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1

Radiation Protection Program of Petrobras.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Risks present in oil industry require specific control programs, especially when using radioactive sources. Main uses of ionizing radiation in oil industry are in process control systems, industrial radiography and oilwell logging. A comprehensive and sys...

M. Signorini

1988-01-01

2

Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program  

SciTech Connect

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

2007-08-09

3

Accreditation of ionizing radiation protection programs  

SciTech Connect

There are over one million workers in the United States who have the potential to be exposed to ionizing radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to determine accurately the quantity of radiation to which they may have been exposed. This quantity if measured by personnel dosimeters that are carried by individuals requiring radiation monitoring. Accreditation of the organizations which evaluate this quantity provides official recognition of the competence of these organizations. Accreditation programs in the field of ionizing radiation protection have been in operation for a number of years, and their experience has demonstrated that such programs can help to improve performance.

McDonald, J.C.; Swinth, K.L.; Selby, J.M.

1991-10-01

4

Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program  

SciTech Connect

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

none,

2013-04-30

5

Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts  

SciTech Connect

This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

Not Available

1991-12-31

6

Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

Radiological Control Managers' Council

2008-06-01

7

Dental-service Dental Radiation Safety and Protection: Program guide  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the program guide for Dental Radiation Safety and Protection is to assist VA dental personnel in developing radiologic procedures that ensure maximum safety for their patients and themselves. In order to do this, the authors have included a summary of the biological hazards associated with exposure to x-radiation, provided information on patient exposure levels associated with dental X-ray units, and explained the methods for reducing patient and staff exposure to X-rays.

Not Available

1991-08-27

8

Radiation Protection Program of Petrobras in Industrial Radiography Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Industrial hygiene; main purpose is the preservation of employee physical well being when exposed to certain aggressive agents. PETROBRAS Industrial hygiene program forecasts preventive policies in several specific fields. For the ionizing radiations area...

M. Signorini

1988-01-01

9

Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

1989-04-01

10

Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation-protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A Practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

1989-04-01

11

Radiation Protection Handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A handbook which sets forth the Kennedy Space Center radiation protection policy is presented. The book also covers administrative direction and guidance on organizational and procedural requirements of the program. Only ionizing radiation is covered.

1972-01-01

12

Maintaining radiation protection records  

SciTech Connect

This Report is part of a series prepared under the auspices of Scientific Committee 46 on Operational Radiation Safety. It provides guidance on maintaining radiation protection records. Record keeping is an essential element of every radiation protection program. This Report describes the elements that should enter into the design of a program for the maintenance of operational radiation safety records. The problems of the length of time for retention of records for operational, regulatory, epidemiologic and legal uses are discussed in detail.

Not Available

1992-11-30

13

Three Mile Island, Unit 2, radiation protection program: report of the special panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A special panel was appointed by the Director of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, NRC, to review the radiation protection program at Three Mile Island Unit 2. The Panel confirmed several management and technical deficiencies in the program. Recent major GPU\\/Met Ed commitments and actions demonstrated a major change in management attitude. The Panel concluded that exposures to personnel can be maintained

C. B. Meinhold; T. D. Murphy; D. R. Neely; R. L. Kathren; B. L. Rich; G. F. Stone; W. R. Casey

1979-01-01

14

US Environmental Protection Agency Radiation Protection Programs for Waste Management and Site Cleanup  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the regulatory authorities of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (ORIA) as they pertain to radioactive waste management and disposal, and cleanup of radioactively contaminated sites. It also describes several ORIA initiatives and examples of two of EPA's radioactive waste standards. (authors)

2008-01-01

15

Building the basis for a comprehensive radiation protection program for a multi-program laboratory  

SciTech Connect

An explicit, workplace-specific training has been developed, implemented, and documented for all radiation workers. In addition to the radiation worker personnel located at reactors, accelerators, radiochemical laboratories, and waste treatment areas, we have trained other personnel who work in areas where a lesser potential for radiological/chemical exposure exists. These workforces include construction crews, site restoration crews, contracted special services such as scoping and site characterization teams, and short-term visitors. We are developing a comprehensive, integrated approach to radiation protection training suited for a multi-purpose research laboratory. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Copenhaver, E.D.

1987-01-01

16

Fourth conference on radiation protection and dosimetry: Proceedings, program, and abstracts  

SciTech Connect

This Conference is the fourth in a series of conferences organized by staff members of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to improve communication in the field of radiation protection and dosimetry. Scientists, regulators, managers, professionals, technologists, and vendors from the United States and countries around the world have taken advantage of this opportunity to meet with their contemporaries and peers in order to exchange information and ideas. The program includes over 100 papers in 9 sessions, plus an additional session for works in progress. Papers are presented in external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, radiation protection programs and assessments, developments in instrumentation and materials, environmental and medical applications, and on topics related to standards, accreditation, and calibration. Individual papers are indexed separately on EDB.

Casson, W.H.; Thein, C.M.; Bogard, J.S. [eds.] [eds.

1994-10-01

17

Radiation Protection Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... Basic Concepts of Radiation Protection time distance shielding Time The amount of radiation exposure increases and decreases ... exposure. How does EPA use the concept of time in radiation protection? When we set a radiation ...

18

Radiation Protection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chemotherapy and radiation can be powerful weapons against cancer. But they harm healthy cells as well. Cells of the immune system and G.I. tract are especially vulnerable: instead of repairing the damage, they respond by committing cellular suicide. In contrast, tumor cells have mutations that make them resistant to cell death. Roswell Park Cancer Institute researcher Andrei Gudkov and his colleagues recently harnessed this property to create a new drug.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2008-05-01

19

Operational radiation safety program  

SciTech Connect

For many years the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and its predecessors have provided extensive recommendations dealing with the many aspects of radiation protection. The objective of this report is to describe the elements of an operational radiation safety program incorporating many of these recommendations. An effective radiation safety program can do much to reduce exposures to a level as low as practicable within the NCRP recommended dose limits and to minimize the potential for accidental exposures.

Not Available

1980-01-01

20

Radiation Protection Considerations at USACE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Projects  

SciTech Connect

The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was initially authorized by Congress in 1974. FUSRAP was enacted to address residual radioactive contamination associated with numerous sites across the U.S. at which radioactive material (primarily Uranium ores and related milling products) had been processed in support of the nation's nuclear weapons program dating back to the Manhattan Project and the period immediately following World War II. In October 1997, Congress transferred the management of this program from the Department of Energy to the United States Corp of Engineers. Through this program, the Corps addresses the environmental remediation of certain sites once used by DOE's predecessor agencies, the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. The waste at FUSRAP sites consists mainly of low levels of uranium, thorium and radium, along with some mixed wastes. Upon completion of remedial activities, these sites are transferred to DOE for long-term stewardship activities. This paper presents and contrasts the radiological conditions and recent monitoring results associated with five large ongoing FUSRAP projects including Maywood, N.J.; the Linde site near Buffalo, N.Y.; Colonie in Albany N.Y. and the St Louis, Mo. airport and downtown sites. The radiological characteristics of soil and debris at each site and respective regulatory clean up criteria is presented and contrasted. Some differences are discussed in the radiological characteristics of material at some sites that result in variations in radiation protection monitoring programs. Additionally, summary data for typical personnel radiation exposure monitoring results are presented. In summary: 1. The FUSRAP projects for which data and observations are reported in this paper are considered typical of the radiological nature of FUSRAP sites in general. 2. These sites are characterized by naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides in soil and debris, at concentrations typically < E4 pCi/ gram total activity. 3. Although external exposure rates are generally low resulting in few exposures above background, occasional 'hot spots' are observed in the 1- 10 mR / hr range or higher. However personnel and general area external exposure monitoring programs consistently demonstrate very low potential for external exposure at theses sites. 4. Potential for airborne exposure is controlled by wetting and misting techniques during excavation and movement of materials. Air sampling and bioassay programs confirm low potential for airborne exposure of workers at these sites. 5. Radiation protection and health physics monitoring programs as implemented at these sites ensure that exposures to personal are maintained ALARA. (authors)

Brown, S.H. [CHP, SHB INC., Centennial, Colorado (United States)

2008-07-01

21

PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION INJURY  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account is given of the principles of protection against radiation ; injury and of the recommendations of Emergency Health Services, Department of ; National Health and Welfare, to those responsible for the protection of the ; health of persons at risk from nuclear weapon fallout radiations. Protection ; against injury is based on 2 concepts: procedures that result in

F. C. Pace; W. R. Waters

1961-01-01

22

Physics for Radiation Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A practical guide to the basic physics that radiation protection professionals need A much-needed working resource for health physicists and other radiation protection professionals, this volume presents clear, thorough, up-to-date explanations of the basic physics necessary to address real-world problems in radiation protection. Designed for readers with limited as well as basic science backgrounds, Physics for Radiation Protection emphasizes applied concepts and carefully illustrates all topics through examples as well as practice problems. Physics for Radiation Protection draws substantially on current resource data available for health physics use, providing decay schemes and emission energies for approximately 100 of the most common radionuclides encountered by practitioners. Excerpts of the Chart of the Nuclides, activation cross sections, fission yields, fission-product chains, photon attenuation coefficients, and nuclear masses are also provided. Coverage includes: * The atom as an energy system * An overview of the major discoveries in radiation physics * Extensive discussion of radioactivity, including sources and materials * Nuclear interactions and processes of radiation dose * Calculational methods for radiation exposure, dose, and shielding * Nuclear fission and production of activation and fission products * Specialty topics ranging from nuclear criticality and applied statistics to X rays * Extensive and current resource data cross-referenced to standard compendiums * Extensive appendices and more than 400 figures

Martin, James E.

2000-06-01

23

Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer  

SciTech Connect

The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

1983-03-01

24

Environmental Radiation Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental distribution of radionuclides, released from nuclear facilities and other sources, and the principles of the emergency countermeasures for radiation protection of the public and workers are discussed in this chapter. The concentration levels of radionuclides in various aquatic and terrestrial environments and the exposure levels of the population due to the various sources of radiation (natural and artificial radionuclides, cosmic radiation, diagnostic medical examinations, atmospheric nuclear tests, etc.) are presented.

Maeda, Y.; Osaki, S.; Vincze, A.

25

An updated radiation protection program prospectus based on 20 years of data describing program drivers and activities.  

PubMed

In 1992, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHSCH) Radiation Safety Program began assembling data on a monthly basis that described various program drivers and associated activities. At the end of calendar year 2002, a decade of data had been collected, so the information was summarized into a novel program prospectus, displaying various program indicator parameters in a format similar to that used in a commercial enterprise prospectus provided to potential investors. The consistent formatting of the data afforded a succinct and easily digestible snapshot of program activities and trends. Feedback from various program stakeholders, even those unfamiliar with radiation safety matters, was overwhelmingly positive. By the end of 2012, a total of 20 years of data had been collected, so an updated and slightly modified prospectus was created. The summary document has helped to describe the drivers of the program, revealed some interesting trends, and has aided in maintaining program support even in challenging economic times. The data summary has also proved to be useful in making future projections regarding program needs. PMID:24949920

Emery, Robert J; Gutierrez, Janet M

2014-08-01

26

Neptunium: Radiation protection guidelines  

SciTech Connect

The present report reviews the current knowledge of neptunium in areas which are important to radiation protection and makes recommendations on radiation protection guidelines. The report briefly reviews the chemical and physical properties of neptunium, the sources of neptunium in the environment, and potential pathways to man. The limited animal data on health effects are also examined. In addition, animal studies that may serve as a basis for predicting the metabolic behavior of neptunium in humans are considered. On the basis of the information examined, recommendations are made on the fraction of ingested neptunium absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract into blood (f/sub 1/). Finally, the report applies the available data to recommendations on radiation protection guidelines for neptunium.

Not Available

1988-02-28

27

Fire Protection Program Manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

Sharry, J A

2012-05-18

28

Justification in Radiation Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years the concept of Justification has increasingly come to the fore of the minds of legislators, users of radioactive materials and radiation protection specialists alike. Perhaps the most well known manifestation of this was the lengthy debate, ending in judicial review, about the Justification for the operation of the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (Thorp) at Sellafield and, more

David Owen

1999-01-01

29

Radiation protection challenges facing the federal agencies.  

PubMed

In the United States, federal agencies are responsible for setting national policy and performance expectations for radiation protection programs. National policy establishes a regulatory regime, under which society can realize the beneficial uses of radiation while at the same time protecting workers, the public, and environment from the potential hazards of radiation. The challenges facing federal agencies continue to revolve around finding the right balance between benefit and adverse impact. Federal agencies are petitioned to support the research community to provide a sound scientific basis for informing the decision-making process related to radiation protection policy. The federal agencies are further challenged to consider the deliberations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) who bring together the best technical minds in the field to consider the latest scientific information and provide recommendations for establishing comprehensive and coherent radiation protection programs. The uncertainty inherent in research and the conservatism in the models and recommendations of the ICRP and NCRP should be transparent and communicated because determining the level of uncertainty and the degree of conservatism acceptable to society is a challenge for, and the responsibility of, the federal agencies in creating performance-based policies in public health and radiation protection. It is through the federal government's open, inclusive, and democratic processes where society strikes the balance that defines adequate radiation protection policy, builds public trust, and allows the radiation protection professionals to properly implement and manage that policy. PMID:15303063

Jones, C Rick

2004-09-01

30

Radiation protection for nurses. Regulations and guidelines  

SciTech Connect

Rules and regulations of federal agencies and state radiation protection programs provide the bases for hospital policy regarding radiation safety for nurses. Nursing administrators should work with the radiation safety officer at their institutions to ensure that radiation exposures to staff nurses will be as low as reasonably achievable and that special consideration will be given to pregnant nurses. Nurses' fears about their exposure to radiation can be greatly reduced through education.

Jankowski, C.B. (Radiation Safety Office, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

1992-02-01

31

Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

Not Available

1991-01-01

32

Community Radiation Monitoring Program  

SciTech Connect

The Community Radiation Monitoring Program began its ninth year in the summer of 1989, continuing as an essential portion of the Environmental Protection Agency's long-standing off-site monitoring effort. It is a cooperative venture between the Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the University of Utah (U of U), and the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the University of Nevada System. The objectives of the program include enhancing and augmenting the collection of environmental radiation data at selected sites around the Nevada Test Site (NTS), increasing public awareness of that effort, and involving, in as many ways as possible, the residents of the off-site area in these and other areas related to testing nuclear weapons. This understanding and improved communication is fostered by hiring residents of the communities where the monitoring stations are located as program representatives, presenting public education forums in those and other communities, disseminating information on radiation monitoring and related subjects, and developing and maintaining contacts with local citizens and elected officials in the off-site areas. 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Lucas, R.P. Jr.; Cooper, E.N.; McArthur, R.D.

1990-05-01

33

Pregnancy and Radiation Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating oncologist, other team and family members should carefully discuss for the decision of abortion. Important factors must be considered such as the stage and aggressiveness of the tumour, the location of the tumour, the stage of pregnancy, various therapies etc.

Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.

2010-01-01

34

Radiation view factor program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program, RAVFAC, calculates diffuse radiation view factors, using contour integrals. Technique is combined with finite difference /double summation/ technique to compose total program package.

Lovin, J. K.; Lubkowitz, A. W.

1971-01-01

35

Radiation protection guidelines for radiation emergencies  

SciTech Connect

The system of dose limitation and present guidance for emergency workers and guidance for intervention on behalf of the public are discussed. There are three elements for the system of dose limitation: justification, optimization and dose limits. The first element is basically a political process in this country. Justification is based on a risk-benefit analysis, and justification of the use of radioactive materials or radiation is generally not within the authority of radiation protection managers. Radiation protection managers typically assess detriments or harm caused by radiation exposure and have very little expertise in assessing the benefits of a particular practice involving nuclear material.

Lessard, E.T.; Meinhold, C.B.

1986-01-01

36

Optical Radiation: Laser Protection  

MedlinePLUS

... protection at all times. Determine the maximum power density, or intensity, lasers produce when workers are exposed ... following table shows the maximum power or energy density for which adequate protection is afforded by safety ...

37

GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION.  

SciTech Connect

THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDER 5400.1, GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM, REQUIRES THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUNDWATER PROTECTION PROGRAM. THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF HOW THE LABORATORY ENSURES THAT PLANS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION, MONITORING, AND RESTORATION ARE FULLY DEFINED, INTEGRATED, AND MANAGED IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.

PAQUETTE,D.E.; BENNETT,D.B.; DORSCH,W.R.; GOODE,G.A.; LEE,R.J.; KLAUS,K.; HOWE,R.F.; GEIGER,K.

2002-05-31

38

Impact of a proposed change in the maximum permissible dose limit for neutrons to radiation-protection programs at DOE facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has issued a statement advising that it is considering lowering the maximum permissible dose for neutrons. This action would present substantive problems to radiation protection programs at DOE facilities where a potential for neutron exposure exists. In addition to altering administrative controls, a lowering of the maximum permissible dose for neutrons will require advances in personnel neutron dosimetry systems and neutron detection and measurement instrumentation. Improvement in the characterization of neutron fields and spectra at work locations will also be needed. DOE has initiated research and development programs in these areas. However, problems related to the control of personnel neutron exposure have yet to be resolved and investigators are encouraged to continue collaboration with both United States and international authorities.

Murphy, B. L.

1981-09-01

39

Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

The RRP is responsible for NCI's clinically-related extramural radiation research program. The RRP establishes priorities, allocates resources, and evaluates the effectiveness of such radiation research being conducted by NCI grantees. RRP staff represent the program at NCI management and scientific meetings and provide scientific support to leadership on matters related to radiation research.

40

A historical review of portable health physics instruments and their use in radiation protection programs at Hanford, 1944 through 1988  

SciTech Connect

This historical review covers portable health physics instruments at Hanford from an applications viewpoint. The review provides information on specific instruments and on the general kinds of facility work environments in which the instruments have been and are being used. It provides a short, modestly technical explanation of the types of nuclear radiations, the way radiation units are quantified, and the types of nuclear radiations, the way radiation units are quantified, and the types of detection media used in portable health physics instruments. This document does not, however, cover the history of the entire Hanford program that was required to develop and/or modify the subject instruments. 11 refs., 34 figs., 2 tabs.

Howell, W.P.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Kress, M.L.; Swinth, K.L.; Corbit, C.D.; Zuerner, L.V.; Fleming, D.M.; DeHaven, H.W.

1989-09-01

41

Historical review of personnel dosimetry development and its use in radiation protection programs at Hanford 1944 to the 1980s  

SciTech Connect

This document is an account of the personnel dosimetry programs as they were developed and practiced at Hanford from their inception in 1943 to 1944 to the 1980s. This history is divided into sections covering the general categories of external and internal measurement methods, in vivo counting, radiation exposure recordkeeping, and calibration of personnel dosimeters. The reasons and circumstances surrounding the inception of these programs at Hanford are discussed. Information about these programs was obtained from documents, letters, and memos that are available in our historical records; the personnel files of many people who participated in these programs; and from the recollections of many long-time, current, and past Hanford employees. For the most part, the history of these programs is presented chronologically to relate their development and use in routine Hanford operations. 131 refs., 38 figs., 23 tabs.

Wilson, R.H.

1987-02-01

42

Radiation protection during space flight.  

PubMed

The problem of ensuring space flight safety arises from conditions inherent to space flights and outer space and from the existing weight limitations of spacecraft. In estimating radiation hazard during space flights, three natural sources are considered: the Earth's radiation belt, solar radiation, and galactic radiation. This survey first describes the major sources of radiation hazard in outer space with emphasis on those source parameters directly related to shielding manned spacecraft. Then, the current status of the safety criteria used in the shielding calculations is discussed. The rest of the survey is devoted to the rationale for spacecraft radiation shielding calculations. The recently completed long-term space flights indicate the reliability of the radiation safety measures used for the near-Earth space exploration. While planning long-term interplanetary flights, it is necessary to solve a number of complicated technological problems related to the radiation protection of the crew. PMID:6318715

Kovalev, E E

1983-12-01

43

The NASA Radiation Health Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA program for determining the impact of cosmic radiation on health is described in terms of its long-term goal of reducing the uncertainty of radiation-model prediction to +/- 25 percent by 2010. The Space Radiation Health Program (SRHP) is intended to address fundamental issues for establishing a scientific basis for human radiation protection: (1) the prediction of the probability of biological effects from radiation; (2) the reduction of uncertainty in predicted highly charged energetic particles; and (3) the characterization of background flux from Galactic cosmic rays. Another key objective is to develop related technologies for ground- and space-based solar monitoring to predict events involving solar energetic particles. Although substantial uncertainties are involved in the prediction of such events, the SRHP is essential for determining crucial variables related to launching mass and humans into orbit.

Nicogossian, A. E.; Schimmerling, W.

1991-01-01

44

Radiation Exposure Compensation Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the Justice Department's Radiation Exposure Compensation Program homepage. This site features information about the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, including claimant categories, claim forms, and the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act. This site also provides a table illustrating a summary of all claims received and compensation paid to date.

Program, U. S.

45

Designing radiation protection signs  

SciTech Connect

Entry into hazardous areas without the proper protective equipment is extremely dangerous and must be prevented whenever possible. Current postings of radiological hazards at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) do not incorporate recent findings concerning effective warning presentation. Warning information should be highly visible, quickly, and easily understood. While continuing to comply with industry standards (e.g., Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines), these findings can be incorporated into existing radiological sign design, making them more effective in terms of usability and compliance. Suggestions are provided for designing more effective postings within stated guidelines.

Rodriguez, M.A.; Richey, C.L.

1995-03-01

46

Protection against radiation (biological, pharmacological, chemical, physical)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical, chemical, and biological protection for astronauts from penetrating radiation on long-term space flights is discussed. The status of pharmacochemical protection, development of protective substances, medical use of protective substances, protection for spacecraft ecologic systems, adaptogens and physical conditioning, bone marrow transplants and local protection are discussed. Combined use of local protection and pharmacochemical substances is also briefly considered.

Saksonov, P. P.

1975-01-01

47

Research needs for radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

In answer to a request from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the NCRP has issued Report No. 117, summarizing the Council`s suggestions for research to strengthen radiation protection. As might be expected, the basic question deals with the effects of low-LET radiations at low doses and low dose rates. Have present regulations for radiation protection already been set at, or even below, the practical limits at which significant research results can be obtained for epidemiological application? The NCRP`s answer consists of 63 biological and physical projects for investigation, each described by a paragraph or two, prefaced with a caveat that this list is neither complete or definitive. The 63 are grouped under five headings: Cellular and molecular biology; Dose determinations; Risk assessment; Prevention, intervention and perception; and, Resource requirements.

NONE

1993-12-31

48

Space radiation health program plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Radiation Health Program intends to establish the scientific basis for the radiation protection of humans engaged in the exploration of space, with particular emphasis on the establishment of a firm knowledge base to support cancer risk assessment for future planetary exploration. This document sets forth the technical and management components involved in the implementation of the Space Radiation Health Program, which is a major part of the Life Sciences Division (LSD) effort in the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). For the purpose of implementing this program, the Life Sciences Division supports scientific research into the fundamental mechanisms of radiation effects on living systems and the interaction of radiation with cells, tissues, and organs, and the development of instruments and processes for measuring radiation and its effects. The Life Sciences Division supports researchers at universities, NASA field centers, non-profit research institutes and national laboratories; establishes interagency agreements for cooperative use and development of facilities; and conducts a space-based research program using available and future spaceflight vehicles.

1991-01-01

49

Space radiation health program plan  

SciTech Connect

The Space Radiation Health Program intends to establish the scientific basis for the radiation protection of humans engaged in the exploration of space, with particular emphasis on the establishment of a firm knowledge base to support cancer risk assessment for future planetary exploration. This document sets forth the technical and management components involved in the implementation of the Space Radiation Health Program, which is a major part of the Life Sciences Division (LSD) effort in the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). For the purpose of implementing this program, the Life Sciences Division supports scientific research into the fundamental mechanisms of radiation effects on living systems and the interaction of radiation with cells, tissues, and organs, and the development of instruments and processes for measuring radiation and its effects. The Life Sciences Division supports researchers at universities, NASA field centers, non-profit research institutes and national laboratories; establishes interagency agreements for cooperative use and development of facilities; and conducts a space-based research program using available and future spaceflight vehicles.

Not Available

1991-11-01

50

Radiation protection standards in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation protection standards for the individual exposed to ionizing radiation in his/her daily work have evolved over more than 50 years since the first recommendations on limits by the NCRP and the ICRP. Initial standards were based on the absence of observable harm, notably skin erythema, but have since been modified as other concerns, such as leukemia and genetic effects, became more important. More recently, the general carcinogenic effect of radiation has become the principal concern at low doses. Genetic effects are also of concern in the younger individual. Modern radiation protection practices take both of these risks into account. Quantification of these risks improves as new information emerges. The study of the Japanese survivors of the atomic bombs continues to yield new information and the recent revisions in the dosimetry are about to be completed. The special circumstances of space travel suggest approaches to limits not unlike those for radiation workers on the ground. One approach is to derive a career limit based on the risks of accident faced by many nonradiation workers in a lifetime. The career limit can be apportioned according to the type of mission. The NCRP is considering this and other approaches to the specification of radiation standards in space.

Sinclair, Warren K.

51

EM Radiation Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EM Radiation program displays the electric field vectors (in the x-y plane) and magnetic field contours (for the field in the z direction) calculated from the Lienard-Wiechert potentials for a charged particle. The default scenario shows the resulting radiation from a charged particle in simple harmonic motion. Additional particle trajectories can be specified using the Display | Switch GUI menu item. EM Radiation is an Open Source Physics program written for the teaching of electromagnetism. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the em_radiation.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Other electromagnetism programs are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or electromagnetism.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-20

52

Develop a Wellhead Protection Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will develop a wellhead protection program for a hypothetical community. Students assume various roles in the community such as gas station owner, photo lab owner or employee, beauty salon owner, restaurant owner, resident, or environmentalist so that each student can bring the perspective of his or her role to the discussion. Students will discover that the relationships between businesses, environmentalists, and community leaders can be, but need not be, adversarial. As they progress through this activity students learn about the tools communities may use to develop a wellhead protection program. They will also recognize that developing a community wellhead protection program is not easy and that, while it is important to protect drinking water supplies, it can be very difficult to develop a program that will gain support from the overall community.

53

The NASA Radiation Health Program  

SciTech Connect

The Space Radiation Health Program (SRHP) is defined in terms of motivation and methodology with specific reference given to the impacts of HZE particles and solar energetic particles. The biological hazards are mentioned that can be associated with the two particle types and ionizing radiation in general. The lack of data on the impact of such radiation and effective shielding countermeasures is identified as the primary motivation for worst-case assumptions. However, the resulting shielding designs can potentially overestimate the thickness by a factor of 10 and add unnecessarily to vehicle take-off mass. A space-based validation system is proposed to complement ground-based investigations of the effects of ionizing radiation in interplanetary space. The Lifesat satellite is proposed as a part of the SRHP effort to determine the requirements for protection and future shielding specifications.

Schimmerling, W. (JPL, Pasadena, CA (United States))

1991-07-01

54

Protective Coating Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program consists of two primary segments: (1) installing an environmental monitoring station at the Toyota marshalling yard at Georgetown, Kentucky, and (2) conducting laboratory and field tests of paint and wax-coated painted specimens to assess the...

J. E. Funk T. Hopwood D. G. Hartman C. M. Oberst R. D. Saylor A. R. Sethuraman

1991-01-01

55

Radiation biology: concepts for radiation protection.  

PubMed

The opportunity to write a historical review of the field of radiation biology allows for the viewing of the development and maturity of a field of study, thereby being able to provide the appropriate context for the earlier years of research and its findings. The pioneering work of Muller, Sax, and McClintock, and many others, has stood the test of time. The idea that x-rays could damage the genetic material and result in interactions that could lead to gene mutations and a range of chromosomal alterations is now interpretable in terms of induced DNA damage and errors of DNA repair. The expanded idea that such genetic alterations can be induced by DNA damage that is produced by one or two tracks of ionizing radiation remains the mainstay of radiation biology. The impact of the more recent molecular approaches to unraveling the mechanism behind this simple concept has confirmed this fundamental observation. The remarkable advances have allowed for a fairly complete understanding of the specific types of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiations and the pivotal role played by the errors of repair of double-strand breaks. Given our considerably enhanced knowledge of the details of the DNA repair processes involved, misrepair is a very unlikely event. The role of potential confounders of the concept of dose-response (e.g., bystander effects, genomic instability, and adaptive responses) is taking on a growing importance to the field. The evolving need is to begin to consider mechanistically-based dose-response models for cancer risk such that any potential impact of confounders on the response at low, environmental doses can be assessed. Thus, radiation biology research has always had a focus on how best to protect human health from radiation exposures and will continue to do so. PMID:15891452

Preston, R Julian

2005-06-01

56

Radiation biology: concepts for radiation protection.  

PubMed

The opportunity to write a historical review of the field of radiation biology allows for the viewing of the development and maturity of a field of study, thereby being able to provide the appropriate context for the earlier years of research and its findings. The pioneering work of Muller, Sax, and McClintock, and many others, has stood the test of time. The idea that x-rays could damage the genetic material and result in interactions that could lead to gene mutations and a range of chromosomal alterations is now interpretable in terms of induced DNA damage and errors of DNA repair. The expanded idea that such genetic alterations can be induced by DNA damage that is produced by one or two tracks of ionizing radiation remains the mainstay of radiation biology. The impact of the more recent molecular approaches to unraveling the mechanism behind this simple concept has confirmed this fundamental observation. The remarkable advances have allowed for a fairly complete understanding of the specific types of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiations and the pivotal role played by the errors of repair of double-strand breaks. Given our considerably enhanced knowledge of the details of the DNA repair processes involved, misrepair is a very unlikely event. The role of potential confounders of the concept of dose-response (e.g., bystander effects, genomic instability, and adaptive responses) is taking on a growing importance to the field. The evolving need is to begin to consider mechanistically-based dose-response models for cancer risk such that any potential impact of confounders on the response at low, environmental doses can be assessed. Thus, radiation biology research has always had a focus on how best to protect human health from radiation exposures and will continue to do so. PMID:15194918

Preston, R Julian

2004-07-01

57

Cancer complexity and radiation protection.  

PubMed

Management of radiological risks typically encountered in environmental and occupational settings is challenging because of uncertainties in the magnitude of the risks and the benefits of risk reduction. In practice, radiation dose instead of risk is measured. However, the relationship between dose and risk is not straightforward because cancer (the major health effect of concern at low doses) is a disease of complexity. Risks at small doses (defined as less than 100 mSv) can never be known exactly because of the inherent uncertainties in cancer as a complex disease. Tumors are complex because of the nonlinear interactions that occur among tumor cells and between the tumor and its local tissue environment. This commentary reviews evidence for cancer complexity and what complexity means for radiation protection. A complexity view of cancer does not mean we must abandon our current system of protection. What it does mean is that complexity requires new ways of thinking about control of cancer-the ideas that cancers can occur without cause, cancers behave unpredictably, and calculated cancer risks following small doses of radiation are highly uncertain. PMID:24849905

Mossman, Kenneth L

2014-07-01

58

Radiation Protection Quantities for Near Earth Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

As humans travel beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field and mission durations grow, risk due to radiation exposure will increase and may become the limiting factor for such missions. Here, the dosimetric quantities recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for the evaluation of health risk due to radiation exposure, effective dose and gray-equivalent

Martha S. Clowdsley; John W. Wilson; Myung-Hee Kim; Brooke M. Anderson; John E. Nealy

59

Science Goals in Radiation Protection for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation presents major challenges to future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Health risks of concern include cancer, degenerative and performance risks to the central nervous system, heart and lens, and the acute radiation syndromes. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) contain high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, which have been shown to cause qualitatively distinct biological damage compared to terresterial radiation, such as X-rays or gamma-rays, causing risk estimates to be highly uncertain. The biological effects of solar particle events (SPE) are similar to terresterial radiation except for their biological dose-rate modifiers; however the onset and size of SPEs are difficult to predict. The high energies of GCR reduce the effectiveness of shielding, while SPE s can be shielded however the current gap in radiobiological knowledge hinders optimization. Methods used to project risks on Earth must be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting health risks from space radiation, and thus impact mission requirements and costs. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies probabilistic risk assessments and uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts and to mission design. The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in radiation risk projection models. Exploration science goals in radiation protection are centered on ground-based research to achieve the necessary biological knowledge, and in the development of new technologies to improve SPE monitoring and optimize shielding. Radiobiology research is centered on a ground based program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and HZE nuclei at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) located at DoE s Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, NY. We describe recent NSRL results that are closing the knowledge gap in HZE radiobiology and improving exploration risk estimates. Linking probabilistic risk assessment to research goals makes it possible to express risk management objectives in terms of quantitative metrics, which include the number of days in space without exceeding a given risk level within well defined confidence limits, and probabilistic assessments of the effectiveness of design trade spaces such as material type, mass, solar cycle, crew selection criteria, and biological countermeasures. New research in SPE alert and risk assessment, individual radiation sensitivity, and biological countermeasure development are described.

Cucinotta, Francs A.

2008-01-01

60

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

SciTech Connect

The original recommendations for radiation protection guidelines were made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1970. Since that time the US crews have become more diverse in their makeup and much has been learned about both radiation-induced cancer and other late effects. While far from adequate there is now some understanding of the risks that high-Z and -energy (HZE) particles pose. For these reasons it was time to reconsider the radiation protection guidelines for space workers. This task was undertaken recently by National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). 42 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Fry, R.J.M.

1987-01-01

61

Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H. [eds.

1991-10-01

62

Some issues important in developing basic radiation protection recommendations  

SciTech Connect

Presentations in this conference addressed various aspects of risk estimation, somatic effects, effects on the embryo-fetus, genetic impacts, non-stochastic effects, and implications for the NCRP program. Also included is the Eighth Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture, ''Limitation and Assessment in Radiation Protection,'' presented by Harold H. Rossi. Representatives from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Environmental Protection Agency, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, and Department of Energy participated in a Scientific Briefing Session entitled ''What the NCRP Should be Doing for Federal Agencies.'' The meeting closed with brief progress reports from NCRP scientific committees concerned with (1) Biological effects and exposure criteria for radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation, (2) Radiation protection in mammography, (3) Radiation exposure and potentially related injury, (4) Policy in regard to the international system of units, and (5) Radiation exposure control in a nuclear emergency. Twenty articles were abstracted separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base and the International Nuclear Information System.

Not Available

1985-01-01

63

Wellhead protection programs: Tools for local governments  

SciTech Connect

The Technical Assistance Document (TAD) describes how localities can, as a part of a State Wellhead Protection Program, develop and implement effective techniques for the protection of ground water. The document emphasizes innovative wellhead protection methods that have been used by local communities, discusses combinations of programs that have worked well, and presents several factors that affect the success of local wellhead protection programs, such as budgetary constraints and legal issues.

Harvey, R.; Linquiti, P.

1989-04-01

64

DCTD — Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Click here to view the Site Map Home | Sitemap | Contact DCTD Search this site Radiation Research Program (RRP) Introduction Partnerships and Collaborations Scientific Advances Workshops and Reports DCTD Programs Cancer Diagnosis

65

Using computer-based training to facilitate radiation protection review  

SciTech Connect

In a national laboratory setting, it is necessary to provide radiation protection overview and training to diverse parts of the laboratory population. This includes employees at research reactors, accelerators, waste facilities, radiochemical isotope processing, and analytical laboratories, among others. In addition, our own radiation protection and monitoring staffs must be trained. To assist in the implementation of this full range of training, ORNL has purchased prepackaged computer-based training in health physics and technical mathematics with training modules that can be selected from many topics. By selection of specific modules, appropriate radiation protection review packages can be determined to meet many individual program needs. Because our radiation protection personnel must have some previous radiation protection experience or the equivalent of an associate's degree in radiation protection for entry level, the computer-based training will serve primarily as review of major principles. Others may need very specific prior training to make the computer-based training effective in their work situations. 4 refs.

Abercrombie, J.S.; Copenhaver, E.D.

1989-01-01

66

Implantation of Inspection and Radiation Protection Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods, means and procedures adopted by Petrobras engineering service to survey safety radiation protection of the companies that carry out radiographic services of PETROBRAS are described. The systems used in certification of personnel, procedures, audi...

J. L. R. Cunha

1988-01-01

67

Status of radiation protection at different hospitals in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Nepal has a long history of medical radiology since1923 but unfortunately, we still do not have any Radiation Protection Infrastructure to control the use of ionizing radiations in the various fields. The objective of this study was an assessment of the radiation protection in medical uses of ionizing radiation. Twenty-eight hospitals with diagnostic radiology facility were chosen for this study according to patient loads, equipment and working staffs. Radiation surveys were also done at five different radiotherapy centers. Questionnaire for radiation workers were used; radiation dose levels were measured and an inventory of availability of radiation equipment made. A corollary objective of the study was to create awareness in among workers on possible radiation health hazard and risk. It was also deemed important to know the level of understanding of the radiation workers in order to initiate steps towards the establishment of Nepalese laws, regulation and code of radiological practice in this field. Altogether, 203 Radiation workers entertained the questionnaire, out of which 41 are from the Radiotherapy and 162 are from diagnostic radiology. The radiation workers who have participated in the questionnaire represent more than 50% of the radiation workers working in this field in Nepal. Almost all X-ray, CT and Mammogram installations were built according to protection criteria and hence found safe. Radiation dose level at the reference points for all the five Radiotherapy centers are within safe limit. Around 65% of the radiation workers have never been monitored for radiation. There is no quality control program in any of the surveyed hospitals except radiotherapy facilities.

Adhikari, Kanchan P.; Jha, L.N.; Galan, Montenegro P.

2012-01-01

68

RADIATION BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS FOR RADIATION PROTECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT The opportunity to write a historical review of the field of radiation biology allows for the viewing of the development and maturity of a field of study, thereby being able to provide the appropriate context for the earlier years of research and its findings. The...

69

Planetary Protection Bioburden Analysis Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program is a Microsoft Access program that performed statistical analysis of the colony counts from assays performed on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft to determine the bioburden density, 3-sigma biodensity, and the total bioburdens required for the MSL prelaunch reports. It also contains numerous tools that report the data in various ways to simplify the reports required. The program performs all the calculations directly in the MS Access program. Prior to this development, the data was exported to large Excel files that had to be cut and pasted to provide the desired results. The program contains a main menu and a number of submenus. Analyses can be performed by using either all the assays, or only the accountable assays that will be used in the final analysis. There are three options on the first menu: either calculate using (1) the old MER (Mars Exploration Rover) statistics, (2) the MSL statistics for all the assays, or This software implements penetration limit equations for common micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shield configurations, windows, and thermal protection systems. Allowable MMOD risk is formulated in terms of the probability of penetration (PNP) of the spacecraft pressure hull. For calculating the risk, spacecraft geometry models, mission profiles, debris environment models, and penetration limit equations for installed shielding configurations are required. Risk assessment software such as NASA's BUMPERII is used to calculate mission PNP; however, they are unsuitable for use in shield design and preliminary analysis studies. The software defines a single equation for the design and performance evaluation of common MMOD shielding configurations, windows, and thermal protection systems, along with a description of their validity range and guidelines for their application. Recommendations are based on preliminary reviews of fundamental assumptions, and accuracy in predicting experimental impact test results. The software is programmed in Visual Basic for Applications for installation as a simple add-in for Microsoft Excel. The user is directed to a graphical user interface (GUI) that requires user inputs and provides solutions directly in Microsoft Excel workbooks. This work was done by Shannon Ryan of the USRA Lunar and Planetary Institute for Johnson Space Center. Further information is contained in a TSP (see page 1). MSC- 24582-1 Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) Shield Ballistic Limit Analysis Program Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas Commercially, because it is so generic, Enigma can be used for almost any project that requires engineering visualization, model building, or animation. Models in Enigma can be exported to many other formats for use in other applications as well. Educationally, Enigma is being used to allow university students to visualize robotic algorithms in a simulation mode before using them with actual hardware. This work was done by David Shores and Sharon P. Goza of Johnson Space Center; Cheyenne McKeegan, Rick Easley, Janet Way, and Shonn Everett of MEI Technologies; Mark Manning of PTI; and Mark Guerra, Ray Kraesig, and William Leu of Tietronix Software, Inc. For further information, contact the JSC Innovation Partnerships Office at (281) 483-3809. MSC-24211-1 Spitzer Telemetry Processing System NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real-time continuous service that can go quiescent after periods of inactivity. The software can process 2

Beaudet, Robert A.

2013-01-01

70

Radiation Protection Quantities for Near Earth Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As humans travel beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field and mission durations grow, risk due to radiation exposure will increase and may become the limiting factor for such missions. Here, the dosimetric quantities recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for the evaluation of health risk due to radiation exposure, effective dose and gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO), are calculated for several near Earth environments. These radiation protection quantities are evaluated behind two different shielding materials, aluminum and polyethylene. Since exposure limits for missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) have not yet been defined, results are compared to limits recommended by the NCRP for LEO operations.

Clowdsley, Martha S.; Wilson, John W.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.

2004-01-01

71

Pinellas Plant groundwater protection management program plan  

SciTech Connect

The Groundwater Protection Management Program (GPMP) Plan outlines the program in place at the Pinellas Plant to detect and monitor contaminated groundwater, which may have become contaminated by materials and waste.

Not Available

1995-10-01

72

Improving Installation Level Classified Information Protection Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent DoD and USAF reviews of security policies and practices have uncovered serious deficiencies in security programs developed to protect classified and sensitive information. Organizing security program managers and command oversight at the installati...

A. T. Akeo

1987-01-01

73

Radiation Environments for Lunar Programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developing reliable space systems for lunar exploration and infrastructure for extended duration operations on the lunar surface requires analysis and mitigation of potential system vulnerabilities to radiation effects on materials and systems. This paper reviews the characteristics of space radiation environments relevant to lunar programs including the trans-Earth and trans-lunar injection trajectories through the Earth's radiation belts, solar wind surface dose environments, energetic solar particle events, and galactic cosmic rays and discusses the radiation design environments being developed for lunar program requirements to assure that systems operate successfully in the space environment.

Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; Blackwell, Willliam C.; Harine, Katherine J.

2007-01-01

74

49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193...Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection. Each LNG container...following exceptions: (a) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated...

2013-10-01

75

Aiming Optimum Space Radiation Protection using Regolith.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation protection of space radiation is very important factor in manned space activity on the moon. At the construction of lunar base, low cost radiation shielding would be achieved using regolith that exists on the surface of the moon. We studied radiation shielding ability of regolith as answer the question, how much of depth would be necessary to achieve minimum radiation protection. We estimated the shielding ability of regolith against each atomic number of space radiation particles. Using stopping power data of ICRU REPORT49 and 73, we simulated the approximate expression (function of the energy of the atomic nucleus as x and the atomic number as Z) of the stopping power for the space proton particle (nucleus of H) against silicon dioxide (SiO2), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), and iron (Fe), which are the main components of regolith. Based on the expression, we applied the manipulation to the other particles of space radiation to up to argon particle (Ar). These simulated expressions complied well the data of ICRU REPORT49 and 73 except alpha particle (nucleus of He). The simulation values of stop-ping power of ten elements from potassium to nickel those we had no data in ICRU REPORT were further simulated. Using the obtained expressions, the relationship between the radiation absorbed dose and depth of a silicon dioxide was obtained. The space radiation relative dose with every depth in the moon could be estimated by this study.

Masuda, Daisuke; Nagamatsu, Aiko; Indo, Hiroko; Iwashita, Yoichiro; Suzuki, Hiromi; Shimazu, Toru; Yano, Sachiko; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki; Mukai, Chiaki; Majima, Hideyuki J.

76

National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements semiannual technical progress report, March 1989--August 1989  

SciTech Connect

This semiannual technical progress report is for the period 1 March 1989 through 31 August 1989. This National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) program is designed to provide recommendations for radiation protection based on scientific principles. During this period several reports were published covering the topics of occupational radiation exposure, medical exposure, radon control, dosimetry, and radiation protection standards. Accomplishments of various committees are also reported; including the committees on dental x-ray protection, radiation safety in uranium mining and milling, ALARA, instrumentation, records maintenance, occupational exposures of medical personnel, emergency planning, and others. (SM)

Ney, W.R.

1991-01-01

77

Radiation protection in pediatric radiology  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to make available a source of practical information regarding the manner in which radiologic examinations in children should be conducted to reduce the radiation dose to these patients and those responsible for their care. The report is mainly for the use of pediatricians, radiologists, radiologic technologists, and other physicians and medical practitioners who order or use radiological methods in examining children.

Not Available

1981-01-01

78

Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S. [eds.

1988-11-01

79

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's current radiation protection guidelines date from 1970, when the career limit was set at 400 rem. Today, using the same approach, but with the current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain. Also, there is considerably more information about the radiation environments to be experienced in different missions than previously. Since 1970 women have joined the ranks. For these and other reasons it was necessary to reexamine the radiation protection guidelines. This task was undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75 (NCRP SC 75). Below the magnetosphere the radiation environment varies with altitude and orbit inclination. In outer space missions galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 100 rem (4.0Sv) for a 24 year old female to 400 rem for a 55 year old male compared to the previous single limit of 400 rem (4.0 Sv). The career limit for the lens of the eye was reduced from 600 to 400 rem (6.0 to 4.0 Sv.)

Fry, R. J. M.; Nachtwey, D. S.

1986-01-01

80

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem).

Fry, R. J.; Nachtwey, D. S.

1988-01-01

81

Individual and Collective Protection Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FY06-07 goal was to advance the development of the Triosyn Super HEPA (TSH) media as an enhanced filtration material to be included in individual protection and collective protection end-use applications. Work was also done to pursue the development o...

A. Gendron A. Staffa D. Ohayon M. SansCartier S. Franzot

2007-01-01

82

40 CFR 191.15 - Individual protection requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Individual protection requirements. 191.15 Section 191.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND...

2013-07-01

83

Advanced Survivable Radiator Development Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the program was to analyze, develop, and test an advanced space radiator which would reject waste heat and also survive both the natural environment and the environments for multiple hostile threats. This program defined two phases of wor...

R. E. Drubka J. B. Blackman G. W. Glover D. L. Johnson J. Kirby

1993-01-01

84

Programs & Resources | Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

The RRP and its members have long-standing interest and experience in global cancer networking and research. The experience includes Dr. Vikram's 5 years at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) helping establish the Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) for assisting underserved countries develop radiation oncology programs. Dr.

85

Radiation protection, radiation safety and radiation shielding assessment of HIE-ISOLDE.  

PubMed

The high intensity and energy ISOLDE (HIE-ISOLDE) project is an upgrade to the existing ISOLDE facility at CERN. The foreseen increase in the nominal intensity and the energy of the primary proton beam of the existing ISOLDE facility aims at increasing the intensity of the produced radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The currently existing ISOLDE facility uses the proton beam from the proton-synchrotron booster with an energy of 1.4 GeV and an intensity up to 2 ?A. After upgrade (final stage), the HIE-ISOLDE facility is supposed to run at an energy up to 2 GeV and an intensity up to 4 ?A. The foreseen upgrade imposes constrains, from the radiation protection and the radiation safety point of view, to the existing experimental and supply areas. Taking into account the upgraded energy and intensity of the primary proton beam, a new assessment of the radiation protection and radiation safety of the HIE-ISOLDE facility is necessary. Special attention must be devoted to the shielding assessment of the beam dumps and of the experimental areas. In this work the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo particle transport simulation program FLUKA was used to perform the computation of the ambient dose equivalent rate distribution and of the particle fluxes in the projected HIE-ISOLDE facility (taking into account the upgrade nominal primary proton beam energy and intensity) and the shielding assessment of the facility, with the aim of identifying in the existing facility (ISOLDE) the critical areas and locations where new or reinforced shielding may be necessary. The consequences of the upgraded proton beam parameters on the operational radiation protection of the facility were studied. PMID:23516267

Romanets, Y; Bernardes, A P; Dorsival, A; Gonçalves, I F; Kadi, Y; di Maria, S; Vaz, P; Vlachoudis, V; Vollaire, J

2013-07-01

86

Shielded radiation protection quantities beyond LEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recommended that the quantities used to evaluate health risk to astronauts due to radiation exposure be effective dose and gray-equivalent. The NCRP recommends that effective dose be the limiting quantity for prevention of stochastic effects. Effective dose is a measure of whole body exposure, a weighted average of dose equivalent to a number body tissues for which the NCRP has adopted tissue weighting factors recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). For deterministic effects, the NCRP has recommended that gray-equivalent be used. Gray-equivalent is evaluated for specific critical organs and is the weighted sum of absorbed dose from field components to that organ using the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) number for that field component. RBE numbers recommended by the NCRP are used. The NCRP has provided effective dose limits as well as limits for gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO) for astronauts in low earth orbit (LEO). As yet, no such limits have been defined for astronaut operations beyond LEO. In this study, the radiation protection quantities, effective dose and gray-equivalent to the eyes, skin, and BFO, are calculated for several environments beyond LEO. The lunar surface and Martian environments are included. For each environment, these radiation protection quantities are calculated behind varying amounts of various types of shielding materials. The results are compared to the exposure limits for LEO, since limits have not yet been defined for interplanetary missions. The benefits of using shielding material containing hydrogen and choosing optimal mission times are discussed.

Clowdsley, M. S.; Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M. Y.; Anderson, B. M.; Nealy, J. E.

87

Radiation protection and radiation recovery with essential metalloelement chelates  

SciTech Connect

This review presents the roles of some essential metalloelement-dependent enzymes in tissue maintenance and function, and their responses to radiation injury in accounting for radiation protection and recovery effects observed for nontoxic doses of essential metalloelement compounds. Effects of biochemicals including water undergoing bond radiolysis and the effects of free radicals derived from diatomic oxygen account for the acute and chronic aspects of radiation injury. Copper chelates have radiation protection and radiation recovery activities and cause rapid recovery of immunocompetency and recovery from radiation-induced histopathology. Mice treated with Cu(II){sub 2}(3,5-disopropylsalicy-late){sub 4}[Cu(II){sub 2}(3,5-DIPS){sub 4}] had increased survival and corresponding increases in numbers of myeloid and multipotential progenitor cells early after irradiation and earlier recovery of immune reactivity. Examination of radiation-induced histopathology in spleen, bone marrow, thymus, and small intestine also revealed Cu(II){sub 2}(3,5-DIPS){sub 4}-mediated rapid recovery of radiation-induced histopathology. Most recently, Fe, Mn, and Zn complexes have also been found to prevent death in lethally irradiated mice. These pharmacological effects of essential metalloelement chelates can be understood as due to facilitation of de novo synthesis of essential metalloelement-dependent enzymes which have roles in preventing the accumulation of pathological concentrations of oxygen radicals or repairing biochemical damage caused by radiation-induced bond homolysis. Essential metalloelement chelates offer a physiological approach to prevention and/or treatment of radiation injury. 97 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Sorenson, J.R.J.; Soderberg, L.S.F.; Chang, L.W. [Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)

1995-12-01

88

Radiation Protection Using Carbon Nanotube Derivatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BHA and BHT are well-known food preservatives that are excellent radical scavengers. These compounds, attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), could serve as excellent radical traps. The amino-BHT groups can be associated with SWNTs that have carbolyxic acid groups via acid-base association or via covalent association. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection or cellular stress mitigation via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds of SWNTs and their derivatives. It works by reducing the number of free radicals within or nearby a cell, tissue, organ, or living organism. This reduces the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including (but not limited to) cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. These derivatives can show an unusually high scavenging ability, which could prove efficacious in protecting living systems from radical-induced decay. This technique could be used to protect healthy cells in a living biological system from the effects of radiation therapy. It could also be used as a prophylactic or antidote for radiation exposure due to accidental, terrorist, or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons; high-altitude or space travel (where radiation exposure is generally higher than desired); or in any scenario where exposure to radiation is expected or anticipated. This invention s ultimate use will be dependent on the utility in an overall biological system where many levels of toxicity have to be evaluated. This can only be assessed at a later stage. In vitro toxicity will first be assessed, followed by in vivo non-mammalian screening in zebra fish for toxicity and therapeutic efficacy.

Conyers, Jodie L., Jr.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward

2010-01-01

89

Neutron spectrometry for radiation protection: Three examples  

SciTech Connect

Workers and the general public are exposed to neutron radiation from a variety of sources, including fission and fusion reactors, accelerators, the nuclear fuel and nuclear weapons cycles, and cosmic rays in space, in aircraft and on the earth. Because the health effects of neutrons depend strongly on their energy, neutron spectrometry is essential for accurate risk-related neutron dosimetry. In addition, the penetration of neutrons through protective shielding changes their energy and can be difficult to calculate reliably, so the measurement of energy spectra is often needed to verify neutron transport calculations. The Environmental Measurements Laboratory has been measuring neutron energy spectra for over 20 years, primarily with multisphere (or Bonner sphere) spectrometers. Because of this experience, the Laboratory has responded to a number of requests to provide reference neutron energy spectra at critical locations in or near nuclear facilities and radiation fields. This talk will describe the author`s instruments and three recent examples of their use: outside the Princeton Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), up to two kilometers from the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) bare reactor, and in a Canadian Forces jet aircraft at commercial aviation altitudes. All of these studies have implications beyond routine occupational radiation protection. For example, the APRF measurements are part of the broad effort to resolve the discrepancy between measured and calculated thermal neutron activation at Hiroshima, one of the most important unsolved problems in radiation dosimetry.

Goldhagen, P.

1995-12-31

90

Mars Technology Program: Planetary Protection Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the development of Planetary Protection Technology in the Mars Technology Program. The goal of the program is to develop technologies that will enable NASA to build, launch, and operate a mission that has subsystems with different Planetary Protection (PP) classifications, specifically for operating a Category IVb-equivalent subsystem from a Category IVa platform. The IVa category of planetary protection requires bioburden reduction (i.e., no sterilization is required) The IVb category in addition to IVa requirements: (i.e., terminal sterilization of spacecraft is required). The differences between the categories are further reviewed.

Lin, Ying

2006-01-01

91

40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA...

2013-07-01

92

Programs & Resources | Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

The Radiation Research Program has a strong commitment to promoting the highest standards in radiotherapy delivery and evaluation. The Advanced Technology Consortium (ATC) and Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) address these issues. RRP is also committed to promoting equal access to healthcare for underserved populations. These efforts include the Cancer Disparities Research Partnership initiated in 202 and current efforts to develop a "Cancer Experts Corps" to provide mentoring to physicians in under-developed areas.

93

Radiation effects program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No existing LINAC Based Beam Heating facility comes within a factor of ten of the needs of a high heating rate thermodynamic properties research facility. The facility could be built at the Naval Research Lab. for a cost in the neighborhood of 2 million dollars. The 10 MeV electron beam would not produce any serious radioactivity but would provide unprecedented beam power for such other applications as food processing, sewer treatment, materials curing, radiation hardness assurance, etc. One can always achieve lower current densities by scattering the beam and moving the device under test further away from the scatterer. In this case one must rely on the TLD readings to indicate the dose rate at the point of interest. For general utility with the beam covering about four TLD's fairly evenly one can claim that the NRL LINAC can produce a maximum dose rate of about 6 x 10 to the 10th power rads (Si) per second for a pulse length of 1.5 microseconds, and about 1.4 x 10 to the 11th power rads (Si) per second in a 50 nanosecond pulse. In both cases the beam area is about 0.4 square centimeters.

1985-09-01

94

Radiation protection and regulations for the nuclear medicine physician.  

PubMed

As authorized users of radioactive material, nuclear medicine (NM) physicians play a leading role in the use and management of these agents. Regarding patient management, NM physicians are responsible for ensuring both the appropriateness of exams and the associated patient doses. Along with radiologists, NM physicians are the ones developing and implementing processes that provide guidance to and dialog with referring physicians to ensure that patients receive the most appropriate type of imaging exams. Regarding regulatory compliance, in collaboration with radiation safety officers, NM physicians are the ones educating their staff about principles of radiation protection and radiation safety with adherence to regulations from agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Transportation, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Food and Drug Administration. On occasion, these regulations and standards can be difficult to comprehend. This article is intended to serve as a condensed guide for NM physicians who are in the process of applying for a radioactive materials license, establishing a new radiation protection program, or want to ensure continued compliance and maintenance of safety and security of licensed materials in the clinical or research settings. PMID:24832587

Chen, Man Yu

2014-05-01

95

US Environmental Protection Agency: National Estuary Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1987 by amendments to the Clean Water Act and administered by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds (OWOW), the National Estuary Program (NEP) identifies, restores and protects estuaries along the coasts of the United States. Unlike the traditional regulatory approaches to environmental protection, the NEP targets a wide range of issues and engages local communities in the process. At the site users can find descriptions of the NEP, specific NEP projects, estuaries involved in the NEP (including location, size, presence of threatened and endangered species, major habitat types, etc.), a current awareness section, links to related sites, and the full text of NEP's newsletter, Coastlines.

96

Protection against solar ultraviolet radiation in childhood.  

PubMed

In the last decade, awareness of the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation has increased. Modern lifestyles, outdoor occupations, sports and other activities make total sun avoidance impossible. Children spend more time outdoors than adults and there is compelling evidence that childhood is a particularly vulnerable time for the photocarcinogenic effects of the sun. Sun exposure among infants and pre-school age children is largely depend on the discretion of adult care providers. It is important to learn safe habits about sun-safety behaviours during the childhood. Children deserve to live and play in safe environments, and it is the responsibility of every adult to help children stay safe. Protecting children from excessive sun exposure is protection from sunburn today and other forms of sun damages, especially skin cancers, in the future. PMID:22220468

Pustisek, Nives; Situm, Mirna

2011-09-01

97

Pinellas Plant groundwater protection management program plan  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the Groundwater Protection Management Program (GPMP) are to establish that current operations and transition of the facility are not affecting groundwater in a way that creates unacceptable risks to human health and safety, or to the environment, and that the plant is working to address any such risks previously identified.

Not Available

1996-10-01

98

River Protection Project (RPP) Environmental Program Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Environmental Program Plan was developed in support of the Integrated Environment, Safety, and Health Management System Plan (ISMS) (RPP-MP-003), which establishes a single, defined environmental, safety, and health management system that integrates requirements into the work planning and execution processes to protect workers, the public, and the environment. The ISMS also provides mechanisms for increasing worker involvement in work

2000-01-01

99

Protection of Computer Programs--A Dilemma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer programs, as legitimate original inventions or creative written expressions, are entitled to patent or copyright protection. Understanding the legal implications of this concept is crucial to both computer programmers and their employers in our increasingly computer-oriented way of life. Basically the copyright or patent procedure…

Carnahan, William H.

100

Radiation protection guidelines for the skin  

SciTech Connect

With the exception of the function of cells in the skin associated with immunocompetence nonstochastic effects have been well characterized and threshold doses are known with a precision appropriate for setting radiation protection standards. A dose limitation of 0.5 Sv per year and a working lifetime dose limit of 20 Sv should protect the worker population adequately and therefore, the current protection standards are quite adequate. The risk estimate for skin cancer is very dependent on the selection of the projection model and on the mortality rate assumed. Based on the relative risk model, a mortality rate of 0.2% and summing risks for both UVR exposed and shielded skin the risk is about twice (1.94/10{sup {minus}4} Sv{sup {minus}1}) that which ICRP derived in 1977. With the absolute model the risk is considerably less, about 0.5/10{sup {minus}4} Sv{sup {minus}1}. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Fry, R.J.M.

1989-01-01

101

The reference individual of radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

The 70-kg {open_quotes}standard man{close_quotes} representing a typical Western adult male has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s. In 1949 at the Chalk River conference, health physicists from the U.S., UK, and Canada agreed on the concept of a standard man to facilitate comparison of internal dose estimates. The 70-kg standard man included specifications of the masses of 25 organs and tissues, total body content of 15 elements, total water intake and output, water content of the body, and some anatomical and physiological data for the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. In 1959, in its Publication 2{sup 2} on permissible doses for internal radiation the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) modified standard man. In 1963 the ICRP established a task group to revise and extend the standard man concept. The name was changed later to Reference Man and the task group`s work was published in 1975 as ICRP Publication 23{sup 3}. Publication 23 similar to Publication 2, updates and documents the sources of the data. Data on women, children, and fetuses were also collected, where available, but these data were limited primarily to anatomical data and only a few reference values were established for these groups. Information assembled during the course of the effort on the Reference Man report was used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to construct a mathematical representation of the body (a phantom) that was suitable for use with Monte Carlo methods in the calculation of organ doses. That effort was undertaken to improve estimates of dose from photon-emitting radionuclides residing within organs, so-called internal emitters. The phantom, although updated throughout the years, remains today as the basis for organ dose estimates in nuclear medicine and radiation protection and underlies the radiation risk data derived from the epidemiologic studies of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Eckerman, K.F.; Cristy, M.

1995-12-31

102

State wetlands and riparian area protection programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The protection of wetlands and riparian areas has emerged as an important environmental planning issue. In the United States, several federal and state laws have been enacted to protect wetlands and riparian areas. Specifically, the federal Clean Water Act includes protection requirements in Sections 301 and 303 for state water quality standards, Section 401 for state certification of federal actions (projects, permits, and licenses), and Section 404 for dredge and fill permits. The Section 401 water quality state certification element has been called the “sleeping giant” of wetlands protection because it empowers state officials to veto or condition federally permitted or licensed activities that do not comply with state water quality standards. State officials have used this power infrequently. The purpose of this research was to analyze the effectiveness of state wetland and riparian programs. Contacts were established with officials in each state and in the national and regional offices of key federal agencies. Based on interviews and on a review of federal and state laws, state program effectiveness was analyzed. From this analysis, several problems and opportunities facing state wetland protection efforts are presented.

Steiner, Frederick; Pieart, Scott; Cook, Edward; Rich, Jacqueline; Coltman, Virginia

1994-03-01

103

The SunWise School Program Guide: A School Program that Radiates Good Ideas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help educators raise sun safety awareness, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the SunWise School Program, a national education program for children in grades K through 8. SunWise Partner Schools sponsor classroom and schoolwide activities that raise children's awareness of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation,…

US Environmental Protection Agency, 2003

2003-01-01

104

79 FR 6509 - Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Nuclear Power Operations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...program generally provide two types of controls...standards). For most major industries, including...adopt standards for the protection of water quality, including...applicable radiation protection standards for future...20\\ In response to major climate change initiatives...Institute has stated ``Two major analyses issued...The Environmental......

2014-02-04

105

Radiated Emission Limits to Protect Digital Wireless Communication Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

International limits for maximum levels of unintentional radiated emission from electronic devices are developed to protect analog communication services. The international standardization work to develop such limits to protect digital communication servi...

P. Stenumgaard

2004-01-01

106

Protecting Lunar Colonies From Space Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When Apollo 7 astronaut Walter Cunningham blasted off from Earth on 11 October 1968, the last thing he was thinking about was radiation risks or any risks at all. “Fear doesn’t even enter your mind because you have confidence in yourself, your own ability, your training, and your knowledge,” Cunningham told Space Weather. As a crew member of the first manned mission in the Apollo program and the first three-man American space mission, Cunningham spent 11 days in Earth orbit, testing life-support, propulsion, and control systems on a redesigned command module. In retrospect, compared with immediate risks such as those associated with launch and reentry, “exposure to radiation, which could have long-term effects—we just never gave that a thought,” Cunningham said.

Kumar, Mohi

2009-08-01

107

Application of solid state nuclear track detectors in radiation protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article reviews the current status of the application of nuclear track detectors with emphasis on recent developments in the field of radiation protection. Track etch detectors have been used for the measurements of low level radiation in the environ...

T. V. Ramachandran M. C. Subba Ramu U. C. Mishra

1989-01-01

108

Space Radiation Protection, Space Weather, and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during a deep space exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon may differ by multiple orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for our ability to conduct exploration operations. With these differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, we present the status of the efforts currently underway as the required development to enable exploration operations. The changes in the operating environment as crewed operations begin to stretch away from the Earth are changing the way we think about the lines between research and operations . The real, practical work to enable a permanent human presence away from Earth has already begun

Zapp, Neal; Fry, Dan; Lee, Kerry

2010-01-01

109

Space Radiation Protection, Space Weather, and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight -- and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during an exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon may differ by multiple orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for our ability to conduct exploration operations. With these differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, we present the status of the efforts currently underway as the required development to enable exploration operations. The changes in the operating environment as crewed operations begin to stretch away from the Earth are changing the way we think about the lines between "research" and "operations". The real, practical work to enable a permanent human presence away from Earth has already begun.

Zapp, Neal; Rutledge, R.; Semones, E. J.; Johnson, A. S.; Guetersloh, S.; Fry, D.; Stoffle, N.; Lee, K.

2008-01-01

110

Space Weather Status for Exploration Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during an exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and in free space, for example, may differ by orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for the ability to conduct exploration operations. We present a current status of developing operational concepts for manned exploration and expectations for asset viability and available predictive and characterization toolsets.

Fry, Dan J.; Lee, Kerry; Zapp, Neal; Barzilla, Janet; Dunegan, Audrey; Johnson, Steve; Stoffle, Nicholas

2011-01-01

111

Radiation protection guidance for activities in low-earth orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific Committee 75 (SC 75) of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) was assembled for the purpose of providing guidance to NASA concerning radiation protection in low-Earth orbit. The report of SC 75 was published in December 2000 as NCRP Report No. 132. In this presentation an overview of the findings and recommendations of the committee report

L. W. Townsend; R. J. M. Fry

2002-01-01

112

About RRP | Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

The MRTB is an RRP in-house laboratory program that serves as a focal point for collaborations with the Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP) and Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP) in DCTD, investigators in the Radiation Biology and Radiation Oncology Branches in the Center for Cancer Research (CCR), and university and industry collaborators specifically addressing research and development needs in combined modality therapy using radiation.

113

70 FR 66392 - Endangered Species Protection Program Field Implementation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...update Bulletins as protection decisions are made...this will allow protections to be implemented...Endangered Species Protection Program Field Implementation...plan is based on two goals. The first...provide appropriate protection to listed species...listed species protections where such...

2005-11-02

114

River Protection Project (RPP) Environmental Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Program Plan was developed in support of the Integrated Environment, Safety, and Health Management System Plan (ISMS) (RPP-MP-003), which establishes a single, defined environmental, safety, and health management system that integrates requirements into the work planning and execution processes to protect workers, the public, and the environment. The ISMS also provides mechanisms for increasing worker involvement in work planning, including hazard and environmental impact identification, analysis, and control; work execution; and feedback/improvement processes. The ISMS plan consists of six core functions. Each section of this plan describes the activities of the River Protection Project (RPP) (formerly known as the Tank Waste Remediation System) Environmental organization according to the following core functions: Establish Environmental Policy; Define the Scope of Work; Identify Hazards, Environmental Impacts, and Requirements; Analyze Hazards and Environmental Impacts and Implement Controls; Perform Work within Controls; and Provide Feedback and Continuous Improvement.

POWELL, P.A.

2000-03-29

115

Improved Spacecraft Materials for Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods by which radiation shielding is optimized need to be developed and materials of improved shielding characteristics identified and validated. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are very penetrating and the energy absorbed by the astronaut behind the shield is nearly independent of shield composition and even the shield thickness. However, the mix of particles in the transmitted beam changes rapidly with shield material composition and thickness. This results in part from the breakup of the high-energy heavy ions of the GCR which make contributions to biological effects out of proportion to their deposited energy. So the mixture of particles in the radiation field changes with shielding and the control of risk contributions from dominant particle types is critical to reducing the hazard to the astronaut. The risk of biological injury for a given particle type depends on the type of biological effect and is specific to cell or tissue type. Thus, one is faced with choosing materials which may protect a given tissue against a given effect but leave unchanged or even increase the risk of other effects in the same tissue or increase the risks to other adjacent tissues of a different type in the same individual. The optimization of shield composition will then be tied to a specific tissue and risk to that tissue. Such peculiarities arise from the complicated mixture of particles, the nature of their biological response, and the details of their interaction with material constituents. Aside from the understanding of the biological response to specific components, one also needs an accurate understanding of the radiation emerging from the shield material. This latter subject has been a principal element of this project. In the past ten years our understanding of space radiation interactions with materials has changed radically, with a large impact on shield design. For example, the NCRP estimated that only 2 g/sq cm. of aluminum would be required to meet the annual 500 mSv limit for the exposure of the blood forming organs (this limit is strictly for LEO but can be used as a guideline for the Mars mission analysis). The current estimates require aluminum shield thicknesses above 50 g/sq cm., which is impractical. In such a heavily shielded vehicle, the neutrons produced throughout the vehicle also contribute significantly to the exposure and this demands greater care in describing the angular dependence of secondary particle production processes. As such the continued testing of databases and transport procedures in laboratory and spaceflight experiments has continued. This has been the focus of much of the last year's activity and has resulted in improved neutron prediction capability. These new methods have also improved our understanding of the surface environment of Mars. The Mars 2003 NRA HEDS related surface science requirements were driven by the need to validate predictions on the upward flux of neutrons produced in the Martian regolith and bedrock made by the codes developed under this project. The codes used in the surface environment definition are also being used to look at in situ resources for the development of construction material for Martian surface facilities. For example, synthesis of polyimides and polyethylene as binders of regolith for developing basic structural elements has been studied and targets built for accelerator beam testing of radiation shielding properties. Preliminary mechanical tests have also been promising. Improved spacecraft materials have been identified (using the criteria reported by this project at the last conference) as potentially important for future shielding materials. These are liquid hydrogen, hydrogenated nanofibers, liquid methane, LiH, Polyethylene, Polysulfone, and Polyetherimide (in order of decreasing shield performance). Some of the materials are multifunctional and are required for other onboard systems. We are currently preparing software for trade studies with these materials relative to the Mars Reference Mission as required in the project's final year.

Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Shinn, J. L.; Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Thibeault, Sheila Ann; Kim, M.-H. Y.; Heinbockel, John H.; Badhwar, Gautam D.

2001-01-01

116

Study of Biological Effects and Radiation Protection to Future European Manned Space Flights.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Earth's radiation environment; radiation dose calculation and measurement; foreseen exposure in European manned space missions; biological effects of radiation; and radiation monitoring and protection are discussed.

J. Bourrieau J. Berry J. P. Philippon M. Roux G. Reitz

1988-01-01

117

Protecao radiologica para bombeiros. (Radiation protection to firemen).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic Knowledge about ionizing radiation oriented for firemen, are presented. The mainly damage and effects caused by radiation exposure as well as the method of radiation protection are described in simple words. The action to be taken in case of fir...

E. S. Almeida

1985-01-01

118

Space Radiation Effects Program: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Radiation Effects Program (SPACE-RAD), a comprehensive space measurement and modeling program to advance understanding of the harsh space radiation environment near the Earth and its deleterious effects on space systems, is described. The six principal space experiments of SPACE-RAD consist of two engineering experiments (the microelectronics package and the internal discharge monitor) and four particle experiments (the proton

M. S. Gussenhoven; E. G. Mullen

1993-01-01

119

78 FR 19148 - Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and Licensing Conditions for Dry Storage...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...72 [NRC-2013-0051] Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and Licensing...SFST-ISG-26A), Revision 0, ``Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and Licensing...staff when reviewing the shielding and radiation protection portions of applications...

2013-03-29

120

Initiatives & Programs | Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

The table below lists the estimated number of patients requiring surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy for the different types of cancers as well as the average length of stay (ALOS) in hospital for each of these treatments.

121

Initiatives & Programs | Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

The table below lists the estimated percentage of patients requiring surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy for the different types of cancers as well as the average length of stay (ALOS) in hospital (in days) for each of these treatments.

122

Programs & Resources | Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

The table below lists the estimated percentage of patients requiring surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy for the different types of cancers as well as the average length of stay (ALOS) in hospital (in days) for each of these treatments.

123

Programs & Resources | Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

The table below lists the estimated number of patients requiring surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy for the different types of cancers as well as the average length of stay (ALOS) in hospital for each of these treatments.

124

Knowledge, skills, and abilities for key radiation protection positions at DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

This document provides detailed qualification criteria for contractor key radiation protection personnel. Although federal key radiation protection positions are also identified, qualification standards for federal positions are provided in DOE O 360.1 and the DOE Technical Qualifications Program. Appendices B and D provide detailed listings for knowledge, skills, and abilities for contractor and DOE federal key radiation protection positions. This information may be used in developing position descriptions and individual development plans. Information provided in Appendix C may be useful in developing performance measures and assessing an individual`s performance in his or her specific position. Additionally, Federal personnel may use this information to augment their Office/facility qualification standards under the Technical Qualifications Program.

NONE

1997-01-01

125

The NASA Space Radiation Research Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a comprehensive overview of the NASA Space Radiation Research Program. This program combines basic research on the mechanisms of radiobiological action relevant for improving knowledge of the risks of cancer, central nervous system and other possible degenerative tissue effects, and acute radiation syndromes from space radiation. The keystones of the NASA Program are five NASA Specialized Center's of Research (NSCOR) investigating space radiation risks. Other research is carried out through peer-reviewed individual investigations and in collaboration with the US Department of Energies Low-Dose Research Program. The Space Radiation Research Program has established the Risk Assessment Project to integrate data from the NSCOR s and other peer-reviewed research into quantitative projection models with the goals of steering research into data and scientific breakthroughs that will reduce the uncertainties in current risk projections and developing the scientific knowledge needed for future individual risk assessment approaches and biological countermeasure assessments or design. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory was created by the Program to simulate space radiation on the ground in support of the above research programs. New results from NSRL will be described.

Cucinotta, Francis A.

2006-01-01

126

Recommended Radiation Protection Practices for Low-Level Waste Disposal Sites  

SciTech Connect

The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in estsblishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) dis- posal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW dis- posal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control , internal exposure control , respiratory protection, survei 1 - lance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of the occupa- tionally exposed individuals. As a result, radiation protection practices were recommended with related rationales in order to reduce occupational exposures as far below specified radiation limits as is reasonably achievable. In addition, recommendations were developed for achieving occupational exposure ALARA under the Regulatory Requirements issued in 10 CFR Part 61.

D. E. Hadlock, C. D. Hooker, W. N. Herrington, R. L. Gilchrist

1983-12-01

127

Swedish approaches to radiation protection at nuclear power stations  

SciTech Connect

This paper compares Swedish health physics programs at nuclear power plants to U.S. programs. Analysis of the Swedish programs includes examination of health physics staff training, size and longevity. Health physics practices are discussed, especially practices during refueling outages. The paper is based on site visits to Ringhals and Oskarshamn by U.S. radiation protection managers in October, 1995, under the sponsorship of the North American Regional Technical Center, ISOE, NEA/IAEA. The reactor vessel decontamination at Oskarshamn 1 BWR is discussed including good health physics practices and radiological results. Ringhals unique management organization is discussed with respect to health physics division of responsibilities and differences between in-plant and on-site health physics groups. Analytical results of failed fuel events at Ringhals is also presented including the observed occurrence of cobalt knock-off. Finally, trends in Swedish plants collective doses are summarized. Comprehensive Swedish studies of potential collective doses over the next 20 years are discussed including management options related to dose reduction options.

Knapp, P. [Southern California Edison Co., San Clemente, CA (United States); Miller, D.W. [Illinois Power Co., Clinton, IL (United States)

1996-06-01

128

Radiation protection guidance for activities in low-earth orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific Committee 75 (SC 75) of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) was assembled for the purpose of providing guidance to NASA concerning radiation protection in low-Earth orbit. The report of SC 75 was published in December 2000 as NCRP Report No. 132. In this presentation an overview of the findings and recommendations of the committee report will be presented.

Townsend, L. W.; Fry, R. J. M.

129

Programs & Resources | Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Search this site Programs & Resources Main Human Resources Needed for Cancer Control in Low & Middle Income Countries Human Resources Needed for Cervical Cancer Screening Specialized Initiatives Information Systems Funded Research NIH

130

Initiatives & Programs | Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

As part of its cutting-edge program, the Cancer Imaging Program (CIP) plays a critical role in the activities of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and NCI, contributing to the integration of imaging with emerging technologies such as nanotechnology, proteomics, and high-throughput screening. In addition to funding projects in key areas, CIP supports researchers by providing pooled resources and developing protocols that encourage the sharing of data, samples, and results.

131

NASA Human Research Program Space Radiation Program Element  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is to ensure that crews can safely live and work in the space radiation environment. Current work is focused on developing the knowledge base and tools required for accurate assessment of health risks resulting from space radiation exposure including cancer and circulatory and central nervous system diseases, as well as acute risks from solar particle events. Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) Space Radiation Team scientists work at multiple levels to advance this goal, with major projects in biological risk research; epidemiology; and physical, biophysical, and biological modeling.

Chappell, Lori; Huff, Janice; Patel, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Hu, Shaowwen; Kidane, Yared; Myung-Hee, Kim; Li, Yongfeng; Nounu, Hatem; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem; Hada, Megumi

2013-01-01

132

SI units in radiation protection and measurements  

SciTech Connect

This report considers the concepts of quantities and units, discusses the International System, develops the relationships between conventional and SI units for radiation quantities, considers arguments for and against the adoption of SI units in terms of their use in various fields of activity, and provides recommendations for action. Emphasis in this report is given to ionizing radiation with some discussion of the use of the SI for nonionizing radiation.

Not Available

1985-01-01

133

Radiation protection for manned space activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth's natural radiation environment poses a hazard to manned space activities directly through biological effects and indirectly through effects on materials and electronics. The following standard practices are indicated that address: (1) environment models for all radiation species including uncertainties and temporal variations; (2) upper bound and nominal quality factors for biological radiation effects that include dose, dose rate, critical organ, and linear energy transfer variations; (3) particle transport and shielding methodology including system and man modeling and uncertainty analysis; (4) mission planning that includes active dosimetry, minimizes exposure during extravehicular activities, subjects every mission to a radiation review, and specifies operational procedures for forecasting, recognizing, and dealing with large solar flaes.

Jordan, T. M.

1983-01-01

134

Industrial irradiator radiation safety program assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considerable attention is typically given to radiation safety in the design of irradiators and initially establishing the program. However, one component that may not receive enough attention is applying the continuous improvement philosophy to the radiation safety program. Periodic total program assessments of radiation safety can ensure that the design and implementation of the program continues to be applicable to the operations. The first step in the process must be to determine what is to be covered in the program assessment. While regulatory compliance audits are a component, the most useful evaluation will extend beyond looking only at compliance and determine whether the radiation safety program is the most appropriate for the particular operation. Several aspects of the irradiator operation, not all of which may routinely be considered "radiation safety", per se, should be included: Design aspects of the irradiator and operating system, system controls, and maintenance procedures, as well as the more traditional radiation safety program components such as surveys, measurements and training.

Smith, Mark A.

2000-03-01

135

Radiation Protection Enrollments and Degrees. Enrollments--Fall 1973. Degrees Granted July 1965-June 1973.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The demand for radiation protection personnel has increased during the past several years and can be expected to continue to increase for several years to come. This document gives the results of the latest survey of institutions offering degree programs in this field. Such a small segment of the total college enrollment is represented in health…

Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC. Div. of Labor Relations.

136

DCTD — Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

Based in large measure on the CDRP grantees and their mentors, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) now has a robust Cancer Disparities Committee, and the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) has incorporated a symposium on health disparities into its annual meeting so that addressing health disparities is a strong focus of radiation oncology.

137

Space activities and radiation protection of crew members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personnel working as crew in space-based activities e.g. professional astronauts and cosmo-nauts but also -to a certain extend-space flight participants ("space tourists"), demand health and safety considerations that have to include radiation protection measures. The radiation environment that a crew is exposed to during a space flight, differs significantly to that found on earth including commercial aviation, mainly due to the presence of heavy charged particles with great potential for biological damage. The exposure exceeds those routinely received by terrestrial radiation workers. A sequence of activities has to be conducted targeting to mitigate adverse effects of space radiation. Considerable information is available and applied through the joint efforts of the Space Agencies that are involved in the operations of the International Space Station, ISS. This presentation will give an introduction to the current measures for ra-diation monitoring and protection of astronauts of the European Space Agency (ESA). It will include information: on the radiation protection guidelines that shall ensure the proper imple-mentation and execution of radiation protection measures, the operational hardware used for radiation monitoring and personal dosimetry on ISS, as well as information about operational procedures that are applied.

Straube, Ulrich; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Facius, Rainer; Reiter, Thomas; Kehl, Marcel; Damann, M. D. Volker; Tognini, Michel

138

Clinical Trials | Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Search this site Clinical Trials Main Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program National Clincal Trials Network NRG Oncology Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Quality Assurance IMRT Guidelines (MS Word) Proton Guidelines (MS Word) Federal

139

About RRP | Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

Participates in clinical, developmental, investigational, educational and extramural community-related activities of the Radiation Oncology Sciences Program, which includes the Radiation Oncology Branch and the Cancer Disparities Research Partnerships. Consults and collaborates with the Radiotherapy Development Branch and Medical Physics. In addition, participates in quality assurance activities, cooperative group liaisons, and on-site reviews of the NCI and NIH.

140

The USDA Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation Monitoring Program has been measuring UV radiation since 1994. The initial network of 12 stations employed broadband meters to measure UVB irradiance and included ancillary measurements of temperature, humidity, and irradiance at seven wavelengths in the visible produced by a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). Since that beginning the network has expanded

D. S. Bigelow; J. R. Slusser; A. F. Beaubien; J. H. Gibson

1998-01-01

141

Spacecraft Thermal Radiation Environment Computer Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program computes the total thermal radiation flux on each of a set of exposed surface elements of a spacecraft in the vicinity of a celestial body. The incident flux consists of solar, both direct and planetary-reflected, and planetary-emitted infrared radiation as functions of time.

Paoletti, C. J.; Scates, J. H.

1969-01-01

142

Protection from radiation-induced pneumonitis using cerium oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In an effort to combat the harmful effects of radiation exposure, we propose that rare-earth cerium oxide (CeO(2)) nanoparticles (free-radical scavengers) protect normal tissue from radiation-induced damage. Preliminary studies suggest that these nanoparticles may be a therapeutic regenerative nanomedicine that will scavenge reactive oxygen species, which are responsible for radiation-induced cell damage. The effectiveness of CeO(2) nanoparticles in radiation protection in murine models during high-dose radiation exposure is investigated, with the ultimate goal of offering a new approach to radiation protection, using nanotechnology. We show that CeO(2) nanoparticles are well tolerated by live animals, and they prevent the onset of radiation-induced pneumonitis when delivered to live animals exposed to high doses of radiation. In the end, these studies provide a tremendous potential for radioprotection and can lead to significant benefits for the preservation of human health and the quality of life for humans receiving radiation therapy. PMID:19285453

Colon, Jimmie; Herrera, Luis; Smith, Joshua; Patil, Swanand; Komanski, Chris; Kupelian, Patrick; Seal, Sudipta; Jenkins, D Wayne; Baker, Cheryl H

2009-06-01

143

Simple Benchmark Specifications for Space Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report defines space radiation benchmark specifications. This specification starts with simple, monoenergetic, mono-directional particles on slabs and progresses to human models in spacecraft. This report specifies the models and sources needed to what the team performing the benchmark needs to produce in a report. Also included are brief descriptions of how OLTARIS, the NASA Langley website for space radiation analysis, performs its analysis.

Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.; Aghara, Sukesh K.

2013-01-01

144

Mars Radiator Characterization Experimental Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiators are an enabling technology for the human exploration and development of the moon and Mars. As standard components of the heat rejection subsystem of space vehicles, radiators are used to reject waste heat to space and/or a planetary environment. They are typically large components of the thermal control system for a space vehicle or human habitation facility, and in some cases safety factors are used to oversize them when the operating environment cannot be fully characterized. Over-sizing can impose significant weight and size penalties that might be prohibitive for future missions. Radiator performance depends on the size of the radiator surface, its emittance and absorptance, the radiator temperature, the effective sky temperature surrounding the radiator, solar radiation and atmospheric irradiation levels, convection to or from the atmosphere (on Mars), and other conditions that could affect the nature of the radiator surface, such as dust accumulation. Most particularly, dust is expected to be a major contributor to the local environmental conditions on either the lunar or Martian surface. This conclusion regarding Mars is supported by measurements of dust accumulation on the Mars Sojourner Rover solar array during the Pathfinder mission. This Final Report describes a study of the effect of Martian dust accumulation on radiator performance. It is comprised of quantitative measurements of effective emittance for a range of dust accumulation levels on surfaces of known emittance under clean conditions. The test radiator coatings were Z-93P, NS-43G, and Silver Teflon (10 mil) film. The Martian dust simulant was Carbondale Red Clay. Results were obtained under vacuum conditions sufficient to reduce convection effects virtually to zero. The experiments required the development of a calorimetric apparatus that allows simultaneous measurements of the effective emittance for all the coatings at each set of experimental conditions. A method of adding dust to multiple radiator coupons was developed and shown to be capable of depositing dust on the surfaces with acceptable uniformity. In these experiments, the dust layer accumulates under earth gravity and in the presence of an earth atmosphere. An invention disclosure for the dust deposition apparatus is being filed through NASA and University of Houston.

Witte, Larry C.; Hollingsworth, D. Keith

2004-01-01

145

Programming Protection: The Problem of Software.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the issue of protection of computer software in an expanding market. Presents the legal questions arising from attempts to invoke protection from patent, copyright, and trade secret laws. (JMF)

Slack, Jennifer Daryl

1981-01-01

146

Radiation Protection for Manned Interplanetary Missions - Radiation Sources, Risks, Remedies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health risks in interplanetary explorative missions differ in two major features significantly from those during the manned missions experienced so far. For one, presently available technologies lead to durations of such missions significantly longer than so far encountered - with the added complication that emergency returns are ruled out. Thus radiation exposures and hence risks for late radiation sequelae like

R. Facius; G. Reitz

2006-01-01

147

Radiation-View-Factor Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

VIEW is interactive program determining view factors, graphically displays surfaces, and evaluates solar irradiation of assemblage of surfaces. VIEW programs available in two machine versions. IBM PC version (LAR-14217) written in FORTRAN 77, C language, and assembly language. DEC VAX VMS version (LAR-14468) written in FORTRAN 77.

Emery, Ashley F.

1993-01-01

148

Issues in deep space radiation protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exposures in deep space are largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little biological experience. Mounting evidence indicates that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate for GCR ions. The available biological data indicates that aluminum alloy structures may generate inherently unhealthy internal spacecraft environments in

J. Miller; C. Zeitlin; L. Heilbronn; F. A. Cucinotta; G. D. Badhwar; A. K. Noor; M. Y. Kim; F. F. Badavi; J. H. Heinbockel

2001-01-01

149

Nuclear Research Centre Juelich. 1984 Annual Work Report of the Department for Safety and Radiation Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department for Safety and Radiation Protection continues to be responsible for coordinating radiation protection, safety and protection at the KFA. It supports the other institutes and departments in performing the safety tasks allotted to them. The p...

R. Hille

1985-01-01

150

Physical basis of radiation protection in space travel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The health risks of space radiation are arguably the most serious challenge to space exploration, possibly preventing these missions due to safety concerns or increasing their costs to amounts beyond what would be acceptable. Radiation in space is substantially different from Earth: high-energy (E) and charge (Z) particles (HZE) provide the main contribution to the equivalent dose in deep space, whereas ? rays and low-energy ? particles are major contributors on Earth. This difference causes a high uncertainty on the estimated radiation health risk (including cancer and noncancer effects), and makes protection extremely difficult. In fact, shielding is very difficult in space: the very high energy of the cosmic rays and the severe mass constraints in spaceflight represent a serious hindrance to effective shielding. Here the physical basis of space radiation protection is described, including the most recent achievements in space radiation transport codes and shielding approaches. Although deterministic and Monte Carlo transport codes can now describe well the interaction of cosmic rays with matter, more accurate double-differential nuclear cross sections are needed to improve the codes. Energy deposition in biological molecules and related effects should also be developed to achieve accurate risk models for long-term exploratory missions. Passive shielding can be effective for solar particle events; however, it is limited for galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Active shielding would have to overcome challenging technical hurdles to protect against GCR. Thus, improved risk assessment and genetic and biomedical approaches are a more likely solution to GCR radiation protection issues.

Durante, Marco; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2011-10-01

151

Respiratory Protection Program medical clearance for respirator use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background on occupational exposure to various inhalents is discussed including on-site hazard control measures, procedures, physiological effects, and interpretation of results for the medical clearance of employee for use of personal respiratory protection devices. The purpose of the Respiratory Protection Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Respiratory Protection at LeRC are discussed.

1993-01-01

152

Education | Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Search this site Education Main Published Workshop and Working Groups Workshop Reports Last Updated: 08/23/10 Workshop Reports Workshop on Ion Beam Therapy, January 9-11, 2013 Imaging for Treatment Assessment in Radiation Therapy (ITART),

153

DCTD — Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

C. Norman Coleman, M.D., holds an undergraduate degree in mathematics from the University of Vermont and received his medical training at Yale University School of Medicine. Dr. Coleman completed his internship and residency in internal medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, a fellowship in medical oncology at NCI, and a fellowship in radiation oncology at Stanford University.

154

47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information...prevent human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF...

2010-10-01

155

47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83... Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application...that will cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF...

2009-10-01

156

47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information...prevent human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF...

2009-10-01

157

47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication...Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application...cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2013-10-01

158

Protection against ionizing radiation with eicosanoids  

SciTech Connect

Prostaglandins (PGs) are extremely diverse in their pharmacological activities. They exhibit both antagonistic as well as cytoprotective properties in the pathogenesis of inflammation. Participation of PGs as chemical mediators in the regulation of immune responses and inflammation are increasingly apparent. The antagonistic properties of PGs have been implicated in a variety of symptoms resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation. Post-irradiation increases in small bowel motility, diarrhea, flatulence, abdominal pain, mucositis, and esophagitis have been attributed, in part, to excessive PG production. In contrast, exogenous PGs, particularly of the E type, have been shown to be cytoprotective against a variety of damaging agents, and a deficiency of endogeneous PG has been suggested to contribute to increase susceptibility to injury. These findings have provided much of the impetus to examine the potential cytoprotective effects of PGs in radiation injury.

Steel, L.K.; Catravas, G.N.

1988-01-01

159

DCTD — Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

RRP promotes collaboration between imaging sciences and radiation oncology to develop objective determinations of tumor volumes. To facilitate this collaborative research, the American College of Radiology and the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) have developed Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM), a standard that allows communication between medical image devices. Published by NEMA, the standard is entirely based on freely available software. NEMA recently released a 16-part update of the DICOM standard.

160

Overview of novel techniques for radiation protection and dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally, the main approaches for assessing the radiation protection (RP) quantities in neutron fields are: i) the use of an instrument with a response to the protection quantity quasi-independent of energy; ii) neutron spectrometry; iii) microdosimetry.The techniques based on the first approach include rem-meters, superheated emulsions and the electronic personal dosemeters. Passive rem-meters have recently been developed for assessing the

Stefano Agosteo

2010-01-01

161

Radiation protection and measurement for low-voltage neutron generators  

SciTech Connect

This report is concerned with neutron generators that operate at voltages below a few hundred kilovolts and produce neutrons chiefly by the T(d,n) reaction. The report provides information on the radiation protection problems in the use of these generators and the means available for dealing with these problems. It is intended to serve as a guide to good practice and bring together in one place, a number of recommendations relevant to the use of low voltage neutron generators that have appeared in other NCRP documents. The report surveys the radiations produced by low voltage neutron generators and their measurement. It then addresses the fundamentals of radiation protection, including shielding and physical safeguards. Guidance is given on radioactive waste resulting from the use of neutron generators and information is provided on non-radiation hazards and licensing. 91 references, 4 figures, 7 tables.

Not Available

1983-11-01

162

Space shuttle program: Lightning protection criteria document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lightning environment for space shuttle design is defined and requirements that the design must satisfy to insure protection of the vehicle system from direct and indirect effects of lightning are imposed. Specifications, criteria, and guidelines included provide a practical and logical approach to protection problems.

1975-01-01

163

NIH/NIAID Radiation/Nuclear Medical Countermeasures Development Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial contents: NIAID Radiation/Nuclear Medical Countermeasures Development Program, Types of Radiation Exposure, Components of NIH Strategic Plan and Research Agenda, Radiation Countermeasure Mission Space, Radiation/Nuclear Medical Countermeasures, Ra...

B. W. Maidment

2011-01-01

164

Setting standards for radiation protection: A time for change  

SciTech Connect

In 1950, the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommended that ``certain radiation effects are irreversible and cumulative.`` Furthermore, the ICRP ``strongly recommended that every effort be made to reduce exposures to all types of ionizing radiations to the lowest possible level.`` Then in 1954, the ICRP published its assumption that human response to ionizing radiation was linear with dose, together with the recommendation that exposures be kept as low as practicable. These concepts are still the foundation of radiation protection policy today, even though, as Evans has stated, ``The linear non-threshold (LNT) model was adopted specifically on a basis of mathematical simplicity, not from radio-biological data.... Groups responsible for setting standards for radiation protection should be abreast of new developments and new data as they are published; however, this does not seem to be the case. For example, there have been many reports in scientific, peer-reviewed, and other publications during the last three decades that have shown the LNT model and the policy of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) to be invalid. However, none of these reports has been refuted or even discussed by standard-setting groups. We believe this mandates a change in the standard-setting process.

Patterson, H.W.; Hickman, D.P.

1996-01-01

165

Health protection: Toxic agent and radiation control.  

PubMed Central

It is estimated that of the four million chemical compounds which have been synthesized or isolated from natural materials, more than 55,000 are produced commercially. Approximately 1,000 new compounds are introduced annually; pesticide formulations alone contain about 1,500 active chemical ingredients. Diagnostic x-rays are used extensively in medicine and dentistry. Over 2,000 chemicals are suspected carcinogens in laboratory animals--epidemiologic evidence suggests that 26 of these chemicals and/or industrial processes are carcinogenic in humans. More than 20 agents are known to be associated with birth defects in humans; 47 atmospheric contaminants have been identified in animal studies as recognized carcinogens and 128 as mutagens; and, of the 765 contaminants identified in drinking water, 12 were recognized carcinogens, 31 suspected carcinogens, and 59 mutagens. Radiation has known carcinogenic and genetic effects at significant levels of exposure. Problems with toxic agents and radiation sources occur not only in industry, but also in medical and dental care (x-rays and drugs), agriculture (pesticides and herbicides), Government activities (biological and chemical agents), consumer products (incorrect use of consumer products which contain toxic substances), and natural sources (fungal products).

1983-01-01

166

Systems Approach to Nuclear Plant Protective Systems Data Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Douglas United Nuclear engineers have developed and refined a computerized data program for the Hanford nuclear reactor complex over an eight-year period. This program is used for the recording, checking, handling, and utilization of large amounts of test and inspection data on nuclear plant protective systems. The program features data collection at the system level, yet it readily permits data

P. A. Crosetti; M. L. Faught

1971-01-01

167

Ultraviolet radiation protection by a beach umbrella.  

PubMed

A beach umbrella intercepts all direct UV irradiance, but only part of the diffuse component. Using a simple sky view factor model, we have determined the fraction of the hemispheric diffuse irradiance that is not intercepted by the umbrella. Assuming a sensor at the surface and close to the center of the umbrella, isotropic diffuse irradiance and for an umbrella of 80 cm radius and 100 cm high, our results show that approximately 34% of the incident horizontal irradiance is not intercepted by the umbrella. These results agree with irradiance measurements conducted with and without the umbrella. The model is next extended to examine receipt of UV radiation by a human figure in a vertical position, either standing or sitting. PMID:20059729

Utrillas, María P; Martínez-Lozano, José A; Nuñez, Manuel

2010-01-01

168

Evaluation of Awareness on Radiation Protection and Knowledge About Radiological Examinations in Healthcare Professionals Who Use Ionized Radiation at Work  

PubMed Central

Objective: In this study, we evaluated the knowledge and perception and mitigation of hazards involved in radiological examinations, focusing on healthcare personnel who are not in radiation-related occupations, but who use ionising radiation as a part of their work. Methods: A questionnaire was applied to physicians, nurses, technicians and other staff working in different clinics that use radiation in their work, in order to evaluate their knowledge levels about ionizing radiation and their awareness about radiation doses resulting from radiological examinations. The statistical comparisons between the groups were analyzed with the Kruskal Wallis test using the SPSS program. Results: Ninety two participants took part in the study. Their level of knowledge about ionizing radiation and doses in radiological examinations were found to be very weak. The number of correct answers of physicians, nurses, medical technicians and other personnel groups were 15.7±3.7, 13.0±4.0, 10.1±2.9 and 11.8±4.0, respectively. In the statistical comparison between the groups, the level of knowledge of physicians was found to be significantly higher than the level of the other groups (p=0.005). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that general knowledge in relation to radiation, radiation protection, health risks and doses used for radiological applications are insufficient among health professions using with ionizing radiation in their work.

Yurt, Aysegul; Cavusoglu, Berrin; Gunay, Turkan

2014-01-01

169

Evaluation of awareness on radiation protection and knowledge about radiological examinations in healthcare professionals who use ionized radiation at work.  

PubMed

Objective: In this study, we evaluated the knowledge and perception and mitigation of hazards involved in radiological examinations, focusing on healthcare personnel who are not in radiation-related occupations, but who use ionising radiation as a part of their work. Methods: A questionnaire was applied to physicians, nurses, technicians and other staff working in different clinics that use radiation in their work, in order to evaluate their knowledge levels about ionizing radiation and their awareness about radiation doses resulting from radiological examinations. The statistical comparisons between the groups were analyzed with the Kruskal Wallis test using the SPSS program. Results: Ninety two participants took part in the study. Their level of knowledge about ionizing radiation and doses in radiological examinations were found to be very weak. The number of correct answers of physicians, nurses, medical technicians and other personnel groups were 15.7±3.7, 13.0±4.0, 10.1±2.9 and 11.8±4.0, respectively. In the statistical comparison between the groups, the level of knowledge of physicians was found to be significantly higher than the level of the other groups (p=0.005). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that general knowledge in relation to radiation, radiation protection, health risks and doses used for radiological applications are insufficient among health professions using with ionizing radiation in their work. PMID:24963445

Yurt, Ay?egül; Cavu?o?lu, Berrin; Günay, Türkan

2014-06-01

170

Preliminary radiation protection analyses of the target SPES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some radiation protection quantities for the SPES target (1) have been preliminary assessed (2). The proton beam interacts with the target disks and the structures around the disks. The inelastic collisions produce neutrons, gammas and radioactive residual nuclei (which can emit gamma, beta and alpha particles). The produced neutrons, in turn, can activate other structural components in the surroundings of

C. Petrovich; A. Andrighetto; C. Antonucci; M. Barbui; L. Biasetto; S. Carturan; F. Cervellera; S. Cevolani; M. Cinausero; L. Costa; P. Colombo; I. Cristofolini; A. Dainelli; M. De Cecco; P. Di Bernardo; M. Giacchini; F. Gramegna; M. Lollo; G. Maggioni; M. Manzolaro; G. Meneghetti; R. Oboe; L. Piga; A. Pisent; G. Prete; V. Rizzi; M. Tonezzer; P. Zanonato; D. Zafiropoulos

171

Radiation protection for human missions to the Moon and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation protection assessments are performed for advanced Lunar and Mars manned missions. The Langley cosmic ray transport code and the nucleon transport code are used to quantify the transport and attenuation of galactic cosmic rays and solar proton flares through various shielding media. Galactic cosmic radiation at solar maximum and minimum, as well as various flare scenarios are considered. Propagation data for water, aluminum, liquid hydrogen, lithium hydride, lead, and lunar and Martian regolith (soil) are included. Shield thickness and shield mass estimates required to maintain incurred doses below 30 day and annual limits (as set for Space Station Freedom and used as a guide for space exploration) are determined for simple geometry transfer vehicles. On the surface of Mars, dose estimates are presented for crews with their only protection being the carbon dioxide atmosphere and for crews protected by shielding provided by Martian regolith for a candidate habitat.

Simonsen, Lisa C.; Nealy, John E.

1991-01-01

172

Radiation protection for human missions to the Moon and Mars  

SciTech Connect

Radiation protection assessments are performed for advanced Lunar and Mars manned missions. The Langley cosmic ray transport code and the nucleon transport code are used to quantify the transport and attenuation of galactic cosmic rays and solar proton flares through various shielding media. Galactic cosmic radiation at solar maximum and minimum, as well as various flare scenarios are considered. Propagation data for water, aluminum, liquid hydrogen, lithium hydride, lead, and lunar and Martian regolith (soil) are included. Shield thickness and shield mass estimates required to maintain incurred doses below 30 day and annual limits (as set for Space Station Freedom and used as a guide for space exploration) are determined for simple geometry transfer vehicles. On the surface of Mars, dose estimates are presented for crews with their only protection being the carbon dioxide atmosphere and for crews protected by shielding provided by Martian regolith for a candidate habitat.

Simonsen, L.C.; Nealy, J.E.

1991-02-01

173

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 45 - Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs A...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL...Appendix A to Part 45âEnvironmental Protection Agency Training Programs...

2013-07-01

174

Meeting the requirements of the wellhead protection program. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this technical guide (TG) is to provide U.S. Army installations with basic guidance on the steps required to address the Wellhead Protection (WHP) Program established in the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1986.

Spellman, S.

1996-02-14

175

Emergency Watershed Protection Program. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Emergency Watershed Protection (EWP) Program helps remove threats to life and property that remain in the nation's watersheds in the aftermath of natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, and wildfires. This Programmatic Environmental I...

2004-01-01

176

Environmental Protection Agency Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. Report to Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) responds to Congress's specific requests for information on: the findings of the Administrator resulting from the screening program; recommendations for further testing needed to evaluate the impact on...

2000-01-01

177

77 FR 35700 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Program Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure Information Collection...Request should be forwarded to DHS/NPPD/IP/IICD, 245 Murray Lane, SW., Mailstop...internal PCII Program, IICD, and NPPD/IP use only.OMB is particularly...

2012-06-14

178

Committee on Radiation Epidemiological Research Programs  

SciTech Connect

The Committee on DoE Radiation Epidemiological Research Programs was originally established in response to the needs of the Office of Health and Envirorunental Research, Office of Energy Research in the Department of Energy (DoE). Following a reorganization of DoE health related programs in 1990, the committee now advises the Office of Epidemiology and Health Surveillance which is under the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health. These administrative changes have not altered the committee concerns but have served to focus the committee's attention on helping DoE plan for an effective system of worker health surveillance as well as an epidemiologic research program.

Mahlum, D.D.

1992-06-01

179

67 FR 71549 - Endangered Species Protection Program Field Implementation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pesticide. The major drawbacks to this...larger and more complex. At the request...consultation into two parts. FWS has...program materials; contribute to the development...proposal is based on two goals. The first...endangered species protections under existing...provide adequate protections for listed species...continually improve......

2002-12-02

180

78 FR 79619 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0938-AR74 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange...Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange...Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity:...

2013-12-31

181

Y-12 Site environmental protection program implementation plan (EPPIP)  

SciTech Connect

The Y-12 Plant Environmental Protection Program is conducted to: (1) protect public health and the environment from chemical and radiological releases occurring from current plant operations and past waste management and operational practices; (2) ensure compliance with federal, state, and local environmental regulations and DOE directives; (3) identify potential environmental problems; (4) evaluate existing environmental contamination and determine the need for remedial actions and mitigative measures; (5) monitor the progress of ongoing remedial actions and cleanup measures; and (6) inform the public of environmental issues relating to DOE operations. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, defines the general requirements for environmental protection programs at DOE facilities. This Environmental Protection Program Implementation Plan (EPPIP) defines the methods by which the Y-12 Plant staff will comply with the order by: (1) referencing environmental protection goals and objectives and identifying strategies and timetables for attaining them; (2) providing the overall framework for the design and implementation of the Y-12 Environmental Protection Program; and (3) assigning responsibilities for complying with the requirements of the order. The EPPIP is revised and updated annually.

NONE

1996-11-01

182

Habitat Design Considerations for Implementing Solar Particle Event Radiation Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation protection is an important habitat design consideration for human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. Fortunately, radiation shelter concepts can effectively reduce astronaut exposure for the relatively low proton energies of solar particle events, enabling moderate duration missions of several months before astronaut exposure (galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event) approaches radiation exposure limits. In order to minimize habitat mass for increasingly challenging missions, design of radiation shelters must minimize dedicated, single-purpose shielding mass by leveraging the design and placement of habitat subsystems, accommodations, and consumables. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems RadWorks Storm Shelter Team has recently designed and performed radiation analysis on several low dedicated mass shelter concepts for a year-long mission. This paper describes habitat design considerations identified during the study's radiation analysis. These considerations include placement of the shelter within a habitat for improved protection, integration of human factors guidance for sizing shelters, identification of potential opportunities for habitat subsystems to compromise on individual subsystem performances for overall vehicle mass reductions, and pre-configuration of shelter components for reduced deployment times.

Simon, Mathew A.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Walker, Steven A.

2013-01-01

183

EPA Radiation Protection for Students and Teachers (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) site explains the basic concepts of radiation and radiation protection. Background information includes the history of radiation protection and brief biographies of radiation researchers. There is also basic technical information, such as the types of radiation, radiation warning symbols, basic terms, and a dose calculator. Students can test what they have learned with puzzles and a quiz.

184

Improved Windshield and Canopy Protection Development Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses a program to develop high performance aircraft windshields and canopies capable of sustaining impacts by 4 lb birds at speeds of 500 knots and above. A multi-task program evaluated not only bird impact resistance but structural and th...

H. E. Littell

1974-01-01

185

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) RESEARCH PROGRAM GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Annual extramural research program guide for the Office of Research and Development. This report provides information on work being done in each part of ORD, research which EPA is planning for FY 1984, and how much the authors intend to spend on each program area. Some of the are...

186

Department of Defense Fire Protection Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Instruction reissues and updates DoD Instruction 6055.6, June 10, 1981, to provide criteria for the allocation, assignment, operation, and administration of fire departments and related fire protection functions at DoD shore facilities according to Do...

J. Anderson

1988-01-01

187

US Environmental Protection Agency's quality assurance program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its predecessor organizations historically have devoted considerable time and effort to the standardization of test procedures, the development and use of calibration and performance audit procedures, quality control and reference samples, training, and other quality assurance (QA) activities. However, these QA activities were essentially voluntary, and most of the data generated were reported with

T. W. Stanley; S. S. Verner

1985-01-01

188

Polyamines protect against radiation-induced oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Astronauts and cosmonauts are exposed to a wide variety of different hazards while in space that include radiation, which presents one of the most critical barriers to long-term missions. A major deleterious effect directly associated with ionizing radiation is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as peroxides and hydroxyl radicals. The free radicals generated by ultraviolet (UV) or ionizing radiation can attack cellular lipids, proteins and DNA. Endogenous free radical scavengers such as glutathione and the polyamines (e.g, spermidine and spermine) can inhibit the action of ROS. In particular, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the enzyme involved in heme protein metabolism, can provide antioxidant protection through the production of the antioxidant bilirubin. Furthermore, polyamines have been shown to indirectly increase HO-1 content and antioxidant protection. The beta2-adrenoceptor agonist clenbuterol has been shown to stimulate polyamine synthesis and by extension, might provide a margin of antioxidant protection through increasing HO-1 content. However, it is unclear whether the polyamines are acting as a tertiary messengers for antioxidant protection in the be beta2-adrenoceptor signal transduction pathway. The purpose of this study was to study the role of the polyamine pathway in attenuating free radical-induced damage. PMID:16044631

von Deutsch, Albert W; Mitchell, Clarence D; Williams, Chris E; Dutt, Kamla; Silvestrov, Natalia A; Klement, Brenda J; Abukhalaf, Imad K; von Deutsch, Daniel A

2005-06-01

189

Calcium antagonists protect mice against lethal doses of ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

Currently available radioprotectors are poorly tolerated in man and the general use of aminothiol radioprotectors is compromised by their side-effects. In a search for less toxic radioprotective agents, diltiazem, a calcium antagonist with a benzothiazepine structure, was found to protect mice against a lethal (LD100) gamma radiation dose allowing survival of up to 93%. Dihydropyridine calcium antagonists such as nifedipine, nimodipine, isradipine and nitrendipine also provided radioprotection. Calcium antagonists might attenuate radiation-induced injury by inhibiting cellular calcium overload, subsequent to cell membrane damage caused by radiation-generated free radicals. In view of their good tolerance, calcium antagonists may be applied safely in situations of radiation exposure, including radiotherapy and internal radionuclide contamination. These calcium antagonists may also be viewed in other contexts where free radicals are implicated in pathological processes. PMID:1450817

Floersheim, G L

1992-11-01

190

The radiobiology/radiation protection interface in healthcare.  

PubMed

The current knowledge of radiation effects is reviewed and implications for its application in healthcare considered. The 21st L H Gray conference gathered leading experts in radiobiology, radiation epidemiology, radiation effect modelling, and the application of radiation in medicine to provide an overview of the subject. The latest radiobiology research in non-targeted effects such as genomic instability and the bystander effect challenge the old models, but the implications for health effects on humans are uncertain. Adaptive responses to external stresses, of which radiation is one, have been demonstrated in cells and animal models, but it is not known how these might modify human dose-effect relationships. Epidemiological evidence from the Japanese A-bomb survivors provides strong evidence that there is a linear relationship between the excess risk of cancer and organ dose that extends from about 50 mSv up to 2.5 Sv, and results from pooled data for multiple epidemiological studies indicate that risks extend down to doses of 20 mSv. Thus linear extrapolation of the A-bomb dose-effect data provides an appropriate basis for radiological protection standards at the present time. Risks from higher dose diagnostic procedures fall within the range in which health effects can be demonstrated. There is therefore reason for concern about the rise in the number of computed tomography (CT) scans performed in many countries, and in particular the use of CT for screening of asymptomatic individuals. New radiotherapy techniques allow high dose radiation fields to be conformed more effectively to target volumes, and reduce doses to critical organs, but they tend to give a higher and more uniform dose to the whole body which may increase the risk of second cancer. It is important that radiation protection practitioners keep abreast of developments in understanding of radiation effects and advise the medical community about the implications of fundamental research when planning medical applications for the future. PMID:19454808

Martin, C J; Sutton, D G; West, C M; Wright, E G

2009-06-01

191

Research Programs on Low-Level Radiation Health Effects Supported by FEPCO  

SciTech Connect

The federation of Electric Power Companies (FEPCO) of Japan has been supporting several research projects on low-level radiation health effects for the purpose of the following: 1. to assist in the establishment of a reasonable system of radiation protection; 2. to release the public from unnecessary fear of ionizing radiation. We present some of the findings and current research programs funded or supported by FEPCO.

Kaneko, Masahito

1999-06-06

192

48 CFR 952.223-72 - Radiation protection and nuclear criticality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Radiation protection and nuclear criticality. 952.223-72 Section...223-72 Radiation protection and nuclear criticality. As prescribed...subcontract rather than by reliance upon Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing...

2013-10-01

193

42 CFR 37.45 - Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment. 37.45 Section 37...Radiographic Examinations § 37.45 Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment. Except as...

2013-10-01

194

Program reduces fire protection system corrosion  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a three-phase chemical treatment that eliminates microbiologically induced corrosion in the fire protection system at Texas Utility`s Comanche Peak facility. Biological colonization was evident by the appearance of ringed blisters at significant corrosion sites. Some specimens showed limited corrosion attack in the presence of a ferrous sulfide film. Where operational flushing and pre-testing had occurred the system had suffered major corrosion damage.

Rittenhouse, R.C.

1995-10-01

195

Chelation of lysosomal iron protects against ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation causes DNA damage and consequent apoptosis, mainly due to the production of hydroxyl radicals (HO•) that follows radiolytic splitting of water. However, superoxide (O2•-) and H2O2 also form and induce oxidative stress with resulting LMP (lysosomal membrane permeabilization) arising from iron-catalysed oxidative events. The latter will contribute significantly to radiation-induced cell death and its degree largely depends on the quantities of lysosomal redox-active iron present as a consequence of autophagy and endocytosis of iron-rich compounds. Therefore radiation sensitivity might be depressed by lysosome-targeted iron chelators. In the present study, we have shown that cells in culture are significantly protected from ionizing radiation damage if initially exposed to the lipophilic iron chelator SIH (salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone), and that this effect is based on SIH-dependent lysosomal stabilization against oxidative stress. According to its dose-response-modifying effect, SIH is a most powerful radioprotector and a promising candidate for clinical application, mainly to reduce the radiation sensitivity of normal tissue. We propose, as an example, that inhalation of SIH before each irradiation session by patients undergoing treatment for lung malignancies would protect normally aerated lung tissue against life-threatening pulmonary fibrosis, whereas the sensitivity of malignant lung tumours, which usually are non-aerated, will not be affected by inhaled SIH. PMID:20846118

Berndt, Carsten; Kurz, Tino; Selenius, Markus; Fernandes, Aristi P; Edgren, Margareta R; Brunk, Ulf T

2010-12-01

196

Development of Environmental Education Programs for Protected Areas in Madagascar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental education programs for schools in the peripheral zone of protected areas in Madagascar are still needed in numerous locations. My research investigated the status of environmental education and communication (EE&C) programs at Masoala National Park, Madagascar, as well as the attitudes of local residents toward the park and park…

Ormsby, Alison

2007-01-01

197

Issues in Space Radiation Protection: Galactic Cosmic Rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With shielding from cosmic heavy ions, one is faced with limited knowledge about the physical properties and biological responses of these radiations. Herein, the current status of space shielding technology and its impact on radiation health is discussed in terms of conventional protection practice and a test biological response model. The impact of biological response on optimum materials selection for cosmic ray shielding is presented in terms of the transmission characteristics of the shield material. Although liquid hydrogen gas is an optimum shield material, evaluation of the effectiveness of polymeric structural materials must await improvement in our knowledge of both the biological response and the nuclear processes.

Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M.; Schimmerling, W.; Badavi, F. F.; Thibeault, S. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Shinn, J. L.; Kiefer, R.

1995-01-01

198

Pyridoxamine protects intestinal epithelium from ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are the major cause of biological tissue damage during the exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The existing strategies to protect normal tissues from detrimental effects of IR suffer from several shortcomings including high toxic side effects, unfavorable administration routs or low efficacy. These shortcomings emphasize a need for radioprotective treatments that combine effectiveness with safety and ease of use. In this paper, we demonstrate that pyridoxamine, a ROS and RCS scavenger with a very favorable safety profile, can inhibit IR-induced gastrointestinal endothelial apoptosis in cell culture and in animal model. Pyridoxamine was more effective at protecting from radiation-induced apoptosis compared to Amifostine, a synthetic thiol compound and the only FDA approved radioprotector. We suggest that PM has a potential as an effective and safe radioprotective agent.

Thotala, Dinesh; Chetyrkin, Sergei; Hudson, Billy; Hallahan, Dennis; Voziyan, Paul; Yazlovitskaya, Eugenia

2009-01-01

199

Air quality protection program at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

To protect human health and safety, meet regulatory emissions requirements, and comply with other applicable DOE and corporate requirements, Du Pont has developed a comprehensive Environmental Implementation Plan for the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This Environmental Implementation Plan contains program objectives and strategies for all environmental media including air. The presentation describes our experiences in managing the air quality protection program. Program objectives and strategy are presented. Program implementation will then be reviewed in terms of our performances in the air emission permitting, air quality assessments, radioactive and nonradioactive management, emergency response, and air emission inventory. Air quality protection activities involving quality assurance, environmental audit, and environmental awareness will not be addressed in this presentation. 30 figs.

Huang, Ju-Chrong

1988-01-01

200

Vitamin C acts as radiation-protecting agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) is a very efficient, water soluble antioxidant. Its multifunctional biological and biochemical activities are rather well established in the last few decades (e.g. Sies and Stahl, 1995; Meydani et al., 1995; NRC, 1989. In the present letter we are reporting briefly the pronounced radiation-protecting properties of ascorbate (AH -) observed on bacteria ( E. coli AB1157) as well as on cultured cells (SCC VII, eukaryotic cells).

Platzer, Isabel; Getoff, Nikola

1998-01-01

201

Publications, Reports, Workshops | Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

A one and one-half day workshop to assess the current state of the science in neutron capture therapy (NCT) was convened at the request of the Radiation Research Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, NCI, and the U.S. Department of Energy. The topics were primarily clinical with physics, chemistry, and biology relevant to immediate trials discussed. The morning of the first day was directed to updates on epithermal neutron sources, chemistry of medicinal boron compounds, and preclinical studies.

202

The IAEA's activities on radiation protection in interventional cardiology  

PubMed Central

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under its mandate of developing and applying standards of radiation safety has initiated a number of activities in recent years on radiation protection in interventional cardiology. These activities are implemented through four mechanisms, namely training, providing information through the website, research projects and assistance to Member States through Technical Cooperation (TC) projects. Major international initiatives have been taken in the area of training where more than half a dozen regional training courses have been conducted for cardiologists from over 50 countries. Additionally four national training events for over 300 medical and paramedical staff members involved in interventional procedures were held. The training material is freely available on CD from the IAEA. The newly established website provides information on radiation protection issues [1]. Two coordinated research projects have just been completed where peak skin doses to patients undergoing high dose interventional procedures were studied and factors to manage patient doses were identified. The technical cooperation projects involving protection in cardiac interventional procedures have 30 countries as participants.

Rehani, MM

2007-01-01

203

Pharmacological Protection From Radiation {+-} Cisplatin-Induced Oral Mucositis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate if two pharmacological agents, Tempol and D-methionine (D-met), are able to prevent oral mucositis in mice after exposure to ionizing radiation {+-} cisplatin. Methods and Materials: Female C3H mice, {approx}8 weeks old, were irradiated with five fractionated doses {+-} cisplatin to induce oral mucositis (lingual ulcers). Just before irradiation and chemotherapy, mice were treated, either alone or in combination, with different doses of Tempol (by intraperitoneal [ip] injection or topically, as an oral gel) and D-met (by gavage). Thereafter, mice were sacrificed and tongues were harvested and stained with a solution of Toluidine Blue. Ulcer size and tongue epithelial thickness were measured. Results: Significant lingual ulcers resulted from 5 Multiplication-Sign 8 Gy radiation fractions, which were enhanced with cisplatin treatment. D-met provided stereospecific partial protection from lingual ulceration after radiation. Tempol, via both routes of administration, provided nearly complete protection from lingual ulceration. D-met plus a suboptimal ip dose of Tempol also provided complete protection. Conclusions: Two fairly simple pharmacological treatments were able to markedly reduce chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. This proof of concept study suggests that Tempol, alone or in combination with D-met, may be a useful and convenient way to prevent the severe oral mucositis that results from head-and-neck cancer therapy.

Cotrim, Ana P. [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yoshikawa, Masanobu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Sunshine, Abraham N.; Zheng Changyu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Sowers, Anastasia L.; Thetford, Angela D.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B. [Radiation Biology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Baum, Bruce J., E-mail: bbaum@dir.nidcr.nih.gov [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

2012-07-15

204

Improved Windshield and Canopy Protection Development Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses a program to develop high performance aircraft windshields and canopies capable of sustaining impacts by 4 lb birds at speeds of 500 knots and above. The designs were to interface with existing aircraft and deviate as little as possib...

E. E. Littell

1974-01-01

205

Operational radiation protection for astronauts and cosmonauts and correlated activities of ESA Medical Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the early times of human spaceflight radiation has been, besides the influence of microgravity on the human body, recognized as a main health concern to astronauts and cosmonauts. The radiation environment that the crew experiences during spaceflight differs significantly to that found on earth due to particles of greater potential for biological damage. Highly energetic charged particles, such as protons, helium nuclei ("alpha particles") and heavier ions up to iron, originating from several sources, as well as protons and electrons trapped in the Earth's radiation belts, are the main contributors. The exposure that the crew receives during a spaceflight significantly exceeds exposures routinely received by terrestrial radiation workers. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Astronaut Center (EAC) in Cologne, Germany, is home of the European Astronaut Corps. Part of the EAC is the Crew Medical Support Office (CMSO or HSF-AM) responsible for ensuring the health and well-being of the European Astronauts. A sequence of activities is conducted to protect astronauts and cosmonauts health, including those aiming to mitigate adverse effects of space radiation. All health related activities are part of a multinational Medical Operations (MedOps) concept, which is executed by the different Space Agencies participating in the human spaceflight program of the International Space Station (ISS). This article will give an introduction to the current measures used for radiation monitoring and protection of astronauts and cosmonauts. The operational guidelines that shall ensure proper implementation and execution of those radiation protection measures will be addressed. Operational hardware for passive and active radiation monitoring and for personal dosimetry, as well as the operational procedures that are applied, are described.

Straube, Ulrich; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Facius, Rainer; Fuglesang, Christer; Reiter, Thomas; Damann, Volker; Tognini, Michel

2010-04-01

206

Optical Protection Filters for Harmful Laser Beams and UV Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Due to the rapid growth of radiation protection applications in various devices and instruments, it is essential to use suitable filters for eye protection of the personal working in the radiation field. Different protection filters were produced to protect from four laser beam wavelengths (at 532nm, 632.8nm, 694nm and 1064nm) and block three UV bands (UVA, UVB, and UVC). The design structure of the required dielectric multilayer filters used optical thin film technology. The computer analyses of the multilayer filter formulas were prepared using Macleod Software for the production filter processes. The deposition technique was achieved on optical substrates (Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301) by dielectric material combinations including Dralo (mixture of oxides TiO2/Al2O3), and Lima (mixture of oxides SiO2/Al2O3); deposition by an electron beam gun. The output transmittance curves for both theoretical and experimental values of all filters are presented. To validate the suitability for use in a 'real world', rather than laboratory test application, full environmental assessment was also carried out. These filters exhibited high endurance after exposing them to the durability tests (adhesion, abrasion resistance and humidity) according to military standards MIL-C-675C and MIL-C-48497A.

Azim M, Osama A. [Vacuum Coating Lab. Manager, Arab International Optronics Co., El-Salam City, P.O. Box: 8182 Nassr City, Cairo 11491 (Egypt)

2007-02-14

207

US NRC discussion of options to revise radiation protection recommendations.  

PubMed

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is continuing the process of engaging stakeholders on issues associated with possible changes to the radiation protection regulations contained in 10 CFR Part 20, and other parts of the NRC regulations, to increase alignment with international recommendations. The Commission is particularly seeking to explore implications, as appropriate and where scientifically justified, of greater alignment with the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission for Radiological Protection. Other information from national and international sources is also being considered. Given that the NRC regulations provide adequate protection, the discussion has been focusing on discerning the benefits and burdens associated with revising the radiation protection regulatory framework. NRC, through three Federal Register Notices, has officially solicited comments on a series of key issues, and has conducted a series of facilitated workshops to encourage feedback from a wide range of stakeholders. The issues include the use of updated scientific methodologies and terminology, the occupational dose limits, and the use of the concepts of constraints in optimisation. NRC staff provided a policy paper with recommendations to the Commission on April 25, 2012 (NRC, 2012). PMID:23089031

Cool, D A

2012-01-01

208

A High-Throughput Screen for Alpha Particle Radiation Protectants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Alpha-particle-emitting elements are of increasing importance as environmental and occupational carcinogens, toxic components of radiation dispersal devices and accidents, and potent therapeutics in oncology. Alpha particle radiation differs from radiations of lower linear energy transfer in that it predominantly damages DNA via direct action. Because of this, radical scavengers effective for other radiations have had only limited effect in mitigating alpha particle toxicity. We describe here a simple assay and a pilot screen of 3,119 compounds in a high-throughput screen (HTS), using the alpha-particle-emitting isotope, 225Ac, for the discovery of compounds that might protect mammalian cells from alpha particles through novel mechanisms. The assay, which monitored the viability of a myeloid leukemic cell line upon alpha particle exposure, was robust and reproducible, yielding a Z' factor of 0.66 and a signal-to-noise ratio of nearly 10 to 1. Surprisingly, 1 compound emerged from this screen, epoxy-4,5-?-dihydroxysantonin (EDHS), that showed considerable protective activity. While the value of EDHS remains to be determined, its discovery is a proof of concept and validation of the utility of this HTS methodology. Further application of the described assay could yield compounds useful in minimizing the toxicity and carcinogenesis associated with alpha particle exposure.

Seideman, Jonathan H.; Shum, David; Djaballah, Hakim

2010-01-01

209

Protection concepts for optronical sensors against laser radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid developments in the laser field through the last years led to very compact laser devices with high brightness. In the visual and near infrared spectral range practically each wavelength is now available. For optronical sensors, laser radiation states an increasing threat that cannot be encountered just by conventional safety measures like absorption or interference filters. We present a concept to protect imaging sensors against laser radiation of any wavelength. The system is based on the combination of a spatial light modulator and wavelength multiplexing and allows selective spectral filtering in a defined region of interest in the scene. Such a system offers the possibility to suppress annoying laser radiation without losing spatial information in the region of interest. Depending on the used imaging sensor, we discuss different ways to realize a control loop to activate the appropriate pixels of the spatial light modulator for the attenuation of the laser light.

Ritt, Gunnar; Eberle, Bernd

2011-10-01

210

Medical radiation exposure and accidents. Dosimetry and radiation protection. Do we only benefit the patient?  

PubMed

This article presents and discusses new information on the old Hippocratic moto of "...not to harm but to benefit the patient". Some radiation accidents are due to medical errors. Millions of medical tests exposing radiation are performed every day worldwide increasing and sometimes exceeding the annual permissible dose administered to the general population. Public authorities are now seriously concerned about medical radiation overused. In U.S.A. both the House of Representatives and the Food and Drug Administration have recently delt with this problem. Others and we have suggested before and the International Atomic Energy Agency now proposes: a "Smart Card" for every individual who receives medical radiation. In this card the amount of medical radiation administered will be recorded. It is time to issue rules for protection of the public from medical radiation overdose. PMID:20808982

Grammaticos, Philip; Lyra, Maria

2010-01-01

211

[Estimation of X-radiation protective coats in abdominal angiography].  

PubMed

Medical personnel involved in abdominal angiography are exposed not only to direct radiation but also scattered radiation from inspection tables, patients, image intensifiers, and the beam-limiting system (collimator), among others. Japanese standard JISZ4831 prescribes protective coats of at least 0.25 mm lead equivalent, which is the uniform thickness of lead equivalent. The most commonly used protective coats are 0.25 mm Pb, 0.35 mm Pb, or 0.5 mm Pb in thickness. The weight of a typical protective coat is about 3 kg. While some coats weigh up to 6 kg, wearing such heavy coats becomes physically burdensome as inspection time increases. The trade-off between physical burden and protection was considered by analyzing the X-ray intensity distribution and attenuation rate of scattered radiation in each position assumed by the medical staff. In the case of inspections performed at an x-ray tube voltage of 80 kV, it may be possible to reduce the weight of the lead rubber apron by about 33%. Namely, the lead thickness can be reduced uniformly by 0.20 mm Pb at 70 cm and 0.05 mm Pb at 100 cm, when the shielding capability of a 0.25 mm thick Pb layer is accepted as the standard at 40 cm above the gonad position. The same range of permeated X-ray dose for the gonad position may be reduced as well. In the case of 110 kV, when the lead thicknesses are 0.30 mm Pb at 40 cm and 70 cm, and 0.10 mm Pb at 100 cm, it is possible to reduce the weight of the lead rubber apron by about 28%. PMID:16049412

Koshida, Kichiro; Sota, Takumi; Noto, Kimiya; Fukuda, Atsushi; Matsubara, Kosuke; Nakagawa, Hiroto; Kawabata, Chikako

2005-07-20

212

?-Tocopherol succinate protects mice against radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of ?-tocopherol succinate (?-TS) in protecting mice from gastrointestinal syndrome induced by total-body irradiation. CD2F1 mice were injected subcutaneously with 400 mg/kg of ?-TS and exposed to different doses of (60)Co ? radiation, and 30-day survival was monitored. Jejunum sections were analyzed for crypts and villi, PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis), and apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling - TUNEL). The crypt regeneration in irradiated mice was evaluated by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Bacterial translocation from gut to heart, spleen and liver in ?-TS-treated and irradiated mice was evaluated by bacterial culture on sheep blood agar, colistin-nalidixic acid, and xylose-lysine-desoxycholate medium. Our results demonstrate that ?-TS enhanced survival in a significant number of mice irradiated with 9.5, 10, 11 and 11.5 Gy (60)Co ? radiation when administered 24 h before radiation exposure. ?-TS also protected the intestinal tissue of irradiated mice in terms of crypt and villus number, villus length and mitotic figures. TS treatment decreased the number of TUNEL- and PUMA-positive cells and increased the number of BrdU-positive cells in jejunum compared to vehicle-treated mice. Further, ?-TS inhibited gut bacterial translocation to the heart, spleen and liver in irradiated mice. Our data suggest that ?-TS protects mice from radiation-induced gastrointestinal damage by inhibiting apoptosis, promoting regeneration of crypt cells, and inhibiting translocation of gut bacteria. PMID:22013885

Singh, Pankaj K; Wise, Stephen Y; Ducey, Elizabeth J; Fatanmi, Oluseyi O; Elliott, Thomas B; Singh, Vijay K

2012-02-01

213

Envitonmental monitoring and radiation protection in Škocjan Caves, Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Škocjan Caves were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1986, due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data. Relation of background radiation to carrying capacity will be explained. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. A system of education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection will be presented as well.

Debevec Gerjeviè, V.; Jovanovi?, P.

2012-04-01

214

Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued radiation protection standards for the potential spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste disposal system in Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These standards are found in Part 197 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 197). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 directed, and gave the authority to, EPA to take this action based upon input from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). The final standards were published in the Federal Register (66 FR 32073) on 13 June 2001. The 40 CFR Part 197 standards have four major parts: (1) individual-protection during storage activities; (2) individual-protection following closure of the repository; (3) human-intrusion; and (4) ground-water protection. The storage standard is 150 microsieverts (Sv) annual committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) to any member of the general public. The disposal standards are: (1) 150 Sv annual CEDE for the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) for 10,000 years after disposal; (2) 150 Sv received by the RMEI within 10,000 years after disposal as a result of human intrusion; and (3) the levels of radionuclides in the ground water cannot exceed 40 Sv from beta and gamma emitters, 5 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) of radium-226 and -228, and 15 pCi/L of gross alpha activity. There are also requirements related to the post-10,000-year period, the basis of compliance judgments, and performance assessments. The Agency has published its responses to the comments received, its technical background document, and its economic impact analysis. In addition to printed form, the documents are available on the World Wide Web at http://www.epa.gov/radiation/yucca/index.html.

Clark, R. L.

2002-02-27

215

Public communication strategy for NASA's planetary protection program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Planetary Protection Office, in the Office of Space Science, has a long-term initiative under way in communication research and planning. The possibility of extraterrestrial life and efforts to search for evidence of it is one of NASA's key missions, and of great interest to the public. Planetary protection plays a key role in the search for signs of life elsewhere, and as NASA expands its solar system exploration efforts, communication planning for planetary protection must expand to meet growing needs. NASA's Clearly Protection Office has long recognized the importance of communications in accomplishing its goals and objectives. With solar system exploration missions advancing into the era of sample return and with the science of astrobiology changing assumptions about the nature and boundaries of life, the Planetary Protection office is expanding its communication planning efforts and taking first steps toward implementation of a long-term strategy. For the past 10 years, communication research sponsored by the NASA planetary protection program has focused on reaching members of the science community and addressing legal and ethical concerns. In 2003, the program expanded its communication research efforts, initiating the development of a communication strategy based on a participatory model and intended to address the needs of a broad range of extra audiences. The Planetary Protection Office aims to ensure that its scientific, bureaucratic, and other constituencies are fully informed about planetary protection policies and procedures and prepared to communicate with a variety of public audiences about issues relating to planetary protection. This paper will describe NASA's ongoing planetary protection communication research efforts, focusing on development of a participatory communication strategy to enable broadest possible public participation in planning and development of solar system sample return missions and Earth-based sample receiving facilities.

Billings, L.

216

A biokinetic model for zinc for use in radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

The physiology of the essential trace element zinc has been studied extensively in human subjects using kinetic analysis of time-dependent measurements of administered zinc tracers. A number of biokinetic models describing zinc exchange between plasma and tissues and loss of systemic zinc in excreta have been developed from the derived data. More rudimentary biokinetic models for zinc have been developed to estimate radiation doses from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc. The latter models are designed to provide broadly accurate estimates of cumulative decays of zinc radioisotopes in tissues and are not intended as realistic descriptions of the directions of movement of zinc in the body. This paper reviews biokinetic data for zinc and proposes a physiologically meaningful biokinetic model for systemic zinc for use in radiation protection. The proposed model bears some resemblance to zinc models developed in physiological studies but depicts a finer division of systemic zinc and is based on a broader spectrum of data than previous models. The proposed model and current radiation protection model for zinc yield broadly similar estimates of effective dose from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc but substantially different dose estimates for several individual tissues, particularly the liver.

Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL

2012-01-01

217

Radiation protection performance indicators at the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko.  

PubMed

Nuclear power plant safety performance indicators are developed "by nuclear operating organisations to monitor their own performance and progress, to set their own challenging goals for improvement, and to gain additional perspective on performance relative to that of other plants". In addition, performance indicators are widely used by regulatory authorities although the use is not harmonised. Two basic performance indicators related to good radiation protection practice are collective radiation exposure and volume of low-level radioactive waste. In 2000, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, a Westinghouse pressurised water reactor with electrical output 700 MW, finished an extensive modernisation including the replacement of both steam generators. While the annual volume of low-level radioactive waste does not show a specific trend related to modernisation, the annual collective dose reached maximum, i.e. 2.60 man Sv, and dropped to 1.13 man Sv in 2001. During the replacement of the steam generators in 2000, the dose associated with this activity was 1.48 man Sv. The annual doses in 2002 and 2003 were 0.53 and 0.80 man Sv, respectively, nearing thus the goal set by the US Institute of Nuclear Power Operators, which is 0.65 man Sv. Therefore, inasmuch as collective dose as the radiation protection performance indicator are concerned, the modernisation of the Krsko nuclear power plant was a success. PMID:16832974

Janzekovic, Helena

2006-06-01

218

Radiation Protection Studies for LCLS Tune Up Dump  

SciTech Connect

The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is a pioneer fourth generation hard x-ray free electron laser that shall start to deliver laser pulses in 2009. Among other components of LCLS that present radiation protection concerns, the tune up dump (tdund) is of special interest because it also constitutes an issue for machine protection, as it is placed close to radiation sensitive components, like electronic devices and permanent magnets in the undulators. This paper first introduces the stopper of tdund looking at the heat load, and then it describes the shielding around the dump necessary to maintain the prompt and residual dose within design values. Next, preliminary comparisons of the magnetization loss in a dedicated on-site magnet irradiation experiment with FLUKA simulations serve to characterize the magnetic response to radiation of magnets like those of LCLS. The previous knowledge, together with the limit for the allowed demagnetization, are used to estimate the lifetime of the undulator. Further simulations provide guidelines on which lifetime can be expected for an electronic device placed at a given distance of tdund.

Santana-Leitner, M.; Fass, A.; Mao, S.; Nuhn, H.D.; /SLAC; Roesler, S.; /CERN; Rokni, S.; Vollaire, J.; /SLAC

2010-04-29

219

Improved Protection Against Solar-Simulated Radiation-Induced Immunosuppression by a Sunscreen with Enhanced Ultraviolet A Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraviolet radiation-induced immunosuppression is thought to play a part in skin cancer. Several studies have indicated that sunscreens that are designed to protect against erythema failed to give comparable protection against ultraviolet radiation-induced immunosuppression. One possible reason for this discrepancy is inadequate ultraviolet A protection. This study evaluated the level of immunoprotection in mice afforded by two broad-spectrum sunscreens with

Amy Fourtanier; Audrey Gueniche; Delphine Compan; Susan L. Walker; Antony R. Young

2000-01-01

220

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at ARM's Tropical Western Pacific and the North Slope of Alaska sites. Over time, this new facility will extend ARM science to a much broader range of conditions for model testing.

Ackerman, T

2004-10-31

221

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON RADIATION PROTECTION AND MEASUREMENTS (NCRP) COVERING THE PERIOD 1929-1946  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Committee on Radiation Protection and Measurements was ; established in the United States in 1929, since which time it has provided the ; basic standards and guidance in the field. through the co-operation of many ; organizations this has proven to be an effective program. At the same time ; through interlocking membership between the HCRP and the

L. S. Taylor

1958-01-01

222

Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation  

PubMed Central

Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A “sclerojuglonic” compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects.

Korac, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

2011-01-01

223

Laser protective eyewear program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The proliferation of lasers at Los Alamos focused considerable attention on providing adequate eye protection for experimenters involved in the use of a wide variety of nonionizing radiation. Experiments with fast-pulsed lasers (Nd:YAG, HF, and CO/sub 2/) were performed to gain biological threshold data on ocular damage. In parallel, eye protection devices were evaluated, which resulted in the development of lightweight, comfortable spectacles of colored glass filters that can be ground to prescription specifications. Goggle styles are employed in specific applications.

Winburn, D.C.

1980-01-01

224

Commentary: Ethical Issues of Current Health-Protection Policies on Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation  

PubMed Central

The linear no-threshold (LNT) model of ionizing-radiation-induced cancer is based on the assumption that every radiation dose increment constitutes increased cancer risk for humans. The risk is hypothesized to increase linearly as the total dose increases. While this model is the basis for radiation safety regulations, its scientific validity has been questioned and debated for many decades. The recent memorandum of the International Commission on Radiological Protection admits that the LNT-model predictions at low doses are “speculative, unproven, undetectable and ‘phantom’.” Moreover, numerous experimental, ecological, and epidemiological studies show that low doses of sparsely-ionizing or sparsely-ionizing plus highly-ionizing radiation may be beneficial to human health (hormesis/adaptive response). The present LNT-model-based regulations impose excessive costs on the society. For example, the median-cost medical program is 5000 times more cost-efficient in saving lives than controlling radiation emissions. There are also lives lost: e.g., following Fukushima accident, more than 1000 disaster-related yet non-radiogenic premature deaths were officially registered among the population evacuated due to radiation concerns. Additional negative impacts of LNT-model-inspired radiophobia include: refusal of some patients to undergo potentially life-saving medical imaging; discouragement of the study of low-dose radiation therapies; motivation for radiological terrorism and promotion of nuclear proliferation.

Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Doss, Mohan; Feinendegen, Ludwig E.; Janiak, Marek K.; Miller, Mark L.; Sanders, Charles L.; Scott, Bobby R.; Ulsh, Brant; Vaiserman, Alexander

2014-01-01

225

Commentary: ethical issues of current health-protection policies on low-dose ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

The linear no-threshold (LNT) model of ionizing-radiation-induced cancer is based on the assumption that every radiation dose increment constitutes increased cancer risk for humans. The risk is hypothesized to increase linearly as the total dose increases. While this model is the basis for radiation safety regulations, its scientific validity has been questioned and debated for many decades. The recent memorandum of the International Commission on Radiological Protection admits that the LNT-model predictions at low doses are "speculative, unproven, undetectable and 'phantom'." Moreover, numerous experimental, ecological, and epidemiological studies show that low doses of sparsely-ionizing or sparsely-ionizing plus highly-ionizing radiation may be beneficial to human health (hormesis/adaptive response). The present LNT-model-based regulations impose excessive costs on the society. For example, the median-cost medical program is 5000 times more cost-efficient in saving lives than controlling radiation emissions. There are also lives lost: e.g., following Fukushima accident, more than 1000 disaster-related yet non-radiogenic premature deaths were officially registered among the population evacuated due to radiation concerns. Additional negative impacts of LNT-model-inspired radiophobia include: refusal of some patients to undergo potentially life-saving medical imaging; discouragement of the study of low-dose radiation therapies; motivation for radiological terrorism and promotion of nuclear proliferation. PMID:24910586

Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzy?ski, Ludwik; Doss, Mohan; Feinendegen, Ludwig E; Janiak, Marek K; Miller, Mark L; Sanders, Charles L; Scott, Bobby R; Ulsh, Brant; Vaiserman, Alexander

2014-05-01

226

Implications of radiation dose and exposed populations on radiation protection in the 21st century.  

PubMed

Radiation is in the public eye because of Fukushima, computed tomography examinations, airport screenings, and possible terrorist attacks. What if the Boston Marathon pressure cooker had also contained a radioactive source? Nuclear power may be on the resurgence. Because of the increasing uses of radiation, the increases in population exposures, and the increasing knowledge of radiation effects, constant vigilance is needed to keep up with the changing times. Psychosocial disorders associated with the inappropriate (but real) fear of radiation need to be recognized as radiation detriments. Radiation risk communication, radiation education, and communication must improve at all levels: to members of the public, to the media, to other scientists, and to radiation professionals. Stakeholders must continue to be involved in all radiation protection initiatives. Finally, we are at a crisis as the number of war babies (me) and baby boomers (you?) who are also radiation professionals continues its rapid decline, and there are few in the pipeline to fill the current and looming substantial need: "The old road is rapidly agin'" (Dylan). NCRP has begun the WARP initiative-Where Are the Radiation Professionals?-an attempt to rejuvenate the pipeline of future professionals before the trickle becomes tiny drops. A Workshop was held in July 2013 with government agencies, military, private sector, universities, White House representatives, and societies to develop a coordinated and national action plan. A "Manhattan Project" is needed to get us "Back to the Future" in terms of the funding levels that existed in years past that provided the necessary resources to train, engage, and retain (a.k.a., jobs) the radiation professionals needed for the nation. If we don't keep swimmin' (Disney's Nemo) we'll "sink like a stone" (Dylan).Introduction of Implications of Radiation Dose and Exposed Populations (Video 2:06, http://links.lww.com/HP/A25). PMID:24378509

Boice, John D

2014-02-01

227

50 CFR 300.103 - Procedure for according protection to CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program Sites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Procedure for according protection to CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program Sites. 300.103...Procedure for according protection to CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program Sites. (a) General...activities prior to entering a CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program (CEMP)...

2010-10-01

228

50 CFR 300.103 - Procedure for according protection to CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program Sites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Procedure for according protection to CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program Sites. 300.103...Procedure for according protection to CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program Sites. (a) General...activities prior to entering a CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program (CEMP)...

2009-10-01

229

Radiation Protection Aspects of the SPES Project at LNL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) project will be built at the National Laboratories in Legnaro (Italy) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN). Its goal will be the development of radioactive ion beams and the consequent re-acceleration with the existing linac to perform forefront research in nuclear physics. Radiation protection aspects are being considered at every stage of the project, e.g. civil construction planning, control system design and special technological plants. These aspects have been studied with the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA and are presented in this paper.

Sarchiapone, L.; Zafiropoulos, D.

2011-12-01

230

New concept of IEC standards for radiation protection dosemeters.  

PubMed

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) develops new standards for radiation protection dosemeters which follow a new concept. They are much more flexible in detail, but still ensure the same measurement quality. They are, for example, no longer specific for the detector type, but rather specific for the measurement task, e.g. for individual monitoring with active direct-reading instruments. Another example is that they are flexible with respect to the ranges of influence quantities. The conceptual changes are described in this paper, together with the advantages this new concept provides for manufacturers, users and legislators. PMID:18420572

Ambrosi, P; Behrens, R

2008-01-01

231

Issues In Space Radiation Protection: Galactic Cosmic Rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When shielding from cosmic heavy ions, one is faced with limited knowledge about the physical properties and biological responses of these radiations. Herein, the current health is discussed in terms of conventional protection practice and a test biological response model. The impact of biological response on optimum materials selection for cosmic ray shielding is presented in terms of the transmission characteristics of the shield material. Although liquid hydrogen is an optimum shield material, evaluation of the effectiveness of polymeric structural materials must await improvement in our knowledge of both the biological response and the nuclear processes.

Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M.; Schimmerling, W.; Badavi, F. F.; Thibeault, S. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Shinn, J. L.; Kiefer, R.

1995-01-01

232

Calcium protects differentiating neuroblastoma cells during 50 Hz electromagnetic radiation.  

PubMed Central

Despite growing concern about electromagnetic radiation, the interaction between 50- to 60-Hz fields and biological structures remains obscure. Epidemiological studies have failed to prove a significantly correlation between exposure to radiation fields and particular pathologies. We demonstrate that a 50- to 60-Hz magnetic field interacts with cell differentiation through two opposing mechanisms: it antagonizes the shift in cell membrane surface charges that occur during the early phases of differentiation and it modulates hyperpolarizing K channels by increasing intracellular Ca. The simultaneous onset of both mechanisms prevents alterations in cell differentiation. We propose that cells are normally protected against electromagnetic insult. Pathologies may arise, however, if intracellular Ca regulation or K channel activation malfunctions.

Tonini, R; Baroni, M D; Masala, E; Micheletti, M; Ferroni, A; Mazzanti, M

2001-01-01

233

Multifaceted pathways protect human skin from UV radiation.  

PubMed

The recurrent interaction of skin with sunlight is an intrinsic constituent of human life, and exhibits both beneficial and detrimental effects. The apparent robust architectural framework of skin conceals remarkable mechanisms that operate at the interface between the surface and environment. In this Review, we discuss three distinct protective mechanisms and response pathways that safeguard skin from deleterious effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The unique stratified epithelial architecture of human skin along with the antioxidant-response pathways constitutes the important defense mechanisms against UV radiation. The intricate pigmentary system and its intersection with the immune-system cytokine axis delicately balance tissue homeostasis. We discuss the relationship among these networks in the context of an unusual depigmenting disorder, vitiligo. The elaborate tunable mechanisms, elegant multilayered architecture and evolutionary selection pressures involved in skin and sunlight interaction makes this a compelling model to understand biological complexity. PMID:24937072

Natarajan, Vivek T; Ganju, Parul; Ramkumar, Amrita; Grover, Ritika; Gokhale, Rajesh S

2014-06-17

234

Radiological Health Program Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The need for radiation protection; Legal aspects of Federal-State relations in radiation protection; The State's responsibility in radiological health programs; Who should administer a state radiological health program; Basic components of a sou...

M. Dauer M. Wendell H. E. Hilleboe W. L. Wilson J. M. Heslep

1966-01-01

235

DoD Coral Reef Protection and Management Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DoD Coral Reef Protection and Management Program (CRTF) goals are to 1) Ensure sustainable use of marine resources for DoD operations and training exercises. 2) Identify and map locations of DoD coral reef ecosystems. 3) Inventory and monitor coral resour...

A. Viana L. Schwartz P. Lobel S. Smith T. Egeland

2004-01-01

236

Intellectual Property Law and the Protection of Computer Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly reviews the laws pertaining to copyrights, patents, and trade secrets, and discusses how each of these may be applied to the protection of computer programs. The comparative merits and limitations of each category of law are discussed and recent court decisions are summarized. (CLB)

Lomio, J. Paul

1990-01-01

237

NASA's planetary protection program as an astrobiology teaching module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are currently developing a teaching module on the NASA's Planetary Protection Program for UW-Parkside SENCER courses. SENCER stands for Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibility. It is a national initiative of the National Science Foundation (NSF), now in its fifth year, to improve science education by teaching basic sciences through the complex public issues of the 21st century. The Planetary Protection Program is one such complex public issue. Teaching astrobiology and the NASA's goals via the Planetary Protection module within the SENCER courses seems to be a good formula to reach large number of students in an interesting and innovative way. We shall describe the module that we are developing. It will be launched on our web site titled "Astrobiology at Parkside" (http://oldweb.uwp.edu/academic/chemistry/kolb/organic_chemistry/, or go to Google and then to Vera Kolb Home Page), and thus will be available for teaching to all interested parties.

Kolb, Vera M.

2005-09-01

238

APPLICATIONS OF THE PHOTONUCLEAR FRAGMENTATION MODEL TO RADIATION PROTECTION PROBLEMS  

SciTech Connect

In order to provide radiation protection systems for high energy electron accelerators it is necessary to define the yields of hadrons produced when the electron beam interacts with a fixed target. In practical terms this will occur when any beam or fraction of the beam is lost from the accelerator orbit or when any fraction of the beam is intercepted by a target inserted in the path of the beam or when the beam is totally absorbed by a beam dump. The electron and gamma yields from these interactions are well characterized and amenable to calculation utilizing Monte Carlo shower codes. However, the yield of hadrons has been less well defined. Neutron production has received most attention because of its importance to radiation shielding. Production mechanisms such as the giant dipole and the quasi-deuteron resonances have provided valuable information for total neutron yields for electron beams at energies less than about 400 MeV. For electron beams at energies extending to 10 GeV it is necessary to include the higher energy resonance structures and the various intranuclear production channels that are available for the production of higher energy neutrons. The production model described in this paper permits the calculation of laboratory angle and energy of all hadrons produced when an electron beam of energy between 100 MeV and 10 GeV interacts with a fixed target. This model can be used as an event generator for Monte Carlo codes used for many radiation protection purposes including calculation of radiation shielding.

Pavel Degtiarenko

1996-01-01

239

Radiation protection issues in galactic cosmic ray risk assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation protection involves the limitation of exposure to below threshold doses for direct (or deterministic) effects and a knowledge of the risk of stochastic effects after low doses. The principal stochastic risk associated with low dose rate galactic cosmic rays is the increased risk of cancer. Estimates of this risk depend on two factors (a) estimates of cancer risk for low-LET radiation and (b) values of the appropriate radiation weighting factors, WR, for the high-LET radiations of galactic cosmic rays. Both factors are subject to considerable uncertainty. The low-LET cancer risk derived from the late effects of the atomic bombs is vulnerable to a number of uncertainties including especially that from projection in time, and from extrapolation from high to low dose rate. Nevertheless, recent low dose studies of workers and others tend to confirm these estimates. WR, relies on biological effects studied mainly in non-human systems. Additional laboratory studies could reduce the uncertainties in WR and thus produce a more confident estimate of the overall risk of galactic cosmic rays.

Sinclair, W. K.

1994-01-01

240

The relevance of occupational epidemiology to radiation protection standards.  

PubMed

Large-scale epidemiological studies of U.S. Department of Energy workers have been underway since the 1960s. Despite the increasing availability of information about long-term follow-up of badge-monitored nuclear workers, standard-setting bodies continue to rely on the Life Span Study (LSS) of A-bomb survivors as the primary epidemiological basis for making judgments about hazards of low-level radiation. Additionally, faith in the internal and external validity of studies of A-bomb survivors has influenced decisions about the design, analysis, and interpretation of many worker studies. A systematic comparison of the LSS and worker studies in terms of population characteristics, types of radiation exposures, selection factors, and dosimetry errors suggests that the priority given to dose response findings from the LSS is no longer warranted. Evidence from worker studies suggests that excess radiation-related cancer deaths occur at doses below the current occupational limits; low-dose effects have also been seen in studies of childhood cancers in relation to fetal irradiation. These findings should be considered in revising current radiation protection standards. PMID:17208790

Wing, S; Richardson, D; Stewart, A

1999-01-01

241

40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND...

2013-07-01

242

40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND...

2009-07-01

243

40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND...

2010-07-01

244

Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Island Resettlement Support (May-December 2001)  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former US test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. Using pooled resources of the US Department of Energy and local atoll governments, individual radiation protection programs have been developed in whole-body counting and plutonium urinalysis to assess potential intakes of radionuclides from residual fallout contamination. The whole-body counting systems are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians. Samples of urine are collected from resettlement workers and island residents under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using advanced accelerator based measurement technologies. This web site provides an overview of the methodologies, a full disclosure of the measurement data, and a yearly assessment of estimated radiation doses to resettlement workers and island residents.

Hamilton, T; Hickman, D; Conrado, C; Brown, T; Brunk, J; Marchetti, A; Cox, C; Martinelli, R; Kehl, S; Johannes, K; Henry, D; Bell, R T; Petersen, G

2002-06-01

245

Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Rongelap Island Resettlement Support (1998-2001)  

SciTech Connect

The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. Using pooled resources of the U.S. Department of Energy and local atoll governments, individual radiation protection programs have been developed in whole-body counting and plutonium urinalysis to assess potential intakes of radionuclides from residual fallout contamination. The whole-body counting systems are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians. Samples of urine are collected from resettlement workers and island residents under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LNLL) using advanced accelerator based measurement technologies. This web site provides an overview of the methodologies, a full disclosure of the measurement data, and a yearly assessment of estimated radiation doses to resettlement workers and island residents.

Hamilton, T; Hickman, D; Conrado, C; Brown, T; Brunk, J; Marchetti, A; Cox, C; Martinelli, R; Kehl, S; Arelong, E; Langinbelik, S; Bell, R T; Petersen, G

2002-05-01

246

Risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer and radiation protection standards  

SciTech Connect

At low doses, the primary biological effects of concern are stochastic in nature, i.e., they are more probable at higher doses, but their severity is independent of the dose. In the last decade, a new epidemiological information on radiation-induced cancer in humans has become available. In the Japanese survivors three new cycles of data (11 yr of experience) have accumulated, and a revised dosimetry system (DS86) has been introduced. UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) reevaluated the risk of cancer from all human sources, which include other human populations such as those treated for ankylosing spondylitis and for cancer of the cervix. UNSCEAR has also evaluated the cancer risk for each of nine organs. For radiation protection purposes (low doses and dose rates, adult populations mainly), nominal values of risk since the 1977-80 period have been {approximately}1%/Sv. This value will need to be increased in the light of the new estimates. Also, risk estimates for various tissues must be reconsidered, and weighting factors used by International Commission on Radiological Protection need to be reexamined. Recommendations on occupational and public dose limits must also be reconsidered. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements is in a comparatively good position with a recently produced set of recommendations that had higher cancer risk estimates in mind.

Sinclair, W.K. (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1989-11-01

247

On Radiated Emission Limits for Pulsed Interference to Protect Modern Digital Wireless Communication Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present international standards for maximum levels of unintentional radiated emission from electronic devices are developed to protect analog communication services. In this paper, we propose a set of measurement bandwidths and electric field strength levels that could be used as radiated emission limits for future radiated emission standards, based on the RMS detector, in order to protect modern digital communication

Peter F. Stenumgaard

2007-01-01

248

47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication...Special requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided...human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

2013-10-01

249

Trends in radiation protection--a view from the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP)  

SciTech Connect

The present status of ionizing radiation protection in our society, with the exception of extraordinary events such as the Chernobyl accident, can be considered reasonably satisfactory. Occupationally, average exposures have risks no greater than accident rates in safe industries and show a downward trend in concert with results of safety practices in other occupations; higher exposures are being addressed specifically, and a new NCRP guideline may prove useful. An important concern relating to the quality factor for neutrons is at least partially accounted for by recent International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and NCRP recommendations. Among public exposures, the most important by far is exposure to indoor Rn. However, this problem is being addressed on all fronts, and its magnitude and the means to deal with it will soon be better known. For the near future, we should see a stabilizing of risk estimates, albeit at levels very probably higher than formerly. There may also be an increasing tendency to use incidence rather than mortality for calculating these estimates. These changes may require some adjustment in our perspective on limits. As the difference in risk between the sexes becomes more definite, we may wish to adopt a policy of equal risk rather than one of equal dose. Age data also emphasize, more and more, the decline of risk with age; consequently, using older workers when feasible in radiation-exposure circumstances becomes more desirable. For the longer-term future, various developments can be expected, including, possibly, a more suitable climate for a risk system, a more appropriate way to express differences in radiation quality, further knowledge of the role probabilities of causation may play in radiation control, the effect of mitigating and enhancing factors, and progress in fundamental oncology.

Sinclair, W.K.

1988-08-01

250

Accreditation of human research protection program: An Indian perspective  

PubMed Central

With the increasing number of clinical trials being placed in India, it is the collective responsibility of the Investigator sites, Government, Ethics Committees, and Sponsors to ensure that the trial subjects are protected from risks these studies can have, that subjects are duly compensated, and credible data generated. Most importantly, each institution/hospital should have a strong Human Research Protection Program to safe guard the trial subjects. In order to look at research with a comprehensive objective approach, there is a need for a formal auditing and review system by a recognized body. As of now, only the sponsors are monitoring/auditing their respective trials; however, there is an increasing need to perform a more detailed review and assessment of processes of the institution and the Ethics Committee. This challenge can be addressed by going for accreditation by a reputed association that encompasses-the institutions, the ethics committees, and researcher/research staff. Starting their journey for the accreditation process in late 2010, Kasturba Medical College and Hospital [KMC], Manipal, and Manipal Hospital Bangalore [MHB] received full Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs (AAHRPP) accreditation in Dec 2011—a first in India. This article delves into the steps involved in applying for AAHRPP accreditation from an Indian Perspective, the challenges, advantages, and testimonials from the two hospitals on the application experience and how the accreditation has improved the Human Research Protection Program at these hospitals.

Bairy, K. L.; Pereira, Pratibha

2012-01-01

251

Low Dose Radiation Adaptive Protection to Control Neurodegenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Concerns have been expressed recently regarding the observed increased DNA damage from activities such as thinking and exercise. Such concerns have arisen from an incomplete accounting of the full effects of the increased oxidative damage. When the effects of the induced adaptive protective responses such as increased antioxidants and DNA repair enzymes are taken into consideration, there would be less endogenous DNA damage during the subsequent period of enhanced defenses, resulting in improved health from the thinking and exercise activities. Low dose radiation (LDR), which causes oxidative stress and increased DNA damage, upregulates adaptive protection systems that may decrease diseases in an analogous manner. Though there are ongoing debates regarding LDR’s carcinogenicity, with two recent advisory committee reports coming to opposite conclusions, data published since the time of the reports have overwhelmingly ruled out its carcinogenicity, paving the way for consideration of its potential use for disease reduction. LDR adaptive protection is a promising approach to control neurodegenerative diseases, for which there are no methods of prevention or cure. Preparation of a compelling ethics case would pave the way for LDR clinical studies and progress in dealing with neurodegenerative diseases.

Doss, Mohan

2014-01-01

252

Low dose radiation adaptive protection to control neurodegenerative diseases.  

PubMed

Concerns have been expressed recently regarding the observed increased DNA damage from activities such as thinking and exercise. Such concerns have arisen from an incomplete accounting of the full effects of the increased oxidative damage. When the effects of the induced adaptive protective responses such as increased antioxidants and DNA repair enzymes are taken into consideration, there would be less endogenous DNA damage during the subsequent period of enhanced defenses, resulting in improved health from the thinking and exercise activities. Low dose radiation (LDR), which causes oxidative stress and increased DNA damage, upregulates adaptive protection systems that may decrease diseases in an analogous manner. Though there are ongoing debates regarding LDR's carcinogenicity, with two recent advisory committee reports coming to opposite conclusions, data published since the time of the reports have overwhelmingly ruled out its carcinogenicity, paving the way for consideration of its potential use for disease reduction. LDR adaptive protection is a promising approach to control neurodegenerative diseases, for which there are no methods of prevention or cure. Preparation of a compelling ethics case would pave the way for LDR clinical studies and progress in dealing with neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24910585

Doss, Mohan

2014-05-01

253

34 CFR 381.1 - What is the Protection and Advocacy of Individual Rights program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY OF INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS General § 381...Protection and Advocacy of Individual Rights program? This...and human rights of eligible individuals with disabilities. (Authority: Sec....

2013-07-01

254

Arbeitsbericht 1988 der Abteilung Sicherheit und Strahlenschutz. (1988 annual work report of the Department for Safety and Radiation Protection).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department for Safety and Radiation Protection continues to be responsible for coordinating radiation protection, safety and protection at the KFA. It supports the other institutes and departments in performing the safety tasks allotted to them. The p...

R. Hille

1989-01-01

255

Commentary on Using LNT for Radiation Protection and Risk Assessment.  

PubMed

An article by Jerome Puskin attempts to justify the continued use of the linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption in radiation protection and risk assessment. In view of the substantial and increasing amount of data that contradicts this assumption; it is difficult to understand the reason for endorsing this unscientific behavior, which severely constrains nuclear energy projects and the use of CT scans in medicine. Many Japanese studies over the past 25 years have shown that low doses and low dose rates of radiation improve health in living organisms including humans. Recent studies on fruit flies have demonstrated that the original basis for the LNT notion is invalid. The Puskin article omits any mention of important reports from UNSCEAR, the NCRP and the French Academies of Science and Medicine, while citing an assessment of the Canadian breast cancer study that manipulated the data to obscure evidence of reduced breast cancer mortality following a low total dose. This commentary provides dose limits that are based on real human data, for both single and chronic radiation exposures. PMID:20877492

Cuttler, Jerry M

2009-01-01

256

73 FR 61256 - Public Health and Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...safety radiation protection standards for...There are two primary mechanisms...discuss broad or major comments in...radiological protection standards for...identical, protections to the affected...NAS discussed two important kinds...threshold by two orders of magnitude...high level of protection but that does...event might......

2008-10-15

257

Recent estimates of cancer risk from low-let ionizing radiation and radiation protection limits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of the risk of cancer induction, formerly about 1%/Sv, formed the basis of ICRP radiation protection limits in 1977. They have now increased to about 4-5%/Sv for low doses. These increases are based mainly on new data for the Japanese survivors of the A-bombs of 1945. They result from the accumulation of 11 years more of data on solid tumors, the revisions in the dosimetry of those exposed and improvement in statistical methods and projections. The application of a dose rate effectiveness factor between effects at high dose rate and those at low dose and dose rate is also an important consideration. Not only has the total risk changed but also the distribution of risk among organs. Thus the effective dose equivalent may require modification. These changes are modifying ICRP and NCRP thinking about recommendations on protection limits, especially for radiation workers.

Sinclair, Warren K.

1992-07-01

258

The USDA Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Program.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation Monitoring Program has been measuring UV radiation since 1994. The initial network of 12 stations employed broadband meters to measure UVB irradiance and included ancillary measurements of temperature, humidity, and irradiance at seven wavelengths in the visible produced by a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). Since that beginning the network has expanded to more than 20 stations and the broadband meters have been supplemented with a seven-wavelength Ultraviolet Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (UV-MFRSR). The network has been designed to include 30 stations, each with a full complement of instrumentation. Annual characterizations of the network's filter radiometers indicate that gradual shifts in instrument response are manageable but must be accounted for to achieve accurate and precise measurements of UV irradiance. The characterization and calibration of the filter instruments is discussed along with filter stability and instrument precision. Broadband instruments are shown to be quite stable and collocated instruments are shown to agree to within 2.3% for zenith angles less than 80° under all sky conditions. Preliminary investigations into the accuracy of the UV-MFRSR calibrated with the Langley method are presented and successful column ozone retrievals are demonstrated with the UV-MFRSR under clear skies.

Bigelow, D. S.; Slusser, J. R.; Beaubien, A. F.; Gibson, J. H.

1998-04-01

259

Developing the radiation protection safety culture in the UK.  

PubMed

In the UK, as elsewhere, there is potential to improve how radiological challenges are addressed through improvement in, or development of, a strong radiation protection (RP) safety culture. In preliminary work in the UK, two areas have been identified as having a strong influence on UK society: the healthcare and nuclear industry sectors. Each has specific challenges, but with many overlapping common factors. Other sectors will benefit from further consideration.In order to make meaningful comparisons between these two principal sectors, this paper is primarily concerned with cultural aspects of RP in the working environment and occupational exposures rather than patient doses.The healthcare sector delivers a large collective dose to patients each year, particularly for diagnostic purposes, which continues to increase. Although patient dose is not the focus, it must be recognised that collective patient dose is inevitably linked to collective occupational exposure, especially in interventional procedures.The nuclear industry faces major challenges as work moves from operations to decommissioning on many sites. This involves restarting work in the plants responsible for the much higher radiation doses of the 1960/70s, but also performing tasks that are considerably more difficult and hazardous than those original performed in these plants.Factors which influence RP safety culture in the workplace are examined, and proposals are considered for a series of actions that may lead to an improvement in RP culture with an associated reduction in dose in many work areas. These actions include methods to improve knowledge and awareness of radiation safety, plus ways to influence management and colleagues in the workplace. The exchange of knowledge about safety culture between the nuclear industry and medical areas may act to develop RP culture in both sectors, and have a wider impact in other sectors where exposures to ionising radiations can occur. PMID:24894330

Cole, P; Hallard, R; Broughton, J; Coates, R; Croft, J; Davies, K; Devine, I; Lewis, C; Marsden, P; Marsh, A; McGeary, R; Riley, P; Rogers, A; Rycraft, H; Shaw, A

2014-06-01

260

Fire Protection Research Program at Sandia Laboratories. [BWR; PWR  

SciTech Connect

Sandia Laboratories is executing a program for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data needed for confirmation of the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in water reactor power plants. This paper summarizes the activities of this ongoing program through December 1979. Characterization of electrically initiated fires revealed a margin of safety in the separation criteria of Regulatory Guide 1.75 for such fires in IEEE-383 qualified cable. However, tests confirmed that these guidelines and standards are not sufficient, in themselves, to protect against exposure fires. This paper describes both small and full scale tests to assess the adequacy of fire retardant coatings and full scale tests on fire shields to determine their effectiveness. It also describes full scale tests to determine the effects of walls and ceilings on fire propagation between cable trays.

Klamerus, L.J.

1980-01-01

261

Developing a model lifeline protection program for DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

A National Lifeline Standard Development Program is currently being conducted by FEMA and NIST. The Department of Energy is following these developments and supplementing them to meet Life-Safety and mission requirements for all DOE facilities as part of the Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation Plan. The task will be overseen by a DOE management team with technical guidance provided by a Steering Group of management and operating contractor representatives. The DOE will participate in the federal program by conducting a workshop on lifeline protection issues, developing an overall plan, organizing a Steering Group, and conducting a pilot study at a DOE facility.

Lowing, A.N.

1996-11-01

262

[Nuclear energy and public health, the mission of OPRI (Office of Protection from Ionizing Radiation)].  

PubMed

In the domain of the use of ionising radiation for medical purposes and in the nuclear industry, the protection of man and his environment is primordial. Such protection is defined in European Community countries by the Directives of the Euratom Council, applied as national law. In France, the "Office de protection contre les rayonnements ionisants" oversees the application of laws and rules relating to protection from radiation and determines the inspections and analyses required to ensure the protection of the population against ionising radiation. PMID:7754326

Tisné, M R

1995-03-15

263

Meeting Radiation Protection Requirements and Reducing Spacecraft Mass - A Multifunctional Materials Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Both crew and radio-sensitive systems, especially electronics must be protected from the effects of the space radiation environment. One method of mitigating this radiation exposure is to use passive-shielding materials. In previous vehicle designs such a...

B. Reddell J. Franklin K. Rojdev S. Koontz W. Atwell

2010-01-01

264

Nuclear fragmentation measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear fragmentation measurements are necessary in hadrontherapy and space radiation protection, to predict the effects of the ion nuclear interactions within the human body. Nowadays, a very limited set of carbon fragmentation cross sections has been measured and in particular, to our knowledge, no double differential fragmentation cross sections at intermediate energies are available in literature. We have measured the double differential cross sections and the angular distributions of the secondary fragments produced in the 12C fragmentation at 62 AMeV on a thin carbon target. The experimental data have been also used to benchmark the prediction capability of the Geant4 Monte Carlo code at intermediate energies, where it was never tested before.

De Napoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Battistoni, G.; Blancato, A. A.; Bondì, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Giacoppo, F.; Morone, M. C.; Nicolosi, D.; Pandola, L.; Raciti, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Romano, F.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V.; Sfienti, C.; Tropea, S.

2013-04-01

265

Protective role of metallothionein in chemical and radiation carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Metallothionein (MT) is a low molecular weight metal-binding protein induced by endogenous and exogenous stimuli such as cytokines and heavy metals. In 1993 and 1994, two research groups (Choo et al. and Palmiter et al., respectively) produced MT-I/II double-knockout mice (MT-I/II null mice) with null mutations of the MT-I and MT-II genes. Subsequently, MT-I/II null mice have been used to clarify the biological function, physiological role, and pathophysiological relevance of MT by many research groups. Recent studies using MT-I/II null mice to investigate the role of MT in metal toxicity and distribution, oxidative stress, and some disease were reviewed. In addition, several research groups including our laboratory have reported that MT-I/II null mice are highly susceptible to several carcinogenesis caused by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, X-ray, benzo[a]pyrene, N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine, lead, and cisplatin. These results suggest that MT is an important protective factor against not only metal toxicity and oxidative stress but also chemical and radiation carcinogenesis. In this review, we present the findings of MT-I/II null mice with regard to the protective role of MT in carcinogenesis and mutagenesis caused by chemical agents and X-ray. PMID:23590136

Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Satoh, Masahiko

2013-03-01

266

UV radiation and freshwater zooplankton: damage, protection and recovery  

PubMed Central

While many laboratory and field studies show that zooplankton are negatively affected when exposed to high intensities of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), most studies also indicate that zooplankton are well adapted to cope with large variations in their UVR exposure in the pelagic zone of lakes. The response mechanisms of zooplankton are diverse and efficient and may explain the success and richness of freshwater zooplankton in optically variable waters. While no single behavioural or physiological protection mechanism seems to be superior, and while several unexplained and contradictory patterns exist in zooplankton UVR ecology, recent increases in our understanding are consistent with UVR playing an important role for zooplankton. This review examines the variability in freshwater zooplankton responses to UVR, with a focus on crustacean zooplankton (Cladocera and Copepoda). We present an overview of UVR-induced damages, and the protection and recovery mechanisms freshwater zooplankton use when exposed to UVR. We review the current knowledge of UVR impact on freshwater zooplankton at species and community levels, and discuss briefly how global change over the last three decades has influenced the UVR milieu in lakes.

Rautio, Milla; Tartarotti, Barbara

2011-01-01

267

Voyager electronic parts radiation program, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Voyager spacecraft is subject to radiation from external natural space, from radioisotope thermoelectric generators and heater units, and from the internal environment where penetrating electrons generate surface ionization effects in semiconductor devices. Methods for radiation hardening and tests for radiation sensitivity are described. Results of characterization testing and sample screening of over 200 semiconductor devices in a radiation environment are summarized.

Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Price, W. E.

1977-01-01

268

A modular radiative transfer program for gas filter correlation radiometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamentals of a computer program, simulated monochromatic atmospheric radiative transfer (SMART), which calculates atmospheric path transmission, solar radiation, and thermal radiation in the 4.6 micrometer spectral region, are described. A brief outline of atmospheric absorption properties and line by line transmission calculations is explained in conjunction with an outline of the SMART computational procedures. Program flexibility is demonstrated by simulating the response of a gas filter correlation radiometer as one example of an atmospheric infrared sensor. Program limitations, input data requirements, program listing, and comparison of SMART transmission calculations are presented.

Casas, J. C.; Campbell, S. A.

1977-01-01

269

U.S. planetary protection program: Implementation highlights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implementation of planetary protection in the United States space program has reflected the trend in policy from an absolute to a probabilistic prohibition of the contamination of the celestial bodies of the solar system. The early emphasis on spacecraft sterilization (e.g. Ranger) was replaced by the imposition of contamination control procedures on later missions such as Pioneer, Viking, and Voyager. Similarly, analytical and laboratory techniques were developed to demonstrate compliance with probabilistic requirements. Microbial burden reduction methods that are not hazardous for spacecraft reliability supplanted the abstract concept of sterilization. The United States implementation of planetary protection has been completely successful. In an exploration program that has included Mercury, Venus, Mars, the Jovian system, and the Saturnian system, there have been no accidental impacts or detection of false positives (terrestrial microbes). Further, the contamination control and microbial burden procedures have proved beneficial to spacecraft systems and on-board science instruments. We review in this paper the implementation of planetary protection procedures by the Pioneer (10 and 11), Viking and Voyager projects.

Barengoltz, J.; Stabekis, P. D.

270

Constructing vulnerabilty and protective measures indices for the enhanced critical infrastructure protection program.  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has directed its Protective Security Advisors (PSAs) to form partnerships with the owners and operators of assets most essential to the Nation's well being - a subclass of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) - and to conduct site visits for these and other high-risk assets as part of the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) Program. During each such visit, the PSA documents information about the facility's current CIKR protection posture and overall security awareness. The primary goals for ECIP site visits (DHS 2009) are to: (1) inform facility owners and operators of the importance of their facilities as an identified high-priority CIKR and the need to be vigilant in light of the ever-present threat of terrorism; (2) identify protective measures currently in place at these facilities, provide comparisons of CIKR protection postures across like assets, and track the implementation of new protective measures; and (3) enhance existing relationships among facility owners and operators; DHS; and various Federal, State, local tribal, and territorial partners. PSAs conduct ECIP visits to assess overall site security; educate facility owners and operators about security; help owners and operators identify gaps and potential improvements; and promote communication and information sharing among facility owners and operators, DHS, State governments, and other security partners. Information collected during ECIP visits is used to develop metrics; conduct sector-by-sector and cross-sector vulnerability comparisons; identify security gaps and trends across CIKR sectors and subsectors; establish sector baseline security survey results; and track progress toward improving CIKR security through activities, programs, outreach, and training (Snyder 2009). The data being collected are used in a framework consistent with the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) risk criteria (DHS 2009). The NIPP framework incorporates consequence, threat, and vulnerability components and addresses all hazards. The analysis of the vulnerability data needs to be reproducible, support risk analysis, and go beyond protection. It also needs to address important security/vulnerability topics, such as physical security, cyber security, systems analysis, and dependencies and interdependencies. This report provides an overview of the approach being developed to estimate vulnerability and provide vulnerability comparisons for sectors and subsectors. the information will be used to assist DHS in analyzing existing protective measures and vulnerability at facilities, to identify potential ways to reduce vulnerabilities, and to assist in preparing sector risk estimates. The owner/operator receives an analysis of the data collected for a specific asset, showing a comparison between the facility's protection posture/vulnerability index and those of DHS sector/subsector sites visited. This comparison gives the owner/operator an indication of the asset's security strengths and weaknesses that may be contributing factors to its vulnerability and protection posture. The information provided to the owner/operator shows how the asset compares to other similar assets within the asset's sector or subsector. A 'dashboard' display is used to illustrate the results in a convenient format. The dashboard allows the owner/operator to analyze the implementation of additional protective measures and to illustrate how such actions would impact the asset's Protective Measures Index (PMI) or Vulnerability Index (VI).

Fisher, R. E.; Buehring, W. A.; Whitfield, R. G.; Bassett, G. W.; Dickinson, D. C.; Haffenden, R. A.; Klett, M. S.; Lawlor, M. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; LANL

2009-10-14

271

Protection of the environment from ionising radiation in a regulatory context (protect): proposed numerical benchmark values.  

PubMed

Criteria are needed to be able to judge the level of risk associated with dose rates estimated for non-human biota. In this paper, European guidance on the derivation of predicted no-effect chemical concentrations has been applied to appropriate radiation sensitivity data. A species sensitivity distribution fitted to the data for all species resulted in a generic predicted no-effect dose rate of 10 microGy h(-1).Currently, data are inadequate to derive screening values for separate organism groups. A second, higher, benchmark could aid in decision making by putting results into context on the scale of no effect to a risk of 'serious' effect. The need for, meaning and use of such a value needs to be debated by the wider community. This paper explores potential approaches of deriving scientific input to this debate. The concepts proposed in this paper are broadly consistent with the framework for human protection. PMID:19589629

Andersson, Pål; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Beresford, Nicholas A; Copplestone, David; Howard, Brenda J; Howe, Paul; Oughton, Deborah; Whitehouse, Paul

2009-12-01

272

About RRP | Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Search this site About RRP Main Organizational Structure Clinical Radiation Oncology Branch Medical Physics Radiotherapy Development Branch Molecular Radiation Therapeutics Branch Oncology Outreach Last Updated: 05/15/14 Radiotherapy

273

Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Rongelap Atoll (2002-2004)  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Rongelap Atoll (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance programs are helping meet the informational needs of the U.S. DOE and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Our updated environmental assessments provide a strong scientific basis for predicting future change in exposure conditions especially in relation to changes in lifestyle, diet and/or land-use patterns. This information has important implications in addressing questions about existing (and future) radiological conditions on the islands, in determining as well as the implementation, cost and effectiveness of potential intervention options, and in general policy support considerations. Perhaps most importantly, the recently established individual radiological surveillance programs provide affected atoll communities with an unprecedented level of radiation protection monitoring where, for the first time, local resources are being made available to monitor resettled and resettling populations on a continuous basis. As a hard copy supplement to Marshall Islands Program website (http://eed.llnl.gov/mi/), this document provides an overview of the individual radiation protection monitoring program established for resettlement workers living on Rongelap Island along with a full disclosure of all verified measurement data (2002-2004). Readers are advised that an additional feature of the associated web site is a provision where users are able calculate and track doses delivered to volunteers (de-identified information only) participating the Marshall Islands Radiological Surveillance Program.

Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Arelong, E; Langinbelik, S

2006-01-17

274

Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Atoll (2002-2004)  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Enewetak Island (Figure 1) (Bell et al., 2002). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance programs are helping meet the informational needs of the U.S. DOE and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Our updated environmental assessments provide a strong scientific basis for predicting future change in exposure conditions especially in relation to changes in lifestyle, diet and/or land-use patterns. This information has important implications in addressing questions about existing (and future) radiological conditions on the islands, in determining the cost and estimating the effectiveness of potential remedial measures, and in general policy support considerations. Perhaps most importantly, the recently established individual radiological surveillance programs provide affected atoll communities with an unprecedented level of radiation protection monitoring where, for the first time, local resources are being made available to monitor resettled and resettling populations on a continuous basis. As a hard copy supplement to Marshall Islands Program website (http://eed.llnl.gov/mi/), this document provides an overview of the individual radiation protection monitoring program established for the Enewetak Atoll population group along with a full disclosure of all verified measurement data (2002-2004). Readers are advised that an additional feature of the associated web site is a provision where users are able calculate and track doses delivered to volunteers (de-identified information only) participating in the Marshall Islands Radiological Surveillance Program.

Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Johannes, K; Henry, D

2006-01-17

275

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

2005-07-01

276

Radiation protection standards: The NRC (U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission) perspective  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the role and viewpoint of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on radiation protection standards, specifically the major revision of 10CFR20 and the criteria for below regulatory concern. The NRC relies heavily on consensus standards and (especially in radiation protection) the recommendations of authoritative organizations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, and the National Committee on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). The NRC is modifying its radiation protection requirements to be consistent with ICRP/NCRP recommendations and to avoid undue controls on trivial risks. The problems are formidable and final resolution of many issues may not occur this calendar year.

Congel, F.J. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-11-01

277

Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

2010-01-01

278

Neutron, Proton, and Photonuclear Cross Sections for Radiation Therapy and Radiation Protection  

SciTech Connect

The authors review recent work at Los Alamos to evaluate neutron, proton, and photonuclear cross section up to 150 MeV (to 250 MeV for protons), based on experimental data and nuclear model calculations. These data are represented in the ENDF format and can be used in computer codes to simulate radiation transport. They permit calculations of absorbed dose in the body from therapy beams, and through use of kerma coefficients allow absorbed dose to be estimated for a given neutron energy distribution. For radiation protection, these data can be used to determine shielding requirements in accelerator environments, and to calculate neutron, proton, gamma-ray, and radionuclide production. Illustrative comparisons of the evaluated cross section and kerma coefficient data with measurements are given.

Chadwick, M.B.

1998-09-10

279

PROTECTIVE MEASURES AGAINST THE EFFECTS OF RADIATION FROM RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS USED IN INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protective measures against external radiation hazards are described, ; and practical examples, in conaection with sealed sources, are given. The ; special protective measures taken against air and water contamination are also ; explained. An example shows how the required protective measures can be derived ; and calculated for a special case. (auth);

Schwarzer

1962-01-01

280

OXYGEN PROTECTION OF BACTERIOPHAGE T1 AGAINST IONIZING RADIATIONS  

PubMed Central

Bacteriophage T1 was suspended in distilled water and in phosphate buffer, saturated with oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide, and irradiated with gamma rays and x-rays. Under the same conditions phage was exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Oxygen acted as a protective agent against both irradiation and hydrogen peroxide inactivation. As a protective agent against irradiation, oxygen was more efficient in distilled water than in buffer. The phage was much more sensitive to irradiation in the presence of hydrogen or nitrogen than in the presence of oxygen. Survivals of phage irradiated in suspensions saturated with hydrogen and with nitrogen did not differ significantly. From this it was concluded that oxygen did not protect T1 by removing atomic hydrogen from the irradiated medium, since the hydrogen-saturated medium increased the yield of atomic hydrogen but did not increase the yield of inactivated phage. It was presumed, therefore, that phage is sensitive to OH radicals and this was confirmed by irradiating phage with UV in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and comparing this survival with the survivals obtained from hydrogen peroxide alone and from UV alone. The combined effect of hydrogen peroxide and UV acting simultaneously was greater than the effect attributable to hydrogen peroxide and UV acting separately. Evidence for sensitivity to HO2 radicals was considered, and the effect was attributed chiefly to an oxidizing action since phage sensitivity is greater at higher hydrogen ion concentrations, which favor oxidation by HO2 radicals. Since the OH radical is a more efficient oxidizing agent than O-, the former being favored in an acid medium, the latter in an alkaline medium, and since the phage is more sensitive in the first situation than in the second, the present tests proved the importance of oxidation as the mechanism of inactivation. Since some inactivation was encountered when phage was exposed to reducing agents, independently of irradiation, it was concluded that phage is somewhat sensitive to reducing agents, but the inactivation attributable to ionizing radiations is due chiefly to oxidation, against which these reducing agents are very efficient protectors. Under no circumstances did hydrogen peroxide protect T1, whether produced by irradiation in the medium or added beforehand to the medium to be irradiated. The first point was investigated by irradiating T1 in the presence of hydrogen and oxygen combined; this produced a higher yield of hydrogen peroxide but a lower survival of T1. In all these tests phage survival under irradiation was directly correlated with oxygen content of the medium rather than with production of hydrogen peroxide. It is proposed that the protective effect of oxygen is due to a reaction between the phage and oxygen, and this complex confers stability upon the phage.

Bachofer, C. S.; Pottinger, M. Aelred

1956-01-01

281

Modulating Radiation Resistance: Novel Protection Paradigms Based on Defenses against Ionizing Radiation in the Extremophile Deinococcus radiodurans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For Deinococcus radiodurans and other bacteria which are extremely resistant to ionizing radiation (IR) and desiccation, a mechanistic link exists between resistance, manganese accumulation, and protein protection. We have demonstrated that ultrafiltered,...

M. J. Daly

2010-01-01

282

Presidential Report on Radiation Protection Advice: Screening of Humans for Security Purposes Using Ionization Radiation Scanning Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Presidential Report from the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has been prepared at the request of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). FDA has the responsibility for regulating the manufacture of electronic products...

2009-01-01

283

Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Utrok Atoll (2003-2004)  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance programs are helping meet the informational needs of the U.S. DOE and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Our updated environmental assessments provide a strong scientific basis for predicting future change in exposure conditions especially in relation to changes in life-style, diet and/or land-use patterns. This information has important implications in addressing questions about existing (and future) radiological conditions on the islands, in determining the cost and the effectiveness of potential remedial measures, and in general policy support considerations. Perhaps most importantly, the recently established individual radiological surveillance programs provide affected atoll communities with an unprecedented level of radiation protection monitoring where, for the first time, local resources are being made available to monitor resettled and resettling populations on a continuous basis. As a hard copy supplement to Marshall Islands Program website (http://eed.llnl.gov/mi/), this document provides an overview of the individual radiation surveillance monitoring program established for the Utrok Atoll population group along with a full disclosure of all verified measurement data (2003-2004). The Utrok whole body counting facility has been temporarily stationed on Majuro Atoll and, in cooperation with the Utrok Atoll Local Government, serves as a national facility open to the general public. Readers are advised that an additional feature of the associated website is a provision whereby users are able to calculate and track radiation doses delivered to volunteers (de-identified information only) participating in the Marshall Islands Radiological Surveillance Program.

Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Tibon, S; Chee, L

2006-01-17

284

United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries: Researching radiation protection. USTUR annual report for February 1, 1999 through January 31, 2000  

SciTech Connect

The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) comprise a human tissue research program studying the deposition, biokinetics and dosimetry of the actinide elements in humans with the primary goals of providing data fundamental to the verification, refinement, or future development of radiation protection standards for these and other radionuclides, and of determining possible bioeffects on both a macro and subcellular level attributable to exposure to the actinides. This report covers USTUR activities during the year from February 1999 through January 2000.

Ehrhart, Susan M. (ed.); Filipy, Ronald E. (ed.)

2000-07-01

285

Economic Evaluation of the US Environmental Protection Agency's SunWise Program: Sun Protection Education for Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.The SunWise School Program is a school-based sun safety education pro- gram that was developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency and aims to teach children how to protect themselves from overexposure to the sun. The objec- tives of this study were to assess the health benefits of the SunWise School Program and use economic analysis to determine the program's

Jessica W. Kyle; James K. Hammitt; Henry W. Lim; Alan C. Geller; Luke H. Hall-Jordan; Edward W. Maibach; Edward C. De Fabo; Mark C. Wagner

2010-01-01

286

Modern new nuclear fuel characteristics and radiation protection aspects.  

PubMed

The glut of fissile material from reprocessing plants and from the conclusion of the cold war has provided the opportunity to design new fuel types to beneficially dispose of such stocks by generating useful power. Thus, in addition to the normal reactor core complement of enriched uranium fuel assemblies, two other types are available on the world market. These are the ERU (enriched recycled uranium) and the MOX (mixed oxide) fuel assemblies. Framatome ANP produces ERU fuel assemblies by taking feed material from reprocessing facilities and blending this with highly enriched uranium from other sources. MOX fuel assemblies contain plutonium isotopes, thus exploiting the higher neutron yield of the plutonium fission process. This paper describes and evaluates the gamma, spontaneous and alpha reaction neutron source terms of these non-irradiated fuel assembly types by defining their nuclear characteristics. The dose rates which arise from these terms are provided along with an overview of radiation protection aspects for consideration in transporting and delivering such fuel assemblies to power generating utilities. PMID:16381693

Terry, Ian R

2005-01-01

287

The LNT Debate in Radiation Protection: Science vs. Policy  

PubMed Central

There is considerable interest in revisiting LNT theory as the basis for the system of radiation protection in the US and worldwide. Arguing the scientific merits of policy options is not likely to be fruitful because the science is not robust enough to support one theory to the exclusion of others. Current science cannot determine the existence of a dose threshold, a key piece to resolving the matter scientifically. The nature of the scientific evidence is such that risk assessment at small effective doses (defined as <100 mSv) is highly uncertain, and several policy alternatives, including threshold and non-linear dose-response functions, are scientifically defensible. This paper argues for an alternative approach by looking at the LNT debate as a policy question and analyzes the problem from a social and economic perspective. In other words, risk assessment and a strictly scientific perspective are insufficiently broad enough to resolve the issue completely. A wider perspective encompassing social and economic impacts in a risk management context is necessary, but moving the debate to the policy and risk management arena necessarily marginalizes the role of scientists.

Mossman, Kenneth L.

2012-01-01

288

Solid state nuclear track detectors in hadrontherapy and radiation protection in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent widespread of carbon-therapy for cancer treatment and the long duration manned exploration planned by NASA require the knowledge of nuclear data both for assessing the correct dose distribution in the target volume and surrounding healthy tissue (radiation therapy), and for a better knowledge of the mixed radiation field to which astronauts will be exposed (radiation protection in space).

Paola Scampoli

2009-01-01

289

Role of Personal Air Sampling in Radiation Safety Programs and Results of a Laboratory Evaluation of Personal Air-Sampling Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recommended applications for personal air sampling in NRC licensee radiation protection programs are presented. The performance tests show that personal air samplers are available which can provide a reliable, convenient means for breathing-zone sampling ...

P. D. Ritter B. L. Huntsman V. J. Novick J. L. Alvarez B. L. Rich

1984-01-01

290

IRS' Security Program Requires Improvements to Protect Confidentiality of Income Tax Information: Department of the Treasury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

IRS designed a security program to protect the confidentiality of tax data under its control. But weaknesses in carrying out the program are widespread and some essential procedures and controls are lacking completely. Because of the program shortcomings,...

1977-01-01

291

Fire Protection Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories is executing a program for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data needed for confirmation of the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in water reactor power plants. This paper summarizes the activities of this ongoing program through October 1980. Characterization of electrically initiated fires revealed a margin of safety in the separation criteria of Regulatory Guide 1.75 for such fires in IEEE-383 qualified cable. However, tests confirmed that these guidelines and standards are not sufficient, in themselves, to protect against exposure fires. This paper describes both small and full scale tests to assess the adequacy of fire retardant coatings and full scale tests on fire shields to determine their effectiveness. It also describes full scale tests to determine the effects of walls and ceilings on fire propagation between cable trays. Some small-scale scoping tests have been conducted to investigate the effects of varying the furnace pressure on cable penetration performance in the ASTM-E-119 Fire Test. The Sandia Fire Research Facility has been completed and a series of tests have been run to assess the effectiveness of Halon-1301 as a suppression system in extinguishing deep-seated cable-tray fires. It was found that given sufficient soak times Halon systems are effective in extinguishing such fires.

Klamerus, L.J.

1980-01-01

292

Radiation terrorism: what society needs from the radiobiology-radiation protection and radiation oncology communities.  

PubMed

Society's and individuals' concerns about the adverse effects from radiation are logically amplified many times when radiological terrorism is considered. The spectrum of events include industrial sabotage, the use of an explosive or non-explosive radiological dispersal device, the placement of a radiological exposure device in a public facility and the use of an improvised nuclear device. The consequences of an event relate to the physical and medical damage of the event itself, the financial impact, and the acute and long-term medical consequences, including fear of radiation-induced cancer. The magnitude of a state-sponsored nuclear event is so great that limited detailed response planning had been done in the past, as compared to the work now ongoing. Planning is done on the basis of scenario modelling. Medical response planning includes medical triage, distribution of victims to care by experienced physicians, developing medical countermeasures to mitigate or treat radiation injury, counselling and appropriately following exposed or potentially exposed people, and helping the local community develop confidence in their own response plan. Optimal response must be based on the best available science. This requires scientists who can define, prioritise and address the gaps in knowledge with the range of expertise from basic physics to biology to translational research to systems expertise to response planning to healthcare policy to communications. Not only are there unique needs and career opportunities, but there is also the opportunity for individuals to serve their communities and country with education regarding radiation effects and by formulating scientifically based government policy. PMID:19454803

Coleman, C Norman; Parker, Gerald W

2009-06-01

293

Personnel Radiation Dosimetry Symposium: Program and Abstracts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose was to provide applied and research dosimetrists with sufficient information to evaluate the status and direction of their programs relative to the latest guidelines and techniques. A technical program was presented concerning experience, requ...

1984-01-01

294

78 FR 65045 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...45 CFR Parts 144, 146, 147, et al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program...CMS-9964-F3] RIN 0938-AR82; RIN 0938-AR74 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program...final rule implements provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act...

2013-10-30

295

CRRES: Combined release and radiation effects satellite program summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experiments that comprise the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite Program (CRRES) (Apr. 1990 - Jul. 1992) are presented. The experiments are as follows: PEGSAT; El Coqui; the Kwajalein Campaign; and experiments G1 - G14.

Layman, Laura D.; Miller, George P.

1993-01-01

296

PABLM: a computer program to calculate accumulated radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment  

SciTech Connect

A computer program, PABLM, was written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. This report contains details of mathematical models used and calculational procedures required to run the computer program. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides in the environment after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release of radionuclides, after they are deposited on the plants or ground, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider several exposure pathways. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The doses calculated are accumulated doses from continuous chronic exposure. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years. The equations for calculating internal radiation doses are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and MPC's of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated water and soil are calculated using the basic assumption that the contaminated medium is large enough to be considered an infinite volume or plane relative to the range of the emitted radiations. The equations for calculations of the radiation dose from external exposure to shoreline sediments include a correction for the finite width of the contaminated beach.

Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

1980-03-01

297

Radiation dosimetry for the Gemini program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal source of radiation for low-earth-orbit, low inclination space flights is in the area of the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly. None of the Gemini dose measurements reported in the paper are of high enough intensity to be considered hazardous. There is a trend toward larger doses as missions are flown higher and longer. Extended orbital operations between 1400 and 4400 kilometers would encounter high interior radiation levels. Pronounced spacecraft geometry effects have been measured in manned spacecraft. Instrumentation for radiation measurements on Gemini spacecraft is described.

Richmond, R. G.

1972-01-01

298

Spacecraft Radiator Freeze Protection Using a Regenerative Heat Exchanger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An active thermal control system architecture has been modified to include a regenerative heat exchanger (regenerator) inboard of the radiator. Rather than using a radiator bypass valve a regenerative heat exchanger is placed inboard of the radiators. A regenerator cold side bypass valve is used to set the return temperature. During operation, the regenerator bypass flow is varied, mixing cold radiator return fluid and warm regenerator outlet fluid to maintain the system setpoint. At the lowest heat load for stable operation, the bypass flow is closed off, sending all of the flow through the regenerator. This lowers the radiator inlet temperature well below the system set-point while maintaining full flow through the radiators. By using a regenerator bypass flow control to maintain system setpoint, the required minimum heat load to avoid radiator freezing can be reduced by more than half compared to a radiator bypass system.

Ungar, Eugene K.; Schunk, Richard G.

2011-01-01

299

Non-coherent near infrared radiation protects normal human dermal fibroblasts from solar ultraviolet toxicity.  

PubMed

The sun is the most important and universal source of non-ionizing radiation shed on human populations. Life evolved on Earth bathed by this radiation. Solar UV damages cells, leading to deleterious conditions such as photoaging and carcinogenesis in human skin. During the process of evolution, the cells selected dark- and light-dependent repair mechanisms as a defence against these hazardous effects. This study describes the induction by non-coherent infrared radiation (700-2000 nm), in the absence of rising temperature, of a strong cellular defense against solar UV cytotoxicity as well as induction of cell mitosis. Blocking mitoses with arabinoside-cytosine or protein synthesis with cycloheximide did not abolish the protection, leading to the conclusion that this protection is independent of cell division and of protein neosynthesis. The protection provided by infrared radiation against solar UV radiation is shown to be a long-lasting (at least 24 h) and cumulatif phenomenon. Infrared radiation does not protect the lipids in cellular membranes against UVA induced peroxidation. The protection is not mediated by heat shock proteins. Living organisms on the Earth's surface are bathed by infrared radiation every day, before being submitted to solar UV. Thus, we propose that this as yet undescribed natural process of cell protection against solar UV, acquired and preserved through evolutional selection, plays an important role in life maintenance. Understanding and controlling this mechanism could provide important keys to the prevention of solar UV damage of human skin. PMID:9764844

Menezes, S; Coulomb, B; Lebreton, C; Dubertret, L

1998-10-01

300

Guidance for Applicants for State Wellhead Protection Program Assistance Funds under the Safe Drinking Water Act.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) establish a new Wellhead Protection (WHP) Program to protect ground waters that supply wells and wellfields contributing drinking water to public water supply systems. The Guidance outlines procedu...

1987-01-01

301

Geometric programming prediction of design trends for OMV protective structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global optimization trends of protective honeycomb structural designs for spacecraft subject to hypervelocity meteroid and space debris are presented. This nonlinear problem is first formulated for weight minimization of the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV) using a generic monomial predictor. Five problem formulations are considered, each dependent on the selection of independent design variables. Each case is optimized by considering the dual geometric programming problem. The dual variables are solved for in terms of the generic estimated exponents of the monomial predictor. The primal variables are then solved for by conversion. Finally, parametric design trends are developed for ranges of the estimated regression parameters. Results specify nonmonotonic relationships for the optimal first and second sheet mass per unit areas in terms of the estimated exponents.

Mog, R. A.; Horn, J. R.

1990-01-01

302

Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space exploration.

Lin, Zi-Wei

2004-01-01

303

Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most effect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

Lin, Zi-wei

2004-01-01

304

Protection in good and bad times ? the Turkish green card health program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the equity and financial protection implications of the expansion of the Green Card (Yesil Kart) non-contributory health insurance program in Turkey during the growth years from 2003 to 2008. It also considers the program's protective impact during the economic crisis in 2009. The authors find that the rapid expansion of the program between 2003 and 2008 was

Meltem A. Aran; Jesko S. Hentschel

2012-01-01

305

Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant groundwater protection program management plan  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge Y- 1 2 Plant (Y-12 Plant) is owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. The Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which was initiated in 1975, provides for the protection of groundwater resources consistent with Federal, State, and local regulations, and in accordance with DOE orders and Energy Systems policies and procedures. The Y-12 Plant is located in Anderson County, Tennessee, and is within the corporate limits of the City of Oak Ridge. The Y-12 Plant is one of three major DOE complexes that comprise the 37,000-acre Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) located in Anderson and Roane counties. The Y-12 Plant is located in Bear Creek Valley at an elevation of about 950 feet (ft) above sea level. Bear Creek Valley is bounded on the northwest and southeast, and is isolated from populated areas of Oak Ridge, by parallel ridges that rise about 300 ft above the valley floor. The Y-12 Plant and its fenced buffer area are about 0.6 mile wide by 3.2 miles long and cover approximately 4,900 acres. The main industrialized section encompasses approximately 800 acres.

NONE

1996-06-01

306

Hanford Protective Barriers Program water-erosion studies, FY 1989  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting the water-erosion control task of the Hanford Protective Barriers Program to assess barrier stability against soil erosion and slumping. The purpose of the barriers is to protect shallow-burial waste sites at the Hanford Site from water infiltration, biointrusion, and surficial erosion for up to 10,000 years. These aboveground, mounded structures will consist of layered, fine-grained sediment and rock designed to direct surface- and ground-water pathways away from the buried waste. The fine-grained sediment for the barrier will be obtained from the McGee Ranch on the Hanford Site. The purpose of the FY 1989 field work was to test two hypotheses concerning the behavior of McGee Ranch soil: runoff may occur on very dry, fine-grained sediment prior to complete saturation and rainsplash is an important erosional process for this type of sediment. This report describes plot construction, sediment sampling, and calibration testing of the rainfall simulator. Baseline stratigraphic and sedimentologic data include bulk density and textural properties of sediment in the test plots. Baseline precipitation data consist of predetermined raindrop sizes, rainfall intensities, plot coverage, and operational data for the simulator. 10 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Hoover, K.A.; Cadwell, L.L.; Walters, W.H.

1990-06-01

307

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, August 2000  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this USDA program is to provide information to the agricultural community about the geographic and temporal climatology of UV-B radiation. Scientists also use the data to determine changes in stratospheric ozone levels, cloud cover, and aerosols as they pertain to UV-B radiation and to improve the understanding of factors that control transmission of UV-B radiation. Advances have been made in areas of agriculture, human health effects, ecosystem studies, and atmospheric science. ARM Program personnel are excited about being a part of such a worthwhile effort.

Sisterson, D. L.

2000-08-30

308

Acoustic radiation from lined, unflanged ducts: Acoustic source distribution program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An acoustic radiation analysis was developed to predict the far-field characteristics of fan noise radiated from an acoustically lined unflanged duct. This analysis is comprised of three modular digital computer programs which together provide a capability of accounting for the impedance mismatch at the duct exit plane. Admissible duct configurations include circular or annular, with or without an extended centerbody. This variation in duct configurations provides a capability of modeling inlet and fan duct noise radiation. The computer programs are described in detail.

Beckemeyer, R. J.; Sawdy, D. T.

1971-01-01

309

25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds awarded...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program §...

2013-04-01

310

25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program? 63.30...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program §...

2013-04-01

311

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Radiation Control Program - Partners in Site Restoration  

SciTech Connect

In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the Management and Integration (M&I) contract for all five of the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) facilities to Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a world renowned national laboratory and research and development facility, the BJC mission involves executing the DOE Environmental Management (EM) program. In addition to BJC's M&I contract, UT-Battelle, LLC, a not-for-profit company, is the Management and Operating (M&O) contractor for DOE on the ORNL site. As part of ORNL's EM program, legacy inactive facilities (i.e., reactors, nuclear material research facilities, burial grounds, and underground storage tanks) are transferred to BJC and are designated as remediation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), or long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) facilities. Facilities operated by both UT-Battelle and BJC are interspersed throughout the site and are usually in close proximity. Both UT-Battelle and BJC have DOE-approved Radiation Protection Programs established in accordance with 10 CFR 835. The BJC Radiological Control (RADCON) Program adapts to the M&I framework and is comprised of a combination of subcontracted program responsibilities with BJC oversight. This paper focuses on the successes and challenges of executing the BJC RADCON Program for BJC's ORNL Project through a joint M&I contractor relationship, while maintaining a positive working relationship and partnership with UT-Battelle's Radiation Protection organization.

Jones, S. L.; Stafford, M. W.

2002-02-26

312

Proceedings of the Third symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Third Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association (20-22 Nov 1996) coorganized by Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health and 'Rudjer Boskovic' Institute, with the support of Ministry of Science and Technology of the Repu...

1996-01-01

313

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, March 2000  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM Program) is sending a copy of the ARM Video, an education overview of their program. In the video you will see and hear ARM scientists describe the importance of studying climate and climate change. It also contains a tour of some ARM sites and a look at state-of-the-art meteorological instrumentation, along with background information about the radiation budget and the complexity of climate modeling. The video was produced by the US Department of Energy.

Sisterson, D. L.

2000-04-03

314

Status of radiation protection in various interventional cardiology procedures in the Asia Pacific region  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveIncreasing use of interventional procedures in cardiology with unknown levels of radiation protection in many countries of Asia-Pacific region necessitates the need for status assessment. The study was part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project for achieving improved radiation protection in interventional cardiology (IC) in developing countries.DesignThe survey covers 18 cardiac catheterisation laboratories in seven countries (Bangladesh, India,

Virginia Tsapaki; Mohammed Faruque Ghulam; Soo Teik Lim; Hung Ngo Minh; Nwe Nwe; Anil Sharma; Kui-Hian Sim; Suphot Srimahachota; Madan Mohan Rehani

2011-01-01

315

Nonequilibrium air radiation (Nequair) program: User's manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A supplement to the data relating to the calculation of nonequilibrium radiation in flight regimes of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles contains the listings of the computer code NEQAIR (Nonequilibrium Air Radiation), its primary input data, and explanation of the user-supplied input variables. The user-supplied input variables are the thermodynamic variables of air at a given point, i.e., number densities of various chemical species, translational temperatures of heavy particles and electrons, and vibrational temperature. These thermodynamic variables do not necessarily have to be in thermodynamic equilibrium. The code calculates emission and absorption characteristics of air under these given conditions.

Park, C.

1985-01-01

316

The radiation protection and therapy effects of mesenchymal stem cells in mice with acute radiation injury  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on haematopoietic reconstitution in reducing bone marrow cell apoptosis effects in irradiated mice, and to research the safe and effective dosage of MSCs in mice with total body irradiation (TBI). After BALB/c mice were irradiated with 5.5 Gy cobalt-60 ?-rays, the following were observed: peripheral blood cell count, apoptosis rate, cell cycle, colony-forming unit-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) and colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) counts of bone marrow cells and pathological changes in the medulla. The survival of mice infused with three doses of MSCs after 8.0 Gy or 10 Gy TBI was examined. The blood cells recovered rapidly in the MSC groups. The apoptotic ratio of bone marrow cells in the control group was higher at 24 h after radiation. A lower ratio of G0/G1 cell cycle phases and a higher ratio of G2/M and S phases, as well as a greater number of haematopoietic islands and megalokaryocytes in the bone marrow, were observed in the MSC-treated groups. MSCs induced recovery of CFU-GM and CFU-GM and improved the survival of mice after 8 Gy TBI, but 1.5 × 108 kg?1 of MSCs increased mortality. These results indicate that MSCs protected and treated irradiated mice by inducing haematopoiesis and reducing apoptosis. MSCs may be a succedaneous or intensive method of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation under certain radiation dosages, and could provide a valuable strategy for acute radiation syndrome.

Hu, K X; Sun, Q Y; Guo, M; Ai, H S

2010-01-01

317

Radiation Dosimetry for the Gemini Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal source of radiation for low-earth-orbit, low inclination space flights is in the area of the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly. None of the Gemini dose measure ments reported in the paper are of high enough intensity to be considered hazardous...

R. G. Richmond

1972-01-01

318

Proceedings of the Symposium on the Protection Against Radiation Hazards in Space Book 1: Radiation Environment in Space. Effects of Space Radiation on Radio Sensitive Objects. Biological Effects of Space Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The realization in recent years that outer space is traversed by high-energy radiations has caused man to reevaluate the feasibility of manned or even instrumented exploration outside our atmosphere. Fortunately, it is possible to determine the nature and intensities of these radiations and to produce similar radiations on earth by means of accelerators. Thus we can learn how to attenuate them and to design capsules which afford protection against them. Of course this protection carries a weight penalty so that there is a premium on optimizing the shield design. Many groups in the United states are engaged in research to this end,and it was the purpose of this symposium to bring these groups together so that they could exchange information. To make the meeting more comprehensive, sessions on the nature of the radiations and their effects on people and things were included. However, the major part of the meeting was devoted to discussions on shielding research, comprising theoretical calculations and experiments carried out mainly with high-energy accelerators. The symposium committee feels that the aims of the symposium were met and that progress in space research program was greatly accelerated thereby.

1962-01-01

319

42 CFR 37.43 - Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements in NCRP Report No. 33 âMedical X-ray and Gamma-Ray Protection for Energies up to 10 MeVâEquipment Design and Useâ (issued February 1, 1968), in NCRP Report No. 48, âMedical...

2012-10-01

320

Protective immunity to UV radiation-induced skin tumours induced by skin grafts and epidermal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little evidence that cutaneous dendritic cells (DC), including epidermal Langerhans cells (LC), can induce immunity to UV radiation (UVR)-induced skin tumours. Here, it is shown that cells within skin can induce protective antitumour immunity against a UVR-induced fibrosarcoma. Transplantation of the skin overlying subcutaneous tumours onto naïve recipients could induce protective antitumour immunity, probably because the grafting stimulated

Ronald Sluyter; Kylie S Yuen; Gary M Halliday

2001-01-01

321

79 FR 32521 - Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Nuclear Power Operations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is announcing an extension of the public comment period for the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) requesting public comment and information on potential approaches to updating the EPA's ``Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Nuclear Power Operations''. The EPA published the ANPR on February 4, 2014 in the Federal Register, which......

2014-06-05

322

Handbook of engineering control methods for occupational radiation protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation are widely used in industrial, medical, military, and other applications. In the workplace, the task of assuring the safety of workers exposed to radiation sources is generally assigned to the safety professional, industrial hygienist, or an engineer in some other discipline. Rarely do employers outside the nuclear industry have the luxury of a staff

Orn

1992-01-01

323

Nuclear Fragmentation Processes Relevant for Human Space Radiation Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for human space explorations such as a moon base or a trip to Mars. Models have been developed in order to predict the radiation exposure to astronauts and to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials, and a key ingredient in these models is the physics of nuclear

Zi-Wei Lin

2007-01-01

324

Radiation Protection Materials for Space Missions and Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has a new vision for space exploration in the 21st Century encompassing a broad range of human and robotic missions including missions to Moon, Mars and beyond. Exposure from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space long duration missions is ``the show stopper.'' The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep

Ram Tripathi

2007-01-01

325

The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of doses to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers.

Fry, R. J. M.

326

24 CFR 5.363 - Housing programs: Protection of the pet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Housing programs: Protection of the pet. 5.363 Section 5.363 Housing and...GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing...

2010-04-01

327

Radiation oncology practice accreditation: The American College of Radiation Oncology, Practice Accreditation Program, guidelines and standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American College of Radiation Oncology Practice Accreditation Program (ACRO PAP) is a process by which a medical practice is evaluated through an in depth external review to ascertain whether or not key components of the practice comply with existing regulations, rules, laws, practice guidelines and professional practice standards. In radiation oncology, like other fields, it is driven by the

Gregory W. Cotter; Ralph R. Dobelbower

2005-01-01

328

The atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) program: Programmatic background and design of the cloud and radiation test bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, is a major new program of atmospheric measurement and modeling. The program is intended to improve the understanding of processes that affect atmospheric radiation and the description of these processes in climate models. An accurate description of atmospheric radiation and its interaction with clouds and cloud processes

Gerald M. Stokes; Stephen E. Schwartz

1994-01-01

329

Overview of NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) Program: Highlights of the Model Improvement and the New Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation summarizes several years of research done by the co-authors developing the NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) program and supporting it with scientific data. The goal of the program is to support NASA mission to achieve a safe space travel for humans despite the perils of space radiation. The program focuses on selected topics in radiation biology that were deemed important throughout this period of time, both for the NASA human space flight program and to academic radiation research. Besides scientific support to develop strategies protecting humans against an exposure to deep space radiation during space missions, and understanding health effects from space radiation on astronauts, other important ramifications of the ionizing radiation were studied with the applicability to greater human needs: understanding the origins of cancer, the impact on human genome, and the application of computer technology to biological research addressing the health of general population. The models under NASARTI project include: the general properties of ionizing radiation, such as particular track structure, the effects of radiation on human DNA, visualization and the statistical properties of DSBs (DNA double-strand breaks), DNA damage and repair pathways models and cell phenotypes, chromosomal aberrations, microscopy data analysis and the application to human tissue damage and cancer models. The development of the GUI and the interactive website, as deliverables to NASA operations teams and tools for a broader research community, is discussed. Most recent findings in the area of chromosomal aberrations and the application of the stochastic track structure are also presented.

Ponomarev, Artem L.; Plante, I.; George, Kerry; Cornforth, M. N.; Loucas, B. D.; Wu, Honglu

2014-01-01

330

Review of existing issues, ethics and practices in general medical research and in radiation protection research.  

PubMed

A literature review was carried out in relation to general medical research and radiation protection research. A large number of documents were found concerning the subject of ethics in general medical research. For radiation protection research, the number of documents and the information available is very limited. A review of practices in 13 European countries concerning general medical research and radiation protection research was carried out by sending a questionnaire to each country. It was found that all countries reviewed were well regulated for general medical research. For research that involves ionising radiation, the UK and Ireland are by far the most regulated countries. For other countries, there does not seem to be much information available. From the literature review and the review of practices, a number of existing ethical issues were identified and exposed, and a number of conclusions were drawn. PMID:18440965

Schreiner-Karoussou, A

2008-01-01

331

Radiation Protection by the Antioxidant Alpha-Tocopherol Succinate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radiological terrorism and use of nuclear weapons are major concerns for national defense and homeland security. At low doses of radiation, the hazards from these scenarios may not be apparent immediately, but may result in late arising pathologies like c...

P. Karikari R. Toles T. Seed V. Inivasan V. K. Singh

2005-01-01

332

New developments in radiation protection instrumentation via active electronic methods  

SciTech Connect

New developments in electronics and radiation detectors are improving on real-time data acquisition of radiation exposure and contamination conditions. Recent developments in low power circuit designs, hybrid and integrated circuits, and microcomputers have all contributed to smaller and lighter radiation detection instruments that are, at the same time, more sensitive and provide more information (e.g., radioisotope identification) than previous devices. New developments in radiation detectors, such as cadmium telluride, gas scintillation proportional counters, and imaging counters (both charged particle and photon) promise higher sensitivities and expanded uses over present instruments. These developments are being applied in such areas as health physics, waste management, environmental monitoring, in vivo measurements, and nuclear safeguards.

Umbarger, C.J.

1981-01-01

333

Radiation exposure and protection for moon and Mars missions  

SciTech Connect

A deep space radiation environment of galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles from solar flares imposes stringent requirements for radiation shielding for both personnel and electronic equipment at a moon base or on a Mars expedition. Current Los Alamos capabilities for calculating the effect of such shielding are described, and extensions and validation needed before actual manned deep space missions are launched are outlined. The biological effects of exposure to cosmic-ray ions and to low doses of radiation at low dose rates are poorly understood. Recent Los Alamos work on mutation effects in cells, DNA repair processes, and the analysis of chromosomal aberrations promises to increase our understanding of the basic processes, to provide methods to screen for radiation sensitivity, and to provide advanced dosimetry equipment for space missions.

MacFarlane, R.E.; Prael, R.E.; Strottman, D.D.; Strniste, G.F.; Feldman, W.C.

1991-04-01

334

Nuclear Fragmentation Processes Relevant for Human Space Radiation Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for human space explorations such as a moon base or a trip to Mars. Models have been developed in order to predict the radiation exposure to astronauts and to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials, and a key ingredient in these models is the physics of nuclear fragmentations. We have developed a semi-analytical method to determine which partial cross sections of nuclear fragmentations most affect the radiation dose behind shielding materials due to exposure to galactic cosmic rays. The cross sections thus determined will require more theoretical and/or experimental studies in order for us to better predict, reduce and mitigate the radiation exposure in human space explorations.

Lin, Zi-Wei

2007-04-01

335

68 FR 50533 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Notice 18 for Significant New Alternatives Policy Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...impervious butyl gloves, eye protection, chemical resistant aprons...guidelines in the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 2001...Policy (SNAP) program. The major provisions of section 612...suppression and explosion protection; [sbull] Sterilants...updates to these lists as separate notices of...

2003-08-21

336

Hanford Protective Barriers Program asphalt barrier studies -- FY 1988  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Protective Barrier (HPB) Program is evaluating alternative barriers to provide a means of meeting stringent water infiltration requirements. One type of alternative barrier being considered is an asphalt-based layer, 1.3 to 15 cm thick, which has been shown to be very effective as a barrier for radon gas and, hence, should be equally effective as a barrier for the larger molecules of water. Fiscal Year 1988 studies focused on the selection and formulation of the most promising asphalt materials for further testing in small-tube lysimeters. Results of laboratory-scale formulation and hydraulic conductivity tests led to the selection of a rubberized asphalt material and an admixture of 24 wt% asphalt emulsion and concrete sand as the two barriers for lysimeter testing. Eight lysimeters, four each containing the two asphalt treatments, were installed in the Small Tube Lysimeter Facility on the Hanford Site. The lysimeter tests allow the performance of these barrier formulations to be evaluated under more natural environmental conditions.

Freeman, H.D.; Gee, G.W.

1989-05-01

337

National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will describe the NREL program for addressing lightning protection for wind turbines. A test program will begin this summer at the Central and South West Services Inc. (CSW) wind farm near Fort Davis, Texas, to assess lightning risk, the frequency of lightning strikes on wind turbines compared to risk assessment predictions, and the effectiveness of some protection techniques.

E. Muljadi; B. McNiff

1997-01-01

338

Oceanic protection of prebiotic organic compounds from UV radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is frequently stated that UV light would cause massive destruction of prebiotic organic compounds because of the absence of an ozone layer. The elevated UV flux of the early sun compounds this problem. This applies to organic compounds of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin. Attempts to deal with this problem generally involve atmospheric absorbers. We show here that prebiotic organic polymers as well as several inorganic compounds are sufficient to protect oceanic organic molecules from UV degradation. This aqueous protection is in addition to any atmospheric UV absorbers and should be a ubiquitous planetary phenomenon serving to increase the size of planetary habitable zones.

Cleaves, H. J.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

339

Linear attenuation coefficient and build up factor of MCP-96 alloy for radiation shielding and protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Build-up factors and linear attenuation coefficients of MCP-96 alloy are determined for radiation shielding and protection, using ^60Co and ^137Cs gamma emitters. A narrow collimated beam of ?-rays is passed through various thicknesses of MCP-96 alloy and the attenuation in the intensity of the beam is determined. The thickness of the 4 x 4 cm^2 blocks varies from 0.5 cm to 6 cm. Plotting the thickness of the alloy and the corresponding intensity of the beam allowed us to determine its linear attenuation coefficient. The narrow beam geometry is then replaced by broad beam geometry by removing the collimator and the radiation beam is able to interact with the MCP-96 alloy at all possible positions facing the radiation source. Additional radiations obtained by the detector as a result from the scattering of radiation develops the build-up factor. The buildup factor is then calculated using the attenuated beam received by the detector in the broad beam geometry and in the narrow beam geometry. The buildup factor is found to be dependent on the thickness of the MCP-96 attenuator, the beam energy and the source to attenuator distance. These values are providing ways for dose correction in radiation oncology and radiation shielding and protection when MCP-96 is used as tissue compensator or for radiation protection purposes.

Hopkins, Deidre; Maqbool, Muhammad; Islam, Mohammed

2009-10-01

340

An assessment of radiative metallic thermal protection systems for space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The metallic thermal protection system technology program for the space shuttle is reviewed for the areas of environmental uncertainties, materials data base, TPS design concepts and heat-shield panel configurations, testing and evaluation of materials, panels, and complete systems.

Stein, B. A.; Bohon, H. L.; Rummler, D. R.

1972-01-01

341

Modern Methods of Real-Time Gamma Radiation Monitoring for General Personal Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time radiation detectors become an essential part of emergency personnel who may have to respond to unknown accidents, incidents or terrorist attacks, which could involve radioactive material. More and more ordinary citizens are interested in personal radiation protection as well. Reasons include lost sources, nuclear industrial accidents, nuclear or radiological terrorism and the possibility of nuclear weapons being used in a war. People want to have the ability to measure it for themselves and they want to be notified when the radiation levels are increased. To meet this demand, considerable research into new sensors is underway, including efforts to enhance the sensor performance through both the material properties and manufacturing technologies. Deep understanding of physical properties of the materials under the influence of radiation exposure is vital for the effective design of dosimeter devices. Detection of radiation is based on the fact that both the electrical and the optical properties of the materials undergo changes upon the exposure to ionizing radiation. It is believed that radiation causes structural defects. The influence of radiation depends on both the dose and the parameters of the films including their thickness: the degradation is more severe for the higher dose and the thinner films. This paper presents overview of modern methods of real-time gamma radiation monitoring for personal protection of radiation workers and general public and suggests further developments in this area.

Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

342

Comparison of in vivo murine intestinal radiation protection by E-prostaglandins  

SciTech Connect

The gastrointestinal cell renewal system is sensitive to injury by ionizing radiation. Natural prostaglandins (PGs) and their analogs have been shown to protect intestinal clonogenic cells (stem cells) in vivo from radiation injury. To further investigate structure and activity relationship in PGs as radiation protectors, studies were done with four E-series PGs: E1, E2, 16,16-dimethyl (dm) PGE2, and 15-deoxy, 16-methyl, 16-hydroxy PGE1 (misoprostol). No protection was seen with PGE1 at doses ranging from 1-100 ug/mouse given from 15 min to 3 hrs before 15.0 Gy137Cs. In contrast, the other three E-series PGs increased intestinal clonogenic cell survival when given 15 min before irradiation. The optimum pre-irradiation time of PG administration was 1 hr for PGE2 and 16,16-dm PGE2 and 2 hrs for misoprostol. The degree of maximum radiation protection was markedly different among the four PGs. PGE2 increased survival to 200% of control values and 16,16-dm PGE2 increased survival to about 400% of controls. The greatest radioprotection was seen with misoprostol, which increased survival to 600% of control. These results suggest that molecular alterations in the side chains of PGs change the efficiency of PG-induced radiation protection. The highest protection to date has been observed with misoprostol. This important finding warrants clinical investigation in patients subjected to radiotherapy.

Hanson, W.R.; DeLaurentiis, K.

1987-01-01

343

Low-dose extrapolation of radiation health risks: some implications of uncertainty for radiation protection at low doses.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation is a known and well-quantified human cancer risk factor, based on a remarkably consistent body of information from epidemiological studies of exposed populations. Typical examples of risk estimation include use of Japanese atomic bomb survivor data to estimate future risk from radiation-related cancer among American patients receiving multiple computed tomography scans, persons affected by radioactive fallout, or persons whose livelihoods involve some radiation exposure, such as x-ray technicians, interventional radiologists, or shipyard workers. Our estimates of radiation-related risk are uncertain, reflecting statistical variation and our imperfect understanding of crucial assumptions that must be made if we are to apply existing epidemiological data to particular situations. Fortunately, that uncertainty is also highly quantifiable, and can be presented concisely and transparently. Radiation protection is ultimately a political process that involves consent by stakeholders, a diverse group that includes people who might be expected to be risk-averse and concerned with plausible upper limits on risk (how bad could it be?), cost-averse and concerned with lower limits on risk (can you prove there is a nontrivial risk at current dose levels?), or combining both points of view. How radiation-related risk is viewed by individuals and population subgroups also depends very much on perception of related benefit, which might be (for example) medical, economic, altruistic, or nonexistent. The following presentation follows the lead of National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) Commentary 14, NCRP Report 126, and later documents in treating radiation protection from the viewpoint of quantitative uncertainty analysis. PMID:19820450

Land, Charles E

2009-11-01

344

10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(c) The content of each RPP shall be commensurate with the nature of the activities performed and shall include formal plans and measures for applying the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process to occupational...

2014-01-01

345

A Hypothesis on Biological Protection from Space Radiation Through the Use of Therapeutic Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation proposes a hypothesis to use therapeutic gases in space to enhance the biological protection for astronauts from space radiation. The fundamental role in how radiation causes biological damage appears to be radiolysis, the dissociation of water by radiation. A chain of events appears to cause molecular and biological transformations that ultimately manifest into medical diseases. The hypothesis of this work is that applying medical gases may increase resistance to radiation, by possessing the chemical properties that effectively improve the radical scavenging and enhance bond repair and to induce biological processes which enhance and support natural resistance and repair mechanisms.

Schoenfeld, Michael

2011-01-01

346

Protection of Lexan from UV Radiation by Photodownconversion. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Photodownconversion of uv radiation incident on a polymeric substrate, Lexan, into visible and IR region is effected by coating the substrate with cerous chloride (CeCl sub 3 )/poly(vinyl alcohol) complex whereby photolytic degradation of the substrate is...

W. M. Yen H. Yu

1980-01-01

347

Radiations from nuclear weapons - signal detectors - NASA program information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter is for the purpose of supplying the information that you requested at the meeting of the sub-committee on Project Vela. It is divided into three parts: (1) Radiations from nuclear weapons; (2) Backgrounds for Vela Signal Detectors; (3) Discussion of the NASA program.

1960-01-01

348

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available

D. L. Sisterson

2006-01-01

349

Radiation protection recommendations on dose limits: The role of the NCRP and the ICRP and future developments  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to review the role of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in making recommendations on dose limits for ionizing radiation exposure for workers and for the public. The text describes the new limits for workers and public recommended by ICRP in 1991 and NCRP in 1993 and the composition of the radiation health detriment on which they are based. The main component of this detriment is the risk of radiation induced cancer which is now estimated to be about three times greater than a decade or so earlier. Uncertainties in these risk estimates are discussed. Some special radiation protection problems, such as those for the embryo or fetus are described. The article also addresses future progress in radiation protection particularly with regard to future improvements in the scientific basis for radiation protection recommendations.

Sinclair, W.K. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD (United States)

1995-02-01

350

Proceedings of the 26th annual meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection Measurements  

SciTech Connect

This book reports on the 26th Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements which addressed the topic Health and Ecological Implications of Radioactively Contaminated Environments, a topic of great current interest and importance. The meeting was divided into five subtopics. The first dealt with the contaminated sites themselves, the second with human health implications, the third on remediation, the fourth (a panel) on lessons learned and issues of the future and finally a summation. The meeting also included progress reports on the work of three NCRP committees, Scientific Committee 1-2 on the Assessment of Risk for Radiation Protection Purposes, Scientific Committee 66 on Biological Effects and Exposure Criteria for Ultrasound and Scientific Committee 83 on Identification of Research Needs for Radiation Protection. Summaries of these reports prepared by their respective chairmen are included in this volume.

Richmond, C.R.

1991-01-01

351

The Environmental protection agency industrial technology transfer program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today TAC consists of a full service information center and five programs, which are: (1) our industrial program; (2) the energy information center; (3) the business and industry extension program; (4) the remote sensing program; and (5) the center for environmental research and development.

Suter, K. H.

1974-01-01

352

Design of an airborne plutonium survey program for personnel protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various options were considered for surveying and real-time monitoring for airborne plutonium for optimum protection of personnel. Placement of samplers, dilution factors, and analysis time were considered in the strategy for achieving regulatory compliance and maintaining internal dose as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). It was found that protection was relatively insensitive to placement as was sensitivity of detection. It

J. L. Alvarez; W. S. Bennett; T. L. Davidson

1994-01-01

353

THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATERSHED MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has directed much attention to watersheds and water quality during its tenure as the United States Federal Agency charged with protection of human health and the environment. Watershed research as a vehicle to understand the interaction ...

354

UV protective textile clothing for workers exposed to natural and artificial UV radiation.  

PubMed

Some amounts of ultraviolet radiation are beneficial for humans but excessive exposure can cause many negative health effects to the skin and eyes and also can affect the immune system. Exposed area of skin should be covered by working clothes with low UVR transmission. It concerns both exposure to natural UV or prolonged exposure to artificial UV. This article presents some aspects of UV protective textile clothing for workers exposed to natural and artificial UV radiation. This article presents results of selected textile samples transmittances and calculated UPF and new proposed AUPF, which describes protective properties against UV of textiles. The UPF and AUPF differs substantially between each other, what is related both to the weighting factors of erythema and actinic efficiency functions and spectral range of these functions. UV protection by clothing depends on a large variety of factors, such as type of fiber, color or moisture content. Contrary to popular opinion, however, some fabrics provide insufficient ultraviolet (UV) protection. PMID:21097351

Wolska, A; Owczarek, G; Bartkowiak, G

2010-01-01

355

Technical Basis Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Radiation and Contamination Trending Program  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Program radiation and contamination trending program. The program consists of standardized radiation and contamination surveys of the KE Basin, radiation surveys of the KW basin, and radiation surveys of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVD) with the associated tracking. This report also discusses the remainder of radiological areas within the SNFP that do not have standardized trending programs and the basis for not having this program in those areas.

KURTZ, J.E.

2000-05-10

356

Application of some magnetic nanocompounds in the protection against sun radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The protective effect of some magnetic nanocompounds against prolonged exposure to UV radiation was investigated. Research was carried in white mice whose auricles (ears) were treated with magnetic nanocompounds in various concentrations. After 8 h of exposure, small auricular fragments from treated and control animals were prepared for cytohistological studies. In animals treated with magnetic nanocompounds, no erythema or other UV-induced changes were noticed. The magnetic nanoparticles thus were UV protective and might be useful as a sunscreen.

Sincai, Mariana; Argherie, Diana; Ganga, Diana; Bica, Doina; Vekas, Ladislau

2007-04-01

357

Protective clothing: Fire and radiation environments. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning clothing design, fabrication, and testing for personal protection from exposure to flames and radiation. Citations discuss the treatment of fibers and textiles, testing for physiological tolerances, and methods of decontamination after exposure. Discussed also are user acceptance and proper use of protective clothing by firefighters, nuclear energy personnel, and others. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-11-01

358

Role of personal air sampling in radiation safety programs and results of a laboratory evaluation of personal air-sampling equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recommended applications for personal air sampling in NRC licensee radiation protection programs are presented. The recommendations are based on performance tests of currently available samplers, a review of research and regulatory literature, and a survey of current licensee air-sampling programs. The performance tests show that personal air samplers are available which can provide a reliable, convenient means for breathing-zone sampling

P. D. Ritter; B. L. Huntsman; V. J. Novick; J. L. Alvarez; B. L. Rich

1984-01-01

359

Radiation protection in digestive endoscopy: European Society of Digestive Endoscopy (ESGE) guideline.  

PubMed

This article expresses the current view of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) about radiation protection for endoscopic procedures, in particular endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Particular cases, including pregnant women and pediatric patients, are also discussed. This Guideline was developed by a group of endoscopists and medical physicists to ensure that all aspects of radiation protection are adequately dealt with. A two-page executive summary of evidence statements and recommendations is provided. The target readership for this Guideline mostly includes endoscopists, anesthesiologists, and endoscopy assistants who may be exposed to X-rays during endoscopic procedures. PMID:22438152

Dumonceau, J-M; Garcia-Fernandez, F J; Verdun, F R; Carinou, E; Donadille, L; Damilakis, J; Mouzas, I; Paraskeva, K; Ruiz-Lopez, N; Struelens, L; Tsapaki, V; Vanhavere, F; Valatas, V; Sans-Merce, M

2012-04-01

360

A biokinetic model for manganese for use in radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

The ICRP is updating its recommendations regarding occupational exposure to radionuclides including the biokinetic models used to derive dose coefficients and assess bioassay data for internally deposited radionuclides. This report reviews biokinetic data for manganese and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic manganese consistent with the current database. The model provides a more detailed and biologically realistic description of the movement of absorbed manganese in the body than the model currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The proposed model and current ICRP model yield broadly similar estimates of dose per unit activity of inhaled or ingested radio-manganese but differ substantially with regard to interpretation of bioassay data.

Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL

2011-01-01

361

Radiation protection for human exploration of the moon and mars: Application of the mash code system  

SciTech Connect

The Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding code system -- MASH, developed for the Department of Defense for calculating radiation protection factors for armored vehicles against neutron and gamma radiation, has been used to assess the dose from reactor radiation to an occupant in a habitat on Mars. The capability of MASH to reproduce measured data is summarized to demonstrate the accuracy of the code. The estimation of the radiation environment in an idealized reactor-habitat model is reported to illustrate the merits of the adjoint Monte Carlo procedure for space related studies. The reactor radiation dose for different reactor-habitat surface configurations to a habitat occupant is compared with the natural radiation dose acquired during a 500-day Mars mission.

Johnson, J.O.; Santoro, R.T.; Drischler, J.D.; Barnes, J.M.

1992-06-01

362

Radiation protection for human exploration of the moon and mars: Application of the mash code system  

SciTech Connect

The Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding code system -- MASH, developed for the Department of Defense for calculating radiation protection factors for armored vehicles against neutron and gamma radiation, has been used to assess the dose from reactor radiation to an occupant in a habitat on Mars. The capability of MASH to reproduce measured data is summarized to demonstrate the accuracy of the code. The estimation of the radiation environment in an idealized reactor-habitat model is reported to illustrate the merits of the adjoint Monte Carlo procedure for space related studies. The reactor radiation dose for different reactor-habitat surface configurations to a habitat occupant is compared with the natural radiation dose acquired during a 500-day Mars mission.

Johnson, J.O.; Santoro, R.T.; Drischler, J.D.; Barnes, J.M.

1992-01-01

363

Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency's ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program  

Microsoft Academic Search

ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program's inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy-efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open

Marla C. Sanchez; Richard E. Brown; Carrie Webber; Gregory K. Homan

2008-01-01

364

ICRP and IAEA actions on radiation protection in computed tomography.  

PubMed

In 1998, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) warned that computed tomography (CT) doses were high, and the frequency of usage was likely to increase in view of spiral CT technology that enhances patient convenience and provides high-quality diagnostic information. Two ICRP publications (Publications 87 and 102) have provided patient dose management recommendations while reviewing the technology and results of optimisations to date, and stimulated interest in patient dose management. The International Atomic Energy Agency, on the other hand, has been instrumental in assessing the state of practice at grassroots level, identifying lacunae in justification and optimisation, providing guidance to counterparts in various countries, and improving practice. The results from approximately 50 less-resourced countries for adult and paediatric CT studies have become available, and some have been published. The concerted efforts and actions by these two international organisations have contributed to better awareness and improvement of patient protection in CT in adults and children in many countries. PMID:23089014

Rehani, M M

2012-01-01

365

Shielding and radiation protection at the SSRL 3 GeV injector  

SciTech Connect

The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) Injector is comprised of a linear accelerator (linac) capable of energies {le} 150 MeV, a 3 GeV booster synchrotron, and a beam line to transport the electrons into the storage ring SPEAR. The injector is shielded so that under normal operating conditions, the annual dose equivalent at the shield surface does not exceed 10 mSv. This paper describes the shielding and radiation protection at the injector.

Ipe, N.E.; Liu, J.C.

1991-12-01

366

FINAL REPORT FORMER RADIATION WORKER MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM AT ROCKY FLATS For Department of Energy Programs  

SciTech Connect

The Former Radiation Worker Medical Surveillance Program at Rocky Flats was conducted in Arvada, CO, by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education under DOE Contract DE-AC05-00OR22750. Objectives of the program were to obtain information on the value of medical surveillance among at-risk former radiation workers and to provide long-term internal radiation dosimetry information to the scientific community. This program provided the former radiation workers of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (formerly Rocky Flats Plant) an opportunity to receive follow-up medical monitoring and a re-evaluation of their internal radiation dose. The former Rocky Flats radiation worker population is distinctive because it was a reasonably stable work force that received occupational exposures, at times substantial, over several decades. This report reflects the summation of health outcomes, statistical analyses, and dose assessment information on former Rocky Flats radiation workers to the date of study termination as of March 2004.

Joe M. Aldrich

2004-11-01

367

Establishing a Human Research Protection Program in a Combatant Command.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extensive United States combat operations commenced for the first time in over decade in 2003. Early in 2004 there was no human research protection regulatory review and approval mechanism based in a deployed military combatant command. The absence of suc...

J. B. Holcomb J. C. Thompson L. R. Brosch P. R. Cordts

2008-01-01

368

Neutron Measurements for Radiation Protection in Low Earth Orbit - History and Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The neutron environment inside spacecraft has been of interest from a scientific and radiation protection perspective since early in the history of manned spaceflight. With 1:.1e exception of a few missions which carried plutonium-fueled radioisotope thermoelectric generators, all of the neutrons inside the spacecraft are secondary radiations resulting from interactions of high-energy charged particles with nuclei in the Earth's atmosphere, spacecraft structural materials, and the astronaut's own bodies. Although of great interest, definitive measurements of the spacecraft neutron field have been difficult due to the wide particle energy range and the limited available volume and power for traditional techniques involving Bonner spheres. A multitude of measurements, however, have been made of the neutron environment inside spacecraft. The majority of measurements were made using passive techniques including metal activation fo ils, fission foils, nuclear photoemulsions, plastic track detectors, and thermoluminescent detectors. Active measurements have utilized proton recoil spectrometers (stilbene), Bonner Spheres eRe proportional counter based), and LiI(Eu)phoswich scintillation detectors. For the International Space Station (ISS), only the plastic track! thermoluminescent detectors are used with any regularity. A monitoring program utilizing a set of active Bonner spheres was carried out in the ISS Lab module from March - December 200l. These measurements provide a very limited look at the crew neutron exposure, both in time coverage and neutron energy coverage. A review of the currently published data from past flights will be made and compared with the more recent results from the ISS. Future measurement efforts using currently available techniques and those in development will be also discussed.

Golightly, M. J.; Se,pmes. E/

2003-01-01

369

Radiation protection system at the RIKEN RI beam factory.  

PubMed

The RIKEN RI (radioactive isotope) Beam Factory is scheduled to commence operations in 2006, and its maximum energy will be 400 MeV u(-1) for ions lighter than Ar and 350 MeV u(-1) for uranium. The beam intensity will be 1 pmicroA (6 x 10(12) particles s(-1)) for any element at the goal. For the hands-on-maintenance and the rational shield thickness of the building, the beam loss must be controlled with several kinds of monitors. Three types of radiation monitors will be installed. The first one consists of a neutron dose equivalent monitor and an ionisation chamber, which are commercially available area monitors. The second one is a conventional hand-held dose equivalent monitor wherein the logarithmic signal is read by a programmable logic controller based on the radiation safety interlock system (HIS). The third one is a simple plastic scintillator called a beam loss monitor. All the monitors have threshold levels for alarm and beam stop, and HIS reads all these signals. PMID:16381729

Uwamino, Y; Fujita, S; Sakamoto, H; Ito, S; Fukunishi, N; Yabutani, T; Yamano, T; Fukumura, A

2005-01-01

370

Radiation Protection Materials for Space Missions and Industries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA has a new vision for space exploration in the 21st Century encompassing a broad range of human and robotic missions including missions to Moon, Mars and beyond. Exposure from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space long duration missions is ``the show stopper.'' The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space missions. In the enabling technology, we have developed methodology and concomitant technology for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of space missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints. Studies have been made for various missions. Current technology is adequate for low earth orbit missions. Revolutionary materials need to be developed for career astronauts and deep space missions. The details of this new technology and its impact on space missions and other technologies will be discussed.

Tripathi, Ram

2007-03-01

371

Sulfur compounds in therapy: Radiation-protective agents, amphetamines, and mucopolysaccharide sulfation  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur-containing compounds have been used in the search for whole-body radiation-protective compounds, in the design of amphetamine derivatives that retain appetite-suppressive effects but lack most behavioral effects characteristic of amphetamines, and in the search for the cause of kidney stone formation in recurrently stoneforming patients. Organic synthetic procedures were used to prepare radiation-protective compounds having a variety of sulfur-containing functional groups, and to prepare amphetamine derivatives having electron-attracting sulfur functions. In the case of the kidney stone causation research, isolation of urinary mucopolysaccharides (MPS) from recurrently stoneforming patients was carried out and the extent of sulfation of the MPS was determined by electrophoresis. Whole-body radiation-protective agents with a high degree of protection against lethal doses of gamma-radiation in mice were found in a series of quinolinium and pyridinium bis(methylthio) and methylthio amino derivatives. Mechanism studies showed that the copper complexes of these agents mimicked the beneficial action of superoxide dismutase. Electron-attracting sulfur-containing functions on amphetamine nitrogen, as well as 4'-amino nitrogen provided amphetamine derivatives with good appetite-suppressant effects and few or no adverse behavioral effects. Higher than normal levels of sulfation of the urinary MPS of stone formers suggested a cause for recurrent kidney stone formation. A sulfation inhibitor was found to prevent recurrence of stone formation and inhibit growth of existing stones. The inclusion of various sulfur-containing functions in organic molecules yielded compounds having whole-body radiation protection from lethal doses of gamma-radiation in animals. The presence of electron-attracting sulfur functions in amphetamine gave derivatives that retained appetite-suppressant effects and eliminated most adverse behavioral effects.

Foye, W.O. (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences, Boston (United States))

1992-09-01

372

The state of radiological protection; views of the radiation protection profession: IRPA13, Glasgow, May 2012.  

PubMed

The IRPA13 Congress took place from 14-18 May 2012 in Glasgow, Scotland, UK, and was attended by almost 1500 radiological protection professionals. The scientific programme of the Congress was designed to capture a snapshot of the profession's views of the current state of knowledge, and of the challenges seen for the coming years. This paper provides a summary of these results of the Congress in twelve key scientific areas that served as the structural backbone of IRPA13. PMID:23186783

Lazo, Edward; Smith, Rachel; Coates, Roger; Andersen, Ralph; Asano, Yoshihiro; Chapple, Claire-Louise; Faulkner, Keith; Hefner, Alfred; Hill, Marion; Jones, Rick; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Liebenberg, Gert; Liland, Astrid; McKinlay, Alastair; Menzel, Hans-Georg; Perks, Christopher; Rodriguez, Manuel; Schieber, Caroline; Shaw, Peter; Visage, Abrie; Wakeford, Richard; Ye, Sung-Joon

2012-12-01

373

Ceramic coatings on package lids for radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of coating gold plated kovar lids with colloidally bonded aluminum oxide. Radiation that is incident on a gold plated lid generates a large number of photoelectrons. These electrons can enhance the damage to microelectronic devices and circuits (ICs). The primary purpose of the coating is to stop the electrons emitted from the lid that would otherwise increase the damage to the IC. A coating system consisting of {approximately}95 wt % alumina (0.5 {mu}m particles) and {approximately}5 wt % colloidal silica (10 nm particles) was developed. The coating was applied to the lids as an aqueous suspension which was then dried to form a porous coating. Coating processing conditions were optimized so that crack-free, uniform coatings with the required thickness ({approximately}80 {mu}m) could be consistently produced. Preliminary data have indicated that the coated lid can be attached to the IC package using current belt furnace sealing procedures. The adhesion and mechanical integrity of the coatings were evaluated by submitting coated lids to centrifuge and shock testing. Selected coatings successfully withstood the shock test and 85% were undamaged after being subjected to an acceleration of 30,000 g's. Several types of radiation tests were performed to determine the effectiveness of the coating to stop electron penetration. Evaluation testing included gamma dose enhancement and X- ray induced photocurrent enhancement. The results for lids with coatings 80 or 150 {mu}m thick were compared with results for uncoated kovar and ceramic lids. 6 refs., 6 figs.

Garino, T.J.; Reber, C.A.; Fleetwood, D.M.

1991-08-01

374

Fourth International Conference on Anticarcinogenesis and Radiation Protection: Supplement. Volume 54, No. 7  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains full papers of presentations given at the 4th International Conference of Anticarcinogenesis and Radiation Protection held in Baltimore, Maryland April 18--23, 1993. Presentations were grouped into topic areas entitled Mechanisms of Cancer and Aging; Biomarkers and Susceptibility Factors; Molecular Diagnosis; Nutrition, exercise, and Cancer; Molecular Mechanisms of Chemoprotection; and Clinical Interventions.

NONE

1994-04-01

375

PROTECTING WORKERS FROM RADIATION SOURCES IN URANIUM MINES AND IN WORK WITH RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on radiation protection are presented and discussed. Methods for ; monitoring exposure, radioactive levels in water, air, and dust under and above ; ground are given, along with hemograms of 94 miners and 142 workers (95 men) in ; uranium technology. The main problems and dangers, remedies advocated, planned, ; or in effect are also discussed. (P.C.H.);

D. Karajovic; B. Panov; M. Jeremic; D. Djuric; M. Vukotic; D. Gvozdanovic

1962-01-01

376

Physical, chemical, and biological properties of radiocerium relevant to radiation protection guidelines  

SciTech Connect

Cerium, an element in the lanthanide series, has a number of radioactive isotopes. Several of these are produced in abundance in nuclear fission reactions associated with nuclear industry operations or detonation of nuclear devices. This report summarizes our present knowledge of the relevant physical, chemical, and biological properties of radiocerium as a basis for establishing radiation protection guidelines.

Not Available

1980-01-01

377

21st L H Gray Conference: the radiobiology/radiation protection interface.  

PubMed

The 21st L H Gray Conference, organised by the L H Gray Trust with the Society for Radiological Protection, brought together international experts in radiobiology, epidemiology and risk assessment, and scientists involved in diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure. The meeting - held in Edinburgh, Scotland, on 4-6 June 2008 - aimed to raise awareness, educate and share knowledge of important issues in radiation protection. A distinguished group of speakers discussed topics that included (i) non-targeted effects of radiation, (ii) exposure to high natural background radiation, (iii) non-cancer effects in Japanese bomb survivors, (iv) lessons learnt from Chernobyl, (v) radiation in the workplace, (vi) biokinetic modelling, (vii) uncertainties in risk estimation, (viii) issues in diagnostic medical exposures, (ix) lessons leant from the polonium-210 incidence and (x) how the radiobiology/radiation oncology community is needed to help society prepare for potential future acts of radiation terrorism. The conference highlighted the importance, relevance and topicality of radiobiology today. PMID:19386958

West, C M L; Martin, C J; Sutton, D G; Wright, E G

2009-05-01

378

Privacy: Total Information Awareness Programs and Related Information Access, Collection, and Protection Laws.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the Total Information Awareness (TIA) programs in the Defense Research Projects Agency (DARPA) of the Department of Defense, and related information access, collection, and protection laws. TIA is a new technology under development t...

G. M. Stevens

2003-01-01

379

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: ARSENIC MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This technology ...

380

ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Protective Liner Systems, Inc., Epoxy Mastic, PLS-614  

EPA Science Inventory

The Protective Liner Systems International, Inc. Epoxy Mastic PLS-614 coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA?s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Material and T...

381

76 FR 16000 - Voluntary Protection Programs Information; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2011-0056] Voluntary Protection Programs...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Request for public...SUMMARY: OSHA solicits public comments concerning...

2011-03-22

382

78 FR 46799 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Privacy Protections of Information From Applicant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 272 [FNS-2009-0024] RIN 0584-AD91 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Privacy Protections...Applicant Households AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION:...

2013-08-02

383

76 FR 28165 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Privacy Protections of Information From Applicant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 272 [FNS-2009-0024] RIN 0584-AD91 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Privacy Protections...Applicant Households AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION:...

2011-05-16

384

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: WET-WEATHER FLOW/SOURCE WATER PROTECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents an overview of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program which was established to overcome the numerous impediments to commercialization experienced by developers of innovative environmental technologies. ...

385

STATUS OF THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ENCODRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Status of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. Susan Laws. Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC. In response to emergi...

386

Complainants Did Not Always Receive Appropriate Investigations Under the Whistleblower Protection Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) created the Whistleblower Protection Program to enforce Section 11(c) of the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act of 1970, which prohibits employers from retaliating against employees who exerci...

2010-01-01

387

75 FR 23783 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Sector-Specific Agency Executive Management Office...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Sector-Specific Agency Executive Management...Collection Request should be forwarded to NPPD/IP/SSA EMO, Attn.: Esther Langer, Esther...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On behalf of DHS, IP manages the Department's program to...

2010-05-04

388

Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, August 2002.  

SciTech Connect

ARM in Australia--The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has launched its newest Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Station (ARCS) in Darwin, Australia. This is the fifth research site established since ARM Program inception in 1989. The new Darwin site and two other ARCS sites--on Manus Island and the island of Nauru--are in the Tropical Western Pacific region. The North American sites in the U.S. Southern Great Plains and on the North Slope of Alaska represent two different climate regions. A goal of the ARM Program is to improve understanding of (1) the ways clouds and atmospheric moisture interact with solar radiation and (2) the effects of these interactions on both a local and global climate. Years of collected data are being used to improve computer climate models so that their predictions are more accurate. The new Darwin site is at the Darwin International Airport, adjacent to the Darwin Airport Meteorological Office. The site features state-of-the-art instrumentation used to measure solar radiation and surface radiation balance; cloud parameters; and standard meteorological variables such as temperature, wind speed and direction, atmospheric moisture, precipitation rates, and barometric pressure. A data management system (DMS) consisting of two computer workstations collects, stores, processes, and backs up data from each of the ARCS instruments. Data are transmitted via the Internet to the United States for further processing and archiving with data from the other ARM sites. All ARM data are freely available via the Internet to the public and the worldwide scientific community (http://www.arm.gov/). Operational since April 2002, the Darwin site was officially dedicated on July 30, 2002, by dignitaries from both the United States and Australia. The site is a collaborative effort between DOE and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's Special Services Unit--the equivalent of the U.S. National Weather Service--which will handle daily operation. U.S. Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham remarked, ''Our collaboration with Australia in the establishment of this site represents an exciting expansion of the ARM Program and our ongoing quest to understand and predict the earth's climate.'' The five ARM Program research locations were chosen because of their varying and abundant cloud formations. More cloud types mean a more complete investigation. To the ARM collection, the Darwin site adds data sets detailing interactions between a unique type of cloud and solar radiation. This addition represents another step toward the ARM goal of more accurate predictions from computer climate models.

Holdridge, D. J.

2002-08-29

389

LAURISTON S. TAYLOR LECTURE ON RADIATION PROTECTION AND MEASURMENTS: WHAT MAKES PARTICLE RADIATION SO EFFECTIVE?  

PubMed Central

The scientific basis for the physical and biological effectiveness of particle radiations has emerged from many decades of meticulous basic research. A diverse array of biologically relevant consequences at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organism level have been reported, but what are the key processes and mechanisms that make particle radiation so effective, and what competing processes define dose dependences? Recent studies have shown that individual genotypes control radiation-regulated genes and pathways in response to radiations of varying ionization density. The fact that densely ionizing radiations can affect different gene families than sparsely ionizing radiations, and that the effects are dose- and time-dependent has opened up new areas of future research. The complex microenvironment of the stroma, and the significant contributions of the immune response have added to our understanding of tissue-specific differences across the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum. The importance of targeted vs. nontargeted effects remain a thorny, but elusive and important contributor to chronic low dose radiation effects of variable LET that still needs further research. The induction of cancer is also LET-dependent, suggesting different mechanisms of action across the gradient of ionization density. The focus of this 35th Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture is to chronicle the step-by-step acquisition of experimental clues that have refined our understanding of what makes particle radiation so effective, with emphasis on the example of radiation effects on the crystalline lens of the human eye.

Blakely, Eleanor A.

2012-01-01

390

75 FR 41213 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure Information Collection...an information collection entitled, ``IP Data Call.'' This is a correction notice...published 60-day notice to read, ``IP Data Call Survey.'' There are no...

2010-07-15

391

The Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program Developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) was signed into law on 3 August 1996. FQPA amended both laws under which the Environmental Protection Agency manages the regulatory process for pesticide registration and use in the United States. Many new requirements were incorporated into these two laws, including the development of “a screening program, using appropriate validated test systems and other

Penelope A. Fenner-Crisp; Anthony F. Maciorowski; Gary E. Timm

2000-01-01

392

69 FR 58903 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Notice 19 for Significant New Alternatives Policy Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...New Data The Environmental Protection Agency published in the...information, EPA published two correction notices in the...Policy (SNAP) program. The major provisions of section 612...suppression and explosion protection; Sterilants; Aerosols...updates to these lists as separate notices of rulemaking...Suppression and Explosion...

2004-10-01

393

Evaluation of a Stress Management Program in a Child Protection Agency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High stress levels experienced by child protection workers have been well documented. This study examined the effectiveness of a stress management program in a child protection agency. Subjects were case workers, immediate supervisors, and clerical staff; 320 subjects participated in pretesting and 279 subjects participated in posttesting.…

Cahill, Janet; Feldman, Lenard H.

394

Dying cells protect survivors from radiation-induced cell death in Drosophila.  

PubMed

We report a phenomenon wherein induction of cell death by a variety of means in wing imaginal discs of Drosophila larvae resulted in the activation of an anti-apoptotic microRNA, bantam. Cells in the vicinity of dying cells also become harder to kill by ionizing radiation (IR)-induced apoptosis. Both ban activation and increased protection from IR required receptor tyrosine kinase Tie, which we identified in a genetic screen for modifiers of ban. tie mutants were hypersensitive to radiation, and radiation sensitivity of tie mutants was rescued by increased ban gene dosage. We propose that dying cells activate ban in surviving cells through Tie to make the latter cells harder to kill, thereby preserving tissues and ensuring organism survival. The protective effect we report differs from classical radiation bystander effect in which neighbors of irradiated cells become more prone to death. The protective effect also differs from the previously described effect of dying cells that results in proliferation of nearby cells in Drosophila larval discs. If conserved in mammals, a phenomenon in which dying cells make the rest harder to kill by IR could have implications for treatments that involve the sequential use of cytotoxic agents and radiation therapy. PMID:24675716

Bilak, Amber; Uyetake, Lyle; Su, Tin Tin

2014-03-01

395

Dying Cells Protect Survivors from Radiation-Induced Cell Death in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

We report a phenomenon wherein induction of cell death by a variety of means in wing imaginal discs of Drosophila larvae resulted in the activation of an anti-apoptotic microRNA, bantam. Cells in the vicinity of dying cells also become harder to kill by ionizing radiation (IR)-induced apoptosis. Both ban activation and increased protection from IR required receptor tyrosine kinase Tie, which we identified in a genetic screen for modifiers of ban. tie mutants were hypersensitive to radiation, and radiation sensitivity of tie mutants was rescued by increased ban gene dosage. We propose that dying cells activate ban in surviving cells through Tie to make the latter cells harder to kill, thereby preserving tissues and ensuring organism survival. The protective effect we report differs from classical radiation bystander effect in which neighbors of irradiated cells become more prone to death. The protective effect also differs from the previously described effect of dying cells that results in proliferation of nearby cells in Drosophila larval discs. If conserved in mammals, a phenomenon in which dying cells make the rest harder to kill by IR could have implications for treatments that involve the sequential use of cytotoxic agents and radiation therapy.

Bilak, Amber; Uyetake, Lyle; Su, Tin Tin

2014-01-01

396

DIM (3,3'-diindolylmethane) confers protection against ionizing radiation by a unique mechanism.  

PubMed

DIM (3,3'-diindolylmethane), a small molecule compound, is a proposed cancer preventive agent that can be safely administered to humans in repeated doses. We report that administration of DIM in a multidose schedule protected rodents against lethal doses of total body irradiation up to 13 Gy, whether DIM dosing was initiated before or up to 24 h after radiation. Physiologic submicromolar concentrations of DIM protected cultured cells against radiation by a unique mechanism: DIM caused rapid activation of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a nuclear kinase that regulates responses to DNA damage (DDR) and oxidative stress. Subsequently, multiple ATM substrates were phosphorylated, suggesting that DIM induces an ATM-dependent DDR-like response, and DIM enhanced radiation-induced ATM signaling and NF-?B activation. DIM also caused activation of ATM in rodent tissues. Activation of ATM by DIM may be due, in part, to inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A, an upstream regulator of ATM. In contrast, DIM did not protect human breast cancer xenograft tumors against radiation under the conditions tested. In tumors, ATM was constitutively phosphorylated and was not further stimulated by radiation and/or DIM. Our findings suggest that DIM is a potent radioprotector and mitigator that functions by stimulating an ATM-driven DDR-like response and NF-?B survival signaling. PMID:24127581

Fan, Saijun; Meng, Qinghui; Xu, Jiaying; Jiao, Yang; Zhao, Lin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Brown, Milton L; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Rosen, Eliot M

2013-11-12

397

DIM (3,3?-diindolylmethane) confers protection against ionizing radiation by a unique mechanism  

PubMed Central

DIM (3,3?-diindolylmethane), a small molecule compound, is a proposed cancer preventive agent that can be safely administered to humans in repeated doses. We report that administration of DIM in a multidose schedule protected rodents against lethal doses of total body irradiation up to 13 Gy, whether DIM dosing was initiated before or up to 24 h after radiation. Physiologic submicromolar concentrations of DIM protected cultured cells against radiation by a unique mechanism: DIM caused rapid activation of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a nuclear kinase that regulates responses to DNA damage (DDR) and oxidative stress. Subsequently, multiple ATM substrates were phosphorylated, suggesting that DIM induces an ATM-dependent DDR-like response, and DIM enhanced radiation-induced ATM signaling and NF-?B activation. DIM also caused activation of ATM in rodent tissues. Activation of ATM by DIM may be due, in part, to inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A, an upstream regulator of ATM. In contrast, DIM did not protect human breast cancer xenograft tumors against radiation under the conditions tested. In tumors, ATM was constitutively phosphorylated and was not further stimulated by radiation and/or DIM. Our findings suggest that DIM is a potent radioprotector and mitigator that functions by stimulating an ATM-driven DDR-like response and NF-?B survival signaling.

Fan, Saijun; Meng, Qinghui; Xu, Jiaying; Jiao, Yang; Zhao, Lin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Brown, Milton L.; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Rosen, Eliot M.

2013-01-01

398

Nuclear data needs for radiation protection and therapy dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

New nuclear data are required for improved neutron and proton radiotherapy treatment planning as well as future applications of high-energy particle accelerators. Modern neutron radiotherapy employs energies extending to 70 MeV, while industrial applications such as transmutation and tritium breeding may generate neutrons exceeding energies of 100 MeV. Secondary neutrons produced by advanced proton therapy facilities can have energies as high as 250 MeV. Each use requires nuclear data for transport calculations and analysis of radiation effects (dosimetry). We discuss the nuclear data needs supportive of these applications including the different information requirements. As data in this energy region are sparse and likely to remain so, advanced nuclear model calculations can provide some of the needed information. ln this context, we present new evaluated nuclear data for C, N, and O. Additional experimental information, including integral and differential data, are required to confirm these results and to bound further calculations. We indicate the required new data to be measured and the difficulties in carrying out such experiments.

Chadwick, M.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); DeLuca, P.M. Jr. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept of Medical Physics; Haight, R.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-12-31

399

Radiation protection recommendations on dose limits: The role on the NCRP and the ICRP and future developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to review the role of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in making recommendations on dose limits for ionizing radiation exposure for workers and for the public. The text describes the new limits for workers and public recommended by ICRP in 1991 and

Warren K. Sinclair

1995-01-01

400

42 CFR Appendix E to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Radiation Therapy Technologists  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Hospitals, clinics, or autonomous radiation oncology centers meeting the criteria for major...Oncologic pathology; (g) Radiation oncology; (h) Radiobiology; (i) Mathematics...Radiation protection; (l) Radiation oncology technique; (m) Radiographic...

2010-10-01

401

42 CFR Appendix E to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Radiation Therapy Technologists  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Hospitals, clinics, or autonomous radiation oncology centers meeting the criteria for major...Oncologic pathology; (g) Radiation oncology; (h) Radiobiology; (i) Mathematics...Radiation protection; (l) Radiation oncology technique; (m) Radiographic...

2009-10-01

402

Protective barrier program: Test plan for plant community dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are jointly developing protective barriers for the long term isolation of low-level radioactive defense waste for the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the Arid Sites. Protective barriers have been identified as an integral part of the overall final disposal strategy for low-level defense waste at the Arid Sites (DOE 1987). At present, the conceptual design of the Arid Site protective barrier is a multilayer structure that will minimize waster infiltration into and through the underlying waste, and will prevent intrusion into the waste by plant roots, animals, and humans. This multilayer system consists of a fine soil layer overlying a coarse sand and/or gravel geo-filter overlying a layer of large cobbles or basalt riprap. Plants contribute several crucial functions to the overall performance of the protective barrier.Through transpiration, plants are capable of removing considerably more moisture from a given volume of soil than the physical process of evaporation alone. This becomes especially important after periods of excessive precipitation when the possibility of saturation of the textural break and leeching to the buried waste is increased. Plants also function in significantly reducing the amount of wind and water erosion that would be expected to occur on the barrier surface. In addition to these physical functions, plants also influence other biotic effects on barrier performance.

Sackschewsky, M.R. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)); Chatters, J.C.; Link, S.O.; Brandt, C.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1991-01-01

403

Extracellular genomic DNA protects mice against radiation and chemical mutagens  

PubMed Central

Background High doses of ionizing irradiation and chemical mutagens induce random mutations and chromosome aberrations in cells of affected organisms and cause acute symptoms, delayed increased risk of cancer and accelerated aging. The mechanism of disease development remains unclear and no treatment exists for consequences of the mutagenic damage. Hypothesis We have proposed recently that extracellular genomic DNA from tissue fluids of a healthy organism, innate receptor-mediated nuclear delivery of this DNA, and its homologous recombination with cellular genomic sequences might function concertedly as a natural proofreading mechanism for somatic cell genomes. Here we hypothesize that cells dying from irradiation or chemical mutagens release heavily damaged DNA fragments that propagate mutations and chromosome aberrations to DNA-recipient cells via this mechanism, inducing cell death and release of their mutated DNA again into the bloodstream. The repeated release of the mutated DNA followed by its incorporation into cellular genomes would spread mutational damage in the affected organism, thus making this DNA the etiologic agent of either radiation sickness or post-mutagen exposure syndrome. The hypothesis opens a possibility to inhibit and treat the disease via administration of non-mutated genomic DNA fragments that would compete with the circulating mutant DNA fragments, entering cells in greater numbers, leading to replacement of mutant segments in cellular genomes. Results and Conclusions Injection of fragmented mouse DNA, but not human DNA, into lethally irradiated mice dramatically increased their survival. Similarly, the mouse DNA was more potent than human and salmon DNA in accelerating recovery of the normal leukocyte level in mice treated with the chemical mutagen cyclophosphamide. The species specificity of the DNA therapy suggests that the genomic sequences are the agent producing the effects.

2004-01-01

404

Extracellular genomic DNA protects mice against radiation and chemical mutagens  

PubMed Central

Background High doses of ionizing irradiation and chemical mutagens induce random mutations and chromosome aberrations in cells of affected organisms and cause acute symptoms, delayed increased risk of cancer and accelerated aging. The mechanism of disease development remains unclear and no treatment exists for consequences of the mutagenic damage. Hypothesis We have proposed recently that extracellular genomic DNA from tissue fluids of a healthy organism, innate receptor-mediated nuclear delivery of this DNA, and its homologous recombination with cellular genomic sequences might function concertedly as a natural proofreading mechanism for somatic cell genomes. Here we hypothesize that cells dying from irradiation or chemical mutagens release heavily damaged DNA fragments that propagate mutations and chromosome aberrations to DNA-recipient cells via this mechanism, inducing cell death and release of their mutated DNA again into the bloodstream. The repeated release of the mutated DNA followed by its incorporation into cellular genomes would spread mutational damage in the affected organism, thus making this DNA the etiologic agent of either radiation sickness or post-mutagen exposure syndrome. The hypothesis opens a possibility to inhibit and treat the disease via administration of non-mutated genomic DNA fragments that would compete with the circulating mutant DNA fragments, entering cells in greater numbers, leading to replacement of mutant segments in cellular genomes. Results and Conclusions Injection of fragmented mouse DNA, but not human DNA, into lethally irradiated mice dramatically increased their survival. Similarly, the mouse DNA was more potent than human and salmon DNA in accelerating recovery of the normal leukocyte level in mice treated with the chemical mutagen cyclophosphamide. The species specificity of the DNA therapy suggests that the genomic sequences are the agent producing the effects.

2003-01-01

405

Community Radiation Monitoring Program annual report, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1990  

SciTech Connect

The events of FY 1990 indicate that another successful year in the evolution of the Community Radiation Monitoring Program is in the books. The agencies and organizations involved in the program have developed a sound and viable working relationship, and it appears that the major objectives, primarily dispelling some of the concerns over weapons testing and radiation on the part of the public, are being effectively addressed. The program is certainly a dynamic operation, growing and changing to meet perceived needs and goals as more experience is gained through our work. The change in focus on our public outreach efforts will lead us to contacts with more students and schools, service clubs and special interest groups in the future, and will refine, and hopefully improve, our communication with the public. If that can be accomplished, plus perhaps influencing a few more students to stay in school and even grow up to be scientists, engineers and better citizens, we will be closer to having achieved our goals. It is important to note that the success of the program has occurred only because the people involved, from the Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Desert Research Institute, the University of Utah and the Station Managers and Alternates work well and hard together. Our extended family'' is doing a good job. 9 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Cooper, E.N.; McArthur, R.D.

1991-07-01

406

Establishing a human research protection program in a combatant command.  

PubMed

Extensive United States combat operations commenced for the first time in over decade in 2003. Early in 2004 there was no human research protection regulatory review and approval mechanism based in a deployed military combatant command. The absence of such a system presented a critical impediment to implementation of the time-honored tradition of a robust combat casualty care research effort. A coalition of concerned military medical personnel from the US Army proposed a novel mechanism to meet Department of Defense (DOD) requirements for the human research protection oversight of studies conducted in the combat theater of operations. In 2005, the Commander of Task Force 44 Medical Command (44th MEDCOM), who was serving as the Multi-National Corps Iraq (MNC-I) Surgeon, was charged with negotiating a DOD Assurance and implementing a new system of research review and protections. He deployed an Army Medical Department Medical Corps officer to assist in this endeavor and operationalize the plan. On March 19, 2005, the Multi-National Corps Iraq Commander signed a historic agreement with the US Army Surgeon General who developed a regulatory support and oversight mechanism to conduct research in theater. This innovative system not only honored the Army's commitment to human research protections, but also provided much needed support in the form of scientific and ethical review and compliance oversight to those deployed medical personnel with the vision to conduct healthcare studies in the combat environment. On July 20, 2005, the first DOD Assurance of Compliance for the Protection of Human Research Subjects was approved for MNC-I. This assurance allows the conduct of human subjects research in full compliance with all Federal, DOD, and Army regulatory requirements. This article describes that unique process. PMID:18376178

Brosch, Laura R; Holcomb, John B; Thompson, Jennifer C; Cordts, Paul R

2008-02-01

407

ARESE (ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment) Science Plan [Atmospheric Radiation Program  

SciTech Connect

Several recent studies have indicated that cloudy atmospheres may absorb significantly more solar radiation than currently predicted by models. The magnitude of this excess atmospheric absorption, is about 50% more than currently predicted and would have major impact on our understanding of atmospheric heating. Incorporation of this excess heating into existing general circulation models also appears to ameliorate some significant shortcomings of these models, most notably a tendency to overpredict the amount of radiant energy going into the oceans and to underpredict the tropopause temperature. However, some earlier studies do not show this excess absorption and an underlying physical mechanism that would give rise to such absorption has yet to be defined. Given the importance of this issue, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is sponsoring the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) to study the absorption of solar radiation by clear and cloudy atmospheres. The experimental results will be compared with model calculations. Measurements will be conducted using three aircraft platforms (ARM-UAV Egrett, NASA ER-2, and an instrumented Twin Otter), as well as satellites and the ARM central and extended facilities in North Central Oklahoma. The project will occur over a four week period beginning in late September, 1995. Spectral broadband, partial bandpass, and narrow bandpass (10nm) solar radiative fluxes will be measured at different altitudes and at the surface with the objective to determine directly the magnitude and spectral characteristics of the absorption of shortwave radiation by the atmosphere (clear and cloudy). Narrow spectral channels selected to coincide with absorption by liquid water and ice will help in identifying the process of absorption of radiation. Additionally, information such as water vapor profiles, aerosol optical depths, cloud structure and ozone profiles, needed to use as input in radiative transfer calculations, will be acquired using the aircraft and surface facilities available to ARESE. This document outlines the scientific approach and measurement requirements of the project.

Valero, F.P.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Cess, R.D.; Ramanathan, V.; Collins, W.D.; Minnis, P.; Ackerman, T.P.; Vitko, J.; Tooman, T.P.

1995-09-27

408

A computer program to calculate radiation properties of reflector antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program to calculate the radiation properties of the reflector antennas is presented. It can be used for paraboloidal, spherical, or ellipsoidal reflector surfaces and is easily modified to handle any surface that can be expressed analytically. The program is general enough to allow any arbitrary location and pointing angle for the feed antenna. The effect of blockage due to the feed horn is also included in the computations. The computer program is based upon the technique of tracing the rays from the feed antenna to the reflector to an aperture plane. The far field radiation properties are then calculated by performing a double integration over the field points in the aperture plane. To facilitate the computation of double intergral, the field points are first aligned along the equispaced straight lines in the aperture plane. The computation time is relatively insensitive to the absolute size of the aperture and even though no limits on the largest reflector size have been determined, the program was used for reflector diameters of 1000 wavelenghts.

Agrawal, P. K.

1978-01-01

409

National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection  

SciTech Connect

This paper will describe the NREL program for addressing lightning protection for wind turbines. A test program will begin this summer at the Central and South West Services Inc. (CSW) wind farm near Fort Davis, Texas, to assess lightning risk, the frequency of lightning strikes on wind turbines compared to risk assessment predictions, and the effectiveness of some protection techniques. A Web page will be assembled to provide resources for designers and operators and feedback for issues as they arise. Also, a database of lightning events (and corresponding damage) will be collected to assist in maturing the understanding of wind turbine lightning protection.

Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); McNiff, B. [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)] [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)

1997-09-01

410

Summary of fire protection programs of the United States Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect

This edition of the Annual Summary of DOE Fire Protection Programs continues the series started in 1972. Since May 1950, an annual report has been required from each field organization. The content has varied through the years and most of the accident data reporting requirements have been superseded by the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System administered by EG G, Idaho. However, this report is the sole source of information relating to fire protection programs, and to the actions of the field offices and to headquarters that are of general fire protection interest.

Not Available

1991-10-01

411

Los Alamos Science: Number 23, 1995. Radiation protection and the human radiation experiments  

SciTech Connect

There are a variety of myths and misconceptions about the ionizing radiation that surrounds and penetrates us all. Dispel a few of these by taking a leisurely tour of radiation and its properties, of the natural and man-made sources of ionizing radiation, and of the way doses are calculated. By damaging DNA and inducing genetic mutations, ionizing radiation can potentially initiate a cell on the road to cancer. The authors review what is currently known about regulation of cellular reproduction, DNA damage and repair, cellular defense mechanisms, and the specific cancer-causing genes that are susceptible to ionizing radiation. A rapid survey of the data on radiation effects in humans shows that high radiation doses increase the risk of cancer, whereas the effects of low doses are very difficult to detect. The hypothetical risks at low doses, which are estimated from the atomic-bomb survivors, are compared to the low-dose data so that the reader can assess the present level of uncertainty. As part of the openness initiative, ten individuals who have worked with plutonium during various periods in the Laboratory`s history were asked to share their experiences including their accidental intakes. The history and prognosis of people who have had plutonium exposures is discussed by the Laboratory`s leading epidemiologist.

Cooper, N.G. [ed.] [ed.

1995-12-31

412

Hydrogen-rich saline protects against ultraviolet B radiation injury in rats  

PubMed Central

Exposure of skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces photo-damage. Ultraviolet B (UVB) is the major component of UV radiation which induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and plays an important role in photo-damage. Hydrogen gas reduces ROS and alleviates inflammation. In this study, we sought to demonstrate that hydrogen-rich saline has the effect on skin injuries caused by UVB radiation. UVB radiation was irradiated on female C57BL/6 rats to induce skin injury. Hydrogen-rich saline and nitrogen-rich saline were administered to rats by intraperitoneal injection. Skin damage was detected by microscope after injury. UVB radiation had a significant affection in tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 levels, tissue superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide activity. Hydrogen-rich saline had a protective effect by altering the levels of these markers and relieved morphological skin injury. Hydrogen-rich saline protected against UVB radiation injury, possibly by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress.

Guo, Ze; Zhou, Bingrong; Li, Wei; Sun, Xuejun; Luo, Dan

2012-01-01

413

Protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells by treatment with antioxidant agents  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of antioxidant agents against space radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells. Methods and Materials: The effects of selected concentrations of N-acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, co-enzyme Q10, {alpha}-lipoic acid, L-selenomethionine, and vitamin E succinate on radiation-induced oxidative stress were evaluated in MCF10 human breast epithelial cells exposed to radiation with X-rays, {gamma}-rays, protons, or high mass, high atomic number, and high energy particles using a dichlorofluorescein assay. Results: The results demonstrated that these antioxidants are effective in protecting against radiation-induced oxidative stress and complete or nearly complete protection was achieved by treating the cells with a combination of these agents before and during the radiation exposure. Conclusion: The combination of antioxidants evaluated in this study is likely be a promising countermeasure for protection against space radiation-induced adverse biologic effects.

Wan, X. Steven [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ware, Jeffrey H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Zhou, Zhaozong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Donahue, Jeremiah J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Guan, Jun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Kennedy, Ann R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)]. E-mail: akennedy@mail.med.upenn.edu

2006-04-01

414

Radiatsionnye issledovaniya v ORB i RI OIYaI. Itogi za 1979-1989 gody. (Radiation protection research in the Department of Radiation Safety and R R JINR. Results for 1979-1989).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey and results of the radiation protection research in the Department of radiation safety, JINR for the 1979-1989 decade are presented. The characteristics of JINR basic nuclear installations as radiation sources and radiation environmental situatio...

M. M. Komochkov

1989-01-01

415

Environmental Radiation Measurements on the Mir Space Station, Program 1 Program 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the NASA/Mir Phase 1B Science Program, the ionizing radiation environment inside and outside the Russian Mir's Space Station was monitored using a combination of Thermoluminescent Detectors (TLD) and CR-39 Plastic Nuclear Track Detectors (PNTD)...

E. V. Benton A. L. Frank E. R. Benton

1998-01-01

416

Radiation  

Cancer.gov

DCEG researchers carry out a broad-based research program designed to identify, understand, and quantify the risk of cancer in populations exposed to medical, occupational, or environmental radiation. They study ionizing radiation exposures (e.g., x-rays,

417

Overview of EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency's) LIMB technology development program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives an overview of EPA's Limestone Injection with Multistage Burners (LIMB) program, a program for research, development, and demonstration of cost-effective emissions control technology for coal-fired boilers that can reduce both sulfur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The LIMB concept uses low-NOx burners plus sorbent injection to control these pollutants simultaneously. LIMB technology represents a lower-cost alternative

Lachapelle

1985-01-01

418

Summary of fire protection programs of the United States Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect

This edition of the Annual Summary of DOE Fire Protection Programs continues the series started in 1972. Since May 1950, an annual report has been required from each field organization. The content has varied through the years and most of the accident data reporting requirements have been superseded by the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System administered by EG G, Idaho. However, this report is the sole source of information relating to fire protection systems, and to the actions of the operations office and to the headquarters that are of general fire protection interest. The fire protection program is the only safety program that compiles and publishes such data. As such, it is a principal medium of communication between headquarters and the operations offices.

Not Available

1991-08-01

419

Technical Basis Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Radiation and Contamination Trending Program  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Program radiation and contamination trending program. The program consists of standardized radiation and contamination surveys of the KE Basin, radiation surveys of the KW basin, radiation surveys of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVD), and radiation surveys of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) with the associated tracking. This report also discusses the remainder of radiological areas within the SNFP that do not have standardized trending programs and the basis for not having this program in those areas.

ELGIN, J.C.

2000-10-02

420

Planetary protection program for Mars 94/96 mission.  

PubMed

Mars surface in-situ exploration started in 1975 with the American VIKING mission. Two probes landed on the northern hemisphere and provided, for the first time, detailed information on the martian terrain, atmosphere and meteorology. The current goal is to undertake larger surface investigations and many projects are being planned by the major Space Agencies with this objective. Among these projects, the Mars 94/96 mission will make a major contributor toward generating significant information about the martian surface on a large scale. Since the beginning of the Solar System exploration, planets where life could exist have been subject to planetary protection requirements. Those requirements accord with the COSPAR Policy and have two main goals: the protection of the planetary environment from influence or contamination by terrestrial microorganisms, the protection of life science, and particularly of life detection experiments searching extra-terrestrial life, and not life carried by probes and spacecrafts. As the conditions for life and survival for terrestrial microorganisms in the Mars environment became known, COSPAR recommendations were updated. This paper will describe the decontamination requirements which will be applied for the MARS 94/96 mission, the techniques and the procedures which are and will be used to realize and control the decontamination of probes and spacecrafts. PMID:11538980

Rogovski, G; Bogomolov, V; Ivanov, M; Runavot, J; Debus, A; Victorov, A; Darbord, J C

1996-01-01

421

Excellence in Radiation Research for the 21st Century (EIRR21): Description of an Innovative Research Training Program  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To describe and assess an interdisciplinary research training program for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and clinical fellows focused on radiation medicine; funded by the Canadian Institutes for Health Research since 2003, the program entitled 'Excellence in Radiation Research for the 21st Century' (EIRR21) aims to train the next generation of interdisciplinary radiation medicine researchers. Methods and Materials: Online surveys evaluating EIRR21 were sent to trainees (n=56), mentors (n=36), and seminar speakers (n=72). Face-to-face interviews were also conducted for trainee liaisons (n=4) and participants in the international exchange program (n=2). Results: Overall response rates ranged from 53% (mentors) to 91% (trainees). EIRR21 was well received by trainees, with the acquisition of several important skills related to their research endeavors. An innovative seminar series, entitled Brainstorm sessions, imparting 'extracurricular' knowledge in intellectual property protection, commercialization strategies, and effective communication, was considered to be the most valuable component of the program. Networking with researchers in other disciplines was also facilitated owing to program participation. Conclusions: EIRR21 is an innovative training program that positively impacts the biomedical community and imparts valuable skill sets to foster success for the future generation of radiation medicine researchers.

P'ng, Christine [Radiation Medicine Program, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Radiation Medicine Program, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ito, Emma [Radiation Medicine Program, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada) [Radiation Medicine Program, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); How, Christine [Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada) [Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bezjak, Andrea [Radiation Medicine Program, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada) [Radiation Medicine Program, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bristow, Rob [Radiation Medicine Program, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada) [Radiation Medicine Program, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Catton, Pam; Fyles, Anthony; Gospodarowicz, Mary [Radiation Medicine Program, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada) [Radiation Medicine Program, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Jaffray, David [Radiation Medicine Program, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada) [Radiation Medicine Program, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kelley, Shana [Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wong Shun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Odette Cancer Center, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Liu Feifei, E-mail: Fei-Fei.Liu@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

2012-08-01

422

Reference samples for water-related programs in the US Environmental Protection Agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory at Cincinnati provides quality assurance (QA) support for US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) water-related programs. Two important segments of this support are the Quality Control Sample Program, which furnishes samples of known concentrations for use as independent checks on intralaboratory QA activities, and the EPA's Repository for Toxic and Hazardous Materials, which provides calibration

1985-01-01

423

National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper will describe the NREL program for addressing lightning protection for wind turbines. A test program will begin this summer at the Central and South West Services Inc. (CSW) wind farm near Fort Davis, Texas, to assess lightning risk, the freque...

E. Muljadi, B. McNiff

1997-01-01

424

Sun Protection is Fun! A Skin Cancer Prevention Program for Preschools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Sun Protection is Fun! skin cancer prevention program for preschool children that features intervention methods grounded in social cognitive theory and emphasizes symbolic modeling, vicarious learning, enactive mastery experiences, and persuasion. Program components include a curriculum and teacher's guide, videos, newsletters,…

Tripp, Mary K.; Herrmann, Nancy B.; Parcel, Guy S.; Chamberlin, Robert M.; Gritz, Ellen R.

2000-01-01

425

Insights into the state of radiation protection among a subpopulation of Indian dental practitioners  

PubMed Central

Purpose Radiographs is an integral part of patient management in dentistry, despite their detrimental effects. As the literature pertaining to radiation protection among Indian dental practitioners is sparse, exploring such protection is needed. Materials and Methods All private dental practitioners in Mangalore, India were included in the study. A structured, pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire was employed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practices, previous training, perceptions towards the need to spread awareness, and willingness to gain and implement knowledge about radiation hazards and protection. Information regarding each respondent's age, gender, education, and type and duration of practice was collected. Results Overall, 87 out of 120 practitioners participated in the study. The mean knowledge, attitude, and practice scores were 9.54±2.54, 59.39±7.01, and 5.80±3.19, respectively. Overall, 25.3% of the respondents had undergone training in radiation protection, 98.9% perceived a need to spread awareness, and 94.3% were willing to improve their knowledge. Previous training showed a significant correlation with age, sex, and duration of practice; attitude was significantly correlated with education and type of practice; and knowledge scores showed a significant correlation with type of practice. Conclusion Although the knowledge and practices of respondents were poor, they had a positive attitude and were willing to improve their knowledge. Age, sex, and duration of practice were associated with previous training; education and type of practice with attitude scores; and type of practice with knowledge scores. The findings of this study suggest a policy is needed to ensure the adherence of dental practitioners to radiation protection guidelines.

Binnal, Almas; Denny, Ceena; Ahmed, Junaid; Nayak, Vijayendra

2013-01-01

426

Sunlight, skin cancer and vitamin D: What are the conclusions of recent findings that protection against solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in solid organ-transplant recipients, xeroderma pigmentosum, and other risk groups?  

PubMed

A connection between vitamin D deficiency and severe health problems including various types of cancer has been demonstrated. We have shown that patients that have to protect themselves against solar UV radiation for medical reasons, including patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS), lupus erythematodes (LE) or transplant recipients, are at risk to develop vitamin D deficiency. We conclude that 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels as a measure of vitamin D status have to be analyzed in patients that have to protect themselves against solar UV radiation for medical reasons. Suboptimal vitamin D status has to be substituted (e.g. via oral treatment) to protect against serious vitamin D deficiency-related health problems without increasing the risk to develop solar UV-induced skin cancer. Our finding that protection against solar UV radiation causes vitamin D deficiency underlines the need for re-defining dermatological recommendations for solar UV protection in skin cancer prevention programs. PMID:17204418

Reichrath, Jörg

2007-03-01

427

Constructing vulnerabilty and protective measures indices for the enhanced critical infrastructure protection program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has directed its Protective Security Advisors (PSAs) to form partnerships with the owners and operators of assets most essential to the Nation's well being - a subclass of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) - and to conduct site visits for these and other high-risk assets as part of the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure

R. E. Fisher; W. A. Buehring; R. G. Whitfield; G. W. Bassett; D. C. Dickinson; R. A. Haffenden; M. S. Klett; M. A. Lawlor

2009-01-01

428

Repeated Nrf2 stimulation using sulforaphane protects fibroblasts from ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

Most of the cytotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation is mediated by radical-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Cellular protection from free radicals can be stimulated several fold by sulforaphane-mediated activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 that regulates more than 50 genes involved in the detoxification of reactive substances and radicals. Here, we report that repeated sulforaphane treatment increases radioresistance in primary human skin fibroblasts. Cells were either treated with sulforaphane for four hours once or with four-hour treatments repeatedly for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. Fibroblasts exposed to repeated-sulforaphane treatment showed a more pronounced dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated mRNA and reduced amount of radiation-induced free radicals compared with cells treated once with sulforaphane. In addition, radiation- induced DNA double-strand breaks measured by gamma-H2AX foci were attenuated following repeated sulforaphane treatment. As a result, cellular protection from ionizing radiation measured by the 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay was increased, specifically in cells exposed to repeated sulforaphane treatment. Sulforaphane treatment was unable to protect Nrf2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, indicating that the sulforaphane-induced radioprotection was Nrf2-dependent. Moreover, radioprotection by repeated sulforaphane treatment was dose-dependent with an optimal effect at 10 uM, whereas both lower and higher concentrations resulted in lower levels of radioprotection. Our data indicate that the Nrf2 system can be trained to provide further protection from radical damage. PMID:24603300

Mathew, Sherin T; Bergström, Petra; Hammarsten, Ola

2014-05-01

429

Radiation protective structure alternatives for habitats of a lunar base research outpost  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar and galactic cosmic radiation levels on the Moon pose a hazard to extended manned lunar missions. Lunar soil represents an available, economical material to be used for radiation shielding. Several alternatives have been suggested to use lunar soil to protect the inhabitants of a lunar base research outpost from radiation. The Universities Space Research Association has requested that a comparative analysis of the alternatives be performed, with the purpose of developing the most advantageous design. Eight alternatives have been analyzed, including an original design which was developed to satisfy the identified design criteria. The original design consists of a cylindrical module and airlock, partially buried in the lunar soil, at a depth sufficient to achieve adequate radiation shielding. The report includes descriptions of the alternatives considered, the method of analysis used, and the final design selected.

Bell, Fred J.; Foo, Lai T.; Mcgrew, William P.

1988-01-01

430

The present status and trend of ionizing-radiation application on environment protection in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies in a large scale on ionizing-radiation application on environment protection and pollution control have been carried out for nearly 20 years in China. Desulphurization and denitrification of flue gas by electron-beam processing in coal-fired power stations are a successful industrial example and therefore, a wider use of ionizing radiation in air pollution control can be expected in the near future. In addition to e-beam and 60Co radiation, electric discharge was also a useful means for the air pollution control. There were some satisfied data in removing water polluters but it seems that radiation is the only one component in the technique used to treat wastewater.

Yonghua, Ding; Degui, Zheng; Aoshuang, Yan; Guanghua, Niu

2002-03-01

431

Liquid droplet radiator program at the NASA Lewis Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center and the Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory (AFRPL) are jointly engaged in a program for technical assessment of the Liquid Droplet Radiator (LDR) concept as an advanced high performance heat ejection component for future space missions. NASA Lewis has responsibility for the technology needed for the droplet generator, for working fluid qualification, and for investigating the physics of droplets in space; NASA Lewis is also conducting systems/mission analyses for potential LDR applications with candidate space power systems. For the droplet generator technology task, both micro-orifice fabrication techniques and droplet stream formation processes have been experimentally investigated. High quality micro-orifices (to 50 micron diameter) are routinely fabricated with automated equipment. Droplet formation studies have established operating boundaries for the generation of controlled and uniform droplet streams. A test rig is currently being installed for the experimental verification, under simulated space conditions, of droplet radiation heat transfer performance analyses and the determination of the effect radiative emissivity of multiple droplet streams. Initial testing has begun in the NASA Lewis Zero-Gravity Facility for investigating droplet stream behavior in microgravity conditions. This includes the effect of orifice wetting on jet dynamics and droplet formation. Results for both Brayton and Stirling power cycles have identified favorable mass and size comparisons of the LDR with conventional radiator concepts.

Presler, A. F.; Coles, C. E.; Diem-Kirsop, P. S.; White, K. A., III

1985-01-01

432

Structure of dried cellular alginate matrix containing fillers provides extra protection for microorganisms against UVC radiation.  

PubMed

Soil microorganisms in general and biocontrol agents in particular are very sensitive to UV light. The packaging of biocontrol microorganisms into cellular solids has been developed as a means of reducing loss caused by exposure to environmental UV radiation. The bacterial and fungal biocontrol agents Pantoea agglomerans and Trichoderma harzianum were immobilized in freeze-dried alginate beads containing fillers and subjected to 254 nm UV radiation (UVC). Immobilization of cells in freeze-dried alginate-glycerol beads resulted in greater survival after UV irradiation than for a free cell suspension. Adding chitin, bentonite or kaolin as fillers to the alginate-glycerol formulation significantly increased bacterial survival. Immobilization in alginate-glycerol-kaolin beads resulted in the highest levels of survival. The transmissive properties of the dried hydrocolloid cellular solid had a major influence on the amount of protection by the cell carrier. Dried alginate matrix (control) transmitted an average of 7.2% of the radiation. Filler incorporation into the matrix significantly reduced UV transmission: Alginate with kaolin, bentonite and chitin transmitted an average of 0.15, 0.38 and 3.4% of the radiation, respectively. In addition, the filler inclusion had a considerable effect on the bead's average wall thickness, resulting in a approximately 1.5- to threefold increase relative to beads based solely on alginate. These results suggest that the degree of protection of entrapped microorganisms against UVC radiation is determined by the UV-transmission properties of the dried matrix and the cellular solid's structure. It is concluded that for maximum protection against UV-radiation-induced cell loss, biocontrol microorganisms should be immobilized in alginate-glycerol beads containing kaolin. PMID:12859230

Zohar-Perez, C; Chernin, L; Chet, I; Nussinovitch, A

2003-08-01

433

Current status of the application of ionizing radiation to environmental protection: I. Ionizing radiation sources, natural and drinking water purification (A Review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present-day applications of ionizing radiation to environmental protection are surveyed. This part of the review summarizes\\u000a new data on the ionizing radiation sources used in this area, on the radiation-chemical purification of polluted natural and\\u000a drinking water, and on the mechanisms of processes occurring in these systems under exposure to ionizing radiation. A particular\\u000a emphasis is placed on large-scale processes.

A. K. Pikaev

2000-01-01

434

Extract of Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) protects against gamma-radiation induced testicular damage in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation is an important environmental risk factor and, a major therapeutic agent for cancer treatment. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of extract of Xylopia aethiopica (XA) on gamma-radiation-induced testicular damage in rats. Vitamin C (VC) served as the reference antioxidant during the study. The study consists of 4 groups of 11 rats each. Group I received corn oil (vehicle), groups II and IV were pretreated with XA (250 mg/kg) and VC (250mg/kg) for 6 weeks before and 8 weeks after exposure to gamma-radiation; group III was exposed to a single dose of gamma-radiation (5 Gy). Biochemical analysis revealed that gamma-irradiation caused a significant increase (p < .05) in serum and testicular lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels by 217% and 221%, respectively. Irradiated rats had markedly decreased testicular catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Irradiation resulted in 59% and 40% decreases in spermatozoa motility and live/dead sperm count, respectively, and a 161% increase in total sperm abnormalities. Histologically, testes of the irradiated rats showed extensive degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules and defoliation of spermatocytes. Supplementation of XA and VC reversed the adverse effects of gamma-radiation on biochemical and histological indices of the rats. These findings demonstrated that Xylopia aethiopica has a protective effect by inhibiting oxidative damage in testes of irradiated rats. PMID:21305847

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Adedara, Isaac Adegboyega; Popoola, Bosede; Farombi, Ebenezer Olatunde

2010-01-01

435

The NASA Microelectronics Space Radiation Effects Program (MSREP) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of the Microelectronics Space Radiation Effects Program (MSREP) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is to assist NASA in the selection of radiation hardened microelectronic parts for insertion in NASA space systems through radiation testing and research. Prior to presenting examples of the research and testing on Single Event Effects (SEE) and Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effects, the space radiation environment and radiation requirements for the CRAFT/Cassini program, a typical JPL space project, are discussed.

Barnes, C.; Coss, J.; Nichols, D.; Shaw, D.

1991-01-01

436

Radiation-protection survey guide: fixed radiographic unit. Final report, June 1980-April 1985  

SciTech Connect

Prior to routine use, all newly installed x-ray machines must have a radiation-protection survey by a qualified expert. The survey is an evaluation of existing or potential radiation hazards associated with the use of diagnostic x-ray equipment under specific conditions. Such evaluation includes the measurement of exposure levels in the environment as well as environmental levels arising from operation of the equipment. The survey also includes an evaluation of the safety characteristics of the x-ray unit.

Weed, R.L.; Jordan, D.

1985-05-01

437

Protecting Our Own. Community Child Passenger Safety Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information on implementing a local child passenger safety program. It covers understanding the problems and solutions; deciding what can be done; planning and carrying out a project; providing adequate, accurate, and current technical information; and reaching additional sources of information. Chapter 1 provides community…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

438

75 FR 22681 - Supplemental Guidance on Overdraft Protection Programs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...program as a customer service that...association train customer service or...remains in management. effect... Is the relationship between the...Executive Office Building, Washington...poor account management, train...foster good customer relations...including building long term customer relationships,...

2010-04-29

439

Shielding Calculation for High Energy Radiation X-Ray by Software program  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are analytic methods for designing protective barriers however, they lack sufficient efficiency and considering the NCRP147(reports2007), designing mechanical protective barrier in order to protect the initial x-ray radiation and absorption of the ray quality of such radiation is different. In this study, computer software was designed to calculate the needed barrier with high accuracy. For proper determination of thickness

Seyed Ali Rahimi

2008-01-01

440

Radiation  

NASA Video Gallery

Outside the protective cocoon of Earth's atmosphere, the universe is full of harmful radiation. Astronauts who live and work in space are exposed not only to ultraviolet rays but also to space radi...