Science.gov

Sample records for radiation protection standards

  1. Radiation protection standards in space.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, W K

    1986-01-01

    Radiation protection standards for the individual exposed to ionizing radiation in his/her daily work have evolved over more than 50 years since the first recommendations on limits by the NCRP and the ICRP. Initial standards were based on the absence of observable harm, notably skin erythema, but have since been modified as other concerns, such as leukemia and genetic effects, became more important. More recently, the general carcinogenic effect of radiation has become the principal concern at low doses. Genetic effects are also of concern in the younger individual. Modern radiation protection practices take both of these risks into account. Quantification of these risks improves as new information emerges. The study of the Japanese survivors of the atomic bombs continues to yield new information and the recent revisions in the dosimetry are about to be completed. The special circumstances of space travel suggest approaches to limits not unlike those for radiation workers on the ground. One approach is to derive a career limit based on the risks of accident faced by many nonradiation workers in a lifetime. The career limit can be apportioned according to the type of mission. The NCRP is considering this and other approaches to the specification of radiation standards in space. PMID:11537242

  2. Radiation protection standards in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Warren K.

    Radiation protection standards for the individual exposed to ionizing radiation in his/her daily work have evolved over more than 50 years since the first recommendations on limits by the NCRP and the ICRP. Initial standards were based on the absence of observable harm, notably skin erythema, but have since been modified as other concerns, such as leukemia and genetic effects, became more important. More recently, the general carcinogenic effect of radiation has become the principal concern at low doses. Genetic effects are also of concern in the younger individual. Modern radiation protection practices take both of these risks into account. Quantification of these risks improves as new information emerges. The study of the Japanese survivors of the atomic bombs continues to yield new information and the recent revisions in the dosimetry are about to be completed. The special circumstances of space travel suggest approaches to limits not unlike those for radiation workers on the ground. One approach is to derive a career limit based on the risks of accident faced by many nonradiation workers in a lifetime. The career limit can be apportioned according to the type of mission. The NCRP is considering this and other approaches to the specification of radiation standards in space.

  3. Viewpoint on proposed radiation-protection standards

    SciTech Connect

    Auxier, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The proposed revision of 10CFR20 is discussed from a personal perspective. A brief historical review of the development of radiation standards is presented, and arguments against the proposed de minimis level elaborated upon. (ACR)

  4. Setting standards for radiation protection: A time for change

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, H.W.; Hickman, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1950, the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommended that ``certain radiation effects are irreversible and cumulative.`` Furthermore, the ICRP ``strongly recommended that every effort be made to reduce exposures to all types of ionizing radiations to the lowest possible level.`` Then in 1954, the ICRP published its assumption that human response to ionizing radiation was linear with dose, together with the recommendation that exposures be kept as low as practicable. These concepts are still the foundation of radiation protection policy today, even though, as Evans has stated, ``The linear non-threshold (LNT) model was adopted specifically on a basis of mathematical simplicity, not from radio-biological data.... Groups responsible for setting standards for radiation protection should be abreast of new developments and new data as they are published; however, this does not seem to be the case. For example, there have been many reports in scientific, peer-reviewed, and other publications during the last three decades that have shown the LNT model and the policy of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) to be invalid. However, none of these reports has been refuted or even discussed by standard-setting groups. We believe this mandates a change in the standard-setting process.

  5. Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. L.

    2002-02-27

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued radiation protection standards for the potential spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste disposal system in Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These standards are found in Part 197 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 197). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 directed, and gave the authority to, EPA to take this action based upon input from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). The final standards were published in the Federal Register (66 FR 32073) on 13 June 2001. The 40 CFR Part 197 standards have four major parts: (1) individual-protection during storage activities; (2) individual-protection following closure of the repository; (3) human-intrusion; and (4) ground-water protection. The storage standard is 150 microsieverts (Sv) annual committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) to any member of the general public. The disposal standards are: (1) 150 Sv annual CEDE for the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) for 10,000 years after disposal; (2) 150 Sv received by the RMEI within 10,000 years after disposal as a result of human intrusion; and (3) the levels of radionuclides in the ground water cannot exceed 40 Sv from beta and gamma emitters, 5 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) of radium-226 and -228, and 15 pCi/L of gross alpha activity. There are also requirements related to the post-10,000-year period, the basis of compliance judgments, and performance assessments. The Agency has published its responses to the comments received, its technical background document, and its economic impact analysis. In addition to printed form, the documents are available on the World Wide Web at http://www.epa.gov/radiation/yucca/index.html.

  6. European standards for protective apparel against UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Laperre, Jan; Foubert, Fred

    2002-01-01

    The first European standard which describes the test procedure to determine the UV-protection factor of clothing is about to be completed. A second part of the same standard, dealing with labelling and marking aspects, is ready to be submitted to public enquiry. In this effort a group of experts from most EU member states have cooperated with a high degree of consensus. In this chapter we explain this European standard together with the standard developed in the UK. PMID:12079233

  7. Modernisation and consolidation of the European radiation protection legislation: the new Euratom Basic Safety Standards Directive.

    PubMed

    Mundigl, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    With the publication of new basic safety standards for the protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation, foreseen in Article 2 and Article 30 of the Euratom Treaty, the European Commission modernises and consolidates the European radiation protection legislation. A revision of the Basic Safety Standards was needed in order (1) to take account of the scientific and technological progress since 1996 and (2) to consolidate the existing set of Euratom radiation protection legislation, merging five Directives and upgrading a recommendation to become legally binding. The new Directive offers in a single coherent document basics safety standards for radiation protection, which take account of the most recent advances in science and technology, cover all relevant radiation sources, including natural radiation sources, integrate protection of workers, members of the public, patients and the environment, cover all exposure situations, planned, existing, emergency, and harmonise numerical values with international standards. After the publication of the Directive in the beginning of 2014, Member States have 4 y to transpose the Directive into national legislation and to implement the requirements therein. PMID:25227437

  8. A review of the history of U.S. radiation protection regulations, recommendations, and standards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cynthia Gillian

    2005-02-01

    Shortly after the discovery of x rays by Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen in 1895, and the isolation of the element radium by Pierre and Marie Curie three years later, the fascination with and potential for an array of uses of ionizing radiation in medicine, science, and technology was born. As with any new technology, there was a need to balance both the beneficial and potential detrimental effects of uses of these new technologies for the advancement of humankind. In the early days, radiation hazards were not well understood. Over the decades increasing concerns in the scientific community and lay population demanded that standardized guidance and recommendations be developed for the use of ionizing radiation. Today, U.S. radiation protection standards and recommendations to protect the occupational worker, members of the general public, and the environment are numerous and complex. This review summarizes the history of the development and application of radiation protection standards and regulations to assure the safe use of radiation and radioactive materials. The evolution and roles of international and national scientific recommending and regulatory organizations that shape U.S. radiation protection policy are described and discussed. PMID:15650586

  9. A review of the history of U.S. radiation protection regulations, recommendations, and standards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cynthia G

    2005-06-01

    Shortly after the discovery of x rays by Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen in 1895, and the isolation of the element radium by Pierre and Marie Curie three years later, the fascination with and potential for an array of uses of ionizing radiation in medicine, science, and technology was born. As with any new technology, there was a need to balance both the beneficial and potential detrimental effects of uses of these new technologies for the advancement of humankind. In the early days, radiation hazards were not well understood. Over the decades increasing concerns in the scientific community and lay population demanded that standardized guidance and recommendations be developed for the use of ionizing radiation. Today, U.S. radiation protection standards and recommendations to protect the occupational worker, members of the general public, and the environment are numerous and complex. This review summarizes the history of the development and application of radiation protection standards and regulations to assure the safe use of radiation and radioactive materials. The evolution and roles of international and national scientific recommending and regulatory organizations that shape U.S. radiation protection policy are described and discussed. PMID:15891462

  10. Linear No-Threshold model and standards for protection against radiation.

    PubMed

    Shamoun, Dima Yazji

    2016-06-01

    In response to the three petitions by Carol S. Marcus, Mark L. Miller, and Mohan Doss, dated February 9, February 13, and February 24, 2015, respectively, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) has announced that it is considering assessing its choice of dose-response model, the Linear No-Threshold (LNT) model, for exposure to ionizing radiation. This comment is designed to assist the Commission in evaluating the merits of a review of the default dose-response model it uses as the basis for the Standards for Protection against Radiation regulations. It extends the petitioners' argument in favor of reexamining the default hypothesis (LNT) and taking consideration of low-dose hormesis for two main reasons: 1) Failure to review the LNT hypothesis may jeopardize the NRC's mission to protect public health and safety; and 2) The National Research Council's guidelines for choosing adequate defaults indicate that the choice of low-dose default model is due for a reevaluation. PMID:26924276

  11. ["Epistemic Negotiations" and the Pluralism of the Radiation Protection Regime: The Determination of Radiation Protection Standards for the General Population in the Early Years After World War II].

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Toshihiro

    2015-10-01

    Radiation protection standards for the general population have constituted one of the most controversial subjects in the history of atomic energy uses. This paper reexamines the process in which the first such standards evolved in the early postwar period. While the existing literature has emphasized a "collusion" between the standard-setters and users, the paper seeks to examine the horizontal relationship among the standard-setters. It first examines a series of expert consultations between the United States and the United Kingdom. Representing a different configuration of power and interest, the two failed to agree on the assessment of genetic damage and cancer induction whose occurrence might have no threshold and therefore be dependent on the population size. This stalemate prevented the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), established in 1950, from formulating separate guidelines for the general public. Situations radically changed when the Bikini incident in 1954 led to the creation of more scientific panels. One such panel under the U.S. Academy of Sciences enabled the geneticists to bridge their internal divide, unanimously naming 100 mSv as the genetically permissible dose for the general population. Not to be outdone, ICRP publicized its own guidelines for the same purpose. The case examined in this paper shows that the standard-setting process is best understood as a series of "epistemic negotiations" among and within the standard-setters, whose agendas were determined from the outset but whose outcomes were not. PMID:26875309

  12. Radiation protection in space.

    PubMed

    Reitz, G; Facius, R; Sandler, H

    1995-01-01

    Radiation environment, basic concepts of radiation protection, and specific aspects of the space radiation field are reviewed. The discussion of physico-chemical and subcellular radiation effects includes mechanisms of radiation action and cellular consequences. The discussion of radiobiological effects includes unique aspects of HZE particle effects, space flight findings, terrestrial findings, analysis of somatic radiation effects and effects on critical organs, and early and delayed effects. Other topics include the impact of the space flight environment, measurement of radiation exposure, establishing radiation protection limits, limitations in establishing space-based radiation exposure limits, radiation protection measures, and recommendations. PMID:11541474

  13. History of the development of radiation protection standards for space activities

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1997-04-30

    Initial recommendations for limitations on radiation exposures in space were made in 1970 by the Radiobiological Advisory Panel of the Committee on Space Medicine, National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC). Using a risk-based approach and taking into consideration a range of factors, the Panel recommended an overall career limit of 4 Sv. Because it was assumed that only small numbers of people would be involved, most of whom would be in excess of 30 y of age, the question of genetic effects did not appear to be of concern. On the basis of subsequent epidemiological findings, the values of the risk coefficients were increased. As a result of this and other considerations, NASA in the early 1980s asked the NCRP to re-examine both the risks and the philosophy for protecting astronauts. In undertaking this task, the NCRP decided to treat the radiation exposures of crew members and payload specialists as an occupational hazard and to evaluate their risks in terms of those to radiation workers and to workers in other industries. Noting that in the less safe but not the most hazardous occupations, workers had an average lifetime risk of mortality of about three percent, the NCRP concluded that a reasonable career limit for astronauts should be based on a lifetime absolute excess risk of mortality of three percent. Using this as a base, the NCRP recommended a career limit for 25 y olds of 1 Sv for females and 1.5 Sv for males. Since the risk decreases the older the age at which the exposures begin, the limits culminated with a career limit of 3 Sv for females and 4 Sv for males whose initial exposure occurred at age 55. These recommendations were based on an assumed nominal value of a lifetime risk of fatal cancers for all ages of about 2 {times} 10{sup -2} Sv{sup -1}.

  14. Radiation Protection. Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Air- radon 222. A proposed ISO standard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, G.; Woods, M.

    2009-04-01

    Radon isotopes (222, 220, 219) are radioactive gases produced by the disintegration of radium isotopes 226, 224 and 223, which are decay products of uranium238, thorium232 and uranium235 respectively. All are found in the earth's crust. Solid elements, also radioactive, are produced by radon disintegration. Radon is classed as a rare gas in the periodic table of elements, along with helium, argon, neon, krypton and xenon. When disintegrating, radon emits alpha particles and generates solid decay products, which are also radioactive (polonium, bismuth, lead etc.). The potential danger of radon lies in its solid decay products rather than the gas itself. Whether or not they are attached aerosols, radon decay products can be inhaled and deposited in the bronchopulmonary tree to varying depths according to their size. Radon today is considered to be the main source of human exposure to natural radiation. At the international level, radon accounts for 52% of global average exposure to natural radiation. Isotope 222 (48%) is far more significant than isotope 220 (4%), whilst isotope 219 is considered as negligible. Exposure to radon varies considerably from one region to another, depending on factors such as weather conditions, and underlying geology. Activity concentration can therefore vary by a factor of 10 or even a 100 from one period of time to the next and from one area to another. There are many ways of measuring the radon 222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products. Measuring techniques fall into three categories: - spot measurement methods; continuous measurement; integrated measurement. The proposed ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) document suggests guidelines for measuring radon222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products in a free (environment) and confined (buildings) atmosphere. The target date for availability of

  15. Sports eyewear protective standards.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. PMID:26875849

  16. Radiation Protection Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A handbook which sets forth the Kennedy Space Center radiation protection policy is presented. The book also covers administrative direction and guidance on organizational and procedural requirements of the program. Only ionizing radiation is covered.

  17. Maintaining radiation protection records

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-30

    This Report is part of a series prepared under the auspices of Scientific Committee 46 on Operational Radiation Safety. It provides guidance on maintaining radiation protection records. Record keeping is an essential element of every radiation protection program. This Report describes the elements that should enter into the design of a program for the maintenance of operational radiation safety records. The problems of the length of time for retention of records for operational, regulatory, epidemiologic and legal uses are discussed in detail.

  18. Evaluation of the WIPP Project`s compliance with the EPA radiation protection standards for disposal of transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Neill, R.H.; Chaturvedi, L.; Rucker, D.F.; Silva, M.K.; Walker, B.A.; Channell, J.K.; Clemo, T.M. |

    1998-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) proposed rule to certify that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) meets compliance with the long-term radiation protection standards for geologic repositories (40CFR191 Subparts B and C), is one of the most significant milestones to date for the WIPP project in particular, and for the nuclear waste issue in general. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has provided an independent technical oversight for the WIPP project since 1978, and is responsible for many improvements in the location, design, and testing of various aspects of the project, including participation in the development of the EPA standards since the early 1980s. The EEG reviewed the development of documentation for assessing the WIPP`s compliance by the Sandia National Laboratories following the 1985 promulgation by EPA, and provided many written and verbal comments on various aspects of this effort, culminating in the overall review of the 1992 performance assessment. For the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) compliance certification application (CCA), the EEG provided detailed comments on the draft CCA in March, 1996, and additional comments through unpublished letters in 1997 (included as Appendices 8.1 and 8.2 in this report). Since the October 30, 1997, publication of the EPA`s proposed rule to certify WIPP, the EEG gave presentations on important issues to the EPA on December 10, 1997, and sent a December 31, 1997 letter with attachments to clarify those issues (Appendix 8.3). The EEG has raised a number of questions that may have an impact on compliance. In spite of the best efforts by the EEG, the EPA reaction to reviews and suggestions has been slow and apparently driven by legal considerations. This report discusses in detail the questions that have been raised about containment requirements. Also discussed are assurance requirements, groundwater protection, individual protection, and an evaluation of EPA`s responses to EEG`s comments.

  19. An EGS4 based mathematical phantom for radiation protection calculations using standard man

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, K.N.

    1994-11-01

    This note describes an Electron Gamma Shower code (EGS4) Monte Carlo program for calculating radiation transport in adult males and females from internal or external electron and gamma sources which requires minimal knowledge of organ geometry. Calculations of the dose from planar gamma fields and from computerized tomography illustrate two applications of the package. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Radiation protection in space

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, E.A.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1995-02-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space.

  1. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA...

  2. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA...

  3. COOMET regional comparison of national measurement standards of air kerma for 137Cs γ radiation at protection level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büermann, L.; Oborin, A. V.; Milevsky, V. S.; Walwyn Salas, G.; Sukhishvili, S.; Ginga, I.; Ivanov, R.; Gudelis, A.; Gomola, I.

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented of the COOMET supplementary comparison of the national measurement standards for air kerma in 137Cs γ radiation at protection level (~10 mGy/h). Ten National Metrology Institutes from the COOMET organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency participated in this COOMET project no. 445. The PTB acted as pilot laboratory. Two of the participants, the SMU (Slovakia) and the NSC-'IM' (Ukraine) participated in the measurements but did not submit a valid report of results. The comparison reference value (CRV) was obtained as the mean result of the PTB and the VNIIM, both of which had previously taken part in the key comparison BIPM-RI(I)-K5. The degree of equivalence with the CRV was evaluated. The results were consistent within the relative standard uncertainties of the comparison ranging from 0.28% to 1.3% and deviated from the CRV by less than 1%. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  4. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and implement a radiation protection program...

  5. ISO radiation sterilization standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Byron J.; Hansen, Joyce M.

    1998-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the current status of the ISO radiation sterilization standards. The ISO standards are voluntary standards which detail both the validation and routine control of the sterilization process. ISO 11137 was approved in 1994 and published in 1995. When reviewing the standard you will note that less than 20% of the standard is devoted to requirements and the remainder is guidance on how to comply with the requirements. Future standards developments in radiation sterilization are being focused on providing additional guidance. The guidance that is currently provided in informative annexes of ISO 11137 includes: device/packaging materials, dose setting methods, and dosimeters and dose measurement, currently, there are four Technical Reports being developed to provide additional guidance: 1. AAMI Draft TIR, "Radiation Sterilization Material Qualification" 2. ISO TR 13409-1996, "Sterilization of health care products — Radiation sterilization — Substantiation of 25 kGy as a sterilization dose for small or infrequent production batches" 3. ISO Draft TR, "Sterilization of health care products — Radiation sterilization Selection of a sterilization dose for a single production batch" li]4. ISO Draft TR, "Sterilization of health care products — Radiation sterilization-Product Families, Plans for Sampling and Frequency of Dose Audits."

  6. Radiation protection in space.

    PubMed

    Blakely, E A; Fry, R J

    1995-08-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in our knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared with previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers, including space travelers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space. PMID:7480625

  7. Radiation protection and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation was found not to be an operational problem during the Apollo program. Doses received by the crewmen of Apollo missions 7 through 17 were small because no major solar-particle events occurred during those missions. One small event was detected by a radiation sensor outside the Apollo 12 spacecraft, but no increase in radiation dose to the crewmen inside the spacecraft was detected. Radiation protection for the Apollo program was focused on both the peculiarities of the natural space radiation environment and the increased prevalence of manmade radiation sources on the ground and onboard the spacecraft. Radiation-exposure risks to crewmen were assessed and balanced against mission gain to determine mission constraints. Operational radiation evaluation required specially designed radiation detection systems onboard the spacecraft in addition to the use of satellite data, solar observatory support, and other liaison. Control and management of radioactive sources and radiation-generating equipment was important in minimizing radiation exposure of ground-support personnel, researchers, and the Apollo flight and backup crewmen.

  8. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public Health and Environmental Standards for... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are the Individual Protection...

  9. Optimization of radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Lochard, J.

    1981-07-01

    The practical and theoretical problems raised by the optimization of radiological protection merit a review of decision-making methods, their relevance, and the way in which they are used in order to better determine what role they should play in the decision-making process. Following a brief summary of the theoretical background of the cost-benefit analysis, we examine the methodological choices implicit in the model presented in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication No. 26 and, particularly, the consequences of the theory that the level of radiation protection, the benefits, and the production costs of an activity can be treated separately.

  10. Protection from Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Singleterry, R. C.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; Kim, M. Y.; Badavi, F. F.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The exposures anticipated for our astronauts in the anticipated Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) will be significantly higher (both annual and carrier) than any other occupational group. In addition, the exposures in deep space result largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little experience. Some evidence exists indicating that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate [1,2]. The purpose of this presentation is to evaluate our current understanding of radiation protection with laboratory and flight experimental data and to discuss recent improvements in interaction models and transport methods.

  11. Protection from space radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, R.K.; Wilson, J.W.; Shinn, J.L.

    2000-07-01

    The exposures anticipated for astronauts in the anticipated human exploration and development of space will be significantly higher (both annual and carrier) than for any other occupational group. In addition, the exposures in deep space result largely from galactic cosmic rays for which there is as yet little experience. Some evidence exists indicating that conventional linear energy transfer defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate. The authors evaluate their current understanding of radiation protection with laboratory and flight experimental data and discuss recent improvements in interaction models and transport methods.

  12. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

    2007-08-09

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

  13. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  14. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of the radiation protection program, including: (1)...

  15. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  16. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  17. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  18. Review of standards for limitation of radiation dose to radiation workers and members of the public

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Topics covered in the review include: current radiation protection standards for workers; current radiation protection standards for the routine exposures of the public; environmental radiation standards for specific practices or sources; protective action guides for accidental releases of radioactivity to the environment; de minimis dose, exempt levels of radioactivity, and below regulatory concern.

  19. Review of standards for limitation of radiation dose to radiation workers and members of the public

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.

    1992-07-01

    Topics covered in the review include: current radiation protection standards for workers; current radiation protection standards for the routine exposures of the public; environmental radiation standards for specific practices or sources; protective action guides for accidental releases of radioactivity to the environment; de minimis dose, exempt levels of radioactivity, and below regulatory concern.

  20. Stakeholder perspectives on radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Ledwidge, Lisa; Moore, LeRoy; Crawford, Lisa

    2004-09-01

    Standards for permissible exposure to radiation and the way they are established must incorporate a set of principles that uphold both health and democracy. When the science is uncertain, the burden of proof that risk is not being imposed should be on the source of the risk, not on the possibly affected public or workforce. Scientific processes must be transparent to the public, must address all relevant risk issues and endpoints (and not only cancer), and must be inclusive of the actual experience and opinion of the people who are exposed to radiation risks. Scientists are too often dismissive of public experience and interests, as for instance with worker illnesses or fallout, even though input from the public and workers has frequently proven to be valuable in the development of radiation protection principles. Incorporating the concerns, views, and experiences of workers and the public in a respectful way while maintaining a high standard of scientific work must be an essential part of the standard-setting process. Further, the clearly enunciated International Commission on Radiological Protection principle that the imposition of risk must be accompanied by a clear benefit needs to be a far more explicit part of standard-setting processes, which must also ensure that all known risks are disclosed and that suspected risks, such as possible synergisms between some radionuclides and hormone-disrupting chemicals, are carefully considered. Finally, given the long-lived nature of risks from many radionuclides and the large uncertainties about future physical, social, economic, and other conditions, the issue of how the interests of future generations can be included in standard setting is a difficult but vital matter. PMID:15303067

  1. Pregnancy and Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating

  2. Pregnancy and Radiation Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.

    2010-01-21

    Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating

  3. Personal Radiation Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Mark; Vinci, Victoria

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the personal radiation protection system (PRPS), which has been invented for use on the International Space Station and other spacecraft. The PRPS comprises walls that can be erected inside spacecraft, where and when needed, to reduce the amount of radiation to which personnel are exposed. The basic structural modules of the PRPS are pairs of 1-in. (2.54-cm)-thick plates of high-density polyethylene equipped with fasteners. The plates of each module are assembled with a lap joint. The modules are denoted bricks because they are designed to be stacked with overlaps, in a manner reminiscent of bricks, to build 2-in. (5.08-cm)-thick walls of various lengths and widths. The bricks are of two varieties: one for flat wall areas and one for corners. The corner bricks are specialized adaptations of the flat-area bricks that make it possible to join walls perpendicular to each other. Bricks are attached to spacecraft structures and to each other by use of straps that can be tightened to increase the strengths and stiffnesses of joints.

  4. Chemical Protection Against Radiation Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campaigne, Ernest

    1969-01-01

    Discusses potential war time and medical uses for chemical compounds giving protection against radiation damage. Describes compounds known to protect, research aimed at discovering such compounds, and problems of toxicity. (EB)

  5. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of...

  6. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of...

  7. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of...

  8. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of...

  9. New Approaches to Radiation Protection

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Eliot M.; Day, Regina; Singh, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given prior to radiation exposure. Mitigators can protect against radiation injury when given after exposure but before symptoms appear. Radioprotectors and mitigators can potentially improve the outcomes of radiotherapy for cancer treatment by allowing higher doses of radiation and/or reduced damage to normal tissues. Such compounds can also potentially counteract the effects of accidental exposure to radiation or deliberate exposure (e.g., nuclear reactor meltdown, dirty bomb, or nuclear bomb explosion); hence they are called radiation countermeasures. Here, we will review the general principles of radiation injury and protection and describe selected examples of radioprotectors/mitigators ranging from small-molecules to proteins to cell-based treatments. We will emphasize agents that are in more advanced stages of development. PMID:25653923

  10. Radiation standards and public perceptions of risk

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, H.T. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The relation between radiation standards and a perceived safe level of radiation exposure indicates that regulators must carefully describe the underlying basis for existing and new radiation standards so that public perception will not be inadvertently influenced due to changes in standard-setting philosophy. Regulators also need to qualify estimates of risks from low-level ionizing radiation (doses <5 rem/yr) to indicate that the estimated effects are potential effects only and that there is no evidence such effects actually have been observed at these doses and dose rates. However, proponents of the application of ionizing radiation and nuclear energy must also recognize that there is no concrete evidence that such effects do not occur at these doses and that, given this uncertainty as to whether the effects occur at all, it is prudent for public health protection purposes to assume that such effects could occur.

  11. NASA Occupant Protection Standards Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Jeffrey T.; Gernhardt, Michael A.; Lawrence, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Current National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) occupant protection standards and requirements are based on extrapolations of biodynamic models, which were based on human tests performed under pre-Space Shuttle human flight programs where the occupants were in different suit and seat configurations than is expected for the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and Commercial Crew programs. As a result, there is limited statistical validity to the occupant protection standards. Furthermore, the current standards and requirements have not been validated in relevant spaceflight suit, seat configurations or loading conditions. The objectives of this study were to develop new standards and requirements for occupant protection and rigorously validate these new standards with sub-injurious human testing. To accomplish these objectives we began by determining which critical injuries NASA would like to protect for. We then defined the anthropomorphic test device (ATD) and the associated injury metrics of interest. Finally, we conducted a literature review of available data for the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint New Technology (THOR-NT) ATD to determine injury assessment reference values (IARV) to serve as a baseline for further development. To better understand NASA s environment, we propose conducting sub-injurious human testing in spaceflight seat and suit configurations with spaceflight dynamic loads, with a sufficiently high number of subjects to validate no injury during nominal landing loads. In addition to validate nominal loads, the THOR-NT ATD will be tested in the same conditions as the human volunteers, allowing correlation between human and ATD responses covering the Orion nominal landing environment and commercial vehicle expected nominal environments. All testing will be conducted without the suit and with the suit to ascertain the contribution of the suit to human and ATD responses. In addition to the testing campaign proposed, additional

  12. Radiation protection during space flight

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalev, E.E.

    1983-12-01

    The problem of ensuring space flight safety arises from conditions inherent to space flights and outer space and from the existing weight limitations of spacecraft. In estimating radiation hazard during space flights, three natural sources are considered: the Earth's radiation belt, solar radiation, and galactic radiation. This survey first describes the major sources of radiation hazard in outer space with emphasis on those source parameters directly related to shielding manned spacecraft. Then, the current status of the safety criteria used in the shielding calculations is discussed. The rest of the survey is devoted to the rationale for spacecraft radiation shielding calculations. The recently completed long-term space flights indicate the reliability of the radiation safety measures used for the near-Earth space exploration. While planning long-term interplanetary flights, it is necessary to solve a number of complicated technological problems related to the radiation protection of the crew.

  13. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maisin, J. R.

    Some of the problems related to chemical protection against ionizing radiation are discussed with emphasis on : definition, classification, degree of protection, mechanisms of action and toxicity. Results on the biological response modifyers (BRMs) and on the combination of nontoxic (i.e. low) doses of sulphydryl radioprotectors and BRMs are presented.

  14. 78 FR 59982 - Revisions to Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... FR 66650), the NRC published for public comment the proposed revisions to four sections in Chapter 12... COMMISSION Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Standard review... Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition'': Section 12.1, ``Assuring that Occupational...

  15. Radiation Protection in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Brown, John R.; Jarvis, Anita A.

    1964-01-01

    A recent survey was carried out with respect to radiobiological and radiological health projects in Canada. Letters of inquiry, followed by two questionnaires, were sent out to every institution where radiation research was likely to have been undertaken. Approximately 75% of those contacted replied. Of the total of 200 studies, 84% were classified as biological and medical studies, the remaining 16% as environmental radiation studies. Responses to the inquiry stressed the inadequacy of the present governmental budget for radiation research, the need for higher salaries for research workers, and the necessity of a more intensive teaching program for technicians and professional personnel. The granting of longer-term grants, rather than annually renewable grants, is urged. PMID:14226104

  16. 49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Siting Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection...) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated using Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) report...

  17. 49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Siting Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection...) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated using Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) report...

  18. 49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Siting Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection...) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated using Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) report...

  19. 49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Siting Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection...) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated using Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) report...

  20. 77 FR 66650 - Proposed Revisions to Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Standard... (NRC or the Commission) is revising the following sections in Chapter 12, ``Radiation Protection'' and... Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition,'' Section 12.1, ``Assuring that Occupational Radiation Exposures Are...

  1. [Radiation protection in interventional radiology].

    PubMed

    Adamus, R; Loose, R; Wucherer, M; Uder, M; Galster, M

    2016-03-01

    The application of ionizing radiation in medicine seems to be a safe procedure for patients as well as for occupational exposition to personnel. The developments in interventional radiology with fluoroscopy and dose-intensive interventions require intensified radiation protection. It is recommended that all available tools should be used for this purpose. Besides the options for instruments, x‑ray protection at the intervention table must be intensively practiced with lead aprons and mounted lead glass. A special focus on eye protection to prevent cataracts is also recommended. The development of cataracts might no longer be deterministic, as confirmed by new data; therefore, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has lowered the threshold dose value for eyes from 150 mSv/year to 20 mSv/year. Measurements show that the new values can be achieved by applying all X‑ray protection measures plus lead-containing eyeglasses. PMID:26913507

  2. Radiation protection principles of NCRP.

    PubMed

    Kase, Kenneth R

    2004-09-01

    The current recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) relative to ionizing radiation are based on radiation protection principles that developed historically as information about radiation effects on human populations became available. Because the NCRP Charter states that the NCRP will cooperate with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the basic principles and recommendations for radiation protection of the NCRP are closely coupled with those of the ICRP. Thus, the fundamental principles of justification, optimization, and dose limitation as initially stated in ICRP Publication 26 have been adopted and applied by the NCRP in its recommendations. ICRP and NCRP recommendations on dose limitation for the general public and for occupationally exposed individuals are based on the same analyses of radiation risk, and, while similar, there are differences reflecting the aspects of radiation application and exposure circumstances unique to the United States. The NCRP has recently extended its guidance to address exposure to individuals engaged in space activities. Several reports have been issued or are in preparation to provide recommendations on dose limitation and the development of radiation safety programs to apply the radiation protection principles in space activities. The biological basis for these recommendations is provided in these and accompanying NCRP reports. Recommendations for the application of basic radiation protection principles have been made in many reports over the years. Those that are most current appear in approximately 50 reports published in the last 15 y. These address radiation safety practices in industrial and medical institutions, control of radionuclides in the environment, protection of the public, and assessment of radiation risk. Some of the aspects of these recommendations will be discussed. Current recommendations related to radiation safety practice are based

  3. Overview of radiation protection at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.; Britvich, G.; Bull, J.; Coulson, L.; Coyne, J.; Mokhov, N.; Romero, V.; Stapleton, G.

    1994-03-01

    The radiation protection program at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory is described. After establishing a set of stringent design guidelines for radiation protection, both normal and accidental beam losses for each accelerator were estimated. From these parameters, shielding requirements were specified using Monte-Carlo radiation transport codes. A groundwater activation model was developed to demonstrate compliance with federal drinking water standards. Finally, the environmental radiation monitoring program was implemented to determine the effect of the facility operation on the radiation environment.

  4. Trend of EMC Standards for Protective Relays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Toshio; Suga, Noriyoshi; Seki, Masaya

    JEC-2501, a future JEC standard for protective relays' EMC environment is now under creation in conformance with related IEC's EMC standards and existing Japanese EMC standards. This paper describes history of EMC related standards for protective relays in Japan, Structure and meanings of IEC's EMC standards referred by JEC-2501, relation between EMC standards of IEC and those of Japan, and finally desirable way of creating future EMC standard in Japan.

  5. 1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

  6. Radiation protection in pediatric radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The book covers all the basic concepts concerned with minimizing the radiation dose to patients, parents, and personnel, while producing radiographic studies of diagnostic quality. Practical information about tissues at risk, radiation risks specific to children, performance of radiographic and fluoroscopic examination, gonadal protection, pregnancy, immobilization of children, mobile radiography, and equipment considerations including those pertaining to computed tomography and dental radiography are given. (KRM)

  7. Research priorities for occupational radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research concludes that the most urgently needed research is that leading to the resolution of the potential effects of low-level ionizing radiation. This is the primary driving force in setting appropriate radiation protection standards and in directing the emphasis of radiation protection efforts. Much has already been done in collecting data that represents a compendium of knowledge that should be fully reviewed and understood. It is imperative that health physics researchers more effectively use that data and apply the findings to enhance understanding of the potential health effects of low-level ionizing radiation and improve the risk estimates upon which current occupational radiation protection procedures and requirements depend. Research must be focused to best serve needs in the immediate years ahead. Only then will we get the most out of what is accomplished. Beyond the above fundamental need, a number of applied research areas also have been identified as national priority issues. If effective governmental focus is achieved on several of the most important national priority issues, important occupational radiation protection research will be enhanced, more effectively coordinated, and more quickly applied to the work environment. Response in the near term will be enhanced and costs will be reduced by: developing microprocessor-aided {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} instruments to simplify the use and processing of radiation data; developing more sensitive, energy-independent, and tissue-equivalent dosimeters to more accurately quantify personnel dose; and developing an improved risk assessment technology base. This can lead to savings of millions of dollars in current efforts needed to ensure personnel safety and to meet new, more stringent occupational guidelines.

  8. [Radiation protection in interventional cardiology].

    PubMed

    Durán, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    INTERVENTIONAL: cardiology progress makes each year a greater number of procedures and increasing complexity with a very good success rate. The problem is that this progress brings greater dose of radiation not only for the patient but to occupationally exposed workers as well. Simple methods for reducing or minimizing occupational radiation dose include: minimizing fluoroscopy time and the number of acquired images; using available patient dose reduction technologies; using good imaging-chain geometry; collimating; avoiding high-scatter areas; using protective shielding; using imaging equipment whose performance is controlled through a quality assurance programme; and wearing personal dosimeters so that you know your dose. Effective use of these methods requires both appropriate education and training in radiation protection for all interventional cardiology personnel, and the availability and use of appropriate protective tools and equipment. Regular review and investigation of personnel monitoring results, accompanied as appropriate by changes in how procedures are performed and equipment used, will ensure continual improvement in the practice of radiation protection in the interventional suite. PMID:26169040

  9. Future of Radiation Protection Regulations.

    PubMed

    Doss, Mohan

    2016-03-01

    THERE IS considerable disagreement in the scientific community regarding the carcinogenicity of low-dose radiation (LDR), with publications supporting opposing points of view. However, major flaws have been identified in many of the publications claiming increased cancer risk from LDR. The data generally recognized as the most important for assessing radiation effects in humans, the atomic bomb survivor data, are often cited to raise LDR cancer concerns. However, these data no longer support the linear no-threshold (LNT) model after the 2012 update but are consistent with radiation hormesis. Thus, a resolution of the controversy regarding the carcinogenicity of LDR appears to be imminent, with the rejection of the LNT model and acceptance of radiation hormesis. Hence, for setting radiation protection regulations, an alternative approach to the present one based on the LNT model is needed. One approach would be to determine the threshold dose for the carcinogenic effect of radiation from existing data and establish regulations to ensure radiation doses are kept well below the threshold dose. This can be done by setting dose guidelines specifying safe levels of radiation doses, with the requirement that these safe levels, referred to as guidance levels, not be exceeded significantly. Using this approach, a dose guidance level of 10 cGy for acute radiation exposures and 10 cGy y for exposures over extended periods of time are recommended. The concept of keeping doses as low as reasonably achievable, known as ALARA, would no longer be required for low-level radiation exposures not expected to exceed the dose guidance levels significantly. These regulations would facilitate studies using LDR for prevention and treatment of diseases. Results from such studies would be helpful in refining dose guidance levels. The dose guidance levels would be the same for the public and radiation workers to ensure everyone's safety. PMID:26808881

  10. Protection against radiation (biological, pharmacological, chemical, physical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saksonov, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological protection for astronauts from penetrating radiation on long-term space flights is discussed. The status of pharmacochemical protection, development of protective substances, medical use of protective substances, protection for spacecraft ecologic systems, adaptogens and physical conditioning, bone marrow transplants and local protection are discussed. Combined use of local protection and pharmacochemical substances is also briefly considered.

  11. Personal computing in radiation protection programs

    SciTech Connect

    Bunker, A.S. )

    1987-01-01

    In the fall of 1986, Radiation Protection Management surveyed its Correspondents (radiation protection professionals at utilities, universities, national laboratories, consulting firms, and government agencies) on their use of personal computers (PCs). This article presents the results of the survey with profiles of the PC user, the PC equipment, the software, and the work environment. The average PC user is proficient with more than one type of software, is self taught, knows at least one programing language, and uses his/her PC every day. The standard radiation protection PC is an IBM PC/XT/AT or compatible, fully-loaded with 640K of RAM, a hard disk, a modem, etc. Radiation protection professionals use their PCs mainly for word processing and specialty (technical) applications -- their favorite programs are Lotus 1-2-3, Ashton-Tate's dBase series, and MicroPro's WordStar series. Most PCs are shared by several persons, but one of them often uses the PC more than all of the others combined.

  12. Provisional standards of radiation safety during flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Radiation effects during space flights are discussed in the context of the sources and dangers of such radiation and the radiobiological prerequisites for establishing safe levels of radiation dosage. Standard safe levels of radiation during space flight are established.

  13. DOE Standard: Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    The development of this Standard reflects the fact that national consensus standards and other design criteria do not comprehensively or, in some cases, adequately address fire protection issues at DOE facilities. This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard replaces certain mandatory fire protection requirements that were formerly in DOE 5480.7A, ``Fire Protection``, and DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria``. It also contains the fire protection guidelines from two (now canceled) draft standards: ``Glove Box Fire Protection`` and ``Filter Plenum Fire Protection``. (Note: This Standard does not supersede the requirements of DOE 5480.7A and DOE 6430.1A where these DOE Orders are currently applicable under existing contracts.) This Standard, along with the criteria delineated in Section 3, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  14. Space radiation protection: Destination Mars.

    PubMed

    Durante, Marco

    2014-04-01

    National space agencies are planning a human mission to Mars in the XXI century. Space radiation is generally acknowledged as a potential showstopper for this mission for two reasons: a) high uncertainty on the risk of radiation-induced morbidity, and b) lack of simple countermeasures to reduce the exposure. The need for radiation exposure mitigation tools in a mission to Mars is supported by the recent measurements of the radiation field on the Mars Science Laboratory. Shielding is the simplest physical countermeasure, but the current materials provide poor reduction of the dose deposited by high-energy cosmic rays. Accelerator-based tests of new materials can be used to assess additional protection in the spacecraft. Active shielding is very promising, but as yet not applicable in practical cases. Several studies are developing technologies based on superconducting magnetic fields in space. Reducing the transit time to Mars is arguably the best solution but novel nuclear thermal-electric propulsion systems also seem to be far from practical realization. It is likely that the first mission to Mars will employ a combination of these options to reduce radiation exposure. PMID:26432587

  15. Space radiation protection: Destination Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Marco

    2014-04-01

    National space agencies are planning a human mission to Mars in the XXI century. Space radiation is generally acknowledged as a potential showstopper for this mission for two reasons: a) high uncertainty on the risk of radiation-induced morbidity, and b) lack of simple countermeasures to reduce the exposure. The need for radiation exposure mitigation tools in a mission to Mars is supported by the recent measurements of the radiation field on the Mars Science Laboratory. Shielding is the simplest physical countermeasure, but the current materials provide poor reduction of the dose deposited by high-energy cosmic rays. Accelerator-based tests of new materials can be used to assess additional protection in the spacecraft. Active shielding is very promising, but as yet not applicable in practical cases. Several studies are developing technologies based on superconducting magnetic fields in space. Reducing the transit time to Mars is arguably the best solution but novel nuclear thermal-electric propulsion systems also seem to be far from practical realization. It is likely that the first mission to Mars will employ a combination of these options to reduce radiation exposure.

  16. Cancer complexity and radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Mossman, Kenneth L

    2014-07-01

    Management of radiological risks typically encountered in environmental and occupational settings is challenging because of uncertainties in the magnitude of the risks and the benefits of risk reduction. In practice, radiation dose instead of risk is measured. However, the relationship between dose and risk is not straightforward because cancer (the major health effect of concern at low doses) is a disease of complexity. Risks at small doses (defined as less than 100 mSv) can never be known exactly because of the inherent uncertainties in cancer as a complex disease. Tumors are complex because of the nonlinear interactions that occur among tumor cells and between the tumor and its local tissue environment. This commentary reviews evidence for cancer complexity and what complexity means for radiation protection. A complexity view of cancer does not mean we must abandon our current system of protection. What it does mean is that complexity requires new ways of thinking about control of cancer-the ideas that cancers can occur without cause, cancers behave unpredictably, and calculated cancer risks following small doses of radiation are highly uncertain. PMID:24849905

  17. Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-04-30

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  18. A decade of changes in radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Moulder, J E

    1992-04-01

    Although radiation protection standards have changed remarkably little over the past decade, there have been changes in our understanding of radiation hazards that may affect the practice of radiation medicine over the next decade. With recognition of indoor radon exposure has come a new focus for public health concerns, because it is now clear that radon rather than medical exposure is the largest controllable source of radiation exposure to the general public. Continued follow-up of irradiated populations has led to an increase in our estimate of the cancer risk for high-dose exposures; this increased risk estimate is, in turn, leading to decreases in radiation exposure limits. Although our concern about the carcinogenic risk for radiation exposure has increased, our concern about genetic consequences has decreased, because no genetic effects have yet been observed in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors. Studies of atomic bomb survivors have also led to a change in the focus of concern over prenatal radiation exposure; the principle risk now appears to be mental retardation rather than childhood cancer. PMID:1554578

  19. The reference individual of radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Cristy, M.

    1995-12-31

    The 70-kg {open_quotes}standard man{close_quotes} representing a typical Western adult male has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s. In 1949 at the Chalk River conference, health physicists from the U.S., UK, and Canada agreed on the concept of a standard man to facilitate comparison of internal dose estimates. The 70-kg standard man included specifications of the masses of 25 organs and tissues, total body content of 15 elements, total water intake and output, water content of the body, and some anatomical and physiological data for the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. In 1959, in its Publication 2{sup 2} on permissible doses for internal radiation the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) modified standard man. In 1963 the ICRP established a task group to revise and extend the standard man concept. The name was changed later to Reference Man and the task group`s work was published in 1975 as ICRP Publication 23{sup 3}. Publication 23 similar to Publication 2, updates and documents the sources of the data. Data on women, children, and fetuses were also collected, where available, but these data were limited primarily to anatomical data and only a few reference values were established for these groups. Information assembled during the course of the effort on the Reference Man report was used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to construct a mathematical representation of the body (a phantom) that was suitable for use with Monte Carlo methods in the calculation of organ doses. That effort was undertaken to improve estimates of dose from photon-emitting radionuclides residing within organs, so-called internal emitters. The phantom, although updated throughout the years, remains today as the basis for organ dose estimates in nuclear medicine and radiation protection and underlies the radiation risk data derived from the epidemiologic studies of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

  20. IEC STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL MONITORING OF IONISING RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Voytchev, Miroslav; Ambrosi, P.; Behrens, R.; Chiaro Jr, Peter John

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents IEC/SC 45B Radiation protection instrumentation and its standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation: IEC 61526 Ed. 3 for active personal dosemeters and IEC 62387-1 for passive integrating dosimetry systems. The transposition of these standards as CENELEC (European) standards is also discussed together with the collaboration between IEC/SC 45B and ISO/TC 85/SC 2.

  1. 78 FR 5813 - 2013 Assuring Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of grant funds for the support of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) radiation protection program. The goal of the 2013 Assuring Radiation Protection will be to coordinate Federal, State, and Tribal activities to achieve effective solutions to present and future radiation control problems. The recipient of......

  2. NASA Occupant Protection Standards Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Jeffrey; Gernhardt, Michael; Lawrence, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Historically, spacecraft landing systems have been tested with human volunteers, because analytical methods for estimating injury risk were insufficient. These tests were conducted with flight-like suits and seats to verify the safety of the landing systems. Currently, NASA uses the Brinkley Dynamic Response Index to estimate injury risk, although applying it to the NASA environment has drawbacks: (1) Does not indicate severity or anatomical location of injury (2) Unclear if model applies to NASA applications. Because of these limitations, a new validated, analytical approach was desired. Leveraging off of the current state of the art in automotive safety and racing, a new approach was developed. The approach has several aspects: (1) Define the acceptable level of injury risk by injury severity (2) Determine the appropriate human surrogate for testing and modeling (3) Mine existing human injury data to determine appropriate Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARV). (4) Rigorously Validate the IARVs with sub-injurious human testing (5) Use validated IARVs to update standards and vehicle requirement

  3. IEC International Standards Under Development For Radiation-Generating Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Voytchev, M; Radev, R; Chiaro, P; Thomson, I; Dray, C; Li, J

    2007-12-06

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading and oldest global organization with over 100 years history of developing and publishing international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies, including radiation detection instrumentation. Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the IEC has recently started the development of two standards on radiation-generating devices. IEC 62463 'Radiation protection instrumentation--X-ray Systems for the Screening of Persons for Security and the Carrying of Illicit Items' is applicable to X-ray systems designed for screening people to detect if they are carrying objects such as weapons, explosives, chemical and biological agents and other concealed items that could be used for criminal purposes, e.g. terrorist use, drug smuggling, etc. IEC 62523 'Radiation protection instrumentation--Cargo/Vehicle radiographic inspection systems' applies to cargo/vehicle imaging inspection systems using accelerator produced X-ray or gamma radiation to obtain images of the screened objects (e.g. cargo containers, transport and passenger vehicles and railroad cars). The objective of both standards is to specify standard requirements and general characteristics and test procedures, as well as, radiation, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and safety requirements and to provide examples of acceptable methods to test these requirements. In particular the standards address the design requirements as they relate to the radiation protection of the people being screened, people who are in the vicinity of the equipment and the operators. The standard IEC 62463 does not deal with the performance requirements for the quality of the object detection. Compliance with the standards requirements will provide the manufacturers with internationally acceptable specifications and the device users with assurance of the rigorous quality and accuracy of the measurements in relation to the radiological

  4. Radiation protection guidelines for the skin

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    With the exception of the function of cells in the skin associated with immunocompetence nonstochastic effects have been well characterized and threshold doses are known with a precision appropriate for setting radiation protection standards. A dose limitation of 0.5 Sv per year and a working lifetime dose limit of 20 Sv should protect the worker population adequately and therefore, the current protection standards are quite adequate. The risk estimate for skin cancer is very dependent on the selection of the projection model and on the mortality rate assumed. Based on the relative risk model, a mortality rate of 0.2% and summing risks for both UVR exposed and shielded skin the risk is about twice (1.94/10{sup {minus}4} Sv{sup {minus}1}) that which ICRP derived in 1977. With the absolute model the risk is considerably less, about 0.5/10{sup {minus}4} Sv{sup {minus}1}. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Radiological Control Managers' Council

    2008-06-01

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

  6. Radiation protection for nurses. Regulations and guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, C.B. )

    1992-02-01

    Rules and regulations of federal agencies and state radiation protection programs provide the bases for hospital policy regarding radiation safety for nurses. Nursing administrators should work with the radiation safety officer at their institutions to ensure that radiation exposures to staff nurses will be as low as reasonably achievable and that special consideration will be given to pregnant nurses. Nurses' fears about their exposure to radiation can be greatly reduced through education.

  7. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The original recommendations for radiation protection guidelines were made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1970. Since that time the US crews have become more diverse in their makeup and much has been learned about both radiation-induced cancer and other late effects. While far from adequate there is now some understanding of the risks that high-Z and -energy (HZE) particles pose. For these reasons it was time to reconsider the radiation protection guidelines for space workers. This task was undertaken recently by National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). 42 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. New Standards for Ultraviolet Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    Guidelines covering safe levels for exposure to ultraviolet radiation in an occupational environment are reported. The guidelines clarify the spectral radiant exposure doses and relative spectral effectiveness of ultraviolet radiation required to elicit adverse biologic effects.

  9. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  10. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  11. Environmental radiation standards. [Outline of slide presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    This document contains an outline of an oral presentation on environmental radiation standards presented to the American Nuclear Societies' Topical Conference on Population Exposure from the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The paper contains several definitions, a summary of current radiation exposure limits; and numerous proposed changes to current standards. 7 figs. (TEM)

  12. RADIATION BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS FOR RADIATION PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    The opportunity to write a historical review of the field of radiation biology allows for the viewing of the development and maturity of a field of study, thereby being able to provide the appropriate context for the earlier years of research and its findings. The...

  13. European activities in radiation protection in medicine.

    PubMed

    Simeonov, Georgi

    2015-07-01

    The recently published Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom ('new European Basic Safety Standards', EU BSS) modernises and consolidates the European radiation protection legislation by taking into account the latest scientific knowledge, technological progress and experience with implementing the current legislation and by merging five existing Directives into a single piece of legislation. The new European BSS repeal previous European legislation on which the national systems for radiation protection in medicine of the 28 European Union (EU) Member States are based, including the 96/29/Euratom 'BSS' and the 97/43/Euratom 'Medical Exposure' Directives. While most of the elements of the previous legislation have been kept, there are several legal changes that will have important influence over the regulation and practice in the field all over Europe-these include, among others: (i) strengthening the implementation of the justification principle and expanding it to medically exposed asymptomatic individuals, (ii) more attention to interventional radiology, (iii) new requirements for dose recording and reporting, (iv) increased role of the medical physics expert in imaging, (v) new set of requirements for preventing and following up on accidents and (vi) new set of requirements for procedures where radiological equipment is used on people for non-medical purposes (non-medical imaging exposure). The EU Member States have to enforce the new EU BSS before January 2018 and bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with it. The European Commission has certain legal obligations and powers to verify the compliance of the national measures with the EU laws and, wherever necessary, issue recommendations to, or open infringement cases against, national governments. In order to ensure timely and coordinated implementation of the new European legal requirements for radiation protection, the Commission is launching several actions

  14. UV dose-effect relationships and current protection exposure standards

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.S.; Campbell, G.W.

    1982-04-01

    In this paper we have attempted to quantify the health effects in man of uv-radiation exposure of wavelengths from 240 nm to 320 nm. Exposure to uv in this region could result in the formation of skin cancer or premature aging in man. The induction of cancer by uv radiation results from changes in genetic material. We have used the DNA action spectrum coupled with the uv skin cancer data available in the literature to derive the dose-effect relationships. The results are compared against the current uv protection standards.

  15. Protective effects in radiation modification of elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Głuszewski, Wojciech; Zagórski, Zbigniew P.; Rajkiewicz, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Saturated character of ethylene/octene thermoplastic elastomers demands an application of nonconventional methods of crosslinking connections between chains of molecules. These are organic peroxides, usually in the presence of coagents or an application of ionizing radiation. Several approaches (radiation, peroxide, peroxide/plus radiation and radiation/plus peroxide) were applied in crosslinking of elastomere Engage 8200. Attention was directed to the protection effects by aromatic peroxides and by photo- and thermostabilizers on radiolysis of elastomers. Role of dose of radiation, dose rate of radiation as well as the role of composition of elastomere on the radiation yield of hydrogen and absorbtion of oxygen was investigated. DRS method was used to follow postirradiation degradation. Influence of crosslinking methods on properties of elastomers is described. Results were interpreted from the point of view of protective actions of aromatic compounds.

  16. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  17. Air quality standards must protect public health

    SciTech Connect

    Norman Edelman

    2006-06-15

    Leading medical and public health organizations are deeply concerned about the proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in December 2005. Led by the American Lung Association (ALA), these groups are fighting to force EPA to finalize stricter standards for fine and coarse particles when the final decision is announced in September 2006. The ALA disagrees strongly with the proposal to exempt coarse particles from agriculture and mining sources, and to exclude communities with populations fewer than 100,000 from protection and monitoring requirements. ALA urges EPA to set the following health-based NAAQS for PM: Annual average PM2.5 standard of 12 {mu}mg/m{sup 3}; 24 hour average PM2.5 standard of 25 {mu}mg.m{sup 3} (99th percentile); 24-hour average PM10-2.5 standard of 25-30 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (99th percentile), applied equally to all areas of the country and to all types of particles. 72 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Clear Film Protects Against Ultraviolet Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, A.; Yavrouian, A.

    1983-01-01

    Acrylic film contains screeing agent filtering ultraviolet radiation up to 380 nanometers in wavelength but passes other components of Sunlight. Film used to protect such materials as rubber and plastics degraded by ultraviolet light. Used as protective cover on outdoor sheets or pipes made of such materials as polyethylene or polypropylene and on solar cells.

  19. Quantities and units in radiation protection dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, W. A.

    1994-08-01

    A new report, entitled Quantities and Units in Radiation Protection Dosimetry, has recently been published by the international Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements. That report (No. 51) aims to provide a coherent system of quantities and units for purposes of measurement and calculation in the assessment of compliance with dose limitations. The present paper provides an extended summary of that report, including references to the operational quantities needed for area and individual monitoring of external radiations.

  20. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment... Disposal Additional Provisions § 197.38 Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? Yes. The individual protection and ground water protection standards are severable....

  1. Radiation protection during space flight

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalev, E.E.

    1983-12-01

    The evaluation of space radiation hazards and shielding requirements is discussed. The proton and electron exposures encountered in earth orbit from the earth radiation belts and solar-flare activity are calculated as functions of orbital altitude and inclination, and the probabilities of exceeding a given dose equivalent are given in tables for missions of varying duration. The Galactic space radiation is characterized and shown to be significant only beyond the earth's vicinity. The Radiation Shielding Design Criteria approved by the USSR Ministry of Health are discussed, and the need for a more heavily shielded shelter module to be used whenever solar-flare activity is detected is indicated. The shielding of interplanetary spacecraft is considered, and it is shown that much heavier shielding is needed for missions longer than about 2 yrs during solar minimum or 3 yrs during solar maximum, or for spacecraft with nuclear energy installations (NEI). A typical shielding thickness requirement is 20 g/sq cm for the radiation shelter of a spacecraft powered by liquid propellant or by a nuclear rocket engine (but without an NEI) on a 600-d interplanetary flight. 7 references.

  2. Radiation Protection Quantities for Near Earth Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowdsley, Martha S.; Wilson, John W.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.

    2004-01-01

    As humans travel beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field and mission durations grow, risk due to radiation exposure will increase and may become the limiting factor for such missions. Here, the dosimetric quantities recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for the evaluation of health risk due to radiation exposure, effective dose and gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO), are calculated for several near Earth environments. These radiation protection quantities are evaluated behind two different shielding materials, aluminum and polyethylene. Since exposure limits for missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) have not yet been defined, results are compared to limits recommended by the NCRP for LEO operations.

  3. A standard for ultraviolet radiation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, G. B.; Spicer, W. E.; Mckernan, P. C.; Pereskok, V. F.; Wanner, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    Photoemission diode standards for accurately measuring monochromatic ultraviolet light intensity (3000 A-1100 A) are described that are also blind to visible light. The standard uses an opaque photocathode of Cs2Te and is unique because of its combination of thinness (19 mm), high sensitivity, time stability, and uniformity of response. Design criteria, construction methods, and difficulties overcome in obtaining a stable, uniform, high yield photocathode responses are discussed. Cs2Te is discussed in terms of a model for high yield photoemitters.

  4. Clothing as solar radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Menter, Julian M; Hatch, Kathryn L

    2003-01-01

    The sun is essential for life. Yet, sunlight can also be a source of such deleterious effects as sunburn, and suntanning, as well as premalignant and malignant lesions. These may all occur in individuals with normal responses to sunlight. In addition, there exist a variety of 'abnormal' photosensitivity responses to sunlight that may result from either endogenous imbalances (e.g. the porphyrias) or from added exogenous factors (e.g. drug photosensitivity). The 'normal' responses to sunlight, by and large, are produced preferentially by UVB (290-320 nm), with minor contribution by UVA (320-400 nm) wavelengths. In contrast, the 'abnormal' photosensitivity responses are, for the most part, elicited predominantly by long UVA and, in some cases, visible light. In the last 20 years or so, considerable attention has been paid to the use of fabrics as photoprotective materials. The vast majority of work in this area has been concerned with fabric protection against sunburn. In addition to in vivo measurement of fabric SPF, in vitro evaluation of fabric UPF has been carried out in numerous laboratories around the world. The UPF is estimated from the wavelength-dependent transmission of the fabric, the solar UV spectrum and the erythemal action spectrum over the wavelength region 290-400 nm. Depending on the fabric, UPF values range from 2 to several thousand. More recently, it has become clear that such environmental influences as laundering, solarization, humidity, wetting and degree of stretching may play a major role in fabric protection. Protection also may be altered by addition of dyes, UV absorbers and fluorescent whitening agents. To date, there have been relatively few studies of fabric protection for endpoints other than sunburn erythema. Yet, many fabrics that provide good protection against sunburn may provide inadequate protection against photosensitization by intrinsic or extrinsic absorbing molecules or against (pre)malignant lesions. Future work should

  5. ECSS standard on planetary protection requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debus, A.; Ecss Planetary Protection Working Group

    Since the beginning of Solar System Exploration a lot of spacecraft have been sent towards other worlds including landers and one of the main goals of such missions is the search for extraterrestrial life forms It cannot be excluded today that terrestrial entities could survive the cruise during space exploration missions and that they could be able to contaminate other bodies within our Solar System At another level possible extraterrestrial life forms are unknown and their ability to contaminate the Earth s biosphere in the frame of sample return missions remains also unknown The article IX of the OUTER SPACE TREATY London Washington January 27 1967 ratified by all spacefaring nations recommends consequently to preserve planets and Earth from contamination The United Nations UN-COPUOS has delegated the COSPAR Committee of Space Research to take charge of Planetary Protection and to propose to spacefaring nations a planetary protection policy and a set of recommendations Using these recommendations and with the CNES Planetary Protection Standard as a basis a working group has been nominated in order to build ECSS European Cooperation for Space Standardization documents The first level of ECSS will describe the main specifications in order to prevent the forward contamination of target bodies inside the Solar System management of spacecraft systems crash probability sterilization or biocleaning of spacecraft systems microbiological control integration in sterile environment etc and specifications in order to

  6. Accreditation of ionizing radiation protection programs

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.C.; Swinth, K.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1991-10-01

    There are over one million workers in the United States who have the potential to be exposed to ionizing radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to determine accurately the quantity of radiation to which they may have been exposed. This quantity if measured by personnel dosimeters that are carried by individuals requiring radiation monitoring. Accreditation of the organizations which evaluate this quantity provides official recognition of the competence of these organizations. Accreditation programs in the field of ionizing radiation protection have been in operation for a number of years, and their experience has demonstrated that such programs can help to improve performance.

  7. Threat of ultraviolet radiation to the eye--how to protect against it

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, D.G.

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effects of exposure of the eye to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to provide information from which protective criteria and standards may be established. To accomplish this purpose, the article discusses ultraviolet radiation, absorption of UV radiation by the eye, the effects of ocular exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and how to protect the eye against exposure to UV radiation.

  8. Radiation protection in pediatric radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to make available a source of practical information regarding the manner in which radiologic examinations in children should be conducted to reduce the radiation dose to these patients and those responsible for thier care. The report is mainly for the use of pediatricians, radiologists, radiologic technicians, and other personnel who order or use radiological methods in examining children, Appendices contain methods for estimating doses to various organs, and doses from various examinations in pediatric radiology. The Council has adopted some units of the SI system of nomenclature. A glossary of terms is included. (KRM)

  9. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH... ground-water protection standards. The individual protection and ground-water protection standards...

  10. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH... ground-water protection standards. The individual protection and ground-water protection standards...

  11. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH... ground-water protection standards. The individual protection and ground-water protection standards...

  12. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH... ground-water protection standards. The individual protection and ground-water protection standards...

  13. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH... ground-water protection standards. The individual protection and ground-water protection standards...

  14. Radiation protection for manned space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, T. M.

    1983-01-01

    The Earth's natural radiation environment poses a hazard to manned space activities directly through biological effects and indirectly through effects on materials and electronics. The following standard practices are indicated that address: (1) environment models for all radiation species including uncertainties and temporal variations; (2) upper bound and nominal quality factors for biological radiation effects that include dose, dose rate, critical organ, and linear energy transfer variations; (3) particle transport and shielding methodology including system and man modeling and uncertainty analysis; (4) mission planning that includes active dosimetry, minimizes exposure during extravehicular activities, subjects every mission to a radiation review, and specifies operational procedures for forecasting, recognizing, and dealing with large solar flaes.

  15. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, R. J.; Nachtwey, D. S.

    1988-01-01

    The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem).

  16. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, R. J. M.; Nachtwey, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    NASA's current radiation protection guidelines date from 1970, when the career limit was set at 400 rem. Today, using the same approach, but with the current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain. Also, there is considerably more information about the radiation environments to be experienced in different missions than previously. Since 1970 women have joined the ranks. For these and other reasons it was necessary to reexamine the radiation protection guidelines. This task was undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75 (NCRP SC 75). Below the magnetosphere the radiation environment varies with altitude and orbit inclination. In outer space missions galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 100 rem (4.0Sv) for a 24 year old female to 400 rem for a 55 year old male compared to the previous single limit of 400 rem (4.0 Sv). The career limit for the lens of the eye was reduced from 600 to 400 rem (6.0 to 4.0 Sv.)

  17. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions.

    PubMed

    Fry, R J; Nachtwey, D S

    1988-08-01

    The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem). PMID:3410682

  18. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.; Nachtwey, D.S.

    1988-08-01

    The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem).

  19. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.; Nachtwey, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's current radiation protection guidelines were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 400 rem. Today, using the same approach as in 1970, but with the current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain. Also, there is considerably more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions than previously. Since 1970 women have joined their ranks. For these and other reasons it was considered necessary to reexamine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75 (NCRP SC 75). Below the magnetosphere the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 100 rem (1.0 Sv) for a 24 year old female to 400 rem (4.0 Sv) for a 55 year old male compared to the previous single limit of 400 rem (4.0 Sv). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 600 rem (6.0 Sv) to 400 rem (4.0 Sv). 20 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  20. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  1. Apollo experience report: Protection against radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, R. A.; Benson, R. E.; Bailey, J. V.; Barnes, C. M.

    1973-01-01

    Radiation protection problems on earth and in space are discussed. Flight through the Van Allen belts and into space beyond the geomagnetic shielding was recognized as hazardous before the advent of manned space flight. Specialized dosimetry systems were developed for use on the Apollo spacecraft, and systems for solar-particle-event warning and dose projection were devised. Radiation sources of manmade origin on board the Apollo spacecraft present additional problems. Methods applied to evaluate and control or avoid the various Apollo radiation hazards are discussed.

  2. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements semiannual technical progress report, March 1989--August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Ney, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    This semiannual technical progress report is for the period 1 March 1989 through 31 August 1989. This National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) program is designed to provide recommendations for radiation protection based on scientific principles. During this period several reports were published covering the topics of occupational radiation exposure, medical exposure, radon control, dosimetry, and radiation protection standards. Accomplishments of various committees are also reported; including the committees on dental x-ray protection, radiation safety in uranium mining and milling, ALARA, instrumentation, records maintenance, occupational exposures of medical personnel, emergency planning, and others. (SM)

  3. Urgent Change Needed to Radiation Protection Policy.

    PubMed

    Cuttler, Jerry M

    2016-03-01

    Although almost 120 y of medical experience and data exist on human exposure to ionizing radiation, advisory bodies and regulators claim there are still significant uncertainties about radiation health risks that require extreme precautions be taken. Decades of evidence led to recommendations in the 1920s for protecting radiologists by limiting their daily exposure. These were shown in later studies to decrease both their overall mortality and cancer mortality below those of unexposed groups. In the 1950s, without scientific evidence, the National Academy of Sciences Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation (BEAR) Committee and the NCRP recommended that the linear no-threshold (LNT) model be used to assess the risk of radiation-induced mutations in germ cells and the risk of cancer in somatic cells. This policy change was accepted by the regulators of every country without a thorough review of its basis. Because use of the LNT model has created extreme public fear of radiation, which impairs vital medical applications of low-dose radiation in diagnostics and therapy and blocks nuclear energy projects, it is time to change radiation protection policy back into line with the data. PMID:26808879

  4. US Army primary radiation standards complex

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, S.C.

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes the U.S. Army Primary Radiation Standards Complex (PRSC) to be constructed at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama. The missions of the organizations to be located in the PRSC are described. The health physics review of the facility design is discussed. The radiation sources to be available in the PRSC and the resulting measurement capabilities of the Army Primary Standards Laboratory Nucleonics section are specified. Influence of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accrediation Program (NVLAP) accreditation criteria on facility design and source selection is illustrated.

  5. Protective clothing ensembles and physical employment standards.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Tom M; Havenith, George

    2016-06-01

    Physical employment standards (PESs) exist for certain occupational groups that also require the use of protective clothing ensembles (PCEs) during their normal work. This review addresses whether these current PESs appropriately incorporate the physiological burden associated with wearing PCEs during respective tasks. Metabolic heat production increases because of wearing PCE; this increase is greater than that because of simply the weight of the clothing and can vary 2-fold among individuals. This variation negates a simple adjustment to the PES for the effect of the clothing on metabolic rate. As a result, PES testing that only simulates the weight of the clothing and protective equipment does not adequately accommodate this effect. The physiological heat strain associated with the use of PCEs is also not addressed with current PESs. Typically the selection tests of a PES lasts less than 20 min, whereas the requirement for use of PCE in the workplace may approach 1 h before cooling strategies can be employed. One option that might be considered is to construct a heat stress test that requires new recruits and incumbents to work for a predetermined duration while exposed to a warm environmental temperature while wearing the PCE. PMID:27277562

  6. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4)...

  7. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4)...

  8. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4)...

  9. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4)...

  10. Shielded radiation protection quantities beyond LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clowdsley, M. S.; Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M. Y.; Anderson, B. M.; Nealy, J. E.

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recommended that the quantities used to evaluate health risk to astronauts due to radiation exposure be effective dose and gray-equivalent. The NCRP recommends that effective dose be the limiting quantity for prevention of stochastic effects. Effective dose is a measure of whole body exposure, a weighted average of dose equivalent to a number body tissues for which the NCRP has adopted tissue weighting factors recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). For deterministic effects, the NCRP has recommended that gray-equivalent be used. Gray-equivalent is evaluated for specific critical organs and is the weighted sum of absorbed dose from field components to that organ using the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) number for that field component. RBE numbers recommended by the NCRP are used. The NCRP has provided effective dose limits as well as limits for gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO) for astronauts in low earth orbit (LEO). As yet, no such limits have been defined for astronaut operations beyond LEO. In this study, the radiation protection quantities, effective dose and gray-equivalent to the eyes, skin, and BFO, are calculated for several environments beyond LEO. The lunar surface and Martian environments are included. For each environment, these radiation protection quantities are calculated behind varying amounts of various types of shielding materials. The results are compared to the exposure limits for LEO, since limits have not yet been defined for interplanetary missions. The benefits of using shielding material containing hydrogen and choosing optimal mission times are discussed.

  11. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.; Adamson, L.F.

    1984-08-01

    The scientific literature on radiation-protective drugs is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms involved in determining the sensitivity of biological material to ionizing radiation and mechanisms of chemical radioprotection. In Section I, the types of radiation are described and the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems are reviewed. The effects of ionizing radiation are briefly contrasted with the effects of non-ionizing radiation. Section II reviews the contributions of various natural factors which influence the inherent radiosensitivity of biological systems. Inlcuded in the list of these factors are water, oxygen, thiols, vitamins and antioxidants. Brief attention is given to the model describing competition between oxygen and natural radioprotective substances (principally, thiols) in determining the net cellular radiosensitivity. Several theories of the mechanism(s) of action of radioprotective drugs are described in Section III. These mechanisms include the production of hypoxia, detoxication of radiochemical reactive species, stabilization of the radiobiological target and the enhancement of damage repair processes. Section IV describes the current strategies for the treatment of radiation injury. Likely areas in which fruitful research might be performed are described in Section V. 495 references.

  12. Radiation Protection Using Carbon Nanotube Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conyers, Jodie L., Jr.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward

    2010-01-01

    BHA and BHT are well-known food preservatives that are excellent radical scavengers. These compounds, attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), could serve as excellent radical traps. The amino-BHT groups can be associated with SWNTs that have carbolyxic acid groups via acid-base association or via covalent association. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection or cellular stress mitigation via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds of SWNTs and their derivatives. It works by reducing the number of free radicals within or nearby a cell, tissue, organ, or living organism. This reduces the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including (but not limited to) cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. These derivatives can show an unusually high scavenging ability, which could prove efficacious in protecting living systems from radical-induced decay. This technique could be used to protect healthy cells in a living biological system from the effects of radiation therapy. It could also be used as a prophylactic or antidote for radiation exposure due to accidental, terrorist, or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons; high-altitude or space travel (where radiation exposure is generally higher than desired); or in any scenario where exposure to radiation is expected or anticipated. This invention s ultimate use will be dependent on the utility in an overall biological system where many levels of toxicity have to be evaluated. This can only be assessed at a later stage. In vitro toxicity will first be assessed, followed by in vivo non-mammalian screening in zebra fish for toxicity and therapeutic efficacy.

  13. Neutron spectrometry for radiation protection: Three examples

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhagen, P.

    1995-12-31

    Workers and the general public are exposed to neutron radiation from a variety of sources, including fission and fusion reactors, accelerators, the nuclear fuel and nuclear weapons cycles, and cosmic rays in space, in aircraft and on the earth. Because the health effects of neutrons depend strongly on their energy, neutron spectrometry is essential for accurate risk-related neutron dosimetry. In addition, the penetration of neutrons through protective shielding changes their energy and can be difficult to calculate reliably, so the measurement of energy spectra is often needed to verify neutron transport calculations. The Environmental Measurements Laboratory has been measuring neutron energy spectra for over 20 years, primarily with multisphere (or Bonner sphere) spectrometers. Because of this experience, the Laboratory has responded to a number of requests to provide reference neutron energy spectra at critical locations in or near nuclear facilities and radiation fields. This talk will describe the author`s instruments and three recent examples of their use: outside the Princeton Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), up to two kilometers from the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) bare reactor, and in a Canadian Forces jet aircraft at commercial aviation altitudes. All of these studies have implications beyond routine occupational radiation protection. For example, the APRF measurements are part of the broad effort to resolve the discrepancy between measured and calculated thermal neutron activation at Hiroshima, one of the most important unsolved problems in radiation dosimetry.

  14. Porous material for protection from electromagnetic radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmina, Olga E-mail: bdushkina89@mail.ru; Dushkina, Maria E-mail: bdushkina89@mail.ru; Suslyaev, Valentin; Semukhin, Boris

    2014-11-14

    It is shown that the porous glass crystalline material obtained by a low temperature technology can be used not only for thermal insulation, but also for lining of rooms as protective screens decreasing harmful effect of electromagnetic radiation as well as to establish acoustic chambers and rooms with a low level of electromagnetic background. The material interacts with electromagnetic radiation by the most effective way in a high frequency field (above 100 GHz). At the frequency of 260 GHz the value of the transmission coefficient decreases approximately in a factor times in comparison with foam glass.

  15. Issues in deep space radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Tripathi, R. K.; Singleterry, R. C.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Thibeault, S. A.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Schimmerling, W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; Noor, A. K.; Kim, M. Y.; Badavi, F. F.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.

    2001-01-01

    The exposures in deep space are largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little biological experience. Mounting evidence indicates that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate for GCR ions. The available biological data indicates that aluminum alloy structures may generate inherently unhealthy internal spacecraft environments in the thickness range for space applications. Methods for optimization of spacecraft shielding and the associated role of materials selection are discussed. One material which may prove to be an important radiation protection material is hydrogenated carbon nanofibers. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Issues in deep space radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J W; Shinn, J L; Tripathi, R K; Singleterry, R C; Clowdsley, M S; Thibeault, S A; Cheatwood, F M; Schimmerling, W; Cucinotta, F A; Badhwar, G D; Noor, A K; Kim, M Y; Badavi, F F; Heinbockel, J H; Miller, J; Zeitlin, C; Heilbronn, L

    2001-01-01

    The exposures in deep space are largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little biological experience. Mounting evidence indicates that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate for GCR ions. The available biological data indicates that aluminum alloy structures may generate inherently unhealthy internal spacecraft environments in the thickness range for space applications. Methods for optimization of spacecraft shielding and the associated role of materials selection are discussed. One material which may prove to be an important radiation protection material is hydrogenated carbon nanofibers. PMID:11669118

  17. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  18. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  19. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  20. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  1. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  2. 78 FR 21120 - Notice of Public Meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will host a meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) on May 1, 2013 in Washington, DC. The purpose of ISCORS is to foster early resolution and coordination of regulatory issues associated with radiation standards. Member agencies include the EPA; Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Department of Energy; Department of......

  3. Radiation protection of astronauts in LEO.

    PubMed

    Melkonian, G; Bourrieau, J

    1989-01-01

    Radiological protection for space flights is often perceived as a technico-scientific problem. All this is the result of the effects of radiation encountered in space and manned flight conditions. The main characteristics of this radiation come from its complex composition and its large energy spectrum which must be taken into account as well as flux variations by both solar activity and the vehicle position on orbit. Inside a vehicle, structures constitute irregularly distributed shields and lead to a specific dose at each location. To be able to protect the crew, it is first necessary to understand the threat and therefore to identify the radiation environment: extraterrestrial and orbital. As the environment varies with both the orbit position and time, the dose received in each critical organ during missions must be determined and compared with acceptable limits. To counter the threat, which may exceed acceptable limits, a strategy is required, including the complementary aspects of prevention, detection, protection and possibly treatment. PMID:11541165

  4. Science Goals in Radiation Protection for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francs A.

    2008-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Health risks of concern include cancer, degenerative and performance risks to the central nervous system, heart and lens, and the acute radiation syndromes. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) contain high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, which have been shown to cause qualitatively distinct biological damage compared to terresterial radiation, such as X-rays or gamma-rays, causing risk estimates to be highly uncertain. The biological effects of solar particle events (SPE) are similar to terresterial radiation except for their biological dose-rate modifiers; however the onset and size of SPEs are difficult to predict. The high energies of GCR reduce the effectiveness of shielding, while SPE s can be shielded however the current gap in radiobiological knowledge hinders optimization. Methods used to project risks on Earth must be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting health risks from space radiation, and thus impact mission requirements and costs. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies probabilistic risk assessments and uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts and to mission design. The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in radiation risk projection models. Exploration science goals in radiation protection are centered on ground-based research to achieve the necessary biological knowledge, and in the development of new technologies to improve SPE monitoring and optimize shielding. Radiobiology research is centered on a ground based program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and HZE nuclei at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

  5. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Hurkmans, Coen; Mutic, Sasa; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Brame, Scott; Straube, William; Galvin, James; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  6. Estrogen Protects against Radiation-Induced Cataractogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dynlacht, Joseph R.; Valluri, Shailaja; Lopez, Jennifer; Greer, Falon; DesRosiers, Colleen; Caperell-Grant, Andrea; Mendonca, Marc S.; Bigsby, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Cataractogenesis is a complication of radiotherapy when the eye is included in the treatment field. Low doses of densely ionizing space radiation may also result in an increased risk of cataracts in astronauts. We previously reported that estrogen (17-β-estradiol), when administered to ovariectomized rats commencing 1 week before γ irradiation of the eye and continuously thereafter, results in a significant increase in the rate and incidence of cataract formation and a decreased latent period compared to an ovariectomized control group. We therefore concluded that estrogen accelerates progression of radiation-induced opacification. We now show that estrogen, if administered continuously, but commencing after irradiation, protects against radiation cataractogenesis. Both the rate of progression and incidence of cataracts were greatly reduced in ovariectomized rats that received estrogen treatment after irradiation compared to ovariectomized rats. As in our previous study, estradiol administered 1 week prior to irradiation at the time of ovariectomy and throughout the period of observation produced an enhanced rate of cataract progression. Estrogen administered for only 1 week prior to irradiation had no effect on the rate of progression but resulted in a slight reduction in the incidence. We conclude that estrogen may enhance or protect against radiation cataractogenesis, depending on when it is administered relative to the time of irradiation, and may differentially modulate the initiation and progression phases of cataractogenesis. These data have important implications for astronauts and radiotherapy patients. PMID:19138041

  7. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without Commission approval if—...

  8. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with...

  9. Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S.

    1988-11-01

    The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  10. Orion spacecraft: crew radiation protection strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaza, Razvan; Cooper, Tim; Hussein, Hesham; Jarvis, Kandy; Mytyk, Anna; Patel, Chirag; Reddell, Brandon; Shelfer, Tad

    NASA's Project Constellation aims to return humans to the Moon by the year 2020, using a new generation of manned spacecraft. The Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) is the Constellation component inhabited by the crew during the trans-lunar transit and return trip. The ionizing radiation environment is significantly harsher in interplanetary space than in LEO, thus posing an increased risk for detrimental health effects. Minimizing crew radiation exposure on board Orion has been addressed by the prime contractor Lockheed Martin starting as early as the design phase of the vehicle. Radiation analysis of the CEV CAD models containing material and mass density information is used to assess the effective dose incurred by crew members. Ray-tracing is employed to reduce the 3D vehicle geometry and detailed anatomical models to sets of layered shielding configurations. Radiation transport is then modeled using 1-D analytical codes such as HZETRN. Shielding optimization is addressed iteratively, by evaluating the radiation exposure impacts of different protection strategies such as design changes (i.e., material selection), crew repositioning and cabin reconfiguration, and deploying individual shielding.

  11. Uncertainty Analysis in Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Space radiation is comprised of high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, protons, and secondary radiation including neutrons. The uncertainties in estimating the health risks from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are a major limitation to the length of space missions, the evaluation of potential risk mitigation approaches, and application of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle. For long duration space missio ns, risks may approach radiation exposure limits, therefore the uncertainties in risk projections become a major safety concern and methodologies used for ground-based works are not deemed to be sufficient. NASA limits astronaut exposures to a 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) and protects against uncertainties in risks projections using an assessment of 95% confidence intervals in the projection model. We discuss NASA s approach to space radiation uncertainty assessments and applications for the International Space Station (ISS) program and design studies of future missions to Mars and other destinations. Several features of NASA s approach will be discussed. Radiation quality descriptions are based on the properties of radiation tracks rather than LET with probability distribution functions (PDF) for uncertainties derived from radiobiology experiments at particle accelerators. The application of age and gender specific models for individual astronauts is described. Because more than 90% of astronauts are never-smokers, an alternative risk calculation for never-smokers is used and will be compared to estimates for an average U.S. population. Because of the high energies of the GCR limits the benefits of shielding and the limited role expected for pharmaceutical countermeasures, uncertainty reduction continues to be the optimal approach to improve radiation safety for space missions.

  12. Radiation Protection for Lunar Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowdsley, Martha S.; Nealy, John E.; Wilson, John W.; Anderson, Brooke M.; Anderson, Mark S.; Krizan, Shawn A.

    2005-01-01

    Preliminary analyses of shielding requirements to protect astronauts from the harmful effects of radiation on both short-term and long-term lunar missions have been performed. Shielding needs for both solar particle events (SPEs) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposure are discussed for transit vehicles and surface habitats. This work was performed under the aegis of two NASA initiatives. The first study was an architecture trade study led by Langley Research Center (LaRC) in which a broad range of vehicle types and mission scenarios were compared. The radiation analysis for this study primarily focused on the additional shielding mass required to protect astronauts from the rare occurrence of a large SPE. The second study, led by Johnson Space Center (JSC), involved the design of lunar habitats. Researchers at LaRC were asked to evaluate the changes to mission architecture that would be needed if the surface stay were lengthened from a shorter mission duration of 30 to 90 days to a longer stay of 500 days. Here, the primary radiation concern was GCR exposure. The methods used for these studies as well as the resulting shielding recommendations are discussed. Recommendations are also made for more detailed analyses to minimize shielding mass, once preliminary vehicle and habitat designs have been completed. Here, methodologies are mapped out and available radiation analysis tools are described. Since, as yet, no dosimetric limits have been adopted for missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO), radiation exposures are compared to LEO limits. Uncertainties associated with the LEO career effective dose limits and the effects of lowering these limits on shielding mass are also discussed.

  13. Radiation protectants: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Seed, Thomas M

    2005-11-01

    In today's heightened nuclear/biological/chemical threat environment, there is an increased need to have safe and effective means to protect not only special high-risk service groups, but also the general population at large, from the health hazards of unintended ionizing radiation exposures. An unfulfilled dream has been to have a globally effective pharmacologic that could be easily taken orally without any undue side effects prior to a suspected or impending nuclear/radiological event; such an ideal radioprotective agent has yet to be identified, let alone fully developed and approved for human use. No one would argue against the fact that this is problematic and needs to be corrected, but where might the ultimate solution to this difficult problem be found? Without question, representative species of the aminothiol family [e.g., Amifostine (MedImmune, Gaithersburg, Maryland)] have proven to be potent cytoprotectants for normal tissues subjected to irradiation or to radiomimetic chemicals. Although Amifostine is currently used clinically, drug toxicity, limited times of protection, and unfavorable routes of administration, all serve to limit the drug's utility in nonclinical settings. A full range of research and development strategies is being employed currently in the hunt for new safe and effective radioprotectants. These include: (1) large scale screening of new chemical classes or natural products; (2) restructuring/reformulating older protectants with proven efficacies but unwanted toxicities; (3) using nutraceuticals that are only moderately protective but are essentially nontoxic; (4) using low dose combinations of potentially toxic but efficacious agents that protect through different routes to foster radioprotective synergy; and (5) accepting a lower level of drug efficacy in lieu of reduced toxicity, banking on the premise that the protection afforded can be leveraged by post-exposure therapies. Although it is difficult to predict which of these

  14. Water Quality Standards for Coral Reef Protection

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Clean Water Act provides a legal framework to protect coastal biological resources such as coral reefs, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows from the damaging effects of human activities. Even though many resources are protected under this authority, water quality stan...

  15. Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Little, J R; Shirley, D L; Blair, L M

    1982-05-01

    This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the degrees awarded in academic year 1980-81 from 61 U.S. universities offering degree programs in radiation protection or related areas that would enable students to work in the health physics field. The report includes historical survey data for the last decade and provides information such as trends by degree level, foreign national student participation, female and minority student participation, and placement of graduates. Also included is a listing of the universities by type of program and number of students.

  16. Radiation protection in newer imaging technologies.

    PubMed

    Rehani, Madan M

    2010-01-01

    Not even a week passes without a paper getting published in peer reviewed journals on radiation protection in newer imaging technologies that either did not exist 10 y ago or were not established for routine use. Computed tomography (CT) happens to be a common element in most of these technologies. Radiation protection is high on the agenda of manufacturers and researchers and that is becoming a driving force for users and international organisations. The media and thus the public have their own share in increasing the momentum. The slice war seems to be shifting to dose war. Manufacturers are now chasing the target of sub-mSv CT. The era of two digit mSv effective dose for a CT procedure is far from losing ground, although cardiac CT within 5 mSv seems possible. A few years ago the change in technology was faster than adoption of dose management but currently even the development of dose reduction techniques is faster than its adoption. There is dearth of large-scale surveys of practice and lack of surveys with change in technology. PMID:20142278

  17. Radiation protection in medicine: ethical framework revisited.

    PubMed

    Malone, J F

    2009-07-01

    The ethical framework within which medicine operates has changed radically over the last two decades. This has been stimulated by events leading to controversy, such as the infant organ retention scandals; concerns about blood products; self regulation of medical practice in the wake of the Harold Shipman Enquiry in the UK; and many other events. It has become obvious following investigations and/or public enquiries that a gap has opened up between what is acceptable to the public on the one hand, and what appears reasonable to, or is at least accepted by, the professionals involved on the other. This paper reviews these issues and some conclusions of a workshop held to consider them. It places the developments in the context of the idea that the approach to problems and communication in a group of people/professionals such as doctors, radiologists, radiation protection specialists, or even the general public may be regarded as a 'culture'. Current practice of radiation protection in medicine is examined in the light of these considerations. PMID:19264829

  18. Environmental protection agency aircraft emissions standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittredge, G. D.

    1977-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from aircraft were investigated in order to determine: (1) the extent to which such emissions affect air quality in air quality control regions throughout the United States; and (2) the technological feasibility of controlling such emissions. The basic information supporting the need for aircraft emissions standards is summarized. The EPA ambient air quality standards are presented. Only the primary (health related) standards are shown. Of the six pollutants, only the first three, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and nitrogen oxides, are influenced significantly by aircraft.

  19. The European standard for sun-protective clothing: EN 13758.

    PubMed

    Gambichler, T; Laperre, J; Hoffmann, K

    2006-02-01

    Clothing is considered one of the most important tools for sun protection. Contrary to popular opinion, however, some summer fabrics provide insufficient ultraviolet (UV) protection. The European Committee for Standardization (CEN), has developed a new standard on requirements for test methods and labelling of sun-protective garments. This document has now been completed and is published. Within CEN, a working group, CEN/TC 248 WG14 'UV protective clothing', was set up with the mission to produce standards on the UV-protective properties of textile materials. This working group started its activities in 1998 and included 30 experts (dermatologists, physicists, textile technologists, fabric manufacturers and retailers of apparel textiles) from 11 European member states. Within this working group, all medical, ethical, technical and economical aspects of standardization of UV-protective clothing were discussed on the basis of the expertise of each member and in consideration of the relevant literature in this field. Decisions were made in consensus. The first part of the standard (EN 13758-1) deals with all details of test methods (e.g. spectrophotometric measurements) for textile materials and part 2 (EN 13758-2) covers classification and marking of apparel textiles. UV-protective cloths for which compliance with this standard is claimed must fulfill all stringent instructions of testing, classification and marking, including a UV protection factor (UPF) larger than 40 (UPF 40+), average UVA transmission lower than 5%, and design requirements as specified in part 2 of the standard. A pictogram, which is marked with the number of the standard EN 13758-2 and the UPF of 40+, shall be attached to the garment if it is in compliance with the standard. The dermatology community should take cognizance of this new standard document. Garment manufacturers and retailers may now follow these official guidelines for testing and labelling of UV-protective summer clothes, and the

  20. 41 CFR 50-204.36 - Radiation standards for mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Department of Labor, Radiation Safety and Health Standards (41 CFR 50-204.36). You should preserve this... mining. 50-204.36 Section 50-204.36 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.36 Radiation standards for mining. (a) For the purpose of...

  1. 41 CFR 50-204.36 - Radiation standards for mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Department of Labor, Radiation Safety and Health Standards (41 CFR 50-204.36). You should preserve this... mining. 50-204.36 Section 50-204.36 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.36 Radiation standards for mining. (a) For the purpose of...

  2. 41 CFR 50-204.36 - Radiation standards for mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Department of Labor, Radiation Safety and Health Standards (41 CFR 50-204.36). You should preserve this... mining. 50-204.36 Section 50-204.36 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.36 Radiation standards for mining. (a) For the purpose of...

  3. 41 CFR 50-204.36 - Radiation standards for mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Department of Labor, Radiation Safety and Health Standards (41 CFR 50-204.36). You should preserve this... mining. 50-204.36 Section 50-204.36 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.36 Radiation standards for mining. (a) For the purpose of...

  4. 41 CFR 50-204.36 - Radiation standards for mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Department of Labor, Radiation Safety and Health Standards (41 CFR 50-204.36). You should preserve this... mining. 50-204.36 Section 50-204.36 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.36 Radiation standards for mining. (a) For the purpose of...

  5. Genetic and epigenetic features in radiation sensitivity. Part II: implications for clinical practice and radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, Michel H; Gisone, Pablo A; Perez, Maria R; Michelin, Severino; Dubner, Diana; Giorgio, Marina Di; Carosella, Edgardo D

    2005-03-01

    Recent progress especially in the field of gene identification and expression has attracted greater attention to the genetic and epigenetic susceptibility to cancer, possibly enhanced by ionising radiation. This issue is especially important for radiation therapists since hypersensitive patients may suffer from adverse effects in normal tissues following standard radiation therapy, while normally sensitive patients could receive higher doses of radiation, offering a better likelihood of cure for malignant tumours. Although only a small percentage of individuals are "hypersensitive" to radiation effects, all medical specialists using ionising radiation should be aware of the aforementioned progress in medical knowledge. The present paper, the second of two parts, reviews human disorders known or strongly suspected to be associated with hypersensitivity to ionising radiation. The main tests capable of detecting such pathologies in advance are analysed, and ethical issues regarding genetic testing are considered. The implications for radiation protection of possible hypersensitivity to radiation in a part of the population are discussed, and some guidelines for nuclear medicine professionals are proposed. PMID:15692806

  6. FLOPROS: an evolving global database of flood protection standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scussolini, Paolo; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Jongman, Brenden; Bouwer, Laurens M.; Winsemius, Hessel C.; de Moel, Hans; Ward, Philip J.

    2016-05-01

    With projected changes in climate, population and socioeconomic activity located in flood-prone areas, the global assessment of flood risk is essential to inform climate change policy and disaster risk management. Whilst global flood risk models exist for this purpose, the accuracy of their results is greatly limited by the lack of information on the current standard of protection to floods, with studies either neglecting this aspect or resorting to crude assumptions. Here we present a first global database of FLOod PROtection Standards, FLOPROS, which comprises information in the form of the flood return period associated with protection measures, at different spatial scales. FLOPROS comprises three layers of information, and combines them into one consistent database. The design layer contains empirical information about the actual standard of existing protection already in place; the policy layer contains information on protection standards from policy regulations; and the model layer uses a validated modelling approach to calculate protection standards. The policy layer and the model layer can be considered adequate proxies for actual protection standards included in the design layer, and serve to increase the spatial coverage of the database. Based on this first version of FLOPROS, we suggest a number of strategies to further extend and increase the resolution of the database. Moreover, as the database is intended to be continually updated, while flood protection standards are changing with new interventions, FLOPROS requires input from the flood risk community. We therefore invite researchers and practitioners to contribute information to this evolving database by corresponding to the authors.

  7. FLOPROS: an evolving global database of flood protection standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scussolini, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Jongman, B.; Bouwer, L. M.; Winsemius, H. C.; de Moel, H.; Ward, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    With the projected changes in climate, population and socioeconomic activity located in flood-prone areas, the global assessment of the flood risk is essential to inform climate change policy and disaster risk management. Whilst global flood risk models exist for this purpose, the accuracy of their results is greatly limited by the lack of information on the current standard of protection to floods, with studies either neglecting this aspect or resorting to crude assumptions. Here we present a first global database of FLOod PROtection Standards, FLOPROS, which comprises information in the form of the flood return period associated with protection measures, at different spatial scales. FLOPROS comprises three layers of information, and combines them into one consistent database. The Design layer contains empirical information about the actual standard of existing protection already in place, while the Policy layer and the Model layer are proxies for such protection standards, and serve to increase the spatial coverage of the database. The Policy layer contains information on protection standards from policy regulations; and the Model layer uses a validated modeling approach to calculate protection standards. Based on this first version of FLOPROS, we suggest a number of strategies to further extend and increase the resolution of the database. Moreover, as the database is intended to be continually updated, while flood protection standards are changing with new interventions, FLOPROS requires input from the flood risk community. We therefore invite researchers and practitioners to contribute information to this evolving database by corresponding to the authors.

  8. Optical Protection Filters for Harmful Laser Beams and UV Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Azim M, Osama A.

    2007-02-14

    Due to the rapid growth of radiation protection applications in various devices and instruments, it is essential to use suitable filters for eye protection of the personal working in the radiation field. Different protection filters were produced to protect from four laser beam wavelengths (at 532nm, 632.8nm, 694nm and 1064nm) and block three UV bands (UVA, UVB, and UVC). The design structure of the required dielectric multilayer filters used optical thin film technology. The computer analyses of the multilayer filter formulas were prepared using Macleod Software for the production filter processes. The deposition technique was achieved on optical substrates (Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301) by dielectric material combinations including Dralo (mixture of oxides TiO2/Al2O3), and Lima (mixture of oxides SiO2/Al2O3); deposition by an electron beam gun. The output transmittance curves for both theoretical and experimental values of all filters are presented. To validate the suitability for use in a 'real world', rather than laboratory test application, full environmental assessment was also carried out. These filters exhibited high endurance after exposing them to the durability tests (adhesion, abrasion resistance and humidity) according to military standards MIL-C-675C and MIL-C-48497A.

  9. DOE plan for UMTRA Project water protection standards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    This plan was developed to define DOE`s implementation of water protection standards for the UMTRA Project, on an interim basis, until the EPA promulgates revised standards in response to the September, 1985, decision by the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals. This plan presents the historical background of the development of the Title I standards and the rationale for the DOE implementation approach.

  10. DOE plan for UMTRA Project water protection standards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    This plan was developed to define DOE's implementation of water protection standards for the UMTRA Project, on an interim basis, until the EPA promulgates revised standards in response to the September, 1985, decision by the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals. This plan presents the historical background of the development of the Title I standards and the rationale for the DOE implementation approach.

  11. New standards for ionizing radiation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lamperti, P.J.; Johnson, C.M.

    1995-12-31

    The Ionizing Radiation Division has developed new national standards for mammographic X rays and for brachytherapy sources, such as iodine-125. The Attix chamber, a variable volume free-air ionization chamber, has been established as the primary national standard for mammographic X rays. The Attix chamber resides in the newly developed NIST Mammography Calibration Range and will be used to perform routine calibrations. The wide-angle free-air ionization chamber utilizes a large volume and a novel electric field configuration in order to circumvent the limitations of conventional free-air chambers. Seventeen beam qualities for X rays from molybdenum (Mo) and rhodium (Rh) anodes have been parameterized for the calibration of mammographic ionization chambers. The beam qualities available include anode/filter combinations of Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh and Rh/Rh. The mammography range was developed in collaborations with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration`s (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health, the implementors of the Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA) of 1992. The wide-angle free-air ionization chamber has been used to measure the output of two types of iodine-125 seeds, those with resin balls and those with silver wire. Both free-air chambers have been intercompared with the Ritz parallel-plate free-air ionization chamber.

  12. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  14. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 27.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  15. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 27.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 29.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 29.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  19. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 27.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  20. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 27.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 29.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 29.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 29.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  6. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 27.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  7. Space Weather Status for Exploration Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Dan J.; Lee, Kerry; Zapp, Neal; Barzilla, Janet; Dunegan, Audrey; Johnson, Steve; Stoffle, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during an exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and in free space, for example, may differ by orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for the ability to conduct exploration operations. We present a current status of developing operational concepts for manned exploration and expectations for asset viability and available predictive and characterization toolsets.

  8. Space Radiation Protection, Space Weather, and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, Neal; Fry, Dan; Lee, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during a deep space exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon may differ by multiple orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for our ability to conduct exploration operations. With these differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, we present the status of the efforts currently underway as the required development to enable exploration operations. The changes in the operating environment as crewed operations begin to stretch away from the Earth are changing the way we think about the lines between research and operations . The real, practical work to enable a permanent human presence away from Earth has already begun

  9. Space Radiation Protection, Space Weather, and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, Neal; Rutledge, R.; Semones, E. J.; Johnson, A. S.; Guetersloh, S.; Fry, D.; Stoffle, N.; Lee, K.

    2008-01-01

    Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight -- and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during an exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon may differ by multiple orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for our ability to conduct exploration operations. With these differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, we present the status of the efforts currently underway as the required development to enable exploration operations. The changes in the operating environment as crewed operations begin to stretch away from the Earth are changing the way we think about the lines between "research" and "operations". The real, practical work to enable a permanent human presence away from Earth has already begun.

  10. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Composition of Accelerator Radiation Fields; Shielding of Electrons and Photons at Accelerators; Shielding of Hadrons at Accelerators; Low Energy Prompt Radiation Phenomena; Induced Radioactivity at Accelerators; Topics in Radiation Protection Instrumentation at Accelerators; and Accelerator Radiation Protection Program Elements.

  11. Towards standardization of UV eye protection: what can be learned from photodermatology?

    PubMed

    Krutmann, Jean; Béhar-Cohen, Francine; Baillet, Gilles; de Ayguavives, Tito; Ortega Garcia, Paula; Peña-García, Pablo; Remé, Charlotte; Wolffsohn, James

    2014-01-01

    While knowledge about standardization of skin protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has progressed over the past few decades, there is no uniform and generally accepted standardized measurement for UV eye protection. The literature provides solid evidence that UV can induce considerable damage to structures of the eye. As well as damaging the eyelids and periorbital skin, chronic UV exposure may also affect the conjunctiva and lens. Clinically, this damage can manifest as skin cancer and premature skin ageing as well as the development of pterygia and premature cortical cataracts. Modern eye protection, used daily, offers the opportunity to prevent these adverse sequelae of lifelong UV exposure. A standardized, reliable and comprehensive label for consumers and professionals is currently lacking. In this review we (i) summarize the existing literature about UV radiation-induced damage to the eye and surrounding skin; (ii) review the recent technological advances in UV protection by means of lenses; (iii) review the definition of the Eye-Sun Protection Factor (E-SPF®), which describes the intrinsic UV protection properties of lenses and lens coating materials based on their capacity to absorb or reflect UV radiation; and (iv) propose a strategy for establishing the biological relevance of the E-SPF. PMID:24303877

  12. 77 FR 24594 - Version 4 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... whose protection may offer only marginal value in preventing widespread cyber attacks on the bulk..., 76 FR 58,730 (Sept. 22, 2011), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 32,679 (2011) (NOPR). \\14\\ NOPR, FERC Stats... Standards provide a cybersecurity framework for the identification and protection of ``Critical Cyber...

  13. FLOPROS: A global database of flood protection standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scussolini, Paolo; Aerts, Jeroen; Jongman, Brenden; Bouwer, Laurens; Winsemius, Hessel; de Moel, Hans; Ward, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk is increasing due denser population and socioeconomic activity in flood-prone areas, and to ongoing changes in climate. As emphasized in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, we need to improve understanding of risk for developing risk-informed policies in disaster risk reduction (priority 3). While (Sub)Global flood risk models provide applicable risk information, the accuracy of their results is greatly limited by the lack of information on standards of protection to flood currently in place. Studies therefore either neglect this aspect or apply crude assumptions. Here we present a first global database of FLOod PROtection Standards, FLOPROS, that includes information at different spatial scales. It comprises three layers of information, combining them into one consistent database: 1) the Design layer contains empirical information about the actual standard of protection in place; 2) the Policy layer contains intended protection standards from normative documents; 3) the Model layer uses a validated numerical approach to calculate protection standards for the areas otherwise not covered. FLOPROS can be used by entities conducting risk assessment across scales to produce more reliable results, and also to monitor progress in flood protection standards, as required by the Sendai Framework. We invite the risk community to participate in strategies to further extend and increase resolution and accuracy of this first version of FLOPROS. As the database should be continually updated to reflect new interventions, we invite researchers and practitioners to contribute information.

  14. Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Eye and Face Protection. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-03-25

    On March 13, 2015, OSHA published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to revise its eye and face protection standards for general industry, shipyard employment, marine terminals, longshoring, and construction by updating the references to national consensus standards approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). OSHA received no significant objections from commenters and therefore is adopting the amendments as proposed. This final rule updates the references in OSHA's eye and face standards to reflect the most recent edition of the ANSI/International Safety Equipment Association (ISEA) eye and face protection standard. It removes the oldest-referenced edition of the same ANSI standard. It also amends other provisions of the construction eye and face protection standard to bring them into alignment with OSHA's general industry and maritime standards. PMID:27017630

  15. The Seven (Or More) Deadly (Or Not So Deadly) Sins of Radiation Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.; Stansbury, Paul S.

    2000-06-01

    This editorial considers the errors that can occur in the routine practice of radiation protection in the workplace. This work provides a tool and an incentive for radiation protection professionals to mentally examine their radiation protection responsibilities to identify actions they may take to improve their part of the practice of radiation protection for the benefit of humankind. We introduce a rating tool that is patterned after the IAEA International Nuclear Event Scale.?Sins? discussed include ignorance of the radiological situation, failure to integrate safety management, disabling safety interlocks, warning devices, access controls, omission of''reasonable'' from the policy of''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA), extrapolation of risk beyond reason, using radiation exposure as an excuse for terminating an unwanted pregnancy, escalation of safety requirements beyond reason, failure to average a concentration standard, not responding to concerns (of workers, public, patient s, etc.), over-training, and substitution of prescriptive procedures for judgment. Readers are encouraged to look at their radiation protection activities and judge which ones do not make sense from the viewpoint of protecting people against radiation. It is likely that readers will find more than one radiation protection activity that bears scrutiny.

  16. 78 FR 72755 - Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ...Pursuant to section 215 of the Federal Power Act, the Commission approves the Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards, CIP-002-5 through CIP-011-1, submitted by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), the Commission- certified Electric Reliability Organization. The CIP version 5 Standards address the cyber security of the bulk electric system and......

  17. A global, open-source database of flood protection standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scussolini, Paolo; Aerts, Jeroen; Jongman, Brenden; Bouwer, Laurens; Winsemius, Hessel; de Moel, Hans; Ward, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Accurate flood risk estimation is pivotal in that it enables risk-informed policies in disaster risk reduction, as emphasized in the recent Sendai framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. To improve our understanding of flood risk, models are now capable to provide actionable risk information on the (sub)global scale. Still the accuracy of their results is greatly limited by the lack of information on standards of protection to flood that are actually in place; and researchers thus take large assumptions on the extent of protection. With our work we propose a first global, open-source database of FLOod PROtection Standards, FLOPROS, covering a range of spatial scales. FLOPROS is structured in three layers of information, and merges them into one consistent database: 1) the Design layer contains empirical information about the standard of protection presently in place; 2) the Policy layer contains intended protection standards from normative documents; 3) the Model layer uses a validated numerical approach to calculate protection standards for areas not covered in the other layers. The FLOPROS database can be used for more accurate risk assessment exercises across scales. As the database should be continually updated to reflect new interventions, we invite researchers and practitioners to contribute information. Further, we look for partners within the risk community to participate in additional strategies to implement the amount and accuracy of information contained in this first version of FLOPROS.

  18. Improved Spacecraft Materials for Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Shinn, J. L.; Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Thibeault, Sheila Ann; Kim, M.-H. Y.; Heinbockel, John H.; Badhwar, Gautam D.

    2001-01-01

    Methods by which radiation shielding is optimized need to be developed and materials of improved shielding characteristics identified and validated. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are very penetrating and the energy absorbed by the astronaut behind the shield is nearly independent of shield composition and even the shield thickness. However, the mix of particles in the transmitted beam changes rapidly with shield material composition and thickness. This results in part from the breakup of the high-energy heavy ions of the GCR which make contributions to biological effects out of proportion to their deposited energy. So the mixture of particles in the radiation field changes with shielding and the control of risk contributions from dominant particle types is critical to reducing the hazard to the astronaut. The risk of biological injury for a given particle type depends on the type of biological effect and is specific to cell or tissue type. Thus, one is faced with choosing materials which may protect a given tissue against a given effect but leave unchanged or even increase the risk of other effects in the same tissue or increase the risks to other adjacent tissues of a different type in the same individual. The optimization of shield composition will then be tied to a specific tissue and risk to that tissue. Such peculiarities arise from the complicated mixture of particles, the nature of their biological response, and the details of their interaction with material constituents. Aside from the understanding of the biological response to specific components, one also needs an accurate understanding of the radiation emerging from the shield material. This latter subject has been a principal element of this project. In the past ten years our understanding of space radiation interactions with materials has changed radically, with a large impact on shield design. For example, the NCRP estimated that only 2 g/sq cm. of aluminum would be required to meet the annual 500 m

  19. Standardizing protected species observer requirements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kyle; Epperson, Deborah; Goldstein, Howard; Skrupky, Kimberly; Smith, Brad; Gitschlag, Gregg; Lewandowski, Jill; Turk, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is considerable geographic variation in the data-collection requirements and procedures for US-permitted seismic surveys conducted for energy and research purposes. The development of standards to train PSOs, standardization of data collection, submission standards, and development of quality assurance and quality control standards will make data analysis more efficient and robust. The implementation of national standards for the Seismic Survey PSO Programs will increase the integrity of data collected and reported for more effective protected species management. PMID:22278582

  20. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Eze, Cletus Uche; Abonyi, Livinus Chibuzo; Njoku, Jerome; Irurhe, Nicholas Kayode; Olowu, Oluwabola

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective cross sectional survey. Convenience sampling technique was used to select four x-ray diagnostic centres in four tertiary hospitals in Lagos metropolis. Data were analysed with Epi- info software, version 3.5.1. Results: Average score on assessment of knowledge was 73%. Most modern radiation protection instruments were lacking in all the centres studied. Application of shielding devices such as gonad shield for protection was neglected mostly in government hospitals. Most x-ray machines were quite old and evidence of quality assurance tests performed on such machines were lacking. Conclusion: Radiographers within Lagos metropolis showed an excellent knowledge of radiation protection within the study period. Adherence to radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos metropolis during the period studied was, however, poor. Radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria should embrace current trends in radiation protection and make more concerted efforts to apply their knowledge in protecting themselves and patients from harmful effects of ionising radiation. PMID:24665152

  1. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements... to this part published on June 8, 2007 shall be achieved no later than July 9, 2010. (g) An update...

  2. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements... to this part published on June 8, 2007 shall be achieved no later than July 9, 2010. (g) An update...

  3. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements... to this part published on June 8, 2007 shall be achieved no later than July 9, 2010. (g) An update...

  4. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements... to this part published on June 8, 2007 shall be achieved no later than July 9, 2010. (g) An update...

  5. EVOLUTION OF THE IEC AND EN STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL MONITORING OF IONISING RADIATION.

    PubMed

    Voytchev, M; Behrens, R; Ambrosi, P; Radev, R; Chiaro, P

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the evolution of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the European standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation issued, respectively, from the committees IEC/Sub Committee 45B and European Committee for Electro-technical Standardization/Technical Committee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation'. Standards for passive individual photon and beta dosimetry systems as well as those for active individual monitors are discussed. A neutron ambient dose equivalent (rate) meter standard and a technical report concerning the determination of uncertainty in measurement are also covered. PMID:26443545

  6. MGR COMPLIANCE PROGRAM GUIDANCE PACKAGE FOR RADIATION PROTECTION EQUIPMENT, INSTRUMENTATION AND FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2000-02-01

    This Compliance Program Guidance Package identifies the regulatory guidance and industry codes and standards addressing radiation protection equipment, instrumentation, and support facilities considered to be appropriate for radiation protection at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Included are considerations relevant to radiation monitoring instruments, calibration, contamination control and decontamination, respiratory protection equipment, and general radiation protection facilities. The scope of this Guidance Package does not include design guidance relevant to criticality monitoring, area radiation monitoring, effluent monitoring, and airborne radioactivity monitoring systems since they are considered to be the topics of specific design and construction requirements (i.e., ''fixed'' or ''built-in'' systems). This Guidance Package does not address radiation protection design issues; it addresses the selection and calibration of radiation monitoring instrumentation to the extent that the guidance is relevant to the operational radiation protection program. Radon and radon progeny monitoring instrumentation is not included in the Guidance Package since such naturally occurring radioactive materials do not fall within the NRC's jurisdiction at the MGR.

  7. Training of interventional cardiologists in radiation protection--the IAEA's initiatives.

    PubMed

    Rehani, Madan M

    2007-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has initiated a major international initiative to train interventional cardiologists in radiation protection as a part of its International Action Plan on the radiological protection of patients. A simple programme of two days' training has been developed, covering possible and observed radiation effects among patients and staff, international standards, dose management techniques, examples of good and bad practice and examples indicating prevention of possible injuries as a result of good practice of radiation protection. The training material is freely available on CD from the IAEA. The IAEA has conducted two events in 2004 and 2005 and number of events are planned in 2006. The survey conducted among the cardiologists participating in these programmes indicates that over 80% of them were attending such a structured programme on radiation protection for the first time. As the magnitude of X-ray usage in cardiology grows to match that in interventional radiology, the standards of training on radiation effects, radiation physics and radiation protection in interventional cardiology should also match those in interventional radiology. PMID:16624432

  8. Radiation protection problems for the space station and approaches to their mitigation.

    PubMed

    Bucker, H; Facius, R

    1986-01-01

    With the advent of a permanent manned space station the longstanding problems of radiation protection in manned spaceflight have acquired an immediacy. This paper endeavors to emphasize the gaps of our knowledge which must be closed for effective radiation protection. The information that is required includes the accurate determination of the exposure inside the space station to the various components of tile ionizing radiation, the evaluation of the biological importance of the different radiation qualities and the depth dose distribution of the less penetrating component. There is also the possibility of an interaction with weightlessness. It is necessary to establish adequate radiation protection standards and a system of dosimetric surveillance. There is a need for studies of possible methods of hardening selective shielding of the space station. Spaceflight experiments, which might contribute to the solution of some of these problems are discussed. PMID:11537238

  9. Basic radiation protection training for nurses and paramedical personnel: Belgian experience and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Clarijs, T; Coeck, M; Van Bladel, Lodewijk; Fremout, An

    2015-07-01

    When using ionising radiation for medical diagnosis or treatment of patients, understanding of relevant radiation protection principles and issues is indispensable. In Belgium, nurses and paramedical staff are required to acquire knowledge for protecting the patient against the detrimental effects of ionising radiation by means of a vocational training course. The experience with and challenges for this training course are presented here from a lecturer's point of view, together with a proposal for a future approach that harmonises the training content, its level and quality, according to European recommended standards. PMID:25821209

  10. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    In the first chapter, terminology, physical and radiological quantities, and units of measurement used to describe the properties of accelerator radiation fields are reviewed. The general considerations of primary radiation fields pertinent to accelerators are discussed. The primary radiation fields produced by electron beams are described qualitatively and quantitatively. In the same manner the primary radiation fields produced by proton and ion beams are described. Subsequent chapters describe: shielding of electrons and photons at accelerators; shielding of proton and ion accelerators; low energy prompt radiation phenomena; induced radioactivity at accelerators; topics in radiation protection instrumentation at accelerators; and accelerator radiation protection program elements.

  11. Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ϒ, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins

  12. Radiation protection for human interplanetary spaceflight and planetary surface operations

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, B.C. ||

    1993-12-31

    Radiation protection issues are reviewed for five categories of radiation exposure during human missions to the moon and Mars: trapped radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays, solar flare particle events, planetary surface emissions, and on-board radiation sources. Relative hazards are dependent upon spacecraft and vehicle configurations, flight trajectories, human susceptibility, shielding effectiveness, monitoring and warning systems, and other factors. Crew cabins, interplanetary mission modules, surface habitats, planetary rovers, and extravehicular mobility units (spacesuits) provide various degrees of protection. Countermeasures that may be taken are reviewed relative to added complexity and risks that they could entail, with suggestions for future research and analysis.

  13. Operational Radiation Protection in High-Energy Physics Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Rokni, S.H.; Fasso, A.; Liu, J.C.; /SLAC

    2012-04-03

    An overview of operational radiation protection (RP) policies and practices at high-energy electron and proton accelerators used for physics research is presented. The different radiation fields and hazards typical of these facilities are described, as well as access control and radiation control systems. The implementation of an operational RP programme is illustrated, covering area and personnel classification and monitoring, radiation surveys, radiological environmental protection, management of induced radioactivity, radiological work planning and control, management of radioactive materials and wastes, facility dismantling and decommissioning, instrumentation and training.

  14. X-Ray Protection Standards for Home Television Receivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Washington, DC.

    Levels of X-Ray emission and exposure from home television receivers are being questioned and found greater than previous public health and safety cautions and measurement limits have suggested. The latest changes in television components, designs, function, and manufacturing, have caused equipment standards and the effects of radiation to be…

  15. The radiation protection system in the United Arab Emirates

    SciTech Connect

    El-Assaly, F.M.

    1994-12-31

    UAE Radiation protection national programme has been designed to protect the health and safety of (a) radiation workers in different fields such as medical applications, logging for oil and ground water, industrial radiography, industry and research, (b) the public from ionizing radiation hazards. The basic radiation protection criteria including formulation of norms and regulations. The drafting of primary legislation (a draft federal decree) was prepared. The Ministry of Health is in charge for implementing the federal decree. The secondary legislation, regulations, guidance notes and codes of practice for particular applications are under preparation. The executive office is within the Ministry of Health to carry out the responsibility of licensing, inspections of users of ionizing radiations. The centre laboratory for radiation protection operates under the Ministry of Health and will be the vital part of radiation protection infrastructure. All workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiations be included in a regular monitoring practice with TLD and film badges. Their dose records are kept using computer technique. A strategy for dealing with radioactive wastes including not only wastes arising from future operations but also the range of wastes which already exist at various locations will be developed. The emergency planning and preparedness will be established and the necessary training for groups of people on various aspects of radiological emergency will be held with the help of IAEA and other agencies.

  16. 77 FR 68684 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... reference to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) head protection standard (see 77 FR 37587). In..., 2012. DATES: The direct final rule published on June 22, 2012 (77 FR 37587), was effective on September..., Secretary of Labor's Order 1-2012 (77 FR 3912), and 29 CFR part 1911. Signed at Washington, DC, on...

  17. 77 FR 7526 - Interpretation of Protection System Reliability Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... Making, 75 FR 81,152 (Dec. 27, 2010), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 32,669 (2010). I. Background 2. Section 215... (Transmission and Generation Protection System Maintenance and Testing). On December 16, 2010, the Commission... R1 of Commission- approved Reliability Standard PRC-005-1 (Transmission and Generation...

  18. 78 FR 76986 - Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... of Tuesday, December 3, 2013 (78 FR 72755). The regulations approved certain reliability standards... issued in this docket.' \\27\\'' In FR Doc. 2013-28628 appearing on page 72758 in the Federal Register of... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection...

  19. 76 FR 58730 - Version 4 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ...Under section 215 of the Federal Power Act, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) proposes to approve eight modified Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) Reliability Standards, CIP- 002-4 through CIP-009-4, developed and submitted to the Commission for approval by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), the Electric Reliability Organization certified by......

  20. Status of radiation protection at different hospitals in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Kanchan P.; Jha, L.N.; Galan, Montenegro P.

    2012-01-01

    Nepal has a long history of medical radiology since1923 but unfortunately, we still do not have any Radiation Protection Infrastructure to control the use of ionizing radiations in the various fields. The objective of this study was an assessment of the radiation protection in medical uses of ionizing radiation. Twenty-eight hospitals with diagnostic radiology facility were chosen for this study according to patient loads, equipment and working staffs. Radiation surveys were also done at five different radiotherapy centers. Questionnaire for radiation workers were used; radiation dose levels were measured and an inventory of availability of radiation equipment made. A corollary objective of the study was to create awareness in among workers on possible radiation health hazard and risk. It was also deemed important to know the level of understanding of the radiation workers in order to initiate steps towards the establishment of Nepalese laws, regulation and code of radiological practice in this field. Altogether, 203 Radiation workers entertained the questionnaire, out of which 41 are from the Radiotherapy and 162 are from diagnostic radiology. The radiation workers who have participated in the questionnaire represent more than 50% of the radiation workers working in this field in Nepal. Almost all X-ray, CT and Mammogram installations were built according to protection criteria and hence found safe. Radiation dose level at the reference points for all the five Radiotherapy centers are within safe limit. Around 65% of the radiation workers have never been monitored for radiation. There is no quality control program in any of the surveyed hospitals except radiotherapy facilities. PMID:23293457

  1. Knowledge, skills, and abilities for key radiation protection positions at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This document provides detailed qualification criteria for contractor key radiation protection personnel. Although federal key radiation protection positions are also identified, qualification standards for federal positions are provided in DOE O 360.1 and the DOE Technical Qualifications Program. Appendices B and D provide detailed listings for knowledge, skills, and abilities for contractor and DOE federal key radiation protection positions. This information may be used in developing position descriptions and individual development plans. Information provided in Appendix C may be useful in developing performance measures and assessing an individual`s performance in his or her specific position. Additionally, Federal personnel may use this information to augment their Office/facility qualification standards under the Technical Qualifications Program.

  2. Radon in the Workplace: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Ionizing Radiation Standard.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Robert K

    2016-10-01

    On 29 December 1970, the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 established the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This article on OSHA, Title 29, Part 1910.1096 Ionizing Radiation standard was written to increase awareness of the employer, the workforce, state and federal governments, and those in the radon industry who perform radon testing and radon mitigation of the existence of these regulations, particularly the radon relevant aspect of the regulations. This review paper was also written to try to explain what can sometimes be complicated regulations. As the author works within the Radon Division of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Radiation Protection, the exclusive focus of the article is on radon. The 1910.1096 standard obviously covers many other aspects of radiation and radiation safety in the work place. PMID:27575350

  3. Radiobiology and gray science: flaws in landmark new radiation protections.

    PubMed

    Shrader-Frechette, Kristin

    2005-04-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection--whose regularly updated recommendations are routinely adopted as law throughout the globe--recently issued the first-ever ICRP protections for the environment. These draft 2005 proposals are significant both because they offer the commission's first radiation protections for any non-human parts of the planet and because they will influence both the quality of radiation risk assessment and environmental protection, as well as the global costs of nuclear-weapons cleanup, reactor decommissioning and radioactive waste management. This piece argues that the 2005 recommendations are scientifically and ethically flawed, or gray, in at least three respects: first, in largely ignoring scientific journals while employing mainly "gray literature;" second, in relying on non-transparent dose estimates and models, rather than on actual radiation measurements; and third, in ignoring classical ethical constraints on acceptable radiation risk. PMID:15915855

  4. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation

    MedlinePlus

    ... air pollution, pollution from vehicles and engines, radon, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, climate change, and radiation protection. ... It runs market based programs such as the Acid Rain Program and public/private partnership programs such as ...

  5. Radiation Protection Using Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tour, James M.; Lu, Meng; Lucente-Schultz, Rebecca; Leonard, Ashley; Doyle, Condell Dewayne; Kosynkin, Dimitry V.; Price, Brandi Katherine

    2011-01-01

    This invention is a means of radiation protection, or cellular oxidative stress mitigation, via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds, specifically single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and their derivatives. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection by reducing the number of free radicals within, or nearby, organelles, cells, tissue, organs, or living organisms, thereby reducing the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components (i.e., RNA, mitochondria, membranes, etc.) that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including but not limited to cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. In addition, this innovation could be used as a prophylactic or antidote for accidental radiation exposure, during high-altitude or space travel where exposure to radiation is anticipated, or to protect from exposure from deliberate terrorist or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons.

  6. Radiation protection aspects of EMITEL Encyclopaedia of Medical Physics.

    PubMed

    Stoeva, M; Tabakov, S; Lewis, C; Tabakova, V; Thurston, J; Smith, P

    2015-07-01

    The Encyclopaedia of Medical Physics EMITEL was developed under the EU pilot project European Medical Imaging Technology e-Encyclopaedia for Lifelong Learning. This large reference material includes 3400 articles on 2100 pages supported by thousands of illustrations. All materials are available free at the website, www.emitel2.eu. The articles are grouped in seven categories--physics of: X-ray diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, radiation protection and general terms. The radiation protection part of EMITEL includes 450 articles. These were organised in several sub-groups including: nuclear and atomic physics; ionizing radiation interactions and biological effects; radiation detection and measurement; dosimetric quantities and units; and general radiation protection and international bodies. EMITEL project was developed over 3 y and attracted as contributors 250+ senior specialists from 35 countries. After its successful launching, EMITEL is actively used by thousands of professionals around the world. PMID:25848099

  7. A new standard for core training in radiation safety

    SciTech Connect

    Trinoskey, P.A.

    1997-02-01

    A new American National Standard for radiation worker training was recently developed. The standard emphasizes performance-based training and establishing a training program rather than simply prescribing objectives. The standard also addresses basic criteria, including instructor qualifications. The standard is based on input from a wide array of regulatory agencies, universities, national laboratories, and nuclear power entities. This paper presents an overview of the new standard and the philosophy behind it. The target audience includes radiation workers, management and supervisory personnel, contractors, students, emergency personnel, and visitors.

  8. Has radiation protection become a health hazard?

    SciTech Connect

    Rockwell, T.

    1996-12-31

    Scientists and engineers have a responsibility to speak out when their findings and recommendations lead to public harm. This can happen in several ways. One is when the media misinterpret or sensationalize a scientific fact misleading the public and creating unwarranted fear. Another is when regulations or public policy decision are purportedly based on scientific data but are, in fact, scientifically invalid. Fear of radiation has been far more detrimental to health than radiation itself. The author knows of no deaths to the public from accidental release of radiation, but the consequences of fear have been deadly.

  9. Using computer-based training to facilitate radiation protection review

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, J.S.; Copenhaver, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    In a national laboratory setting, it is necessary to provide radiation protection overview and training to diverse parts of the laboratory population. This includes employees at research reactors, accelerators, waste facilities, radiochemical isotope processing, and analytical laboratories, among others. In addition, our own radiation protection and monitoring staffs must be trained. To assist in the implementation of this full range of training, ORNL has purchased prepackaged computer-based training in health physics and technical mathematics with training modules that can be selected from many topics. By selection of specific modules, appropriate radiation protection review packages can be determined to meet many individual program needs. Because our radiation protection personnel must have some previous radiation protection experience or the equivalent of an associate's degree in radiation protection for entry level, the computer-based training will serve primarily as review of major principles. Others may need very specific prior training to make the computer-based training effective in their work situations. 4 refs.

  10. Simple Benchmark Specifications for Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.; Aghara, Sukesh K.

    2013-01-01

    This report defines space radiation benchmark specifications. This specification starts with simple, monoenergetic, mono-directional particles on slabs and progresses to human models in spacecraft. This report specifies the models and sources needed to what the team performing the benchmark needs to produce in a report. Also included are brief descriptions of how OLTARIS, the NASA Langley website for space radiation analysis, performs its analysis.

  11. Space radiation protection: Human support thrust exploration technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Edmund J.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space radiation protection are presented. For crew and practical missions, exploration requires effective, low-mass shielding and accurate estimates of space radiation exposure for lunar and Mars habitat shielding, manned space transfer vehicle, and strategies for minimizing exposure during extravehicular activity (EVA) and rover operations.

  12. Space activities and radiation protection of crew members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straube, Ulrich; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Facius, Rainer; Reiter, Thomas; Kehl, Marcel; Damann, M. D. Volker; Tognini, Michel

    Personnel working as crew in space-based activities e.g. professional astronauts and cosmo-nauts but also -to a certain extend-space flight participants ("space tourists"), demand health and safety considerations that have to include radiation protection measures. The radiation environment that a crew is exposed to during a space flight, differs significantly to that found on earth including commercial aviation, mainly due to the presence of heavy charged particles with great potential for biological damage. The exposure exceeds those routinely received by terrestrial radiation workers. A sequence of activities has to be conducted targeting to mitigate adverse effects of space radiation. Considerable information is available and applied through the joint efforts of the Space Agencies that are involved in the operations of the International Space Station, ISS. This presentation will give an introduction to the current measures for ra-diation monitoring and protection of astronauts of the European Space Agency (ESA). It will include information: on the radiation protection guidelines that shall ensure the proper imple-mentation and execution of radiation protection measures, the operational hardware used for radiation monitoring and personal dosimetry on ISS, as well as information about operational procedures that are applied.

  13. 42 CFR Appendix E to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Radiation Therapy Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; (j) Radiation physics; (k) Radiation protection; (l) Radiation oncology technique; (m) Radiographic... knowledge of radiation physics in radiation interactions and radiation protection techniques; (f) Provide...) Successful completion or challenge of courses in the following prerequisite content areas: —Radiation...

  14. 42 CFR Appendix E to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Radiation Therapy Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...; (j) Radiation physics; (k) Radiation protection; (l) Radiation oncology technique; (m) Radiographic... knowledge of radiation physics in radiation interactions and radiation protection techniques; (f) Provide...) Successful completion or challenge of courses in the following prerequisite content areas: —Radiation...

  15. 42 CFR Appendix E to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Radiation Therapy Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; (j) Radiation physics; (k) Radiation protection; (l) Radiation oncology technique; (m) Radiographic... knowledge of radiation physics in radiation interactions and radiation protection techniques; (f) Provide...) Successful completion or challenge of courses in the following prerequisite content areas: —Radiation...

  16. 42 CFR Appendix E to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Radiation Therapy Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...; (j) Radiation physics; (k) Radiation protection; (l) Radiation oncology technique; (m) Radiographic... knowledge of radiation physics in radiation interactions and radiation protection techniques; (f) Provide...) Successful completion or challenge of courses in the following prerequisite content areas: —Radiation...

  17. 42 CFR Appendix E to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Radiation Therapy Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...; (j) Radiation physics; (k) Radiation protection; (l) Radiation oncology technique; (m) Radiographic... knowledge of radiation physics in radiation interactions and radiation protection techniques; (f) Provide...) Successful completion or challenge of courses in the following prerequisite content areas: —Radiation...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General §...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General §...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General §...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General §...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General §...

  3. Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1979 and 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Gove, R.M.; Little, J.R.; Shirley, D.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public concern over the effects of low-level radiation and other aspects of the use of nuclear energy has grown in recent years, and the demand for radiation protection has continued to increase. Radiation Protection Enrollments and Degrees presents the results of the latest survey of institutions offering degree programs in this field. Students obtaining such degrees are vital to the development of industry, medicine, research, power production, construction, and agriculture. These surveys assist state and federal governments in their search for such personnel.

  4. Twenty new ISO standards on dosimetry for radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, H., IV

    2000-03-01

    Twenty standards on essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing were published as new ISO standards in December 1998. The standards are based on 20 standard practices and guides developed over the past 14 years by Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The transformation to ISO standards using the 'fast track' process under ISO Technical Committee 85 (ISO/TC85) commenced in 1995 and resulted in some overlap of technical information between three of the new standards and the existing ISO Standard 11137 Sterilization of health care products — Requirements for validation and routine control — Radiation sterilization. Although the technical information in these four standards was consistent, compromise wording in the scopes of the three new ISO standards to establish precedence for use were adopted. Two of the new ISO standards are specifically for food irradiation applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, X-ray, and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruit, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes, and paper. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties using the new ISO Type A and Type B evaluations. Unfortunately, nine of the 20 standards just adopted by the ISO are not the most recent versions of these standards and are therefore already out of date. To help solve this problem, efforts are being made to develop procedures to coordinate the ASTM and ISO development and revision processes for these and future ASTM-originating dosimetry standards. In the meantime, an additional four dosimetry standards have recently been published by the ASTM but

  5. Radiation Protection for Manned Interplanetary Missions - Radiation Sources, Risks, Remedies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facius, R.; Reitz, G.

    Health risks in interplanetary explorative missions differ in two major features significantly from those during the manned missions experienced so far. For one, presently available technologies lead to durations of such missions significantly longer than so far encountered - with the added complication that emergency returns are ruled out. Thus radiation exposures and hence risks for late radiation sequelae like cancer increase proportional to mission duration - similar like most other health and many technical risks too. Secondly, loss of the geomagnetic shielding available in low earth orbits (LEO) does increase the radiation dose rates from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) since significant fractions of the GCR flux below about 10 GeV/n now can reach the space vehicle. In addition, radiation from solar particle events (SPE) which at most in polar orbit segments can contribute to the radiation exposure during LEO missions now can reach the spaceship unattenuated. Radiation doses from extreme SPEs can reach levels where even early acute radiation sickness might ensue - with the added risks from potentially associated crew performance decrements. In contrast to the by and large predictable GCR contribution, the doses and hence risks from large SPEs can only stochastically be assessed. Mission designers face the task to contain the overall health risk within acceptable limits. Towards this end they have to transport the particle fluxes of the radiation fields in free space through the walls of the spaceship and through the tissue of the astronaut to the radiation sensitive organs. To obtain a quantity which is useful for risk assessment, the radiobiological effectiveness as well as the specific sensitivity of a given organ has to be accounted for in such transport calculations which of course require a detailed knowledge of the spatial distribution and the atomic composition of the surrounding shielding material. In doing so the mission designer encounters two major

  6. Countermeasure for Radiation Protection and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation during long-duration space missions is expected to cause short-term illness and increase long-term risk of cancer for astronauts. Radiation-induced free radicals overload the antioxidant defense mechanisms and lead to cellular damage at the membrane, enzyme, and chromosome levels. A large number of radioprotective agents were screened, but most had significant side effects. But there is increasing evidence that significant radioprotective benefit is achieved by increasing the dietary intake of foods with high antioxidant potential. Early plant-growing systems for space missions will be limited in both size and volume to minimize power and mass requirements. These systems will be well suited to producing plants containing high concentrations of bioprotective antioxidants. This project explored whether the production of bioprotective compounds could be increased by altering the lighting system, without increasing the space or power requirements for production, and evaluated the effects of environmental conditions (light quantity, light quality, and carbon dioxide [CO2] concentration) on the production of bioprotective compounds in lettuce, which provide a biological countermeasure for radiation exposure. The specific deliverables were to develop a database of bioprotectant compounds in plants that are suitable for use on longduration space missions, develop protocols for maintaining and increasing bioprotectant production under light emitting diodes (LEDs), recommend lighting requirements to produce dietary countermeasures of radiation, and publish results in the Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science.

  7. Radiation protection strategies in HERMES missions.

    PubMed

    Bourdeaud'hui, J C; Feuillais, N; Contant, J M

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the environment of radiations for the HERMES spaceplane and the doses received by men for several missions. Safeguard strategies are then studied to avoid dangerous dose levels. In particular, an anomalously large solar event with eruption of energetic protons may lead to inacceptable dose levels. Strategies, with regards to the orbits characteristics, are discussed. PMID:11537129

  8. Flexible shielding system for radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babin, A.

    1972-01-01

    Modular construction of low cost flexible radiation shielding panels consists of water filled steels cans, zinc bromide windows, turntable unit, master-slave manipulators, and interlocking lead bricks. Easy modifications of shielding wall thicknesses are obtained by rearranging overall geometry of portable components.

  9. Protecting Lunar Colonies From Space Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2009-08-01

    When Apollo 7 astronaut Walter Cunningham blasted off from Earth on 11 October 1968, the last thing he was thinking about was radiation risks or any risks at all. “Fear doesn’t even enter your mind because you have confidence in yourself, your own ability, your training, and your knowledge,” Cunningham told Space Weather. As a crew member of the first manned mission in the Apollo program and the first three-man American space mission, Cunningham spent 11 days in Earth orbit, testing life-support, propulsion, and control systems on a redesigned command module. In retrospect, compared with immediate risks such as those associated with launch and reentry, “exposure to radiation, which could have long-term effects—we just never gave that a thought,” Cunningham said.

  10. Protection against ionizing radiation with eicosanoids

    SciTech Connect

    Steel, L.K.; Catravas, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are extremely diverse in their pharmacological activities. They exhibit both antagonistic as well as cytoprotective properties in the pathogenesis of inflammation. Participation of PGs as chemical mediators in the regulation of immune responses and inflammation are increasingly apparent. The antagonistic properties of PGs have been implicated in a variety of symptoms resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation. Post-irradiation increases in small bowel motility, diarrhea, flatulence, abdominal pain, mucositis, and esophagitis have been attributed, in part, to excessive PG production. In contrast, exogenous PGs, particularly of the E type, have been shown to be cytoprotective against a variety of damaging agents, and a deficiency of endogeneous PG has been suggested to contribute to increase susceptibility to injury. These findings have provided much of the impetus to examine the potential cytoprotective effects of PGs in radiation injury.