Sample records for radiation protection program

  1. Accreditation of ionizing radiation protection programs

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.C.; Swinth, K.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1991-10-01

    There are over one million workers in the United States who have the potential to be exposed to ionizing radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to determine accurately the quantity of radiation to which they may have been exposed. This quantity if measured by personnel dosimeters that are carried by individuals requiring radiation monitoring. Accreditation of the organizations which evaluate this quantity provides official recognition of the competence of these organizations. Accreditation programs in the field of ionizing radiation protection have been in operation for a number of years, and their experience has demonstrated that such programs can help to improve performance.

  2. Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-04-30

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  3. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Radiological Control Managers' Council

    2008-06-01

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

  4. THE UNIVERSITY OF UTAH RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Tipple, Brett

    : 45 Medical US: 53 Industrial US: FUNDAMENTALS OF RADIATION by which energy is emitted or propagated through space as particles or waves. Ionizing radiations are those molecular bonds. The radiations most commonly encountered are free electrons and photons of electromagnetic

  5. Dental-service Dental Radiation Safety and Protection: Program guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-27

    The primary purpose of the program guide for Dental Radiation Safety and Protection is to assist VA dental personnel in developing radiologic procedures that ensure maximum safety for their patients and themselves. In order to do this, the authors have included a summary of the biological hazards associated with exposure to x-radiation, provided information on patient exposure levels associated with dental X-ray units, and explained the methods for reducing patient and staff exposure to X-rays.

  6. The IHS diagnostic X-ray equipment radiation protection program

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, A.; Byrns, G.; Suleiman, O.

    1994-05-01

    The Indian Health Service (IHS) operates or contracts with Tribal groups to operate 50 hospitals and approximately 165 primary ambulatory care centers. These facilities contain approximately 275 medical and 800 dental diagnostic x-ray machines. IHS environmental health personnel in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) developed a diagnostic x-ray protection program including standard survey procedures and menu-driven calculations software. Important features of the program include the evaluation of equipment performance collection of average patient entrance skin exposure (ESE) measurements for selected procedures, and quality assurance. The ESE data, collected using the National Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) protocol, will be presented. The IHS Diagnostic X-ray Radiation Protection Program is dynamic and is adapting to changes in technology and workload.

  7. United States Office of EPA-520/1-88-020 Environmental Protection Radiation Program September 1988

    E-print Network

    United States Office of EPA-520/1-88-020 Environmental Protection Radiation Program September 1988. This report was prepared by the OFFICE OF RADIATION PROGRAMS U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Washington and Exposure-to-Dose Conversion Factors for General Application, Based on the 1987 Federal Radiation Protection

  8. CRC handbook of management of radiation protection programs

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.L.; Weidner, A.

    1986-01-01

    This guidebook organizes the profusion of rules and regulations surrounding radiation protection into a single-volume reference. Employee and public protection, accident prevention, and emergency preparedness are included in this comprehensive coverage. Whenever possible, information is presented in convenient checklists, tables, or outlines that enable you to locate information quickly.

  9. Space radiation protection: Human support thrust exploration technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Edmund J.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space radiation protection are presented. For crew and practical missions, exploration requires effective, low-mass shielding and accurate estimates of space radiation exposure for lunar and Mars habitat shielding, manned space transfer vehicle, and strategies for minimizing exposure during extravehicular activity (EVA) and rover operations.

  10. Radiation Protection Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A handbook which sets forth the Kennedy Space Center radiation protection policy is presented. The book also covers administrative direction and guidance on organizational and procedural requirements of the program. Only ionizing radiation is covered.

  11. The IHS diagnostic X-ray equipment radiation protection program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Knapp; G. Byrns; O. Suleiman

    1994-01-01

    The Indian Health Service (IHS) operates or contracts with Tribal groups to operate 50 hospitals and approximately 165 primary ambulatory care centers. These facilities contain approximately 275 medical and 800 dental diagnostic x-ray machines. IHS environmental health personnel in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) developed a diagnostic x-ray protection program

  12. Three Mile Island, Unit 2, radiation protection program: report of the special panel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. Meinhold; T. D. Murphy; D. R. Neely; R. L. Kathren; B. L. Rich; G. F. Stone; W. R. Casey

    1979-01-01

    A special panel was appointed by the Director of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, NRC, to review the radiation protection program at Three Mile Island Unit 2. The Panel confirmed several management and technical deficiencies in the program. Recent major GPU\\/Met Ed commitments and actions demonstrated a major change in management attitude. The Panel concluded that exposures to personnel can be maintained

  13. Nuclear Technology Series. Radiation Protection Technician. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary radiation protection technician program is designed for use with courses 17-22 of thirty-five included in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians, and operators; and to assist planners,…

  14. Radiation Protection Program Environmental Health and Safety Department

    E-print Network

    .................................................................. 11 3.1. Mines Management ................................................................................................... 13 3.7. Radiation Producing Equipment Supervisor ............................................................. 13 3.8. Radiation Producing Equipment Operators

  15. Radiation Protection Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Basic Concepts of Radiation Protection time distance shielding Time The amount of radiation exposure increases and decreases ... exposure. How does EPA use the concept of time in radiation protection? When we set a radiation ...

  16. Fourth conference on radiation protection and dosimetry: Proceedings, program, and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Casson, W.H.; Thein, C.M.; Bogard, J.S. [eds.] [eds.

    1994-10-01

    This Conference is the fourth in a series of conferences organized by staff members of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to improve communication in the field of radiation protection and dosimetry. Scientists, regulators, managers, professionals, technologists, and vendors from the United States and countries around the world have taken advantage of this opportunity to meet with their contemporaries and peers in order to exchange information and ideas. The program includes over 100 papers in 9 sessions, plus an additional session for works in progress. Papers are presented in external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, radiation protection programs and assessments, developments in instrumentation and materials, environmental and medical applications, and on topics related to standards, accreditation, and calibration. Individual papers are indexed separately on EDB.

  17. Building the basis for a comprehensive radiation protection program for a multi-program laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Copenhaver, E.D.

    1987-01-01

    An explicit, workplace-specific training has been developed, implemented, and documented for all radiation workers. In addition to the radiation worker personnel located at reactors, accelerators, radiochemical laboratories, and waste treatment areas, we have trained other personnel who work in areas where a lesser potential for radiological/chemical exposure exists. These workforces include construction crews, site restoration crews, contracted special services such as scoping and site characterization teams, and short-term visitors. We are developing a comprehensive, integrated approach to radiation protection training suited for a multi-purpose research laboratory. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Radiation protection and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation was found not to be an operational problem during the Apollo program. Doses received by the crewmen of Apollo missions 7 through 17 were small because no major solar-particle events occurred during those missions. One small event was detected by a radiation sensor outside the Apollo 12 spacecraft, but no increase in radiation dose to the crewmen inside the spacecraft was detected. Radiation protection for the Apollo program was focused on both the peculiarities of the natural space radiation environment and the increased prevalence of manmade radiation sources on the ground and onboard the spacecraft. Radiation-exposure risks to crewmen were assessed and balanced against mission gain to determine mission constraints. Operational radiation evaluation required specially designed radiation detection systems onboard the spacecraft in addition to the use of satellite data, solar observatory support, and other liaison. Control and management of radioactive sources and radiation-generating equipment was important in minimizing radiation exposure of ground-support personnel, researchers, and the Apollo flight and backup crewmen.

  19. Radiation Protection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update (AAAS; )

    2008-05-01

    Chemotherapy and radiation can be powerful weapons against cancer. But they harm healthy cells as well. Cells of the immune system and G.I. tract are especially vulnerable: instead of repairing the damage, they respond by committing cellular suicide. In contrast, tumor cells have mutations that make them resistant to cell death. Roswell Park Cancer Institute researcher Andrei Gudkov and his colleagues recently harnessed this property to create a new drug.

  20. Radiation protection standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauriston S. Taylor; Harold O. Wyckoff

    1972-01-01

    The report traces the development of the understanding of radiation hazard, and the philosophy for protection against it. Special attention is given to the work of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), form which two organizations most of the basic radiation protection philosphy and criteria in the world today

  1. Collective dose as a performance measure for occupational radiation protection programs: Issues and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, D.J.; Harty, R.; Hickey, E.E.; Martin, J.B.; Peffers, M.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kathren, R.L. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Collective dose is one of the performance measures used at many US Department of Energy (DOE) contractor facilities to quantitatively assess the objectives of the radiation protection program. It can also be used as a management tool to improve the program for keeping worker doses as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Collective dose is used here to mean the sum of all total effective dose equivalent values for all workers in a specified group over a specified time. It is often used as a surrogate estimate of radiological risk. In principle, improvements in radiation protection programs and procedures will result in reduction of collective dose, all other things being equal. Within the DOE, most frequently, a single collective dose number, which may or may not be adjusted for workload and other factors, is used as a performance measure for a contractor. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the use of collective dose as a performance measure for ALARA programs at DOE sites.

  2. Radiation Protection Considerations at USACE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.H. [CHP, SHB INC., Centennial, Colorado (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was initially authorized by Congress in 1974. FUSRAP was enacted to address residual radioactive contamination associated with numerous sites across the U.S. at which radioactive material (primarily Uranium ores and related milling products) had been processed in support of the nation's nuclear weapons program dating back to the Manhattan Project and the period immediately following World War II. In October 1997, Congress transferred the management of this program from the Department of Energy to the United States Corp of Engineers. Through this program, the Corps addresses the environmental remediation of certain sites once used by DOE's predecessor agencies, the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. The waste at FUSRAP sites consists mainly of low levels of uranium, thorium and radium, along with some mixed wastes. Upon completion of remedial activities, these sites are transferred to DOE for long-term stewardship activities. This paper presents and contrasts the radiological conditions and recent monitoring results associated with five large ongoing FUSRAP projects including Maywood, N.J.; the Linde site near Buffalo, N.Y.; Colonie in Albany N.Y. and the St Louis, Mo. airport and downtown sites. The radiological characteristics of soil and debris at each site and respective regulatory clean up criteria is presented and contrasted. Some differences are discussed in the radiological characteristics of material at some sites that result in variations in radiation protection monitoring programs. Additionally, summary data for typical personnel radiation exposure monitoring results are presented. In summary: 1. The FUSRAP projects for which data and observations are reported in this paper are considered typical of the radiological nature of FUSRAP sites in general. 2. These sites are characterized by naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides in soil and debris, at concentrations typically < E4 pCi/ gram total activity. 3. Although external exposure rates are generally low resulting in few exposures above background, occasional 'hot spots' are observed in the 1- 10 mR / hr range or higher. However personnel and general area external exposure monitoring programs consistently demonstrate very low potential for external exposure at theses sites. 4. Potential for airborne exposure is controlled by wetting and misting techniques during excavation and movement of materials. Air sampling and bioassay programs confirm low potential for airborne exposure of workers at these sites. 5. Radiation protection and health physics monitoring programs as implemented at these sites ensure that exposures to personal are maintained ALARA. (authors)

  3. Exploratory study of the radiation-protection training programs in nuclear power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine current radiation training programs at a sample of utilities operating nuclear reactors and to evaluate employee information on radiation health. The study addressed three elements: (1) employee perceptions and understanding of ionizing radiation; (2) utility trainers-their background, training, and problems; (3) the content, materials, and conduct of training programs; (4) program uniformity

  4. Radiation protection in space

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, E.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fry, R.J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space.

  5. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  6. Sensible radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, H.H.

    1996-03-01

    This report describes eight general principles of radiation protection. The first principle is based on the idea that the ICRP derivation of risk coefficients are meaningless when applied to routine radiation exposure. The other principles describes what should be acceptable exposures.

  7. 1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

  8. Radiation protection challenges facing the federal agencies.

    PubMed

    Jones, C Rick

    2004-09-01

    In the United States, federal agencies are responsible for setting national policy and performance expectations for radiation protection programs. National policy establishes a regulatory regime, under which society can realize the beneficial uses of radiation while at the same time protecting workers, the public, and environment from the potential hazards of radiation. The challenges facing federal agencies continue to revolve around finding the right balance between benefit and adverse impact. Federal agencies are petitioned to support the research community to provide a sound scientific basis for informing the decision-making process related to radiation protection policy. The federal agencies are further challenged to consider the deliberations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) who bring together the best technical minds in the field to consider the latest scientific information and provide recommendations for establishing comprehensive and coherent radiation protection programs. The uncertainty inherent in research and the conservatism in the models and recommendations of the ICRP and NCRP should be transparent and communicated because determining the level of uncertainty and the degree of conservatism acceptable to society is a challenge for, and the responsibility of, the federal agencies in creating performance-based policies in public health and radiation protection. It is through the federal government's open, inclusive, and democratic processes where society strikes the balance that defines adequate radiation protection policy, builds public trust, and allows the radiation protection professionals to properly implement and manage that policy. PMID:15303063

  9. Protection from Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Singleterry, R. C.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; Kim, M. Y.; Badavi, F. F.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The exposures anticipated for our astronauts in the anticipated Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) will be significantly higher (both annual and carrier) than any other occupational group. In addition, the exposures in deep space result largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little experience. Some evidence exists indicating that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate [1,2]. The purpose of this presentation is to evaluate our current understanding of radiation protection with laboratory and flight experimental data and to discuss recent improvements in interaction models and transport methods.

  10. Radiation protection for nurses. Regulations and guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, C.B. (Radiation Safety Office, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Rules and regulations of federal agencies and state radiation protection programs provide the bases for hospital policy regarding radiation safety for nurses. Nursing administrators should work with the radiation safety officer at their institutions to ensure that radiation exposures to staff nurses will be as low as reasonably achievable and that special consideration will be given to pregnant nurses. Nurses' fears about their exposure to radiation can be greatly reduced through education.

  11. Fire Protection Program Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  12. (Radiation protection guidance)

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, C.R.

    1989-11-16

    The traveler attended the meeting of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and its committees in Oxford, England. This was the first meeting of the Main Commission with all its committees as formed for the 1989--1993 period. The major item of business was to review a draft report that, when finalized, will constitute the revised basic ICRP radiation protection guidance. It is clear that there is much work to be done by ICRP committees and task groups to prepare reports containing information that can be used in conjunction with the revised guidance, e.g., a revised ICRP 30 series of reports. It is extremely important that the US Department of Energy, and other US agencies, including the Commission on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC), not repeat the error committed after the previous ICRP general radiation protection guidance was released in 1977 (ICRP Report No. 26). The US had much difficulty in understanding the implications of the recommendations and their impact on federal and other facilities. As a result there was a long delay in US agencies adopting the ICRP 26 terminology and secondary limits. Actually, all DOE contractors were directed this year, via DOE order 5480.11, to comply with what is basically ICRP 26 and 30 by the end of this calendar year. Much of the rest of the world had adopted most or all of the ICRP 26 and 30 guidance years ago. The US position appeared very confused as regards ICRP 26 to the rest of the world.

  13. RADIATION PROTECTION KEYWORDS: equivalent sphere

    E-print Network

    Lin, Zi-wei

    RADIATION PROTECTION KEYWORDS: equivalent sphere model, space radiation, organ dose IMPROVEMENT OF THE EQUIVALENT SPHERE MODEL FOR SPACE RADIATION ENVIRONMENTS Z. W. LIN East Carolina University, Department Accepted for Publication January 21, 2009 In space radiation calculations it is often useful to calculate

  14. Personal Radiation Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Mark; Vinci, Victoria

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the personal radiation protection system (PRPS), which has been invented for use on the International Space Station and other spacecraft. The PRPS comprises walls that can be erected inside spacecraft, where and when needed, to reduce the amount of radiation to which personnel are exposed. The basic structural modules of the PRPS are pairs of 1-in. (2.54-cm)-thick plates of high-density polyethylene equipped with fasteners. The plates of each module are assembled with a lap joint. The modules are denoted bricks because they are designed to be stacked with overlaps, in a manner reminiscent of bricks, to build 2-in. (5.08-cm)-thick walls of various lengths and widths. The bricks are of two varieties: one for flat wall areas and one for corners. The corner bricks are specialized adaptations of the flat-area bricks that make it possible to join walls perpendicular to each other. Bricks are attached to spacecraft structures and to each other by use of straps that can be tightened to increase the strengths and stiffnesses of joints.

  15. New Approaches to Radiation Protection

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Eliot M.; Day, Regina; Singh, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given prior to radiation exposure. Mitigators can protect against radiation injury when given after exposure but before symptoms appear. Radioprotectors and mitigators can potentially improve the outcomes of radiotherapy for cancer treatment by allowing higher doses of radiation and/or reduced damage to normal tissues. Such compounds can also potentially counteract the effects of accidental exposure to radiation or deliberate exposure (e.g., nuclear reactor meltdown, dirty bomb, or nuclear bomb explosion); hence they are called radiation countermeasures. Here, we will review the general principles of radiation injury and protection and describe selected examples of radioprotectors/mitigators ranging from small-molecules to proteins to cell-based treatments. We will emphasize agents that are in more advanced stages of development. PMID:25653923

  16. New approaches to radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Eliot M; Day, Regina; Singh, Vijay K

    2014-01-01

    Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given prior to radiation exposure. Mitigators can protect against radiation injury when given after exposure but before symptoms appear. Radioprotectors and mitigators can potentially improve the outcomes of radiotherapy for cancer treatment by allowing higher doses of radiation and/or reduced damage to normal tissues. Such compounds can also potentially counteract the effects of accidental exposure to radiation or deliberate exposure (e.g., nuclear reactor meltdown, dirty bomb, or nuclear bomb explosion); hence they are called radiation countermeasures. Here, we will review the general principles of radiation injury and protection and describe selected examples of radioprotectors/mitigators ranging from small-molecules to proteins to cell-based treatments. We will emphasize agents that are in more advanced stages of development. PMID:25653923

  17. Radiation Protection in Interventional Radiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DECLAN R. JOHNSON; JOHN KYRIOU; EDWARD J. MORTON; ANDREW CLIFTON; MICHAEL FITZGERALD; EMER MACSWEENEY

    2001-01-01

    There is growing concern regarding the radiation dose delivered during interventional procedures, particularly in view of the increasing frequency and complexity of these techniques. This paper reviews the radiation dose levels currently encountered in interventional procedures, the consequent risks to operators and patients and the dose reduction that may be achieved by employing a rigorous approach to radiation protection.Johnson, D.R.

  18. Radiation Protection and Free Radicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Smaller; Eugene C. Avery

    1959-01-01

    FREE radicals formed in biological materials by ionizing radiation may be detected under the proper conditions by paramagnetic resonance techniques. Possibly such free radicals contribute, directly or indirectly, to the radiation damage suffered by living organisms. The various chemicals which have been found to increase the survival of organisms subjected to large doses of radiation may provide protection by action

  19. Radiation Protection Considerations at USACE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2008-01-01

    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was initially authorized by Congress in 1974. FUSRAP was enacted to address residual radioactive contamination associated with numerous sites across the U.S. at which radioactive material (primarily Uranium ores and related milling products) had been processed in support of the nation's nuclear weapons program dating back to the Manhattan Project and the

  20. Food Protection Management Program

    E-print Network

    Food Protection Management Program http://foodsafety.tamu.edu Relevance The Centers for Disease illnesses are attributed to improper handling of food prepared away from home. Because almost half of our food dollars is spent on food prepared outside the home, food safety is a top concern among consumers

  1. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maisin, J. R.

    Some of the problems related to chemical protection against ionizing radiation are discussed with emphasis on : definition, classification, degree of protection, mechanisms of action and toxicity. Results on the biological response modifyers (BRMs) and on the combination of nontoxic (i.e. low) doses of sulphydryl radioprotectors and BRMs are presented.

  2. Proceedings: 2003 Radiation Protection Technology Conference

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2004-04-01

    Health physics professionals within the nuclear industry are continually upgrading their programs with new methods and technologies. The Third Annual EPRI Radiation Protection Technology Conference facilitated this effort by communicating technical developments, program improvements, and experience throughout the nuclear power industry. When viewed from the perspective of shorter outages, diminishing numbers of contract RP technicians and demanding emergent work, this information flow is critical for the industry.

  3. Space Radiation Program Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krenek, Sam

    2008-01-01

    This poster presentation shows the various elements of the Space Radiation Program. It reviews the program requirements: develop and validate standards, quantify space radiation human health risks, mitigate risks through countermeasures and technologies, and treat and monitor unmitigated risks.

  4. Radiation Protection and Licensing FNAL Radiation Physics Team

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    Radiation Protection and Licensing K. Vaziri, FNAL Radiation Physics Team Proton Accelerators, 2012 #12;January 13, 2012 Radiation Protection and Licensing 2 Radiation Protection and Licensing 1 5. Tritium control and ground-water protection 6. Radioactive component storage 7. Repair

  5. environmental management radiation protection

    E-print Network

    Entekhabi, Dara

    /VP Research DLC Head/Director DLC EHS Committee PI/Supervisor EHS Representative Biosafety Env. Management DLC Senior Faculty/Researchers #12;biosafety program Administer the MIT Human Embryonic Stem (HES

  6. A historical review of portable health physics instruments and their use in radiation protection programs at Hanford, 1944 through 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, W.P.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Kress, M.L.; Swinth, K.L.; Corbit, C.D.; Zuerner, L.V.; Fleming, D.M.; DeHaven, H.W.

    1989-09-01

    This historical review covers portable health physics instruments at Hanford from an applications viewpoint. The review provides information on specific instruments and on the general kinds of facility work environments in which the instruments have been and are being used. It provides a short, modestly technical explanation of the types of nuclear radiations, the way radiation units are quantified, and the types of nuclear radiations, the way radiation units are quantified, and the types of detection media used in portable health physics instruments. This document does not, however, cover the history of the entire Hanford program that was required to develop and/or modify the subject instruments. 11 refs., 34 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Historical review of personnel dosimetry development and its use in radiation protection programs at Hanford 1944 to the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.H.

    1987-02-01

    This document is an account of the personnel dosimetry programs as they were developed and practiced at Hanford from their inception in 1943 to 1944 to the 1980s. This history is divided into sections covering the general categories of external and internal measurement methods, in vivo counting, radiation exposure recordkeeping, and calibration of personnel dosimeters. The reasons and circumstances surrounding the inception of these programs at Hanford are discussed. Information about these programs was obtained from documents, letters, and memos that are available in our historical records; the personnel files of many people who participated in these programs; and from the recollections of many long-time, current, and past Hanford employees. For the most part, the history of these programs is presented chronologically to relate their development and use in routine Hanford operations. 131 refs., 38 figs., 23 tabs.

  8. Radiation Research Program (RRP)

    Cancer.gov

    The RRP is responsible for NCI’s clinically-related extramural radiation research program. The RRP establishes priorities, allocates resources, and evaluates the effectiveness of such radiation research being conducted by NCI grantees. RRP staff represent the program at NCI management and scientific meetings and provide scientific support to leadership on matters related to radiation research.

  9. International standards for radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Peter

    2011-03-01

    International standards for radiation protection are issued by many bodies. These bodies differ to a large extent in their organisation, in the way the members are designated and in the way the international standards are authorised by the issuing body. Large differences also exist in the relevance of the international standards. One extreme is that the international standards are mandatory in the sense that no conflicting national standard may exist, the other extreme is that national and international standards conflict and there is no need to resolve that conflict. Between these extremes there are some standards or documents of relevance, which are not binding by any formal law or contract but are de facto binding due to the scientific reputation of the issuing body. This paper gives, for radiation protection, an overview of the main standards issuing bodies, the international standards or documents of relevance issued by them and the relevance of these documents. PMID:21149291

  10. Page 1 of 4 Radiation Protection Policy

    E-print Network

    Mumby, Peter J.

    Page 1 of 4 Radiation Protection Policy 1.9 Control of Radioactive Materials 1.9.1 Acquisition in Section 2.17 of the Radiation Protection Policy Appendix 1. No radionuclide/radioisotope source shall be brought to the University by any route without prior consultation with the Radiation Protection Service

  11. Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Little, J R; Shirley, D L; Blair, L M

    1982-05-01

    This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the degrees awarded in academic year 1980-81 from 61 U.S. universities offering degree programs in radiation protection or related areas that would enable students to work in the health physics field. The report includes historical survey data for the last decade and provides information such as trends by degree level, foreign national student participation, female and minority student participation, and placement of graduates. Also included is a listing of the universities by type of program and number of students.

  12. Radiation Protection Surveys in Clinical Areas

    E-print Network

    Jia, Songtao

    Radiation Protection Surveys in Clinical Areas Procedure: 7.521 Created: 4/23/2014 Version: 1 as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) it is necessary to perform routine radiation protection surveys: Radiation Safety Officer D. Policies 1. Ambient radiation levels: survey with ion chamber survey meter

  13. 30. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 30. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-print Network

    30. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 30. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION Revised;2 30. Radioactivity and radiation protection caused by different radiation types R weighted with so radiation in a volume element of a specified material divided by the mass of this volume element. · Kerma, K

  14. Preparing the radiation protection worker to meet multiple needs

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, J.S.; Thorpe, B.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) the radiation protection worker aids in protecting personnel and their surrounding environment from the hazards of radiation. These individuals use their technical knowledge, skills, and abilities to survey and monitor various project-related activities. They must also provide guidance in project design, development, and implementation. These combined efforts assure that protective measures are taken in accordance with applicable standards. The ORNL performance-based training program enhances the skills of the worker. The program incorporates job specific information on the diverse facilities and activities monitored with basic fundamentals of radiation protection. Successful completion of this program includes passing both a qualification exam and an on-the-job skills review. This paper details the structure of such a program and explains the strategies taken to reach the program's goals. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. [Radiation protection in radiation oncology. Yesterday, today, and tomorrow].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Th; Müller, R

    2012-11-01

    Publications about radiation protection issues are not very frequent in the 100-year-old history of Strahlentherapie und Onkologie. While at the beginning of the last century the problems of radiation protection were determined by the technical development of radiation therapy, the importance of radiation protection measures and knowledge about radiation protection by the persons involved has clearly increased. A new challenge is treating patients according to radiation safety issues to avoid the risk of stochastic late effects, such as radiation-induced secondary tumors. PMID:22907582

  16. Space radiation health program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The Space Radiation Health Program intends to establish the scientific basis for the radiation protection of humans engaged in the exploration of space, with particular emphasis on the establishment of a firm knowledge base to support cancer risk assessment for future planetary exploration. This document sets forth the technical and management components involved in the implementation of the Space Radiation Health Program, which is a major part of the Life Sciences Division (LSD) effort in the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). For the purpose of implementing this program, the Life Sciences Division supports scientific research into the fundamental mechanisms of radiation effects on living systems and the interaction of radiation with cells, tissues, and organs, and the development of instruments and processes for measuring radiation and its effects. The Life Sciences Division supports researchers at universities, NASA field centers, non-profit research institutes and national laboratories; establishes interagency agreements for cooperative use and development of facilities; and conducts a space-based research program using available and future spaceflight vehicles.

  17. Swedish approaches to radiation protection at nuclear power stations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Knapp; D. W. Miller

    1996-01-01

    This paper compares Swedish health physics programs at nuclear power plants to U.S. programs. Analysis of the Swedish programs includes examination of health physics staff training, size and longevity. Health physics practices are discussed, especially practices during refueling outages. The paper is based on site visits to Ringhals and Oskarshamn by U.S. radiation protection managers in October, 1995, under the

  18. CEBAF - environmental protection program plan

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    An important objective in the successful operation of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) is to ensure protection of the public and the environment. To meet this objective, the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc., (SURA) is committed to working with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop, implement, and manage a sound and workable environmental protection program at CEBAF. This environmental protection plan includes information on environmental monitoring, long-range monitoring, groundwater protection, waste minimization, and pollution prevention awareness program plan.

  19. 30. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 30. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-print Network

    30. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 30. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION Revised for the 2012 edition (pdg.lbl.gov) February 16, 2012 14:08 #12;2 30. Radioactivity and radiation protection radiation in a volume element of a specified material divided by the mass of this volume element. · Kerma, K

  20. 33. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 33. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-print Network

    33. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 33. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION Revised://pdg.lbl.gov) June 18, 2012 16:20 #12;2 33. Radioactivity and radiation protection tissue caused by different radiation in a volume element of a specified material divided by the mass of this volume element. · Kerma, K

  1. ,FebrUary 1991 Radiation Protection

    E-print Network

    Shepherd, Simon

    of the major health concerns is the damaging effects of ionizing space radiation. Once the crew leaves-N-ASA _Technical Paper _3079 ,FebrUary 1991 Radiation Protection for Human Missions to the Moon Division Radiation Protection for Human Missions to the Moon and Mars Lisa C. Simonsen and John E. Nealy

  2. Science Goals in Radiation Protection for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francs A.

    2008-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Health risks of concern include cancer, degenerative and performance risks to the central nervous system, heart and lens, and the acute radiation syndromes. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) contain high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, which have been shown to cause qualitatively distinct biological damage compared to terresterial radiation, such as X-rays or gamma-rays, causing risk estimates to be highly uncertain. The biological effects of solar particle events (SPE) are similar to terresterial radiation except for their biological dose-rate modifiers; however the onset and size of SPEs are difficult to predict. The high energies of GCR reduce the effectiveness of shielding, while SPE s can be shielded however the current gap in radiobiological knowledge hinders optimization. Methods used to project risks on Earth must be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting health risks from space radiation, and thus impact mission requirements and costs. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies probabilistic risk assessments and uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts and to mission design. The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in radiation risk projection models. Exploration science goals in radiation protection are centered on ground-based research to achieve the necessary biological knowledge, and in the development of new technologies to improve SPE monitoring and optimize shielding. Radiobiology research is centered on a ground based program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and HZE nuclei at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) located at DoE s Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, NY. We describe recent NSRL results that are closing the knowledge gap in HZE radiobiology and improving exploration risk estimates. Linking probabilistic risk assessment to research goals makes it possible to express risk management objectives in terms of quantitative metrics, which include the number of days in space without exceeding a given risk level within well defined confidence limits, and probabilistic assessments of the effectiveness of design trade spaces such as material type, mass, solar cycle, crew selection criteria, and biological countermeasures. New research in SPE alert and risk assessment, individual radiation sensitivity, and biological countermeasure development are described.

  3. Protection in programming languages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James H. Morris Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Linguistic mechanisms which can be used to protect one subprogram from another's malfunctioning are described. Function-producing functions and various type-tagging schemes are considered. An attempt is made to distinguish between access limitation and authentication.

  4. Develop a Wellhead Protection Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students will develop a wellhead protection program for a hypothetical community. Students assume various roles in the community such as gas station owner, photo lab owner or employee, beauty salon owner, restaurant owner, resident, or environmentalist so that each student can bring the perspective of his or her role to the discussion. Students will discover that the relationships between businesses, environmentalists, and community leaders can be, but need not be, adversarial. As they progress through this activity students learn about the tools communities may use to develop a wellhead protection program. They will also recognize that developing a community wellhead protection program is not easy and that, while it is important to protect drinking water supplies, it can be very difficult to develop a program that will gain support from the overall community.

  5. Radiation Protection lessonsRadiation Protection lessons Experiences with operating beams for

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    Radiation Protection lessonsRadiation Protection lessons Experiences with operating beams, they are exposed to much lower radiation than compared to a storage location in the target chamberchamber. WANF O'rings in pumps and motors were not specified to be radiation resistant. CNGSCNGS only radiation hard components

  6. 78 FR 59982 - Revisions to Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...NRC-2012-0268] Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR...that Occupational Radiation Exposures Are As...

  7. 78 FR 5813 - 2013 Assuring Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ...include: (1) Responding to radiation accidents or incidents...evaluating the adequacy of State radiation control programs; overseeing radiation laboratory capabilities...decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities; (4)...

  8. RADIATION PROTECTION KEYWORDS: organ dose, equiv-

    E-print Network

    Lin, Zi-wei

    RADIATION PROTECTION KEYWORDS: organ dose, equiv- alent sphere model, space radiation CAN THE EQUIVALENT-SPHERE MODEL APPROXIMATE ORGAN DOSES IN SPACE RADIATION ENVIRONMENTS? Z. W. LIN East Carolina-4353 Received February 20, 2008 Accepted for Publication January 6, 2009 In space radiation calculations

  9. Proceedings: 2002 Radiation Protection Technology Conference: Baltimore, MD, October 2002

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2003-04-01

    In response to program pressures resulting from shorter outages, combined with a diminishing group of contract health physics (HP) technicians, HP professionals must continuously upgrade their programs. Demanding emergent work also requires HP technicians in the nuclear industry to use new methods and technologies. The EPRI Radiation Protection Technology Conference was directed at highlighting a number of key health physics issues and developments.

  10. Guide to good practice in radiation protection training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Johnson; C. Schenley; A. Smith; M. Weseman

    1988-01-01

    This set of guidelines applies to radiation protection training programs for all Department of Energy (DOE) contractors, subcontractors, and visitors to DOE contractor facilities. It is to be used as a self-evaluation tool by DOE contractors as they develop and evaluate their training programs. This document is based on good practice guidelines used by a variety of different facilities both

  11. Institute of Nuclear Technology & Radiation Protection

    E-print Network

    Institute of Nuclear Technology & Radiation Protection annual Report 2009 #12;#12;ANNUAL REPORT story for the Institute of Nuclear Technology ­ Radiation Protection over the last decades LABORATORY (Deputy:I.Stamatelatos) Operation& Maintenance ofResearchReactor I.Stamatelatos Nuclear

  12. Radiation protection culture: a global challenge.

    PubMed

    Michel, Rolf; Henrichs, Klaus; Wernli, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The central motto 'Radiation Protection Culture-A Global Challenge' of the fourth European IRPA Congress is discussed on the basis of the IRPA Guiding Principles Establishing a Radiation Protection Culture and the contributions presented in the plenary sessions of the conference. PMID:25380760

  13. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H. [eds.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  14. Proceedings of the Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S.; Casson, W. H.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21-24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  15. Radiation protection: who's in charge here

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunshine

    1979-01-01

    Responsibility for protecting the public from harmful radiation is shared by an assortment of Federal departments and agencies, independent commissions and advisory panels, and all 50 states, but the question of who is ultimately in charge has been a matter of growing concern since the Three Mile Island incident. The objections of radiation users to various proposals to reorganize radiation

  16. Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1979 and 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Gove, R.M.; Little, J.R.; Shirley, D.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public concern over the effects of low-level radiation and other aspects of the use of nuclear energy has grown in recent years, and the demand for radiation protection has continued to increase. Radiation Protection Enrollments and Degrees presents the results of the latest survey of institutions offering degree programs in this field. Students obtaining such degrees are vital to the development of industry, medicine, research, power production, construction, and agriculture. These surveys assist state and federal governments in their search for such personnel.

  17. Using computer-based training to facilitate radiation protection review

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, J.S.; Copenhaver, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    In a national laboratory setting, it is necessary to provide radiation protection overview and training to diverse parts of the laboratory population. This includes employees at research reactors, accelerators, waste facilities, radiochemical isotope processing, and analytical laboratories, among others. In addition, our own radiation protection and monitoring staffs must be trained. To assist in the implementation of this full range of training, ORNL has purchased prepackaged computer-based training in health physics and technical mathematics with training modules that can be selected from many topics. By selection of specific modules, appropriate radiation protection review packages can be determined to meet many individual program needs. Because our radiation protection personnel must have some previous radiation protection experience or the equivalent of an associate's degree in radiation protection for entry level, the computer-based training will serve primarily as review of major principles. Others may need very specific prior training to make the computer-based training effective in their work situations. 4 refs.

  18. 76 FR 4258 - Occupational Radiation Protection; Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...CFR Part 835 Federal buildings and facilities, Nuclear energy, Nuclear materials, Nuclear power plants and reactors, Nuclear safety, Occupational safety and health, Radiation protection, and Reporting and recordkeeping requirements....

  19. 76 FR 20489 - Occupational Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ...CFR Part 835 Federal buildings and facilities, Nuclear energy, Nuclear materials, Nuclear power plants and reactors, Nuclear safety, Occupational safety and health, Radiation protection, and Reporting and recordkeeping requirements....

  20. Protective effects in radiation modification of elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G?uszewski, Wojciech; Zagórski, Zbigniew P.; Rajkiewicz, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Saturated character of ethylene/octene thermoplastic elastomers demands an application of nonconventional methods of crosslinking connections between chains of molecules. These are organic peroxides, usually in the presence of coagents or an application of ionizing radiation. Several approaches (radiation, peroxide, peroxide/plus radiation and radiation/plus peroxide) were applied in crosslinking of elastomere Engage 8200. Attention was directed to the protection effects by aromatic peroxides and by photo- and thermostabilizers on radiolysis of elastomers. Role of dose of radiation, dose rate of radiation as well as the role of composition of elastomere on the radiation yield of hydrogen and absorbtion of oxygen was investigated. DRS method was used to follow postirradiation degradation. Influence of crosslinking methods on properties of elastomers is described. Results were interpreted from the point of view of protective actions of aromatic compounds.

  1. Clear Film Protects Against Ultraviolet Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, A.; Yavrouian, A.

    1983-01-01

    Acrylic film contains screeing agent filtering ultraviolet radiation up to 380 nanometers in wavelength but passes other components of Sunlight. Film used to protect such materials as rubber and plastics degraded by ultraviolet light. Used as protective cover on outdoor sheets or pipes made of such materials as polyethylene or polypropylene and on solar cells.

  2. INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-print Network

    INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY ­ RADIATION PROTECTION ANNUAL REPORT 2005 - 2006 #12;2 #12;3 ANNUAL of the Population to Ionizing Radiations of the Enironment P. Kritidis Radioecology E. Florou Physicochemical of Research Reactor M. Stakakis Nuclear Analytical Techniques I. Stamatelatos Neutron Scattering K. Mergia

  3. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. M. Fry; D. S. Nachtwey

    1988-01-01

    The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be

  4. Shielded radiation protection quantities beyond LEO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Clowdsley; J. W. Wilson; M. Y. Kim; B. M. Anderson; J. E. Nealy

    2004-01-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recommended that the quantities used to evaluate health risk to astronauts due to radiation exposure be effective dose and gray-equivalent. The NCRP recommends that effective dose be the limiting quantity for prevention of stochastic effects. Effective dose is a measure of whole body exposure, a weighted average of dose equivalent

  5. (Basic radiation protection criteria). Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ney

    1982-01-01

    Progress in the following areas directly related to nuclear waste management is summarized: (1) a radiation protection system based on risk per rad of dose; (2) assessment of the accumulation and biological significance of industrial waste discharges and estimation of concentrations present in the environment; (3) assessment of exposure resulting from nuclear power; (4) internal emitter standards; (5) human radiation

  6. RADIATION PROTECTION AT SYNCHROTRON RADIATION FACILITIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Liu; Vaclav Vylet

    A synchrotron radiation (SR) facility typically consists of an injector, a storage ring, and SR beamlines. The latter two features are unique to SR facilities, when compared to other types of accelerator facilities. The SR facilities have the characteristics of low injection beam power, but high stored beam power. The storage ring is generally above ground with people occupying the

  7. RADIATION BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS FOR RADIATION PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT The opportunity to write a historical review of the field of radiation biology allows for the viewing of the development and maturity of a field of study, thereby being able to provide the appropriate context for the earlier years of research and its findings. The...

  8. Radiation Protection and the Human Radiation Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Lloyd

    1998-01-01

    This book from the Los Alamos National Laboratory is largely a response to recent revelations and public concern about radiation experiments performed on human beings there and elsewhere, starting about 50 years ago. It is written for an intelligent lay person rather than for the specialist scientist and seeks to clarify the objectives and conduct of these human studies. The

  9. Radiation Protection Quantities for Near Earth Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowdsley, Martha S.; Wilson, John W.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.

    2004-01-01

    As humans travel beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field and mission durations grow, risk due to radiation exposure will increase and may become the limiting factor for such missions. Here, the dosimetric quantities recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for the evaluation of health risk due to radiation exposure, effective dose and gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO), are calculated for several near Earth environments. These radiation protection quantities are evaluated behind two different shielding materials, aluminum and polyethylene. Since exposure limits for missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) have not yet been defined, results are compared to limits recommended by the NCRP for LEO operations.

  10. Advance of radiation protection and treatment agents in clinical application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YI Zhanmiao; Zhang Zhaohui; Zhai SuoDi; Jia TingZhen

    Objective: To investigate clinical applications and the advance of radiation protection and radiation treatment agents. Methods: To search and read the available latest literatures, then give a review on the clinical application of radiation protection and treatment agents. Results: Radiation protection and radiation treatment agents include amifostine, ulinary trypsin inhibitor, hormone, traditional Chinese drug, cytokines, mesenchymal cell, etc.. Conclusion: The

  11. DCTD — Radiation Research Program (RRP)

    Cancer.gov

    Of the many successful programs within the RRP grant and contract portfolio, several scientific advances are presented below, representing significant advances in treatment development, molecular radiation therapy, quality assurance for high-technology radiation therapy, and international networking.

  12. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program

    E-print Network

    Jia, Songtao

    this form to Radiation Safety's Dosimetry Program.) ___ Yes ___ No 1. Was the Dosimeter placed or stored ___ No 3. Did you hold a patient during radiation exposure? ___ Yes ___ No 4. Did you work significantly

  13. Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S. [eds.

    1988-11-01

    The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  14. Development and implementation of a site radiation protection program for a radioactive waste vitrification and RCRA clean closure project at the Savannah River Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Davidson; I. S. Howard; W. A. Jr. Veronee

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to implement radiological protection program at the M-Area Vendo Treatment Facility (VTF) at the Savannah River Site. The project is unique in that it incorporates a turnkey approach to operation and control of a single waste treatment facility at a DOE site. The Vendor Treatment Facility is a temporary installation in the M-Area of

  15. [Radiation protection agents to provide the radiation safety of astronauts].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Taking into consideration the complexity of radiation factors and stressogenic factors of non-radiation nature in cosmic flights and prognostic difficulties of radiation situation, the authors propose to distinguish several stages of pharmacological protection for cosmonauts. The preparatory stage is realized on the Earth. The next stage is monitoring and correction of radioresistance during a flight. A possible stage consists of treatment of the radiation damage using a traditional protocol. The permanent stage includes pharmacological prevention of the distant consequences of irradiation. PMID:25507772

  16. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, R. J. M.; Nachtwey, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    NASA's current radiation protection guidelines date from 1970, when the career limit was set at 400 rem. Today, using the same approach, but with the current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain. Also, there is considerably more information about the radiation environments to be experienced in different missions than previously. Since 1970 women have joined the ranks. For these and other reasons it was necessary to reexamine the radiation protection guidelines. This task was undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75 (NCRP SC 75). Below the magnetosphere the radiation environment varies with altitude and orbit inclination. In outer space missions galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 100 rem (4.0Sv) for a 24 year old female to 400 rem for a 55 year old male compared to the previous single limit of 400 rem (4.0 Sv). The career limit for the lens of the eye was reduced from 600 to 400 rem (6.0 to 4.0 Sv.)

  17. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, R. J.; Nachtwey, D. S.

    1988-01-01

    The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem).

  18. EPRI guide to managing nuclear utility protective clothing programs

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.J. (Right Angle Industries, Melbourne, FL (USA))

    1991-05-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) commissioned a radioactive waste related project (RP2414-34) during the last quarter of 1989 to produce a guide for developing and managing nuclear protective clothing programs. Every nuclear facility must coordinate some type of protective clothing program for its radiation workers to insure proper and safe protection for the wearer and to maintain control over the spread of contamination. Yet, every nuclear facility has developed its own unique program for managing such clothing. Accordingly, a need existed for a reference guide to assist with the standardization of protective clothing programs and to assist in controlling the potentially runaway economics of such programs. This document is the first known effort to formalize the planning and economic factors surrounding a nuclear utility protective clothing program. It is intended to be informative by addressing the various pieces of information necessary to establish and maintain an effective, professionally managed protective clothing program. It also attempts to provide guidance toward tailoring the information and providing examples within the report to fit each utility's specific needs. This report is further intended to address new issues and trends occurring throughout the nuclear industry in late 1989 which can have either a significant positive or negative impact on the operations or economics of nuclear protective clothing programs. 1 ref., 11 tabs.

  19. Apollo experience report: Protection against radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, R. A.; Benson, R. E.; Bailey, J. V.; Barnes, C. M.

    1973-01-01

    Radiation protection problems on earth and in space are discussed. Flight through the Van Allen belts and into space beyond the geomagnetic shielding was recognized as hazardous before the advent of manned space flight. Specialized dosimetry systems were developed for use on the Apollo spacecraft, and systems for solar-particle-event warning and dose projection were devised. Radiation sources of manmade origin on board the Apollo spacecraft present additional problems. Methods applied to evaluate and control or avoid the various Apollo radiation hazards are discussed.

  20. Radiation protection awareness in non-radiologists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A D QUINN; C G TAYLOR; T SABHARWAL; T SIKDAR

    The outcome of teaching the core of knowledge to clinicians and the impact of the POPUMET regulations was assessed using an anonymous questionnaire. 82 of 120 (76%) of non- radiologists responded, of these 37% had attended a radiation protection course. Course attendance improved knowledge of the existence of the POPUMET regulations (p<0.0001) and the ALARA principle. Course attendance made no

  1. 77 FR 66650 - Proposed Revisions to Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Proposed Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR...that Occupational Radiation Exposures Are As...

  2. Initiatives & Programs | Radiation Research Program (RRP)

    Cancer.gov

    The Radiation Research Program has a strong commitment to promoting the highest standards in radiotherapy delivery and evaluation. RRP is also committed to promoting equal access to healthcare for underserved populations.

  3. Pinellas Plant groundwater protection management program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-10-01

    The Groundwater Protection Management Program (GPMP) Plan outlines the program in place at the Pinellas Plant to detect and monitor contaminated groundwater, which may have become contaminated by materials and waste.

  4. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public Health and...

  5. Issues in deep space radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J W; Shinn, J L; Tripathi, R K; Singleterry, R C; Clowdsley, M S; Thibeault, S A; Cheatwood, F M; Schimmerling, W; Cucinotta, F A; Badhwar, G D; Noor, A K; Kim, M Y; Badavi, F F; Heinbockel, J H; Miller, J; Zeitlin, C; Heilbronn, L

    2001-01-01

    The exposures in deep space are largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little biological experience. Mounting evidence indicates that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate for GCR ions. The available biological data indicates that aluminum alloy structures may generate inherently unhealthy internal spacecraft environments in the thickness range for space applications. Methods for optimization of spacecraft shielding and the associated role of materials selection are discussed. One material which may prove to be an important radiation protection material is hydrogenated carbon nanofibers. PMID:11669118

  6. Issues in deep space radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Tripathi, R. K.; Singleterry, R. C.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Thibeault, S. A.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Schimmerling, W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; Noor, A. K.; Kim, M. Y.; Badavi, F. F.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.

    2001-01-01

    The exposures in deep space are largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little biological experience. Mounting evidence indicates that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate for GCR ions. The available biological data indicates that aluminum alloy structures may generate inherently unhealthy internal spacecraft environments in the thickness range for space applications. Methods for optimization of spacecraft shielding and the associated role of materials selection are discussed. One material which may prove to be an important radiation protection material is hydrogenated carbon nanofibers. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Human Subjects Protection Program Improvements Spring 2011

    E-print Network

    Biederman, Irving

    Human Subjects Protection Program Improvements Spring 2011 www.usc.edu/oprs/policies/cqi April 20 monitoring user feedback/requests in order to improve the USC Human Subjects Protection Program (HSPP.edu/oprs/private/docs/oprs/ChildElder_Abuse_FAQ_2.15.pdf 3. Witnesses to Informed Consent: The USC informed consent template unnecessarily required

  8. Radiation protection at nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

    PubMed

    Endo, Kuniaki; Momose, Takumaro; Furuta, Sadaaki

    2011-07-01

    Radiation protection methodologies concerning individual monitoring, workplace monitoring and environmental monitoring in nuclear fuel facilities have been developed and applied to facilities in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories (NCL) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) for over 40 y. External exposure to photon, beta ray and neutron and internal exposure to alpha emitter are important issues for radiation protection at these facilities. Monitoring of airborne and surface contamination by alpha and beta/photon emitters at workplace is also essential to avoid internal exposure. A critical accident alarm system developed by JAEA has been proved through application at the facilities for a long time. A centralised area monitoring system is effective for emergency situations. Air and liquid effluents from facilities are monitored by continuous monitors or sampling methods to comply with regulations. Effluent monitoring has been carried out for 40 y to assess the radiological impacts on the public and the environment due to plant operation. PMID:21498413

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY INTERAGENCY WORKING GROUP ON MEDICAL RADIATION

    E-print Network

    ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY INTERAGENCY WORKING GROUP ON MEDICAL RADIATION EPA 520/4-76-019 FEDERAL GUIDANCE REPORT NO. 9 RADIATION PROTECTION GUIDANCE FOR DIAGNOSTIC X RAYS #12;FEDERAL GUIDANCE REPORT NO. 9 RADIATION PROTECTION GUIDANCE FOR DIAGNOSTIC X RAYS Interagency Working Group on Medical

  10. Space and radiation protection: scientific requirements for space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, W.

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiation poses a significant risk to humans living and working in space. The major sources of radiation are solar disturbances and galactic cosmic rays. The components of this radiation are energetic charged particles, protons, as well as fully ionized nuclei of all elements. The biological effects of these particles cannot be extrapolated in a straightforward manner from available data on x-rays and gamma-rays. A radiation protection program that meets the needs of spacefaring nations must have a solid scientific basis, capable not only of predicting biological effects, but also of making reliable estimates of the uncertainty in these predictions. A strategy leading to such predictions is proposed, and scientific requirements arising from this strategy are discussed.

  11. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I protect intestinal cells from radiation induced apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panagiotis G Mylonas; Panagiota T Matsouka; Eleni V Papandoniou; Constantine Vagianos; Fotis Kalfarentzos; Theodore K Alexandrides

    2000-01-01

    We studied whether programmed cell death (or apoptosis) is the predominant mechanism in radiation-induced cell damage to rat intestinal mucosa and investigated the mechanism of the protective effect of GH and IGF-I in the same model. Male albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups: controls, radiation, radiation plus GH and radiation plus IGF-I. Radiation was administered on the first

  12. Radiation protection and regulations for the nuclear medicine physician.

    PubMed

    Chen, Man Yu

    2014-05-01

    As authorized users of radioactive material, nuclear medicine (NM) physicians play a leading role in the use and management of these agents. Regarding patient management, NM physicians are responsible for ensuring both the appropriateness of exams and the associated patient doses. Along with radiologists, NM physicians are the ones developing and implementing processes that provide guidance to and dialog with referring physicians to ensure that patients receive the most appropriate type of imaging exams. Regarding regulatory compliance, in collaboration with radiation safety officers, NM physicians are the ones educating their staff about principles of radiation protection and radiation safety with adherence to regulations from agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Transportation, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Food and Drug Administration. On occasion, these regulations and standards can be difficult to comprehend. This article is intended to serve as a condensed guide for NM physicians who are in the process of applying for a radioactive materials license, establishing a new radiation protection program, or want to ensure continued compliance and maintenance of safety and security of licensed materials in the clinical or research settings. PMID:24832587

  13. Radiation Protection for Lunar Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowdsley, Martha S.; Nealy, John E.; Wilson, John W.; Anderson, Brooke M.; Anderson, Mark S.; Krizan, Shawn A.

    2005-01-01

    Preliminary analyses of shielding requirements to protect astronauts from the harmful effects of radiation on both short-term and long-term lunar missions have been performed. Shielding needs for both solar particle events (SPEs) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposure are discussed for transit vehicles and surface habitats. This work was performed under the aegis of two NASA initiatives. The first study was an architecture trade study led by Langley Research Center (LaRC) in which a broad range of vehicle types and mission scenarios were compared. The radiation analysis for this study primarily focused on the additional shielding mass required to protect astronauts from the rare occurrence of a large SPE. The second study, led by Johnson Space Center (JSC), involved the design of lunar habitats. Researchers at LaRC were asked to evaluate the changes to mission architecture that would be needed if the surface stay were lengthened from a shorter mission duration of 30 to 90 days to a longer stay of 500 days. Here, the primary radiation concern was GCR exposure. The methods used for these studies as well as the resulting shielding recommendations are discussed. Recommendations are also made for more detailed analyses to minimize shielding mass, once preliminary vehicle and habitat designs have been completed. Here, methodologies are mapped out and available radiation analysis tools are described. Since, as yet, no dosimetric limits have been adopted for missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO), radiation exposures are compared to LEO limits. Uncertainties associated with the LEO career effective dose limits and the effects of lowering these limits on shielding mass are also discussed.

  14. Ten principles and ten commandments of radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, D.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    For decades, the phrase {open_quotes}time, distance, and shielding{close_quotes} has been presented as summarizing the {open_quotes}basics{close_quotes} of radiation protection. Indeed, for protection from external radiation sources, these three principles are probably the most important ones on which a worker can make decisions and take actions. However, these principles do not address protection against intakes of radioactive materials or {open_quotes}ontakes{close_quotes} (skin contamination), other risk-limiting measures, or other important protective measures taken by governments, public health agencies, regulators, and institutional programs (measures such as performance standards, health education, facility engineering requirements, and administrative procedures). I have identified ten principles and ten accompanying commandments of radiation protection: time, distance, dispersal, source reduction, source barrier, personal barrier, decorporation, effect mitigation, optimal technology, and limitation of other exposures. Corresponding non-technical forms of the commandments are hurry (but don`t be hasty); stay away from it; disperse it and dilute it; use as little as possible; keep it in; keep it out; get it out or off of you (after intake or skin contamination); limit the damage; choose the best technology (perhaps a non-radiation technology); and don`t compound risks (don`t smoke). Technical versions of the commandments are also provided using the verbs {open_quotes}optimize,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}maximize,{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}minimize.{close_quotes} Not all commandments can be applied at the same time, and application may be different for workers and members of the public. Advantages, disadvantages, and implementation of these principles and commandments are discussed, and numerous examples provided. The application of the principles and commandments must be based on knowledge of the radiological conditions to be managed. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Results of the Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs (ADROP) Survey of Radiation Oncology Residency Program Directors

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Eleanor [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States)], E-mail: Eleanor.Harris@moffitt.org; Abdel-Wahab, May [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Spangler, Ann E. [Moncrief Radiation Oncology Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Lawton, Colleen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Amdur, Robert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Shands Cancer Center, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: To survey the radiation oncology residency program directors on the topics of departmental and institutional support systems, residency program structure, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requirements, and challenges as program director. Methods: A survey was developed and distributed by the leadership of the Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs to all radiation oncology program directors. Summary statistics, medians, and ranges were collated from responses. Results: Radiation oncology program directors had implemented all current required aspects of the ACGME Outcome Project into their training curriculum. Didactic curricula were similar across programs nationally, but research requirements and resources varied widely. Program directors responded that implementation of the ACGME Outcome Project and the external review process were among their greatest challenges. Protected time was the top priority for program directors. Conclusions: The Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs recommends that all radiation oncology program directors have protected time and an administrative stipend to support their important administrative and educational role. Departments and institutions should provide adequate and equitable resources to the program directors and residents to meet increasingly demanding training program requirements.

  16. Contact RRP | Radiation Research Program (RRP)

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Content Search this site Radiation Research Program (RRP) Contact RRP Radiation Research Program (RRP) primary telephones & Fax: 240-276-5690 Main telephone number for Office of the Associate Director, Molecular Radiation Therapeutics Branch

  17. Initiatives & Programs | Radiation Research Program (RRP)

    Cancer.gov

    This is a program of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures, and the National Institutes of Health. The program is coordinated by NIAID, with the involvement of the National Cancer Institute. The Strategic Plan and Research Agenda is intended to unify and strengthen the radiation research community, promote increased collaboration, and facilitate transition from research to product development.

  18. Radiation protection technician job task analysis manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This manual was developed to assist all DOE contractors in the design and conduct of job task analysis (JTA) for the radiation protection technician. Experience throughout the nuclear industry and the DOE system has indicated that the quality and efficiency in conducting a JTA at most sites is greatly enhanced by using a generic task list for the position, and clearly written guidelines on the JTA process. This manual is designed to provide this information for personnel to use in developing and conducting site-specific JTAs. (VC)

  19. New radiation protection calibration facility at CERN.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Markus; Carbonez, Pierre; Pozzi, Fabio; Silari, Marco; Vincke, Helmut

    2014-10-01

    The CERN radiation protection group has designed a new state-of-the-art calibration laboratory to replace the present facility, which is >20 y old. The new laboratory, presently under construction, will be equipped with neutron and gamma sources, as well as an X-ray generator and a beta irradiator. The present work describes the project to design the facility, including the facility placement criteria, the 'point-zero' measurements and the shielding study performed via FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:24327753

  20. Radiation protection by deferiprone in animal models.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Satoshi; Ikeda, Mizuyo; Anzai, Kazunori; Suzuki, Masao; Katoh, Akira; Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of deferiprone (L1) in removing depleted uranium (DU) and protecting animals from radiation exposure was examined. Rats that had received 2 mg/kg DU via intramuscular injection were orally administered 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg L1 for 3 days. In all of the groups, significant increases in urinary DU excretion and decreases in DU concentration in the injected muscle were observed, indicating that L1 combined with DU and DU was excreted in the urine. No significant increase in the amount of DU in the excreta or decrease in DU concentration in organs other than the muscles was found. As a preliminary test, the effectiveness of L1 in reducing radiation damage was examined in mice injected with 400 mg/kg L1 and rats administered orally with 200 and 400 mg/kg L1 before and just after x-ray exposure. The results were inconclusive. PMID:16798644

  1. The HERMES silicon project { the radiation protection system

    E-print Network

    The HERMES silicon project { the radiation protection system M.G. van Beuzekom #3; , O. Bouhali 1, radiation protection, accelerated beams PACS: 87.50.N; 29.40.Wk; 29.40.C; 29.27; #3; Corresponding author to the beamline. This location makes it vulnerable to increased radiation levels which may be caused by beam

  2. UV radiation effects over microorganisms and study of protective agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felipe Gómez Gómez; Agustín Grau Carles; Luis Vazquez; Ricardo Amils

    2004-01-01

    An important subject of astrobiological interest is the study of the effect of ultraviolet radiation on microorganisms and their protection mechanisms against this damaging agent. UV radiation is considered highly mutagenic and sterilizing, especially during the period of origin of life on Earth when the absence of the ozone layer meant there was no effective protection against ultraviolet radiation from

  3. Mars Technology Program: Planetary Protection Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of Planetary Protection Technology in the Mars Technology Program. The goal of the program is to develop technologies that will enable NASA to build, launch, and operate a mission that has subsystems with different Planetary Protection (PP) classifications, specifically for operating a Category IVb-equivalent subsystem from a Category IVa platform. The IVa category of planetary protection requires bioburden reduction (i.e., no sterilization is required) The IVb category in addition to IVa requirements: (i.e., terminal sterilization of spacecraft is required). The differences between the categories are further reviewed.

  4. Respiratory Protection Program Environmental Health & Safety

    E-print Network

    Responsibilities 3 3.1 Environmental Health and Safety 3 3.2 Department Management 3 3.3 Respirator Users 3 4Respiratory Protection Program Environmental Health & Safety August 2012 #12;Georgia Institute Respirators Can Be Used 4 5.4 Exposed Population 4 6 Objective 4 7 Program elements 4 7.1 Air Monitoring 4 7

  5. Radiation safety program for the cardiac catheterization laboratory.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Charles E; Fetterly, Kenneth A; Holzer, Ralf; Lin, Pei-Jan Paul; Blankenship, James C; Balter, Stephen; Laskey, Warren K

    2011-03-01

    The Society of Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions present a practical approach to assist cardiac catheterization laboratories in establishing a radiation safety program. The importance of this program is emphasized by the appropriate concerns for the increasing use of ionizing radiation in medical imaging, and its potential adverse effects. An overview of the assessment of radiation dose is provided with a review of basic terminology for dose management. The components of a radiation safety program include essential personnel, radiation monitoring, protective shielding, imaging equipment, and training/education. A procedure based review of radiation dose management is described including pre-procedure, procedure and post-procedure best practice recommendations. Specific radiation safety considerations are discussed including women and fluoroscopic procedures as well as patients with congenital and structural heart disease. PMID:21254324

  6. Prevent Eye Damage: Protect Yourself from UV Radiation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Radiation M ost Americans understand the link between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and skin cancer. Many are less ... long hours in the sun without adequate eye protection can increase the likelihood of developing the following ...

  7. Radiation protection and dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2014-11-01

    The technological advances that occurred during the last few decades paved the way to the dissemination of CT-based procedures in radiology, to an increasing number of procedures in interventional radiology and cardiology as well as to new techniques and hybrid modalities in nuclear medicine and in radiotherapy. These technological advances encompass the exposure of patients and medical staff to unprecedentedly high dose values that are a cause for concern due to the potential detrimental effects of ionizing radiation to the human health. As a consequence, new issues and challenges in radiological protection and dosimetry in the medical applications of ionizing radiation have emerged. The scientific knowledge of the radiosensitivity of individuals as a function of age, gender and other factors has also contributed to raising the awareness of scientists, medical staff, regulators, decision makers and other stakeholders (including the patients and the public) for the need to correctly and accurately assess the radiation induced long-term health effects after medical exposure. Pediatric exposures and their late effects became a cause of great concern. The scientific communities of experts involved in the study of the biological effects of ionizing radiation have made a strong case about the need to undertake low dose radiation research and the International System of Radiological Protection is being challenged to address and incorporate issues such as the individual sensitivities, the shape of dose-response relationship and tissue sensitivity for cancer and non-cancer effects. Some of the answers to the radiation protection and dosimetry issues and challenges in the medical applications of ionizing radiation lie in computational studies using Monte Carlo or hybrid methods to model and simulate particle transport in the organs and tissues of the human body. The development of sophisticated Monte Carlo computer programs and voxel phantoms paves the way to an accurate dosimetric assessment of the medical applications of ionizing radiation. In this paper, the aforementioned topics will be reviewed. The current status and the future trends in the implementation of the justification and optimization principles, pillars of the International System of Radiological Protection, in the medical applications of ionizing radiation will be discussed. Prospective views will be provided on the future of the system of radiological protection and on dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation.

  8. Protection from radiation-induced pneumonitis using cerium oxide nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jimmie Colon; Luis Herrera; Joshua Smith; Swanand Patil; Chris Komanski; Patrick Kupelian; Sudipta Seal; D. Wayne Jenkins; Cheryl H. Baker

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to combat the harmful effects of radiation exposure, we propose that rare-earth cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles (free-radical scavengers) protect normal tissue from radiation-induced damage. Preliminary studies suggest that these nanoparticles may be a therapeutic regenerative nanomedicine that will scavenge reactive oxygen species, which are responsible for radiation-induced cell damage. The effectiveness of CeO2 nanoparticles in radiation protection

  9. Space Weather Status for Exploration Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Dan J.; Lee, Kerry; Zapp, Neal; Barzilla, Janet; Dunegan, Audrey; Johnson, Steve; Stoffle, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during an exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and in free space, for example, may differ by orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for the ability to conduct exploration operations. We present a current status of developing operational concepts for manned exploration and expectations for asset viability and available predictive and characterization toolsets.

  10. Space Radiation Protection, Space Weather, and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, Neal; Rutledge, R.; Semones, E. J.; Johnson, A. S.; Guetersloh, S.; Fry, D.; Stoffle, N.; Lee, K.

    2008-01-01

    Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight -- and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during an exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon may differ by multiple orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for our ability to conduct exploration operations. With these differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, we present the status of the efforts currently underway as the required development to enable exploration operations. The changes in the operating environment as crewed operations begin to stretch away from the Earth are changing the way we think about the lines between "research" and "operations". The real, practical work to enable a permanent human presence away from Earth has already begun.

  11. Space Radiation Protection, Space Weather, and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, Neal; Fry, Dan; Lee, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during a deep space exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon may differ by multiple orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for our ability to conduct exploration operations. With these differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, we present the status of the efforts currently underway as the required development to enable exploration operations. The changes in the operating environment as crewed operations begin to stretch away from the Earth are changing the way we think about the lines between research and operations . The real, practical work to enable a permanent human presence away from Earth has already begun

  12. US Environmental Protection Agency: National Estuary Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Established in 1987 by amendments to the Clean Water Act and administered by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds (OWOW), the National Estuary Program (NEP) identifies, restores and protects estuaries along the coasts of the United States. Unlike the traditional regulatory approaches to environmental protection, the NEP targets a wide range of issues and engages local communities in the process. At the site users can find descriptions of the NEP, specific NEP projects, estuaries involved in the NEP (including location, size, presence of threatened and endangered species, major habitat types, etc.), a current awareness section, links to related sites, and the full text of NEP's newsletter, Coastlines.

  13. Pinellas Plant groundwater protection management program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1996-10-01

    The objectives of the Groundwater Protection Management Program (GPMP) are to establish that current operations and transition of the facility are not affecting groundwater in a way that creates unacceptable risks to human health and safety, or to the environment, and that the plant is working to address any such risks previously identified.

  14. The SunWise School Program Guide: A School Program that Radiates Good Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2003

    2003-01-01

    To help educators raise sun safety awareness, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the SunWise School Program, a national education program for children in grades K through 8. SunWise Partner Schools sponsor classroom and schoolwide activities that raise children's awareness of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation

  15. Improved Spacecraft Materials for Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Shinn, J. L.; Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Thibeault, Sheila Ann; Kim, M.-H. Y.; Heinbockel, John H.; Badhwar, Gautam D.

    2001-01-01

    Methods by which radiation shielding is optimized need to be developed and materials of improved shielding characteristics identified and validated. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are very penetrating and the energy absorbed by the astronaut behind the shield is nearly independent of shield composition and even the shield thickness. However, the mix of particles in the transmitted beam changes rapidly with shield material composition and thickness. This results in part from the breakup of the high-energy heavy ions of the GCR which make contributions to biological effects out of proportion to their deposited energy. So the mixture of particles in the radiation field changes with shielding and the control of risk contributions from dominant particle types is critical to reducing the hazard to the astronaut. The risk of biological injury for a given particle type depends on the type of biological effect and is specific to cell or tissue type. Thus, one is faced with choosing materials which may protect a given tissue against a given effect but leave unchanged or even increase the risk of other effects in the same tissue or increase the risks to other adjacent tissues of a different type in the same individual. The optimization of shield composition will then be tied to a specific tissue and risk to that tissue. Such peculiarities arise from the complicated mixture of particles, the nature of their biological response, and the details of their interaction with material constituents. Aside from the understanding of the biological response to specific components, one also needs an accurate understanding of the radiation emerging from the shield material. This latter subject has been a principal element of this project. In the past ten years our understanding of space radiation interactions with materials has changed radically, with a large impact on shield design. For example, the NCRP estimated that only 2 g/sq cm. of aluminum would be required to meet the annual 500 mSv limit for the exposure of the blood forming organs (this limit is strictly for LEO but can be used as a guideline for the Mars mission analysis). The current estimates require aluminum shield thicknesses above 50 g/sq cm., which is impractical. In such a heavily shielded vehicle, the neutrons produced throughout the vehicle also contribute significantly to the exposure and this demands greater care in describing the angular dependence of secondary particle production processes. As such the continued testing of databases and transport procedures in laboratory and spaceflight experiments has continued. This has been the focus of much of the last year's activity and has resulted in improved neutron prediction capability. These new methods have also improved our understanding of the surface environment of Mars. The Mars 2003 NRA HEDS related surface science requirements were driven by the need to validate predictions on the upward flux of neutrons produced in the Martian regolith and bedrock made by the codes developed under this project. The codes used in the surface environment definition are also being used to look at in situ resources for the development of construction material for Martian surface facilities. For example, synthesis of polyimides and polyethylene as binders of regolith for developing basic structural elements has been studied and targets built for accelerator beam testing of radiation shielding properties. Preliminary mechanical tests have also been promising. Improved spacecraft materials have been identified (using the criteria reported by this project at the last conference) as potentially important for future shielding materials. These are liquid hydrogen, hydrogenated nanofibers, liquid methane, LiH, Polyethylene, Polysulfone, and Polyetherimide (in order of decreasing shield performance). Some of the materials are multifunctional and are required for other onboard systems. We are currently preparing software for trade studies with these materials relative to the Mars Reference Mission as required in the project's final year.

  16. Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 99, Nos 14, pp. 227232 (2002)

    E-print Network

    2002-01-01

    227 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 99, Nos 1­4, pp. 227­232 (2002) Nuclear Technology been accepted dogma that the deleterious effects of ionising radiation such as mutagenesis and carcino particle in a lifetime. Over the past 10 years there have been many reports on radiation-induced bystander

  17. Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 97, No. 1, pp. 6973 (2001)

    E-print Network

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    69 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 97, No. 1, pp. 69­73 (2001) Nuclear Technology Publishing BIOMARKERS SPECIFIC TO DENSELY-IONISING (HIGH LET) RADIATIONS D. J. Brenner, N. Okladnikova, P. Hande, L -- There have been several suggestions of biomarkers that are specific to high LET radiation. Such a biomarker

  18. Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 84, Nos. 14, pp. 131133 (1999)

    E-print Network

    Chen, Reuven

    1999-01-01

    131 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 84, Nos. 1­4, pp. 131­133 (1999) Nuclear Technology or radiation at RT, and subsequent illumination with UV light at LNT. The main PTTL peaks appeared at 195 by vacuum UV (VUV) radiation(3) . In the present work the photo- transferred thermoluminescence (PTTL) of Ca

  19. Prevent Eye Damage - Protect Yourself from UV Radiation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (; )

    2008-04-25

    Most Americans understand the link between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and skin cancer. Many are less aware of the connection between UV radiation andeye damage. With increased levels of UV radiation reaching the Earths surface,largely due to stratospheric ozone layer depletion, it is important to take thenecessary precautions to protect your eyes.

  20. Recommended Radiation Protection Practices for Low-Level Waste Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hadlock, D. E.; Hooker, C. D.; Herrington, W. N.; Gilchrist, R. L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in estsblishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) dis- posal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW dis- posal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control , internal exposure control , respiratory protection, survei 1 - lance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of the occupa- tionally exposed individuals. As a result, radiation protection practices were recommended with related rationales in order to reduce occupational exposures as far below specified radiation limits as is reasonably achievable. In addition, recommendations were developed for achieving occupational exposure ALARA under the Regulatory Requirements issued in 10 CFR Part 61.

  1. Radiation protection aspects of EMITEL Encyclopaedia of Medical Physics.

    PubMed

    Stoeva, M; Tabakov, S; Lewis, C; Tabakova, V; Thurston, J; Smith, P

    2015-07-01

    The Encyclopaedia of Medical Physics EMITEL was developed under the EU pilot project European Medical Imaging Technology e-Encyclopaedia for Lifelong Learning. This large reference material includes 3400 articles on 2100 pages supported by thousands of illustrations. All materials are available free at the website, www.emitel2.eu. The articles are grouped in seven categories-physics of: X-ray diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, radiation protection and general terms. The radiation protection part of EMITEL includes 450 articles. These were organised in several sub-groups including: nuclear and atomic physics; ionizing radiation interactions and biological effects; radiation detection and measurement; dosimetric quantities and units; and general radiation protection and international bodies. EMITEL project was developed over 3 y and attracted as contributors 250+ senior specialists from 35 countries. After its successful launching, EMITEL is actively used by thousands of professionals around the world. PMID:25848099

  2. Swedish approaches to radiation protection at nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, P. [Southern California Edison Co., San Clemente, CA (United States); Miller, D.W. [Illinois Power Co., Clinton, IL (United States)

    1996-06-01

    This paper compares Swedish health physics programs at nuclear power plants to U.S. programs. Analysis of the Swedish programs includes examination of health physics staff training, size and longevity. Health physics practices are discussed, especially practices during refueling outages. The paper is based on site visits to Ringhals and Oskarshamn by U.S. radiation protection managers in October, 1995, under the sponsorship of the North American Regional Technical Center, ISOE, NEA/IAEA. The reactor vessel decontamination at Oskarshamn 1 BWR is discussed including good health physics practices and radiological results. Ringhals unique management organization is discussed with respect to health physics division of responsibilities and differences between in-plant and on-site health physics groups. Analytical results of failed fuel events at Ringhals is also presented including the observed occurrence of cobalt knock-off. Finally, trends in Swedish plants collective doses are summarized. Comprehensive Swedish studies of potential collective doses over the next 20 years are discussed including management options related to dose reduction options.

  3. Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ?, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins. Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation IgG preparations - prospective effective antidote/countermeasure for ?-irradiation, heavy ions irradiation, neutron irradiation. Recommendations for treatment and immune-prophylaxis of CNS injury, induced by radiation, were proposed. Specific immune therapy and specific immune prophylaxis reduce symptoms of ACvRS. This manuscript summarizes the results of experiments and considering possibility for blocking toxicological mechanisms of action of Radiation and Radiation Neurotoxins and prevention or diminishing clinical signs of injury of CNS. Experimental data suggest that Antiradiation vaccine and Antiradiation IgG with specific antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins, Cytotoxins protect CNS against high doses of radiation.

  4. PROTECTION OF SINGLE CELLS AND SMALL CELL GROUPS AGAINST RADIATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bellack; A. T. Krebs

    1951-01-01

    The protective effects against radiation injury of a number of chemicals ; were investigated in ioion epidermis cells exposed to x radiation both before and ; after treatment. A protsctive effect was observed for cystained with cystine, ; urea, and NaCl solutions. (C.H.);

  5. Protection from radiation-induced pneumonitis using cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Colon, Jimmie; Herrera, Luis; Smith, Joshua; Patil, Swanand; Komanski, Chris; Kupelian, Patrick; Seal, Sudipta; Jenkins, D Wayne; Baker, Cheryl H

    2009-06-01

    In an effort to combat the harmful effects of radiation exposure, we propose that rare-earth cerium oxide (CeO(2)) nanoparticles (free-radical scavengers) protect normal tissue from radiation-induced damage. Preliminary studies suggest that these nanoparticles may be a therapeutic regenerative nanomedicine that will scavenge reactive oxygen species, which are responsible for radiation-induced cell damage. The effectiveness of CeO(2) nanoparticles in radiation protection in murine models during high-dose radiation exposure is investigated, with the ultimate goal of offering a new approach to radiation protection, using nanotechnology. We show that CeO(2) nanoparticles are well tolerated by live animals, and they prevent the onset of radiation-induced pneumonitis when delivered to live animals exposed to high doses of radiation. In the end, these studies provide a tremendous potential for radioprotection and can lead to significant benefits for the preservation of human health and the quality of life for humans receiving radiation therapy. PMID:19285453

  6. Radiation Protection Policy Section 1.7 Page 1 of 5

    E-print Network

    Mumby, Peter J.

    Radiation Protection Policy Section 1.7 Page 1 of 5 Radiation Protection Policy Section 1.7 Best within the laboratory. #12;Radiation Protection Policy Section 1.7 Page 2 of 5 Definition of Best the installation is designed, built, maintained, operated and dismantled. #12;Radiation Protection Policy Section 1

  7. Occupational Radiation Exposure during Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography and Usefulness of Radiation Protective Curtains

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Tamito; Serikawa, Masahiro; Kamigaki, Michihiro; Yukutake, Masanobu; Ishigaki, Takashi; Ishii, Yasutaka; Mouri, Teruo; Yoshimi, Satoshi; Shimizu, Akinori; Tsuboi, Tomofumi; Kurihara, Keisuke; Tatsukawa, Yumiko; Miyaki, Eisuke; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of radiation protective curtains in reducing the occupational radiation exposure of medical personnel. Methods. We studied medical staff members who had assisted in 80 consecutive therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedures. Use of radiation protective curtains mounted to the X-ray tube was determined randomly for each procedure, and radiation doses were measured with electronic pocket dosimeters placed outside the protective apron. Results. When protective curtains were not used, the mean radiation doses to endoscopists, first assistants, second assistants, and nurses were 340.9, 27.5, 45.3, and 33.1?µSv, respectively; doses decreased to 42.6, 4.2, 13.1, and 10.6?µSv, respectively, when protective curtains were used (P < 0.01). When the patient had to be restrained during ERCP (n = 8), the radiation dose to second assistants without protective curtains increased by a factor of 9.95 (P < 0.01) relative to cases in which restraint was not required. Conclusions. During ERCP, not only endoscopists, but also assistants and nurses were exposed to high doses of radiation. Radiation exposure to staff members during ERCP was reduced with the use of protective curtains. PMID:25477956

  8. Occupational Radiation Exposure during Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography and Usefulness of Radiation Protective Curtains.

    PubMed

    Minami, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Tamito; Serikawa, Masahiro; Kamigaki, Michihiro; Yukutake, Masanobu; Ishigaki, Takashi; Ishii, Yasutaka; Mouri, Teruo; Yoshimi, Satoshi; Shimizu, Akinori; Tsuboi, Tomofumi; Kurihara, Keisuke; Tatsukawa, Yumiko; Miyaki, Eisuke; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of radiation protective curtains in reducing the occupational radiation exposure of medical personnel. Methods. We studied medical staff members who had assisted in 80 consecutive therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedures. Use of radiation protective curtains mounted to the X-ray tube was determined randomly for each procedure, and radiation doses were measured with electronic pocket dosimeters placed outside the protective apron. Results. When protective curtains were not used, the mean radiation doses to endoscopists, first assistants, second assistants, and nurses were 340.9, 27.5, 45.3, and 33.1?µSv, respectively; doses decreased to 42.6, 4.2, 13.1, and 10.6?µSv, respectively, when protective curtains were used (P < 0.01). When the patient had to be restrained during ERCP (n = 8), the radiation dose to second assistants without protective curtains increased by a factor of 9.95 (P < 0.01) relative to cases in which restraint was not required. Conclusions. During ERCP, not only endoscopists, but also assistants and nurses were exposed to high doses of radiation. Radiation exposure to staff members during ERCP was reduced with the use of protective curtains. PMID:25477956

  9. Simple Benchmark Specifications for Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.; Aghara, Sukesh K.

    2013-01-01

    This report defines space radiation benchmark specifications. This specification starts with simple, monoenergetic, mono-directional particles on slabs and progresses to human models in spacecraft. This report specifies the models and sources needed to what the team performing the benchmark needs to produce in a report. Also included are brief descriptions of how OLTARIS, the NASA Langley website for space radiation analysis, performs its analysis.

  10. Radiation Protection for Manned Interplanetary Missions - Radiation Sources, Risks, Remedies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Facius; G. Reitz

    2006-01-01

    Health risks in interplanetary explorative missions differ in two major features significantly from those during the manned missions experienced so far. For one, presently available technologies lead to durations of such missions significantly longer than so far encountered - with the added complication that emergency returns are ruled out. Thus radiation exposures and hence risks for late radiation sequelae like

  11. Issues in deep space radiation protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Miller; C. Zeitlin; L. Heilbronn; F. A. Cucinotta; G. D. Badhwar; A. K. Noor; M. Y. Kim; F. F. Badavi; J. H. Heinbockel

    2001-01-01

    The exposures in deep space are largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little biological experience. Mounting evidence indicates that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate for GCR ions. The available biological data indicates that aluminum alloy structures may generate inherently unhealthy internal spacecraft environments in

  12. Flexible shielding system for radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babin, A.

    1972-01-01

    Modular construction of low cost flexible radiation shielding panels consists of water filled steels cans, zinc bromide windows, turntable unit, master-slave manipulators, and interlocking lead bricks. Easy modifications of shielding wall thicknesses are obtained by rearranging overall geometry of portable components.

  13. Capturing opportunities and meeting challenges in radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Kase, Kenneth R

    2015-02-01

    This summary of the 2014 Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP) captures the opportunities presented during the Warren K. Sinclair Keynote Address, the Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture, and the six scientific sessions including the subsequent questions and answers. It captures the important issues that emerge in these opportunities and discusses the challenges that they bring to radiation protection. These opportunities arise in the basic sciences; in operational areas such as emerging technologies, preparing for the improbable but possible event, industry and medicine; and in education, communication and policy. The challenges include identifying the most important aspects of radiation protection and measurement, prioritizing them in accordance with the NCRP mission, and gaining support for the activities of the NCRP to address these issues in the fulfillment of its charter. PMID:25551512

  14. Research issues for radiation protection for man during prolonged spaceflight

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, J.J.; Hagan, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    For the purpose of this article, radiation protection is defined as any physical, chemical, biological, or pharmacological modality that accomplishes the goal of protecting the astronaut from radiation hazard or increases his ability to assist other astronauts or spacecraft. Thoughtful examination of these largely operational considerations led to identification of medical and radiobiological research required to support the industrialization of near-Earth space. The scope of these research efforts involves thematic issues that have been defined after review of the available preliminary research from several scientific disciplines that relate to the problem of radiation protection in space. This article serves to highlight areas of research requiring further investigation. While certain of these needs for research are driven by the planned orbits involving small designated astronaut populations and well-defined durations that may be specific to the military, it is the use of geostationary orbits, permanent lunar basing, and the proposed Mars mission that form the primary basis for these operational considerations.

  15. Occupational radiation protection of health workers in imaging.

    PubMed

    Vano, E

    2015-04-01

    Occupational radiological protection (RP) is still a challenge in several clinical practices. ICRP has included specific recommendations and advice for occupational protection in most of the documents published in recent years and its current programme of work includes the preparation of documents with specific contents on Occupational Protection. Different professional groups and different medical specialists need dedicated training, supervision and advice to optimise their practices. Many medical specialties outside the imaging departments are still using fluoroscopically guided procedures in surgical theatres without the appropriate RP tools. In addition to the stochastic radiation risks, the new thresholds for tissue reactions proposed by ICRP, and especially the ones for the lens of the eyes and the cerebrovascular system, are a matter of concern for some groups of health workers. More support from medical physics and radiation protection experts regarding occupational issues in the medical field will be needed in the coming years. PMID:25480840

  16. Radiation Protection for Manned Interplanetary Missions - Radiation Sources, Risks, Remedies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facius, R.; Reitz, G.

    Health risks in interplanetary explorative missions differ in two major features significantly from those during the manned missions experienced so far. For one, presently available technologies lead to durations of such missions significantly longer than so far encountered - with the added complication that emergency returns are ruled out. Thus radiation exposures and hence risks for late radiation sequelae like cancer increase proportional to mission duration - similar like most other health and many technical risks too. Secondly, loss of the geomagnetic shielding available in low earth orbits (LEO) does increase the radiation dose rates from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) since significant fractions of the GCR flux below about 10 GeV/n now can reach the space vehicle. In addition, radiation from solar particle events (SPE) which at most in polar orbit segments can contribute to the radiation exposure during LEO missions now can reach the spaceship unattenuated. Radiation doses from extreme SPEs can reach levels where even early acute radiation sickness might ensue - with the added risks from potentially associated crew performance decrements. In contrast to the by and large predictable GCR contribution, the doses and hence risks from large SPEs can only stochastically be assessed. Mission designers face the task to contain the overall health risk within acceptable limits. Towards this end they have to transport the particle fluxes of the radiation fields in free space through the walls of the spaceship and through the tissue of the astronaut to the radiation sensitive organs. To obtain a quantity which is useful for risk assessment, the radiobiological effectiveness as well as the specific sensitivity of a given organ has to be accounted for in such transport calculations which of course require a detailed knowledge of the spatial distribution and the atomic composition of the surrounding shielding material. In doing so the mission designer encounters two major difficulties in addition to those connected with the knowledge of the external radiation fields and the cross sections necessary for the transport calculations. The radiobiological effectiveness of the GCR heavy ions is to a large extent only nominally known with large error margins. Furthermore, the reference risk, late cancer mortality, usually only materializes many years after the mission, in contrast to the risk from early radiation sickness or the other health risks, including those from prolonged exposure to weightlessness. 1 Given these large radiobiological uncertainties of space radiation risk assessment, a first and most effective countermeasure consists of research directed at their diminishment. Furthermore, a new risk criterion is needed which allows a unified quantitative treatment of all health and technical risks arising during the mission as well as the risk of late radiogenic cancer mortality many years after the mission. Countermeasures to reduce radiation exposure comprise judicious planning of the mission with respect to solar activity, skilful utilization and optimization of shielding materials, and research into advanced propulsion systems capable to cut down transit times in free space. Finally, research into means to reduce sensitivity to radiation health effects e.g. by chemical substances and nutritional additives constitutes the third class of possible countermeasures. Arguably, the single most effective among these measures would be reduction of transit time in free space. 2

  17. United States Office of Radiation and EPA 402-B-00-001 Environmental Protection Indoor Air August 2000

    E-print Network

    United States Office of Radiation and EPA 402-B-00-001 Environmental Protection Indoor Air August 2000 Agency Radiation Protection at EPA The First 30 Years ...Protecting People and the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 EPA's Radiation Protection Responsibilities

  18. Radiation protection and shielding design--strengthening the link.

    PubMed

    Hobson, John; Cooper, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The improvement in quality and flexibility of shielding methods and data has been progressive and beneficial in opening up new opportunities for optimising radiation protection in design. The paper describes how these opportunities can best be seized by taking a holistic view of radiation protection, with shielding design being an important component part. This view is best achieved by enhancing the role of 'shielding assessors' so that they truly become 'radiation protection designers'. The increase in speed and efficiency of shielding calculations has been enormous over the past decades. This has raised the issue of how the assessor's time now can be best utilised; pursuing ever greater precision and accuracy in shielding/dose assessments, or improving the contribution that shielding assessment makes to radiological protection and cost-effective design. It is argued in this paper that the latter option is of great importance and will give considerable benefits. Shielding design needs to form part of a larger radiation protection perspective based on a deep understanding/appreciation of the opportunities and constraints of operators and designers, enabling minimal design iterations, cost optimisation of alternative designs (with a 'lifetime' perspective) and improved realisation of design intent in operations. The future of shielding design development is argued to be not in improving the 'toolkit', but in enhanced understanding of the 'product' and the 'process' for achieving it. The holistic processes being developed in BNFL to realise these benefits are described in the paper and will be illustrated by case studies. PMID:16381722

  19. Synchrotron radiation shielding design and ICRP radiological protection quantities.

    PubMed

    Bassey, Bassey; Moreno, Beatriz; Chapman, Dean

    2015-06-01

    Protection and operational quantities as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) are the two sets of quantities recommended for use in radiological protection for external radiation. Since the '80s, the protection quantities have evolved from the concept of dose equivalent to effective dose equivalent to effective dose, and the associated conversion coefficients have undergone changes. In this work, the influence of three different versions of ICRP photon dose conversion coefficients in the synchrotron radiation shielding calculations of an experimental enclosure has been examined. The versions are effective dose equivalent (ICRP Publication 51), effective dose (ICRP Publication 74), and effective dose (ICRP Publication 116) conversion coefficients. The sources of the synchrotron radiation white beam into the enclosure were a bending magnet, an undulator and a wiggler. The ranges of photons energy from these sources were 10-200?keV for the bending magnet and undulator, and 10-500?keV for the wiggler. The design criterion aimed a radiation leakage less than 0.5?µSv?h(-1) from the enclosure. As expected, larger conversion coefficients in ICRP Publication 51 lead to higher calculated dose rates. However, the percentage differences among the calculated dose rates get smaller once shielding is added, and the choice of conversion coefficients set did not affect the final shielding decision. PMID:25906251

  20. Radioprotection from radiation-induced lymphedema without tumor protection.

    PubMed

    Daley, S K; Bernas, M J; Stea, B D; Bracamonte, F; McKenna, M; Stejskal, A; Hirleman, E D; Witte, M H

    2010-06-01

    Lymphedema or tissue swelling from impaired lymph drainage commonly occurs after regional nodal dissection and/or radiation therapy for cancer control. Treatment options for this disabling and life-altering complication involve long-term labor-intensive commitments. Sentinel node biopsy can forestall removal of negative regional nodes, offering some protection against lymphedema, however, most preventive measures are elusive, ineffective, or unproven. Our goal was to determine whether the radioprotectant amifostine could prevent or retard the development of lymphedema in a rodent radiation therapy-dependent model yet not offer tumor protection from the therapeutic effects of radiation therapy. We pre-treated rats after unilateral radical groin dissection with the organic thiophosphate radioprotectant amifostine or placebo prior to single dose post-operative groin radiation therapy and monitored hindlimb volumes, wound scores, and tissue lymphostasis. In addition, we determined whether amifostine protected human MCF7 breast cancer cells exposed to a range of radiation therapy doses in an in vitro clonogenic assay and an in vivo MCF7 tumor xenograft model. Our findings indicate that amifostine markedly reduced the volume of limb lymphedema and dramatically improved wound healing and tissue lymphostasis in the rodent lymphedema model. The in vivo and in vitro studies further demonstrated that amifostine offered no MCF7 tumor protection from radiation therapy. These pre-clinical findings provide proof-of-principle to further delineate specific mechanisms underlying amifostine's beneficial effects, determine optimal amifostine-radiation therapy dosing regimens, and thereby expedite translation into clinical trials to reduce lymphedema incidence and severity in cancer patients at high lymphedema risk in whom radiation therapy is the recommended therapy. PMID:20848992

  1. Initiatives & Programs | Radiation Research Program (RRP)

    Cancer.gov

    The table below lists the estimated number of patients requiring surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy for the different types of cancers as well as the average length of stay (ALOS) in hospital for each of these treatments.

  2. Initiatives & Programs | Radiation Research Program (RRP)

    Cancer.gov

    The table below lists the estimated percentage of patients requiring surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy for the different types of cancers as well as the average length of stay (ALOS) in hospital (in days) for each of these treatments.

  3. RADIATION PROTECTION IN THE INDUSTRIAL USE OF RADIATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    McAdams

    1958-01-01

    During the last few years the use of radiation and radioactive mterials ; by American industry has begun to play a vital role in the development and ; improvement of commercial products and in the simplication and control of ; manufacturing processes. This is evidenced by tbe increase in AEC licenses for ; the use of reactor by-product materials, and

  4. Evaluation of Awareness on Radiation Protection and Knowledge About Radiological Examinations in Healthcare Professionals Who Use Ionized Radiation at Work

    PubMed Central

    Yurt, Ay?egül; Çavu?o?lu, Berrin; Günay, Türkan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we evaluated the knowledge and perception and mitigation of hazards involved in radiological examinations, focusing on healthcare personnel who are not in radiation-related occupations, but who use ionising radiation as a part of their work. Methods: A questionnaire was applied to physicians, nurses, technicians and other staff working in different clinics that use radiation in their work, in order to evaluate their knowledge levels about ionizing radiation and their awareness about radiation doses resulting from radiological examinations. The statistical comparisons between the groups were analyzed with the Kruskal Wallis test using the SPSS program. Results: Ninety two participants took part in the study. Their level of knowledge about ionizing radiation and doses in radiological examinations were found to be very weak. The number of correct answers of physicians, nurses, medical technicians and other personnel groups were 15.7±3.7, 13.0±4.0, 10.1±2.9 and 11.8±4.0, respectively. In the statistical comparison between the groups, the level of knowledge of physicians was found to be significantly higher than the level of the other groups (p=0.005). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that general knowledge in relation to radiation, radiation protection, health risks and doses used for radiological applications are insufficient among health professions using with ionizing radiation in their work. PMID:24963445

  5. Page 1 of 3 Radiation Protection Policy Section 1.2

    E-print Network

    Mumby, Peter J.

    Page 1 of 3 Radiation Protection Policy Section 1.2 1.2 ADMINISTRATION 1.2.1 The Vice a Radiation Protection Adviser (RPA), who advises the University on the following matters a in radiation protection, either a Certificate of Competence granted by RPA2000, or an NVQ Level 4 in Radiation

  6. The NIAID Radiation Countermeasures Program Business Model

    PubMed Central

    Hafer, Nathaniel; Maidment, Bert W.

    2010-01-01

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Radiation/Nuclear Medical Countermeasures Development Program has developed an integrated approach to providing the resources and expertise required for the research, discovery, and development of radiation/nuclear medical countermeasures (MCMs). These resources and services lower the opportunity costs and reduce the barriers to entry for companies interested in working in this area and accelerate translational progress by providing goal-oriented stewardship of promising projects. In many ways, the radiation countermeasures program functions as a “virtual pharmaceutical firm,” coordinating the early and mid-stage development of a wide array of radiation/nuclear MCMs. This commentary describes the radiation countermeasures program and discusses a novel business model that has facilitated product development partnerships between the federal government and academic investigators and biopharmaceutical companies. PMID:21142762

  7. Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 90, Nos 12, pp. 113116 (2000)

    E-print Network

    Rodenacker, Karsten

    2000-01-01

    113 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 90, Nos 1­2, pp. 113­116 (2000) Nuclear Technology are commonly used. However, it is difficult to make an interpolation from these test results to real patient object to the patient. Therefore, this paper presents a computer model for the simulation of nodules

  8. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 2: Radiation Protection I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  9. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 17: Radiation Protection II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  10. [Radiation Protection in Orthodontics: relevant data].

    PubMed

    Foucart, Jean-Michel; Felizardo, Rufino; Pizelle, Christophe

    2012-03-01

    For the past 30 years X-Ray images have effected a veritable revolution in medical practice. Using them practitioners cannot only make reliable and precise diagnoses when they begin a course of treatment but also accurately follow the progress of therapy. Orthodontics is one of the specialties that has benefited from the innovations in medical radiography. At the same time we have learned more about the risks that the use of ionizing radiation entails and are, accordingly, basing our radiological practice on the ALARA principle ("As Low As Reasonably Achievable"). Even though this concept is embodied in much national and European legislation, practitioners will enhance their daily use of radiology by acquiring an understanding of the scientific basis for ALARA. PMID:22455646

  11. The USDA UVB Radiation Monitoring Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Initiated in 1992 through a grant to Colorado State University, the UVB Radiation Monitoring Program is a project of the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service (CSREES). The program provides information on "the geographical distribution and temporal trends of UVB (ultraviolet-B) radiation in the United States." Given the increasing levels of ultraviolet radiation in the atmosphere, researchers are interested in assessing the potential impacts of UVB on agricultural crops and forests. This interesting Website offers an overview of the monitoring program, including a clickable map of data collection stations throughout the US, recent UV data (UV-B, UVA, etc.), a summary of research programs, instrumentation used in monitoring UV, a primer on UVB radiation (.pdf format), and much more. The bibliography and the Related Links section point users to additional resources.

  12. Radiation protection by disulfiram: protection of membrane and DNA in vitro and in vivo against gamma-radiation.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Nitin Motilal; Gopalaswamy, Usulumarty Venu; Nair, Cherupally rishnan K

    2003-09-01

    Disufiram (a drug used for the treatment of alcoholism) protected microsomal membranes and plasmid DNA against damages induced by gamma-radiation. The peroxidation of membrane lipids increased linearly with the radiation dose up to 600 Gy, and the presence of disulfiram inhibited membrane lipid peroxidation as assayed by the presence of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances. The reduction of the quantity of the supercoiled (ccc) form of plasmid pBR322 DNA is directly related to the radiation-induced damage, particularly to DNA strand breaks. There was a complete protection of plasmid DNA when exposed to gamma-radiation in the presence of disufiram (0.1 mM) at 300 Gy. This drug also protected deoxyribose against damages caused by hydroxyl radicals produced by the Fenton reaction. The administration of DSF to mice prior to whole-body radiation exposure (4 Gy) resulted in a reduction of peroxidation of membrane lipids in mice liver as well as a decrease in radiation-induced damage to cellular DNA, as assayed by single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The results thus suggest the possible use of DSF as a radioprotector. PMID:14646230

  13. Zi-Wei Lin Oct 5, 2004 UAH / NASA Space Radiation Shielding Program, MS Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes

    E-print Network

    Lin, Zi-wei

    Zi-Wei Lin Oct 5, 2004 UAH / NASA Space Radiation Shielding Program, MS Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations Why do we need to study? Conclusions Zi-Wei Lin University of Alabama in Huntsville/ NASA Space Radiation Shielding Program, MSFC #12

  14. Radiation protection for human missions to the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonsen, Lisa C.; Nealy, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation protection assessments are performed for advanced Lunar and Mars manned missions. The Langley cosmic ray transport code and the nucleon transport code are used to quantify the transport and attenuation of galactic cosmic rays and solar proton flares through various shielding media. Galactic cosmic radiation at solar maximum and minimum, as well as various flare scenarios are considered. Propagation data for water, aluminum, liquid hydrogen, lithium hydride, lead, and lunar and Martian regolith (soil) are included. Shield thickness and shield mass estimates required to maintain incurred doses below 30 day and annual limits (as set for Space Station Freedom and used as a guide for space exploration) are determined for simple geometry transfer vehicles. On the surface of Mars, dose estimates are presented for crews with their only protection being the carbon dioxide atmosphere and for crews protected by shielding provided by Martian regolith for a candidate habitat.

  15. The importance and unique aspects of radiation protection in medicine.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Ola; Czarwinski, Renate; Mettler, Fred

    2010-10-01

    Radiation protection in medicine has unique aspects and is an essential element of medical practice. Medical uses of radiation occur throughout the world, from large cities to rural clinics. It has been estimated that the number of medical procedures using radiation grew from about 1.7 billion in 1980 to almost 4 billion in 2007. In spite of these large numbers, there are many parts of the world without adequate equipment, where the ability to perform additional medical procedures would likely result in a net benefit. Medicine accounts for more than 99.9% of the per caput effective dose from man-made sources. The goal in medical exposure is not to give the lowest dose, but to provide the correct dose to enable the practitioner to make the diagnosis or cure a tumour. Too little or too much dose is problematic and the risk of any given procedure ranges from negligible to potentially fatal. Radiation protection in medicine must deal with the issues of not having dose limits, purposely exposing sensitive subgroups, and purposely using doses that could cause deterministic effects. Radiation accidents involving medical uses have accounted for more acute radiation deaths than from any other source including Chernobyl. Many physicians have little or no training in radiation protection, and many have no qualified medical physics support. In many countries, medical radiation devices and uses are only minimally regulated and the rapidly evolving technology is a challenge. Medicine also accounts for the largest number of occupationally exposed workers and collective dose. PMID:20638808

  16. DCTD — Radiation Research Program (RRP)

    Cancer.gov

    Synopsis of partial-body radiation diagnostic biomarkers and medical management of radiation injury workshop. Prasanna PG, Blakely WF, Bertho JM, Chute JP, Cohen EP, Goans RE, Grace MB, Lillis-Hearne PK, Lloyd DC, Lutgens LC, Meineke V, Ossetrova NI, Romanyukha A, Saba JD, Weisdorf DJ, Wojcik A, Yukihara EG, Pellmar TC.

  17. DCTD — Radiation Research Program (RRP)

    Cancer.gov

    Based in large measure on the CDRP grantees and their mentors, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) now has a robust Cancer Disparities Committee, and the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) has incorporated a symposium on health disparities into its annual meeting so that addressing health disparities is a strong focus of radiation oncology.

  18. Initiatives & Programs | Radiation Research Program (RRP)

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Content Search this site Programs & Resources Last Updated: 05/30/13 HUMAN RESOURCES FOR TREATING NEW CANCER CASES IN ISRAEL Cancer All cancers excl. non-melanoma skin cancer Urological Breast Colorectal Hematological Malignancies Lung Head &

  19. Initiatives & Programs | Radiation Research Program (RRP)

    Cancer.gov

    As part of its cutting-edge program, the Cancer Imaging Program (CIP) plays a critical role in the activities of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and NCI, contributing to the integration of imaging with emerging technologies such as nanotechnology, proteomics, and high-throughput screening. In addition to funding projects in key areas, CIP supports researchers by providing pooled resources and developing protocols that encourage the sharing of data, samples, and results.

  20. Habitat Design Considerations for Implementing Solar Particle Event Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Mathew A.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Walker, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation protection is an important habitat design consideration for human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. Fortunately, radiation shelter concepts can effectively reduce astronaut exposure for the relatively low proton energies of solar particle events, enabling moderate duration missions of several months before astronaut exposure (galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event) approaches radiation exposure limits. In order to minimize habitat mass for increasingly challenging missions, design of radiation shelters must minimize dedicated, single-purpose shielding mass by leveraging the design and placement of habitat subsystems, accommodations, and consumables. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems RadWorks Storm Shelter Team has recently designed and performed radiation analysis on several low dedicated mass shelter concepts for a year-long mission. This paper describes habitat design considerations identified during the study's radiation analysis. These considerations include placement of the shelter within a habitat for improved protection, integration of human factors guidance for sizing shelters, identification of potential opportunities for habitat subsystems to compromise on individual subsystem performances for overall vehicle mass reductions, and pre-configuration of shelter components for reduced deployment times.

  1. Protection system representation in the electromagnetic transients program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. S. Chaudhary; Kwa-Sur Tam; A. G. Phadke

    1994-01-01

    This paper concerns the addition of the few critical elements of a protection system to the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP), which is one of the most widely used programs for the simulation of transients in power systems. It contains models for almost every major power system component. A protection system consists of instrument transformers, relays, and circuit breakers. Models for

  2. Mechanisms of radiation interaction with DNA: Potential implications for radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, W.K.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of presentations and discussions which took place at the US Department of Energy/Commission of European Communities (DOE/CEC) workshop on ''Mechanisms of Radiation Interaction with DNA: Potential Implications for Radiation Protection,'' held at San Diego, California, January 21-22, 1987, is provided. The Department has traditionally supported fundamental research on interactions of ionizing radiation with different biological systems and at all levels of biological organization. The aim of this workshop was to review the base of knowledge in the area of mechanisms of radiation action at the DNA level, and to explore ways in which this information can be applied to the development of scientifically sound concepts and procedures for use in the field of radiation protection.

  3. Melatonin protection from chronic, low-level ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Russel J; Korkmaz, Ahmet; Ma, Shuran; Rosales-Corral, Sergio; Tan, Dun-Xian

    2011-12-15

    In the current survey, we summarize the published literature which supports the use of melatonin, an endogenously produced molecule, as a protective agent against chronic, low-level ionizing radiation. Under in vitro conditions, melatonin uniformly was found to protect cellular DNA and plasmid super coiled DNA from ionizing radiation damage due to Cs(137) or X-radiation exposure. Likewise, in an in vivo/in vitro study in which humans were given melatonin orally and then their blood lymphocytes were collected and exposed to Cs(137) ionizing radiation, nuclear DNA from the cells of those individuals who consumed melatonin (and had elevated blood levels) was less damaged than that from control individuals. In in vivo studies as well, melatonin given to animals prevented DNA and lipid damage (including limiting membrane rigidity) and reduced the percentage of animals that died when they had been exposed to Cs(137) or Co(60) radiation. Melatonin's ability to protect macromolecules from the damage inflicted by ionizing radiation likely stems from its high efficacy as a direct free radical scavenger and possibly also due to its ability to stimulate antioxidative enzymes. Melatonin is readily absorbed when taken orally or via any other route. Melatonin's ease of self administration and its virtual absence of toxicity or side effects, even when consumed over very long periods of time, are essential when large populations are exposed to lingering radioactive contamination such as occurs as a result of an inadvertent nuclear accident, an intentional nuclear explosion or the detonation of a radiological dispersion device, i.e., a "dirty" bomb. PMID:22185900

  4. Current issues and actions in radiation protection of patients.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Ola; Malone, Jim; Rehani, Madan; McLean, Donald; Czarwinski, Renate

    2010-10-01

    Medical application of ionizing radiation is a massive and increasing activity globally. While the use of ionizing radiation in medicine brings tremendous benefits to the global population, the associated risks due to stochastic and deterministic effects make it necessary to protect patients from potential harm. Current issues in radiation protection of patients include not only the rapidly increasing collective dose to the global population from medical exposure, but also that a substantial percentage of diagnostic imaging examinations are unnecessary, and the cumulative dose to individuals from medical exposure is growing. In addition to this, continued reports on deterministic injuries from safety related events in the medical use of ionizing radiation are raising awareness on the necessity for accident prevention measures. The International Atomic Energy Agency is engaged in several activities to reverse the negative trends of these current issues, including improvement of the justification process, the tracking of radiation history of individual patients, shared learning of safety significant events, and the use of comprehensive quality audits in the clinical environment. PMID:20638809

  5. Meteoroid Protection Methods for Spacecraft Radiators Using Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of achieving a low mass heat pipe radiator for the nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft were studied. Specific emphasis was placed on a concept applicable to a closed Brayton cycle power sub-system. Three aspects of inter-related problems were examined: (1) the armor for meteoroid protection, (2) emissivity of the radiator surface, and (3) the heat pipe itself. The study revealed several alternatives for the achievement of the stated goal, but a final recommendation for the best design requires further investigation.

  6. Radiation Protection in Educational Institutions. Recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Washington, DC.

    The problems involved when radiation-producing devices of our contemporary technology are used in the teaching of science at the high school and undergraduate college level are discussed. Information is provided on the hazards involved in the use of radiation-producing equipment or radioactive materials in science demonstrations and experiments…

  7. Report on the Scientific Committee for the Evaluation of the Institute of Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection (INTRP)

    E-print Network

    Technology and Radiation Protection (INTRP) submitted to the Director of NCSR Demokritos The following and evaluated the Institute of Nuclear Reactor Technology and Radiation Protection, following the instructions: Environment, health and safety: Radiation protection Environmental radioactivity Health physics

  8. DCTD — Radiation Research Program (RRP)

    Cancer.gov

    C. Norman Coleman, M.D., holds an undergraduate degree in mathematics from the University of Vermont and received his medical training at Yale University School of Medicine. Dr. Coleman completed his internship and residency in internal medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, a fellowship in medical oncology at NCI, and a fellowship in radiation oncology at Stanford University.

  9. Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 97, No. 3, pp. 279-285 (2001)

    E-print Network

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    1 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 97, No. 3, pp. 279-285 (2001) Nuclear Technology Publishing Topics under Debate IS THE LINEAR-NO-THRESHOLD HYPOTHESIS APPROPRIATE FOR USE IN RADIATION PROTECTION? D protection than the basic assumptions regarding the actions of ionising radiation at low levels. As well

  10. Page 1 of 9 Radiation Protection Policy Section 1.5.1

    E-print Network

    Mumby, Peter J.

    Page 1 of 9 Radiation Protection Policy Section 1.5.1 Environment Agency Permit Compliance Radiation Protection Officer, the PI shall determine if there is sufficient material already on the site by the University Radiation Protection Officer (URPO). This is to be supplemented, and ultimately replaced

  11. WM'02 Conference, February 24-28, 2002, Tucson, AZ ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS

    E-print Network

    WM'02 Conference, February 24-28, 2002, Tucson, AZ ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS Mountain Standards Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (6608J) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency radiation protection standards for the potential spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

  12. Protection against radiation oxidative damage in mice by Triphala

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Sandhya; K. M. Lathika; B. N. Pandey; H. N. Bhilwade; R. C. Chaubey; K. I. Priyadarsini; K. P. Mishra

    2006-01-01

    Protection against whole body ?-irradiation (WBI) of Swiss mice orally fed with Triphala (TPL), an Ayurvedic formulation, in terms of mortality of irradiated animals as well as DNA damage at cellular level has been investigated. It was found that radiation induced mortality was reduced by 60% in mice fed with TPL (1g\\/kg body weight\\/day) orally for 7 days prior to

  13. [Studies on chemical protectors against radiation. XXXIII. Protective mechanisms of various compounds against skin injury induced by radiation].

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Kumazawa, N; Suzuki, M; Wang, C M; Ohta, S; Shinoda, M

    1991-01-01

    The radiation protective mechanisms on skin injury induced by soft X-irradiation were investigated by use of various radiation protective agents such as sulfur compounds (MEA, MEG, thiourea), nucleic acid constitutional compounds (adenosine, inosine), antioxidative compounds (sesamol, ferulic acid, ascorbic acid), crude drugs (Rosae Fructus, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, Trapae Fructus, Forsythiae Fructus, Aloe arborescens). Scavenge action of activated oxygen, inhibitory effect of lipid peroxidation, induction of antioxidative protein and protective effect against damage of deoxyribonucleic acid and superoxide dismutase by X-irradiation were evaluated as the radiation protective mechanisms, and relationship between these results and protective effect of skin injury induced by radiation was studied. PMID:1905349

  14. Pharmacological Protection From Radiation {+-} Cisplatin-Induced Oral Mucositis

    SciTech Connect

    Cotrim, Ana P. [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yoshikawa, Masanobu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Sunshine, Abraham N.; Zheng Changyu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Sowers, Anastasia L.; Thetford, Angela D.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B. [Radiation Biology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Baum, Bruce J., E-mail: bbaum@dir.nidcr.nih.gov [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate if two pharmacological agents, Tempol and D-methionine (D-met), are able to prevent oral mucositis in mice after exposure to ionizing radiation {+-} cisplatin. Methods and Materials: Female C3H mice, {approx}8 weeks old, were irradiated with five fractionated doses {+-} cisplatin to induce oral mucositis (lingual ulcers). Just before irradiation and chemotherapy, mice were treated, either alone or in combination, with different doses of Tempol (by intraperitoneal [ip] injection or topically, as an oral gel) and D-met (by gavage). Thereafter, mice were sacrificed and tongues were harvested and stained with a solution of Toluidine Blue. Ulcer size and tongue epithelial thickness were measured. Results: Significant lingual ulcers resulted from 5 Multiplication-Sign 8 Gy radiation fractions, which were enhanced with cisplatin treatment. D-met provided stereospecific partial protection from lingual ulceration after radiation. Tempol, via both routes of administration, provided nearly complete protection from lingual ulceration. D-met plus a suboptimal ip dose of Tempol also provided complete protection. Conclusions: Two fairly simple pharmacological treatments were able to markedly reduce chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. This proof of concept study suggests that Tempol, alone or in combination with D-met, may be a useful and convenient way to prevent the severe oral mucositis that results from head-and-neck cancer therapy.

  15. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND...

  16. Survey of international personnel radiation dosimetry programs

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.

    1985-04-01

    In September of 1983, a mail survey was conducted to determine the status of external personnel gamma and neutron radiation dosimetry programs at international agencies. A total of 130 agencies participated in this study including military, regulatory, university, hospital, laboratory, and utility facilities. Information concerning basic dosimeter types, calibration sources, calibration phantoms, corrections to dosimeter responses, evaluating agencies, dose equivalent reporting conventions, ranges of typical or expected dose equivalents, and degree of satisfaction with existing systems was obtained for the gamma and neutron personnel monitoring programs at responding agencies. Results of this survey indicate that to provide the best possible occupational radiation monitoring programs and to improve dosimetry accuracy in performance studies, facility dosimetrists, regulatory and standards agencies, and research laboratories must act within their areas of responsibility to become familiar with their radiation monitoring systems, establish common reporting guidelines and performance standards, and provide opportunities for dosimetry testing and evaluation. 14 references, 10 tables.

  17. The Environmental Protection Agency: Legislation, Programs and Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Library Systems Branch.

    This document is designed to introduce the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its programs. It is organized into four categories which discuss the legislation authorizing EPA activities, the history and present organization, the pollution control programs operated by the Agency, and budgetary appropriations. Specific program…

  18. Space shuttle program: Lightning protection criteria document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The lightning environment for space shuttle design is defined and requirements that the design must satisfy to insure protection of the vehicle system from direct and indirect effects of lightning are imposed. Specifications, criteria, and guidelines included provide a practical and logical approach to protection problems.

  19. Hanford Site Groundwater Protection Management Program: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    Groundwater protection is a national priority that is promulgated in a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the US Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (now under revision) that requires all US Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate groundwater protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Groundwater Protection Management Program for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the Groundwater Protection Management Program cover the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the groundwater regime, (2) design and implementation of a groundwater monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations, (3) a management program for groundwater protection and remediation, (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste, (5) strategies for controlling these sources, (6) a remedial action program, and (7) decontamination and decommissioning and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing groundwater protection activities. Additionally, it describes how information needs are identified and can be incorporated into existing or proposed new programs. The Groundwater Protection Management Program provides the general scope, philosophy, and strategies for groundwater protection/management at the Hanford Site. Subtier documents provide the detailed plans for implementing groundwater-related activities and programs. Related schedule and budget information are provided in the 5-year plan for environmental restoration and waste management at the Hanford Site.

  20. Protection from heat radiation in open-hearth shops

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomenko, D.I.; Duganov, G.V.; Ilyushchenko, V.I.; Markin, A.D.

    1988-05-01

    Heat radiation studies in open-hearth shops during operations related to servicing the tap hole and cold-charging the furnace were conducted with consideration of the following factors: the capacity of the furnaces; the campaign of the furnace relative to the projected campaign for different furnace capacities; and the variety of manual tasks performed during a shift. Measurements of the thermal radiation were generalized and represented in the form of a nomogram. The results of thermal diagnosis of work stations on the rear platforms of open-hearth furnaces and the cabin of the cold-charging cranes led to the development and introduction of measures to protect workers from heat radiation and improve their working conditions.

  1. 40 CFR 191.15 - Individual protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...191.15 Section 191.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL,...

  2. Medical radiation exposure and accidents. Dosimetry and radiation protection. Do we only benefit the patient?

    PubMed

    Grammaticos, Philip; Lyra, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This article presents and discusses new information on the old Hippocratic moto of "...not to harm but to benefit the patient". Some radiation accidents are due to medical errors. Millions of medical tests exposing radiation are performed every day worldwide increasing and sometimes exceeding the annual permissible dose administered to the general population. Public authorities are now seriously concerned about medical radiation overused. In U.S.A. both the House of Representatives and the Food and Drug Administration have recently delt with this problem. Others and we have suggested before and the International Atomic Energy Agency now proposes: a "Smart Card" for every individual who receives medical radiation. In this card the amount of medical radiation administered will be recorded. It is time to issue rules for protection of the public from medical radiation overdose. PMID:20808982

  3. Community Radiation Monitoring Program. Annual report, October 1, 1991September 30, 1992

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1993-01-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program (CRMP) is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE); the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); the Desert Research Institute (DRI), a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Utah (UNEL). The twelfth year of the program began in the fall

  4. 78 FR 49524 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Personal Protective Technology Program and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ...Health Personal Protective Technology Program and National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory Conformity...NIOSH Personal Protective Technology (PPT) Conformity Assessment...targeting General Industry, Healthcare, Public Safety,...

  5. Chapter 30 Fall Protection Program 4/16/2010 30.1 Policy .................................................................................................................................................. 2

    E-print Network

    Knowles, David William

    Chapter 30 Fall Protection Program 4/16/2010 Contents 30.1 Policy Protection Plan ............................................................................... Work Process B. Fall Protection Work Control Requirements

  6. Envitonmental monitoring and radiation protection in Škocjan Caves, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debevec Gerjeviè, V.; Jovanovi?, P.

    2012-04-01

    Škocjan Caves were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1986, due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data. Relation of background radiation to carrying capacity will be explained. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. A system of education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection will be presented as well.

  7. 77 FR 35700 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Program Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure Information Collection...Request should be forwarded to DHS/NPPD/IP/IICD, 245 Murray Lane, SW., Mailstop...internal PCII Program, IICD, and NPPD/IP use only.OMB is particularly...

  8. Extended area protection system (EAPS) program overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Smith; R. W. Nourse; J. L. Baumann; G. Sanders

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Army's Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) are undertaking an advanced technology objective (ATO) to provide active protection to U.S. forces against attack by rockets, artillery, and mortars (RAM). Engaging and destroying RAM will reduce U.S. causalities, provide all freedom of movement, protect non-combatants, and safeguard military\\/civilian installations. Novel solutions are required to counter RAM

  9. Optimal Resource Allocation for Network Protection: A Geometric Programming Approach

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    1 Optimal Resource Allocation for Network Protection: A Geometric Programming Approach Victor M the problem of containing spreading processes in arbitrary directed networks by distributing pro- tection resources throughout the nodes of the network. We consider two types of protection resources are available

  10. Y-12 Site environmental protection program implementation plan (EPPIP)

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Y-12 Plant Environmental Protection Program is conducted to: (1) protect public health and the environment from chemical and radiological releases occurring from current plant operations and past waste management and operational practices; (2) ensure compliance with federal, state, and local environmental regulations and DOE directives; (3) identify potential environmental problems; (4) evaluate existing environmental contamination and determine the need for remedial actions and mitigative measures; (5) monitor the progress of ongoing remedial actions and cleanup measures; and (6) inform the public of environmental issues relating to DOE operations. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, defines the general requirements for environmental protection programs at DOE facilities. This Environmental Protection Program Implementation Plan (EPPIP) defines the methods by which the Y-12 Plant staff will comply with the order by: (1) referencing environmental protection goals and objectives and identifying strategies and timetables for attaining them; (2) providing the overall framework for the design and implementation of the Y-12 Environmental Protection Program; and (3) assigning responsibilities for complying with the requirements of the order. The EPPIP is revised and updated annually.

  11. Handbook of engineering control methods for occupational radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Orn, M.K.

    1992-01-01

    Sources of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation are widely used in industrial, medical, military, and other applications. In the workplace, the task of assuring the safety of workers exposed to radiation sources is generally assigned to the safety professional, industrial hygienist, or an engineer in some other discipline. Rarely do employers outside the nuclear industry have the luxury of a staff health physicist in the workplace. Consultants may be called in to provide initial assessments of the hazards and to assist with complex problems, but the day-to-day problem solving is usually a function of the safety professional or other professional with the responsibility for safety. The primary purpose of this book is to provide a practical reference for safety professionals that addresses the application of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation protection standards and the quantitative methods for evaluating and designing engineering controls to meet those standards. Although the emphasis of this book is on control methods, it is necessary to understand the physical nature of the radiation exposure, its units of measure, and its biological effects in order to apply the appropriate control methods. Consequently, a brief treatment of these topics precedes the discussion of control methods for each type of radiation exposure.

  12. Development of accelerator radiation protection at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Toohig, T.

    1993-11-01

    The design of the Superconducting Super Collider evolved over a series of studies from 1984 to 1989. Considerations of concentration of radiation sources and provisions for operational control and monitoring of radiation were determining elements in the design concepts for the facility. The development of the designs involved an extension of the range of applicability of energy deposition and radiation shielding codes beyond the 3 TeV level of the proposed UNK collider to 20 TeV for single beam effects and to 40 TeV in the collision regions. This extrapolation was complicated by the newly discovered, very energetic muons from short-lived states associated with heavy quark states. The design guideline for radiation protection was specified to be 10 mRem/yr, 10% of the Federal limit. In order to limit the amount of land required for the facility, which would extend over some 250 mi. sq., the configuration of the land to be acquired was tailored to the requirements for radiation containment below the levels of the guideline.

  13. Improved Protection Against Solar-Simulated Radiation-Induced Immunosuppression by a Sunscreen with Enhanced Ultraviolet A Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Fourtanier; Audrey Gueniche; Delphine Compan; Susan L. Walker; Antony R. Young

    2000-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation-induced immunosuppression is thought to play a part in skin cancer. Several studies have indicated that sunscreens that are designed to protect against erythema failed to give comparable protection against ultraviolet radiation-induced immunosuppression. One possible reason for this discrepancy is inadequate ultraviolet A protection. This study evaluated the level of immunoprotection in mice afforded by two broad-spectrum sunscreens with

  14. A biokinetic model for zinc for use in radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The physiology of the essential trace element zinc has been studied extensively in human subjects using kinetic analysis of time-dependent measurements of administered zinc tracers. A number of biokinetic models describing zinc exchange between plasma and tissues and loss of systemic zinc in excreta have been developed from the derived data. More rudimentary biokinetic models for zinc have been developed to estimate radiation doses from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc. The latter models are designed to provide broadly accurate estimates of cumulative decays of zinc radioisotopes in tissues and are not intended as realistic descriptions of the directions of movement of zinc in the body. This paper reviews biokinetic data for zinc and proposes a physiologically meaningful biokinetic model for systemic zinc for use in radiation protection. The proposed model bears some resemblance to zinc models developed in physiological studies but depicts a finer division of systemic zinc and is based on a broader spectrum of data than previous models. The proposed model and current radiation protection model for zinc yield broadly similar estimates of effective dose from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc but substantially different dose estimates for several individual tissues, particularly the liver.

  15. Radiation Protection Studies for LCLS Tune Up Dump

    SciTech Connect

    Santana-Leitner, M.; Fass, A.; Mao, S.; Nuhn, H.D.; /SLAC; Roesler, S.; /CERN; Rokni, S.; Vollaire, J.; /SLAC

    2010-04-29

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is a pioneer fourth generation hard x-ray free electron laser that shall start to deliver laser pulses in 2009. Among other components of LCLS that present radiation protection concerns, the tune up dump (tdund) is of special interest because it also constitutes an issue for machine protection, as it is placed close to radiation sensitive components, like electronic devices and permanent magnets in the undulators. This paper first introduces the stopper of tdund looking at the heat load, and then it describes the shielding around the dump necessary to maintain the prompt and residual dose within design values. Next, preliminary comparisons of the magnetization loss in a dedicated on-site magnet irradiation experiment with FLUKA simulations serve to characterize the magnetic response to radiation of magnets like those of LCLS. The previous knowledge, together with the limit for the allowed demagnetization, are used to estimate the lifetime of the undulator. Further simulations provide guidelines on which lifetime can be expected for an electronic device placed at a given distance of tdund.

  16. Contribution to the radiation protection for sunglasses standards.

    PubMed

    Masili, Mauro; Schiabel, Homero; Ventura, Liliane

    2015-04-01

    Literature establishes safe limits on the exposure of the eyes to ultraviolet radiation, for the range of 180-400 nm, including spectrally weighted and the total ultraviolet radiant exposure. Most standards for sunglasses protection only require ultraviolet protection in the spectral range of 280-380 nm to ensure the limits for effective spectrally weighted radiant exposure. Calculations of these limits were performed for 27 Brazilian state capitals, and they led to a change in the upper UVA limit to 400 nm on the 2013 review of the Brazilian standard. Moreover, because the sunlight irradiance in Brazil is quite high, integration over the 280- to 400-nm range yields an ultraviolet radiant exposure that is an average of 49% greater than that for the 280- to 380-nm range. These conclusions suggest revision on the standards. PMID:25205833

  17. Chromatin Compaction Protects Genomic DNA from Radiation Damage

    PubMed Central

    Takata, Hideaki; Hanafusa, Tomo; Mori, Toshiaki; Shimura, Mari; Iida, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Kenichi; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Maeshima, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Genomic DNA is organized three-dimensionally in the nucleus, and is thought to form compact chromatin domains. Although chromatin compaction is known to be essential for mitosis, whether it confers other advantages, particularly in interphase cells, remains unknown. Here, we report that chromatin compaction protects genomic DNA from radiation damage. Using a newly developed solid-phase system, we found that the frequency of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in compact chromatin after ionizing irradiation was 5–50-fold lower than in decondensed chromatin. Since radical scavengers inhibited DSB induction in decondensed chromatin, condensed chromatin had a lower level of reactive radical generation after ionizing irradiation. We also found that chromatin compaction protects DNA from attack by chemical agents. Our findings suggest that genomic DNA compaction plays an important role in maintaining genomic integrity. PMID:24130727

  18. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation

    PubMed Central

    Kora?, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

    2011-01-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A “sclerojuglonic” compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

  19. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Kora?, Radava R; Khambholja, Kapil M

    2011-07-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A "sclerojuglonic" compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

  20. Implications of radiation dose and exposed populations on radiation protection in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Boice, John D

    2014-02-01

    Radiation is in the public eye because of Fukushima, computed tomography examinations, airport screenings, and possible terrorist attacks. What if the Boston Marathon pressure cooker had also contained a radioactive source? Nuclear power may be on the resurgence. Because of the increasing uses of radiation, the increases in population exposures, and the increasing knowledge of radiation effects, constant vigilance is needed to keep up with the changing times. Psychosocial disorders associated with the inappropriate (but real) fear of radiation need to be recognized as radiation detriments. Radiation risk communication, radiation education, and communication must improve at all levels: to members of the public, to the media, to other scientists, and to radiation professionals. Stakeholders must continue to be involved in all radiation protection initiatives. Finally, we are at a crisis as the number of war babies (me) and baby boomers (you?) who are also radiation professionals continues its rapid decline, and there are few in the pipeline to fill the current and looming substantial need: "The old road is rapidly agin'" (Dylan). NCRP has begun the WARP initiative-Where Are the Radiation Professionals?-an attempt to rejuvenate the pipeline of future professionals before the trickle becomes tiny drops. A Workshop was held in July 2013 with government agencies, military, private sector, universities, White House representatives, and societies to develop a coordinated and national action plan. A "Manhattan Project" is needed to get us "Back to the Future" in terms of the funding levels that existed in years past that provided the necessary resources to train, engage, and retain (a.k.a., jobs) the radiation professionals needed for the nation. If we don't keep swimmin' (Disney's Nemo) we'll "sink like a stone" (Dylan).Introduction of Implications of Radiation Dose and Exposed Populations (Video 2:06, http://links.lww.com/HP/A25). PMID:24378509

  1. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs

    MedlinePLUS

    Pesticides Recent Additions | Contact Us Search: All EPA You are here: EPA Home Pesticides Highlights 6/24: EPA’s Risk Management Approach to ... EPA’s Proposal to Protect Bees from Acutely Toxic Pesticides – Public Webinar and Comment Period Extension 6/5: ...

  2. SECTION 11-PERSONAL PROTECTION PROGRAM INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Selmic, Sandra

    , chemical hazards, radiological hazards, biological hazards, or mechanical irritants encountered in a manner of their exposure to hazards in the working, teaching, or research environment. The use of Personal Protective in sanitary and reliable conditions whenever is necessary by reason of hazards of process, environment

  3. SECTION 11-PERSONAL PROTECTION PROGRAM INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Selmic, Sandra

    is necessary by reason of hazards of process, environment, chemical hazards, radiological hazards, biological of their exposure to hazards in the working, teaching, or research environment. The use of Personal Protective hazards, or mechanical irritants encountered in a manner capable of causing injury or impairment

  4. Radiation protection issues in galactic cosmic ray risk assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    Radiation protection involves the limitation of exposure to below threshold doses for direct (or deterministic) effects and a knowledge of the risk of stochastic effects after low doses. The principal stochastic risk associated with low dose rate galactic cosmic rays is the increased risk of cancer. Estimates of this risk depend on two factors (a) estimates of cancer risk for low-LET radiation and (b) values of the appropriate radiation weighting factors, WR, for the high-LET radiations of galactic cosmic rays. Both factors are subject to considerable uncertainty. The low-LET cancer risk derived from the late effects of the atomic bombs is vulnerable to a number of uncertainties including especially that from projection in time, and from extrapolation from high to low dose rate. Nevertheless, recent low dose studies of workers and others tend to confirm these estimates. WR, relies on biological effects studied mainly in non-human systems. Additional laboratory studies could reduce the uncertainties in WR and thus produce a more confident estimate of the overall risk of galactic cosmic rays.

  5. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) RESEARCH PROGRAM GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Annual extramural research program guide for the Office of Research and Development. This report provides information on work being done in each part of ORD, research which EPA is planning for FY 1984, and how much the authors intend to spend on each program area. Some of the are...

  6. Threat of ultraviolet radiation to the eye--how to protect against it

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, D.G.

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effects of exposure of the eye to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to provide information from which protective criteria and standards may be established. To accomplish this purpose, the article discusses ultraviolet radiation, absorption of UV radiation by the eye, the effects of ocular exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and how to protect the eye against exposure to UV radiation.

  7. Program Announcement Effective immediately the Radiation Therapy Program has changed our Pre-Requisites for

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, Andrew

    Program Announcement Effective immediately the Radiation Therapy Program has changed our Pre in the winter term of Year Two of the Program. Please contact the Radiation Therapy Program with any questions: www.med.ualberta.ca/programs/radth General E-mail: radth@ualberta.ca Phone: 780-492-6918 Radiation

  8. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Island Resettlement Support (May-December 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T; Hickman, D; Conrado, C; Brown, T; Brunk, J; Marchetti, A; Cox, C; Martinelli, R; Kehl, S; Johannes, K; Henry, D; Bell, R T; Petersen, G

    2002-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former US test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. Using pooled resources of the US Department of Energy and local atoll governments, individual radiation protection programs have been developed in whole-body counting and plutonium urinalysis to assess potential intakes of radionuclides from residual fallout contamination. The whole-body counting systems are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians. Samples of urine are collected from resettlement workers and island residents under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using advanced accelerator based measurement technologies. This web site provides an overview of the methodologies, a full disclosure of the measurement data, and a yearly assessment of estimated radiation doses to resettlement workers and island residents.

  9. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Rongelap Island Resettlement Support (1998-2001)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T; Hickman, D; Conrado, C; Brown, T; Brunk, J; Marchetti, A; Cox, C; Martinelli, R; Kehl, S; Arelong, E; Langinbelik, S; Bell, R T; Petersen, G

    2002-05-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. Using pooled resources of the U.S. Department of Energy and local atoll governments, individual radiation protection programs have been developed in whole-body counting and plutonium urinalysis to assess potential intakes of radionuclides from residual fallout contamination. The whole-body counting systems are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians. Samples of urine are collected from resettlement workers and island residents under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LNLL) using advanced accelerator based measurement technologies. This web site provides an overview of the methodologies, a full disclosure of the measurement data, and a yearly assessment of estimated radiation doses to resettlement workers and island residents.

  10. G4Beamline Program for Radiation Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, Kevin; J. Roberts, Thomas; Degtiarenko, Pavel

    2008-07-01

    G4beamline, a program that is an interface to the Geant4 toolkit that we have developed to simulate accelerator beamlines, is being extended with a graphical user interface to quickly and efficiently model experimental equipment and its shielding in experimental halls. The program is flexible, user friendly, and requires no programming by users, so that even complex systems can be simulated quickly. This improved user interface is of much wider application than just the shielding simulations that are the focus of this project. As an initial application, G4beamline is being extended to provide the simulations that are needed to determine the radiation sources for the proposed experiments at Jefferson Laboratory so that shielding issues can be evaluated. Since the program already has the capabilities needed to simulate the transport of all known particles, including scattering, attenuation, interactions, and decays, the extension involves implementing a user-friendly graphical user inter

  11. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program: An ecological status and trends program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Paul; A. F. Holland; S. C. Schimmel; J. K. Summers; K. J. Scott

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is initiating an Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to monitor the status and trends of the Nation's near-coastal waters, forests, freshwater wetlands, surface waters, agroecosystems, deserts, and rangelands. The program is also intended to evaluate the effectiveness of EPA policies in protecting the ecological resources of these systems. The monitoring data collected for

  12. 34 CFR 381.1 - What is the Protection and Advocacy of Individual Rights program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY OF INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS General § 381.1 What is the Protection and Advocacy of Individual Rights program? This program is designed...each State to protect the legal and human rights of eligible individuals with...

  13. 34 CFR 381.1 - What is the Protection and Advocacy of Individual Rights program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY OF INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS General § 381.1 What is the Protection and Advocacy of Individual Rights program? This program is designed...each State to protect the legal and human rights of eligible individuals with...

  14. 34 CFR 381.1 - What is the Protection and Advocacy of Individual Rights program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY OF INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS General § 381.1 What is the Protection and Advocacy of Individual Rights program? This program is designed...each State to protect the legal and human rights of eligible individuals with...

  15. 48 CFR 3.908 - Pilot program for enhancement of contractor employee whistleblower protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pilot program for enhancement of contractor employee whistleblower protections. 3...Protections for Contractor Employees 3.908 Pilot program for enhancement of contractor employee whistleblower protections....

  16. 48 CFR 3.908 - Pilot program for enhancement of contractor employee whistleblower protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pilot program for enhancement of contractor employee whistleblower protections. 3...Protections for Contractor Employees 3.908 Pilot program for enhancement of contractor employee whistleblower protections....

  17. 78 FR 54069 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP, and Eligibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ...al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP...0938-AR82 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP...of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education...

  18. 78 FR 37031 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP, Premium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ...al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP...0938-AR82 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP...of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act as amended by the Health Care and...

  19. 78 FR 65045 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ...al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium...0938-AR74 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium...of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education...

  20. 34 CFR 381.1 - What is the Protection and Advocacy of Individual Rights program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY OF INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS General § 381.1 What is the Protection and Advocacy of Individual Rights program? This program is designed...each State to protect the legal and human rights of eligible individuals with...

  1. 34 CFR 381.1 - What is the Protection and Advocacy of Individual Rights program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY OF INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS General § 381.1 What is the Protection and Advocacy of Individual Rights program? This program is designed...each State to protect the legal and human rights of eligible individuals with...

  2. [The classification of radiation protective agents as the reflection of the present state and development perspective, of current radiation pharmacology].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological drugs which can reduce the radiation damage to the organism when applied in the nearest time before or after exposure to radiation can be referred to as radiation protective agents. The classification of radiation protective agents, which has been well established to date, is a reflection of the history of the formation and current state of radiation pharmacology: the most significant historical landmarks in the screening of radiation protective agents among different groups of pharmaceutical preparations and the formation of the theoretical knowledge about the mechanism for their radiation protective effects. It consists of: (1) radioprotectors which realize their radiation protective effect at the physical, chemical and biochemical levels in the course of the energy absorption of ionizing radiation via partial neutralization of the "oxygen effect" as a radiobiological phenomenon; (2) radiomitigators, which realize their effect at the system level by accelerating the post-radiation recovery of radiosensitive tissues through an activation of proinflammatory signaling pathways and an increase of secretion of hematopoietic growth factors, are used in the early period after exposure to radiation prior to the development of clinical manifestations of acute radiation damage as drugs of emergency and early treatment for radiation injuries; (3) radiomodulators--pharmaceutical drugs and food nutritional supplements which elevate the resistance of the organism to adverse environmental factors, including mutagenic effects of exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation, by means of modulating the gene expression through "substrate" maintenance of adaptive changes resulting in an increased antioxidant protection of the organism; (4) pharmaceutical drugs to protect against the incorporation of technogenic radionu- clides into the organism; (5) pharmaceutical drugs to prevent (arrest) manifestations of the primary response to radiation. PMID:25507763

  3. [The classification of radiation protective agents as the reflection of the present state and development perspective, of current radiation pharmacology].

    PubMed

    Vasin, V M

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological drugs which can reduce the radiation damage to the organism when applied in the nearest time before or after exposure to radiation can be referred to as radiation protective agents. The classification of radiation protective agents, which has been well established to date, is a reflection of the history of the formation and current state of radiation pharmacology: the most significant historical landmarks in the screening of radiation protective agents among different groups of pharmaceutical preparations and the formation of the theoretical knowledge about the mechanism for their radiation protective effects. It consists of: (1) radioprotectors which realize their radiation protective effect at the physical, chemical and biochemical levels in the course of the energy absorption of ionizing radiation via partial neutralization of the "oxygen effect" as a radiobiological phenomenon; (2) radiomitigators, which realize their effect at the system level by accelerating the post-radiation recovery of radiosensitive tissues through an activation of proinflammatory signaling pathways and an increase of secretion of hematopoietic growth factors, are used in the early period after exposure to radiation prior to the development of clinical manifestations of acute radiation damage as drugs of emergency and early treatment for radiation injuries; (3) radiomodulators--pharmaceutical drugs and food nutritional supplements which elevate the resistance of the organism to adverse environmental factors, including mutagenic effects of exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation, by means of modulating the gene expression through "substrate" maintenance of adaptive changes resulting in an increased antioxidant protection of the organism; (4) pharmaceutical drugs to protect against the incorporation of technogenic radionu- clides into the organism; (5) pharmaceutical drugs to prevent (arrest) manifestations of the primary response to radiation. PMID:25434165

  4. Publications, Reports, Workshops | Radiation Research Program (RRP)

    Cancer.gov

    A one and one-half day workshop to assess the current state of the science in neutron capture therapy (NCT) was convened at the request of the Radiation Research Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, NCI, and the U.S. Department of Energy. The topics were primarily clinical with physics, chemistry, and biology relevant to immediate trials discussed. The morning of the first day was directed to updates on epithermal neutron sources, chemistry of medicinal boron compounds, and preclinical studies.

  5. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 45 - Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER...Appendix A to Part 45—Environmental Protection Agency Training...

  6. Skin Protection for (SPF) Kids Program.

    PubMed

    Walker, Deborah K

    2012-06-01

    Skin cancer is increasing faster than any other cancer in the United States. Individuals who have had excessive sun exposure during childhood and adolescence set the stage for the development of skin cancers later in life. In 2009, there were more than 1 million newly diagnosed cases of skin cancer in the United States. This primary prevention program combined the guidelines in the literature resulting in a unique evidence-based program for teachers and informational guidelines for parents. These guidelines were used in classrooms and at home, supporting intervention among school-age children, specifically those in kindergarten through fifth grade. PMID:22525811

  7. Regulation of radiation protection of the patient: how and how much, the current Belgian situation.

    PubMed

    Clarijs, Tom

    2011-09-01

    Regulation of radiation protection has always been a cornerstone to protect the patient when exposed to ionising radiation. However, large differences exist between the implementation of international approved recommendations. Even when a well-established supra-national legislative format exists, further translation is always adapted to a suitable level of the medical sector in a country. Actual trends are given for the Belgian situation, where the legislation on radiation protection in medicine is currently under revision. PMID:21733857

  8. Radiation protection issues related to Canadian museum operations.

    PubMed

    Waller, Edward J; Cole, David; Jamieson, Terry

    2008-02-01

    Museums in Canada have been found to possess radioactive items. The origin of the radiation can be broadly categorized as either natural (generally, radioactive ores) or anthropogenic (generally, luminous gauges). Radioluminescent gauges, especially bearing radium (226Ra), can also generate significant radiation fields. This is especially true if many gauges are located in close proximity. In addition, the radon may out-gas from these gauges, and generate a loose contamination problem in enclosed spaces (such as display cases). Radioactive ores, bearing naturally occurring uranium and thorium, can generate radiation fields many times greater than the ambient background levels. In addition, they will increase the ambient radon level and potentially generate loose contamination. In this paper, we discuss the specific results of radiological decommissioning at three museums: the National Air Force Museum of Canada (Trenton, Ontario); the Quebec Air and Space Museum (Montreal, PQ); and the Canadian Museum of Nature (Aylmer, PQ). In addition, a radiological survey performed at Canadian Forces Detachment Mountain View (Mountain View, Ontario) of surplus aircraft is included. The primary conclusion is that museums holding radioactive materials may have detectable levels of loose Ra and progeny contamination. They, therefore, have a requirement to be surveyed for loose contamination periodically with the potential for periodic decontamination caused by radon out-gassing. In addition, public access to displays bearing radioactive material should generally be restricted, and comprehensive radiation safety and security programs at museum facilities should be developed and enacted. PMID:18192793

  9. United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (6608J) EPA 402-F-12-001 | September 2013 www.epa.gov/radiation/laws/190

    E-print Network

    United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (6608J) EPA 402-F-12-001 | September 2013 www.epa.gov/radiation/laws/190 "Environmental Radiation Protection Standards discussion about whether to revise the Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Nuclear Power

  10. PIN Photodiodes for Radiation Monitoring and Protection in the BaBar Silicon Vertex Tracker

    E-print Network

    Babar Collaboration; T. I. Meyer

    2000-10-23

    We discuss the design, implementation and performance of the radiation monitoring and protection system used by the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) in the BaBar detector. Using 12 reverse-biased PIN photodiodes mounted around the beampipe near the IP, we are able to provide instantaneous radiation dose rates, absorbed dose integrals, and active protection that aborts the circulating beams in the PEP-II storage ring when radiation levels exceed user-defined thresholds. The system has reliably protected the SVT from excessive radiation damage and has also served as a key diagnostic tool in understanding radiation backgrounds at PEP-II.

  11. Carbon Fragmentation Cross Sections for Hadrontherapy and Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Napoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Nicolosi, D.; Pandola, L.; Raciti, G.; Romano, F.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V.; Tropea, S.; Bondì, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.

    2014-05-01

    Fragmentation reactions represent a serious complication in hadrontherapy and space radiation protection. In order to predict their effects, both reliable Monte Carlo codes and experimental data are needed. The shortage of precise measurements, especially of double differential cross sections, has triggered many dedicated experiments at relativistic energies. Aiming to explore the Fermi energy regime, as well, where different reaction mechanisms are involved, we measured the 12C fragmentation at 62 AMeV on a 12C and a 197Au target. A high granularity Si-CsI hodoscope allowed to identify the charge and the mass of detected fragments and measure their energy and emission angle. In this work we report the double differential cross sections for the production of different fragments as a function of the emission angle. Experimental results are compared with the GEANT-4 Monte Carlo predictions performed using two reaction models, the Quantum Molecular Dynamic and the Binary Light Ion Cascade.

  12. Radiation protection and radioactive scales in oil and gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C. [Urbino Univ. (Italy); Bassignani, A.; Colombo, G.; Fantoni, R.F. [National Radiation Protection Institute, Milan (Italy)

    1994-07-01

    Low specific-activity scales consisting of alkaline earth metal carbonates and sulfates are often present in some gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon plants. These scales contain a certain concentration of radium, uranium, and thorium which can cause a risk of gamma irradiation and internal radiocontamination when they must be mechanically removed. The gamma dose rates and the {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra concentrations were determined in sludges, scales, and waters of some gas and oil hydrocarbon plants located in Italy, Congo, and Tunisia. {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th concentrations were very low. The isotopes {sup 238}U and {sup 234}U resulted in radioactive equilibrium, while {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}Th were not always in equilibrium. A rough correlation was found between the gamma dose rate and the {sup 226}Ra concentration. Some considerations and conclusions about radiation protection problems are pointed out. 16 refs., 6 tabs.

  13. PERSPECTIVE ON THE USE OF LNT FOR RADIATION PROTECTION AND RISK ASSESSMENT BY THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    E-print Network

    to a low dose exposure is proportional to dose, with no threshold. The use of LNT for radiation protection methodology. Although recent radiobiological findings indicate novel damage and repair processes at low doses Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects

  14. UV radiation and freshwater zooplankton: damage, protection and recovery.

    PubMed

    Rautio, Milla; Tartarotti, Barbara

    2010-12-01

    While many laboratory and field studies show that zooplankton are negatively affected when exposed to high intensities of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), most studies also indicate that zooplankton are well adapted to cope with large variations in their UVR exposure in the pelagic zone of lakes. The response mechanisms of zooplankton are diverse and efficient and may explain the success and richness of freshwater zooplankton in optically variable waters. While no single behavioural or physiological protection mechanism seems to be superior, and while several unexplained and contradictory patterns exist in zooplankton UVR ecology, recent increases in our understanding are consistent with UVR playing an important role for zooplankton. This review examines the variability in freshwater zooplankton responses to UVR, with a focus on crustacean zooplankton (Cladocera and Copepoda). We present an overview of UVR-induced damages, and the protection and recovery mechanisms freshwater zooplankton use when exposed to UVR. We review the current knowledge of UVR impact on freshwater zooplankton at species and community levels, and discuss briefly how global change over the last three decades has influenced the UVR milieu in lakes. PMID:21516254

  15. Laser protective eyewear program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Winburn, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    The proliferation of lasers at Los Alamos focused considerable attention on providing adequate eye protection for experimenters involved in the use of a wide variety of nonionizing radiation. Experiments with fast-pulsed lasers (Nd:YAG, HF, and CO/sub 2/) were performed to gain biological threshold data on ocular damage. In parallel, eye protection devices were evaluated, which resulted in the development of lightweight, comfortable spectacles of colored glass filters that can be ground to prescription specifications. Goggle styles are employed in specific applications.

  16. United States Air and Radiation EPA 402-R-97-006 Environmental Protection Agency (6601J) July 1997

    E-print Network

    United States Air and Radiation EPA 402-R-97-006 Environmental Protection Agency (6601J) July 1997.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Radiation and Indoor Air Radiation Protection Division Center by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, it does not necessarily reflect the views of the Agency

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, T

    2004-10-31

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at ARM's Tropical Western Pacific and the North Slope of Alaska sites. Over time, this new facility will extend ARM science to a much broader range of conditions for model testing.

  18. FY-2007 PNNL Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Program Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Patrick A.; Fisher, Julie A.; Goheen, Steven C.; Isern, Nancy G.; Madson, Vernon J.; Meicenheimer, Russell L.; Pugh, Ray; Schneirla, Keri A.; Shockey, Loretta L.; Tinker, Mike R.

    2008-08-15

    This document reports the results of the FY-2007 PNNL VPP Program Evaluation, which is a self-assessment of the operational and programmatic performance of the Laboratory related to worker safety and health. The report was compiled by a team of worker representatives and safety professionals who evaluated the Laboratory's worker safety and health programs on the basis of DOE-VPP criteria. The principle elements of DOE's VPP program are: Management Leadership, Employee Involvement, Worksite Analysis, Hazard Prevention and Control, and Safety and Health Training.

  19. PNNL FY2005 DOE Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Program Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Patrick A.; Madson, Vernon J.; Isern, Nancy G.; Haney, Janice M.; Fisher, Julie A.; Goheen, Steven C.; Gulley, Susan E.; Reck, John J.; Collins, Drue A.; Tinker, Mike R.; Walker, Landon A.; Wynn, Clifford L.

    2005-01-31

    This document reports the results of the FY 2005 PNNL VPP Program Evaluation, which is a self-assessment of the operational and programmatic performance of the Laboratory related to worker safety and health. The report was compiled by a team of worker representatives and safety professionals who evaluated the Laboratory's worker safety and health programs on the basis of DOE-VPP criteria. The principle elements of DOE's VPP program are: Management Leadership, Employee Involvement, Worksite Analysis, Hazard Prevention and Control, and Safety and Health Training.

  20. United States Office of Air and Radiation EPA 402-R-96-017 Environmental Protection Office of Solid Waste and

    E-print Network

    United States Office of Air and Radiation EPA 402-R-96-017 Environmental Protection Office of Solid FOR RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED SITES Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air and Radiation Office of Radiation and Indoor Air Radiation Protection Division Center for Remediation Technology

  1. NASA's planetary protection program as an astrobiology teaching module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Vera M.

    2005-09-01

    We are currently developing a teaching module on the NASA's Planetary Protection Program for UW-Parkside SENCER courses. SENCER stands for Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibility. It is a national initiative of the National Science Foundation (NSF), now in its fifth year, to improve science education by teaching basic sciences through the complex public issues of the 21st century. The Planetary Protection Program is one such complex public issue. Teaching astrobiology and the NASA's goals via the Planetary Protection module within the SENCER courses seems to be a good formula to reach large number of students in an interesting and innovative way. We shall describe the module that we are developing. It will be launched on our web site titled "Astrobiology at Parkside" (http://oldweb.uwp.edu/academic/chemistry/kolb/organic_chemistry/, or go to Google and then to Vera Kolb Home Page), and thus will be available for teaching to all interested parties.

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-09-24

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to prepare a Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan. This document fulfills the requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This document was prepared by the Hydrology Section of the Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) Environmental Compliance Department, and it is the responsibility of this group to review the plan annually and update it every three years. This document is not, nor is it intended to be, an implementing document that sets forth specific details on carrying out field projects or operational policy. Rather, it is intended to give the reader insight to the groundwater protection philosophy at WIPP.

  3. QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION: THE EPA QA PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Formalized quality assurance (QA) program requirements for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been established for more than ten years. uring this period, the environmental issues and concerns addressed by the EPA have changed. any issues, such as ozone depletion...

  4. Evaluation of Food Protection and Defense Outreach Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shutske, John M.; Pierquet, Jennifer; Michel, Laura; Rasmussen, Ruth; Olson, Debra

    2008-01-01

    This analysis documents the outcomes and impacts from a series of food protection and defense educational programs conducted over a 3-y period for private and public sector food system professionals. Several measures were used to determine the professions of participants; their improvements in skills and abilities that resulted from workshops; the…

  5. Environmental Protection Agency's hazardous waste research and development program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Skinner; N. J. Bassin

    1988-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency conducts research, development, and demonstrations supporting statutory missions to clean up and regulate solid and hazardous wastes. EPA's research, development, and demonstration program concentrates on predicting the transport and transformation of hazardous chemicals in soil, water, ground water, and the biosphere; improving environmental detection and monitoring methods, determining the effects of hazardous wastes on human health;

  6. DUKE UNIVERSITY HEALTH SYSTEM Human Research Protection Program

    E-print Network

    involving a drug, device or biologic, and all research involving data that will be submitted to or held1 DUKE UNIVERSITY HEALTH SYSTEM Human Research Protection Program QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ACTIVITIES product in the course of medical practice. FDA research provisions will not be considered further here

  7. 40 CFR 191.15 - Individual protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT...DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND...15 Individual protection requirements. (a) Disposal systems for waste...

  8. 40 CFR 191.15 - Individual protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT...DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND...15 Individual protection requirements. (a) Disposal systems for waste...

  9. Training of interventional cardiologists in radiation protection—the IAEA's initiatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madan M. Rehani

    2007-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has initiated a major international initiative to train interventional cardiologists in radiation protection as a part of its International Action Plan on the radiological protection of patients. A simple programme of two days' training has been developed, covering possible and observed radiation effects among patients and staff, international standards, dose management techniques, examples of

  10. Radiation protection of human lymphocyte chromosomes in vitro by orientin and vicenin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Vrinda; P Uma Devi

    2001-01-01

    Orientin (Ot) and Vicenin (Vc), two water-soluble flavonoids isolated from the leaves of Indian holy basil Ocimum sanctum have shown significant protection against radiation lethality and chromosomal aberrations in vivo. In the present study the protective effect of Ot and Vc against radiation induced chromosome damage in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes was determined by micronucleus test. In order to select

  11. Radiation-protection factors of selected light vehicles against residual radiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, H.; Morrissey, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes calculations made to determine the factors needed to correct the in-vehicle Radiation Detection Identification and Computation Meter (RADIAC) dose readings to the outside environment. The methodology used is a modified VCS approach and is fully described. The VCS calculation produces a gamma protection factor for a 2-day-old fallout spectrum lying on the ground-surface exterior of the vehicle. This protection factor can be used to correct the in-vehicle RADIAC dose level readings to produce the exterior free-field dose level. The results present not only the correction factors but also several spectra comparisons for in-vehicle and exterior free-field. The calculated correction values are shown.

  12. Approaches to promotion and implementation of action on Radiation Protection for children.

    PubMed

    Goske, Marilyn J; Applegate, Kimberly E; Bulas, Dorothy; Butler, Priscilla F; Callahan, Michael J; Coley, Brian D; Don, Steven; Farley, Shawn; Frush, Donald P; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Kaste, Sue C; Morrison, Gregory; Sidhu, Manrita; Strauss, Keith J; Treves, S Ted

    2011-09-01

    The Radiation Protection in Medicine conference, reviewed in this journal supplement, outlined nine strategies to promote radiation protection for patients. The Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging has focused its work on three of those areas: creating awareness of the need and opportunities for radiation protection for children; developing open-source educational materials for medical professionals and parents on this critical topic for improved patient safety and communication; and lastly, advocating on behalf of children with industry, government and regulatory bodies to improve equipment design and safety features, standardisation of nomenclature and displays of dose reports across vendor platforms that reflect the special considerations of children. PMID:21743076

  13. Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

  14. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries: Researching radiation protection. USTUR annual report for February 1, 1999 through January 31, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrhart, Susan M. (ed.); Filipy, Ronald E. (ed.)

    2000-07-01

    The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) comprise a human tissue research program studying the deposition, biokinetics and dosimetry of the actinide elements in humans with the primary goals of providing data fundamental to the verification, refinement, or future development of radiation protection standards for these and other radionuclides, and of determining possible bioeffects on both a macro and subcellular level attributable to exposure to the actinides. This report covers USTUR activities during the year from February 1999 through January 2000.

  15. The Seven (Or More) Deadly (Or Not So Deadly) Sins of Radiation Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.; Stansbury, Paul S.

    2000-06-01

    This editorial considers the errors that can occur in the routine practice of radiation protection in the workplace. This work provides a tool and an incentive for radiation protection professionals to mentally examine their radiation protection responsibilities to identify actions they may take to improve their part of the practice of radiation protection for the benefit of humankind. We introduce a rating tool that is patterned after the IAEA International Nuclear Event Scale.?Sins? discussed include ignorance of the radiological situation, failure to integrate safety management, disabling safety interlocks, warning devices, access controls, omission of''reasonable'' from the policy of''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA), extrapolation of risk beyond reason, using radiation exposure as an excuse for terminating an unwanted pregnancy, escalation of safety requirements beyond reason, failure to average a concentration standard, not responding to concerns (of workers, public, patient s, etc.), over-training, and substitution of prescriptive procedures for judgment. Readers are encouraged to look at their radiation protection activities and judge which ones do not make sense from the viewpoint of protecting people against radiation. It is likely that readers will find more than one radiation protection activity that bears scrutiny.

  16. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Multimedia Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ambutas, K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Native American multimedia program was developed to facilitate the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) partnership with tribes in the delivery of environmental programs on reservation lands and to enhance the EPA`s ability to carry out its trust responsibility to the tribes. By providing the means for each tribe to employ its own environmental specialist, the multimedia program helps provide the foundation necessary to build environmental infrastructure for the protection of Native American lands and people and for the development of more rigorous medium-specific programs. The multimedia program began in 1991 with two pilot projects on the Bad River Chippewa Reservation, Wisconsin, and the Wind River Reservation, Wyoming. Expanded in 1992, Region 5 awarded ten multimedia cooperative agreements. At the time, Region 5 made the commitment to fund all reservations within the region, and by end of fiscal year 1993, 24 agreements brought the program to all 29 tribes. This has been a monumental effort, possible only by coupling fiscal year 1993`s funding from the Office of Federal Activities ($599050) with the region`s own reprogramming efforts ($510000).

  17. The LNT Debate in Radiation Protection: Science vs. Policy.

    PubMed

    Mossman, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable interest in revisiting LNT theory as the basis for the system of radiation protection in the US and worldwide. Arguing the scientific merits of policy options is not likely to be fruitful because the science is not robust enough to support one theory to the exclusion of others. Current science cannot determine the existence of a dose threshold, a key piece to resolving the matter scientifically. The nature of the scientific evidence is such that risk assessment at small effective doses (defined as <100 mSv) is highly uncertain, and several policy alternatives, including threshold and non-linear dose-response functions, are scientifically defensible. This paper argues for an alternative approach by looking at the LNT debate as a policy question and analyzes the problem from a social and economic perspective. In other words, risk assessment and a strictly scientific perspective are insufficiently broad enough to resolve the issue completely. A wider perspective encompassing social and economic impacts in a risk management context is necessary, but moving the debate to the policy and risk management arena necessarily marginalizes the role of scientists. PMID:22740781

  18. Radiation Protection Policy for Pregnant Workers Procedure: 7.40 Created: 02/03/2005

    E-print Network

    Jia, Songtao

    Radiation Protection Policy for Pregnant Workers Procedure: 7.40 Created: 02/03/2005 Version: 1 of the Columbia University to limit the radiation dose to the embryo/fetus of a declared pregnant occupationally to the risks of radiation exposure and to consult with her regarding recommendations for maintaining

  19. Ionizing and Nonionizing Radiation Protection. Module SH-35. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on ionizing and nonionizing radiation protection is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module describes various types of ionizing and nonionizing radiation, and the situations in the workplace where potential hazards from radiation may exist. Following the introduction, 13 objectives (each keyed to a…

  20. Protection against enhanced levels of natural radiation: concepts and regulatory approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfdieter Kraus

    2002-01-01

    In the recent years, exposures to enhanced natural radiation came into the focus of radiation protection. A variety of exposure types have to be taken into consideration. Any regulation of enhanced exposures to natural radiation sources may have large social, economic and political consequences. Unfortunately, there has been little or no international harmonisation yet, and a comprehensive, systematic approach totally

  1. 76 FR 27603 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Civil Rights Protections for SNAP Households

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ...Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Civil Rights Protections for SNAP Households...Program (SNAP) regulations that secure civil rights protections for SNAP households...reviewed under Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. This rule is...

  2. 75 FR 21011 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Statewide Communication Interoperability Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ...Security, National Protection and Programs Directorate/Cybersecurity and Communications/Office of Emergency Communications...DHS), National Protection and Programs Directorate/Cybersecurity and Communications/Office of Emergency...

  3. Differential protection by two sunscreens from UV radiation-induced immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Reeve, V E; Bosnic, M; Boehm-Wilcox, C; Ley, R D

    1991-10-01

    A controversy has arisen concerning the ability of sunscreens to protect mice from the immunosuppressive effects of UV radiation. We have assessed the photoprotection in hairless mice of two sun protection factor (SPF)15 sunscreens containing different UVB (280-320-nm) absorbers, namely, octyl-N-dimethyl-p-aminobenzoate (o-PABA) or 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate (2-EHMC). Following three minimum erythemal exposures to UV radiation, both systemic suppression of contact hypersensitivity to 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene and induction of susceptibility to transplanted UV radiation-induced tumor cells was established. Topically applied 2-EHMC sunscreen protected totally from both forms of immunosuppression, but the o-PABA sunscreen failed to protect, although both sunscreens were equally effective in protection from UV radiation-induced erythema and edema. PMID:1940432

  4. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation.

  5. Radiation terrorism: what society needs from the radiobiology-radiation protection and radiation oncology communities.

    PubMed

    Coleman, C Norman; Parker, Gerald W

    2009-06-01

    Society's and individuals' concerns about the adverse effects from radiation are logically amplified many times when radiological terrorism is considered. The spectrum of events include industrial sabotage, the use of an explosive or non-explosive radiological dispersal device, the placement of a radiological exposure device in a public facility and the use of an improvised nuclear device. The consequences of an event relate to the physical and medical damage of the event itself, the financial impact, and the acute and long-term medical consequences, including fear of radiation-induced cancer. The magnitude of a state-sponsored nuclear event is so great that limited detailed response planning had been done in the past, as compared to the work now ongoing. Planning is done on the basis of scenario modelling. Medical response planning includes medical triage, distribution of victims to care by experienced physicians, developing medical countermeasures to mitigate or treat radiation injury, counselling and appropriately following exposed or potentially exposed people, and helping the local community develop confidence in their own response plan. Optimal response must be based on the best available science. This requires scientists who can define, prioritise and address the gaps in knowledge with the range of expertise from basic physics to biology to translational research to systems expertise to response planning to healthcare policy to communications. Not only are there unique needs and career opportunities, but there is also the opportunity for individuals to serve their communities and country with education regarding radiation effects and by formulating scientifically based government policy. PMID:19454803

  6. Radiation Symbols

    MedlinePLUS

    Radiation Protection Basics Health Effects Ionizing & Non-Ionizing Radiation Understanding Radiation: Radiation Symbols Radiation Protection Basics Main Page History of Radiation Protection Radiation Warning Symbols Radiation Warning Sign Gallery ...

  7. United States Office of Radiation & EPA 402-R-99-002 Environmental Protection Indoor Air (6602J) October 1999

    E-print Network

    United States Office of Radiation & EPA 402-R-99-002 Environmental Protection Indoor Air (6602J Agency, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, Radiation Protection Division 401 M St. SW, Washington OCCURRING RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS IN THE SOUTHWESTERN COPPER BELT OF ARIZONA U.S. Environmental Protection

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, December 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2003-01-09

    Radiometer Characterization System--The new Radiometer Characterization System (RCS) installed on the Guest Instrument Facility mezzanine at the SGP central facility will permit side-by-side evaluations of several new and modified broadband radiometers and comparisons with radiometers currently in use. If the new designs or modifications give substantially more accurate measurements, ARM scientists might elect to replace or modify the existing broadband radiometers. The RCS will also permit ARM scientists to determine whether the radiometers need cleaning more frequently than the current biweekly schedule, and an automatic radiometer washer will be evaluated for reliability and effectiveness in daily cleaning. A radiometer is an instrument used to measure radiant energy. ARM uses a pyranometer to measure the solar radiation reaching Earth's surface. Clouds, water vapor, dust, and other aerosol particles can interfere with the transmission of solar radiation. The amount of radiant energy reaching the ground depends on the type and quantity of absorbers and reflectors between the sun and Earth's surface. A pyranometer can also measure solar radiation reflected from the surface. A pyranometer has a thermoelectric device (a wire-wound, plated thermopile) that produces an electric current proportional to the broadband shortwave solar radiation reaching a detector. The detector, which is painted black, is mounted in a precision-ground glass sphere for protection from the elements. The glass must be kept very clean, because dirt and dust scatter and absorb solar radiation and make the measurement incorrect. Accurate measurements of solar radiation are needed so that scientists can accurately replicate the interactions of solar radiation and clouds in global climate models--a major goal of the ARM program. TX-2002 AIRS Validation Campaign Winding Down--The TX-2002 Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Validation Campaign ended on December 13, 2002. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted this intensive operations period, in which a high-altitude ER-2 aircraft made measurements over the CART site. These measurements are being compared to data from ground-based ARM instruments to validate measurements by the AIRS instrument aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua satellite. (See June 2002 ARM Facility Newsletter for details on Aqua.)

  9. Constructing vulnerabilty and protective measures indices for the enhanced critical infrastructure protection program.

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R. E.; Buehring, W. A.; Whitfield, R. G.; Bassett, G. W.; Dickinson, D. C.; Haffenden, R. A.; Klett, M. S.; Lawlor, M. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; LANL

    2009-10-14

    The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has directed its Protective Security Advisors (PSAs) to form partnerships with the owners and operators of assets most essential to the Nation's well being - a subclass of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) - and to conduct site visits for these and other high-risk assets as part of the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) Program. During each such visit, the PSA documents information about the facility's current CIKR protection posture and overall security awareness. The primary goals for ECIP site visits (DHS 2009) are to: (1) inform facility owners and operators of the importance of their facilities as an identified high-priority CIKR and the need to be vigilant in light of the ever-present threat of terrorism; (2) identify protective measures currently in place at these facilities, provide comparisons of CIKR protection postures across like assets, and track the implementation of new protective measures; and (3) enhance existing relationships among facility owners and operators; DHS; and various Federal, State, local tribal, and territorial partners. PSAs conduct ECIP visits to assess overall site security; educate facility owners and operators about security; help owners and operators identify gaps and potential improvements; and promote communication and information sharing among facility owners and operators, DHS, State governments, and other security partners. Information collected during ECIP visits is used to develop metrics; conduct sector-by-sector and cross-sector vulnerability comparisons; identify security gaps and trends across CIKR sectors and subsectors; establish sector baseline security survey results; and track progress toward improving CIKR security through activities, programs, outreach, and training (Snyder 2009). The data being collected are used in a framework consistent with the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) risk criteria (DHS 2009). The NIPP framework incorporates consequence, threat, and vulnerability components and addresses all hazards. The analysis of the vulnerability data needs to be reproducible, support risk analysis, and go beyond protection. It also needs to address important security/vulnerability topics, such as physical security, cyber security, systems analysis, and dependencies and interdependencies. This report provides an overview of the approach being developed to estimate vulnerability and provide vulnerability comparisons for sectors and subsectors. the information will be used to assist DHS in analyzing existing protective measures and vulnerability at facilities, to identify potential ways to reduce vulnerabilities, and to assist in preparing sector risk estimates. The owner/operator receives an analysis of the data collected for a specific asset, showing a comparison between the facility's protection posture/vulnerability index and those of DHS sector/subsector sites visited. This comparison gives the owner/operator an indication of the asset's security strengths and weaknesses that may be contributing factors to its vulnerability and protection posture. The information provided to the owner/operator shows how the asset compares to other similar assets within the asset's sector or subsector. A 'dashboard' display is used to illustrate the results in a convenient format. The dashboard allows the owner/operator to analyze the implementation of additional protective measures and to illustrate how such actions would impact the asset's Protective Measures Index (PMI) or Vulnerability Index (VI).

  10. Radiation Treatment Planning: Mixed Integer Programming Formulations and Approaches

    E-print Network

    Ferris, Michael C.

    diagnosed with cancer in the U.S will undergo treatment with radiation therapy. This form of therapy hasRadiation Treatment Planning: Mixed Integer Programming Formulations and Approaches Michael C-based radiation therapy treatment planning. In treatment planning problems, the objective is to deliver a homoge

  11. Non-coherent near infrared radiation protects normal human dermal fibroblasts from solar ultraviolet toxicity.

    PubMed

    Menezes, S; Coulomb, B; Lebreton, C; Dubertret, L

    1998-10-01

    The sun is the most important and universal source of non-ionizing radiation shed on human populations. Life evolved on Earth bathed by this radiation. Solar UV damages cells, leading to deleterious conditions such as photoaging and carcinogenesis in human skin. During the process of evolution, the cells selected dark- and light-dependent repair mechanisms as a defence against these hazardous effects. This study describes the induction by non-coherent infrared radiation (700-2000 nm), in the absence of rising temperature, of a strong cellular defense against solar UV cytotoxicity as well as induction of cell mitosis. Blocking mitoses with arabinoside-cytosine or protein synthesis with cycloheximide did not abolish the protection, leading to the conclusion that this protection is independent of cell division and of protein neosynthesis. The protection provided by infrared radiation against solar UV radiation is shown to be a long-lasting (at least 24 h) and cumulatif phenomenon. Infrared radiation does not protect the lipids in cellular membranes against UVA induced peroxidation. The protection is not mediated by heat shock proteins. Living organisms on the Earth's surface are bathed by infrared radiation every day, before being submitted to solar UV. Thus, we propose that this as yet undescribed natural process of cell protection against solar UV, acquired and preserved through evolutional selection, plays an important role in life maintenance. Understanding and controlling this mechanism could provide important keys to the prevention of solar UV damage of human skin. PMID:9764844

  12. Voyager electronic parts radiation program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Price, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    The Voyager spacecraft is subject to radiation from external natural space, from radioisotope thermoelectric generators and heater units, and from the internal environment where penetrating electrons generate surface ionization effects in semiconductor devices. Methods for radiation hardening and tests for radiation sensitivity are described. Results of characterization testing and sample screening of over 200 semiconductor devices in a radiation environment are summarized.

  13. Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-wei

    2004-01-01

    Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most effect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

  14. Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei

    2004-01-01

    Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

  15. Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei

    2004-01-01

    Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space exploration.

  16. Space and radiation protection: Scientific requirements for space research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Schimmerling

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiation poses a significant risk to humans living and working in space. The major sources of radiation are solar disturbances and galactic cosmic rays. The components of this radiation are energetic charged particles, protons, as well as fully ionized nuclei of all elements. The biological effects of these particles cannot be extrapolated in a straightforward manner from available data

  17. Radiation exposure and protection in cardiac catheterization laboratories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen W. Miller; Frank P. Castronovo Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Cardiac catheterization with angiography can deliver the greatest dose of x-radiation of any diagnostic medical examination. The physicians and technologists in the angiography room receive low-level scattered radiation over a period of months to decades. Although the radiobiology is complex, the physicians who perform cardiac catheterization should be familiar with the potential genetic and somatic effects of radiation and with

  18. Glutamine protects Chinese Hamster Ovary cells from radiation killing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Winters; Richard Matthews; Nuran Ercal; Kalpana Krishnan

    1994-01-01

    Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were propagated in vitro and exposed to varying doses of ionizing radiation. The surviving fraction of cells was determined, being found to be a function of the radiation dose. The cell survival curves obtained as a function of radiation dose were modified by the inclusion of varying doses of glutamine in the medium, with glutamine

  19. Protection from solar UV radiation - how important is what you wear and how you wear it?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Wilson

    How fabric properties and conditions of wear affect UV transmission is reviewed and recommendations for manufacture and selection of sun protective garments are discussed. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been identified as the \\

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of novel tetrapropoxycalix[4]arene enones and cinnamates for protection from ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Chawla, H M; Pant, Nalin; Kumar, Satish; Mrig, Sarika; Srivastava, Bindu; Kumar, Naresh; Black, D Stc

    2011-10-01

    A series of novel calix[4]arene enones (5-7) and cinnamates (12-14) have been synthesized and evaluated for ensuring protection from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Spectroscopic analyses has revealed that compound 6 absorbs ultraviolet radiations between 280 and 350 nm with an absorption maximum at 312 nm. Its molar absorption coefficient (?) (>5 × 10(4)M(-1)cm(-1)) and bandwidth are larger than those for the commercially used sun protectants (oxybenzone (OB), 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (OMC) and avobenzone). The in vitro Sun Protection Factor (SPF) measurement revealed an SPF of 5.2 at 2% concentration of 6 in home made emulsion formulations while combination of 2% each of 6 and OMC gave an SPF of 8.8. Lower sun protection seems to be compensated by significant protection from more harmful UVA radiations (UVA/UVB absorbance ratio of 0.62). PMID:21803597

  1. Radiation exposure in gastroenterology: improving patient and staff protection.

    PubMed

    Ho, Immanuel K H; Cash, Brooks D; Cohen, Henry; Hanauer, Stephen B; Inkster, Michelle; Johnson, David A; Maher, Michael M; Rex, Douglas K; Saad, Abdo; Singh, Ajaypal; Rehani, Madan M; Quigley, Eamonn M

    2014-08-01

    Medical imaging involving the use of ionizing radiation has brought enormous benefits to society and patients. In the past several decades, exposure to medical radiation has increased markedly, driven primarily by the use of computed tomography. Ionizing radiation has been linked to carcinogenesis. Whether low-dose medical radiation exposure will result in the development of malignancy is uncertain. This paper reviews the current evidence for such risk, and aims to inform the gastroenterologist of dosages of radiation associated with commonly ordered procedures and diagnostic tests in clinical practice. The use of medical radiation must always be justified and must enable patients to be exposed at the lowest reasonable dose. Recommendations provided herein for minimizing radiation exposure are based on currently available evidence and Working Party expert consensus. PMID:24842339

  2. Differential Protection by Two Sunscreens from UV Radiation–Induced Immunosuppression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivienne E. Reeve; Meira Bosnic; Christa Boehm-Wilcox; Ronald D. Ley

    1991-01-01

    A controversy has arisen concerning the ability of sunscreens to protect mice from the immunosuppressive effects of UV radiation. We have assessed the photoprotection in hairless mice of two sun protection factor (SPF) 15 sunscreens containing different UVB (280-320-nm) absorbers, namely, octyl-N-dimethyl-p-aminobenzoate (o-PABA) or 2-ethyl-hexyl-p-methoxycinnamate (2-EHMC). Following three minimum erythemal exposures to UV radiation, both systemic suppression of contact hypersensitivity

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-07-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  4. Amifostine (ETHYOL) protects rats from mucositis resulting from fractionated or hyperfractionated radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Cassatt, David R. [Department of Molecular Biology/Biochemistry, MedImmune, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Fazenbaker, Christine A. [Department of Molecular Biology/Biochemistry, MedImmune, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Bachy, Christine M. [Department of Molecular Biology/Biochemistry, MedImmune, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Kifle, Gizachew [Department of Cell Biology, MedImmune, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); McCarthy, Michael P. [Department of Molecular Biology/Biochemistry, MedImmune, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)]. E-mail: mccarthym@medimmune.com

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: The cytoprotective drug amifostine (Ethyol) protects rats from oral mucositis resulting from a single dose of {gamma}-irradiation. We expanded earlier studies to determine whether multiple doses of amifostine protect against fractionated or hyperfractionated radiation and whether the active metabolite of amifostine (WR-1065) accumulates in tissues upon repeated administration. Methods and materials: Rats received amifostine daily for 5 days in conjunction with a 1-week fractionated radiation schedule and were evaluated for oral mucositis. Rats also received amifostine before the am or pm exposure or b.i.d. in conjunction with hyperfractionated radiation. To determine the pharmacokinetics of WR-1065 after repeated dosing, amifostine was given 5 days a week for 1 or 3 weeks, and rat tissue and plasma were collected at intervals during and after treatment and analyzed for WR-1065. Results: Amifostine protected rats from mucositis resulting from fractionated or hyperfractionated radiation. When the number of days of amifostine administration was reduced, protection was diminished. A dose of 100 mg/kg given in the morning or 2 doses at 50 mg/kg provided the best protection against hyperfractionated radiation. WR-1065 did not accumulate in tissues or tumor upon repeated administration. Conclusions: Amifostine prevented radiation-induced mucositis in a rat model; protection was dose and schedule dependent.

  5. Optical Brighteners Provide Baculovirus Activity Enhancement and UV Radiation Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Dougherty; K. P. Guthrie; M. Shapiro

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescent brighteners increase insect viral activity and provide protection against UV inactivation. The relative amount of viral UV protection has not previously been determined due to the dual nature of these compounds. In this study, two distinct viral–host systems, a nuclear polyhedrosis virus of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) infecting its homologous host and a nuclear polyhedrosis virus of the

  6. Application of the ICRP recommendations to revised secondary radiation protection standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Jr. Kennedy; J. P. Corley

    1988-01-01

    In 1977, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) issued Publication No. 26 containing its recommendations for major changes in the conceptual basis for radiation protection. The new recommendations consider total risk (to the whole body) instead of controlling (critical-organ) risk. Subsequent publications and explanatory statements most useful for providing clarification of the intent of the new recommendations have not

  7. Investigation of feasibility of using mexamine for postradiation protection of L cells. [Gamma radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Valter; Yu. F. Martynchik; A. G. Sverdlov

    1977-01-01

    Suspension of L cells were exposed to gamma radiation; mexamine was added before and after irradiation. Effects of caffeine on cells were also studied. Observations were made on survival time, colony formation, and chromosomal aberrations. When mexamine was administered before irradiation a protective effect was demonstrated, but when added after irradiation there was no protective effect. Caffeine did not have

  8. Relative inability of aet and apmt to protect immunologically competent cells against radiation injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustavo Cudkowicz

    1962-01-01

    BS>The radio-protective drugs AET and APMT did not protect ; immunologically competent cells in adult mouse liver against radiation injury, as ; judged by the ability of the irradiated cells to induce wasting disease in parent-; to-F⁠hybrid radiatfon chimeras. This result suggests a method for ; selective destructfon of immune cells in tissues to be transplanted. (auth);

  9. 75 FR 34017 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Notice 25 for Significant New Alternatives Policy Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ...Stratospheric Ozone: Notice 25 for Significant New Alternatives Policy Program AGENCY: Environmental...Environmental Protection Agency's Significant New Alternatives Policy program. The substitutes...process for administering the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program...

  10. On the road to the OSHA voluntary protection program.

    PubMed

    Adamus, Mary Sgarlata

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, representatives from the Employee Health Services, Safety and Security, Physical Therapy, Human Resources, and Legal Affairs Departments and the Risk Management Program at Robert Packer Hospital (RPH) in Sayre, PA began a project to create a "culture of safety." The journey would ultimately lead to application to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Voluntary Protection Program (OSHA VPP). Four years later, because of the dedication and collaboration of many individuals, RPH received notification that its application for OSHA VPP participation was approved by the Assistant Secretary of Labor. This article describes that journey and provides other healthcare organizations with the information needed to begin their own journey to successful project implementation. PMID:15060956

  11. Study on the protection of workers against ionizing radiations in Belgium

    SciTech Connect

    Hublet, P.

    1973-01-01

    Regulations, based on the standards of EURATOM, for protection of the population and workers against ionizing radiations are discussed. Radiation protection is based on the idea of the controlled zone which is a designated space where exposed personnel may receive a radiation dose of more than 1.5 rem/ yr. Periodic medical examinations and personnel dosimetry are recommended. The annual permissible dose is flxed at 5 rem/yr of total radiation for workers aged 18 or over. A table is presented of types of personnel in controlled zones who should carry dosimeters. Tables are presented to show the distribution of workers exposed to ionizing radiation in health institutions, industrial and commercial enterprises, and research and teaching, and dose distributions among these workers from 1965 to 1971. It is concluded that the radiation risk to workers in Belgium is maintained by present laws within very acceptable limits. (HLW)

  12. Calcium Protects Differentiating Neuroblastoma Cells during 50 Hz Electromagnetic Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Tonini; Baroni E. Masala; E. Masala; M. Micheletti; A. Ferroni; M. Mazzanti

    2001-01-01

    Despite growing concern about electromagnetic radiation, the interaction between 50- to 60-Hz fields and biological structures remains obscure. Epidemiological studies have failed to prove a significantly correlation between exposure to radiation fields and particular pathologies. We demonstrate that a 50- to 60-Hz magnetic field interacts with cell differentiation through two opposing mechanisms: it antagonizes the shift in cell membrane surface

  13. The Infrastructure Necessary to Support a Sustainable Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Bachner, Katherine M.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2011-07-20

    The NNSA Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) program has been engaged for fifteen years in upgrading the security of nuclear materials in Russia. Part of the effort has been to establish the conditions necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of nuclear security. A sustainable program of nuclear security requires the creation of an indigenous infrastructure, starting with sustained high level government commitment. This includes organizational development, training, maintenance, regulations, inspections, and a strong nuclear security culture. The provision of modern physical protection, control, and accounting equipment to the Russian Federation alone is not sufficient. Comprehensive infrastructure projects support the Russian Federation's ability to maintain the risk reduction achieved through upgrades to the equipment. To illustrate the contributions to security, and challenges of implementation, this paper discusses the history and next steps for an indigenous Tamper Indication Device (TID) program, and a Radiation Portal Monitoring (RPM) program.

  14. New nuclear build and evolving radiation protection challenges.

    PubMed

    Lazo, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Radiological protection has continued to evolve in order to meet emerging challenges and will continue to do so. This paper will discuss the scientific and social challenges that will or may be faced by the radiological protection community in the coming 10 to 20 y and how these may affect what is expected to be a renewed interest in building and operating nuclear power plants for electricity generation. PMID:21399418

  15. Comparison of in vivo murine intestinal radiation protection by E-prostaglandins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Hanson; K. DeLaurentiis

    1987-01-01

    The gastrointestinal cell renewal system is sensitive to injury by ionizing radiation. Natural prostaglandins (PGs) and their analogs have been shown to protect intestinal clonogenic cells (stem cells) in vivo from radiation injury. To further investigate structure and activity relationship in PGs as radiation protectors, studies were done with four E-series PGs: E1, E2, 16,16-dimethyl (dm) PGE2, and 15-deoxy, 16-methyl,

  16. Environmental Compliance and Protection Program Description Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2009-02-26

    The objective of the Environmental Compliance and Protection (EC and P) Program Description (PD) is to establish minimum environmental compliance requirements and natural resources protection goals for the Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Oak Ridge Environmental Management Cleanup Contract (EMCC) Contract Number DE-AC05-98OR22700-M198. This PD establishes the work practices necessary to ensure protection of the environment during the performance of EMCC work activities on the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, by BJC employees and subcontractor personnel. Both BJC and subcontractor personnel are required to implement this PD. A majority of the decontamination and demolition (D and D) activities and media (e.g., soil and groundwater) remediation response actions at DOE sites on the ORR are conducted under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). CERCLA activities are governed by individual CERCLA decision documents (e.g., Record of Decision [ROD] or Action Memorandum) and according to requirements stated in the Federal Facility Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE 1992). Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for the selected remedy are the requirements for environmental remediation responses (e.g., removal actions and remedial actions) conducted under CERCLA.

  17. Society's valuation of life saving in radiation protection and other contexts.

    PubMed

    Cohen, B L

    1980-01-01

    Various situations are described in which societal action may be interpreted as a dollar value placed on averting a human fatality, and numerical values are derived in each case. Situations included are a variety of medical screening and medical care programs and of automobile and highway safety measures, food for overseas relief, air pollution control, fire prevention, industrial safety, and several radiation-related activities including standards for radium in drinking water, radwaste systems in nuclear plants, and defense and civilian high-level waste management. Values varying from a few thousand dollars to hundreds of millions of dollars per fatality averted are obtained. An attempt to derive data of this type from polling is described. The problem of discounting when money is spent now to save lives far in the future (as with nuclear waste) is discussed. It is concluded that nearly all of the vast variation in the results is unjustified and represents a need for educating the public, especially in the area of radiation protection. PMID:6821577

  18. Overview of NASA's space radiation research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2003-01-01

    NASA is developing the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk in space. The strategy employed has three research components: (1) ground-based simulation of space radiation components to develop a science-based understanding of radiation risk; (2) space-based measurements of the radiation environment on planetary surfaces and interplanetary space, as well as use of space platforms to validate predictions; and, (3) implementation of countermeasures to mitigate risk. NASA intends to significantly expand its support of ground-based radiation research in line with completion of the Booster Applications Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, expected in summer of 2003. A joint research solicitation with the Department of Energy is under way and other interagency collaborations are being considered. In addition, a Space Radiation Initiative has been submitted by the Administration to Congress that would provide answers to most questions related to the International Space Station within the next 10 years.

  19. A review of the history of U.S. radiation protection regulations, recommendations, and standards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cynthia G

    2005-06-01

    Shortly after the discovery of x rays by Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen in 1895, and the isolation of the element radium by Pierre and Marie Curie three years later, the fascination with and potential for an array of uses of ionizing radiation in medicine, science, and technology was born. As with any new technology, there was a need to balance both the beneficial and potential detrimental effects of uses of these new technologies for the advancement of humankind. In the early days, radiation hazards were not well understood. Over the decades increasing concerns in the scientific community and lay population demanded that standardized guidance and recommendations be developed for the use of ionizing radiation. Today, U.S. radiation protection standards and recommendations to protect the occupational worker, members of the general public, and the environment are numerous and complex. This review summarizes the history of the development and application of radiation protection standards and regulations to assure the safe use of radiation and radioactive materials. The evolution and roles of international and national scientific recommending and regulatory organizations that shape U.S. radiation protection policy are described and discussed. PMID:15891462

  20. Radiation protection aspects of the operation in a cyclotron facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, P. P. N.; Carneiro, J. C. G. G.

    2014-02-01

    The activated accelerator cyclotron components and the radioisotope production may impact on the personnel radiation exposure of the workers during the routine maintenance and emergency repair procedures and any modification of the equipment. Since the adherence of the principle of ALARA (as low as reasonable achievable) constitutes a major objective of the cyclotron management, it has become imperative to investigate the radiation levels at the workplace and the probable health effects to the worker caused by radiation exposure. The data analysis in this study was based on the individual monitoring records during the period from 2007 to 2011. Monitoring of the workplace was also performed using gamma and neutron detectors to determine the dose rate in various predetermined spots. The results of occupational radiation exposures were analysed and compared with the values established in national standards and international recommendations. Important guidelines have been developed to reduce the individual dose.

  1. New developments in radiation protection instrumentation via active electronic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    New developments in electronics and radiation detectors are improving on real-time data acquisition of radiation exposure and contamination conditions. Recent developments in low power circuit designs, hybrid and integrated circuits, and microcomputers have all contributed to smaller and lighter radiation detection instruments that are, at the same time, more sensitive and provide more information (e.g., radioisotope identification) than previous devices. New developments in radiation detectors, such as cadmium telluride, gas scintillation proportional counters, and imaging counters (both charged particle and photon) promise higher sensitivities and expanded uses over present instruments. These developments are being applied in such areas as health physics, waste management, environmental monitoring, in vivo measurements, and nuclear safeguards.

  2. Nuclear Fragmentation Processes Relevant for Human Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for human space explorations such-as a moon base or a trip to Mars. Models have been developed in order to predict the radiation exposure to astronauts and to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials, and a key ingredient in these models is the physics of nuclear fragmentations. We have developed a semi-analytical method to determine which partial cross sections of nuclear fragmentations most affect the radiation dose behind shielding materials due to exposure to galactic cosmic rays. The cross sections thus determined will require more theoretical and/or experimental studies in order for us to better predict, reduce and mitigate the radiation exposure in human space explorations.

  3. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used? 63...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.35...

  4. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds include? 63...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.33...

  5. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30...

  6. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used? 63...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.35...

  7. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds include? 63...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.33...

  8. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30...

  9. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32...

  10. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32...

  11. The Road To Radiation Protection: A Rocky Path

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Preeti; Khare, Amit; Singh, Vandana; Chatterjee, Rhiti

    2014-01-01

    Radiation has intrigued us with its magnificent properties of imaging and healing. But this discovery, like many others, came with a heavy price. The pioneers of this form of energy themselves often succumbed to its devastating effects and hence, paved a way for future generations to be wary of it, while continuing to use it. This paper attempts to salute those masters who have helped make the radiation world a safer place to live and work in. PMID:25654052

  12. 77 FR 32397 - Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection Program-Genitourinary Losses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ...RIN 2900-AO20 Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection Program...regulations governing the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection...that expanded the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury...

  13. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 512 (2003) 4451 The HERMES silicon project--the radiation protection system

    E-print Network

    2003-01-01

    --the radiation protection system M.G. van Beuzekom*, O. Bouhali1 , V. Mexner, S. Mos, A. Reischl, J.J.M. Steijger detectors; Ionization chambers; Radiation protection; Accelerated beams 1. Introduction The HERMES it vulnerable to increased radiation levels which may be caused by beam instabilities. The Lambda Wheel detector

  14. Acoustic radiation from lined, unflanged ducts: Acoustic source distribution program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Beckemeyer; D. T. Sawdy

    1971-01-01

    An acoustic radiation analysis was developed to predict the far-field characteristics of fan noise radiated from an acoustically lined unflanged duct. This analysis is comprised of three modular digital computer programs which together provide a capability of accounting for the impedance mismatch at the duct exit plane. Admissible duct configurations include circular or annular, with or without an extended centerbody.

  15. Oceanic protection of prebiotic organic compounds from UV radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleaves, H. J.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    It is frequently stated that UV light would cause massive destruction of prebiotic organic compounds because of the absence of an ozone layer. The elevated UV flux of the early sun compounds this problem. This applies to organic compounds of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin. Attempts to deal with this problem generally involve atmospheric absorbers. We show here that prebiotic organic polymers as well as several inorganic compounds are sufficient to protect oceanic organic molecules from UV degradation. This aqueous protection is in addition to any atmospheric UV absorbers and should be a ubiquitous planetary phenomenon serving to increase the size of planetary habitable zones.

  16. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Radiation Control Program - Partners in Site Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S. L.; Stafford, M. W.

    2002-02-26

    In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the Management and Integration (M&I) contract for all five of the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) facilities to Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a world renowned national laboratory and research and development facility, the BJC mission involves executing the DOE Environmental Management (EM) program. In addition to BJC's M&I contract, UT-Battelle, LLC, a not-for-profit company, is the Management and Operating (M&O) contractor for DOE on the ORNL site. As part of ORNL's EM program, legacy inactive facilities (i.e., reactors, nuclear material research facilities, burial grounds, and underground storage tanks) are transferred to BJC and are designated as remediation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), or long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) facilities. Facilities operated by both UT-Battelle and BJC are interspersed throughout the site and are usually in close proximity. Both UT-Battelle and BJC have DOE-approved Radiation Protection Programs established in accordance with 10 CFR 835. The BJC Radiological Control (RADCON) Program adapts to the M&I framework and is comprised of a combination of subcontracted program responsibilities with BJC oversight. This paper focuses on the successes and challenges of executing the BJC RADCON Program for BJC's ORNL Project through a joint M&I contractor relationship, while maintaining a positive working relationship and partnership with UT-Battelle's Radiation Protection organization.

  17. Protection in good and bad times ? the Turkish green card health program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meltem A. Aran; Jesko S. Hentschel

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the equity and financial protection implications of the expansion of the Green Card (Yesil Kart) non-contributory health insurance program in Turkey during the growth years from 2003 to 2008. It also considers the program's protective impact during the economic crisis in 2009. The authors find that the rapid expansion of the program between 2003 and 2008 was

  18. Office of Radiation & Indoor Air EPA 402-R-05-009 Radiation Protection Division (6608J) August 2006

    E-print Network

    of potential radiological and chemical hazards. In order to help us identify where potential problems may occur) Radiation Protection Division works to address hazards posed by technologically enhanced naturally occurring and to identify where TENORM problems may exist, we have been investigating the potential environmental hazards

  19. Modern Methods of Real-Time Gamma Radiation Monitoring for General Personal Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

    Real-time radiation detectors become an essential part of emergency personnel who may have to respond to unknown accidents, incidents or terrorist attacks, which could involve radioactive material. More and more ordinary citizens are interested in personal radiation protection as well. Reasons include lost sources, nuclear industrial accidents, nuclear or radiological terrorism and the possibility of nuclear weapons being used in a war. People want to have the ability to measure it for themselves and they want to be notified when the radiation levels are increased. To meet this demand, considerable research into new sensors is underway, including efforts to enhance the sensor performance through both the material properties and manufacturing technologies. Deep understanding of physical properties of the materials under the influence of radiation exposure is vital for the effective design of dosimeter devices. Detection of radiation is based on the fact that both the electrical and the optical properties of the materials undergo changes upon the exposure to ionizing radiation. It is believed that radiation causes structural defects. The influence of radiation depends on both the dose and the parameters of the films including their thickness: the degradation is more severe for the higher dose and the thinner films. This paper presents overview of modern methods of real-time gamma radiation monitoring for personal protection of radiation workers and general public and suggests further developments in this area.

  20. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    40 ? Protection of Environment ? 26 ? 2012-07-01 ? 2011-07-01 ? true ? Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? ? 197.38 ? Section 197.38 ? Protection of Environment ? ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ? RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ? PUBLIC...

  1. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    40 ? Protection of Environment ? 24 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? ? 197.38 ? Section 197.38 ? Protection of Environment ? ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ? RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ? PUBLIC...

  2. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    40 ? Protection of Environment ? 25 ? 2014-07-01 ? 2014-07-01 ? false ? Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? ? 197.38 ? Section 197.38 ? Protection of Environment ? ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ? RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ? PUBLIC...

  3. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    40 ? Protection of Environment ? 25 ? 2011-07-01 ? 2011-07-01 ? false ? Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? ? 197.38 ? Section 197.38 ? Protection of Environment ? ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ? RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ? PUBLIC...

  4. Radiation monitoring program for ANL-W's Fuel Cycle Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R.T. (Argonne National Lab.-West, Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Within the past few years, personnel safety and radiation protection concerns have increased for the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the nuclear community. There are now a number of DOE Orders and American National Standards that provide criteria, standards, requirements, and guidance for the placement and selection of radiation-monitoring systems. This summary provides information pertinent to the selection and location of radiation-monitoring systems in the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) located on the Argonne National Laboratory-West site (ANL-W) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  5. Radiation dosimetry for the Gemini program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    The principal source of radiation for low-earth-orbit, low inclination space flights is in the area of the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly. None of the Gemini dose measurements reported in the paper are of high enough intensity to be considered hazardous. There is a trend toward larger doses as missions are flown higher and longer. Extended orbital operations between 1400 and 4400 kilometers would encounter high interior radiation levels. Pronounced spacecraft geometry effects have been measured in manned spacecraft. Instrumentation for radiation measurements on Gemini spacecraft is described.

  6. A Hypothesis on Biological Protection from Space Radiation Through the Use of Therapeutic Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation proposes a hypothesis to use therapeutic gases in space to enhance the biological protection for astronauts from space radiation. The fundamental role in how radiation causes biological damage appears to be radiolysis, the dissociation of water by radiation. A chain of events appears to cause molecular and biological transformations that ultimately manifest into medical diseases. The hypothesis of this work is that applying medical gases may increase resistance to radiation, by possessing the chemical properties that effectively improve the radical scavenging and enhance bond repair and to induce biological processes which enhance and support natural resistance and repair mechanisms.

  7. Tea, coffee, and cocoa as ultraviolet radiation protectants for the beet armyworm nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    El-Salamouny, S; Ranwala, D; Shapiro, M; Shepard, B M; Farrar, Robert R

    2009-10-01

    The addition of 1% (wt:vol) aqueous extracts of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), coffee (Coffea arabica L.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), and green and black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) (Ericales: Theaceae) provided excellent UV radiation protection for the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), nucleopolyhedrovirus under laboratory conditions. Aqueous extracts of coffee, green tea, and black tea at 0.5% provided 85-100% UV protection, whereas cocoa provided 50% UV protection. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a component of green tea, and caffeine, a component of tea and coffee, also were tested as UV protectants. Both compounds were ineffective when tested alone. When EGCG and caffeine were combined, UV protection increased in a synergistic manner, but <35% of the original virus activity was maintained. This study demonstrated that coffee was comparable to green tea and black tea as a UV protectant. Further studies should be conducted to optimize their use in biopesticide formulations. PMID:19886440

  8. Geometric programming prediction of design trends for OMV protective structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mog, R. A.; Horn, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The global optimization trends of protective honeycomb structural designs for spacecraft subject to hypervelocity meteroid and space debris are presented. This nonlinear problem is first formulated for weight minimization of the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV) using a generic monomial predictor. Five problem formulations are considered, each dependent on the selection of independent design variables. Each case is optimized by considering the dual geometric programming problem. The dual variables are solved for in terms of the generic estimated exponents of the monomial predictor. The primal variables are then solved for by conversion. Finally, parametric design trends are developed for ranges of the estimated regression parameters. Results specify nonmonotonic relationships for the optimal first and second sheet mass per unit areas in terms of the estimated exponents.

  9. Hanford Protective Barriers Program water-erosion studies, FY 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, K.A.; Cadwell, L.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1990-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting the water-erosion control task of the Hanford Protective Barriers Program to assess barrier stability against soil erosion and slumping. The purpose of the barriers is to protect shallow-burial waste sites at the Hanford Site from water infiltration, biointrusion, and surficial erosion for up to 10,000 years. These aboveground, mounded structures will consist of layered, fine-grained sediment and rock designed to direct surface- and ground-water pathways away from the buried waste. The fine-grained sediment for the barrier will be obtained from the McGee Ranch on the Hanford Site. The purpose of the FY 1989 field work was to test two hypotheses concerning the behavior of McGee Ranch soil: runoff may occur on very dry, fine-grained sediment prior to complete saturation and rainsplash is an important erosional process for this type of sediment. This report describes plot construction, sediment sampling, and calibration testing of the rainfall simulator. Baseline stratigraphic and sedimentologic data include bulk density and textural properties of sediment in the test plots. Baseline precipitation data consist of predetermined raindrop sizes, rainfall intensities, plot coverage, and operational data for the simulator. 10 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. About RRP | Radiation Research Program (RRP)

    Cancer.gov

    Through the Molecular Radiation Therapeutics Branch, providing guidance to extramural investigators, collaborating with DCTD experts and working with colleagues in the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research to develop novel combined modality therapy.

  11. Radiation protection recommendations on dose limits: The role of the NCRP and the ICRP and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, W.K. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the role of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in making recommendations on dose limits for ionizing radiation exposure for workers and for the public. The text describes the new limits for workers and public recommended by ICRP in 1991 and NCRP in 1993 and the composition of the radiation health detriment on which they are based. The main component of this detriment is the risk of radiation induced cancer which is now estimated to be about three times greater than a decade or so earlier. Uncertainties in these risk estimates are discussed. Some special radiation protection problems, such as those for the embryo or fetus are described. The article also addresses future progress in radiation protection particularly with regard to future improvements in the scientific basis for radiation protection recommendations.

  12. 75 FR 417 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Statewide Communication Interoperability Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security, National Protection and Programs Directorate/Cybersecurity and Communications/Office of Emergency Communications, has submitted the following Information Collection Request...

  13. 75 FR 9608 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Technical Assistance Request and Evaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security, National Protection and Programs Directorate/Cybersecurity and Communications/Office of Emergency Communications, has submitted the following Information Collection Request...

  14. Experimental Determination of Ultraviolet Radiation Protection of Common Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavares, Susana C. A.; da Silva, Joaquim C. G. Esteves; Paiva, Joao

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at a better understanding of the problems associated with the depletion of the ozone layer, we propose several experiments to be performed by students of different levels: secondary and first-year undergraduate students. The oxidation of iodide induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, generated by a mercury lamp, is used as an indicator for…

  15. Radiation protection for the sentinel node procedure in breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Y. de Kanter; P. P. A. M. Arends; A. M. M. Eggermont; T. Wiggers

    2003-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of our study was to determine the radiation dose for those who are involved in the sentinel node procedure in breast cancer patients and testing of a theoretical model.Methods: We studied 12 consecutive breast cancer patients undergoing breast surgery, and a sentinel node dissection including an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). We performed measurements on the surgeon,

  16. Radiation Protection by Cysteamine and Cellular Sulphydryl Levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    László Révész; Helena Bergstrand

    1963-01-01

    IN publications describing a series of experiments a group of Dutch investigators1 recently gave quantitative results on the radioprotective power of different chemical agents at the cellular level in an in vitro system. Assayed by the degree to which radiation damage, as measured by the loss of reproductive integrity of human kidney cells, was prevented, it was shown that the

  17. Modification of silicone sealant to improve gamma radiation resistance, by addition of protective agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Pérez, Giovanni; Burillo, Guillermina

    2013-09-01

    Poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) sealant (SS) was modified with the addition of different protective compounds to conserve its physical-chemical properties during gamma irradiation. 2-Vinyl naphthalene (2-VN), bisphenol-A (BPA) and poly (vinyl carbazole) (PVK) were used to evaluate radiation protection through the crosslinking effect of radiation. The samples were irradiated with doses from 100 kGy to 500 kGy at room temperature in air, with a 60Co gamma source, and the changes in molecular weight, thermal behavior, elastic properties and infrared spectra (FTIR-ATR) absorbance analysis were determined. The molecular weight of unmodified silicone sealant increases with the absorbed dose because of crosslinking as predominant effect. However, the crosslinking effect was inhibited with the addition of protective agent due to the aromatic compounds present. Modified silicone sealant films present better radiation resistance than unmodified system.

  18. The beta calibration of radiation survey instruments at protection levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Owen

    1972-01-01

    Beta ray dose rates at protection levels from sources of 90Sr+90Y, 204Tl and 147Pm have been measured in units of 'millirads in air per hour' with a statistical uncertainty of +or-2% or less, and an estimated uncertainty of +or-4% or less, using a specially designed thin-walled, parallel-plate ionization chamber. The measured dose rates from these sources have been used to

  19. Radiation Protection Studies of International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A. (Editor); Shavers, Mark R. (Editor); Saganti, Premkumar B. (Editor); Miller, Jack (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This publication describes recent investigations that evaluate radiation shielding characteristics of NASA's and the Russian Space Agency's space suits. The introduction describes the suits and presents goals of several experiments performed with them. The first chapter provides background information about the dynamic radiation environment experienced at ISS and summarized radiation health and protection requirements for activities in low Earth orbit. Supporting studies report the development and application of a computer model of the EMU space suit and the difficulty of shielding EVA crewmembers from high-energy reentrant electrons, a previously unevaluated component of the space radiation environment. Chapters 2 through 6 describe experiments that evaluate the space suits' radiation shielding characteristics. Chapter 7 describes a study of the potential radiological health impact on EVA crewmembers of two virtually unexamined environmental sources of high-energy electrons-reentrant trapped electrons and atmospheric albedo or "splash" electrons. The radiological consequences of those sources have not been evaluated previously and, under closer scrutiny. A detailed computational model of the shielding distribution provided by components of the NASA astronauts' EMU is being developed for exposure evaluation studies. The model is introduced in Chapters 8 and 9 and used in Chapter 10 to investigate how trapped particle anisotropy impacts female organ doses during EVA. Chapter 11 presents a review of issues related to estimating skin cancer risk form space radiation. The final chapter contains conclusions about the protective qualities of the suit brought to light form these studies, as well as recommendations for future operational radiation protection.

  20. Investigation of the behavior of protection elements against field radiated line coupled UWB-pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzikalla, R.; Ter Haseborg, J. L.

    2006-09-01

    To protect electronic systems against electromagnetic interferences in general nonlinear protection circuits are used. These protection circuits are optimized mostly against special transient interferences such as lightning electromagnetic pulses (LEMP) or electromagnetic pulses caused by nuclear explosions (NEMP). Previous investigations have shown that these protection elements could be undermined by so-called ultra wideband (UWB) pulses. Thereby a direct charge of the UWB-pulse to the elements has been assumed. This assumption was a worst case approximation because in practice UWB-pulses only get into systems by coupling effects. In this investigation the behavior of typical nonlinear protection elements has been tested with field radiated line coupled UWB-pulses. For that line coupled UWB-pulses have been defined depending on the coupling behavior of typical electronic systems and a possibility of generation of this kind of pulses is presented. After it typical nonlinear protection elements such as spark gaps, varistors and protection diodes have been tested with the previously defined test pulses. Finally the measured behavior of the elements has been compared with the behavior by direct charged UWB-pulses and the protection effect of the elements against field radiated line coupled UWB-pulses is re-evaluated.

  1. Protective clothing: Fire and radiation environments. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning clothing design, fabrication, and testing for personal protection from exposure to flames and radiation. Citations discuss the treatment of fibers and textiles, testing for physiological tolerances, and methods of decontamination after exposure. Discussed also are user acceptance and proper use of protective clothing by firefighters, nuclear energy personnel, and others. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Application of some magnetic nanocompounds in the protection against sun radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sincai, Mariana; Argherie, Diana; Ganga, Diana; Bica, Doina; Vekas, Ladislau

    2007-04-01

    The protective effect of some magnetic nanocompounds against prolonged exposure to UV radiation was investigated. Research was carried in white mice whose auricles (ears) were treated with magnetic nanocompounds in various concentrations. After 8 h of exposure, small auricular fragments from treated and control animals were prepared for cytohistological studies. In animals treated with magnetic nanocompounds, no erythema or other UV-induced changes were noticed. The magnetic nanoparticles thus were UV protective and might be useful as a sunscreen.

  3. Radiation protection design considerations for man in geosynchronous orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossi, M. L.; Stauber, M. C.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of preliminary studies which have been carried out to identify design requirements and mission constraints imposed by the geosynchronous radiation environment. The radiation species of dominant impact are the trapped electrons and solar flare particles. The criterion used in the conducted shielding design analysis has been to limit the skin dose to 100 rems for 3 months. The analysis included the optimization of an electron/bremsstrahlung shield for residence within the vehicle, the minimization of the dose received in extravehicular activity, and the calculation of special shield requirements for solar flares. An investigation was conducted of the potential benefits accruing from a three-layered composite shield with part of the aluminum layer replaced with a lower atomic number material. The materials considered were polyethylene, carbon, beryllium, and lithium hydride.

  4. Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on Cyanobacteria and their Protective Mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bagmi Pattanaik; Rhena Schumann; Ulf Karsten

    \\u000a Enhanced solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) due to stratospheric ozone depletion is a major stress factor for many phototrophic\\u000a organisms in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems (Franklin and Forster, 1997). UVR includes the wavelengths below those visible\\u000a to the human eye. According to the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage), the spectral range is divided into three\\u000a wavebands: 315–400 nm UVA, 280–315 nm

  5. Protective surface coatings on semiconductor nuclear radiation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Hansen; E. E. Haller; G. S. Hubbard

    1980-01-01

    Surface states on germanium p-i-n junctions have been investigated using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and collimated beams of 60 keV gamma-rays. The DLTS spectra have a characteristic signature for each surface treatment but the spectra are complex and not readily interpretable as to suitability for radiation detectors. Collimated gamma-ray beams give a direct measure of surface channel effects and

  6. Protective surface coatings on semiconductor nuclear radiation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Hansen; E. E. Haller; G. S. Hubbard

    1979-01-01

    Surface states on germanium p-i-n junctions have been investigated using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and collimated beams of 60 keV gamma-rays. The DLTS spectra have a characteristic signature for each surface treatment but the spectra are complex and not readily interpretable as to suitability for radiation detectors. Collimated gamma-ray beams give a direct measure of surface channel effects and

  7. Personnel radiation dosimetry symposium: program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    The purpose was to provide applied and research dosimetrists with sufficient information to evaluate the status and direction of their programs relative to the latest guidelines and techniques. A technical program was presented concerning experience, requirements, and advances in gamma, beta, and neutron personnel dosimetry.

  8. Radiation Effects and Protection for Moon and Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, Thomas A.; Watts, John W., Jr.; Armstrong, Tony W.

    1998-01-01

    Manned and robotic missions to the Earth's moon and Mars are exposed to a continuous flux of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and occasional, but intense, fluxes of Solar Energetic Particles (SEP). These natural radiations impose hazards to manned exploration, but also present some constraints to the design of robotic missions. The hazards to interplanetary flight crews and their uncertainties have been studied recently by a National Research Council Committee (Space Studies Board 1996). Considering the present uncertainty estimates, thick spacecraft shielding would be needed for manned missions, some of which could be accomplished with onboard equipment and expendables. For manned and robotic missions, the effects of radiation on electronics, sensors, and controls require special consideration in spacecraft design. This paper describes the GCR and SEP particle fluxes, secondary particles behind shielding, uncertainties in radiobiological effects and their impact on manned spacecraft design, as well as the major effects on spacecraft equipment. The principal calculational tools and considerations to mitigate the radiation effects are discussed, and work in progress to reduce uncertainties is included.

  9. Overview of NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) Program: Highlights of the Model Improvement and the New Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, Artem L.; Plante, I.; George, Kerry; Cornforth, M. N.; Loucas, B. D.; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    This presentation summarizes several years of research done by the co-authors developing the NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) program and supporting it with scientific data. The goal of the program is to support NASA mission to achieve a safe space travel for humans despite the perils of space radiation. The program focuses on selected topics in radiation biology that were deemed important throughout this period of time, both for the NASA human space flight program and to academic radiation research. Besides scientific support to develop strategies protecting humans against an exposure to deep space radiation during space missions, and understanding health effects from space radiation on astronauts, other important ramifications of the ionizing radiation were studied with the applicability to greater human needs: understanding the origins of cancer, the impact on human genome, and the application of computer technology to biological research addressing the health of general population. The models under NASARTI project include: the general properties of ionizing radiation, such as particular track structure, the effects of radiation on human DNA, visualization and the statistical properties of DSBs (DNA double-strand breaks), DNA damage and repair pathways models and cell phenotypes, chromosomal aberrations, microscopy data analysis and the application to human tissue damage and cancer models. The development of the GUI and the interactive website, as deliverables to NASA operations teams and tools for a broader research community, is discussed. Most recent findings in the area of chromosomal aberrations and the application of the stochastic track structure are also presented.

  10. Radiation protection for human exploration of the moon and mars: Application of the mash code system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.O.; Santoro, R.T.; Drischler, J.D.; Barnes, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding code system -- MASH, developed for the Department of Defense for calculating radiation protection factors for armored vehicles against neutron and gamma radiation, has been used to assess the dose from reactor radiation to an occupant in a habitat on Mars. The capability of MASH to reproduce measured data is summarized to demonstrate the accuracy of the code. The estimation of the radiation environment in an idealized reactor-habitat model is reported to illustrate the merits of the adjoint Monte Carlo procedure for space related studies. The reactor radiation dose for different reactor-habitat surface configurations to a habitat occupant is compared with the natural radiation dose acquired during a 500-day Mars mission.

  11. Radiation protection--a look to the future: ICRP perceptions

    SciTech Connect

    Lindell, B.

    1988-08-01

    The author was invited to talk about ICRP perceptions of a look to the future. Many questions will be addressed when the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) initiates a revision of its basic recommendations from 1977, which were published in ICRP Publication 26. This process will take several years, and in the meantime the author does not expect any major changes in the present policy of the commission. It is still too early to predict the commission's future policy but, to some extent, present trends might be extrapolated, as indicated in this discussion.

  12. A biokinetic model for manganese for use in radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The ICRP is updating its recommendations regarding occupational exposure to radionuclides including the biokinetic models used to derive dose coefficients and assess bioassay data for internally deposited radionuclides. This report reviews biokinetic data for manganese and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic manganese consistent with the current database. The model provides a more detailed and biologically realistic description of the movement of absorbed manganese in the body than the model currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The proposed model and current ICRP model yield broadly similar estimates of dose per unit activity of inhaled or ingested radio-manganese but differ substantially with regard to interpretation of bioassay data.

  13. Nonequilibrium air radiation (Nequair) program: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.

    1985-01-01

    A supplement to the data relating to the calculation of nonequilibrium radiation in flight regimes of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles contains the listings of the computer code NEQAIR (Nonequilibrium Air Radiation), its primary input data, and explanation of the user-supplied input variables. The user-supplied input variables are the thermodynamic variables of air at a given point, i.e., number densities of various chemical species, translational temperatures of heavy particles and electrons, and vibrational temperature. These thermodynamic variables do not necessarily have to be in thermodynamic equilibrium. The code calculates emission and absorption characteristics of air under these given conditions.

  14. Protective Effect of Rare Earth Against Oxidative Stress Under Ultraviolet-B Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lihong Wang; Xiaohua Huang; Qing Zhou

    2009-01-01

    The effects of lanthanum (III) (La(III)) in protecting soybean leaves against oxidative stress induced by ultraviolet-B (UV-B)\\u000a radiation were investigated. The increase in contents of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide ($${\\\\text{O}}_{\\\\text{2}}^ \\\\cdot \\\\,^ - $$) due to UV-B radiation suggested oxidative stress. The increase in the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the decrease\\u000a in the index of unsaturated fatty acid

  15. Protection of cellular DNA from ?-radiation-induced damages and enhancement in DNA repair by troxerutin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dharmendra Kumar Maurya; Sreedevi Balakrishnan; Veena Prakash Salvi; Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan Nair

    2005-01-01

    The effect of troxerutin on ?-radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in different tissues of mice in vivo and formations of the micronuclei were studied in human peripheral blood lymphocytes ex vivo and mice blood reticulocytes in vivo. Treatments with 1 mM troxerutin significantly inhibited the micronuclei induction in the human lymphocytes. Troxerutin protected\\u000a the human peripheral blood leucocytes from radiation-induced DNA

  16. Shielding and radiation protection at the SSRL 3 GeV injector

    SciTech Connect

    Ipe, N.E.; Liu, J.C.

    1991-12-01

    The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) Injector is comprised of a linear accelerator (linac) capable of energies {le} 150 MeV, a 3 GeV booster synchrotron, and a beam line to transport the electrons into the storage ring SPEAR. The injector is shielded so that under normal operating conditions, the annual dose equivalent at the shield surface does not exceed 10 mSv. This paper describes the shielding and radiation protection at the injector.

  17. Enhanced hematopoietic protection from radiation by the combination of genistein and captopril.

    PubMed

    Day, R M; Davis, T A; Barshishat-Kupper, M; McCart, E A; Tipton, A J; Landauer, M R

    2013-02-01

    The hematopoietic system is sensitive to radiation injury, and mortality can occur due to blood cell deficiency and stem cell loss. Genistein and the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril are two agents shown to protect the hematopoietic system from radiation injury. In this study we examined the combination of genistein with captopril for reduction of radiation-induced mortality from hematopoietic damage and the mechanisms of radiation protection. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 8.25Gy (60)Co total body irradiation (TBI) to evaluate the effects of genistein and captopril alone and in combination on survival, blood cell recovery, hematopoietic progenitor cell recovery, DNA damage, and erythropoietin production. 8.25Gy TBI resulted in 0% survival after 30days in untreated mice. A single subcutaneous injection of genistein administered 24h before TBI resulted in 72% survival. Administration of captopril in the drinking water, from 1h through 30days postirradiation, increased survival to 55%. Genistein plus captopril increased survival to 95%. Enhanced survival was reflected in a reduction of radiation-induced anemia, improved recovery of nucleated bone marrow cells, splenocytes and circulating red blood cells. The drug combination enhanced early recovery of marrow progenitors: erythroid (CFU-E and BFU-E), and myeloid (CFU-GEMM, CFU-GM and CFU-M). Genistein alone and genistein plus captopril protected hematopoietic progenitor cells from radiation-induced micronuclei, while captopril had no effect. Captopril alone and genistein plus captopril, but not genistein alone, suppressed radiation-induced erythropoietin production. These data suggest that genistein and captopril protect the hematopoietic system from radiation injury via independent mechanisms. PMID:23328620

  18. User's manual for University of Arizona APART program (Analysis Program - Arizona Radiation Trace)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breault, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A description and operating instructions for the Analysis Program Arizona Radiation Trace (APART) are given. This is a computer program that is able to efficiently and accurately predict the off-axis rejection characteristics of unwanted stray radiation for complex rotationally symmetric optical systems. The program first determines the critical objects or areas that scatter radiation to the image plane either directly or through imaging elements: this provides the opportunity to modify, if necessary, the design so that the number of critical areas seen by the image plane is reduced or the radiation to these critical areas is minimized. Next, the power distribution reaching the image plane and a sectional power map of all internal surfaces are computed. Angular information is also provided that relates the angle by which the radiation came into a surface to the angle by which the radiation is scattered out of the surface.

  19. [Medical protection during radiation accidents: some results and lessons of the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Legeza, V I; Grebeniuk, A N; Zatsepin, V V

    2011-01-01

    Actions of medical radiation protection of liquidators of consequences of on Chernobyl atomic power station accident are analysed. It is shown, that during the early period of the accident medical protection of liquidators was provided by administration of radioprotectors, means of prophylaxis: of radioactive iodine incorporation and agent for preventing psychological and emotional stress. When carrying out decontamination and regenerative works, preparations which action is caused by increase of nonspecific resistance of an organism were applied. The lessons taken from the results of the Chernobyl accident, have allowed one to improve the system of medical protection and to introduce in practice new highly effective radioprotective agents. PMID:21520618

  20. United States Environmental Protection Agency | Office of Air and Radiation (6608J) | EPA 402-F-05-028 | October 2005 www.epa.gov/radiation/yucca

    E-print Network

    United States Environmental Protection Agency | Office of Air and Radiation (6608J) | EPA 402-F-05-028 | October 2005 www.epa.gov/radiation/yucca EPA Yucca Mountain Fact Sheet #4: Agency Roles in the Approval for protection for human health and the environment. This fact sheet shows the roles of the different government

  1. CONSERVATION AND NATURAL RESOURCES Water Resources: Enact Flint River Drought Protection Act; Create Drought Protection Program; Require the Board of Natural Resources To Establish a Drought Protection Program; Require Cooperation with the Georgia Environmental Facilities Authority

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Windsor

    2000-01-01

    The Act, known as the Flint River Drought Protection Act, adds several sections to the Code to identify the importance of Georgia's water resources, define certain terms, and authorize the Board of Natural Resources and the Director of the Environmental Protection Division (EPD) of the Department of Natural Resources to create and enforce a drought protection program and administer funds.

  2. Research on radiation protection in the application of new technologies for proton and heavy ion radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tujii, Hirohiko; Akagi, Takashi; Akahane, Keiichi; Uwamino, Yoshitomo; Ono, Tatsuya; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Kohno, Ryosuke; Sakae, Takeji; Shimizu, Masakazu; Urakabe, Eriko; Nakayama, Takashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Nishio, Teiji; Noshizawa, Kanae; Nishizawa, Kunihide; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Yamashita, Haruo; Yonai, Shunsuke

    2009-01-01

    Particle radiotherapy using proton and heavy ion beams has shown improved clinical results and is a promising cancer therapy which is expected to gradually spread in Japan. There are, however, no special regulations for radiotherapy treatment facilities. They have been operated under the same safety regulations as for a research facility using a research accelerator. Significantly high-energy radiation is necessary for particle radiotherapy compared with conventional radiation therapy. The treatment facility, therefore, should have a large accelerator, which is installed in a room with a thick shield wall. Data on radiation protection for such high energy medical facilities is fragmentary and insufficient. In this study, we examined the necessity of other regulations for the safe operation of medical facilities for particle radiotherapy. First, we measured activation levels of the therapeutic devices and of patients. Next the safety level of the medical facility was evaluated from the viewpoint of radiation protection. We have confirmed the facilities can be safely operated by present regulations given in the Law Concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazards due to Radiation Isotopes, etc. or the Law for Health Protection and Medical Care. PMID:21976255

  3. Radiative return physics program within EURIDICE network

    E-print Network

    Henryk Czyz; Agnieszka Grzelinska

    2007-08-08

    A short review of both theoretical and experimental aspects of the radiative return method is presented with the emphasize on the results obtained within the EURIDICE network. It is shown that the method gives not only possibility of an independent from the scan method measurement of the hadronic cross section, but also can provide information concerning details of the hadronic interactions.

  4. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, September 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-10-10

    Our Changing Climate--Is our climate really changing? How do we measure climate change? How can we predict what Earth's climate will be like for generations to come? One focus of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to improve scientific climate models enough to achieve reliable regional prediction of future climate. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the global mean surface temperature has increased by 0.5-1.0 F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century, with 1998 being the warmest year of record. The global mean surface temperature is measured by a network of temperature-sensing instruments distributed around the world, including ships, ocean buoys, and weather stations on land. The data from this network are retrieved and analyzed by various organizations, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the World Meteorological Organization. Worldwide temperature records date back to 1860. To reconstruct Earth's temperature history before 1860, scientists use limited temperature records, along with proxy indicators such as tree rings, pollen records, and analysis of air frozen in ancient ice. The solar energy received from the sun drives Earth's weather and climate. Some of this energy is reflected and filtered by the atmosphere, but most is absorbed by Earth's surface. The absorbed solar radiation warms the surface and is re-radiated as heat energy into the atmosphere. Some atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases, trap some of the re-emitted heat, keeping the surface temperature regulated and suitable for sustaining life. Although the greenhouse effect is natural, some evidence indicates that human activities are producing increased levels of some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Scientists believe that the combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for the increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. According to the EPA, the burning of fossil fuels for cars and trucks, the heating of homes and businesses, and the operation of power plants account for approximately 98% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions. The increase of greenhouse gases will, theoretically, enhance the greenhouse effect by trapping more of the heat energy emitted by Earth's surface, thus increasing the surface temperatures on a global scale. Scientists expect that the global average surface temperature could rise 1-4.5 F in the next 50 years and as much as 10 F in the next century. Global warming could potentially have harmful effects on human health, water resources, forests, agriculture, wildlife, and coastal areas. A few degrees of warming might lead to more frequent and severe heat waves, worsened air pollution with adverse effects on human respiratory health, and wider spread of tropical disease such as malaria. The world's hydrologic cycle might be affected by an increase in evaporation and, thus, in precipitation. An increase in evaporation will increase atmospheric water vapor, a significant natural greenhouse gas. The increase in water vapor might further enhance the global warming caused by the greenhouse effect. This is known as a positive feedback. The increase in water vapor could also change the amount of clouds present in the atmosphere, which could reduce temperatures in a negative feedback. Many interrelated factors affect the global climate and are responsible for climate change. Predicting the outcome of the interactions among the many factors is not easy, but it must be addressed. The ARM Program is taking a lead in this effort by collecting vast amounts of data whose analysis will improve our forecasting models for both daily weather and long-term climate. For more information on the ARM Program, please visit our web site at www.arm.gov.

  5. Intercomparison of radiation protection instrumentation in a pulsed neutron field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caresana, M.; Denker, A.; Esposito, A.; Ferrarini, M.; Golnik, N.; Hohmann, E.; Leuschner, A.; Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Manessi, G.; Mayer, S.; Ott, K.; Röhrich, J.; Silari, M.; Trompier, F.; Volnhals, M.; Wielunski, M.

    2014-02-01

    In the framework of the EURADOS working group 11, an intercomparison of active neutron survey meters was performed in a pulsed neutron field (PNF). The aim of the exercise was to evaluate the performances of various neutron instruments, including commercially available rem-counters, personal dosemeters and instrument prototypes. The measurements took place at the cyclotron of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH. The cyclotron is routinely used for proton therapy of ocular tumours, but an experimental area is also available. For the therapy the machine accelerates protons to 68 MeV. The interaction of the proton beam with a thick tungsten target produces a neutron field with energy up to about 60 MeV. One interesting feature of the cyclotron is that the beam can be delivered in bursts, with the possibility to modify in a simple and flexible way the burst length and the ion current. Through this possibility one can obtain radiation bursts of variable duration and intensity. All instruments were placed in a reference position and irradiated with neutrons delivered in bursts of different intensity. The analysis of the instrument response as a function of the burst charge (the total electric charge of the protons in the burst shot onto the tungsten target) permitted to assess for each device the dose underestimation due to the time structure of the radiation field. The personal neutron dosemeters were exposed on a standard PMMA slab phantom and the response linearity was evaluated.

  6. Physical phantom of typical Korean male for radiation protection purpose.

    PubMed

    Kim, J I; Choi, H; Lee, B I; Lim, Y K; Kim, C S; Lee, J K; Lee, C

    2006-01-01

    Dose distribution within a human body can be measured using physical anthropomorphic phantoms. In an effort to establish reference Korean physical model, the first Korean physical phantom of average Korean adult male was constructed using computed tomography (CT) images of a healthy volunteer. The body dimension of the subject was close to that of average Korean male. The source images were obtained using fusion positron emission tomography machine at Radiation Health Research Institute in Korea, and ported into rapid prototyping process. The physical phantom was composed of three tissue-equivalent materials: epoxy resin, urethane foam and polyurethane representing bone, lungs and soft tissues, respectively. The densities of the tissue-equivalent materials were close to those recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and measurements. To facilitate dose mapping, the phantom was sliced into 2 cm sections. Hole grids for thermoluminescence (TL) dosemeter chips were drilled. To verify the appropriateness of the physical phantom, organ doses of selected organs were measured for reference photon beam, and compared with those computed by tomographic model constructed from the same CT images. Absorbed doses converted from TL relative response showed good agreement within 7% with those calculated. PMID:16410295

  7. Some recent data on chemical protection against ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatome, M.; Laval, J. D.; Roman, V.

    Once introduced in the organism, the radioprotectors are fastly degraded and that increases their toxicity, shortens their duration of action and renders them inactive after oral delivery. So, it was tried to protect them by their incorporation in vectors. When a cysteamine-liposomal suspension was orally delivered, it showed a radioprotective activity for about 4 hours. By using 35 S cysteamine, it was noted that its plasmatic concentration was increased. Freeze-drying of these preparations was a good mean of conservation if the samples were stored at 4°C. A good and sustained activity was also obtained after oral delivery of WR-2721 entrapped in microspheres. Otherwise, it was shown that after interacting with the polar heads of phospholipids, under determined conditions of pH and in fluid phase, aminothiols can penetrate inside the membrane and be entrapped in the internal medium of liposomes and as they penetrate, they can lessen the diffusion of oxygen in the lipidic bilayers.

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, April 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2000-05-05

    This issue of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM Program) monthly newsletter is about the ARM Program goal to improve scientific understanding of the interactions of sunlight (solar radiation) with the atmosphere, then incorporate this understanding into computer models of climate change. To model climate accurately all around the globe, a variety of data must be collected from many locations on Earth. For its Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites, ARM chose locations in the US Southern Great Plains, the North Slope of Alaska, and the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean to represent different climate types around the world. In this newsletter they consider the North Slope of Alaska site, with locations at Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska.

  9. Citizen radiation monitoring program for the TMI area

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, A.J.; Gricar, B.G.; Jester, W.A.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of the program was to develop a system for citizens to independently measure radiation levels in and around their communities. This report describes the process by which the Program was developed and operated. It also presents the methods used to select and train the citizens in making and interpreting the measurements. The test procedures used to select the equipment for the program are described as are the results of the testing. Finally, the actual monitoring results are discussed along with the citizens' reactions to the program.

  10. Call Title: Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection Call Identifier: FP7-Fission-2009

    E-print Network

    De Cindio, Fiorella

    small or medium-scale Collaborative Projects Advanced nuclear systems for increased sustainability in sustainable nuclear fission energy Coordination and Support Action (coordinating action) Fission-2.3 FissionCall Title: Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection · Call Identifier: FP7-Fission-2009 · Date

  11. Solar radiation, lip protection, and lip cancer risk in Los Angeles County women (California, United States)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice M. Pogoda; Susan Preston-Martin

    1996-01-01

    A population-based case-control study of 74 women with lip cancer diagnosed from 1978 to 1985 in Los Angeles County (California, United States) and frequency matched to 105 controls investigated the risk of solar radiation and protection from lip sunscreening agents to explore the hypothesis that excess incidence of lip cancer seen in men is due partly to lower rates in

  12. Ambient ultraviolet radiation induces protective responses in soybean but does not attenuate indirect defense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorsten R. Winter; Michael Rostás

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation on (i) the performance and chemistry of soybean plants, (ii) the performance of Spodoptera frugiperda and (iii) the foraging behavior of the herbivore's natural enemy Cotesia marginiventris which exploits herbivore-induced plant volatiles (VOC) for host location. The accumulation of protective phenolics was faster in plants receiving ambient UV than in controls

  13. Tea, Coffee, and Cocoa as Ultraviolet Radiation Protectants for the Beet Armyworm Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. EL-SALAMOUNY; D. RANWALA; M. SHAPIRO; B. M. SHEPARD; ROBERT R. FARRAR

    The addition of 1% (wt:vol) aqueous extracts of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), coffee (Coffea arabica L.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), and green and black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) (Ericales: Theaceae) provided excellent UV radiation protection for the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), nucleopolyhedrovirus under laboratory con- ditions. Aqueous extracts of coffee, green tea, and black tea at 0.5%

  14. Development of Curricula for Nuclear Radiation Protection, Nuclear Instrumentation, and Nuclear Materials Processing Technologies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Daniel M.

    A study was conducted to assist two-year postsecondary educational institutions in providing technical specialty courses for preparing nuclear technicians. As a result of project activities, curricula have been developed for five categories of nuclear technicians and operators: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and…

  15. FP7 Euratom Work Programme Call title: Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection

    E-print Network

    De Cindio, Fiorella

    FP7 Euratom Work Programme Call Fiche Call title: Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection Call-1.2.2: Transmutation fuels and targets and their reprocessing Collaborative Project, either small or medium of European research on severe accident phenomenology and management Network of Excellence Fission-2008

  16. Ceramic coatings on package lids for radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Garino, T.J.; Reber, C.A.; Fleetwood, D.M.

    1991-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of coating gold plated kovar lids with colloidally bonded aluminum oxide. Radiation that is incident on a gold plated lid generates a large number of photoelectrons. These electrons can enhance the damage to microelectronic devices and circuits (ICs). The primary purpose of the coating is to stop the electrons emitted from the lid that would otherwise increase the damage to the IC. A coating system consisting of {approximately}95 wt % alumina (0.5 {mu}m particles) and {approximately}5 wt % colloidal silica (10 nm particles) was developed. The coating was applied to the lids as an aqueous suspension which was then dried to form a porous coating. Coating processing conditions were optimized so that crack-free, uniform coatings with the required thickness ({approximately}80 {mu}m) could be consistently produced. Preliminary data have indicated that the coated lid can be attached to the IC package using current belt furnace sealing procedures. The adhesion and mechanical integrity of the coatings were evaluated by submitting coated lids to centrifuge and shock testing. Selected coatings successfully withstood the shock test and 85% were undamaged after being subjected to an acceleration of 30,000 g's. Several types of radiation tests were performed to determine the effectiveness of the coating to stop electron penetration. Evaluation testing included gamma dose enhancement and X- ray induced photocurrent enhancement. The results for lids with coatings 80 or 150 {mu}m thick were compared with results for uncoated kovar and ceramic lids. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1990 highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwell, L.L. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    The Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program was jointly developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to design and test an earthen cover system(s) that can be used to inhibit water infiltration; plant, animal, and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion. The joint PNL/WHC program was initiated in FY 1986. To date, research findings support the initial concepts of barrier designs for the Hanford Site. A fine-soil surface is planned to partition surface water into runoff and temporary storage. Transpiration by vegetation that grows in the fine-soil layer will return stored water to the atmosphere as will surface evaporation. A capillary break created by the interface of the fine-soil layer and coarser textured materials below will further limit the downward migration of surface water, making it available over a longer period of time for cycling to the atmosphere. Should water pass the interface, it will drain laterally through a coarse textured sand/gravel layer. Tested barrier designs appear to work adequately to prevent drainage under current and postulated wetter-climate (added precipitation) conditions. Wind and water erosion tasks are developing data to predict the extent of erosion on barrier surfaces. Data collected during the last year confirm the effectiveness of small burrowing animals in removing surface water. Water infiltrating through burrows of larger mammals was subsequently lost by natural processes. Natural analog and climate change studies are under way to provide credibility for modeling the performance of barrier designs over a long period of time and under shifts in climate. 10 refs., 30 figs.

  18. Radiation protection recommendations on dose limits: The role on the NCRP and the ICRP and future developments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warren K. Sinclair

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the role of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in making recommendations on dose limits for ionizing radiation exposure for workers and for the public. The text describes the new limits for workers and public recommended by ICRP in 1991 and

  19. LAURISTON S. TAYLOR LECTURE ON RADIATION PROTECTION AND MEASURMENTS: WHAT MAKES PARTICLE RADIATION SO EFFECTIVE?

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, Eleanor A.

    2012-01-01

    The scientific basis for the physical and biological effectiveness of particle radiations has emerged from many decades of meticulous basic research. A diverse array of biologically relevant consequences at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organism level have been reported, but what are the key processes and mechanisms that make particle radiation so effective, and what competing processes define dose dependences? Recent studies have shown that individual genotypes control radiation-regulated genes and pathways in response to radiations of varying ionization density. The fact that densely ionizing radiations can affect different gene families than sparsely ionizing radiations, and that the effects are dose- and time-dependent has opened up new areas of future research. The complex microenvironment of the stroma, and the significant contributions of the immune response have added to our understanding of tissue-specific differences across the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum. The importance of targeted vs. nontargeted effects remain a thorny, but elusive and important contributor to chronic low dose radiation effects of variable LET that still needs further research. The induction of cancer is also LET-dependent, suggesting different mechanisms of action across the gradient of ionization density. The focus of this 35th Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture is to chronicle the step-by-step acquisition of experimental clues that have refined our understanding of what makes particle radiation so effective, with emphasis on the example of radiation effects on the crystalline lens of the human eye. PMID:23032880

  20. DIM (3,3?-diindolylmethane) confers protection against ionizing radiation by a unique mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Saijun; Meng, Qinghui; Xu, Jiaying; Jiao, Yang; Zhao, Lin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Brown, Milton L.; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Rosen, Eliot M.

    2013-01-01

    DIM (3,3?-diindolylmethane), a small molecule compound, is a proposed cancer preventive agent that can be safely administered to humans in repeated doses. We report that administration of DIM in a multidose schedule protected rodents against lethal doses of total body irradiation up to 13 Gy, whether DIM dosing was initiated before or up to 24 h after radiation. Physiologic submicromolar concentrations of DIM protected cultured cells against radiation by a unique mechanism: DIM caused rapid activation of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a nuclear kinase that regulates responses to DNA damage (DDR) and oxidative stress. Subsequently, multiple ATM substrates were phosphorylated, suggesting that DIM induces an ATM-dependent DDR-like response, and DIM enhanced radiation-induced ATM signaling and NF-?B activation. DIM also caused activation of ATM in rodent tissues. Activation of ATM by DIM may be due, in part, to inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A, an upstream regulator of ATM. In contrast, DIM did not protect human breast cancer xenograft tumors against radiation under the conditions tested. In tumors, ATM was constitutively phosphorylated and was not further stimulated by radiation and/or DIM. Our findings suggest that DIM is a potent radioprotector and mitigator that functions by stimulating an ATM-driven DDR-like response and NF-?B survival signaling. PMID:24127581

  1. Dying cells protect survivors from radiation-induced cell death in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Bilak, Amber; Uyetake, Lyle; Su, Tin Tin

    2014-03-01

    We report a phenomenon wherein induction of cell death by a variety of means in wing imaginal discs of Drosophila larvae resulted in the activation of an anti-apoptotic microRNA, bantam. Cells in the vicinity of dying cells also become harder to kill by ionizing radiation (IR)-induced apoptosis. Both ban activation and increased protection from IR required receptor tyrosine kinase Tie, which we identified in a genetic screen for modifiers of ban. tie mutants were hypersensitive to radiation, and radiation sensitivity of tie mutants was rescued by increased ban gene dosage. We propose that dying cells activate ban in surviving cells through Tie to make the latter cells harder to kill, thereby preserving tissues and ensuring organism survival. The protective effect we report differs from classical radiation bystander effect in which neighbors of irradiated cells become more prone to death. The protective effect also differs from the previously described effect of dying cells that results in proliferation of nearby cells in Drosophila larval discs. If conserved in mammals, a phenomenon in which dying cells make the rest harder to kill by IR could have implications for treatments that involve the sequential use of cytotoxic agents and radiation therapy. PMID:24675716

  2. Ground radiation tests and flight atomic oxygen tests of ITO protective coatings for Galileo Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, Frank L.; Maag, Carl R.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation simulation tests (protons and electrons) were performed along with atomic oxygen flight tests aboard the Shuttle to space qualify the surface protective coatings. The results, which contributed to the selection of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated polyester as the material for the thermal blankets of the Galileo Spacecraft, are given here. Two candidate materials, polyester and Fluorglas, were radiation-tested to determine changes at simulated Jovian radiation levels. The polyester exhibited a smaller weight loss (2.8) than the Fluorglas (8.8 percent). Other changes of polyester are given. During low-earth orbit, prior to transit to Jupiter, the thermal blankets would be exposed to atomic oxygen. Samples of uncoated and ITO-coated polyesters were flown on the Shuttle. Qualitative results are given which indicated that the ITO coating protected the underlying polyester.

  3. Intercomparison of radiation protection instrumentation in a pulsed neutron field

    E-print Network

    Caresana, M; Esposito, A; Ferrarini, M; Golnik, N; Hohmann, E; Leuschner, A; Luszik-Bhadra, M; Manessi, G; Mayer, S; Ott, K; Röhrich, J; Silari, M; Trompier, F; Volnhals, M; Wielunski, M

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the EURADOS working group 11, an intercomparison of active neutron survey meters was performed in a pulsed neutron field (PNF). The aim of the exercise was to evaluate the performances of various neutron instruments, including commercially available rem-counters, personal dosemeters and instrument prototypes. The measurements took place at the cyclotron of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH. The cyclotron is routinely used for proton therapy of ocular tumours, but an experimental area is also available. For the therapy the machine accelerates protons to 68 MeV. The interaction of the proton beam with a thick tungsten target produces a neutron field with energy up to about 60 MeV. One interesting feature of the cyclotron is that the beam can be delivered in bursts, with the possibility to modify in a simple and flexible way the burst length and the ion current. Through this possibility one can obtain radiation bursts of variable duration and intensity. All instru...

  4. Effects of ionising radiation exposure on plants, fish and mammals: relevant data for environmental radiation protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Real; S. Sundell-Bergman; J. F. Knowles; D. S. Woodhead; I. Zinger

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop a framework for the assessment of the environmental impact of radiation, it is necessary to establish the relationship between exposure (dose rate, accumulated dose) and the effects that may be induced in plants and animals. With this purpose in mind, the data available on effects induced by ionising radiation in various wildlife groups have been reviewed

  5. Protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells by treatment with antioxidant agents

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, X. Steven [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ware, Jeffrey H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Zhou, Zhaozong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Donahue, Jeremiah J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Guan, Jun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Kennedy, Ann R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)]. E-mail: akennedy@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of antioxidant agents against space radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells. Methods and Materials: The effects of selected concentrations of N-acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, co-enzyme Q10, {alpha}-lipoic acid, L-selenomethionine, and vitamin E succinate on radiation-induced oxidative stress were evaluated in MCF10 human breast epithelial cells exposed to radiation with X-rays, {gamma}-rays, protons, or high mass, high atomic number, and high energy particles using a dichlorofluorescein assay. Results: The results demonstrated that these antioxidants are effective in protecting against radiation-induced oxidative stress and complete or nearly complete protection was achieved by treating the cells with a combination of these agents before and during the radiation exposure. Conclusion: The combination of antioxidants evaluated in this study is likely be a promising countermeasure for protection against space radiation-induced adverse biologic effects.

  6. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01...programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these regulations? 29.3 Section 29.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  7. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01...programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these regulations? 29.3 Section 29.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  8. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these regulations? 29.3 Section 29.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  9. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01...programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these regulations? 29.3 Section 29.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  10. Protective effect of rare earth against oxidative stress under ultraviolet-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhou, Qing

    2009-04-01

    The effects of lanthanum (III) (La(III)) in protecting soybean leaves against oxidative stress induced by ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation were investigated. The increase in contents of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and superoxide (O2*-) due to UV-B radiation suggested oxidative stress. The increase in the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the decrease in the index of unsaturated fatty acid (IUFA) indicated oxidative damage on cell membrane induced by UV-B radiation. La(III) partially reversed UV-B-radiation-induced damage of plant growth. The reduction in the contents of H(2)O(2), O2*-, and MDA and increase in the content of IUFA, compared with UV-B treatment, also indicated that La(III) alleviated the oxidative damage induced by UV-B radiation. The increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase and the contents of ascorbate, carotenoids, and flavonoids were observed in soybean leaves with La(III) + UV-B treatment, compared with UV-B treatment. Our data suggested that La(III) could protect soybean plants from UV-B-radiation-induced oxidative stress by reacting with reactive oxygen species directly or by improving the defense system of plants. PMID:18953501

  11. PHD inhibition mitigates and protects against radiation-induced gastrointestinal toxicity via HIF2.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Cullen M; Miao, Yu Rebecca; Diep, Anh N; Wu, Colleen; Rankin, Erinn B; Atwood, Todd F; Xing, Lei; Giaccia, Amato J

    2014-05-14

    Radiation-induced gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity can be a major source of morbidity and mortality after radiation exposure. There is an unmet need for effective preventative or mitigative treatments against the potentially fatal diarrhea and water loss induced by radiation damage to the GI tract. We report that prolyl hydroxylase inhibition by genetic knockout or pharmacologic inhibition of all PHD (prolyl hydroxylase domain) isoforms by the small-molecule dimethyloxallyl glycine (DMOG) increases hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) expression, improves epithelial integrity, reduces apoptosis, and increases intestinal angiogenesis, all of which are essential for radioprotection. HIF2, but not HIF1, is both necessary and sufficient to prevent radiation-induced GI toxicity and death. Increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression contributes to the protective effects of HIF2, because inhibition of VEGF function reversed the radioprotection and radiomitigation afforded by DMOG. Additionally, mortality from abdominal or total body irradiation was reduced even when DMOG was given 24 hours after exposure. Thus, prolyl hydroxylase inhibition represents a treatment strategy to protect against and mitigate GI toxicity from both therapeutic radiation and potentially lethal radiation exposures. PMID:24828078

  12. PHD Inhibition Mitigates and Protects Against Radiation-Induced Gastrointestinal Toxicity via HIF2

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Cullen M.; Miao, Yu Rebecca; Diep, Anh N.; Wu, Colleen; Rankin, Erinn B.; Atwood, Todd F.; Xing, Lei; Giaccia, Amato J.

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity can be a major source of morbidity and mortality after radiation exposure. There is an unmet need for effective preventative or mitigative treatments against the potentially fatal diarrhea and water loss induced by radiation damage to the GI tract. We report that prolyl hydroxylase inhibition by genetic knockout or pharmacologic inhibition of all PHD isoforms by the small molecule dimethyloxyallylglycine (DMOG) increases HIF expression, improves epithelial integrity, reduces apoptosis, and increases intestinal angiogenesis, all of which are essential for radioprotection. HIF2, but not HIF1, is both necessary and sufficient to prevent radiation-induced GI toxicity and death. Increased VEGF expression contributes to the protective effects of HIF2, since inhibition of VEGF function reversed the radioprotection and radiomitigation afforded by DMOG. Additionally, mortality is reduced from abdominal or total body irradiation even when DMOG is given 24 hours after exposure. Thus, prolyl hydroxylase inhibition represents a new treatment strategy to protect against and mitigate GI toxicity from both therapeutic radiation and potentially lethal radiation exposures. PMID:24828078

  13. Radiation protection of human lymphocyte chromosomes in vitro by orientin and vicenin.

    PubMed

    Vrinda, B; Uma Devi, P

    2001-11-15

    Orientin (Ot) and Vicenin (Vc), two water-soluble flavonoids isolated from the leaves of Indian holy basil Ocimum sanctum have shown significant protection against radiation lethality and chromosomal aberrations in vivo. In the present study the protective effect of Ot and Vc against radiation induced chromosome damage in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes was determined by micronucleus test. In order to select the most effective drug concentration, fresh whole blood was exposed to 4Gy of cobalt-60 gamma-radiation with or without a 30 min pre-treatment with 6.25, 12.5, 15.0, 17.5 or 20 microM of Ot/Vc. Micronucleus (MN) assay was done by cytochalasin induced cytokinesis block method. Radiation significantly increased the MN frequency (16 times normal). Pre-treatment with either Ot or Vc at all concentrations significantly (P<0.05-0.001) reduced the MN count in a concentration dependent manner, with the optimum effect at 17.5 microM. Therefore, fresh blood samples were incubated with/without 17.5 microM Ot/Vc for 30 min and then exposed to 0.5-4Gy of gamma-radiation. Radiation increased the MN frequency linearly (r(2)=0.99) with dose. Pre-treatment with Ot or Vc significantly (P<0.01-0.001) reduced the MN counts to 51-67% of RT alone values, giving DMFs of 2.62 (Ot) and 2.48 (Vc). Both the compounds showed significant antioxidant activity in vitro at the above concentrations, which was significantly higher than that of DMSO at equimolar concentrations. Thus, the results demonstrate that both the flavonoids give significant protection to the human lymphocytes against the clastogenic effect of radiation at low, non-toxic concentrations. The radioprotection seems to be associated with their antioxidant activity. The clinical potential of these protectors in cancer therapy needs to be investigated. PMID:11673069

  14. On the use of age-specific effective dose coefficients in radiation protection of the public

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1998-11-01

    Current radiation protection standards for the public include a limit on effective dose in any year for individuals in critical groups. This paper considers the question of how the annual dose limit should be applied in controlling routine exposures of populations consisting of individuals of all ages. The authors assume that the fundamental objective of radiation protection is limitation of lifetime risk and, therefore, that standards for controlling routine exposures of the public should provide a reasonable correspondence with lifetime risk, taking into account the age dependence of intakes and doses and the variety of radionuclides and exposure pathways of concern. Using new calculations of the per capita (population-averaged) risk of cancer mortality per unit activity inhaled or ingested in the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Federal Guidance Report No. 13, the authors show that applying a limit on annual effective dose only to adults, which was the usual practice in radiation protection of the public before the development of age-specific effective dose coefficients, provides a considerably better correspondence with lifetime risk than applying the annual dose limit to the critical group of any age.

  15. NVLAP Program handbook: Personnel radiation dosimetry. Requirements for accreditation

    SciTech Connect

    Gladhill, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    The document explains the operation and technical requirements of the Laboratory Accreditation Program for Personnel Radiation Dosimetry. All of the steps leading to accreditation are discussed. Technical requirements are explained indicating how the NVLAP criteria are applied. It is intended for use by staff of accredited laboratories, those seeking accreditation, other laboratory accreditation systems, and others needing information on the requirements for NVLAP accreditation.

  16. Protecting You/Protecting Me: Evaluation of a Student-Led Alcohol Prevention and Traffic Safety Program for Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Mary Lou; Baker, Tara Kelley; Falb, Timothy; Roberts-Gray, Cindy

    2005-01-01

    Pre- and post-surveys of self-protective knowledge and skills in third, fourth, and fifth grade classrooms (n = 24) randomly assigned to a model program for alcohol prevention and traffic safety or to comparison group (n = 24 classrooms) were analyzed to evaluate replicability of immediate positive effects of first-year exposure and to test…

  17. Repeated Nrf2 stimulation using sulforaphane protects fibroblasts from ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sherin T; Bergström, Petra; Hammarsten, Ola

    2014-05-01

    Most of the cytotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation is mediated by radical-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Cellular protection from free radicals can be stimulated several fold by sulforaphane-mediated activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 that regulates more than 50 genes involved in the detoxification of reactive substances and radicals. Here, we report that repeated sulforaphane treatment increases radioresistance in primary human skin fibroblasts. Cells were either treated with sulforaphane for four hours once or with four-hour treatments repeatedly for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. Fibroblasts exposed to repeated-sulforaphane treatment showed a more pronounced dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated mRNA and reduced amount of radiation-induced free radicals compared with cells treated once with sulforaphane. In addition, radiation- induced DNA double-strand breaks measured by gamma-H2AX foci were attenuated following repeated sulforaphane treatment. As a result, cellular protection from ionizing radiation measured by the 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay was increased, specifically in cells exposed to repeated sulforaphane treatment. Sulforaphane treatment was unable to protect Nrf2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, indicating that the sulforaphane-induced radioprotection was Nrf2-dependent. Moreover, radioprotection by repeated sulforaphane treatment was dose-dependent with an optimal effect at 10 uM, whereas both lower and higher concentrations resulted in lower levels of radioprotection. Our data indicate that the Nrf2 system can be trained to provide further protection from radical damage. PMID:24603300

  18. Implications of scientific and technological developments for radiation protection in the next decade

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; Stansbury, P.S.; Paretzke, H.

    1993-01-01

    There are scientific and technological developments taking place that will affect the understanding of the interaction of ionizing radiation with matter, the ability to measure the important parameters of ionizing radiation, and the ability to model radioactivity transport, both in the human body and in the environment. This paper focuses on emerging scientific and technological developments that will impact radiation protection in the next decade. Emerging scientific developments included in this paper are new methods and better analytic capabilities in epidemiology, a better understanding of the interactions between ionizing radiation and the various cellular components and more realistic models to describe the uptake, distribution, retention and excretion of radionuclides in humans. Technological developments include instruments to measure radioactivity in the humans and the environment, and better software to calculate doses from these previously measured quantities.

  19. The present status and trend of ionizing-radiation application on environment protection in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonghua, Ding; Degui, Zheng; Aoshuang, Yan; Guanghua, Niu

    2002-03-01

    Studies in a large scale on ionizing-radiation application on environment protection and pollution control have been carried out for nearly 20 years in China. Desulphurization and denitrification of flue gas by electron-beam processing in coal-fired power stations are a successful industrial example and therefore, a wider use of ionizing radiation in air pollution control can be expected in the near future. In addition to e-beam and 60Co radiation, electric discharge was also a useful means for the air pollution control. There were some satisfied data in removing water polluters but it seems that radiation is the only one component in the technique used to treat wastewater.

  20. Radiation protection in radionuclide therapies with 90 Y-conjugates: risks and safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Cremonesi; Mahila Ferrari; Giovanni Paganelli; Annalisa Rossi; Marco Chinol; Mirco Bartolomei; Gennaro Prisco; Giampiero Tosi

    2006-01-01

    Purpose  The widespread interest in 90Y internal radionuclide treatments has drawn attention to the issue of radiation protection for staff. Our aim in this study was to identify personnel at risk and to validate the protection devices used.Methods  \\u000a 90Y-MoAb (Zevalin, 15 cases, 1.1 GBq\\/patient) and 90Y-peptide (90Y-DOTATOC) systemic (i.v., 50 cases, 3.0 GBq\\/patient) and locoregional (l.r., 50 cases, 0.4 GBq\\/patient) treatments were considered. Radiolabelling

  1. Current status of the application of ionizing radiation to environmental protection: I. Ionizing radiation sources, natural and drinking water purification (A Review)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Pikaev

    2000-01-01

    Present-day applications of ionizing radiation to environmental protection are surveyed. This part of the review summarizes\\u000a new data on the ionizing radiation sources used in this area, on the radiation-chemical purification of polluted natural and\\u000a drinking water, and on the mechanisms of processes occurring in these systems under exposure to ionizing radiation. A particular\\u000a emphasis is placed on large-scale processes.

  2. THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATERSHED MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has directed much attention to watersheds and water quality during its tenure as the United States Federal Agency charged with protection of human health and the environment. Watershed research as a vehicle to understand the interaction ...

  3. Assessment of secondary radiation and radiation protection in laser-driven proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Faby, Sebastian; Wilkens, Jan J

    2015-06-01

    This work is a feasibility study of a radiation treatment unit with laser-driven protons based on a state-of-the-art energy selection system employing four dipole magnets in a compact shielded beamline. The secondary radiation emitted from the beamline and its energy selection system and the resulting effective dose to the patient are assessed. Further, it is evaluated whether or not such a compact system could be operated in a conventional treatment vault for clinical linear accelerators under the constraint of not exceeding the effective dose limit of 1 mSv per year to the general public outside the treatment room. The Monte Carlo code Geant4 is employed to simulate the secondary radiation generated while irradiating a hypothetical tumor. The secondary radiation inevitably generated inside the patient is taken into account as well, serving as a lower limit. The results show that the secondary radiation emanating from the shielded compact therapy system would pose a serious secondary dose contamination to the patient. This is due to the broad energy spectrum and in particular the angular distribution of the laser-driven protons, which make the investigated beamline together with the employed energy selection system quite inefficient. The secondary radiation also cannot be sufficiently absorbed in a conventional linear accelerator treatment vault to enable a clinical operation. A promising result, however, is the fact that the secondary radiation generated in the patient alone could be very well shielded by a regular treatment vault, allowing the application of more than 100 fractions of 2Gy per day with protons. It is thus theoretically possible to treat patients with protons in such treatment vaults. Nevertheless, the results show that there is a clear need for alternative more efficient energy selection solutions for laser-driven protons. PMID:25267383

  4. The Environmental protection agency industrial technology transfer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suter, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    Today TAC consists of a full service information center and five programs, which are: (1) our industrial program; (2) the energy information center; (3) the business and industry extension program; (4) the remote sensing program; and (5) the center for environmental research and development.

  5. Hydrogen-rich saline protects immunocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanyong; Li, Bailong; Liu, Cong; Chuai, Yunhai; Lei, Jixiao; Gao, Fu; Cui, Jianguo; Sun, Ding; Cheng, Ying; Zhou, Chuanfeng; Cai, Jianming

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Radiation often causes depletion of immunocytes in tissues and blood, which results in immunosuppression. Molecular hydrogen (H2) has been shown in recent studies to have potential as a safe and effective radioprotective agent through scavenging free radicals. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that H2 could protect immunocytes from ionizing radiation (IR). Material/Methods H2 was dissolved in physiological saline or medium using an apparatus produced by our department. A 2-[6-(4?-hydroxy) phenoxy-3H-xanthen-3-on-9-yl] benzoate (HPF) probe was used to detect intracellular hydroxyl radicals (•OH). Cell apoptosis was evaluated by annexin V-FITC and Propidium iodide (PI) staining as well as the caspase 3 activity. Finally, we examined the hematological changes using an automatic Sysmex XE 2100 hematology analyzer. Results We demonstrated H2-rich medium pretreatment reduced •OH level in AHH-1 cells. We also showed H2 reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in thymocytes and splenocytes in living mice. Radiation-induced caspase 3 activation was also attenuated by H2 treatment. Finally, we found that H2 rescued the radiation-caused depletion of white blood cells (WBC) and platelets (PLT). Conclusions This study suggests that H2 protected the immune system and alleviated the hematological injury induced by IR. PMID:22460088

  6. [Data protection, radiation protection and copyright : Problems of transferring results in assessment practice].

    PubMed

    Klemm, H-T

    2015-06-01

    In Germany, the medical assessor is subject to the law on contracts for work and services ("Werksvertragsrecht"). When a medical expert assesses a subject on behalf of a third party, there is no contractual relationship between them. In the field of private insurance law and in social insurance law, the medical expert is faced with various procedural requirements. Failing to meet these legal requirements often makes the assessment difficult or even impossible. The transfer of radiographs to the medical assessor is dealt with in the German X-ray regulations ("Röntgenverordnung"). The assessor, who is without doubt an examining doctor, has the right to have the radiographs temporarily made available (§ 28 et al.). Passing on the radiographs is all the more appropriate if by doing so additional X-ray examinations can be avoided.The right of access to medical data in the social security law, apart from X-ray regulations, is regulated by German Civil Code (BGB) § 810 and German Basic Law section 1 paragraph 1 in connection with section 2 paragraph 1 ("§ 810 BGB; Art. 1 Abs. 1, Art. 2 Abs. 1 GG"). In the absence of third party interest worthy of protection, the right of access to assessment records has to be granted to the subject, who will then authorize the examining medical expert to exercise this right. In private insurance law, only the private health insurance has its regulation concerning obtaining information about treatment or the access to medical assessments. In other types of insurance the medical assessor's right of access to medical examination data and/or the basis for medical findings can only be derived from secondary obligations as part of the insurance contract or directly from general constitutional personal rights. PMID:25971951

  7. Protective effect of anthocyanins from lingonberry on radiation-induced damages.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zi-Luan; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Zuo, Li-Li; Tian, Shuang-Qi

    2012-12-01

    There is a growing concern about the serious harm of radioactive materials, which are widely used in energy production, scientific research, medicine, industry and other areas. In recent years, owing to the great side effects of anti-radiation drugs, research on the radiation protectants has gradually expanded from the previous chemicals to the use of natural anti-radiation drugs and functional foods. Some reports have confirmed that anthocyanins are good antioxidants, which can effectively eliminate free radicals, but studies on the immunoregulatory and anti-radiation effects of anthocyanins from lingonberry (ALB) are less reported. In this experiment, mice were given orally once daily for 14 consecutive days before exposure to 6 Gy of gamma-radiation and were sacrificed on the 7th day post-irradiation. The results showed that the selected dose of extract did not lead to acute toxicity in mice; while groups given anthocyanins orally were significantly better than radiation control group according to blood analysis; pretreatment of anthocyanins significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the thymus and spleen indices and spleen cell survival compared to the irradiation control group. Pretreatment with anthocyanins before irradiation significantly reduced the numbers of micronuclei (MN) in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs). These findings indicate that anthocyanins have immunostimulatory potential against immunosuppression induced by the radiation. PMID:23249859

  8. On the potential impact of the newly proposed quality factors on space radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1987-01-01

    The recently proposed changes in the defined quality factor hold great potential for easing some of the protection requirements from electrons and protons in the near-Earth environment. At the same time, the high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) components play an even more important role which must be further evaluated. Several recommendations are made which need to be addressed before these new quality factors can be implemented into space radiation potection practice.

  9. Melanin-Covered Nanoparticles for Protection of Bone Marrow During Radiation Therapy of Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, Andrew D. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Howard Hughes Medical Institute-Medical Fellows Program, Chevy Chase, MD (United States); The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Revskaya, Ekaterina; Chu, Peter [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Pazo, Valeria [Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Friedman, Matthew [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Nosanchuk, Joshua D. [Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Cahill, Sean [Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Frases, Susana [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Casadevall, Arturo [Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Dadachova, Ekaterina, E-mail: edadacho@aecom.yu.ed [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: Protection of bone marrow against radiotoxicity during radioimmunotherapy and in some cases external beam radiation therapy such as hemi-body irradiation would permit administration of significantly higher doses to tumors, resulting in increased efficacy and safety of treatment. Melanin, a naturally occurring pigment, possesses radioprotective properties. We hypothesized that melanin, which is insoluble, could be delivered to the bone marrow by intravenously administrated melanin-covered nanoparticles (MNs) because of the human body's 'self-sieving' ability, protecting it against ionizing radiation. Methods and Materials: The synthesis of MNs was performed via enzymatic polymerization of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and/or 5-S-cysteinyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine on the surface of 20-nm plain silica nanoparticles. The biodistribution of radiolabeled MNs in mice was done at 3 and 24 h. Healthy CD-1 mice (Charles River Laboratories International, Inc., Wilmington, MA) or melanoma tumor-bearing nude mice were given MNs intravenously, 50 mg/kg of body weight, 3 h before either whole-body exposure to 125 cGy or treatment with 1 mCi of {sup 188}Re-labeled 6D2 melanin-binding antibody. Results: Polymerization of melanin precursors on the surface of silica nanoparticles resulted in formation of a 15-nm-thick melanin layer as confirmed by light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence. The biodistribution after intravenous administration showed than MN uptake in bone marrow was 0.3% and 0.2% of injected dose per gram at 3 and 24 h, respectively, whereas pre-injection with pluronic acid increased the uptake to 6% and 3% of injected dose per gram, respectively. Systemic MN administration reduced hematologic toxicity in mice treated with external radiation or radioimmunotherapy, whereas no tumor protection by MNs was observed. Conclusions: MNs or similar structures provide a novel approach to protection of bone marrow from ionizing radiation based on prevention of free radical formation by melanin.

  10. FINAL REPORT FORMER RADIATION WORKER MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM AT ROCKY FLATS For Department of Energy Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Joe M. Aldrich

    2004-11-01

    The Former Radiation Worker Medical Surveillance Program at Rocky Flats was conducted in Arvada, CO, by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education under DOE Contract DE-AC05-00OR22750. Objectives of the program were to obtain information on the value of medical surveillance among at-risk former radiation workers and to provide long-term internal radiation dosimetry information to the scientific community. This program provided the former radiation workers of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (formerly Rocky Flats Plant) an opportunity to receive follow-up medical monitoring and a re-evaluation of their internal radiation dose. The former Rocky Flats radiation worker population is distinctive because it was a reasonably stable work force that received occupational exposures, at times substantial, over several decades. This report reflects the summation of health outcomes, statistical analyses, and dose assessment information on former Rocky Flats radiation workers to the date of study termination as of March 2004.

  11. Dare County Beaches, Shore Protection Project Physical Monitoring Program

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    .7...... 8 Figure 6. Example Profile Stack Plots ..................................... 10 Figure 7. Kitty Protection Project includes the towns of Kitty Hawk, Kill Devil Hills, and Nags Head along the Outer Banks

  12. THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A scientifically rigorous determination of the condition of an aquatic resource is fundamental to all subsequent research, modeling, protection, and restoration issues. Environmental risk characterization is predicated on knowledge of condition and the rate at which that conditio...

  13. Protective effects of WR-2721 against radiation-induced injury of murine gut, testis, lung, and lung tumor nodules

    SciTech Connect

    Milas, L.; Hunter, N.; Reid, B.O.

    1982-03-01

    WR-2721 (S-3-(3 aminopropylamino) ethylphosphorothioic acid) has been investigated for its ability to protect gut, lung, and testis, as well as fibrosarcoma (FSa) tumor nodules, in the lungs of mice from gamma-radiation injury. This compound greatly protected jejunum and testis epithelial cells. FSa micrometastases in the lung were protected in a lesser extent than jejunum and testis. Conversely, WR-2721 was not able to protect the lung against radiation-induced enhancement of tumor metastases formation generated by intravenously injected FSa cells.

  14. STATUS OF THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ENCODRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Status of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. Susan Laws. Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC. In response to emergi...

  15. 75 FR 23783 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Sector-Specific Agency Executive Management Office...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Sector-Specific Agency Executive Management...Collection Request should be forwarded to NPPD/IP/SSA EMO, Attn.: Esther Langer, Esther...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On behalf of DHS, IP manages the Department's program to...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: WET-WEATHER FLOW/SOURCE WATER PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an overview of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program which was established to overcome the numerous impediments to commercialization experienced by developers of innovative environmental technologies. ...

  17. 76 FR 16000 - Voluntary Protection Programs Information; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ...and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2011-0056] Voluntary Protection Programs...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Request for public...SUMMARY: OSHA solicits public comments concerning...

  18. THERMAL PROCESSES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE: THE EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting an extensive research program to study the practice of destroying hazardous waste in high temperature industrial processes. These studies have encompassed processes such as hazardous waste incineration, and processes c...

  19. ENCOURAGING CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES: THE UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1988, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), has supported a research program to encourage the development, demonstration, and evaluation of production techniques and processes that lead to reduced waste generation. his clean technologies research progra...

  20. 76 FR 2700 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Goal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ...SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS)/National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD)/Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C)/Office of Emergency Communications (OEC) will submit the following Information...

  1. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Protective Liner Systems, Inc., Epoxy Mastic, PLS-614

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Protective Liner Systems International, Inc. Epoxy Mastic PLS-614 coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA?s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Material and T...

  2. Radiation protection systems for the final focus test beam at SLAC.

    PubMed

    Rokni, S H; Benson, E C; Burke, D L; Jenkins, T M; Liu, J C; Nelson, G; Nelson, W R; Smith, H E; Tenenbaum, P; Vylet, V; Walz, D R

    1996-11-01

    The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a new beam line at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center designed to test new beam optics concepts, hardware, and techniques necessary to achieve and measure the small spot sizes required for future generations of high-energy e+e- linear colliders. The FFTB takes a 47 GeVc-1, 1 kW electron beam at the end of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center linear accelerator and transports it to the FFTB beam dump. A radiation protection system was designed and installed for the FFTB with the primary goal that the integrated dose equivalent outside the shielding resulting from beam loss would not exceed 10 mSv y-1. This system is comprised of shielding, a beam containment system and a personnel protection system. This paper presents various aspects of radiation safety at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center that were considered in the design of the FFTB radiation protection system. Beam tests were conducted in which the performance of various beam containment devices and the shielding effectiveness were evaluated. Preliminary results from these tests are presented. PMID:8887529

  3. Protective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester against acute radiation-induced hepatic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Chu, JianJun; Zhang, Xiaojun; Jin, Liugen; Chen, Junliang; Du, Bin; Pang, Qingfeng

    2015-03-01

    Caffeic acid phenyl ester (CAPE) is a potent anti-inflammatory agent and it can eliminate the free radicals. The current study was intended to evaluate the protective effect of CAPE against the acute radiation-induced liver damage in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally administered with CAPE (30 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days before exposing them to a single dose of 30 Gy of ?-ray irradiation to upper abdomen. We found that pretreatment with CAPE significantly decreased the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione. Histological evaluation further confirmed the protection of CAPE against radiation-induced hepatotoxicity. TUNEL assay showed that CAPE pretreatment inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis. Moreover, CAPE inhibited the nuclear transport of NF-?B p65 subunit, decreased the level of tumor necrosis factor-?, nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Taken together, these results suggest that pretreatment with CAPE offers protection against radiation-induced hepatic injury. PMID:25704035

  4. Protection of normal tissue against late radiation injury by WR-2721. [/sup 60/Co; rats

    SciTech Connect

    Utley, J.F. (Univ. of California, San Diego); Quinn, C.A.; White, F.C.; Seaver, N.A.; Bloor, C.M.

    1981-02-01

    The ability of WR-2721 to protect against late radiation damage has been studied in skin, muscle, and vascular tissues of rats. Animals treated with and without WR-2721 received irradiation to the left hind limb; representative groups were killed at intervals ranging from 72 h to 6 months. Comparison of all drug-treated and non-drug-treated animals showed significant protection (P = less than or equal to 0.05). The time pattern of injury in non-drug-treated rats was biphasic, with significant damage occurring at 72 h and 1 week, returning to normal between 1 and 3 months, but showing significant late damage at 6 months (P = less than or equal to 0.001). Again, this injury pattern did not appear in WR-2721-treated rats. Thus the ability of WR-2721 to protect against acute and chronic radiation injury in vessels, skin, and muscle indicates that an increased therapeutic gain can be expected when this drug is used in clinical radiation therapy.

  5. Coenzyme Q10 protects retinal cells from apoptosis induced by radiation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lulli, Matteo; Witort, Ewa; Papucci, Laura; Torre, Eugenio; Schiavone, Nicola; Dal Monte, Massimo; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2012-09-01

    The key pathogenetic event of many retinopathies is apoptosis of retinal cells. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) prevents apoptosis of corneal keratocytes both in vitro and in vivo, by virtue of its ability to inhibit mitochondrial depolarization, independently of its free radical scavenger role. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether CoQ10 can protect cultured retinal cells and the retinas of rats from radiation-induced apoptosis, if instilled as eye drops in the cornea. In vitro experiments were carried out on cultured ARPE-19 or RGC-5 cells pretreated with CoQ10 before eliciting apoptosis by UV- and ?-radiation, chemical hypoxia (Antimycin A) and serum starvation. Cell viability was evaluated by light microscopy and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis. Apoptotic events were scored by time-lapse videomicroscopy. Mitochondrial permeability transition was evaluated by JC-1. The anti-apoptotic effectiveness of CoQ10 in retina was also evaluated by an in situ end-labeling assay in Wistar albino rats treated with CoQ10 eye drops prior to UV irradiation of the eye. CoQ10 substantially increased cell viability and lowered retinal cell apoptosis in response both to UV- and ?-radiation and to chemical hypoxia or serum starvation by inhibiting mitochondrion depolarization. In the rat, CoQ10, even when applied as eye drops on the cornea, protected all retina layers from UVR-induced apoptosis. The ability of CoQ10 to protect retinal cells from radiation-induced apoptosis following its instillation on the cornea suggests the possibility for CoQ10 eye drops to become a future therapeutic countermeasure for radiation-induced retinal lesions. PMID:22843363

  6. NON-COMPLIANCE WITH THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE HUMAN RESEARCH PROTECTION PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    1 NON-COMPLIANCE WITH THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE HUMAN RESEARCH PROTECTION PROGRAM 4/22/2011 In order of Human Research Protection (OHRP) and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the necessary information serious or continuing non- compliance with federal policy or determinations made by the IRB. Definitions

  7. Evaluation of a Stress Management Program in a Child Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Janet; Feldman, Lenard H.

    High stress levels experienced by child protection workers have been well documented. This study examined the effectiveness of a stress management program in a child protection agency. Subjects were case workers, immediate supervisors, and clerical staff; 320 subjects participated in pretesting and 279 subjects participated in posttesting.…

  8. 75 FR 41213 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure Information Collection...an information collection entitled, ``IP Data Call.'' This is a correction notice...published 60-day notice to read, ``IP Data Call Survey.'' There are no...

  9. Computer program for pulsed thermocouples with corrections for radiation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A pulsed thermocouple was used for measuring gas temperatures above the melting point of common thermocouples. This was done by allowing the thermocouple to heat until it approaches its melting point and then turning on the protective cooling gas. This method required a computer to extrapolate the thermocouple data to the higher gas temperatures. A method that includes the effect of radiation in the extrapolation is described. Computations of gas temperature are provided, along with the estimate of the final thermocouple wire temperature. Results from tests on high temperature combustor research rigs are presented.

  10. A Monte Carlo model of an industrial gauge for radiation protection purposes.

    PubMed

    McGurk, R; Turner, J; Deloar, H M; Packer, K

    2008-03-01

    The Mahlo Gravimat densitometers/gauges located at the Feltex carpet factory in Christchurch, New Zealand, contain the radionuclide strontium-90 (Sr-90). Accurate dose/dose rate estimation is always an important concern from a radiation protection point of view. The EGSnrc/BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code was used to create a model of one gauge to determination of the radiation dose distributions and dose rates in air from the Sr-90 source within the gauge. The model was then modified to include a Perspex shield on the surface of the gauge as a possible method of lowering the radiation levels. With this addition, the model predicted an overall reduction in dose rates of 30%. Although no experimental benchmarking was able to be performed due to simplifications in the model and the lack of reliable experimental data, we believe that Monte Carlo methods could be a valuable addition in the design process of any devices, industrial or otherwise, that contain or use radioactive materials. Furthermore, such methods may aide or guide any investigations undertaken as part of radiation protection surveys. PMID:18488963

  11. Fluence-based and microdosimetric event-based methods for radiation protection in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Stanley B.; Meinhold, C. B. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recently published a report (Report #137) that discusses various aspects of the concepts used in radiation protection and the difficulties in measuring the radiation environment in spacecraft for the estimation of radiation risk to space travelers. Two novel dosimetric methodologies, fluence-based and microdosimetric event-based methods, are discussed and evaluated, along with the more conventional quality factor/LET method. It was concluded that for the present, any reason to switch to a new methodology is not compelling. It is suggested that because of certain drawbacks in the presently-used conventional method, these alternative methodologies should be kept in mind. As new data become available and dosimetric techniques become more refined, the question should be revisited and that in the future, significant improvement might be realized. In addition, such concepts as equivalent dose and organ dose equivalent are discussed and various problems regarding the measurement/estimation of these quantities are presented.

  12. The Protective Effect of Curcumin on Ionizing Radiation-induced Cataractogenesis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Özgen, Seher Çimen; Dökmeci, Dikmen; Akpolat, Meryem; Karada?, Çetin Hakan; Gündüz, Özgür; Erba?, Hakan; Benian, Ömer; Uzal, Cem; Turan, Fatma Nesrin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the protective effect of curcumin against ionizing radiation-induced cataract in the lens of rats. Material and Methods: Rats were divided into six groups. Group 1: Control, Group 2: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), Group 3: DMSO+curcumin, Group 4: Irradiation, Group 5: Irradiation+DMSO, Group 6: Irradiation+DMSO+curcumin. A 15 Gy total dose was given to 4, 5, 6 groups for radiation damage. Curcumin (100 mg/kg) was dissolved in DMSO and given by intragastric intubation for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, lenses were graded and enucleated. The lenticular activity of the antioxidant enzymes, total antioxidant and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. Results: 100% Cataract was seen in the irradiation group. Cataract rate fell to 40% and was limited at grade 1 and 2 in the curcumin group. In the irradiation group, antioxidant enzyme levels were decreased, MDA levels were increased. There was an increase in antioxidant enzyme levels and a significant decrease in MDA in the group which was given curcumin. Conclusion: Curcumin has antioxidant and radioprotective properties and is likely to be a valuable agent for protection against ionizing radiation. Hence, it may be used as an antioxidant and radioprotector against radiation-induced cataractogenesis. PMID:25207034

  13. Inactivation of Kupffer Cells by Gadolinium Chloride Protects Murine Liver From Radiation-Induced Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Du Shisuo; Qiang Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zeng Zhaochong, E-mail: zeng.zhaochong@zs-hospital.sh.c [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ke Aiwu; Ji Yuan [Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhang Zhengyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zeng Haiying [Department of Pathology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Liu Zhongshan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To determine whether the inhibition of Kupffer cells before radiotherapy (RT) would protect hepatocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis. Materials and Methods: A single 30-Gy fraction was administered to the upper abdomen of Sprague-Dawley rats. The Kupffer cell inhibitor gadolinium chloride (GdCl3; 10 mg/kg body weight) was intravenously injected 24 h before RT. The rats were divided into four groups: group 1, sham RT plus saline (control group); group 2, sham RT plus GdCl3; group 3, RT plus saline; and group 4, RT plus GdCl3. Liver tissue was collected for measurement of apoptotic cytokine expression and evaluation of radiation-induced liver toxicity by analysis of liver enzyme activities, hepatocyte micronucleus formation, apoptosis, and histologic staining. Results: The expression of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was significantly attenuated in group 4 compared with group 3 at 2, 6, 24, and 48 h after injection (p <0.05). At early points after RT, the rats in group 4 exhibited significantly lower levels of liver enzyme activity, apoptotic response, and hepatocyte micronucleus formation compared with those in group 3. Conclusion: Selective inactivation of Kupffer cells with GdCl3 reduced radiation-induced cytokine production and protected the liver against acute radiation-induced damage.

  14. WIPP TRANSURANIC WASTE INVENTORY 2009 EPA WIPP RECERTIFICATION FACT SHEET United States Environmental Protection Agency | Office of Air and Radiation (6608J) | June 2009

    E-print Network

    that the waste meets the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria. Does the current WIPP waste inventory contain high Environmental Protection Agency | Office of Air and Radiation (6608J) | June 2009 http://www.epa.gov/radiation Environmental Protection Agency | Office of Air and Radiation (6608J) | June 2009 http://www.epa.gov/radiation/wipp/index.html

  15. Protection effects of condensed bromoacenaphthylene on radiation deterioration of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Y.; Hagiwara, M.; Kasai, N.

    1982-09-01

    As a continuation of a series of the studies on the flame and ..gamma..-radiation resistant modification of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM), condensed bromoacenaphthylene (con-BACN) as a newly developed flame retardant was synthesized and its effects on the radiation resistance of EPDM were investigated. The radiation resistance evaluated by measuring tensile properties of irradiated sheets of 2 mm thick was found improved greatly by adding con-BACN together with ordinary rubber ingredients but decreased by decabromodiphenylether (DBDPE) that has bromins in aromatic rings as con-BACN. When EPDM sheets of 1 mm thick were irradiated in oxygen at a dose rate of 1 X 10/sup 5/ rad/h, the weight swelling ratio increased with increasing dose, indicating that oxidative main chain scission is predominant under the irradiation conditions. On the other hand, crosslinking was shown to be predominant in nitrogen. From the results of the swelling experiments with different additives, it was concluded that DBDPE accelerates both the main chain scission in oxygen and the crosslinking in nitrogen. In contrast to this, con-BACN reduced the chain scission in oxygen. This observation was accounted by the assumption that the influence of the oxidative chain scission is partly compensated by the concurrent crosslinking which takes place through additions of con-BACN to substrate polymers even in the presence of oxygen.

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Facilities Newsletter - September 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J., ed

    1999-09-27

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program September 1999 Facilities Newsletter discusses the several Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) that the ARM SGP CART site will host in the near future. Two projects of note are the International Pyrgeometer Intercomparison and the Fall Single Column Model (SCM)/Nocturnal Boundary Layer (NBL) IOP. Both projects will bring many US and international scientists to the SGP CART site to participate in atmospheric research.

  17. Summary of fire protection programs of the United States Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This edition of the Annual Summary of DOE Fire Protection Programs continues the series started in 1972. Since May 1950, an annual report has been required from each field organization. The content has varied through the years and most of the accident data reporting requirements have been superseded by the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System administered by EG G, Idaho. However, this report is the sole source of information relating to fire protection programs, and to the actions of the field offices and to headquarters that are of general fire protection interest.

  18. Radiation engineering analysis of shielding materials to assess their ability to protect astronauts in deep space from energetic particle radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleterry, R. C.

    2013-10-01

    An analysis is performed on four typical materials (aluminum, liquid hydrogen, polyethylene, and water) to assess their impact on the length of time an astronaut can stay in deep space and not exceed a design basis radiation exposure of 150 mSv. A large number of heavy lift launches of pure shielding mass are needed to enable long duration, deep space missions to keep astronauts at or below the exposure value with shielding provided by the vehicle. Therefore, vehicle mass using the assumptions in the paper cannot be the sole shielding mechanism for long duration, deep space missions. As an example, to enable the Mars Design Reference Mission 5.0 with a 400 day transit to and from Mars, not including the 500 day stay on the surface, a minimum of 24 heavy lift launches of polyethylene at 89,375 lbm (40.54 tonnes) each are needed for the 1977 galactic cosmic ray environment. With the assumptions used in this paper, a single heavy lift launch of water or polyethylene can protect astronauts for a 130 day mission before exceeding the exposure value. Liquid hydrogen can only protect the astronauts for 160 days. Even a single launch of pure shielding material cannot protect an astronaut in deep space for more than 180 days using the assumptions adopted in the analysis. It is shown that liquid hydrogen is not the best shielding material for the same mass as polyethylene for missions that last longer than 225 days.

  19. Comparison of operator radiation exposure with optimized radiation protection devices during coronary angiograms and ad hoc percutaneous coronary interventions by radial and femoral routes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camille Brasselet; Thierry Blanpain; Sophie Tassan-Mangina; Alain Deschildre; Sebastien Duval; Fabien Vitry; Nathalie Gaillot-Petit; Jean Paul Clement; Damien Metz

    During 420 consecutive coronary angiograms (CAs) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs), four interven- tional cardiologists were blindly screened. Radiation exposures were assessed using electronic personal dosimeters. Protection of operator was ensured using a lead apron, low leaded flaps, and leaded glass. Radiation exposure of operators was significantly higher using the radial route when compared with the femoral route for both

  20. United States Environmental Protection Agency | Office of Air and Radiation (6608J) | EPA 402-F-06-009 | March 2006 www.epa.gov/radiation/wipp

    E-print Network

    are emplaced at WIPP. Does the Current WIPP Waste Inventory Contain High-Level Waste (HLW)? AccordingUnited States Environmental Protection Agency | Office of Air and Radiation (6608J) | EPA 402-F-06-009 | March 2006 www.epa.gov/radiation/wipp How has the WIPP TRU Waste Inventory Changed Since the 1998

  1. Russian-Norwegian Cooperation In Regulation of the Public Radiation Protection in the Northwest Russia - 12440

    SciTech Connect

    Shandala, Nataliya; Seregin, Vladimir; Titov, Alexey; Kryuchkov, Viktor; Chizhov, Konstantin [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sneve, Malgorzata [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    In 1960's, the large technical bases of the Northern Fleet were arranged on the Kola Peninsula. These bases were involved in support of nuclear submarines performing acceptance and storage of radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Since 1985, the waste acceptance has been stopped and the technical bases changed their functions to serve as sites of temporary storage (STS). According to the RF Government Directive of 09 February 2000 No 220-r, the STS were put under Rosatom responsibility in order to conduct operations dealing with the SNF and RW management being accumulated during the naval activity and originated from dismantlement of nuclear submarines and surface ships equipped with nuclear powered installations, as well as to carry out environmental remediation of radiation hazardous facilities in this region. The international collaborative assistance is very important to increase effectiveness of such works. This paper includes the findings of cooperation between the Federal Medical Biological Agency (FMBA) and Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) in radiation protection of the public in the course of the STS remediation. Since 2004, the following works has been carried out in this direction: - radiation threat assessment and identification of the priority directions of radiation and hygienic studies; - radiation situation inspections on-site and within the coastal offshore waters at different stage of remediation; - development of the documents including the criteria for the STS remediation and guidelines for radiation monitoring to control the mentioned criteria compliance; - development of the radio-ecological geo-information system. The developed criteria consider four basic options of the STS remediation - renovation, conversion, conservation and liquidation. The main (dose) and derived remediation levels have been determined for each option. The resulted from monitoring radiation parameters - including contents of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 60}Co in samples of soil, vegetation, seawater, seaweeds, bottom sediments, invertebrates and vertebrates, gamma dose rate values - are integrated in the database, which is the component of the geo-information system. The developed regulative and methodical documents and the geo-information system have been introduced in Regional Management-120 under FMBA of Russia, which is responsible for the radiation safety supervision, Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology-120 under FMBA of Russia, which carries out regulatory radiation control, and in the operating organization involved in the STS remediation and responsible for radiation protection of workers and public. The works completed have permitted to solve the majority of problems in enhancement of radiation and hygienic supervision of SevRAO operation. However, some relevant questions in this area need additional efforts. In particular, in the course of specification of the design solutions, obtaining additional data on the radiation situation parameters and clarification of the prognostic assessments, the necessity will certainly arise to amend the regulatory documents taking the adopted design solutions into account. We are on the way to real results. Much has been done for the first time, and although it is difficult to foresee all future problems and challenges, our knowledge, experience and close cooperation permit to assess the prospects confidently. (authors)

  2. Prospects for new information relevant to radiation protection from studies of experimental animals

    SciTech Connect

    McClellan, R.O.

    1988-08-01

    The theory underlying radiation protection was developed from studies of people, laboratory animals, tissues, cells and macromolecules. Data on people were obtained from opportunistic studies of individuals previously exposed to radiation. Rarely has it been possible to conduct prospective studies of people exposed to known quantities of radiation, which sharply restricts the nature of questions that they can address. In contrast, studies using laboratory animals and simpler biological systems can be designed to address specific questions, using controlled exposure conditions. In-vitro research with macromolecules, cells and tissues leads to understanding normal and disease processes in isolated biological components. Studies of the intact animals provide opportunities to study in vivo interactive mechanisms observed in vitro and their role in development of radiation-induced diseases such as cancer. In the future, studies of intact animals should prove increasingly valuable in linking new knowledge at the subanimal level with the more fragmentary information obtained from direct observations on people. This will provide insight into important issues such as (a) effects of low-level radiation exposures, (b) mechanism of cancer induction at high versus low radiation doses, and (c) influence of factors such as nutrition and exposure to chemicals on radiation-induced cancer. This presentation describes strategies for conducting and integrating results of research using macromolecules, cells, tissues, laboratory animals and people to improve our understanding of radiation-induced cancer. It will also emphasize the problems encountered in studies at all levels of biological organization when the disease is observed in low excess incidence long after exposure to the toxicant.

  3. Atmospheric radiation measurement: A program for improving radiative forcing and feedback in general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Patrinos, A.A. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Renne, D.S.; Stokes, G.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Ellingson, R.G. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a key element of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) global change research strategy. ARM represents a long-term commitment to conduct comprehensive studies of the spectral atmospheric radiative energy balance profile for a wide range of cloud conditions and surface types, and to develop the knowledge necessary to improve parameterizations of radiative processes under various cloud regimes for use in general circulation models (GCMs) and related models. The importance of the ARM program is a apparent from the results of model assessments of the impact on global climate change. Recent studies suggest that radiatively active trace gas emissions caused by human activity can lead to a global warming of 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius and to important changes in water availability during the next century (Cess, et al. 1989). These broad-scale changes can be even more significant at regional levels, where large shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns are shown to occur. However, these analyses also indicate that considerable uncertainty exists in these estimates, with the manner in which cloud radiative processes are parameterized among the most significant uncertainty. Thus, although the findings have significant policy implications in assessment of global and regional climate change, their uncertainties greatly influence the policy debate. ARM`s highly focused observational and analytical research is intended to accelerate improvements and reduce key uncertainties associated with the way in which GCMs treat cloud cover and cloud characteristics and the resulting radiative forcing. This paper summarizes the scientific context for ARM, ARM`s experimental approach, and recent activities within the ARM program.

  4. Atmospheric radiation measurement: A program for improving radiative forcing and feedback in general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Patrinos, A.A. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)); Renne, D.S.; Stokes, G.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Ellingson, R.G. (Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a key element of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) global change research strategy. ARM represents a long-term commitment to conduct comprehensive studies of the spectral atmospheric radiative energy balance profile for a wide range of cloud conditions and surface types, and to develop the knowledge necessary to improve parameterizations of radiative processes under various cloud regimes for use in general circulation models (GCMs) and related models. The importance of the ARM program is a apparent from the results of model assessments of the impact on global climate change. Recent studies suggest that radiatively active trace gas emissions caused by human activity can lead to a global warming of 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius and to important changes in water availability during the next century (Cess, et al. 1989). These broad-scale changes can be even more significant at regional levels, where large shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns are shown to occur. However, these analyses also indicate that considerable uncertainty exists in these estimates, with the manner in which cloud radiative processes are parameterized among the most significant uncertainty. Thus, although the findings have significant policy implications in assessment of global and regional climate change, their uncertainties greatly influence the policy debate. ARM's highly focused observational and analytical research is intended to accelerate improvements and reduce key uncertainties associated with the way in which GCMs treat cloud cover and cloud characteristics and the resulting radiative forcing. This paper summarizes the scientific context for ARM, ARM's experimental approach, and recent activities within the ARM program.

  5. Protective effects of l-glutamine on the bladder wall of rats submitted to pelvic radiation.

    PubMed

    Barcellos, Leilane M; Costa, Waldemar S; Medeiros, Jorge L; Rocha, Beatriz R; Sampaio, Francisco J B; Cardoso, Luiz E M

    2013-04-01

    Radiotherapy is often used to treat prostate tumors, but the normal bladder is usually adversely affected. Using an animal model of pelvic radiation, we investigated whether glutamine nutritional supplementation can prevent radiation-induced damage to the bladder, especially in its more superficial layers. Male rats aged 3-4 months were divided into groups of 8 animals each: controls, which consisted intact animals; radiated-only rats, which were sacrificed 7 (R7) or 15 (R15) days after a radiation session (10Gy aimed at the pelvico-abdominal region); and radiated rats receiving l-glutamine supplementation (0.65g/kg body weight/day), which were sacrificed 7 (RG7) or 15 (RG15) days after the radiation session. Cells and blood vessels in the vesical lamina propria, as well as the urothelium, were then measured using histological methods. The effects of radiation were evaluated by comparing controls vs. either R7 or R15, while a protective effect of glutamine was assessed by comparing R7 vs. RG7 and R15 vs. RG15. The results showed that, in R7, epithelial thickness, epithelial cell density, and cell density in the lamina propria were not significantly affected. However, density of blood vessels in R7 was reduced by 48% (p<0.05) and this alteration was mostly prevented by glutamine (p<0.02). In R15, density of blood vessels in the lamina propria was not significantly modified. However, epithelial thickness was reduced by 25% (p<0.05) in R15, and this effect was prevented by glutamine (p<0.01). In R15, epithelial cell density was increased by 35% (p<0.02), but glutamine did not protect against this radiation-induced increase. Cell density in the lamina propria was likewise unaffected in R15. Density of mast cells in the lamina propria was markedly reduced in R7 and R15. The density was still reduced in RG7, but a higher density in RG15 suggested a glutamine-mediated recovery. Alpha-actin positive cells in the lamina propria formed a suburothelial layer and were identified as myofibroblasts. Thickness of this layer was increased in R7, but was similar to controls in RG7, while changes in R15 and RG15 were less evident. In conclusion, pelvic radiation leads to significant acute and post-acute alterations in the composition and structural features of the vesical lamina propria and epithelium. Most of these changes, however, can be prevented by glutamine nutritional supplementation. These results emphasize, therefore, the potential use of this aminoacid as a radioprotective drug. PMID:23465886

  6. SU-E-I-76: Matching Primary and Scattered X-Ray Spectra for Use in Calculating the Diagnostic Radiation Index of Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Pasciak, A [University of Tennessee Medical Center, Knoxville, TN (United States); Jones, A [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Wagner, L [UT Medical School, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Lightweight lead-free or lead-composite protective garments exploit k-edge interactions to attenuate scattered X-rays. Manufacturers specify the protective value of garments in terms of lead equivalence at a single kVp. This is inadequate, as the protection provided by such garments varies with radiation quality in different use conditions. We present a method for matching scattered X-ray spectra to primary X-ray spectra. The resulting primary spectra can be used to measure penetration through protective garments, and such measurements can be weighted and summed to determine a Diagnostic Radiation Index for Protection (DRIP). Methods: Scattered X-ray spectra from fluoroscopic procedures were modeled using Monte Carlo techniques in MCNP-X 2.7. Data on imaging geometry, operator position, patient size, and primary beam spectra were gathered from clinical fluoroscopy procedures. These data were used to generate scattered X-ray spectra resulting from procedural conditions. Technical factors, including kV and added filtration, that yielded primary X-ray spectra that optimally matched the generated scattered X-ray spectra were identified through numerical optimization using a sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm. Results: The primary spectra generated with shape functions matched the relative flux in each bin of the scattered spectra within 5%, and half and quarter-value layers matched within 0.1%. The DRIP for protective garments can be determined by measuring the penetration through protective garments using the matched primary spectra, then calculating a weighted average according to the expected clinical use of the garment. The matched primary spectra are specified in terms of first and second half-value layers in aluminum and acrylic. Conclusion: Lead equivalence is inadequate for completely specifying the protective value of garments. Measuring penetration through a garment using full scatter conditions is very difficult. The primary spectra determined in this work allow for practical primary penetration measurements to be made with equipment readily available to clinical medical physicists.

  7. ARESE (ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment) Science Plan [Atmospheric Radiation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, F.P.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Cess, R.D.; Ramanathan, V.; Collins, W.D.; Minnis, P.; Ackerman, T.P.; Vitko, J.; Tooman, T.P.

    1995-09-27

    Several recent studies have indicated that cloudy atmospheres may absorb significantly more solar radiation than currently predicted by models. The magnitude of this excess atmospheric absorption, is about 50% more than currently predicted and would have major impact on our understanding of atmospheric heating. Incorporation of this excess heating into existing general circulation models also appears to ameliorate some significant shortcomings of these models, most notably a tendency to overpredict the amount of radiant energy going into the oceans and to underpredict the tropopause temperature. However, some earlier studies do not show this excess absorption and an underlying physical mechanism that would give rise to such absorption has yet to be defined. Given the importance of this issue, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is sponsoring the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) to study the absorption of solar radiation by clear and cloudy atmospheres. The experimental results will be compared with model calculations. Measurements will be conducted using three aircraft platforms (ARM-UAV Egrett, NASA ER-2, and an instrumented Twin Otter), as well as satellites and the ARM central and extended facilities in North Central Oklahoma. The project will occur over a four week period beginning in late September, 1995. Spectral broadband, partial bandpass, and narrow bandpass (10nm) solar radiative fluxes will be measured at different altitudes and at the surface with the objective to determine directly the magnitude and spectral characteristics of the absorption of shortwave radiation by the atmosphere (clear and cloudy). Narrow spectral channels selected to coincide with absorption by liquid water and ice will help in identifying the process of absorption of radiation. Additionally, information such as water vapor profiles, aerosol optical depths, cloud structure and ozone profiles, needed to use as input in radiative transfer calculations, will be acquired using the aircraft and surface facilities available to ARESE. This document outlines the scientific approach and measurement requirements of the project.

  8. Technical Basis Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Radiation and Contamination Trending Program

    SciTech Connect

    ELGIN, J.C.

    2000-10-02

    This report documents the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Program radiation and contamination trending program. The program consists of standardized radiation and contamination surveys of the KE Basin, radiation surveys of the KW basin, radiation surveys of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVD), and radiation surveys of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) with the associated tracking. This report also discusses the remainder of radiological areas within the SNFP that do not have standardized trending programs and the basis for not having this program in those areas.

  9. Protective barrier program: Test plan for plant community dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, M.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Chatters, J.C.; Link, S.O.; Brandt, C.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are jointly developing protective barriers for the long term isolation of low-level radioactive defense waste for the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the Arid Sites. Protective barriers have been identified as an integral part of the overall final disposal strategy for low-level defense waste at the Arid Sites (DOE 1987). At present, the conceptual design of the Arid Site protective barrier is a multilayer structure that will minimize waster infiltration into and through the underlying waste, and will prevent intrusion into the waste by plant roots, animals, and humans. This multilayer system consists of a fine soil layer overlying a coarse sand and/or gravel geo-filter overlying a layer of large cobbles or basalt riprap. Plants contribute several crucial functions to the overall performance of the protective barrier.Through transpiration, plants are capable of removing considerably more moisture from a given volume of soil than the physical process of evaporation alone. This becomes especially important after periods of excessive precipitation when the possibility of saturation of the textural break and leeching to the buried waste is increased. Plants also function in significantly reducing the amount of wind and water erosion that would be expected to occur on the barrier surface. In addition to these physical functions, plants also influence other biotic effects on barrier performance.

  10. The NERC program for the electricity sector critical infrastructure protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Leffler

    2001-01-01

    NERC has been called on and has served on a number of occasions in the past decade as the electric power industry's primary point of contact, communication, and coordination on a broad range of issues relating to national electric security, interconnected electric system vulnerability, and critical infrastructure protection. Dating back to the early 1980s, NERC has been involved with electromagnetic

  11. Procedure No 400.10 Subject: Fire Protection Impairment Program

    E-print Network

    Karsai, Istvan

    extinguishing systems, fire service control valves, fire alarms systems, and emergency lights. Firewatch or to the fire alarm annunciator/control panel for fire alarm systems. Contractors, Outside Workers, Outside: To establish procedures to be followed when a fire protection system is taken out of service due

  12. OVERVIEW OF EPA'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S) LIMB TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an overview of EPA's Limestone Injection with Multistage Burners (LIMB) program, a program for research, development, and demonstration of cost-effective emissions control technology for coal-fired boilers that can reduce both sulfur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxid...

  13. STATUS OF EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) RADON MITIGATION DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the portion of EPA's radon reduction technology development/demonstration program dealing with the study of reduction methods for existing and new construction houses. The EPA program has as its objective the development and demonstration of cost-effective rad...

  14. Abatement and Pollution Control Training and Educational Programs Presented by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This catalog is a compilation of training course and educational program descriptions in abatement and pollution control scheduled by the Environmental Protection Agency. Descriptions of programs include prerequisites, class size, and length of time with the content goals. Also given is general information concerning tuition fees, waiver requests,…

  15. United States Environmental Protection Agency's stratospheric ozone research program

    SciTech Connect

    Worrest, R.C.

    1989-06-16

    A major consequence of decreasing the ozone layer is an increase in the transmission of UV-B radiation (290-320nm) to the surface of the earth. Researchers have identified many potentially serious effects of increased exposure to UV-B radiation on the environment and human health. They include: effects on agricultural crops, trees, and marine organisms, and damage to the human immune system, eyes (cataracts), and skin (cancer). Depletion of the ozone layer also contributes to materials damage and affects ground-level air quality. To assess the consequences of depletion of the ozone layer scientists and policy makers need information on the nature and magnitude of effects resulting from exposure to UV-B radiation. The information is critical to establishing responsible regulations and mitigation options.

  16. The argument for a unified approach to non-ionizing radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Perala, R.A.; Rigden, G.J. (Electro Magnetic Applications, Inc., Lakewood, CO (United States)); Pfeffer, R.A. (Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency, Springfield, VA (United States))

    1993-12-01

    In the next decade military equipment will be required to operate in severe electromagnetic environments. These environments are expected to contain most non-ionizing frequencies (D.C. to GHz), from hostile and/or non-hostile sources, and be severe enough to cause temporary upset or even catastrophic failure of electronic equipment. Over the past thirty years considerable emphasis has been placed on hardening critical systems to one or more of these non-ionizing radiation environments, the most prevalent being the nuclear-induced electromagnetic pulse (EMD). From this technology development there has evolved a hardening philosophy that applies to most of these non-ionizing radiation environments. The philosophy, which stresses the application of zonal shields plus penetration protection, can provide low-cost hardening against such diverse non-ionizing radiation as p-static, lightning, electromagnetic interference (EMI), EMP, high intensity radiated fields (HIRF), electromagnetic radiation (EMR), and high power microwaves (HPM). The objective in this paper is to describe the application of this philosophy to Army helicopters. The authors develop a unified specification complete with threat definitions and test methods which illustrates integration of EMP, lightning, and HIRF at the box qualification level. This paper is a summary of the effort documented in a cited reference.

  17. Protective effect of tanshinone IIA against radiation-induced ototoxicity in HEI-OC1 cells.

    PubMed

    DU, Shasha; Yao, Qiwei; Tan, Peixin; Xie, Guozhu; Ren, Chen; Sun, Quanquan; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Rong; Yang, Kaijun; Yuan, Yawei; Yuan, Quan

    2013-10-01

    Radiotherapy is a highly efficient treatment method for nasopharyngeal carcinoma that is often accompanied by significant ototoxic side-effects. The inner ear hair cells are particularly prone to serious injury following radiotherapy. Tanshinone IIA is a transcription factor inhibitor that is extracted from the traditional herbal medicine, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The present study investigated the effects of tanshinone IIA treatment on radiation-induced toxicity in the HEI-OC1 hair cell line. Using an MTT assay and flow cytometry, the radiation-induced weakening of the cells was observed to be alleviated when the cells were pre-treated with tanshinone IIA. Radiation exposure promoted p65/nuclear factor (NF)-?B nuclear translocation and activated the p53/p21 pathway, two processes which play a significant role in radiation-induced cell apoptosis. However, pre-treatment of the cells with tanshinone IIA inhibited p65/NF-?B nuclear translocation and p53/p21 pathway activation. These results demonstrate that tanshinone IIA is capable of protecting cochlear cells from radiation-induced injury through the suppression of p65/NF-?B nuclear translocation and the p53/p21 signaling pathway. PMID:24137434

  18. Rhubarb extract has a protective role against radiation-induced brain injury and neuronal cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kui; Zhang, Cheng; Wu, Wenjun; Zhou, Min; Tang, Yamei; Peng, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Oxidative stress caused by ionizing radiation is involved in neuronal damage in a number of disorders, including trauma, stroke, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ionizing radiation can lead to the formation of free radicals, which cause neuronal apoptosis and have important roles in the development of some types of chronic brain disease. The present study evaluated the effects of varying concentrations (2, 5 and 10 µg/ml) of ethanolic rhubarb extract on the neuronal damage caused by irradiation in primary neuronal cultures obtained from the cortices of rat embryos aged 20 days. Brain damage was induced with a single dose of ??irradiation that induced DNA fragmentation, increased lactate dehydrogenase release in neuronal cells and acted as a trigger for microglial cell proliferation. Treatment with rhubarb extract significantly decreased radiation?induced lactate dehydrogenase release and DNA fragmentation, which are important in the process of cell apoptosis. The rhubarb extract exhibited dose?dependent inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase release and neuronal cell apoptosis that were induced by the administration of ionizing radiation. The effect of a 10 µg/ml dose of rhubarb extract on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by radiation was also investigated. This dose led to significant inhibition of ROS generation. In conclusion, the present study showed a protective role of rhubarb extract against irradiation?induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and ROS generation. PMID:25936269

  19. This work was supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Climate Protection Partnerships Division, Office of Air and Radiation, under U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

    E-print Network

    Agency, Climate Protection Partnerships Division, Office of Air and Radiation, under U.S. DepartmentThis work was supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Climate Protection Partnerships Division, Office of Air and Radiation, under U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH

  20. Peroxiredoxin IV Protects Cells From Radiation-Induced Apoptosis in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung Je Park; Hyo Won Chang; Eun-Jeong Jeong; Jong-Lyel Roh; Seung-Ho Choi; Sea-Yuong Jeon; Gyung Hyuck Ko; Sang Yoon Kim

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Human peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are known as a family of thiol-specific antioxidant enzymes, among which Prx-I and -II play an important role in protecting cells from irradiation-induced cell death. It is not known whether Prx-IV also protects cells from ionizing radiation (IR). Methods and Materials: To evaluate the protective role of Prx-IV in IR, we transfected full-length Prx-IV cDNA into

  1. Environmental Cues to Ultraviolet Radiation and Personal Sun Protection In Outdoor Winter Recreation

    PubMed Central

    Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Scott, Michael D.; Maloy, Julie A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of ultraviolet radiation (UV) at North American ski resorts was predicted using temporal, seasonal, altitudinal, and meteorological factors and associated with a set of adult sun protection behaviors. Design UV observations and cross-sectional survey of adults on sun protection were collected. Setting Data were collected at 32 high-altitude ski areas located in Western North America in 2001–03. Participants The sample consisted of 3,937 adult skier or snowboarders. Main Outcome Measures Measurements of direct, reflected, and diffuse UV were performed at 487 measurement points using handheld meters and combined with self-reported and observed sun protection assessed for adults interviewed on chair lifts. Results The strongest predictors of UV were temporal proximity to noon, deviation from winter solstice, and clear skies. By contrast, altitude and latitude had more modest associations with UV and temperature had a small positive relationship with UV. Guest sun safety was inconsistently associated with UV: UV was positively related to adults wearing more sunscreen, reapplying it after two hours, and wearing protective eyewear but fewer adults exhibited many of the other sun protection behaviors, such as hats, protective clothing or lip balm, on days when UV was elevated. Guests took more sun safety precautions on clear-sky days but took steps to maintain body warmth on inclement days. Conclusions In future sun safety promotions, adults should be encouraged to wear sunscreen on cloudy days because UV is still high and conditions can change rapidly. They need reminders to rely more on season and time of day when judging UV and the need for sun safety. PMID:21079060

  2. Optimal Resource Allocation for Network Protection: A Geometric Programming Approach

    E-print Network

    Preciado, Victor M; Enyioha, Chinwendu; Jadbabaie, Ali; Pappas, George

    2013-01-01

    We study the problem of containing spreading processes in arbitrary directed networks by distributing protection resources throughout the nodes of the network. We consider two types of protection resources are available: (i) Preventive resources able to defend nodes against the spreading (such as vaccines in a viral infection process), and (ii) corrective resources able to neutralize the spreading after it has reached a node (such as antidotes). We assume that both preventive and corrective resources have an associated cost and study the problem of finding the cost-optimal distribution of resources throughout the nodes of the network. We analyze these questions in the context of viral spreading processes in directed networks. We study the following two problems: (i) Given a fixed budget, find the optimal allocation of preventive and corrective resources in the network to achieve the highest level of containment, and (ii) when a budget is not specified, find the minimum budget required to control the spreading...

  3. The decision making criteria on radiation protection of population in the cases of an accidental plutonium dispersion into environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Savkin; A. V. Titov

    Intervention criteria for radiation protection of general public in the case of accidental plutonium release have been elaborated on the basis of experimental radiobiological studies of affects of incorporated plutonium and of long duration medical observation for nuclear workers in Russia and the requirements of the national Radiation Safety Standards. Generic and operational levels for decision-making are given for early

  4. Advances in nuclear particle dosimetry for radiation protection and medicine - Ninth Symposium on Neutron Dosimetry (Editorial Material, English)

    SciTech Connect

    Zoetelief, J; Bos, A J.; Schuhmacher, H; McDonald, Joseph C.; Schultz, F W.; Pihet, P

    2004-12-15

    The Ninth Symposium on Neutron Dosimetry has been expanded to cover not only neutron radiation but heavy charged particle dosimetry as well. The applications are found in such fields as radiation protection, aircrew dosimetry, medicine, nuclear power and accelerator health physics. Scientists from many countries from around the world presented their work, and described the latest developments in techniques and instrumentation.

  5. EPA'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S) INTEGRATED AIR CANCER PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Air Cancer Project (IACP) is an interdisciplinary research program designed to develop the scientific methods and data sets needed to identify the major carcinogenic chemicals in the atmosphere; to characterize the emission sources and chemical precursors which giv...

  6. Planetary protection program for Mars 94/96 mission.

    PubMed

    Rogovski, G; Bogomolov, V; Ivanov, M; Runavot, J; Debus, A; Victorov, A; Darbord, J C

    1996-01-01

    Mars surface in-situ exploration started in 1975 with the American VIKING mission. Two probes landed on the northern hemisphere and provided, for the first time, detailed information on the martian terrain, atmosphere and meteorology. The current goal is to undertake larger surface investigations and many projects are being planned by the major Space Agencies with this objective. Among these projects, the Mars 94/96 mission will make a major contributor toward generating significant information about the martian surface on a large scale. Since the beginning of the Solar System exploration, planets where life could exist have been subject to planetary protection requirements. Those requirements accord with the COSPAR Policy and have two main goals: the protection of the planetary environment from influence or contamination by terrestrial microorganisms, the protection of life science, and particularly of life detection experiments searching extra-terrestrial life, and not life carried by probes and spacecrafts. As the conditions for life and survival for terrestrial microorganisms in the Mars environment became known, COSPAR recommendations were updated. This paper will describe the decontamination requirements which will be applied for the MARS 94/96 mission, the techniques and the procedures which are and will be used to realize and control the decontamination of probes and spacecrafts. PMID:11538980

  7. Review and assessment of global and domestic ultraviolet light protection programs.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Laura; Malerich, Sarah; Moon, Summer; Spencer, James

    2014-09-01

    Skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States. A number of UV protection programs have been developed and initiated both globally and domestically, and this article will review and assess the effectiveness of each of these programs. The programs reviewed in this article target grade school aged children, as this is a time when adult health behaviors are being formed. Among these programs, multiunit programs were more effective at changing behavior as they were given over a longer period of time with more frequent interventions and included various learning techniques. PMID:25226011

  8. The Pilot Program for Enhancement of Employee Whistleblower Protection (41 U.S.C. 4712)(the "Program") is effective until January 1, 2017. The purpose of the Program is to provide protections for

    E-print Network

    Sharp, Kim

    The Pilot Program for Enhancement of Employee Whistleblower Protection (41 U.S.C. 4712)(the for employees against reprisal for certain whistleblowing activities in relation to federal grants and contracts

  9. Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE`s programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols.

  10. RSSC ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE OF RADIATION CONTROL PROGRAM 08/2011 1-35 1-36 RSSC ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE OF RADIATION CONTROL PROGRAM 08/2011

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    - nuclide Form Half- life Principal Radiation Activity Inventory Amount Activity Used Per Experiment OF RADIATION CONTROL PROGRAM 08/2011 1-39 APPLICATION FOR THE USE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS IN HUMAN SUBJECTS TO THE HUMAN USE OF RADIOISOTOPES AND RADIATION COMMITTEE (HURRC) 1. Project Title: 2.

  11. Reconciling scientists' beliefs about radiation risks and social norms: explaining preferred radiation protection standards.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carol L; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C; Barke, Richard P

    2007-06-01

    Social scientists have argued about the role of political beliefs in highly charged policy debates among scientific experts. In debates about environmental hazards, the focus of contention is likely to rest on the appropriate scientific assumptions to inform safety standards. When scientific communities are polarized, one would expect to find systematic differences among combatants in the choice of appropriate assumptions, and variation in the application of "precaution" in standard setting. We test this proposition using an experiment applied in a mail survey format to groups of scientists from opposing sides of the nuclear policy debate. Questions were asked about the role of political, social, and epistemological beliefs in reaching scientific and policy judgments about the relationship between radiation dose and cancer incidence in human populations. We find that the precautionary tendency is pervasive regardless of whether the scientist is associated with a putatively pro- or anti-nuclear group. Using a multinomial logit model, we explain a modest percentage of the variation in the choice of preferred judgments about safety standards, but find that distinct sets of political and social values are significantly associated with policy positions among scientists. Implications for scientific advice to policymakers are discussed. PMID:17640221

  12. Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Education and Public Outreach Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turney, D.; Matiella Novak, A.; Beisser, K.; Fox, N.

    2013-11-01

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program serves as a pipeline of activities to inspire and educate a broad audience about Heliophysics and the Sun-Earth system, specifically the Van Allen Radiation Belts. The program is comprised of a variety of formal, informal and public outreach activities that all align with the NASA Education Portfolio Strategic Framework outcomes. These include lesson plans and curriculum for use in the classroom, teacher workshops, internship opportunities, activities that target underserved populations, collaboration with science centers and NASA visitors' centers and partnerships with experts in the Heliophysics and education disciplines. This paper will detail the activities that make up the RBSP E/PO program, their intended audiences, and an explanation as to how they align with the NASA education outcomes. Additionally, discussions on why these activities are necessary as part of a NASA mission are included. Finally, examples of how the RBSP E/PO team has carried out some of these activities will be discussed throughout.

  13. Radiation protection performance for the dismantling of the WWR-M primary cooling circuit.

    PubMed

    Lobach, Yu N; Luferenko, E D; Shevel, V N

    2014-12-01

    The WWR-M is a light-water-cooled and moderated heterogonous research reactor with a thermal output of 10 MW. The reactor has been in operation for >50 y and has had an excellent safety record. A non-hermeticity of the inlet line of the primary cooling circuit (PCC) was found, and the only reasonable technical solution was the complete replacement of the PCC inlet and outlet pipe lines. Such a replacement was a challenging technical task due to the necessity to handle large size components with complex geometries under conditions of high-level radiation fields, and therefore, it required detailed planning aiming to reduce staff exposure. This paper describes the dismantling and removal of the PCC components focusing on radiation protection issues. PMID:24277873

  14. 78 FR 75581 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ...MANAGEMENT Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the Affordable Insurance Exchanges; Announcement...entitled ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the...

  15. 78 FR 25591 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ...3206-AM47 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the Affordable Insurance Exchanges; Correction...entitled ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the...

  16. Oxidative stress due to radiation in CD34+ Hematopoietic progenitor cells: protection by IGF-1

    PubMed Central

    Floratou, Konstantina; Giannopoulou, Efstathia; Antonacopoulou, Anna; Karakantza, Marina; Adonakis, George; Kardamakis, Dimitrios; Matsouka, Panagiota

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exerts direct as well as indirect effects on DNA through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) experience DNA strand breaks, favoring genetic instability, due to ROS generation. Our aim was to study the effect of a range of radiation doses in HPCs and the possible protective mechanisms activated by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). ROS generation was evaluated, in the presence or absence of IGF-1 in liquid cultures of human HPCs-CD34+ irradiated with 1-, 2- and 5-Gy X-rays, using a flow cytometry assay. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) expression was studied by western blot analysis and visualized by an immunofluorescence assay. Apoptosis was estimated using the following assays: Annexin-V assay, DNA degradation assay, BCL-2/BAX mRNA and protein levels and caspase-9 protein immunofluorescence visualization. Viability and clonogenic potential were studied in irradiated HPCs. The generation of superoxide anion radicals at an early and a late time point was increased, while the hydrogen peroxide generation at a late time point was stable. IGF-1 presence further enhanced the radiation-induced increase of MnSOD at 24 h post irradiation. IGF-1 inhibited the mitochondria-mediated pathway of apoptosis by regulating the m-RNA and protein expression of BAX, BCL-2 and the BCL-2/BAX ratio and by decreasing caspase-9 protein expression. IGF-1 presence in culture media of irradiated cells restored the clonogenic capacity and the viability of HPCs as well. In conclusion, IGF-1 protects HPCs-CD34+ from radiation effects, by eliminating the oxidative microenvironment through the enhancement of MnSOD activation and by regulating the mitochondria-mediated pathway of apoptosis. PMID:22843358

  17. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Protects Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Against Ionizing Radiation in an Autocrine Manner

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yu-Jen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chin-Ping; Hsu, Ming-Ling; Shieh, Hui-Ru; Chao, Nicholas K. [Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chao, K.S. Clifford, E-mail: ksc2119@columbia.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is critical to embryogenesis and resistance to chemotherapy. We aimed to examine the role of Shh signaling in the response to radiation of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Methods and Materials: Response to ionizing radiation therapy (RT) was evaluated by clonogenic assay. Quantitative RT-polymerase chain reaction for patched-1 (PTCH-1) expression was performed. Cytosolic accumulation of Shh and nuclear translocation of Gli-1 were assessed by immunofluorescence. Gli-1 knockdown was done by RNA interference (RNAi). Immunoprecipitation was performed to detect Shh ligand in conditioned medium. Immunofluorescent stain for {gamma}-H2AX was used as an index of DNA double strand breaks (DSB). Expression of proteins related to DNA damage repair was assessed by Western blotting. Results: We found that Shh ligand could protect human HCC HA22T and Sk-Hep1 cells against RT. In HA22T cells, Shh ligand activated the Shh signaling with upregulation of Shh, PTCH-1, and Gli-1 expression. The nuclear translocation of Gli-1 further supports the activation of Gli-1. The radioprotection by Shh ligand was partly blocked by Shh antibody neutralization and was abolished by Gli-1 RNAi, suggesting a critical role of Shh signaling in radiation resistance. Furthermore, we noted that soluble factors secreted into conditioned medium, either constitutively or responding to radiation, by HA22T or Sk-Hep1 cells protected subsequent culturing cells against RT. Immunoprecipitation shows the presence of Shh peptide in conditioned medium. Intriguingly, antibody neutralization of Shh ligand or knockdown of Gli-1 reversed the radioprotective effect of conditioned medium. Furthermore, Shh ligand reduced the RT-induced phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase 1 and impaired the repair of DNA DSB. Conclusions: Activation of Shh signaling protects HCC cells against ionizing radiation in an autocrine manner. Impairment of DNA damage repair might involve mechanism of Shh-induced radioresistance. Targeting Shh signaling pathway may be a novel strategy to enhance the radioresponse of human HCC cells.

  18. Cancer risk above 1 Gy and the impact for space radiation protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Uwe; Walsh, Linda

    2009-07-01

    Analyses of the epidemiological data on the Japanese A-bomb survivors, who were exposed to ?-rays and neutrons, provide most current information on the dose-response of radiation-induced cancer. Since the dose span of main interest is usually between 0 and 1 Gy, for radiation protection purposes, the analysis of the A-bomb survivors is often focused on this range. However, estimates of cancer risk for doses larger than 1 Gy are becoming more important for long-term manned space missions. Therefore in this work, emphasis is placed on doses larger than 1 Gy with respect to radiation-induced solid cancer and leukemia mortality. The present analysis of the A-bomb survivors data was extended by including two extra high-dose categories and applying organ-averaged dose instead of the colon-weighted dose. In addition, since there are some recent indications for a high neutron dose contribution, the data were fitted separately for three different values for the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the neutrons (10, 35 and 100) and a variable RBE as a function of dose. The data were fitted using a linear and a linear-exponential dose-response relationship using a dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) of both one and two. The work presented here implies that the use of organ-averaged dose, a dose-dependent neutron RBE and the bending-over of the dose-response relationship for radiation-induced cancer could result in a reduction of radiation risk by around 50% above 1 Gy. This could impact radiation risk estimates for space crews on long-term mission above 500 days who might be exposed to doses above 1 Gy. The consequence of using a DDREF of one instead of two increases cancer risk by about 40% and would therefore balance the risk decrease described above.

  19. Protective effect of esculentoside A on radiation-induced dermatitis and fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Zhenyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Su Ying [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Yang Shanmin [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Yin Liangjie [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Wang Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Yi Yanghua [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Fenton, Bruce M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Zhang Lurong [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Okunieff, Paul [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States)]. E-mail: paul_okunieff@urmc.rochester.edu

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of esculentoside A (EsA) on radiation-induced cutaneous and fibrovascular toxicity and its possible molecular mechanisms, both in vivo and in vitro. Methods and Materials: Mice received drug intervention 18 hours before 30 Gy to the right hind leg. Alterations in several cytokines expressed in skin tissue 2 days after irradiation were determined by ELISA. Early skin toxicity was evaluated 3 to 4 weeks after irradiation by skin scoring, and both tissue contraction and expression of TGF-{beta}1 were determined for soft-tissue fibrosis 3 months after irradiation. In vitro, the effect of EsA on radiation-induced nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine production in different cell types was measured by application of 2, 4, and 8 Gy. Results: In vivo, EsA reduced levels of IL-1{alpha}, MCP-1, VEGF, and TGF-{beta}1 in cutaneous tissue and reduced soft-tissue toxicity. In vitro, EsA inhibited the IL-1{alpha} ordinarily produced after 4 Gy in A431 cells. In Raw264.7 cells, EsA reduced levels of IL-1{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, and NO production costimulated by radiation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In L-929 cells, EsA inhibited VEGF, TNF, and MCP-1 production at 2, 4, and 8 Gy. Conclusions: Esculentoside A protects soft tissues against radiation toxicity through inhibiting the production of several proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators in epithelial cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, and skin tissue.

  20. [Studies on chemical protectors against radiation. XXXI. Protection effects of Aloe arborescens on skin injury induced by X-irradiation].

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Ohta, S; Shinoda, M

    1990-11-01

    Protective effects of Aloe arborescens (AA) on mouse skin injury induced by soft X-irradiation were examined. The mechanisms on radiation protection by measuring scavenge activity of activated oxygen, protective effects of nucleic acid, induction of antioxidative protein and so on were further investigated. Consequently a significant protective effect of skin injury was observed in AA S6-3-b. As the mechanisms of radiation protection in AA, the following matters were found. AA S6-3-b showed scavenge activity of hydroxyl radicals generated by Haber-Weiss reaction. AA S6-3-b suppressed the changes of activity in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase at 7d after soft X-irradiation. Metallothionein was induced in the skin and liver against normal mice at 24 h after administration of AA S6-3-b. PMID:2082014