems industry has seen relatively small advances in this regard. For instance, power quality deficiencies, a high number of localized contingencies, and large cascading outages are still too widespread. Though progress has been made in improving generation, transmission, and distribution infrastructure, remedial action schemes (RAS) remain non-standardized and are often not uniformly implemented across different utilities, ISOs, and RTOs. Traditionally, load shedding and islanding have been successful protection measures in restraining propagation of contingencies and large cascading outages. This paper proposes a novel, algorithmic approach to selecting RAS policies to optimize the operation of the power network during and after a contingency. Specifically, we use policy-switching to consolidate traditional load shedding and islanding schemes. In order to model and...

Meier, Rich; Fern, Alan

2014-01-01

303

The Relationship between Sun Protection Policy and Associated Practices in a National Sample of Early Childhood Services in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limiting exposure to sunlight during childhood can significantly reduce the risk of skin cancer. This was the first national study to assess the sun protection policies and practices of early childhood services across Australia. It also examined the key predictors of services' sun protection practices. In 2007, 1017 respondents completed a…

Ettridge, Kerry A.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Rayner, Joanne M.; Wilson, Carlene J.

2011-01-01

304

The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight  

SciTech Connect

This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of does to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers.

Fry, R.J.M.

1993-04-01

305

The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight  

SciTech Connect

This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of does to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers.

Fry, R.J.M.

1993-01-01

306

The Efficiency of Ordinary Sunglasses as a Protection from Ultraviolet Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunglasses should protect the eye not only from excessive visible light, but also from UV and IR radiations. This is not always the case, as already pointed out by recent research. In this study we give a quantitative evaluation of the extent of the problem and of the risk of radiation damages which result.

G. Segrè; R. Reccia; B. Pignalosa; G. Pappalardo

1981-01-01

307

THE CALCULATION OF THE GAMMA SHIELDING PROTECTION IN EXPANDING RADIATION FIELDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usual, purely exponential calculation of shield thicknesses for ; gamma radiators supplies minimum values which in many cases cannot provide the ; desired protection, since the influence of secondary radiation causcd by single ; or multiple Compton processes is not taken into consideration in the exponential ; calculation. By applying the dose build-up factor B, which can be represented

Plesch

1958-01-01

308

Use and workload factors in dental radiation-protection design  

SciTech Connect

A dosimetric and photographic record of the pattern of radiation on the walls of a dental x-ray operatory was obtained. This indicates that there is an overlap of the radiation fields with ''hot spots'' on the side wall opposite the patient's head, with the rest of the room receiving minimal exposures. In the course of this investigation, it was found that use of the long-cone x-ray machine resulted in less radiation reaching the walls of the room. The presently accepted concept of mAs per week proves to be less relevant than the number of films being taken.

Reid, J.A.; MacDonald, J.C.

1984-02-01

309

ULTRAVIOLET PROTECTIVE COMPOUNDS AS A RESPONSE TO ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Life on Earth has evolved adaptations to many environmental stresses over the epochs. One consistent stress has been exposure to ultraviolet radiation. In response to UVR organisms have adapted myriad responses; behavioral, morphological and physiological. Behaviorally, some orga...

310

Radiation protection aspects of the operation in a cyclotron facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activated accelerator cyclotron components and the radioisotope production may impact on the personnel radiation exposure of the workers during the routine maintenance and emergency repair procedures and any modification of the equipment. Since the adherence of the principle of ALARA (as low as reasonable achievable) constitutes a major objective of the cyclotron management, it has become imperative to investigate the radiation levels at the workplace and the probable health effects to the worker caused by radiation exposure. The data analysis in this study was based on the individual monitoring records during the period from 2007 to 2011. Monitoring of the workplace was also performed using gamma and neutron detectors to determine the dose rate in various predetermined spots. The results of occupational radiation exposures were analysed and compared with the values established in national standards and international recommendations. Important guidelines have been developed to reduce the individual dose.

Silva, P. P. N.; Carneiro, J. C. G. G.

2014-02-01

311

Low-Dose-Radiation Stimulated Natural Chemical and Biological Protection Against Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Research is being conducted world-wide related to chemoprevention of future lung cancer among smokers. The fact that low doses and dose rates of some sparsely ionizing forms of radiation (e.g., x rays, gamma rays, and beta radiation) stimulate transient natural chemical and biological protection against cancer in high-risk individuals is little known. The cancer preventative properties relate to radiation adaptive response (radiation hormesis) and involve stimulated protective biological signaling (a mild stress response). The biological processes associated with the protective signaling are now better understood and include: increased availability of efficient DNA double-strand break repair (p53-related and in competition with normal apoptosis), stimulated auxiliary apoptosis of aberrant cells (presumed p53-independent), and stimulated protective immune functions. This system of low-dose radiation activated natural protection (ANP) requires an individual-specific threshold level of mild stress and when invoked can efficiently prevent the occurrence of cancers as well as other genomic-instability-associated diseases. In this paper, low, essentially harmless doses of gamma rays spread over an extended period are shown via use of a biological-based, hormetic relative risk (HRR) model to be highly efficient in preventing lung cancer induction by alpha radiation from inhaled plutonium. PMID:18846259

Scott, B. R.

2008-01-01

312

Synthesis of nanosilver using a vitamin C derivative and studies on radiation protection.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles were prepared from silver nitrate using a vitamin C derivative, 6-palmitoyl ascorbic acid-2-glucoside (PAsAG), via a sonochemical experiment. The resultant golden yellow solution that contained silver nanoparticle-PAsAG complex (SN-PAsAG) of about 5?nm particle sizes was explored for its potential to offer protection to DNA from ?-radiation-induced damages. The presence of SN-PAsAG during irradiation inhibited the disappearance of covalently closed circular (ccc) form of plasmid pBR322 with a dose modifying factor of 1.78. SN-PAsAG protected cellular DNA from radiation-induced damage as evident from comet assay study on mouse spleen cells, irradiated ex vivo. When orally administered with SN-PAsAG at 1 hour prior to whole-body radiation exposure, cellular DNA was found protected from radiation-induced strand breaks in various tissues (spleen cells, bone marrow cells, and blood leucocytes) of animals. Also, SN-PAsAG could enhance the rate of repair of cellular DNA in blood leucocytes and bone marrow cells when administered immediately after radiation exposure. The studies, under in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo radiation exposure conditions, showed effective radiation protection. PMID:21539456

Chandrasekharan, Dhanya K; Khanna, Pawan K; Kagiya, Tsutomu V; Nair, Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan

2011-04-01

313

United States Office of Radiation and EPA 402-R-00-007 Environmental Protection Indoor Air August 2000  

E-print Network

: Cheng-Yeng Hung, Ph.D. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Radiation and Indoor Air Developed by: Cheng-Yeng Hung, Ph.D. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Radiation and Indoor Air Washington, DC 20460 #12;U.S. Environmental Protection Agency DISCLAIMER This user's guide for the PRESTO

314

Protecting policy space for public health nutrition in an era of international investment agreements.  

PubMed

Philip Morris has recently brought claims against Australia (2011) and Uruguay (2010) under international investment agreements (IIAs). The claims allege that Philip Morris is entitled to compensation following the introduction of innovative tobacco packaging regulations to reduce smoking and prevent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Since tobacco control measures are often viewed as a model for public health nutrition measures, the claims raise the question of how investment law governs the latter. This paper begins to answer this question and to explain how governments can proactively protect policy space for public health nutrition in an era of expanding IIAs. The authors first consider the main interventions proposed to reduce diet-related NCDs and their intersection with investment in the food supply chain. They then review the nature of investment regimes and relevant case law and examine ways to maximize policy space for public health nutrition intervention within this legal context. As foreign investment increases across the food-chain and more global recommendations discouraging the consumption of unhealthful products are issued, investment law will increase in importance as part of the legal architecture governing the food supply. The implications of investment law for public health nutrition measures depend on various factors: the measures themselves, the terms of the applicable agreements, the conditions surrounding the foreign investment and the policies governing agricultural support. This analysis suggests that governments should adopt proactive measures--e.g. the clarification of terms and reliance on exceptions--to manage investment and protect their regulatory autonomy with respect to public health nutrition. PMID:24623907

Thow, Anne Marie; McGrady, Benn

2014-02-01

315

Protecting policy space for public health nutrition in an era of international investment agreements  

PubMed Central

Abstract Philip Morris has recently brought claims against Australia (2011) and Uruguay (2010) under international investment agreements (IIAs). The claims allege that Philip Morris is entitled to compensation following the introduction of innovative tobacco packaging regulations to reduce smoking and prevent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Since tobacco control measures are often viewed as a model for public health nutrition measures, the claims raise the question of how investment law governs the latter. This paper begins to answer this question and to explain how governments can proactively protect policy space for public health nutrition in an era of expanding IIAs. The authors first consider the main interventions proposed to reduce diet-related NCDs and their intersection with investment in the food supply chain. They then review the nature of investment regimes and relevant case law and examine ways to maximize policy space for public health nutrition intervention within this legal context. As foreign investment increases across the food-chain and more global recommendations discouraging the consumption of unhealthful products are issued, investment law will increase in importance as part of the legal architecture governing the food supply. The implications of investment law for public health nutrition measures depend on various factors: the measures themselves, the terms of the applicable agreements, the conditions surrounding the foreign investment and the policies governing agricultural support. This analysis suggests that governments should adopt proactive measures – e.g. the clarification of terms and reliance on exceptions – to manage investment and protect their regulatory autonomy with respect to public health nutrition. PMID:24623907

McGrady, Benn

2014-01-01

316

Prevention of ?-radiation induced cellular genotoxicity by tempol: protection of hematopoietic system.  

PubMed

Tempol (TPL) under in vitro conditions reduced the extent of gamma radiation induced membrane lipid peroxidation and disappearance of covalently closed circular form of plasmid pBR322. TPL protected cellular DNA from radiation-induced damage in various tissues under ex vivo and in vivo conditions as evidenced by comet assay. TPL also prevented radiation induced micronuclei formation (in peripheral blood leucocytes) and chromosomal aberrations (in bone marrow cells) in whole body irradiated mice. TPL enhanced the rate of repair of cellular DNA (blood leucocytes and bone marrow cells) damage when administered immediately after radiation exposure as revealed from the increased Cellular DNA Repair Index (CRI). The studies thus provided compelling evidence to reveal the effectiveness of TPL to protect hematopoietic system from radiation injury. PMID:22609778

Ramachandran, Lakshmy; Nair, Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan

2012-09-01

317

Egg-wrapping behaviour protects newt embryos from UV radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oviparous species that do not guard their eggs during development may suffer significant embryonic mortality. However, the way females lay eggs may help prevent this. For example, females of several newt species carefully wrap single eggs into leaves of aquatic vegetation in shallow water. Wrapping behaviour may protect eggs from predators and from mechanical damage. We hypothesized that egg-wrapping behaviour

Adolfo Marco; Miguel Lizana; Alberto Alvarez; Andrew R. Blaustein

2001-01-01

318

Radiation protection: the NCRP guidelines and some considerations for the future.  

PubMed Central

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) in the USA and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), worldwide, were formed about 1928 and have since made recommendations on appropriate levels of protection from ionizing radiation for workers and for the public. These recommendations and much of the guidance provided by these organizations have usually been adopted by regulatory bodies around the world. In the case of the NCRP, the levels have fallen from 0.1 roentgen per day in 1934 to the current 5 rem per year (a factor of about 5). The present levels recommended by both the ICRP and the NCRP correspond to reasonable levels of risk where the risks of harm from ionizing radiation are compared with the hazards of other, commonly regarded, as safe, industries. Some considerations for the future in radiation protection include trends in exposure levels (generally downward for the average exposure to workers) and improvements in risk estimation; questions of lifetime limits, de minimis levels, and partial body exposures; plus problems of high LET radiations, acceptability of risk, synergisms, and risk systems for protection. PMID:7342492

Sinclair, W. K.

1981-01-01

319

49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3.2 of NFPA 59A (incorporated by reference, see § 193.2013) with the following exceptions: (a) The thermal radiation...Model for LNG Fires (incorporated by reference, see § 193.2013). The use of other alternate models which take into...

2010-10-01

320

Experimental Determination of Ultraviolet Radiation Protection of Common Materials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aiming at a better understanding of the problems associated with the depletion of the ozone layer, we propose several experiments to be performed by students of different levels: secondary and first-year undergraduate students. The oxidation of iodide induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, generated by a mercury lamp, is used as an indicator for…

Tavares, Susana C. A.; da Silva, Joaquim C. G. Esteves; Paiva, Joao

2007-01-01

321

Protecting Children from Exposure to Lead: Old Problem, New Data, and New Policy Needs. Social Policy Report. Volume 24, Number 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The detrimental effects of lead exposure in children have been known for over 100 years. Although a few initial measures implemented about 30 years ago were effective in somewhat reducing levels of lead exposure in children, relatively little has been done recently from a policy perspective to protect children from lead. We now know from recent…

Cole, Claire; Winsler, Adam

2010-01-01

322

Reduction in radiation-induced brain injury by use of pentobarbital or lidocaine protection  

SciTech Connect

To determine if barbiturates would protect brain at high doses of radiation, survival rates in rats that received whole-brain x-irradiation during pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia were compared with those of control animals that received no medication and of animals anesthetized with ketamine. The animals were shielded so that respiratory and digestive tissues would not be damaged by the radiation. Survival rates in rats that received whole-brain irradiation as a single 7500-rad dose under pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia was increased from between from 0% and 20% to between 45% and 69% over the 40 days of observation compared with the other two groups (p less than 0.007). Ketamine anesthesia provided no protection. There were no notable differential effects upon non-neural tissues, suggesting that pentobarbital afforded protection through modulation of ambient neural activity during radiation exposure. Neural suppression during high-dose cranial irradiation protects brain from acute and early delayed radiation injury. Further development and application of this knowledge may reduce the incidence of radiation toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS) and may permit the safe use of otherwise unsafe doses of radiation in patients with CNS neoplasms.

Oldfield, E.H.; Friedman, R.; Kinsella, T.; Moquin, R.; Olson, J.J.; Orr, K.; DeLuca, A.M. (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1990-05-01

323

Low Doses of Radiation are Protective In Vitro and In Vivo: Evolutionary Origins  

PubMed Central

Research reports using cells from bacteria, yeast, alga, nematodes, fish, plants, insects, amphibians, birds and mammals, including wild deer, rodents or humans show non-linear radio-adaptive processes in response to low doses of low LET radiation. Low doses increased cellular DNA double-strand break repair capacity, reduced the risk of cell death, reduced radiation or chemically-induced chromosomal aberrations and mutations, and reduced spontaneous or radiation-induced malignant transformation in vitro. In animals, a single low, whole body dose of low LET radiation, increased cancer latency and restored a portion of the life that would have been lost due to either spontaneous or radiation-induced cancer in the absence of the low dose. In genetically normal fetal mice, a prior low dose protected against radiation-induced birth defects. In genetically normal adultmale mice, a low dose prior to a high dose protected the offspring of the mice from heritable mutations produced by the large dose. The results show that low doses of low-LET radiation induce protective effects and that these induced responses have been tightly conserved throughout evolution, suggesting that they are basic responses critical to life. The results also argue strongly that the assumption of a linear increase in risk with increasing dose in humans is unlikely to be correct, and that low doses actually reduce risk. PMID:18648638

Mitchel, R.E.J.

2006-01-01

324

Radiation Protection Studies of International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Space Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication describes recent investigations that evaluate radiation shielding characteristics of NASA's and the Russian Space Agency's space suits. The introduction describes the suits and presents goals of several experiments performed with them. The first chapter provides background information about the dynamic radiation environment experienced at ISS and summarized radiation health and protection requirements for activities in low Earth orbit. Supporting studies report the development and application of a computer model of the EMU space suit and the difficulty of shielding EVA crewmembers from high-energy reentrant electrons, a previously unevaluated component of the space radiation environment. Chapters 2 through 6 describe experiments that evaluate the space suits' radiation shielding characteristics. Chapter 7 describes a study of the potential radiological health impact on EVA crewmembers of two virtually unexamined environmental sources of high-energy electrons-reentrant trapped electrons and atmospheric albedo or "splash" electrons. The radiological consequences of those sources have not been evaluated previously and, under closer scrutiny. A detailed computational model of the shielding distribution provided by components of the NASA astronauts' EMU is being developed for exposure evaluation studies. The model is introduced in Chapters 8 and 9 and used in Chapter 10 to investigate how trapped particle anisotropy impacts female organ doses during EVA. Chapter 11 presents a review of issues related to estimating skin cancer risk form space radiation. The final chapter contains conclusions about the protective qualities of the suit brought to light form these studies, as well as recommendations for future operational radiation protection.

Cucinotta, Francis A. (Editor); Shavers, Mark R. (Editor); Saganti, Premkumar B. (Editor); Miller, Jack (Editor)

2003-01-01

325

A multi-element proportional counter for radiation protection measurements.  

PubMed

A detector incorporating about 300 individual counting volumes is described, and the results of performance tests are reported. The device can be employed for a direct measurement of the dose equivalent in an unspecified radiation field on the basis of the lineal energy spectrum in 1-micron diameter tissue regions. It is substantially smaller than a conventional tissue equivalent proportional counter yielding the same counting rate and may be useful for measurements in phantoms. PMID:2793479

Kliauga, P; Rossi, H H; Johnson, G

1989-10-01

326

Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on Cyanobacteria and their Protective Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Enhanced solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) due to stratospheric ozone depletion is a major stress factor for many phototrophic\\u000a organisms in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems (Franklin and Forster, 1997). UVR includes the wavelengths below those visible\\u000a to the human eye. According to the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage), the spectral range is divided into three\\u000a wavebands: 315–400 nm UVA, 280–315 nm

Bagmi Pattanaik; Rhena Schumann; Ulf Karsten

327

Incorporating community and multiple perspectives in the development of acceptable drinking water source protection policy in catchments facing recreation demands.  

PubMed

The protection of catchment areas for drinking water quality has become an increasingly disputed issue in Australia and internationally. This is particularly the case in regard to the growing demand for nature based and rural recreation. Currently the policy for the protection of drinking water in Western Australia is to enforce a 2 km exclusion zone with a much larger surrounding area with limited and prescribed access to recreators. The debate between recreators and water management agencies has been lively, culminating in a recent state government enquiry. This paper describes the second phase of a three phase study to develop a methodology for defensible policy formulation which accounts for the points of view of all stakeholders. We examine general community, active recreators and professionals' views on the current policy of catchment protection and five proposed alternatives using a social judgement theory approach. Key attitudinal determinants of the preferences for policies were identified. Overall the recreators did not support the current policy despite strong support from both the general community and the professional group. Nevertheless, it was evident that there was some support by the community for policies that would enable a slight relaxation of current recreational exclusion. It was also evident that there was a significant proportion of the general community who were dissatisfied with current recreational opportunities and that, in future, it may be less easy to police exclusion zones even if current policy is maintained. The potential for future integration of recreational and water source protection is discussed as well as the benefits of community research in understanding policy preferences in this regard. PMID:23911764

Syme, Geoffrey J; Nancarrow, Blair E

2013-11-15

328

A biokinetic model for manganese for use in radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

The ICRP is updating its recommendations regarding occupational exposure to radionuclides including the biokinetic models used to derive dose coefficients and assess bioassay data for internally deposited radionuclides. This report reviews biokinetic data for manganese and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic manganese consistent with the current database. The model provides a more detailed and biologically realistic description of the movement of absorbed manganese in the body than the model currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The proposed model and current ICRP model yield broadly similar estimates of dose per unit activity of inhaled or ingested radio-manganese but differ substantially with regard to interpretation of bioassay data.

Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL

2011-01-01

329

Protective clothing: Fire and radiation environments. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning clothing design, fabrication, and testing for personal protection from exposure to flames and radiation. Citations discuss the treatment of fibers and textiles, testing for physiological tolerances, and methods of decontamination after exposure. Discussed also are user acceptance and proper use of protective clothing by firefighters, nuclear energy personnel, and others. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-11-01

330

Application of some magnetic nanocompounds in the protection against sun radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The protective effect of some magnetic nanocompounds against prolonged exposure to UV radiation was investigated. Research was carried in white mice whose auricles (ears) were treated with magnetic nanocompounds in various concentrations. After 8 h of exposure, small auricular fragments from treated and control animals were prepared for cytohistological studies. In animals treated with magnetic nanocompounds, no erythema or other UV-induced changes were noticed. The magnetic nanoparticles thus were UV protective and might be useful as a sunscreen.

Sincai, Mariana; Argherie, Diana; Ganga, Diana; Bica, Doina; Vekas, Ladislau

2007-04-01

331

Radiation protection for human exploration of the moon and mars: Application of the mash code system  

SciTech Connect

The Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding code system -- MASH, developed for the Department of Defense for calculating radiation protection factors for armored vehicles against neutron and gamma radiation, has been used to assess the dose from reactor radiation to an occupant in a habitat on Mars. The capability of MASH to reproduce measured data is summarized to demonstrate the accuracy of the code. The estimation of the radiation environment in an idealized reactor-habitat model is reported to illustrate the merits of the adjoint Monte Carlo procedure for space related studies. The reactor radiation dose for different reactor-habitat surface configurations to a habitat occupant is compared with the natural radiation dose acquired during a 500-day Mars mission.

Johnson, J.O.; Santoro, R.T.; Drischler, J.D.; Barnes, J.M.

1992-06-01

332

Radiation protection for human exploration of the moon and mars: Application of the mash code system  

SciTech Connect

The Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding code system -- MASH, developed for the Department of Defense for calculating radiation protection factors for armored vehicles against neutron and gamma radiation, has been used to assess the dose from reactor radiation to an occupant in a habitat on Mars. The capability of MASH to reproduce measured data is summarized to demonstrate the accuracy of the code. The estimation of the radiation environment in an idealized reactor-habitat model is reported to illustrate the merits of the adjoint Monte Carlo procedure for space related studies. The reactor radiation dose for different reactor-habitat surface configurations to a habitat occupant is compared with the natural radiation dose acquired during a 500-day Mars mission.

Johnson, J.O.; Santoro, R.T.; Drischler, J.D.; Barnes, J.M.

1992-01-01

333

Baicalein protects mice against radiation-induced DNA damages and genotoxicity.  

PubMed

Baicalein is the major flavonoid extracted from the root of Scutellaria baicaleins. This flavonoid is used extensively in Chinese herbal medicine. In the present study baicalein is evaluated for its radioprotective properties. Human blood cells when exposed to the ?-radiation ex vivo in presence of baicalein underwent the reduced DNA damage compared to the control. Baicalein administration prior to the whole-body ?-radiation (4 Gy) exposure of mice resulted in protecting the damage to the DNA as measured in their blood cells by alkaline comet assay. Mice when exposed to the radiation (whole body; 1.7 Gy) resulted in damage to the bone marrow as measured by micronucleated reticulocyte (MNRET) formation. Baicalein pre-treatment reduces the radiation induced damage to the bone marrow cells, as there was decrease in the percentage MNRET formation. These findings indicate radio-protecting ability of baicalein. PMID:23606056

Gandhi, Nitin Motilal

2013-07-01

334

Oral PEG 15-20 protects the intestine against radiation: role of lipid rafts  

PubMed Central

Intestinal injury following abdominal radiation therapy or accidental exposure remains a significant clinical problem that can result in varying degrees of mucosal destruction such as ulceration, vascular sclerosis, intestinal wall fibrosis, loss of barrier function, and even lethal gut-derived sepsis. We determined the ability of a high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol-based copolymer, PEG 15–20, to protect the intestine against the early and late effects of radiation in mice and rats and to determine its mechanism of action by examining cultured rat intestinal epithelia. Rats were exposed to fractionated radiation in an established model of intestinal injury, whereby an intestinal segment is surgically placed into the scrotum and radiated daily. Radiation injury score was decreased in a dose-dependent manner in rats gavaged with 0.5 or 2.0 g/kg per day of PEG 15–20 (n = 9–13/group, P < 0.005). Complementary studies were performed in a novel mouse model of abdominal radiation followed by intestinal inoculation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), a common pathogen that causes lethal gut-derived sepsis following radiation. Mice mortality was decreased by 40% in mice drinking 1% PEG 15–20 (n = 10/group, P < 0.001). Parallel studies were performed in cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells treated with PEG 15–20 before radiation. Results demonstrated that PEG 15–20 prevented radiation-induced intestinal injury in rats, prevented apoptosis and lethal sepsis attributable to P. aeruginosa in mice, and protected cultured intestinal epithelial cells from apoptosis and microbial adherence and possible invasion. PEG 15–20 appeared to exert its protective effect via its binding to lipid rafts by preventing their coalescence, a hallmark feature in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to radiation. PMID:19833862

Valuckaite, Vesta; Zaborina, Olga; Long, Jason; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Wang, Junru; Holbrook, Christopher; Zaborin, Alexander; Drabik, Kenneth; Katdare, Mukta; Mauceri, Helena; Weichselbaum, Ralph; Firestone, Millicent A.; Lee, Ka Yee; Chang, Eugene B.; Matthews, Jeffrey

2009-01-01

335

Oral PEG 15-20 protects the intestine against radiation : role of lipid rafts.  

SciTech Connect

Intestinal injury following abdominal radiation therapy or accidental exposure remains a significant clinical problem that can result in varying degrees of mucosal destruction such as ulceration, vascular sclerosis, intestinal wall fibrosis, loss of barrier function, and even lethal gut-derived sepsis. We determined the ability of a high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol-based copolymer, PEG 15-20, to protect the intestine against the early and late effects of radiation in mice and rats and to determine its mechanism of action by examining cultured rat intestinal epithelia. Rats were exposed to fractionated radiation in an established model of intestinal injury, whereby an intestinal segment is surgically placed into the scrotum and radiated daily. Radiation injury score was decreased in a dose-dependent manner in rats gavaged with 0.5 or 2.0 g/kg per day of PEG 15-20 (n = 9-13/group, P < 0.005). Complementary studies were performed in a novel mouse model of abdominal radiation followed by intestinal inoculation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), a common pathogen that causes lethal gut-derived sepsis following radiation. Mice mortality was decreased by 40% in mice drinking 1% PEG 15-20 (n = 10/group, P < 0.001). Parallel studies were performed in cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells treated with PEG 15-20 before radiation. Results demonstrated that PEG 15-20 prevented radiation-induced intestinal injury in rats, prevented apoptosis and lethal sepsis attributable to P. aeruginosa in mice, and protected cultured intestinal epithelial cells from apoptosis and microbial adherence and possible invasion. PEG 15-20 appeared to exert its protective effect via its binding to lipid rafts by preventing their coalescence, a hallmark feature in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to radiation.

Valuckaite, V.; Zaborina, O.; Long, J.; Hauer-Jensen, M.; Wang, J.; Holbrook, C.; Zaborin, A.; Drabik, K.; Katdare, M.; Mauceri, H.; Weichselbaum, R.; Firestone, M. A.; Lee, K. Y.; Chang, E. B.; Matthews, J.; Alverdy, J. C.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Arkansas

2009-12-01

336

Protecting the radiation-damaged skin from friction: a mini review  

PubMed Central

Radiation-induced skin reactions are an unavoidable side effect of external beam radiation therapy, particularly in areas prone to friction and excess moisture such as the axilla, head and neck region, perineum and skin folds. Clinical studies investigating interventions for preventing or managing these reactions have largely focussed on formulations with moisturising, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and wound healing properties. However, none of these interventions has emerged as a consistent candidate for best practice. Much less emphasis has been placed on evaluating ways to protect the radiation-damaged skin from friction and excess moisture. This mini review analyses the clinical evidence for barrier products that form a protective layer by adhering very closely to the skin folds and do not cause further trauma to the radiation-damaged skin upon removal. A database search identified only two types of barrier products that fitted these criteria and these were tested in two case series and six controlled clinical trials. Friction protection was most effective when the interventions were used from the start of treatment and continued for several weeks after completion of treatment. Soft silicone dressings (Mepilex Lite and Mepitel Film) and Cavilon No Sting Barrier Film, but not Cavilon Moisturizing Barrier Cream, decreased skin reaction severity, most likely due to differences in formulation and skin build-up properties. It seems that prophylactic use of friction protection of areas at risk could be a worthwhile addition to routine care of radiation-damaged skin.

Herst, Patries M

2014-01-01

337

The Zero Hunger and Brazil without Extreme Poverty programs: a step forward in Brazilian social protection policy.  

PubMed

Brazilian social protection programs have had consistent effects in reducing poverty and inequality among their respective target-groups: children, adolescents and pregnant and breastfeeding women. In 2011, the Brazil without Extreme Poverty program was launched as a strategy to eradicate extreme poverty by 2014. It makes the promotion of rights the core concept of the official political narrative. This study seeks to provide a systematic description of the Brazil without Extreme Poverty program and its initial results. A review of official documents and academic studies on the social protection programs was conducted. The Brazil without Extreme Poverty program represents an incremental approach to the social protection policies enacted by the previous administration. It advocates a multidimensional and focused approach, funded primarily by the federal government. The strategy subscribes to the international trend of associating social protection with employment and income generation policies. PMID:25351302

Paes-Sousa, Romulo; Vaitsman, Jeni

2014-11-01

338

ICRP and IAEA actions on radiation protection in computed tomography.  

PubMed

In 1998, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) warned that computed tomography (CT) doses were high, and the frequency of usage was likely to increase in view of spiral CT technology that enhances patient convenience and provides high-quality diagnostic information. Two ICRP publications (Publications 87 and 102) have provided patient dose management recommendations while reviewing the technology and results of optimisations to date, and stimulated interest in patient dose management. The International Atomic Energy Agency, on the other hand, has been instrumental in assessing the state of practice at grassroots level, identifying lacunae in justification and optimisation, providing guidance to counterparts in various countries, and improving practice. The results from approximately 50 less-resourced countries for adult and paediatric CT studies have become available, and some have been published. The concerted efforts and actions by these two international organisations have contributed to better awareness and improvement of patient protection in CT in adults and children in many countries. PMID:23089014

Rehani, M M

2012-01-01

339

Contributions of occupational epidemiologic studies to radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

Early evidence of health effects of occupational radiation exposure contributed importantly to the establishment of exposure standards, especially for internal emitters. Standards derived in this manner for radium body burdens and for air concentrations of radon and its daughters were especially influential. The body burden limits for plutonium and other bone-seeking radionuclides were based upon the radium standard. The exposure controls instituted as a consequence of those early limits have reduced the exposure of worker populations to the extent that the current, more sophisticated epidemiologic studies will probably not influence the revision of existing standards. The justification for conducting such studies is discussed.

Marks, S.

1982-01-01

340

Optimization of parameters of an artificial aerosol layer for radiation frost protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented on losses from frosts in the Southern Federal Region of Russia. Problems are considered of optimization\\u000a for radiation frost protection, based on production of artificial smoke layers and fogs. Studies of infrared radiation attenuation\\u000a by aerosol of different dispersion and simulation of aerosol turbulent diffusion show that, within the atmospheric transmittance\\u000a window, a sufficient greenhouse effect can

A. M. Abshaev; Kh. Zh. Malkarov

2009-01-01

341

Intercomparison of radiation protection instrumentation in a pulsed neutron field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the EURADOS working group 11, an intercomparison of active neutron survey meters was performed in a pulsed neutron field (PNF). The aim of the exercise was to evaluate the performances of various neutron instruments, including commercially available rem-counters, personal dosemeters and instrument prototypes. The measurements took place at the cyclotron of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH. The cyclotron is routinely used for proton therapy of ocular tumours, but an experimental area is also available. For the therapy the machine accelerates protons to 68 MeV. The interaction of the proton beam with a thick tungsten target produces a neutron field with energy up to about 60 MeV. One interesting feature of the cyclotron is that the beam can be delivered in bursts, with the possibility to modify in a simple and flexible way the burst length and the ion current. Through this possibility one can obtain radiation bursts of variable duration and intensity. All instruments were placed in a reference position and irradiated with neutrons delivered in bursts of different intensity. The analysis of the instrument response as a function of the burst charge (the total electric charge of the protons in the burst shot onto the tungsten target) permitted to assess for each device the dose underestimation due to the time structure of the radiation field. The personal neutron dosemeters were exposed on a standard PMMA slab phantom and the response linearity was evaluated.

Caresana, M.; Denker, A.; Esposito, A.; Ferrarini, M.; Golnik, N.; Hohmann, E.; Leuschner, A.; Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Manessi, G.; Mayer, S.; Ott, K.; Röhrich, J.; Silari, M.; Trompier, F.; Volnhals, M.; Wielunski, M.

2014-02-01

342

Research on radiation protection in the application of new technologies for proton and heavy ion radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Particle radiotherapy using proton and heavy ion beams has shown improved clinical results and is a promising cancer therapy which is expected to gradually spread in Japan. There are, however, no special regulations for radiotherapy treatment facilities. They have been operated under the same safety regulations as for a research facility using a research accelerator. Significantly high-energy radiation is necessary for particle radiotherapy compared with conventional radiation therapy. The treatment facility, therefore, should have a large accelerator, which is installed in a room with a thick shield wall. Data on radiation protection for such high energy medical facilities is fragmentary and insufficient. In this study, we examined the necessity of other regulations for the safe operation of medical facilities for particle radiotherapy. First, we measured activation levels of the therapeutic devices and of patients. Next the safety level of the medical facility was evaluated from the viewpoint of radiation protection. We have confirmed the facilities can be safely operated by present regulations given in the Law Concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazards due to Radiation Isotopes, etc. or the Law for Health Protection and Medical Care. PMID:21976255

Tujii, Hirohiko; Akagi, Takashi; Akahane, Keiichi; Uwamino, Yoshitomo; Ono, Tatsuya; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Kohno, Ryosuke; Sakae, Takeji; Shimizu, Masakazu; Urakabe, Eriko; Nakayama, Takashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Nishio, Teiji; Noshizawa, Kanae; Nishizawa, Kunihide; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Yamashita, Haruo; Yonai, Shunsuke

2009-01-01

343

[Medical protection during radiation accidents: some results and lessons of the Chernobyl accident].  

PubMed

Actions of medical radiation protection of liquidators of consequences of on Chernobyl atomic power station accident are analysed. It is shown, that during the early period of the accident medical protection of liquidators was provided by administration of radioprotectors, means of prophylaxis: of radioactive iodine incorporation and agent for preventing psychological and emotional stress. When carrying out decontamination and regenerative works, preparations which action is caused by increase of nonspecific resistance of an organism were applied. The lessons taken from the results of the Chernobyl accident, have allowed one to improve the system of medical protection and to introduce in practice new highly effective radioprotective agents. PMID:21520618

Legeza, V I; Grebeniuk, A N; Zatsepin, V V

2011-01-01

344

The US Food Quality Protection Act--policy implications of variability and consumer risk.  

PubMed

The passage of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) in August of 1996 increased the role of risk assessment in the decision-making process of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Although the law and guidance issued by the EPA provide for more sophisticated risk assessments, the databases for many chemicals may not be robust enough for such data-sensitive analyses. FQPA mandated a major change in how the EPA evaluates the safety of pesticides. This change was immediate, without provision for a phase-in period. Consequently, the EPA is still in the process of learning how to evaluate pesticides under the new paradigm. The EPA's task was further compounded by the lack of scientifically tested methodologies for evaluating aggregate and cumulative risk, as required under the new law. Clearly, the EPA is still in a state of transition between evaluating aggregate and cumulative risks to pesticides and evaluating them one chemical and one exposure route at a time. In all likelihood, the transition period will continue as the discipline of risk assessment develops the mental constructs and computational methodologies to fulfil the requirements of the law. In this interim period, therefore, policies are needed so the regulators and the regulated industry know what is currently acceptable, and how the EPA's thinking is evolving. PMID:10983590

Tomerlin, J R

2000-07-01

345

A review of the scientific basis for radiation protection of the patient.  

PubMed

The use of ionising radiation in medicine is the single largest man-made source of population exposure. Individual and collective doses to patients arising from the medical use of ionising radiations continue to rise significantly year on year. This is due to the increasing use of medical imaging procedures in modern healthcare systems as well as the continued development of new high dose techniques. This paper reviews the scientific basis for the principles of radiation protection as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. These principles attempt to include exposures arising from both medical and non-medical applications within a common framework and have evolved over many years and changing socio-economic considerations. In particular, the concepts of justification and ALARA (doses should be as low as reasonably achievable), which underpin the principles for medical exposures are assessed in terms of their applicability to the scientific process and relevance to a rapidly changing technologically-led healthcare system. Radiation protection is an integral component of patient safety in medical practices and needs to be evidence based and amenable to the scientific process. The limitations imposed by the existing philosophy of radiation protection to the development of a quantitative framework for adequately assessing the performance of medical imaging systems are highlighted. In particular, medical practitioners will require quantitative guidance as to the risk-benefits arising from modern X-ray imaging methods if they are to make rational judgements as to the applicability of modern high-dose techniques to particular diagnostic and therapeutic tasks. At present such guidance is variable due to the lack of a rational framework for assessing the clinical impact of medical imaging techniques. The possible integration of radiation protection concepts into fundamental bio-medical imaging research activities is discussed. PMID:21846654

Moores, B M; Regulla, D

2011-09-01

346

Radiation doses of employees of a Nuclear Medicine Department after implementation of more rigorous radiation protection methods.  

PubMed

The appropriate radiation protection measures applied in departments of nuclear medicine should lead to a reduction in doses received by the employees. During 1991-2007, at the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Pomeranian Medical University (Szczecin, Poland), nurses received on average two-times higher (4.6 mSv) annual doses to the whole body than those received by radiopharmacy technicians. The purpose of this work was to examine whether implementation of changes in the radiation protection protocol will considerably influence the reduction in whole-body doses received by the staff that are the most exposed. A reduction in nurses' exposure by ~63 % took place in 2008-11, whereas the exposure of radiopharmacy technicians grew by no more than 22 % in comparison with that in the period 1991-2007. Proper reorganisation of the work in departments of nuclear medicine can considerably affect dose reduction and bring about equal distribution of the exposure. PMID:23615359

Piwowarska-Bilska, Hanna; Supinska, Aleksandra; Listewnik, Maria H; Zorga, Piotr; Birkenfeld, Bozena

2013-11-01

347

LAURISTON S. TAYLOR LECTURE ON RADIATION PROTECTION AND MEASURMENTS: WHAT MAKES PARTICLE RADIATION SO EFFECTIVE?  

PubMed Central

The scientific basis for the physical and biological effectiveness of particle radiations has emerged from many decades of meticulous basic research. A diverse array of biologically relevant consequences at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organism level have been reported, but what are the key processes and mechanisms that make particle radiation so effective, and what competing processes define dose dependences? Recent studies have shown that individual genotypes control radiation-regulated genes and pathways in response to radiations of varying ionization density. The fact that densely ionizing radiations can affect different gene families than sparsely ionizing radiations, and that the effects are dose- and time-dependent has opened up new areas of future research. The complex microenvironment of the stroma, and the significant contributions of the immune response have added to our understanding of tissue-specific differences across the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum. The importance of targeted vs. nontargeted effects remain a thorny, but elusive and important contributor to chronic low dose radiation effects of variable LET that still needs further research. The induction of cancer is also LET-dependent, suggesting different mechanisms of action across the gradient of ionization density. The focus of this 35th Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture is to chronicle the step-by-step acquisition of experimental clues that have refined our understanding of what makes particle radiation so effective, with emphasis on the example of radiation effects on the crystalline lens of the human eye. PMID:23032880

Blakely, Eleanor A.

2012-01-01

348

Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture: Radiation protection in the aftermath of a terrorist attack involving exposure to ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

I would like to start this Twenty-Eighth Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture by expressing my gratitude to the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for this unique occasion. I feel particularly honored for this opportunity to address a highly specialized and qualified audience of professionals who are specifically interested in what appears to be a forthcoming worldwide challenge, namely radiological terrorism and managing its potential radiological consequences. PMID:16217186

González, Abel J

2005-11-01

349

Establishment of radiation protection boundaries for nuclear power plants.  

PubMed

Activities involving the possession and use of radioactive material require the application of controls to ensure the health and safety of the worker and general public. One of the first steps in adequately controlling any licensed activity is the establishment of zones and boundaries that will exist for purposes of restricting or regulating personnel radiological exposure. Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 20 (10 CFR 20) defines the "restricted area" (RA) and prescribes the administrative and radiological protection controls pertinent to the RA. For nuclear power facilities, the determination of the physical relation of the RA boundary with other physical or administrative boundaries, such as the site boundary, the radiologically controlled area (RCA), and the exclusion area boundary, must be based on an evaluation that considers all applicable federal requirements and limits for each zone or boundary contained within or interfacing with the RA. This paper presents a discussion of the factors that should be considered and an evaluation methodology that can be utilized based on the generation of two-dimensional isodoses. PMID:2019508

Nicoll, R M

1991-05-01

350

Call Title: Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection Call Identifier: FP7-Fission-2009  

E-print Network

Call Title: Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection · Call Identifier: FP7-Fission-2009 · Date and competitiveness of existing and future nuclear installations Fission-2009-2.1.2: RPV irradiation effects in sustainable nuclear fission energy Coordination and Support Action (coordinating action) Fission-2.3 Fission

De Cindio, Fiorella

351

FP7 Euratom Work Programme Call title: Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection  

E-print Network

FP7 Euratom Work Programme Call Fiche Call title: Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection Call the Pressure Vessel) Small or medium-scale Collaborative Project Nuclear installation safety: Fission-2008) Fission-2.2 Advanced nuclear systems: Fission-2008-2.2.1: Innovative reactor systems Max. of 2

De Cindio, Fiorella

352

University of Pittsburgh researchers find experimental drug could protect some cancer patients from radiation side effects:  

Cancer.gov

A drug under development at the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) and the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine could protect the cells of Fanconi anemia patients from damage caused by radiation treatment for head and neck cancers, a new study suggests.

353

Radiation and environmental protection experience at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiological and environmental protection experience at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has been excellent. Plant personnel radiation exposures have been very low, contamination has been readily controlled and releases of radioactivity to the environment have been essentially nonexistent. This report discusses these three aspects of fast reactor safety at the FFTF and covers the first five operating cycles. This

P. R. Prevo; D. O. Hess

1985-01-01

354

INVITED EDITORIAL: Protection of the environment from the effects of ionising radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It will not have escaped the notice of the readers of this journal that the subject of radiological protection of the environment - explicitly of wild plants and animals from radiation exposure, as opposed to the more frequently accepted interpretation in terms of the possible resultant impacts on humans arising from contamination by radionuclides - has an increased profile on

Dennis Woodhead

2002-01-01

355

Development of Curricula for Nuclear Radiation Protection, Nuclear Instrumentation, and Nuclear Materials Processing Technologies. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to assist two-year postsecondary educational institutions in providing technical specialty courses for preparing nuclear technicians. As a result of project activities, curricula have been developed for five categories of nuclear technicians and operators: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and…

Hull, Daniel M.

356

Social inclusion policies for the most vulnerable age groups: Pension Inclusion Plan and Universal Allowance for Social Protection for Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes two social protection policies implemented in Argentina, with emphasis on those most vulnerable people: the `Plan de Inclusión Previsional´ (2005) for the elderly and the `Asignación Universal por Hijo para Protección Social´ (2009), aimed to children and adolescents less than 18 years old whose parents are not covered by the contributory family allowance system. The results show

Alejandro A. Calabria; Analía Verónica Calero

2011-01-01

357

Smoking Policy The College of Charleston has the inherent power to protect itself and its property and to  

E-print Network

Smoking Policy The College of Charleston has the inherent power to protect itself and its property smoking on campus is adopted: A. Purpose: The College of Charleston promotes a safe, clean and healthy environment on all its property and prohibits smoking inside and at all designated smoke-free entranceways

Kasman, Alex

358

Legislators Should not have Feared Title VII Pre-Emption of California's Temporary Transfer Alternative to Discriminatory Fetal Protection Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comment will argue that Congress did not intend to prohibit statutory accommodation of an individual pregnant employee's right to temporarily transfer from a hazardous work environment as an alternative to discriminatory fetal protection policies. Additionally, this comment argues that the California legislature's fear of pre-emption was premature. The legislature should amend the statute to require compliance by title VII

Constance Norton

2010-01-01

359

The Extent of Public Education Nondiscrimination Policy Protections for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students: A National Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines education and governmental nondiscrimination policies to determine the status of anti-homophobia protections in the 51 states. A review of existing case law literature is provided to illustrate the effect homophobia has on all students, regardless of their sexual orientation, and to induce the development of new public…

Russo, Ronald G.

2006-01-01

360

On the use of transcendence as an apologia strategy: The case of Johnson controls and its fetal protection policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

When charged with wrongdoing, most organizations rely on differientation strategies to extracate themselves from the crises that follow. Conversely, this essay focuses on the organizational use of transcendent appeals to redefine “sin” into a “virtue.”This study analyzes Johnson Controls' apologia after critics charged that its “fetal protection policy” was discriminatory, examining the redefinitions and ultimate terms invoked by the company

Keith Michael Hearit

1997-01-01

361

Communicating human biomonitoring results to ensure policy coherence with public health recommendations: analysing breastmilk whilst protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the problem of how to ensure consistency in messages communicating public health recommendations on environmental health and on child health. The World Health Organization states that the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding rank among the most effective interventions to improve child survival. International public health policy recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months, followed by continued breastfeeding

Maryse Arendt

2008-01-01

362

POLICY STATEMENT ON ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Queen's University is committed to the protection of the environment through the  

E-print Network

POLICY STATEMENT ON ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Queen's University is committed to the protection and research sites, pose minimal environmental impact and that any environmental risks and/or hazards of the environment through the implementation of an effective environmental management program. At a minimum

Ellis, Randy

363

Baseline Survey of Sun-Protection Knowledge, Practices and Policy in Early Childhood Settings in Queensland, Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Excessive exposure to sunlight during early childhood increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Self-administered questionnaires exploring sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy were mailed to the directors/co-ordinators/senior teachers of all known early childhood services in Queensland, Australia, in 2002 (n = 1383; 56.5% response).…

Harrison, Simone L.; Saunders, V.; Nowak, M.

2007-01-01

364

Operational radiation protection for astronauts and cosmonauts and correlated activities of ESA Medical Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the early times of human spaceflight radiation has been, besides the influence of microgravity on the human body, recognized as a main health concern to astronauts and cosmonauts. The radiation environment that the crew experiences during spaceflight differs significantly to that found on earth due to particles of greater potential for biological damage. Highly energetic charged particles, such as protons, helium nuclei ("alpha particles") and heavier ions up to iron, originating from several sources, as well as protons and electrons trapped in the Earth's radiation belts, are the main contributors. The exposure that the crew receives during a spaceflight significantly exceeds exposures routinely received by terrestrial radiation workers. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Astronaut Center (EAC) in Cologne, Germany, is home of the European Astronaut Corps. Part of the EAC is the Crew Medical Support Office (CMSO or HSF-AM) responsible for ensuring the health and well-being of the European Astronauts. A sequence of activities is conducted to protect astronauts and cosmonauts health, including those aiming to mitigate adverse effects of space radiation. All health related activities are part of a multinational Medical Operations (MedOps) concept, which is executed by the different Space Agencies participating in the human spaceflight program of the International Space Station (ISS). This article will give an introduction to the current measures used for radiation monitoring and protection of astronauts and cosmonauts. The operational guidelines that shall ensure proper implementation and execution of those radiation protection measures will be addressed. Operational hardware for passive and active radiation monitoring and for personal dosimetry, as well as the operational procedures that are applied, are described.

Straube, Ulrich; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Facius, Rainer; Fuglesang, Christer; Reiter, Thomas; Damann, Volker; Tognini, Michel

2010-04-01

365

Dying cells protect survivors from radiation-induced cell death in Drosophila.  

PubMed

We report a phenomenon wherein induction of cell death by a variety of means in wing imaginal discs of Drosophila larvae resulted in the activation of an anti-apoptotic microRNA, bantam. Cells in the vicinity of dying cells also become harder to kill by ionizing radiation (IR)-induced apoptosis. Both ban activation and increased protection from IR required receptor tyrosine kinase Tie, which we identified in a genetic screen for modifiers of ban. tie mutants were hypersensitive to radiation, and radiation sensitivity of tie mutants was rescued by increased ban gene dosage. We propose that dying cells activate ban in surviving cells through Tie to make the latter cells harder to kill, thereby preserving tissues and ensuring organism survival. The protective effect we report differs from classical radiation bystander effect in which neighbors of irradiated cells become more prone to death. The protective effect also differs from the previously described effect of dying cells that results in proliferation of nearby cells in Drosophila larval discs. If conserved in mammals, a phenomenon in which dying cells make the rest harder to kill by IR could have implications for treatments that involve the sequential use of cytotoxic agents and radiation therapy. PMID:24675716

Bilak, Amber; Uyetake, Lyle; Su, Tin Tin

2014-03-01

366

Manpower trends and training requirements for radiation protection personnel in the DOE contractor system  

SciTech Connect

This document reports results of a survey undertaken jointly by the Office of Nuclear Safety and the Office of Industrial Relations, US Department of Energy, with assistance from Oak Ridge Associated Universities. The purpose of the survey was twofold: (1) to determine the current status and recent trends in technician-level radiation safety manpower among DOE contractors; and (2) to document the scope of radiation safety training activities for radiation protection technicians and other workers within the DOE contractor system. Data reported here were obtained both by use of a formal written questionnaire completed by staff at 34 government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO) nuclear facilities and through supplemental documentation obtained from contractors of training procedures and requirements. The first half of this report describes trends in radiation protection manpower and reports workforce characteristics of health physics technicians. The second half of the report describes program requirements and procedures in those facilities that conduct formal in-house training programs for their radiation protection workforces. 4 figures, 22 tables.

Trice, J.

1984-02-01

367

Dying Cells Protect Survivors from Radiation-Induced Cell Death in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

We report a phenomenon wherein induction of cell death by a variety of means in wing imaginal discs of Drosophila larvae resulted in the activation of an anti-apoptotic microRNA, bantam. Cells in the vicinity of dying cells also become harder to kill by ionizing radiation (IR)-induced apoptosis. Both ban activation and increased protection from IR required receptor tyrosine kinase Tie, which we identified in a genetic screen for modifiers of ban. tie mutants were hypersensitive to radiation, and radiation sensitivity of tie mutants was rescued by increased ban gene dosage. We propose that dying cells activate ban in surviving cells through Tie to make the latter cells harder to kill, thereby preserving tissues and ensuring organism survival. The protective effect we report differs from classical radiation bystander effect in which neighbors of irradiated cells become more prone to death. The protective effect also differs from the previously described effect of dying cells that results in proliferation of nearby cells in Drosophila larval discs. If conserved in mammals, a phenomenon in which dying cells make the rest harder to kill by IR could have implications for treatments that involve the sequential use of cytotoxic agents and radiation therapy. PMID:24675716

Bilak, Amber; Uyetake, Lyle; Su, Tin Tin

2014-01-01

368

Pathogenetic validation of the use of biological protective agents and early treatment in cases of radiation injury simulating radiation effects under space flight conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In considering a radiation safety system for space flights, the various measures to protect man against radiation include drug prophylaxis. At the present time a great deal of experimental material has been accumulated on the prevention and treatment of radiation injuries. Antiradiation effectiveness has been established for sulfur- and nitrogen-containing substances, auxins, cyanides, polynucleotides, mucopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, aminosaccharides, synthetic polymers, vitamins, hormones, amino acids and other compounds which can be divided into two basic groups - biological and chemical protective agents.

Rogozkin, V. D.; Varteres, V.; Sabo, L.; Groza, N.; Nikolov, I.

1974-01-01

369

Ground radiation tests and flight atomic oxygen tests of ITO protective coatings for Galileo Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation simulation tests (protons and electrons) were performed along with atomic oxygen flight tests aboard the Shuttle to space qualify the surface protective coatings. The results, which contributed to the selection of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated polyester as the material for the thermal blankets of the Galileo Spacecraft, are given here. Two candidate materials, polyester and Fluorglas, were radiation-tested to determine changes at simulated Jovian radiation levels. The polyester exhibited a smaller weight loss (2.8) than the Fluorglas (8.8 percent). Other changes of polyester are given. During low-earth orbit, prior to transit to Jupiter, the thermal blankets would be exposed to atomic oxygen. Samples of uncoated and ITO-coated polyesters were flown on the Shuttle. Qualitative results are given which indicated that the ITO coating protected the underlying polyester.

Bouquet, Frank L.; Maag, Carl R.

1986-01-01

370

Protecting health care workers from tuberculosis in China: a review of policy and practice in China and the United States.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis causes >1.7 million deaths worldwide each year and is frequently transmitted in hospitals. Outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis have led to illness and death among health care workers (HCWs) in many countries. Some countries, such as the United States, implemented occupational health policies that substantially reduced tuberculosis rates among HCWs. Inadequate tuberculosis infection control in China may contribute to its high burden of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, which are both the second highest worldwide. Occupational health policies in China for tuberculosis control can be strengthened. We reviewed the development and content of tuberculosis infection control policies in the United States and China. Sources included published academic literature, Chinese Ministry of Health policies, US government agency reports, legal databases, personal observations of hospitals, review of internet discussion sites, and discussions with HCWs and health care and law experts. In the United States, slow acceptance of the tuberculosis problem in HCWs resulted in decades of inaction. Tuberculosis infection control policies, based mostly on expert opinion, were implemented only after tuberculosis resurged in the 1980s. Effective evidence-based policies were developed only after multiple cycles of policy implementation, evaluation and revision. These policies have now substantially reduced occupational tuberculosis. In China, tuberculosis has not been formally recognized as an occupational disease, and data regarding the burden in HCWs are sparse. Vagueness of current labour laws and suboptimal alignment of infection control authority and expertise result in varied and sometimes absent protection of HCWs against tuberculosis. Formal evaluations of occupational tuberculosis policies have not been reported. By collecting data on its current HCW tuberculosis burden and infection control practices, refining policies, continually evaluating its policies based on accumulated evidence and rapidly identifying unsuspected tuberculosis cases, China can develop a more comprehensive strategy to ensure the health of HCWs and reduce transmission of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:22427258

Chai, Shua J; Mattingly, Daniel C; Varma, Jay K

2013-01-01

371

PHD Inhibition Mitigates and Protects Against Radiation-Induced Gastrointestinal Toxicity via HIF2  

PubMed Central

Radiation-induced gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity can be a major source of morbidity and mortality after radiation exposure. There is an unmet need for effective preventative or mitigative treatments against the potentially fatal diarrhea and water loss induced by radiation damage to the GI tract. We report that prolyl hydroxylase inhibition by genetic knockout or pharmacologic inhibition of all PHD isoforms by the small molecule dimethyloxyallylglycine (DMOG) increases HIF expression, improves epithelial integrity, reduces apoptosis, and increases intestinal angiogenesis, all of which are essential for radioprotection. HIF2, but not HIF1, is both necessary and sufficient to prevent radiation-induced GI toxicity and death. Increased VEGF expression contributes to the protective effects of HIF2, since inhibition of VEGF function reversed the radioprotection and radiomitigation afforded by DMOG. Additionally, mortality is reduced from abdominal or total body irradiation even when DMOG is given 24 hours after exposure. Thus, prolyl hydroxylase inhibition represents a new treatment strategy to protect against and mitigate GI toxicity from both therapeutic radiation and potentially lethal radiation exposures. PMID:24828078

Taniguchi, Cullen M.; Miao, Yu Rebecca; Diep, Anh N.; Wu, Colleen; Rankin, Erinn B.; Atwood, Todd F.; Xing, Lei; Giaccia, Amato J.

2014-01-01

372

Protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells by treatment with antioxidant agents  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of antioxidant agents against space radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells. Methods and Materials: The effects of selected concentrations of N-acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, co-enzyme Q10, {alpha}-lipoic acid, L-selenomethionine, and vitamin E succinate on radiation-induced oxidative stress were evaluated in MCF10 human breast epithelial cells exposed to radiation with X-rays, {gamma}-rays, protons, or high mass, high atomic number, and high energy particles using a dichlorofluorescein assay. Results: The results demonstrated that these antioxidants are effective in protecting against radiation-induced oxidative stress and complete or nearly complete protection was achieved by treating the cells with a combination of these agents before and during the radiation exposure. Conclusion: The combination of antioxidants evaluated in this study is likely be a promising countermeasure for protection against space radiation-induced adverse biologic effects.

Wan, X. Steven [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ware, Jeffrey H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Zhou, Zhaozong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Donahue, Jeremiah J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Guan, Jun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Kennedy, Ann R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)]. E-mail: akennedy@mail.med.upenn.edu

2006-04-01

373

Public Policy on Ground-Water Quality Protection. Proceedings of a National Conference (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, April 13-16, 1977).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains the papers presented at a National Conference on Ground Water Quality Protection Policy held in April of 1977. Paper titles include: (1) Magnitude of the Ground-Water Contamination Problem; (2) Limited Degredation as a Ground-Water Quality Policy; (3) Surface and Subsurface Mining: Policy Implications; (4) Oil Well…

Kerns, Waldon R., Ed.

374

United States Office of Air and Radiation EPA 402-R-04-002C Environmental Protection Agency July 2004  

E-print Network

United States Office of Air and Radiation EPA 402-R-04-002C Environmental Protection Agency July U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, D.C. 20460 #12;ii NOTICE The following report population receives its drinking water from groundwater. It is the goal of the Environmental Protection

375

On the use of age-specific effective dose coefficients in radiation protection of the public  

SciTech Connect

Current radiation protection standards for the public include a limit on effective dose in any year for individuals in critical groups. This paper considers the question of how the annual dose limit should be applied in controlling routine exposures of populations consisting of individuals of all ages. The authors assume that the fundamental objective of radiation protection is limitation of lifetime risk and, therefore, that standards for controlling routine exposures of the public should provide a reasonable correspondence with lifetime risk, taking into account the age dependence of intakes and doses and the variety of radionuclides and exposure pathways of concern. Using new calculations of the per capita (population-averaged) risk of cancer mortality per unit activity inhaled or ingested in the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Federal Guidance Report No. 13, the authors show that applying a limit on annual effective dose only to adults, which was the usual practice in radiation protection of the public before the development of age-specific effective dose coefficients, provides a considerably better correspondence with lifetime risk than applying the annual dose limit to the critical group of any age.

Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

1998-11-01

376

Radiation protective structure alternatives for habitats of a lunar base research outpost  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar and galactic cosmic radiation levels on the Moon pose a hazard to extended manned lunar missions. Lunar soil represents an available, economical material to be used for radiation shielding. Several alternatives have been suggested to use lunar soil to protect the inhabitants of a lunar base research outpost from radiation. The Universities Space Research Association has requested that a comparative analysis of the alternatives be performed, with the purpose of developing the most advantageous design. Eight alternatives have been analyzed, including an original design which was developed to satisfy the identified design criteria. The original design consists of a cylindrical module and airlock, partially buried in the lunar soil, at a depth sufficient to achieve adequate radiation shielding. The report includes descriptions of the alternatives considered, the method of analysis used, and the final design selected.

Bell, Fred J.; Foo, Lai T.; Mcgrew, William P.

1988-01-01

377

Repeated Nrf2 stimulation using sulforaphane protects fibroblasts from ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

Most of the cytotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation is mediated by radical-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Cellular protection from free radicals can be stimulated several fold by sulforaphane-mediated activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 that regulates more than 50 genes involved in the detoxification of reactive substances and radicals. Here, we report that repeated sulforaphane treatment increases radioresistance in primary human skin fibroblasts. Cells were either treated with sulforaphane for four hours once or with four-hour treatments repeatedly for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. Fibroblasts exposed to repeated-sulforaphane treatment showed a more pronounced dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated mRNA and reduced amount of radiation-induced free radicals compared with cells treated once with sulforaphane. In addition, radiation- induced DNA double-strand breaks measured by gamma-H2AX foci were attenuated following repeated sulforaphane treatment. As a result, cellular protection from ionizing radiation measured by the 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay was increased, specifically in cells exposed to repeated sulforaphane treatment. Sulforaphane treatment was unable to protect Nrf2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, indicating that the sulforaphane-induced radioprotection was Nrf2-dependent. Moreover, radioprotection by repeated sulforaphane treatment was dose-dependent with an optimal effect at 10 uM, whereas both lower and higher concentrations resulted in lower levels of radioprotection. Our data indicate that the Nrf2 system can be trained to provide further protection from radical damage. PMID:24603300

Mathew, Sherin T; Bergström, Petra; Hammarsten, Ola

2014-05-01

378

Applying cost analyses to drive policy that protects children. Mercury as a case study  

SciTech Connect

Exposure in prenatal life to methylmercury (MeHg) has become the topic of intense debate in the United States after the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a proposal in 2004 to reverse strict controls on emissions of mercury from coal-fired power plants that had been in effect for the preceding 15 years. This proposal failed to incorporate any consideration of the health impacts on children that would result from increased mercury emissions. We assessed the impact on children's health of industrial mercury emissions and found that between 316,588 and 637,233 babies are born with mercury-related losses of cognitive function ranging from 0.2 to 5.13 points. We calculated that decreased economic productivity resulting from diminished intelligence over a lifetime results in an aggregate economic cost in each annual birth cohort of $8.7 billion annually. $1.3 billion of this cost is attributable to mercury emitted from American coal-fired power plants. Downward shifts in intellectual quotient (IQ) are also associated with 1566 excess cases of mental retardation annually. This number accounts for 3.2% of MR cases in the United States. If the lifetime excess cost of a case of MR is $1,248,648 in 2000 dollars, then the cost of these excess cases of MR is $2.0 billion annually. Preliminary data suggest that more stringent mercury policy options would prevent thousands of cases of MR and billions of dollars over the next 25 years.

Leonardo Trasande; Clyde Schechter; Karla A. Haynes; Philip J. Landrigan [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States). Department of Community and Preventive Medicine

2006-09-15

379

Meeting Radiation Protection Requirements and Reducing Spacecraft Mass - A Multifunctional Materials Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both crew and radio-sensitive systems, especially electronics must be protected from the effects of the space radiation environment. One method of mitigating this radiation exposure is to use passive-shielding materials. In previous vehicle designs such as the International Space Station (ISS), materials such as aluminum and polyethylene have been used as parasitic shielding to protect crew and electronics from exposure, but these designs add mass and decrease the amount of usable volume inside the vehicle. Thus, it is of interest to understand whether structural materials can also be designed to provide the radiation shielding capability needed for crew and electronics, while still providing weight savings and increased useable volume when compared against previous vehicle shielding designs. In this paper, we present calculations and analysis using the HZETRN (deterministic) and FLUKA (Monte Carlo) codes to investigate the radiation mitigation properties of these structural shielding materials, which includes graded-Z and composite materials. This work is also a follow-on to an earlier paper, that compared computational results for three radiation transport codes, HZETRN, HETC, and FLUKA, using the Feb. 1956 solar particle event (SPE) spectrum. In the following analysis, we consider the October 1989 Ground Level Enhanced (GLE) SPE as the input source term based on the Band function fitting method. Using HZETRN and FLUKA, parametric absorbed doses at the center of a hemispherical structure on the lunar surface are calculated for various thicknesses of graded-Z layups and an all-aluminum structure. HZETRN and FLUKA calculations are compared and are in reasonable (18% to 27%) agreement. Both codes are in agreement with respect to the predicted shielding material performance trends. The results from both HZETRN and FLUKA are analyzed and the radiation protection properties and potential weight savings of various materials and materials lay-ups are compared.

Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Reddell, Brandon; Rojdev, Kristina; Franklin, Jennifer

2010-01-01

380

Extract of Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) protects against gamma-radiation induced testicular damage in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation is an important environmental risk factor and, a major therapeutic agent for cancer treatment. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of extract of Xylopia aethiopica (XA) on gamma-radiation-induced testicular damage in rats. Vitamin C (VC) served as the reference antioxidant during the study. The study consists of 4 groups of 11 rats each. Group I received corn oil (vehicle), groups II and IV were pretreated with XA (250 mg/kg) and VC (250mg/kg) for 6 weeks before and 8 weeks after exposure to gamma-radiation; group III was exposed to a single dose of gamma-radiation (5 Gy). Biochemical analysis revealed that gamma-irradiation caused a significant increase (p < .05) in serum and testicular lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels by 217% and 221%, respectively. Irradiated rats had markedly decreased testicular catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Irradiation resulted in 59% and 40% decreases in spermatozoa motility and live/dead sperm count, respectively, and a 161% increase in total sperm abnormalities. Histologically, testes of the irradiated rats showed extensive degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules and defoliation of spermatocytes. Supplementation of XA and VC reversed the adverse effects of gamma-radiation on biochemical and histological indices of the rats. These findings demonstrated that Xylopia aethiopica has a protective effect by inhibiting oxidative damage in testes of irradiated rats. PMID:21305847

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Adedara, Isaac Adegboyega; Popoola, Bosede; Farombi, Ebenezer Olatunde

2010-01-01

381

Flavonoids can protect maize DNA from the induction of ultraviolet radiation damage.  

PubMed Central

Diverse flavonoid compounds are widely distributed in angiosperm families. Flavonoids absorb radiation in the ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum, and it has been proposed that these compounds function as UV filters. We demonstrate that the DNA in Zea mays plants that contain flavonoids (primarily anthocyanins) is protected from the induction of damage caused by UV radiation relative to the DNA in plants that are genetically deficient in these compounds. DNA damage was measured with a sensitive and simple assay using individual monoclonal antibodies, one specific for cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer damage and the other specific for pyrimidine(6,4)pyrimidone damage. PMID:8058838

Stapleton, A E; Walbot, V

1994-01-01

382

Protective Effect of Anthocyanins from Lingonberry on Radiation-induced Damages  

PubMed Central

There is a growing concern about the serious harm of radioactive materials, which are widely used in energy production, scientific research, medicine, industry and other areas. In recent years, owing to the great side effects of anti-radiation drugs, research on the radiation protectants has gradually expanded from the previous chemicals to the use of natural anti-radiation drugs and functional foods. Some reports have confirmed that anthocyanins are good antioxidants, which can effectively eliminate free radicals, but studies on the immunoregulatory and anti-radiation effects of anthocyanins from lingonberry (ALB) are less reported. In this experiment, mice were given orally once daily for 14 consecutive days before exposure to 6 Gy of gamma-radiation and were sacrificed on the 7th day post-irradiation. The results showed that the selected dose of extract did not lead to acute toxicity in mice; while groups given anthocyanins orally were significantly better than radiation control group according to blood analysis; pretreatment of anthocyanins significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the thymus and spleen indices and spleen cell survival compared to the irradiation control group. Pretreatment with anthocyanins before irradiation significantly reduced the numbers of micronuclei (MN) in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs). These findings indicate that anthocyanins have immunostimulatory potential against immunosuppression induced by the radiation. PMID:23249859

Fan, Zi-Luan; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Zuo, Li-Li; Tian, Shuang-Qi

2012-01-01

383

Protective effect of anthocyanins from lingonberry on radiation-induced damages.  

PubMed

There is a growing concern about the serious harm of radioactive materials, which are widely used in energy production, scientific research, medicine, industry and other areas. In recent years, owing to the great side effects of anti-radiation drugs, research on the radiation protectants has gradually expanded from the previous chemicals to the use of natural anti-radiation drugs and functional foods. Some reports have confirmed that anthocyanins are good antioxidants, which can effectively eliminate free radicals, but studies on the immunoregulatory and anti-radiation effects of anthocyanins from lingonberry (ALB) are less reported. In this experiment, mice were given orally once daily for 14 consecutive days before exposure to 6 Gy of gamma-radiation and were sacrificed on the 7th day post-irradiation. The results showed that the selected dose of extract did not lead to acute toxicity in mice; while groups given anthocyanins orally were significantly better than radiation control group according to blood analysis; pretreatment of anthocyanins significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the thymus and spleen indices and spleen cell survival compared to the irradiation control group. Pretreatment with anthocyanins before irradiation significantly reduced the numbers of micronuclei (MN) in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs). These findings indicate that anthocyanins have immunostimulatory potential against immunosuppression induced by the radiation. PMID:23249859

Fan, Zi-Luan; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Zuo, Li-Li; Tian, Shuang-Qi

2012-12-01

384

Fourth conference on radiation protection and dosimetry: Proceedings, program, and abstracts  

SciTech Connect

This Conference is the fourth in a series of conferences organized by staff members of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to improve communication in the field of radiation protection and dosimetry. Scientists, regulators, managers, professionals, technologists, and vendors from the United States and countries around the world have taken advantage of this opportunity to meet with their contemporaries and peers in order to exchange information and ideas. The program includes over 100 papers in 9 sessions, plus an additional session for works in progress. Papers are presented in external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, radiation protection programs and assessments, developments in instrumentation and materials, environmental and medical applications, and on topics related to standards, accreditation, and calibration. Individual papers are indexed separately on EDB.

Casson, W.H.; Thein, C.M.; Bogard, J.S. [eds.] [eds.

1994-10-01

385

[Radiobiological aspects of the research of the National Commission on Radiation Protection in 1982-1986].  

PubMed

In this report, L.A. Iléen, Academician of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences amd Chairman of the National Commission of Radiation Protection (NCRP) of the USSR Ministry of Health, Professor L.A. ++Buldakov, Professor Yu. I. Moskalev and Director G.M. Avetisov, Scientific Secretary of the NCRP, advanced the radiobiological aspects of the work of the Commission in the period of 1982 - 1986 which were approved at the Meeting of the Commission on April 23, 1982. PMID:6657956

Il'in, L A; Buldakov, L A; Moskalev, Iu I; Avetisov, G M

1983-01-01

386

Melanin-Covered Nanoparticles for Protection of Bone Marrow During Radiation Therapy of Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Protection of bone marrow against radiotoxicity during radioimmunotherapy and in some cases external beam radiation therapy such as hemi-body irradiation would permit administration of significantly higher doses to tumors, resulting in increased efficacy and safety of treatment. Melanin, a naturally occurring pigment, possesses radioprotective properties. We hypothesized that melanin, which is insoluble, could be delivered to the bone marrow by intravenously administrated melanin-covered nanoparticles (MNs) because of the human body's 'self-sieving' ability, protecting it against ionizing radiation. Methods and Materials: The synthesis of MNs was performed via enzymatic polymerization of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and/or 5-S-cysteinyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine on the surface of 20-nm plain silica nanoparticles. The biodistribution of radiolabeled MNs in mice was done at 3 and 24 h. Healthy CD-1 mice (Charles River Laboratories International, Inc., Wilmington, MA) or melanoma tumor-bearing nude mice were given MNs intravenously, 50 mg/kg of body weight, 3 h before either whole-body exposure to 125 cGy or treatment with 1 mCi of {sup 188}Re-labeled 6D2 melanin-binding antibody. Results: Polymerization of melanin precursors on the surface of silica nanoparticles resulted in formation of a 15-nm-thick melanin layer as confirmed by light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence. The biodistribution after intravenous administration showed than MN uptake in bone marrow was 0.3% and 0.2% of injected dose per gram at 3 and 24 h, respectively, whereas pre-injection with pluronic acid increased the uptake to 6% and 3% of injected dose per gram, respectively. Systemic MN administration reduced hematologic toxicity in mice treated with external radiation or radioimmunotherapy, whereas no tumor protection by MNs was observed. Conclusions: MNs or similar structures provide a novel approach to protection of bone marrow from ionizing radiation based on prevention of free radical formation by melanin.

Schweitzer, Andrew D. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Howard Hughes Medical Institute-Medical Fellows Program, Chevy Chase, MD (United States); The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Revskaya, Ekaterina; Chu, Peter [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Pazo, Valeria [Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Friedman, Matthew [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Nosanchuk, Joshua D. [Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Cahill, Sean [Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Frases, Susana [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Casadevall, Arturo [Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Dadachova, Ekaterina, E-mail: edadacho@aecom.yu.ed [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)

2010-12-01

387

Soluble ferric iron as an effective protective agent against UV radiation: Implications for early life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some recent MER Rover Opportunity results on ancient sedimentary rocks from Mars describe sandstones originated from the chemical weathering of olivine basalts by acidic waters [Squyres, S.W., Knoll, A.H., 2005. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 240, 1–10]. The absence of protective components in early Mars atmosphere forced any possible primordial life forms to deal with high doses of UV radiation. A

Felipe Gómez; Angeles Aguilera; Ricardo Amils

2007-01-01

388

MELANIN-COVERED NANOPARTICLES FOR PROTECTION OF BONE MARROW DURING RADIATION THERAPY OF CANCER  

PubMed Central

Purpose Protection of bone marrow against radiotoxicity during radioimmunotherapy and in some cases external beam radiation therapy such as hemi-body irradiation would permit administration of significantly higher doses to tumors, resulting in increased efficacy and safety of treatment. Melanin, a naturally occurring pigment, possesses radioprotective properties. We hypothesized that melanin, which is insoluble, could be delivered to the bone marrow by intravenously administrated melanin-covered nanoparticles (MNs) because of the human body's “self-sieving” ability, protecting it against ionizing radiation. Methods and Materials The synthesis of MNs was performed via enzymatic polymerization of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and/or 5-S-cysteinyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine on the surface of 20-nm plain silica nanoparticles. The biodistribution of radiolabeled MNs in mice was done at 3 and 24 h. Healthy CD-1 mice (Charles River Laboratories International, Inc., Wilmington, MA) or melanoma tumor–bearing nude mice were given MNs intravenously, 50 mg/kg of body weight, 3 h before either whole-body exposure to 125 cGy or treatment with 1 mCi of 188Re-labeled 6D2 melanin-binding antibody. Results Polymerization of melanin precursors on the surface of silica nanoparticles resulted in formation of a 15-nm-thick melanin layer as confirmed by light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence. The biodistribution after intravenous administration showed than MN uptake in bone marrow was 0.3% and 0.2% of injected dose per gram at 3 and 24 h, respectively, whereas pre-injection with pluronic acid increased the uptake to 6% and 3% of injected dose per gram, respectively. Systemic MN administration reduced hematologic toxicity in mice treated with external radiation or radioimmunotherapy, whereas no tumor protection by MNs was observed. Conclusions MNs or similar structures provide a novel approach to protection of bone marrow from ionizing radiation based on prevention of free radical formation by melanin. PMID:20421152

Schweitzer, Andrew D.; Revskaya, Ekaterina; Chu, Peter; Pazo, Valeria; Friedman, Matthew; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Cahill, Sean; Frases, Susana; Casadevall, Arturo; Dadachova, Ekaterina

2010-01-01

389

mTOR inhibition prevents epithelial stem cell senescence and protects from radiation-induced mucositis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The integrity of the epidermis and mucosal epithelia is highly dependent on resident self-renewing stem cells, which makes them vulnerable to physical and chemical insults compromising the repopulating capacity of the epithelial stem cell compartment. This is frequently the case in cancer patients receiving radiation or chemotherapy, many of whom develop mucositis, a debilitating condition involving painful and deep mucosal ulcerations. Here, we show that inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with rapamycin increases the clonogenic capacity of primary human oral keratinocytes and their resident self-renewing cells by preventing stem cell senescence. This protective effect of rapamycin is mediated by the increase expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and the consequent inhibition of ROS formation and oxidative stress. mTOR inhibition also protects from the loss of proliferative basal epithelial stem cells upon ionizing radiation in vivo, thereby preserving the integrity of the oral mucosa and protecting from radiation-induced mucositis. PMID:22958932

Iglesias-Bartolome, Ramiro; Patel, Vyomesh; Cotrim, Ana; Leelahavanichkul, Kantima; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Mitchell, James B.; Gutkind, J. Silvio

2012-01-01

390

Protection of normal tissue against late radiation injury by WR-2721. [/sup 60/Co; rats  

SciTech Connect

The ability of WR-2721 to protect against late radiation damage has been studied in skin, muscle, and vascular tissues of rats. Animals treated with and without WR-2721 received irradiation to the left hind limb; representative groups were killed at intervals ranging from 72 h to 6 months. Comparison of all drug-treated and non-drug-treated animals showed significant protection (P = less than or equal to 0.05). The time pattern of injury in non-drug-treated rats was biphasic, with significant damage occurring at 72 h and 1 week, returning to normal between 1 and 3 months, but showing significant late damage at 6 months (P = less than or equal to 0.001). Again, this injury pattern did not appear in WR-2721-treated rats. Thus the ability of WR-2721 to protect against acute and chronic radiation injury in vessels, skin, and muscle indicates that an increased therapeutic gain can be expected when this drug is used in clinical radiation therapy.

Utley, J.F. (Univ. of California, San Diego); Quinn, C.A.; White, F.C.; Seaver, N.A.; Bloor, C.M.

1981-02-01

391

[Complaints by private health insurance policy-holders to the Consumer Protection Bureau in Argentina, 2000-2008].  

PubMed

This paper analyzes problems experienced by policy-holders of voluntary private health insurance plans in Argentina when insurance companies fail to comply with the Consumer Protection Code. The sample consisted of consumer complaints filed with the Consumer Protection Bureau and rulings by the Bureau from 2000 to 2008. One striking issue was recurrent non-compliance with services included in the Mandatory Medical Program and the companies' attempts to blame policy-holders. According to the study, the lack of an information system hinders scientific studies to adequately address the problem. Thus, a comparison with studies on health insurance in other Latin American countries highlighted the importance of such research, the relationship to health systems, constraints on use and denial of citizens' rights to healthcare, and the increasing judicialization of healthcare provision. PMID:24936814

Luzuriaga, María José; Spinelli, Hugo

2014-05-01

392

Fair pricing law prompts most California hospitals to adopt policies to protect uninsured patients from high charges.  

PubMed

Millions of uninsured Americans rely on hospital emergency departments (EDs) for medical care. Throughout the United States, uninsured patients treated in or admitted to the hospital through the ED receive hospital bills based on what hospitals call "billed charges." These charges are much higher than those paid by insured patients. In 2006 California approved "fair pricing" legislation to protect uninsured patients from having to pay full billed charges. We found that by 2011 most California hospitals had responded to the law by adopting financial assistance policies to make care more affordable for the state's 6.8 million uninsured people. Ninety-seven percent of California hospitals reported that they offered free care to uninsured patients with incomes at or below 100 percent of the federal poverty level. California's approach offers a promising policy option to other states seeking to protect the uninsured from receiving bills based on full billed charges. PMID:23733985

Melnick, Glenn; Fonkych, Katya

2013-06-01

393

Coenzyme Q10 protects retinal cells from apoptosis induced by radiation in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

The key pathogenetic event of many retinopathies is apoptosis of retinal cells. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) prevents apoptosis of corneal keratocytes both in vitro and in vivo, by virtue of its ability to inhibit mitochondrial depolarization, independently of its free radical scavenger role. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether CoQ10 can protect cultured retinal cells and the retinas of rats from radiation-induced apoptosis, if instilled as eye drops in the cornea. In vitro experiments were carried out on cultured ARPE-19 or RGC-5 cells pretreated with CoQ10 before eliciting apoptosis by UV- and ?-radiation, chemical hypoxia (Antimycin A) and serum starvation. Cell viability was evaluated by light microscopy and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis. Apoptotic events were scored by time-lapse videomicroscopy. Mitochondrial permeability transition was evaluated by JC-1. The anti-apoptotic effectiveness of CoQ10 in retina was also evaluated by an in situ end-labeling assay in Wistar albino rats treated with CoQ10 eye drops prior to UV irradiation of the eye. CoQ10 substantially increased cell viability and lowered retinal cell apoptosis in response both to UV- and ?-radiation and to chemical hypoxia or serum starvation by inhibiting mitochondrion depolarization. In the rat, CoQ10, even when applied as eye drops on the cornea, protected all retina layers from UVR-induced apoptosis. The ability of CoQ10 to protect retinal cells from radiation-induced apoptosis following its instillation on the cornea suggests the possibility for CoQ10 eye drops to become a future therapeutic countermeasure for radiation-induced retinal lesions. PMID:22843363

Lulli, Matteo; Witort, Ewa; Papucci, Laura; Torre, Eugenio; Schiavone, Nicola; Dal Monte, Massimo; Capaccioli, Sergio

2012-01-01

394

Tetracycline derivatives and ceftriaxone, a cephalosporin antibiotic, protect neurons against apoptosis induced by ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

DNA damage induced by low doses of ionizing radiation causes apoptosis, which is partially mediated via the generation of free radicals. Both free radicals and apoptosis are involved in the majority of brain diseases, including stroke, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Because previous studies have shown that tetracycline derivatives doxycycline and minocycline have anti-inflammatory effects and are protective against brain ischemia, we studied whether minocycline and doxycycline or ceftriaxone, a cephalosporin antibiotic with the potential to inhibit excitotoxicity, protect neurons against ionizing radiation in primary cortical cultures. A single dose of 1 Gy significantly increased lactate dehydrogenase release, induced DNA fragmentation in neurons and triggered microglial proliferation. Treatment with minocycline (20 nM), doxycycline (20 nM) and ceftriaxone (1 microM) significantly reduced irradiation-induced lactate dehydrogenase release and DNA fragmentation. The most efficient protection was achieved by minocycline treatment, which also inhibited the irradiation-induced increase in microglial cell number. Our results suggest that some tetracycline derivatives, such as doxycycline and minocycline, and ceftriaxone, a cephalosporin derivative, protect neurons against apoptotic death. PMID:11579149

Tikka, T; Usenius, T; Tenhunen, M; Keinänen, R; Koistinaho, J

2001-09-01

395

Sunscreens: topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against harmful effects of solar radiation  

SciTech Connect

This review deals with topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against the harmful effects of solar radiation. Two concerns about the deleterious effects of sun exposure involve: (1) acute effects (e.g., sunburn and drug-induced phototoxicity) and (2) potential long-term risks of repeated sun exposures leading to development of solar elastosis, keratoses, induction of both nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer, and alteration of immune responses and functions. Action spectra of normal and abnormal reactions of human skin to acute and chronic effects of solar radiation are presented with a view to helping the physician prescribe the appropriate sunscreens. Factors that influence acute effects of sunburn are reviewed. Various artificial methods effective in minimizing or preventing harmful effects of solar radiation, both in normal individuals and in patients with photosensitivity-related problems, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the commercially available chemical sunscreens and their properties. Sun protection factor (SPF) values of several brand-name formulations determined with a solar simulator under indoor conditions (laboratory) and with solar radiation under natural, field conditions are presented. Factors responsible for variations of SPF values observed under indoor and outdoor conditions are reviewed. Systemic photoprotective agents and their limitations are outlined. The photobiology of melanin pigmentation (the tanning reaction) is briefly discussed, with emphasis on the dangers of using quick-tanning lotions for stimulation of the tanning reaction.

Pathak, M.A.

1982-09-01

396

Radiation Dose Assessments of Solar Particle Events with Spectral Representation at High Energies for the Improvement of Radiation Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For radiation dose assessments of major solar particle events (SPEs), spectral functional forms of SPEs have been made by fitting available satellite measurements up to 100 MeV. However, very high-energy protons (above 500 MeV) have been observed with neutron monitors (NMs) in ground level enhancements (GLEs), which generally present the most severe radiation hazards to astronauts. Due to technical difficulties in converting NM data into absolutely normalized fluence measurements, those functional forms were made with little or no use of NM data. A new analysis of NM data has found that a double power law in rigidity (the so-called Band function) generally provides a satisfactory representation of the combined satellite and NM data from 10 MeV to 10 GeV in major SPEs (Tylka and Dietrich, the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, Lodz, Poland, July 7-15, 2009). We use the Band function fits to re-assess human exposures from large SPEs. Using different spectral representations of large SPEs, variations of exposure levels were compared. The results can be applied to the development of approaches of improved radiation protection for astronauts, as well as the optimization of mission planning and shielding for future space missions.

Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Atwell, William; Tylka, Allan J.; Dietrich, William; Cucinotta, Francis A.

397

Radiation Dose Assessments of Solar Particle Events with Spectral Representation at High Energies for the Improvement of Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For radiation dose assessments of major solar particle events (SPEs), spectral functional forms of SPEs have been made by fitting available satellite measurements up to approx.100 MeV. However, very high-energy protons (above 500 MeV) have been observed with neutron monitors (NMs) in ground level enhancements (GLEs), which generally present the most severe radiation hazards to astronauts. Due to technical difficulties in converting NM data into absolutely normalized fluence measurements, those functional forms were made with little or no use of NM data. A new analysis of NM data has found that a double power law in rigidity (the so-called Band function) generally provides a satisfactory representation of the combined satellite and NM data from approx.10 MeV to approx.10 GeV in major SPEs (Tylka & Dietrich 2009). We use the Band function fits to re-assess human exposures from large SPEs. Using different spectral representations of large SPEs, variations of exposure levels were compared. The results can be applied to the development of approaches of improved radiation protection for astronauts, as well as the optimization of mission planning and shielding for future space missions.

Kim, Myung-Hee; Atwell, William; Tylka, Allan J.; Dietrich, William F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2010-01-01

398

A Hypothesis on Biological Protection from Space Radiation Through the Use of New Therapeutic Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation exposure to astronauts could be a significant obstacle for long duration manned space exploration because of current uncertainties regarding the extent of biological effects. Furthermore, concepts for protective shielding also pose a technically challenging issue due to the nature of cosmic radiation and current mass and power constraints with modern exploration technology. The concern regarding exposure to cosmic radiation is the biological damage it induces. As damage is associated with increased oxidative stress, it is important and would be enabling to mitigate and/or prevent oxidative stress prior to the development of clinical symptoms and disease. This paper hypothesizes a "systems biology" approach in which a combination of chemical and biological mitigation techniques are used conjunctively. It proposes using new, therapeutic, medical gases as both chemical radioprotectors for radical scavenging and biological signaling molecules for management of the body s response to exposure. From reviewing radiochemistry of water, biological effects of CO, H2, NO, and H2S gas, and mechanisms of radiation biology, it is concluded that this approach may have great therapeutic potential for radiation exposure. Furthermore, it also appears to have similar potential for curtailing the pathogenesis of other diseases in which oxidative stress has been implicated including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic inflammatory disease, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, Parkinson s and Alzheimer s disease, cataracts, and aging.

Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Ansari, Rafat R.; Nakao, Atsunori; Wink, David

2011-01-01

399

A Hypothesis on Biological Protection from Space Radiation Through the Use of New Therapeutic Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation exposure to astronauts could be a significant obstacle for long duration manned space exploration because of current uncertainties regarding the extent of biological effects. Furthermore, concepts for protective shielding also pose a technically challenging issue due to the nature of cosmic radiation and current mass and power constraints with modern exploration technology. The concern regarding exposure to cosmic radiation is the biological damage it induces. As damage is associated with increased oxidative stress, it is important and would be enabling to mitigate and/or prevent oxidative stress prior to the development of clinical symptoms and disease. This paper hypothesizes a "systems biology" approach in which a combination of chemical and biological mitigation techniques are used conjunctively. It proposes using new, therapeutic, medical gases as both chemical radioprotectors for radical scavenging and biological signaling molecules for management of the body s response to exposure. From reviewing radiochemistry of water, biological effects of CO, H2, NO, and H2S gas, and mechanisms of radiation biology, it is concluded that this approach may have great therapeutic potential for radiation exposure. Furthermore, it also appears to have similar potential for curtailing the pathogenesis of other diseases in which oxidative stress has been implicated including, cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic inflammatory disease, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, parkinson s and alzheimer s disease, cataracts, and aging

Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Ansari,Rafat R.; Nakao, Atsunori; Wink, David

2011-01-01

400

Pharmacologic approaches to protection against radiation-induced lethality and other damage.  

PubMed Central

Studies on mechanisms of radioprotection are leading to a more rational use of protectors for different applications. In considering the feasibility of radioprotectors that act through various mechanisms, it is necessary to distinguish the application needed, e.g., protection against accidental external or internal exposures, acute high-dose radiation injury or low doses over a long period, high-LET radiation exposures during space flight, and protection of normal tissues of cancer patients who are undergoing therapy. Protectors generally are classified as either sulfhydryl compounds, other antioxidants, or receptor-mediated agents (e.g., bioactive lipids, cytokines, and growth factors). This review focuses on comparative radioprotection and toxicity studies in mice using the most effective phosphorothioate agents designated as WR-compounds and other classes of protectors. The superiority of phosphorothioates (WR-2721, WR-151327) as radioprotectors appears to be related to their high affinity for DNA and the similarity in structure of phosphorothioate metabolites to polyamines, and their effects on processes related to DNA structure and synthesis. Drug tolerance levels are available from clinical trials using WR-2721 (amifostine) and provide a basis for discussions of the disadvantages of phosphorothioate administration outside a clinical setting. In this regard, arguments are presented against the current use of WR-2721 by Department of Energy personnel for planned radiation exposures during emergencies. Future research may demonstrate, however, that pharmacologic agents could be useful in accident scenarios, especially when used in combination with therapeutic measures. Assessment of potential prophylactic measures should consider compatibility with therapeutic measures currently in use or ones that might be available in the future for the treatment of radiation injuries. These include antiemetics, purified stem cells, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and other cytokines. Their potential usefulness against radiation-induced mutagenesis of pre- and postexposure administration of phosphorothioates and other classes of protectors should be corroborated in humans. PMID:9467066

Weiss, J F

1997-01-01

401

p21 protects "Super p53" mice from the radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome.  

PubMed

Exposure of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to high doses of radiation can lead to lethality from the GI syndrome. Although the molecular mechanism regulating the GI syndrome remains to be fully defined, we have recently demonstrated that p53 within the GI epithelial cells controls the radiation-induced GI syndrome. Mice lacking p53 in the GI epithelium were sensitized to the GI syndrome, while transgenic mice with one additional copy of p53 called "Super p53" mice were protected from the GI syndrome. Here, we crossed Super p53 mice to p21?/? mice that lack the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. Super p53; p21?/? mice were sensitized to the GI syndrome compared to Super p53 mice that retain one p21 allele. In addition, mice lacking p21 were not protected from the GI syndrome with one extra copy of p53. These results suggest that p21 protects Super p53 mice from the GI syndrome. PMID:22165824

Sullivan, Julie M; Jeffords, Laura B; Lee, Chang-Lung; Rodrigues, Rafaela; Ma, Yan; Kirsch, David G

2012-03-01

402

Phenol-Oxidizing Peroxidases Contribute to the Protection of Plants from Ultraviolet Radiation Stress1  

PubMed Central

We have studied the mechanism of UV protection in two duckweed species (Lemnaceae) by exploiting the UV sensitivity of photosystem II as an in situ sensor for radiation stress. A UV-tolerant Spirodela punctata G.F.W. Meyer ecotype had significantly higher indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels than a UV-sensitive ecotype. Parallel work on Lemna gibba mutants suggested that UV tolerance is linked to IAA degradation rather than to levels of free or conjugated IAA. This linkage is consistent with a role for class III phenolic peroxidases, which have been implicated both in the degradation of IAA and the cross-linking of various UV-absorbing phenolics. Biochemical analysis revealed increased activity of a specific peroxidase isozyme in both UV-tolerant duckweed lines. The hypothesis that peroxidases play a role in UV protection was tested in a direct manner using genetically modified tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris). It was found that increased activity of the anionic peroxidase correlated with increased tolerance to UV radiation as well as decreased levels of free auxin. We conclude that phenol-oxidizing peroxidases concurrently contribute to UV protection as well as the control of leaf and plant architecture. PMID:11457952

Jansen, Marcel A.K.; van den Noort, Ria E.; Tan, M.Y. Adillah; Prinsen, Els; Lagrimini, L. Mark; Thorneley, Roger N.F.

2001-01-01

403

Credit Card Solicitation Policies in Higher Education: Does "Protecting" Our Students Make a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study that investigated the effect of a university's solicitation policy on students' acquisition and usage of credit cards. Attempts by universities to limit access to and use of credit cards appear to be ineffective. Suggests alternative policies be constructed around teaching students sound money management skills. (Author/JDM)

Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H.; Palmer, Todd S.

2001-01-01

404

Vaccines to promote and protect sexual health: policy challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

Vaccines aim to improve the well-being of everyone and are seen as a public health success story in the prevention and control of communicable infections. However, decisions to use vaccinations are not without controversy, and the introduction of vaccines targeting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is particularly contentious. In this paper we investigate the underlying policy challenges and opportunities for rolling out STI vaccines. Looking in detail at the experience of delivering HPV vaccine, we explore the lessons that can be learnt, including policy and human rights dimensions, for future STI vaccine introduction and scale up. Policies arise from the interaction of ideas, interests and institutions. In the case of HPV vaccine, ideas have been particularly contested, although interests and institutions have impacted on policy too. A review of human rights in relation to STI vaccine policies highlights the specific needs and rights of adolescents, and the paper details concepts of consent and evolving capacity which can be used to ensure that adolescents have full access to health interventions. Policy options for vaccines include mandatory approaches - and these have been utilized in some settings for HPV vaccines. The paper argues, and outlines the rationale, against adopting mandatory STI vaccine policy approaches. The paper concludes by identifying policy opportunities for introducing new vaccines targeting STIs. PMID:24606638

Hawkes, Sarah; Kismödi, Eszter; Larson, Heidi; Buse, Kent

2014-03-20

405

Children in Need of Protection: Reporting Policies in Ontario School Boards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A clear, well defined policy can help empower school personnel to make informed decisions on how to handle cases of suspected child abuse. This article presents an analysis of (N = 64) school board child abuse reporting policies and procedures in Ontario and explored what training, resources, and support school boards state they will provide to…

Shewchuk, Samantha

2014-01-01

406

Role of Apoptotic Proteins in REC-2006 Mediated Radiation Protection in Hepatoma Cell Lines.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of apoptotic proteins in REC-2006-mediated radiation protection in hepatoma cell lines. REC-2006 treatment 2?h before irradiation strongly inhibited the cleavage of ATM and PARP-1 in HepG2 cells. The expression of nuclear apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) was found to be more inhibited (~17%) in HepG2 cells in REC-2006 + radiation-treated group. More inhibition (~33%) of cytochrome c was observed in HepG2 cells upon REC-2006 treatment 2?h prior irradiation. Similarly, significantly more (P<.05) inhibition of Apaf-1, caspase-9 and caspase-3 was observed in REC-2006 + radition-treated group in HepG2 cells. REC-2006 treatment restored the expression of ICAD in HepG2 cells; however, no restoration was observed in Hep3B cells. Lower nuclear to cytoplasmic CAD ratio was observed in HepG2 cells (~0.6) as compared with Hep3B cells (~1.2) in REC-2006 + radiation-treated group. In conclusion, REC-2006 rendered higher protection in HepG2 cells by inhibiting the expression and translocation of AIF, inhibiting the cleavage of ATM and PARP-1, restoring the expression of ICAD, inhibiting the release of cytochrome c and thus modulating the expression of Apaf-1 caspase-9 and activity of caspase-3. PMID:21799693

Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Ashok; Arora, Rajesh; Chawla, Raman; Jain, Swatantra Kumar; Tripathi, Rajendra Prasad; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

2011-01-01

407

United States Office of Air and Radiation EPA 402-R-99-004B Environmental Protection August 1999  

E-print Network

Agency (EPA) to prevent adverse effects to human health and the environment and to protectUnited States Office of Air and Radiation EPA 402-R-99-004B Environmental Protection August 1999 and Available Kd Values for Cadmium, Cesium, Chromium, Lead, Plutonium, Radon, Strontium, Thorium, Tritium (3 H

408

Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants, the ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. This is the sixth report in that series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals,

T. A. Khan; D. S. Vulin; J. W. Baum

1991-01-01

409

Environmental impact assessment under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty  

SciTech Connect

Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. In this paper, the authors describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to environmental impact assessment. Through this comparison of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) requirements of the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Protocol, they show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment.

Ensminger, J.T.; McCold, L.N.; Webb, J.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1999-07-01

410

Medigap Insurance: Law Has Increased Protection against Substandard and Overpriced Policies. Report to the Subcommittee on Health, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report reviews certain aspects of the effectiveness of the Public Law 96-265 provisions (Section 1882 of the Social Security Act) designed to protect the elderly against substandard and overpriced health insurance policies supplementing Medicare. This document on Medigap policies includes an executive summary and five chapters. Chapter 1…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

411

Protection from radiation-induced mitochondrial and genomic DNA damage by an extract of Hippophae rhamnoides.  

PubMed

Hippophae rhamnoides or seabuckthorn is used extensively in Indian and Tibetan traditional medicine for the treatment of circulatory disorders, ischemic heart disease, hepatic injury, and neoplasia. In the present study, we have evaluated the radioprotective potential of REC-1001, a fraction isolated from the berries of H. rhamnoides. Chemical analysis of the extract indicated that REC-1001 was approximately 68% by weight polyphenols, and contained kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and quercetin. The effect of REC-1001 on modulating radiation-induced DNA damage was determined in murine thymocytes by measuring nonspecific nuclear DNA damage at the whole genome level using the alkaline halo assay and by measuring sequence/gene-specific DNA damage both in nuclear DNA (beta-globin gene) and in mitochondrial DNA using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with 10 Gy resulted in a significant amount of DNA damage in the halo assay and reductions in the amplification of both the beta-globin gene and mitochondrial DNA. REC-1001 dose-dependently reduced the amount of damage detected in each assay, with the maximum protective effects observed at the highest REC-1001 dose evaluated (250 micro g/ml). Studies measuring the nicking of naked plasmid DNA further established the radioprotective effect of REC-1001. To elucidate possible mechanisms of action, the antioxidant properties and the free-radical scavenging activities of REC-1001 were evaluated. REC-1001 dose-dependently scavenged radiation-induced hydroxyl radicals, chemically-generated superoxide anions, stabilized DPPH radicals, and reduced Fe(3+) to Fe(2+). The results of the study indicate that the REC-1001 extract of H. rhamnoides protects mitochondrial and genomic DNA from radiation-induced damage. The polyphenols/flavonoids present in the extract might be responsible for the free radical scavenging and DNA protection afforded by REC-1001. PMID:16948057

Shukla, Sandeep Kumar; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Kumar, Indracanti Prem; Samanta, Namita; Afrin, Farhat; Gupta, Manju Lata; Sharma, Upendra Kumar; Sinha, Arun Kumar; Sharma, Yogendra Kumar; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

2006-12-01

412

Protected forests in Europe approaches-harmonising the definitions for international comparison and forest policy making.  

PubMed

Comparison of forest protection between regions in Europe is extremely difficult, because there is such wide variation of strategies, procedures and constraints; the way forests have been used historically and their present closeness to nature also varies, and furthermore so does the definition of what constitutes a forest. For the European Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe (MCPFE) in 2003, forest protection has been harmonised into three categories for the sake of comparison: protection to safeguard biodiversity, protection of landscape and specific natural features, and protective forest functions. There is no single, uniform and universal model and no internationally agreed target with respect to the percentage of forests which should be protected. What is more important than a fixed percentage level of forested area (e.g. 5 or 10%) is that the protection network should be biogeographically and ecologically representative and accordingly distributed on a regional basis. Long-term practical experience and research have proved that conservation of different species of organisms can be assured by appropriate silvicultural management of multifunctional production forests. Consequently, the focus of debate in Europe appears to shift more and more from total protection in segregated areas to 'precision protection' and to combining protection and timber production in the holistic, integrated concept of modern management of forest areas.Advances in regional ecological planning and the growing adoption of naturalistic forest management practices have slowed the decline of the biological diversity in the multifunctional production forests. However, this fact is not yet widely and sufficiently acknowledged and appreciated. There is consequently a political and scientific need for continued study of the effects of naturalistic silvicultural management on the biodiversity of forests. Information from such research is crucially needed before new and additional protection networks and schemes are set up on a large-scale. Protection by voluntary contracts between parties is a workable model concept for European forestry based on private forest ownership. In small private forests, patches of forest worth protecting are often small and located within production forests. Forest certification can contribute to the efforts of maintaining biodiversity in multifunctional production forests and offers an instrument of independently monitoring and verifying that forests are managed according to the agreed criteria. Forest certification is not an alternative or a means of increasing forest protection, because as a voluntary process it cannot guarantee the permanence of protected areas or deal with issues of finance and compensation. PMID:12659801

Parviainen, Jari; Frank, Georg

2003-01-01

413

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project: a fertile ground for radiation protection and shielding challenges.  

PubMed

The Spallation Neutron Source facility presently under construction in the USA consists of a front end, a linac, an accumulator ring, a target station and a neutron instrument hall, producing pulsed neutron beams driven by a proton beam of 1 GeV energy and 1.4 MW power with a repetition rate of 60 Hz. The layout of the facility and the radiation protection and shielding concept of the facility is laid out in numerous examples in a walk from the proton beam generation to the neutron utilisation. PMID:16381678

Gallmeier, F X; Ferguson, P D; Popova, I I; Iverson, E B

2005-01-01

414

Web-based tools for quality assurance and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology.  

PubMed

Practical and philosophical aspects of radiation protection in diagnostic radiology have changed very little over the past 50 y even though patient doses have continued to rise significantly in this period. This rise has been driven by technological developments, such as multi-slice computed tomography, that have been able to improve diagnostic accuracy but not necessarily provide the same level of risk-benefit to all patients or groups of patients given the dose levels involved. Can practical radiation protection strategies hope to keep abreast of these ongoing developments? A project was started in 1992 in Liverpool that aimed to develop IT driven quality assurance (QA)/radiation protection software tools based upon a modular quality assurance dose data system. One of the modules involved the assessment of the patient entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) for an X-ray examination that was based upon the use of calibrated X-ray tube exposure factors to calculate ESAK as well as collecting appropriate patient details (age, sex, weight, thickness etc). The package also contained modules for logging all necessary equipment performance QA data. This paper will outline the experience gained with this system through its transition from a local application on a stand alone PC within the department to the current web-based approach. Advantages of a web-based approach to delivering such an application as well as centrally storing data originating on many hospital sites will be discussed together with the scientific support processes that can be developed with such a system. This will include local, national and international considerations. The advantages of importing radiographic examination details directly from other electronic storage systems such as a hospital's radiology information system will be presented together with practical outcomes already achieved. This will include the application of statistical techniques to the very large data sets generated. The development of new examination QA performance indicators will be discussed. The application of web-based IT tools for QA and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology is already opening up the possibility of developing new and improved scientific support services as well as research possibilities in radiological informatics. These will be outlined together with areas for possible future development by the medical physics community. PMID:20142276

Moores, B M; Charnock, P; Ward, M

2010-01-01

415

Primate study suggests pentobarbital may help protect the brain during radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Radiation therapy, an often indispensable treatment for a wide range of brain tumors, is a double-edged sword, especially when used to treat children. Research reported at the 72nd Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, in Atlanta, Ga., now suggests that pentobarbital and perhaps other barbiturates may help protect the brain from radiation-induced damage, especially to the pituitary and hypothalmus, where such damage can lead to serious, life-long problems for children. Jeffrey J. Olson, MD, now assistant professor of neurosurgery at Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, reported the results of a study of the radioprotective effects of pentobarbital on the brain of a primate, which he and colleagues at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recently completed.

Skolnick, A.

1990-08-01

416

Monitoring the consequences of decreased ozone protection: The NSF ultraviolet radiation monitoring network  

SciTech Connect

The effects of decreased protection from ultraviolet radiation are as troubling as the continuing depletion of stratospheric ozone. Evidence exists to clearly link ozone depletion to changes in the antarctic marine environment. Results of two 1992 papers are summarized here. Enhanced exposure to mid-range UV radiation was found to be affecting marine ecosystems with a recorded 6-12 percent reduction in primary productivity directly related to the ozone layer depletion. In another experiment, a model was developed indicating that the ozone hole could reduce near-surface photosynthesis by as much as 12-15 percent. The NSF UV monitoring system in place for these and other experiments uses a spectroradiometer, making hourly, high-resolution measurements of the distribution of UV surface irradiance.

Not Available

1993-03-01

417

Patient radiation dose and protection from cone-beam computed tomography  

PubMed Central

After over one decade development, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been widely accepted for clinical application in almost every field of dentistry. Meanwhile, the radiation dose of CBCT to patient has also caused broad concern. According to the literature, the effective radiation doses of CBCTs in nowadays market fall into a considerably wide range that is from 19 µSv to 1073 µSv and closely related to the imaging detector, field of view, and voxel sizes used for scanning. To deeply understand the potential risk from CBCT, this report also reviewed the effective doses from literatures on intra-oral radiograph, panoramic radiograph, lateral and posteroanterior cephalometric radiograph, multi-slice CT, and so on. The protection effect of thyroid collar and leaded glasses were also reviewed. PMID:23807928

2013-01-01

418

Ultraviolet radiation and the athlete: risk, sun safety, and barriers to implementation of protective strategies.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation plays a pivotal role in the development of both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. Numerous factors potentially place athletes at high risk for developing these cancers. Various prevention strategies ameliorate this risk, including avoiding sun exposure during peak UV exposure hours, applying sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 30 or above before participating in outdoor sports, wearing hats and sunglasses, and reducing exposure with long pants and long-sleeve shirts. The literature, however, cites several barriers to these prevention approaches, including sports' competition rules, the lack of availability of sunscreen, and the lack of information about sun safety behaviors. Sun safety education programs prove effective in getting athletes to participate in prevention strategies. This article reviews the effect of UV radiation on athletes' skin and provides sports medicine clinicians with suggestions to improve the sun safety behaviors of their athletes. PMID:23568372

Jinna, Sphoorthi; Adams, Brian B

2013-07-01

419

Protection from radiation enteritis by an absorbable polyglycolic acid mesh sling  

SciTech Connect

Patients with malignant tumors of the pelvis who cannot be cured surgically often are treated with radiation after surgery. A devastating side effect of this treatment is radiation-associated small bowel injury (RASBI). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that removal of the small bowel from the radiation field would protect it against RASBI. Twenty cebus monkeys underwent low anterior resection. In 10 animals an absorbable polyglycolic acid (PGA) mesh was sewn circumferentially around the interior of the abdominal cavity as a supporting apron, which prevented the small bowel's descent into the pelvis. The other 10 monkeys did not receive the mesh. All animals received 2000 rads by linear acceleration in a single dose. Twenty-four-hour stool fat, serum vitamin B12, and other serum values were obtained during the study. Animals were sacrificed after 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months, and the small bowel and rectum were examined histologically in a blind manner. Two monkeys who did not undergo surgery, or exposure to radiation served as controls. At all sacrifice periods, the animals with PGA mesh slings demonstrated normal small bowel function and histologic structure. Animals without mesh slings had abnormal stool and blood values at 1 month, and by 2 months all had died of small bowel necrosis. The animals that received the slings had no evidence of infection or obstruction, and by 6 months all evidence of the mesh was gone. Support of the small bowel out of the pelvis by an absorbable PGA mesh sling protects against RASBI and is without apparent complications.

Devereux, D.F.; Thompson, D.; Sandhaus, L.; Sweeney, W.; Haas, A.

1987-02-01

420

Protective effect of genistein on radiation-induced intestinal injury in tumor bearing mice  

PubMed Central

Background Radiation therapy is the most widely used treatment for cancer, but it causes the side effect of mucositis due to intestinal damage. We examined the protective effect of genistein in tumor-bearing mice after abdominal irradiation by evaluation of apoptosis and intestinal morphological changes. Methods Mouse colon cancer CT26 cells were subcutaneously injected at the flank of BALB/c mice to generate tumors. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with abdominal radiation at 5 and 10 Gy, and with genistein at 200 mg/kg body weight per day for 1 d before radiation. The changes in intestinal histology were evaluated 12 h and 3.5 d after irradiation. To assess the effect of the combination treatment on the cancer growth, the tumor volume was determined at sacrifice before tumor overgrowth occurred. Results Genistein significantly decreased the number of apoptotic nuclei compared with that in the irradiation group 12 h after 5 Gy irradiation. Evaluation of histological changes showed that genistein ameliorated intestinal morphological changes such as decreased crypt survival, villus shortening, and increased length of the basal lamina 3.5 d after 10 Gy irradiation. Moreover, the genistein-treated group exhibited more Ki-67-positive proliferating cells in the jejunum than the irradiated control group, and crypt depths were greater in the genistein-treated group than in the irradiated control group. The mean weight of the CT26 tumors was reduced in the group treated with genistein and radiation compared with the control group. Conclusion Genistein had a protective effect on intestinal damage induced by irradiation and delayed tumor growth. These results suggest that genistein is a useful candidate for preventing radiotherapy-induced intestinal damage in cancer patients. PMID:23672582

2013-01-01

421

Protective effect of esculentoside A on radiation-induced dermatitis and fibrosis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the effect of esculentoside A (EsA) on radiation-induced cutaneous and fibrovascular toxicity and its possible molecular mechanisms, both in vivo and in vitro. Methods and Materials: Mice received drug intervention 18 hours before 30 Gy to the right hind leg. Alterations in several cytokines expressed in skin tissue 2 days after irradiation were determined by ELISA. Early skin toxicity was evaluated 3 to 4 weeks after irradiation by skin scoring, and both tissue contraction and expression of TGF-{beta}1 were determined for soft-tissue fibrosis 3 months after irradiation. In vitro, the effect of EsA on radiation-induced nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine production in different cell types was measured by application of 2, 4, and 8 Gy. Results: In vivo, EsA reduced levels of IL-1{alpha}, MCP-1, VEGF, and TGF-{beta}1 in cutaneous tissue and reduced soft-tissue toxicity. In vitro, EsA inhibited the IL-1{alpha} ordinarily produced after 4 Gy in A431 cells. In Raw264.7 cells, EsA reduced levels of IL-1{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, and NO production costimulated by radiation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In L-929 cells, EsA inhibited VEGF, TNF, and MCP-1 production at 2, 4, and 8 Gy. Conclusions: Esculentoside A protects soft tissues against radiation toxicity through inhibiting the production of several proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators in epithelial cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, and skin tissue.

Xiao Zhenyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Su Ying [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Yang Shanmin [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Yin Liangjie [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Wang Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Yi Yanghua [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Fenton, Bruce M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Zhang Lurong [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Okunieff, Paul [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States)]. E-mail: paul_okunieff@urmc.rochester.edu

2006-07-01

422

Protected forests in Europe approaches-harmonising the definitions for international comparison and forest policy making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of forest protection between regions in Europe is extremely difficult, because there is such wide variation of strategies, procedures and constraints; the way forests have been used historically and their present closeness to nature also varies, and furthermore so does the definition of what constitutes a forest. For the European Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe

Jari Parviainen; Georg Frank

2003-01-01

423

Protection from extreme events: using a socio-technological approach to evaluate policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective ways to address the vulnerabilities of urban areas to terrorism and other hazards have been subject to considerable discussion, debate and reflexive defensive measures. However, a coherent strategy for protecting public spaces while maintaining access to them has yet to emerge. Current approaches have pitted 'security' against 'openness,' neglecting critical issues, such as what constitutes publicly-valued levels of protection,

Richard G. Little; Elise A. Weaver

2005-01-01

424

Demand-side policies for environmental protection and sustainable usage of renewable resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since many renewable resource systems such as tropical and temperate forests, coral reefs, and wild fisheries are often exploited at unsustainable rates, studies aimed at reducing these trends have focused on the market failures associated with over-exploitation. Within this framework, the literature devised what we term supply-side policies to correct these market failures. Here we introduce demand-side policies into the

Jill L. Caviglia-Harris; James R. Kahn; Trellis Green

2003-01-01

425

Entryway into the child protection system: the impacts of child maltreatment reporting policies and reporting system structures.  

PubMed

This study was designed to assess the impacts of maltreatment reporting policies and reporting system structures on four aspects of entry into the child protection system (the maltreatment referral rate, the percentage of referrals screened in for investigation, the screened-in report rate and the substantiated report rate). Using secondary data from several sources, eight multiple linear regression models were created and analyzed. Results from a sample of 44 states indicated significant effects for system structure but no effects for reporting policies. Specifically, states with decentralized reporting system structures were significantly more restrictive in access than other states. These results have implications for child welfare administrators and policymakers seeking to maximize access for maltreated children and their families. PMID:24388128

Steen, Julie A; Duran, Lloyd

2014-05-01

426

Human Subjects in Research (IRB), UMCES Compliance in Brief: Federal and USM policies for the protection of human subjects require that UMCES and  

E-print Network

Human Subjects in Research (IRB), UMCES Compliance in Brief: 10/10 Federal and USM policies for the protection of human subjects require that UMCES and its employees protect the rights and welfare of human human participants in research must have prior approval from our Institutional Review Board (IRB

Boynton, Walter R.

427

Collective dose as a performance measure for occupational radiation protection programs: Issues and recommendations  

SciTech Connect

Collective dose is one of the performance measures used at many US Department of Energy (DOE) contractor facilities to quantitatively assess the objectives of the radiation protection program. It can also be used as a management tool to improve the program for keeping worker doses as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Collective dose is used here to mean the sum of all total effective dose equivalent values for all workers in a specified group over a specified time. It is often used as a surrogate estimate of radiological risk. In principle, improvements in radiation protection programs and procedures will result in reduction of collective dose, all other things being equal. Within the DOE, most frequently, a single collective dose number, which may or may not be adjusted for workload and other factors, is used as a performance measure for a contractor. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the use of collective dose as a performance measure for ALARA programs at DOE sites.

Strom, D.J.; Harty, R.; Hickey, E.E.; Martin, J.B.; Peffers, M.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kathren, R.L. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

1998-07-01

428

Protecting the geyser basins of Yellowstone National Park: toward a new national policy for a vulnerable environmental resource.  

PubMed

Geyser basins provide high value recreation, scientific, economic and national heritage benefits. Geysers are globally rare, in part, because development activities have quenched about 260 of the natural endowment. Today, more than half of the world's remaining geysers are located in Yellowstone National Park, northwest Wyoming, USA. However, the hydrothermal reservoirs that supply Yellowstone's geysers extend well beyond the Park borders, and onto two "Known Geothermal Resource Areas"-Island Park to the west and Corwin Springs on the north. Geysers are sensitive geologic features that are easily quenched by nearby geothermal wells. Therefore, the potential for geothermal energy development adjacent to Yellowstone poses a threat to the sustainability of about 500 geysers and 10,000 hydrothermal features. The purpose here is to propose that Yellowstone be protected by a "Geyser Protection Area" (GPA) extending in a 120-km radius from Old Faithful Geyser. The GPA concept would prohibit geothermal and large-scale groundwater wells, and thereby protect the water and heat supply of the hydrothermal reservoirs that support Yellowstone's geyser basins and important hot springs. Proactive federal leadership, including buyouts of private groundwater development rights, can assist in navigating the GPA through the greater Yellowstone area's "wicked" public policy environment. Moreover, the potential impacts on geyser basins from intrusive research sampling techniques are considered in order to facilitate the updating of national park research regulations to a precautionary standard. The GPA model can provide the basis for protecting the world's few remaining geyser basins. PMID:19841971

Barrick, Kenneth A

2010-01-01

429

Sulforaphane mobilizes cellular defenses that protect skin against damage by UV radiation  

PubMed Central

UV radiation (UVR) is a complete carcinogen that elicits a constellation of pathological events, including direct DNA damage, generation of reactive oxidants that peroxidize lipids and damage other cellular components, initiation of inflammation, and suppression of the immune response. Recent dramatic increases in the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancers are largely attributable to higher exposure of an aging population to UVR. Therefore, the development of cellular strategies for intrinsic protection of the skin against the deleterious effects of UVR is imperative. Here we show that erythema resulting from UVR is a comprehensive and noninvasive biomarker for assessing UVR damage and can be precisely and easily quantified in human skin. Topical application of sulforaphane-rich extracts of 3-day-old broccoli sprouts up-regulated phase 2 enzymes in the mouse and human skin, protected against UVR-induced inflammation and edema in mice, and reduced susceptibility to erythema arising from narrow-band 311-nm UVR in humans. In six human subjects (three males and three females, 28–53 years of age), the mean reduction in erythema across six doses of UVR (300–800 mJ/cm2 in 100 mJ/cm2 increments) was 37.7% (range 8.37–78.1%; P = 0.025). This protection against a carcinogen in humans is catalytic and long lasting. PMID:17956979

Talalay, Paul; Fahey, Jed W.; Healy, Zachary R.; Wehage, Scott L.; Benedict, Andrea L.; Min, Christine; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.

2007-01-01

430

Niacin protects against UVB radiation-induced apoptosis in cultured human skin keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

Niacin and its related derivatives have been shown to have effects on cellular activities. However, the molecular mechanism of its reduced immunosuppressive effects and photoprotective effects remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the photoprotective effect of niacin in ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). We found that niacin effectively suppressed the UV-induced cell death and cell apoptosis of HaCaT cells. Existing data have shown that AKT activation is involved in the cell survival process. Yet, the potential mechanism of niacin in protection against UV-induced skin damage has thus far not fully been eluvidated. We observed that niacin pretreatment enhances UV induced activation of AKT (Ser473 phosphorylation) as well as that of the downstream signal mTOR (S6 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation). The PI3K/AKT inhibitor, LY294002, and the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, largely neutralized the protective effects of niacin, suggesting that AKT and downstream signaling mTOR/S6 activation are necessary for the niacin-induced protective effects against UV-induced cell death and cell apoptosis. Collectively, our data suggest that niacin may be utilized to prevent UV-induced skin damage and provide a novel mechanism of its photoprotective effects against the UV radiation of sunlight by modulating both AKT and downstream mTOR signaling pathways. PMID:22246168

LIN, FUQUAN; XU, WEN; GUAN, CUIPING; ZHOU, MIAONI; HONG, WEISONG; FU, LIFANG; LIU, DONGYIN; XU, AIE

2012-01-01

431

Evaluation of skin-protective means against acute and chronic effects of ultraviolet radiation from sunlight.  

PubMed

Apart from erythema, sunlight triggers many biological processes such as photoaging, immune suppression and mutation of skin cells. Numerous epidemiological investigations have shown that sunlight is carcinogenic to humans, and the IARC classifies sunlight within group 1, which includes human carcinogens. Hereby, the UVB component of the solar spectrum presents the greatest degree of risk to the development of cutaneous neoplasms, but a certain carcinogenic potential of UVA has also been discussed. Practical steps to achieve optimal sun protection include avoidance of the sun during the peak hours of radiation, avoidance of photosensitizing drugs, use of photoprotective clothes and diligent application of broad-spectrum sunscreens. Of all recommended protective measures, sunscreens are often the most feasible to use, particularly during outdoor leisure, sport of aquatic activities. Therefore, the following chapter focuses mainly on the biological activity and efficacy of short- and long-term use of sunscreen products, but other recommended strategies of UV protection (such as intake of beta-carotene or application of liposomes) are critically evaluated as well. Although the short-term efficacy of sunscreens in the prevention of sunburn is undisputed, there is also some evidence that long-term use of sunscreens prevents the appearance of certain forms of skin cancer. PMID:17312359

Kütting, Birgitta; Drexler, Hans

2007-01-01

432

Reference levels in the context of Fukushima - lessons learned and a challenge for the radiation protection system.  

PubMed

A number of dose criteria were set after the accident in Fukushima, including a criterion regarding the use of school playgrounds in Fukushima. Considering the band of 1-20 mSv/year recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for public exposure under existing exposure situations, Japanese authorities set 20 mSv/year as a 'start line' for reducing the dose to school children. However, this led to considerable confusion among the general public and some experts. They thought that the dose limit was increased to 20 mSv/year (20 times as high as before), and that school children could be exposed to 20 mSv in 1 year. This is just an example of confusion caused by inadequate comprehension of radiation effects, misunderstanding of radiation protection concepts, or both. Another issue was raised regarding the higher radiosensitivity of children compared with adults. In the 2007 ICRP Recommendations, a higher risk coefficient is given to the whole population than the adult population, because the whole population includes children; a subpopulation with higher radiosensitivity and a longer life span. The point of argument was whether a lower reference level should be set for children alone. Radiation protection experts should continue to collect scientific information to improve the radiation protection system. In addition, it is the role of these experts to explain the framework of radiation protection to the general public in plain language. PMID:23089027

Sakai, K

2012-01-01

433

Fungal beta glucan protects radiation induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

Background Ganoderma lucidum (Ling Zhi), a basidiomycete white rot macrofungus has been used extensively for therapeutic use in China, Japan, Korea and other Asian countries for 2,000 years. The present study is an attempt to investigate its DNA protecting property in human lymphocytes. Materials and methods Beta glucan (BG) was isolated by standard procedure and the structure and composition were studied by infrared radiation (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, gel filtration chromatography and paper chromatography. The radioprotective properties of BG isolated from the macro fungi Ganoderma lucidum was assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Human lymphocytes were exposed to 0, 1, 2 and 4 Gy gamma radiation in the presence and absence of BG. Results The comet parameters were reduced by BG. The results indicate that the BG of G. lucidum possessed significant radioprotective activity with DNA repairing ability and antioxidant activity as the suggestive mechanism. Conclusions The findings suggest the potential use of this mushroom for the prevention of radiation induced cellular damages. PMID:25332989

Maurya, Dharmendra K.; Salvi, Veena P.; Janardhanan, Krishnankutty K; Nair, Cherupally K. K.

2014-01-01

434

The pristine atomic structure of MoS{sub 2} monolayer protected from electron radiation damage by graphene  

SciTech Connect

Materials can, in principle, be imaged at the level of individual atoms with aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. However, such resolution can be attained only with very high electron doses. Consequently, radiation damage is often the limiting factor when characterizing sensitive materials. Here, we demonstrate a simple and an effective method to increase the electron radiation tolerance of materials by using graphene as protective coating. This leads to an improvement of three orders of magnitude in the radiation tolerance of monolayer MoS{sub 2}. Further on, we construct samples in different heterostructure configurations to separate the contributions of different radiation damage mechanisms.

Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Kurasch, Simon; Sedighi, Mona; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University (Germany)] [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University (Germany)

2013-11-11

435

From conflict to cooperation: International policies to protect the Brazilian Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

When environmental degradation in a particular country has international consequences, a dilemma arises: how to find effective policies which address the causes and take domestic sensitivities into account? This article analyzes the Brazilian Amazon, where international concern over deforestation led to accusations of hypocrisy, infringement of sovereignty and impeding development. By cautiously building coalitions and by offering favorable conditions, donors

Ans Kolk

1998-01-01

436

Guidelines for a proposed lightning protection policy of a golf association or tournament sponsor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because lightning causes many deaths and injuries each year on golf courses, guidelines are given for measures to be taken during golf events. Recommendations are given relative to warning systems, shelters, suspension of play, and the distribution of written policy statements.

Hillyer, Charles C.

1991-01-01

437

Issuing Department: Human Subjects Protection Office (HSPO) Policy Number: 2011-006.1  

E-print Network

-006.1 Policy Title: Vulnerable Populations: Pregnant Women, Fetuses or Neonates Purpose The purpose Board of non-exempt studies intending to involve pregnant women, fetuses or neonates. Definitions See - Fetus Vulnerable Population - Fetus, Dead Vulnerable Population - Neonate Vulnerable Population

Oliver, Douglas L.

438

NIH POLICY MANUAL 3044-2 -Protection of NIH Personnel Who Work with Nonhuman Primates  

E-print Network

and Use of Research Animals, NRC 1997 3. NIH Policy Manual 3015, "Admittance of Children to Hazardous. Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, NRC 1996 2. Occupational Health and Safety in the Care. NIH Occupational Medical Service: Animal Exposure Surveillance Program 6. Cohen, J.I., et al

Bandettini, Peter A.

439

HIPAA Policy 5031 Authorization Requirements for Use and Disclosure of Protected Health  

E-print Network

, Including Verification of Identification Responsible Office Office of the Provost Effective Date April 14, and Pharmacology), School of Nursing, Department of Psychology clinics and Yale Health. This policy and procedure, including fraud and abuse detection and compliance programs; business planning and development; and business

440

Zinc- or cadmium-pre-induced metallothionein protects human central nervous system cells and astrocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

We have shown the protection of human central nervous system (CNS) cultures by zinc (Zn) or cadmium (Cd)-pre-induced metallothionein (MT) synthesis from radiation-induced cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and neuronal dendritic injury). The present study is to further define the types of cell death induced by different dose levels of radiation and investigate the effect of MT induction (by Zn or Cd) on radiation-induced apoptosis in primary human CNS and astrocyte cultures. Apoptosis was detected by fragmented DNA electrophoresis, TUNEL technique, and propidium iodide staining. Expression of MT protein was examined by immunofluorescent staining. Results showed that exposure of primary human CNS cultures to 15 and 30 Gy gamma-radiation predominantly induced apoptotic cell death, while exposure to 60 Gy gamma-radiation predominantly induced necrotic cell death. Normal primary human CNS cultures showed weak MT staining, while primary human CNS cultures exposed to Zn or Cd showed intense MT staining. The induced apoptotic cell death by exposure to 30 Gy gamma-radiation increased to a maximum level at 12 and 24 h, and was reduced significantly by Zn or Cd pre-induced MT. Using primary human astrocytes, the induction of MT protein by Zn or Cd was further confirmed. The enhanced MT expression also afforded a significant protection from 30 Gy gamma-ray-induced apoptosis in the primary human astrocytes. These results suggest that MT protected human CNS cells from apoptosis following ionizing radiation, probably through its antioxidant property. PMID:14687759

Cai, Lu; Iskander, Sammy; Cherian, M George; Hammond, Robert R

2004-02-01

441

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) protects skin cells from ionizing radiation via heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) overexpression.  

PubMed

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenolic constituent of green tea, is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger that may have therapeutic applications for the treatment of many disorders. Radiation therapy is widely used for the treatment of various types of cancers; however, radiation-induced skin injury remains a serious concern. EGCG has not yet been reported as protecting skin cells against ionizing radiation. In the present study, we investigated whether EGCG confers cytoprotection against ionizing radiation. We found that, compared with the control, pretreatment with EGCG significantly enhanced the viability of human skin cells that were irradiated with X-rays, and decreased apoptosis induced by X-ray irradiation. Mito-Tracker assay showed that EGCG suppressed the damage to mitochondria induced by ionizing radiation via upregulation of SOD2. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HaCaT cells were significantly reduced when pretreated with EGCG before irradiation. Radiation-induced ?H2AX foci, which are representative of DNA double-strand breaks, were decreased by pretreatment with EGCG. Furthermore, EGCG induced the expression of the cytoprotective molecule heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in a dose-dependent manner via transcriptional activation. HO-1 knockdown or treatment with the HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPPIX) reversed the protective role of EGCG, indicating an important role for HO-1. These results suggest that EGCG offers a new strategy for protecting skin against ionizing radiation. PMID:24968709

Zhu, Wei; Xu, Jing; Ge, Yangyang; Cao, Han; Ge, Xin; Luo, Judong; Xue, Jiao; Yang, Hongying; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping

2014-11-01

442

Experimental shielding evaluation of the radiation protection provided by the structurally significant components of residential structures.  

PubMed

The human health and environmental effects following a postulated accidental release of radioactive material to the environment have been a public and regulatory concern since the early development of nuclear technology. These postulated releases have been researched extensively to better understand the potential risks for accident mitigation and emergency planning purposes. The objective of this investigation is to provide an updated technical basis for contemporary building shielding factors for the US housing stock. Building shielding factors quantify the protection from ionising radiation provided by a certain building type. Much of the current data used to determine the quality of shielding around nuclear facilities and urban environments is based on simplistic point-kernel calculations for 1950s era suburbia and is no longer applicable to the densely populated urban environments realised today. To analyse a building's radiation shielding properties, the ideal approach would be to subject a variety of building types to various radioactive sources and measure the radiation levels in and around the building. While this is not entirely practicable, this research analyses the shielding effectiveness of ten structurally significant US housing-stock models (walls and roofs) important for shielding against ionising radiation. The experimental data are used to benchmark computational models to calculate the shielding effectiveness of various building configurations under investigation from two types of realistic environmental source terms. Various combinations of these ten shielding models can be used to develop full-scale computational housing-unit models for building shielding factor calculations representing 69.6 million housing units (61.3%) in the United States. Results produced in this investigation provide a comparison between theory and experiment behind building shielding factor methodology. PMID:24487195

Dickson, E D; Hamby, D M

2014-03-01

443

The science and policy of critical loads of pollutant deposition to protect ecosystems in New York.  

PubMed

We discuss the potential for adopting a critical load (CL) of air pollutant-deposition approach to inform natural resource protection and management in New York. The CL reflects the quantitative exposure to pollutants below which significant harmful effects on specified sensitive elements of the environment do not occur. Here, we discuss how CLs can be used to protect sensitive ecosystems against the harmful effects of atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen deposition and associated soil and water acidification and nutrient enrichment. The CL can be used diagnostically to determine resources at risk and prescriptively to evaluate the effectiveness of regulations and to manage resources. PMID:24673282

Sullivan, Timothy J; Jenkins, Jerry

2014-04-01

444

Role of sphingolipids in murine radiation-induced lung injury: protection by sphingosine 1-phosphate analogs  

PubMed Central

Clinically significant radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a common toxicity in patients administered thoracic radiotherapy. Although the molecular etiology is poorly understood, we previously characterized a murine model of RILI in which alterations in lung barrier integrity surfaced as a potentially important pathobiological event and genome-wide lung gene mRNA levels identified dysregulation of sphingolipid metabolic pathway genes. We hypothesized that sphingolipid signaling components serve as modulators and novel therapeutic targets of RILI. Sphingolipid involvement in murine RILI was confirmed by radiation-induced increases in lung expression of sphingosine kinase (SphK) isoforms 1 and 2 and increases in the ratio of ceramide to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and dihydro-S1P (DHS1P) levels in plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and lung tissue. Mice with a targeted deletion of SphK1 (SphK1?/?) or with reduced expression of S1P receptors (S1PR1+/?, S1PR2?/?, and S1PR3?/?) exhibited marked RILI susceptibility. Finally, studies of 3 potent vascular barrier-protective S1P analogs, FTY720, (S)-FTY720-phosphonate (fTyS), and SEW-2871, identified significant RILI attenuation and radiation-induced gene dysregulation by the phosphonate analog, fTyS (0.1 and 1 mg/kg i.p., 2×/wk) and to a lesser degree by SEW-2871 (1 mg/kg i.p., 2×/wk), compared with those in controls. These results support the targeting of S1P signaling as a novel therapeutic strategy in RILI.—Mathew, B., Jacobson, J. R., Berdyshev, E., Huang, Y., Sun, X., Zhao, Y., Gerhold, L. M., Siegler, J., Evenoski, C., Wang, T., Zhou, T., Zaidi, R., Moreno-Vinasco, L., Bittman, R., Chen, C. T., LaRiviere, P. J., Sammani, S., Lussier, Y. A., Dudek, S. M., Natarajan, V., Weichselbaum, R. R., Garcia, J. G. N. Role of sphingolipids in murine radiation-induced lung injury: protection by sphingosine 1-phosphate analogs. PMID:21712494

Mathew, Biji; Jacobson, Jeffrey R.; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Huang, Yong; Sun, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Yutong; Gerhold, Lynnette M.; Siegler, Jessica; Evenoski, Carrie; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Tong; Zaidi, Rafe; Moreno-Vinasco, Liliana; Bittman, Robert; Chen, Chin Tu; LaRiviere, Patrick J.; Sammani, Saad; Lussier, Yves A.; Dudek, Steven M.; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Garcia, Joe G. N.

2011-01-01

445

Holding management accountable: a new policy for protection against computer crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attacks by cyber criminals can be potentially just as damaging to the national infrastructure as attacks by cyber terrorists. Effective security countermeasures to combat computer crime parallel those used to protect against potential threats due to cyber terrorism and information warfare. Federal data about crime indicate that the growth in prosecution of computer crime is lower than the growth of

C. Wilson

2000-01-01

446

Protecting Children from Chemical Exposure: Social Work and U.S. Social Welfare Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines chemical contamination and reviews data regarding the ubiquity of toxic chemicals. Describes major risk pathways to fetuses and children at different developmental stages and discusses evidence regarding exposure and harm to children from chemical contamination. Reviews the roles for social workers in protecting current and future…

Rogge, Mary E.; Combs-Orme, Terri

2003-01-01