Science.gov

Sample records for radiation safety criteria

  1. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-02-11

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser safety audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe use of Lasers references this requirement in several sections: (1) Section 1.3.2 LSO Specific Responsibilities states under Hazard Evaluation, ''The LSO shall be responsible for hazards evaluation of laser work areas''; (2) Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''; and (3) Appendix D, under Survey and Inspections, it states, ''the LSO will survey by inspection, as considered necessary, all areas where laser equipment is used''. Therefore, for facilities using Class 3B and or Class 4 lasers, audits for laser safety compliance are expected to be conducted. The composition, frequency and rigueur of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms. In many institutions, a sole Laser Safety Officer (LSO) or a number of Deputy LSO's perform these audits. For that matter, there are institutions that request users to perform a self-assessment audit. Many items on the common audit list and the associated findings are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the LSO or auditor in particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage is an example; to one set of eyes a particular arrangement might be completely adequate, while to another the installation may be inadequate. In order to provide more consistency, the National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (NIF-LLNL) has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. These criteria are distributed to laser users, and they serve two broad purposes: first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor, and second, it is an

  2. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-06-13

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe Use of Lasers references this requirement through several sections. One such reference is Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''. The composition, frequency and rigor of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms It is common for audit findings from one inspector or inspection to the next to vary even when reviewing the same material. How often has one heard a comment, ''well this area has been inspected several times over the years and no one ever said this or that was a problem before''. A great number of audit items, and therefore findings, are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the auditor to particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage, to one set of eyes might be completely adequate, while to another, inadequate. In order to provide consistency, the Laser Safety Office of the National Ignition Facility Directorate has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. The criteria are distributed to laser users. It serves two broad purposes; first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor. Second, it is an opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items, such as labelling of beam blocks.

  3. Aerostructural safety factor criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1992-01-01

    The present modification of the conventional safety factor method for aircraft structures evaluation involves the expression of deterministic safety factors in probabilistic tolerance limit ratios; these are found to involve a total of three factors that control the interference of applied and resistive stress distributions. The deterministic expression is extended so that it may furnish a 'relative ultimate safety' index that encompasses all three distribution factors. Operational reliability is developed on the basis of the applied and the yield stress distribution interferences. Industry standards are suggested to be derivable from factor selections that are based on the consequences of failure.

  4. Radiation Safety Compliance.

    PubMed

    Koth, Jana; Smith, Marcia Hess

    2016-05-01

    This article discusses radiation safety programs, including the members of the radiation safety team, their roles, and the challenges they face, with a focus on the radiation safety officer's duties. Agencies that regulate radiation safety also are described. The importance of minimizing patient dose, ensuring that dosimetry badges are worn correctly, and using therapeutic radioactive materials safely are addressed. Finally, radiologic technologists' role in using radiation safely is discussed, and the principles of time, distance, and shielding are reviewed. PMID:27146175

  5. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Safety criteria for ferrocyanide watch list tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Postma, A.K.; Meacham, J.E.; Barney, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides a technical basis for closing the ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) at the Hanford Site. Three work efforts were performed in developing this technical basis. The efforts described herein are: 1. The formulation of criteria for ranking the relative safety of waste in each ferrocyanide tank. 2. The current classification of tanks into safety categories by comparing available information on tank contents with the safety criteria; 3. The identification of additional information required to resolve the ferrocyanide safety issue.

  6. Discussions about safety criteria and guidelines for radioactive waste management.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masafumi

    2011-07-01

    In Japan, the clearance levels for uranium-bearing waste have been established by the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC). The criteria for uranium-bearing waste disposal are also necessary; however, the NSC has not concluded the discussion on this subject. Meanwhile, the General Administrative Group of the Radiation Council has concluded the revision of its former recommendation 'Regulatory exemption dose for radioactive solid waste disposal', the dose criteria after the institutional control period for a repository. The Standardization Committee on Radiation Protection in the Japan Health Physics Society (The Committee) also has developed the relevant safety criteria and guidelines for existing exposure situations, which are potentially applicable to uranium-bearing waste disposal. A new working group established by The Committee was initially aimed at developing criteria and guidelines specifically for uranium-bearing waste disposal; however, the aim has been shifted to broader criteria applicable to any radioactive wastes. PMID:21531746

  7. Radiation design criteria handbook. [design criteria for electronic parts applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Douglas, S.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation design criteria for electronic parts applications in space environments are provided. The data were compiled from the Mariner/Jupiter Saturn 1977 electronic parts radiation test program. Radiation sensitive device types were exposed to radiation environments compatible with the MJS'77 requirements under suitable bias conditions. A total of 189 integrated circuits, transistors, and other semiconductor device types were tested.

  8. Radiation Safety System

    SciTech Connect

    Vylet, Vaclav; Liu, James C.; Walker, Lawrence S.; /Los Alamos

    2012-04-04

    The goal of this work is to provide an overview of a Radiation safety system (RSS) designed for protection from prompt radiation hazard at accelerator facilities. RSS design parameters, functional requirements and constraints are derived from hazard analysis and risk assessment undertaken in the design phase of the facility. The two main subsystems of a RSS are access control system (ACS) and radiation control system (RCS). In this text, a common approach to risk assessment, typical components of ACS and RCS, desirable features and general design principles applied to RSS are described.

  9. 10 CFR 32.27 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.27 Section 32.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.27 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  10. 10 CFR 32.23 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.23 Section 32.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.23 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  11. 10 CFR 32.27 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.27 Section 32.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.27 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  12. 10 CFR 32.23 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.23 Section 32.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.23 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  13. Nuclear safety criteria and specifications for space nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to define safety criteria which must be met to implement US safety policy for space fission reactors. These criteria provide the bases for decisions on the acceptability of specific mission and reactor design proposals. (JDH)

  14. 10 CFR 32.23 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.23 Section 32.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.23 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  15. 10 CFR 32.27 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.27 Section 32.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.27 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  16. 10 CFR 32.27 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.27 Section 32.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.27 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  17. 10 CFR 32.27 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.27 Section 32.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.27 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  18. 10 CFR 32.23 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.23 Section 32.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.23 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  19. 10 CFR 32.23 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.23 Section 32.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.23 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  20. Safety goals and functional performance criteria. [Advanced Reactor Design

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, R.W.; Pratt, W.T. ); Hardin, W.B. . Div. of Regulatory Applications)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses a possible approach to the development of functional performance criteria to be applied to evolutionary LWR designs. Key safety functions are first identified; then, criteria are drawn up for each individual function, based on the premise that no single function's projected unreliability should be allowed to exhaust the safety goal frequencies. In the area of core damage prevention, functional criteria are cast in terms of necessary levels of redundancy and diversity of critical equipment. In the area of core damage mitigation (containment), functional performance criteria are cast with the aim of mitigating post-core-melt phenomena with sufficient assurance to eliminate major uncertainties in containment performance. 9 refs.

  1. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards.

  2. Radiation Safety in Pediatric Orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Caird, Michelle S

    2015-01-01

    Patients, surgeons, and staff are exposed to ionizing radiation in pediatric orthopaedic surgery from diagnostic studies and imaging associated with procedures. Estimating radiation dose to pediatric patients is based on complex algorithms and dose to surgeons and staff is based on dosimeter monitoring. Surgeons can decrease radiation exposure to patients with careful and thoughtful ordering of diagnostic studies and by minimizing exposure intraoperatively. Surgeon and staff radiation exposure can be minimized with educational programs, proper shielding and positioning intraoperatively, and prudent use of intraoperative imaging. Overall, better awareness among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons of our role in radiation exposure can lead to improvements in radiation safety. PMID:26049299

  3. Nuclear-safety criteria and specifications for space nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    The policy of the United States for all US nuclear power sources in space is to ensure that the probability of release of radioactive material and the amounts released are such that an undue risk is not presented, considering the benefits of the mission. The objective of this document is to provide safety criteria which a mission/reactor designer can use to help ensure that the design is acceptable from a radiological safety standpoint. These criteria encompass mission design, reactor design, and radiological impact limitation requirements for safety, and the documentation required. They do not address terrestrial operations, occupational safety or system reliability except where the systems are important for radiological safety. Specific safety specifications based on these criteria shall also be generated and made part of contractual requirements.

  4. 76 FR 20070 - Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria... received, a safety approval for the ability of its Space Training System: Model 400 (STS-400) to replicate....19 (a)(4). NASTAR's ] STS-400 suborbital space flight simulator (a multi-axis centrifuge) is...

  5. Explosive safety criteria at a Department of Energy contractor facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krach, F.

    1984-08-01

    Monsanto Research Corporation (MRC) operates the Mound facility in Miamisburg, Ohio, for the Department of Energy. Small explosive components are manufactured at MRC, and stringent explosive safety criteria have been developed for their manufacturing. The goals of these standards are to reduce employee injuries and eliminate fenceline impacts resulting from accidental detonations. The manner in which these criteria were developed and what DOD standards were incorporated into MRC's own design criteria are described. These design requirements are applicable to all new construction at MRC. An example of the development of the design of a Component Test Facility is presented to illustrate the application of the criteria.

  6. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors, establishes reactor safety requirements to assure that reactors are sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that adequately protects health and safety and is in accordance with uniform standards, guides, and codes which are consistent with those applied to comparable licensed reactors. This document identifies nuclear safety criteria applied to NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) licensed reactors. The titles of the chapters and sections of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 3, are used as the format for compiling the NRC criteria applied to the various areas of nuclear safety addressed in a safety analysis report for a nuclear reactor. In each section the criteria are compiled in four groups: (1) Code of Federal Regulations, (2) US NRC Regulatory Guides, SRP Branch Technical Positions and Appendices, (3) Codes and Standards, and (4) Supplemental Information. The degree of application of these criteria to a DOE-owned reactor, consistent with their application to comparable licensed reactors, must be determined by the DOE and DOE contractor.

  7. Risk-based versus deterministic explosives safety criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.E.

    1996-12-01

    The Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board (DDESB) is actively considering ways to apply risk-based approaches in its decision- making processes. As such, an understanding of the impact of converting to risk-based criteria is required. The objectives of this project are to examine the benefits and drawbacks of risk-based criteria and to define the impact of converting from deterministic to risk-based criteria. Conclusions will be couched in terms that allow meaningful comparisons of deterministic and risk-based approaches. To this end, direct comparisons of the consequences and impacts of both deterministic and risk-based criteria at selected military installations are made. Deterministic criteria used in this report are those in DoD 6055.9-STD, `DoD Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standard.` Risk-based criteria selected for comparison are those used by the government of Switzerland, `Technical Requirements for the Storage of Ammunition (TLM 75).` The risk-based criteria used in Switzerland were selected because they have been successfully applied for over twenty-five years.

  8. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  9. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  10. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  11. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  12. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  13. PWR-2 Blanket Fuel Assembly Removal Safety Basis Criteria Document

    SciTech Connect

    BUSHORE, R.P.

    2001-01-22

    This criteria document describes the proposed format, content, and schedule for the preparation of an amendment to the Interim Safety Basis for Solid Waste Facilities (T Plant) (ISB), (HNF-SD-WM-ISB-006), and to the T Plant Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSR) (''F-SD-WM-TSR-003). The amendments to these documents are intended to authorize removal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies from the spent fuel pool in the Solid Waste Treatment Facility 221-T canyon for interim storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The amendments will include a stand-alone safety assessment as well as revisions to these safety documents as needed to reflect the changes in work scope not currently authorized to accomplish the expected end-state of the Fuel Removal Project for the 221-T Facility.

  14. Safety-related operator actions: methodology for developing criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Kozinsky, E.J.; Gray, L.H.; Beare, A.N.; Barks, D.B.; Gomer, F.E.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents a methodology for developing criteria for design evaluation of safety-related actions by nuclear power plant reactor operators, and identifies a supporting data base. It is the eleventh and final NUREG/CR Report on the Safety-Related Operator Actions Program, conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The operator performance data were developed from training simulator experiments involving operator responses to simulated scenarios of plant disturbances; from field data on events with similar scenarios; and from task analytic data. A conceptual model to integrate the data was developed and a computer simulation of the model was run, using the SAINT modeling language. Proposed is a quantitative predictive model of operator performance, the Operator Personnel Performance Simulation (OPPS) Model, driven by task requirements, information presentation, and system dynamics. The model output, a probability distribution of predicted time to correctly complete safety-related operator actions, provides data for objective evaluation of quantitative design criteria.

  15. Safety analysis, risk assessment, and risk acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Jamali, K.; Stack, D.W.; Sullivan, L.H.; Sanzo, D.L.

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses a number of topics that relate safety analysis as documented in the Department of Energy (DOE) safety analysis reports (SARs), probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) as characterized primarily in the context of the techniques that have assumed some level of formality in commercial nuclear power plant applications, and risk acceptance criteria as an outgrowth of PRA applications. DOE SARs of interest are those that are prepared for DOE facilities under DOE Order 5480.23 and the implementing guidance in DOE STD-3009-94. It must be noted that the primary area of application for DOE STD-3009 is existing DOE facilities and that certain modifications of the STD-3009 approach are necessary in SARs for new facilities. Moreover, it is the hazard analysis (HA) and accident analysis (AA) portions of these SARs that are relevant to the present discussions. Although PRAs can be qualitative in nature, PRA as used in this paper refers more generally to all quantitative risk assessments and their underlying methods. HA as used in this paper refers more generally to all qualitative risk assessments and their underlying methods that have been in use in hazardous facilities other than nuclear power plants. This discussion includes both quantitative and qualitative risk assessment methods. PRA has been used, improved, developed, and refined since the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) was published in 1975 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Much debate has ensued since WASH-1400 on exactly what the role of PRA should be in plant design, reactor licensing, `ensuring` plant and process safety, and a large number of other decisions that must be made for potentially hazardous activities. Of particular interest in this area is whether the risks quantified using PRA should be compared with numerical risk acceptance criteria (RACs) to determine whether a facility is `safe.` Use of RACs requires quantitative estimates of consequence frequency and magnitude.

  16. Occupational safety and health criteria for responsible development of nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Schulte, P A; Geraci, C L; Murashov, V; Kuempel, E D; Zumwalde, R D; Castranova, V; Hoover, M D; Hodson, L; Martinez, K F

    2014-01-01

    Organizations around the world have called for the responsible development of nanotechnology. The goals of this approach are to emphasize the importance of considering and controlling the potential adverse impacts of nanotechnology in order to develop its capabilities and benefits. A primary area of concern is the potential adverse impact on workers, since they are the first people in society who are exposed to the potential hazards of nanotechnology. Occupational safety and health criteria for defining what constitutes responsible development of nanotechnology are needed. This article presents five criterion actions that should be practiced by decision-makers at the business and societal levels-if nanotechnology is to be developed responsibly. These include (1) anticipate, identify, and track potentially hazardous nanomaterials in the workplace; (2) assess workers' exposures to nanomaterials; (3) assess and communicate hazards and risks to workers; (4) manage occupational safety and health risks; and (5) foster the safe development of nanotechnology and realization of its societal and commercial benefits. All these criteria are necessary for responsible development to occur. Since it is early in the commercialization of nanotechnology, there are still many unknowns and concerns about nanomaterials. Therefore, it is prudent to treat them as potentially hazardous until sufficient toxicology, and exposure data are gathered for nanomaterial-specific hazard and risk assessments. In this emergent period, it is necessary to be clear about the extent of uncertainty and the need for prudent actions. PMID:24482607

  17. Health, safety and environmental criteria for siting of laboratory facilities.

    PubMed

    Lees, P S; Corn, M

    1983-04-01

    The development of applicable criteria for assessing the suitability of a site for construction of full and partial containment laboratories for the analysis of unknown and highly toxic chemicals is described. The criteria, based on considerations of health, safety and environmental factors, are used to define critical considerations in site selection to minimize the risk to non-laboratory personnel and the surrounding environment. Criteria are synthesized from several sources using the assumption of a worst-case chemical release. Mechanical failures, human failures, critical events and social/legal limitations are investigated, as are the characteristics of a site which may limit construction of such a facility. A detailed description is made of the various types of laboratories and the types of samples analyzed in them. The final recommendations are summarized for five typical laboratory settings; they are based primarily on the potential impacts on people, property and natural resources. A single occupancy building in a rural setting is recommended as the most suitable site for a full containment laboratory. A single occupancy building in an industrial park setting is acceptable, while multiple occupancy buildings and sites which are more highly developed are unacceptable. Similar recommendations are made for partial containment and conventional laboratories. PMID:6858856

  18. Application of the Supreme Court's Daubert criteria in radiation litigation.

    PubMed

    Merwin, S E; Moeller, D W; Kennedy, W E; Moeller, M P

    2001-12-01

    In 1993, the U.S. Supreme Court set forth the standard for determining the admissibility of expert scientific evidence in litigation. This standard is known as the Daubert criteria, named after the pertinent case, Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. The Daubert criteria require the courts to determine whether an expert's testimony reflects scientific knowledge, whether his/her findings are derived by the scientific method, and whether the work product is based on good science. The Daubert criteria are especially important in radiation litigation because issues involving radiation doses and effects are often complex and thus a jury will typically rely heavily on the analysis and opinions of experts. According to the Daubert criteria, scientific opinions must be based on a methodology that has a valid, testable hypothesis; has been subject to peer review; and is generally accepted in the scientific community. Additionally, the expert must be qualified to present opinions based on the methodology. Although the application of the Daubert criteria in radiation litigation is highly dependent on the specific court and judge presiding over the case, there have been recent high-profile cases in which application of the criteria has resulted in the dismissal of analysis and opinions offered by scientific experts. Reasons for the dismissals have included basic scientific errors such as failure of the expert to consider all possible explanations for an observed phenomenon, the selective use of data by the expert, and the failure to acknowledge and resolve inconsistencies between the expert's results and those of other investigators. This paper reviews the Daubert criteria as they apply to radiation litigation and provides examples of the application of the criteria from recent judgments involving the Three Mile Island and Hanford Downwinders cases. PMID:11725885

  19. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.42 Criteria for evaluating the safety of...

  20. 10 CFR 835.901 - Radiation safety training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation safety training. 835.901 Section 835.901 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Radiation Safety Training § 835.901 Radiation safety training. (a) Each individual shall complete radiation safety training on the topics established at §...

  1. 10 CFR 835.901 - Radiation safety training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation safety training. 835.901 Section 835.901 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Radiation Safety Training § 835.901 Radiation safety training. (a) Each individual shall complete radiation safety training on the topics established at §...

  2. 10 CFR 835.901 - Radiation safety training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation safety training. 835.901 Section 835.901 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Radiation Safety Training § 835.901 Radiation safety training. (a) Each individual shall complete radiation safety training on the topics established at §...

  3. 10 CFR 835.901 - Radiation safety training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation safety training. 835.901 Section 835.901 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Radiation Safety Training § 835.901 Radiation safety training. (a) Each individual shall complete radiation safety training on the topics established at § 835.901(c) commensurate with the...

  4. 10 CFR 835.901 - Radiation safety training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation safety training. 835.901 Section 835.901 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Radiation Safety Training § 835.901 Radiation safety training. (a) Each individual shall complete radiation safety training on the topics established at §...

  5. Radiation safety for anesthesia providers.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gillian; Monaghan, W Patrick

    2011-06-01

    Many modern diagnostic and surgical procedures rely heavily on the use of ionizing radiation. These procedures include computed tomography, nuclear medicine procedures, interventional radiology, and cardiac catheterization and electrophysiology procedures. Recent trends toward increased patient visits and patients with multiple challenging comorbidities have meant that anesthesia providers are increasingly required to provide services in the ancillary areas using ionizing radiation. As a result, anesthesia providers are at a greater-than-ever risk for excessive radiation doses. An overview of some of the basic principles of radiation biology, radiation physics, and radiation protection and specific guidelines related to radiation exposure and pregnancy are described. The effects of radiation exposure are cumulative and permanent, and an understanding of these principles and practices will help anesthesia providers keep their occupational exposure to a minimum. PMID:21751695

  6. Industrial irradiator radiation safety program assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mark A.

    2000-03-01

    Considerable attention is typically given to radiation safety in the design of irradiators and initially establishing the program. However, one component that may not receive enough attention is applying the continuous improvement philosophy to the radiation safety program. Periodic total program assessments of radiation safety can ensure that the design and implementation of the program continues to be applicable to the operations. The first step in the process must be to determine what is to be covered in the program assessment. While regulatory compliance audits are a component, the most useful evaluation will extend beyond looking only at compliance and determine whether the radiation safety program is the most appropriate for the particular operation. Several aspects of the irradiator operation, not all of which may routinely be considered "radiation safety", per se, should be included: Design aspects of the irradiator and operating system, system controls, and maintenance procedures, as well as the more traditional radiation safety program components such as surveys, measurements and training.

  7. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Explanation of Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria A Appendix A to Part 385 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Pt. 385,...

  8. 10 CFR 32.31 - Certain industrial devices containing byproduct material: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certain industrial devices containing byproduct material: Safety criteria. 32.31 Section 32.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO... Certain industrial devices containing byproduct material: Safety criteria. (a) An applicant for a...

  9. 10 CFR 32.31 - Certain industrial devices containing byproduct material: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certain industrial devices containing byproduct material: Safety criteria. 32.31 Section 32.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO... Certain industrial devices containing byproduct material: Safety criteria. (a) An applicant for a...

  10. Radiation Safety Considerations for LHD Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uda, T.; Yamanishi, H.; Miyake, H.; Kodaira, J.; Sakuma, Y.; Hirabayashi, H.; Obayashi, H.; Yamada, H.; Motojima, O.

    1997-06-01

    For experiments with the Large Helical Device (LHD) which is now under construction at the Toki site in Japan, radiation safety issues were discussed. In the course of plasma experiments, radiations such as X-rays, induced γ-rays, and neutrons increase. From a safety point of view, these radiation exposures to the environment should be controlled to limit the annual dose to less than 50 μSv at the site boundary. In order to meet this, an area monitoring system named RMSAFE (Radiation Monitoring System Applicable to Fusion Experiments) has been developed and partly installed. This can discriminate and measure radiations including burst-like emissions due to plasma shots from natural radiations. For the present period, this system is operating to monitor the natural radiation levels before the LHD operation. It was observed that the radiation levels strongly depend on rain levels and ground state. An indoor area monitoring system has already been implemented on site, to measure radiations from NBI and ECH test shots, and it shows good monitoring ability. Also, thermoluminescence dosimetry has been applied. The importance of investigating the radiological behavior under natural conditions with continuous monitoring is shown.

  11. Radiation safety content guide for safety analysis reports

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    US Department of Energy-Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR) facilities develop Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) to permit evaluation of potential hazards to the health and safety of the public and employees and potential hazards to government property and the environment. The SAR is the primary vehicle by which the Operating Contractor provides information to demonstrate that the facility can be operated safely. The Savannah River Operations Office independently reviews SARs to determine their technical integrity and completeness. In order to make the review process most efficient, SARs must be prepared in a consistent manner and contain all required information. This document provides guidance on the content of the radiation safety information to be included in SARs. It is not within the scope of this guide to address the entire Safety Analysis Report. 53 refs.

  12. Lunar lava tube radiation safety analysis.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Giovanni; Wilson, J W; Clowdsley, M S; Nealy, J E; Humes, D H; Clem, J M

    2002-12-01

    For many years it has been suggested that lava tubes on the Moon could provide an ideal location for a manned lunar base, by providing shelter from various natural hazards, such as cosmic radiation, meteorites, micrometeoroids, and impact crater ejecta, and also providing a natural environmental control, with a nearly constant temperature, unlike that of the lunar surface showing extreme variation in its diurnal cycle. An analysis of radiation safety issues on lunar lava tubes has been performed by considering radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) interacting with the lunar surface, modeled as a regolith layer and rock. The chemical composition has been chosen as typical of the lunar regions where the largest number of lava tube candidates are found. Particles have been transported all through the regolith and the rock, and received particles flux and doses have been calculated. The radiation safety of lunar lava tubes environments has been demonstrated. PMID:12793728

  13. Lunar lava tube radiation safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Angelis, Giovanni; Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Clem, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    For many years it has been suggested that lava tubes on the Moon could provide an ideal location for a manned lunar base, by providing shelter from various natural hazards, such as cosmic radiation, meteorites, micrometeoroids, and impact crater ejecta, and also providing a natural environmental control, with a nearly constant temperature, unlike that of the lunar surface showing extreme variation in its diurnal cycle. An analysis of radiation safety issues on lunar lava tubes has been performed by considering radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) interacting with the lunar surface, modeled as a regolith layer and rock. The chemical composition has been chosen as typical of the lunar regions where the largest number of lava tube candidates are found. Particles have been transported all through the regolith and the rock, and received particles flux and doses have been calculated. The radiation safety of lunar lava tubes environments has been demonstrated.

  14. Radiation Safety Systems for Accelerator Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, James C

    2001-10-17

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) of an accelerator facility is used to protect people from prompt radiation hazards associated with accelerator operation. The RSS is a fully interlocked, engineered system with a combination of passive and active elements that are reliable, redundant, and fail-safe. The RSS consists of the Access Control System (ACS) and the Radiation Containment System (RCS). The ACS is to keep people away from the dangerous radiation inside the shielding enclosure. The RCS limits and contains the beam/radiation conditions to protect people from the prompt radiation hazards outside the shielding enclosure in both normal and abnormal operations. The complexity of a RSS depends on the accelerator and its operation, as well as associated hazard conditions. The approaches of RSS among different facilities can be different. This report gives a review of the RSS for accelerator facilities.

  15. Radiation Safety Systems for Accelerator Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Liu; Jeffrey S. Bull; John Drozdoff; Robert May; Vaclav Vylet

    2001-10-01

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) of an accelerator facility is used to protect people from prompt radiation hazards associated with accelerator operation. The RSS is a fully interlocked, engineered system with a combination of passive and active elements that are reliable, redundant, and fail-safe. The RSS consists of the Access Control System (ACS) and the Radiation Containment System (RCS). The ACS is to keep people away from the dangerous radiation inside the shielding enclosure. The RCS limits and contains the beam/radiation conditions to protect people from the prompt radiation hazards outside the shielding enclosure in both normal and abnormal operations. The complexity of a RSS depends on the accelerator and its operation, as well as associated hazard conditions. The approaches of RSS among different facilities can be different. This report gives a review of the RSS for accelerator facilities.

  16. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 5: Safety criteria for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    Methodology is described for determining potential safety hazards involved in the construction and operation of photovoltaic power systems and provides guidelines for the implementation of safety considerations in the specification, design and operation of photovoltaic systems. Safety verification procedures for use in solar photovoltaic systems are established.

  17. Radiation Safety System for Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J

    2004-03-12

    Radiation Safety System (RSS) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory is summarized and reviewed. The RSS, which is designed to protect people from prompt radiation hazards from accelerator operation, consists of the Access Control System (ACS) and the Beam Containment System (BCS). The ACS prevents people from being exposed to the lethal radiation level inside the shielding housing (called a PPS area at SLAC). The ACS for a PPS area consists of the shielding housing, beam inhibiting devices, and a standard entry module at each entrance. The BCS protects people from the prompt radiation hazards outside a PPS area under both normal and abnormal beam loss situations. The BCS consists of the active power (current/energy) limiting devices, beam stoppers, shielding, and an active radiation monitor system. The policies and practices in setting up the RSS at SLAC are illustrated.

  18. Radiation safety in fluoroscopy for neuraxial injections.

    PubMed

    Fink, Gerry E

    2009-08-01

    Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs) perform epidural steroid injections for chronic back and extremity pain. Placing epidural needles using fluoroscopy and confirming the needle placement by epidurogram has been suggested as a means to increase the efficacy of epidural injections while decreasing complications. Because of the risk of radiation injury to patients and staff when using fluoroscopy, the purpose of this article is to review the concepts of fluoroscopy and radiation safety for CRNAs. Following a literature search using keywords such as fluoroscopy, radiation injury, and radiation safety, relevant articles were identified. In addition, the reference lists of these articles were reviewed to identify other pertinent sources regarding this topic. The risks of stochastic and deterministic effects from radiation exposure necessitate the need for practitioners who are knowledgeable in equipment, patient, and procedure related factors that influence radiation exposure. Practitioner conduct, using the as-low-as-reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle, results in choices regarding these factors that minimize the time and intensity of radiation exposure to patients, anesthesia providers, and staff. PMID:19731844

  19. 32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... above the vehicle manufacturer's designated height (49 CFR 570.8). (b) The criteria listed in paragraph... starburst or spider webbing effect greater than 3 inches by 3 inches. No opaque or solid material...

  20. 32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... above the vehicle manufacturer's designated height (49 CFR 570.8). (b) The criteria listed in paragraph... starburst or spider webbing effect greater than 3 inches by 3 inches. No opaque or solid material...

  1. 32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... above the vehicle manufacturer's designated height (49 CFR 570.8). (b) The criteria listed in paragraph... starburst or spider webbing effect greater than 3 inches by 3 inches. No opaque or solid material...

  2. 32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... above the vehicle manufacturer's designated height (49 CFR 570.8). (b) The criteria listed in paragraph... starburst or spider webbing effect greater than 3 inches by 3 inches. No opaque or solid material...

  3. 32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... above the vehicle manufacturer's designated height (49 CFR 570.8). (b) The criteria listed in paragraph... starburst or spider webbing effect greater than 3 inches by 3 inches. No opaque or solid material...

  4. Developing Criteria and Judgment of Safety for Crossing Streets with Gaps in Traffic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauerburger, Dona

    1999-01-01

    Discusses using the Timing Method for Assessing the Detection of Vehicles (TMAD) to help individuals with visual impairments develop the ability to judge their safety for crossing streets with no traffic control. Functional criteria for assessing risks are discussed. (CR)

  5. Structural deterministic safety factors selection criteria and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1992-01-01

    Though current deterministic safety factors are arbitrarily and unaccountably specified, its ratio is rooted in resistive and applied stress probability distributions. This study approached the deterministic method from a probabilistic concept leading to a more systematic and coherent philosophy and criterion for designing more uniform and reliable high-performance structures. The deterministic method was noted to consist of three safety factors: a standard deviation multiplier of the applied stress distribution; a K-factor for the A- or B-basis material ultimate stress; and the conventional safety factor to ensure that the applied stress does not operate in the inelastic zone of metallic materials. The conventional safety factor is specifically defined as the ratio of ultimate-to-yield stresses. A deterministic safety index of the combined safety factors was derived from which the corresponding reliability proved the deterministic method is not reliability sensitive. The bases for selecting safety factors are presented and verification requirements are discussed. The suggested deterministic approach is applicable to all NASA, DOD, and commercial high-performance structures under static stresses.

  6. HRIBF Tandem Accelerator Radiation Safety System Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, J.L.; Juras, R.C.

    1998-11-04

    The HRIBF Tandem Accelerator Radiation Safety System was designed to permit experimenters and operations staff controlled access to beam transport and experiment areas with accelerated beam present. Neutron-Gamma detectors are mounted in eaeh area at points of maximum dose rate and the resulting signals are integrated by redundan~ circuitry; beam is stopped if dose rate or integrated dose exceeds established limits. This paper will describe the system, in use for several vears at the HRIBF, and discuss changes recently made to modernize the system and to make the system compliant with DOE Order 5480.25 and related ORNL updated safety rules.

  7. HRIBF Tandem Accelerator Radiation Safety System Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juras, R. C.; Blankenship, J. L.

    1999-06-01

    The HRIBF Tandem Accelerator Radiation Safety System was designed to permit experimenters and operations staff controlled access to beam transport and experiment areas with accelerated beam present. Neutron-Gamma detectors are mounted in each area at points of maximum dose rate and the resulting signals are integrated by redundant circuitry; beam is stopped if dose rate or integrated dose exceeds established limits. This paper will describe the system, in use for several years at the HRIBF, and discuss changes recently made to modernize the system and to make the system compliant with DOE Order 5480.25 and related ORNL updated safety rules.

  8. Evaluation of proposed German safety criteria for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Barsell, A.W.

    1980-05-01

    This work reviews proposed safety criteria prepared by the German Bundesministerium des Innern (BMI) for future licensing of gas-cooled high-temperature reactor (HTR) concepts in the Federal Republic of Germany. Comparison is made with US General Design Criteria (GDCs) in 10CFR50 Appendix A and with German light water reactor (LWR) criteria. Implications for the HTR design relative to the US design and safety approach are indicated. Both inherent characteristics and design features of the steam cycle, gas turbine, and process heat concepts are taken into account as well as generic design options such as a pebble bed or prismatic core.

  9. 78 FR 64030 - Monitoring Criteria and Methods To Calculate Occupational Radiation Doses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... monitoring and calculating occupational radiation doses. On December 4, 2007 (72 FR 68043), the NRC revised... COMMISSION Monitoring Criteria and Methods To Calculate Occupational Radiation Doses AGENCY: Nuclear... Criteria and Methods to Calculate Occupational Radiation Doses.'' This guide describes methods that the...

  10. Updating of Safety Criteria for Basic Diagnostic Indicators of Dam at the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L. A.; Skvortsova, A. E.

    2013-09-15

    Values of diagnostic indicators [K]-limitations placed on radial displacements and turn angles of horizontal sections of the dam - which are permitted for each upper-pool level within the range from 520 to 539 m are determined and proposed for inclusion in the Declaration of Safety. Empirical relationships used to develop safety criteria K1 and K2 are modified.

  11. Radiation detectors for occupational safety measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaase, Heinrich; Chen, Mai; Grothmann, Knut

    1995-09-01

    The effective radiant exposures for artificial and natural UV-sources are determined by temporal integration over an 8 h working day. Therefore the spectrally weighted integration of the spectral irradiance from the radiation source in the plane of the exposure is to measure. Such measaurements are made with two different detector systems: measurements of UV radiation according to the integral method should be possible according to a quasi partial filtering method using different individually filtered photodiodes. A spectroradiometer for UV radiation analysis was tested due to its application in field measurements for meteorology, medicin, and occupational safety. The optical part of this compact instrument consists of a cosentrance optic, a monochromator and detector system. A comparison with commercial instruments is described.

  12. The dragon's tail: Radiation safety in the Manhattan Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, B.C.

    1987-01-01

    The book's contents are: Introduction: radiation safety in World War II. Foundations of Manhattan Project radiation safety. Role of the Chicago Health Division. Radiation safety at Los Alamos, Trinity. From Japan to Bikini. Crossroads. Epilogue: continuity and change in radiation safety. Appendix: chronological index of radiation exposure standards. Index. The United States Department of Energy and the Energy Research and Development Administration financially supported this book which provides a historical account of radiological safety in nuclear weapons testing during World War II. The author relied on archival sources and the oral testimony of participants and eyewitnesses. He provides a bibliography with full citations.

  13. Performance Criteria and Evaluation System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-06-18

    The Performance Criteria and Evaluation System (PCES) was developed in order to make a data base of criteria accessible to radiation safety staff. The criteria included in the package are applicable to occupational radiation safety at DOE reactor and nonreactor nuclear facilities, but any data base of criteria may be created using the Criterion Data Base Utiliity (CDU). PCES assists personnel in carrying out oversight, line, and support activities.

  14. Uncertainties in the effects of burnup and their impact on criticality safety licensing criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.W.; Fisher, L.E.

    1990-07-13

    Current criteria for criticality safety for spent fuel shipping and storage casks are conservative because no credit is permitted for the effects of burnup of the fuel inside the cask. Cask designs that will transport and store large numbers of fuel assemblies (20 or more) must devote a substantial part of their payload to criticality control measures if they are to meet this criteria. The Department of Energy is developing the data necessary to support safety analyses that incorporate the effects of burnup for the next generation of spent fuel shipping casks. The efforts described here are devoted to the development of acceptance criteria that will be the basis for accepting safety analyses. Preliminary estimates of the uncertainties of the effects of burnup have been developed to provide a basis for the consideration of critically safety criteria. The criticality safety margins in a spent fuel shipping or storage cask are dominated by the portions of a fuel assembly that are in low power regions of a reactor core, and the reactor operating conditions are very different from spent fuel storage or transport cask conditions. Consequently, the experience that has been gathered during years of reactor operation does not apply directly to the prediction of criticality safety margins for spent fuel shipping or storage casks. The preliminary estimates of the uncertainties presented in this paper must be refined by both analytical and empirical studies that address both the magnitude of the uncertainties and their interdependence. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Radiation Safety System for SPIDER Neutral Beam Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandri, S.; Coniglio, A.; D'Arienzo, M.; Poggi, C.

    2011-12-01

    SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF Plasma only) and MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advanced) are the ITER neutral beam injector (NBI) testing facilities of the PRIMA (Padova Research Injector Megavolt Accelerated) Center. Both injectors accelerate negative deuterium ions with a maximum energy of 1 MeV for MITICA and 100 keV for SPIDER with a maximum beam current of 40 A for both experiments. The SPIDER facility is classified in Italy as a particle accelerator. At present, the design of the radiation safety system for the facility has been completed and the relevant reports have been presented to the Italian regulatory authorities. Before SPIDER can operate, approval must be obtained from the Italian Regulatory Authority Board (IRAB) following a detailed licensing process. In the present work, the main project information and criteria for the SPIDER injector source are reported together with the analysis of hypothetical accidental situations and safety issues considerations. Neutron and photon nuclear analysis is presented, along with special shielding solutions designed to meet Italian regulatory dose limits. The contribution of activated corrosion products (ACP) to external exposure of workers has also been assessed. Nuclear analysis indicates that the photon contribution to worker external exposure is negligible, and the neutron dose can be considered by far the main radiation protection issue. Our results confirm that the injector has no important radiological impact on the population living around the facility.

  16. Radiation Safety System for SPIDER Neutral Beam Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sandri, S.; Poggi, C.; Coniglio, A.; D'Arienzo, M.

    2011-12-13

    SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF Plasma only) and MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advanced) are the ITER neutral beam injector (NBI) testing facilities of the PRIMA (Padova Research Injector Megavolt Accelerated) Center. Both injectors accelerate negative deuterium ions with a maximum energy of 1 MeV for MITICA and 100 keV for SPIDER with a maximum beam current of 40 A for both experiments. The SPIDER facility is classified in Italy as a particle accelerator. At present, the design of the radiation safety system for the facility has been completed and the relevant reports have been presented to the Italian regulatory authorities. Before SPIDER can operate, approval must be obtained from the Italian Regulatory Authority Board (IRAB) following a detailed licensing process. In the present work, the main project information and criteria for the SPIDER injector source are reported together with the analysis of hypothetical accidental situations and safety issues considerations. Neutron and photon nuclear analysis is presented, along with special shielding solutions designed to meet Italian regulatory dose limits. The contribution of activated corrosion products (ACP) to external exposure of workers has also been assessed. Nuclear analysis indicates that the photon contribution to worker external exposure is negligible, and the neutron dose can be considered by far the main radiation protection issue. Our results confirm that the injector has no important radiological impact on the population living around the facility.

  17. Temperature rise and safety considerations for radiation force ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Bruce A.; Harris, Gerald R.

    2002-11-01

    Current models for estimating temperature increase during ultrasound exposure calculate the steady-state rise, using time-averaged acoustic output, as the worst case for safety consideration. While valid for the typically very short (microsecond) pulses used by conventional diagnostic techniques, this analysis does not necessarily correspond to a worst case scenario for the longer pulses or pulse bursts used by a new method, radiation force imaging. Radiation force imaging, employing ultrasound pulse durations up to hundreds of milliseconds, produces and detects motion in solid tissue or acoustic streaming in fluids via a high intensity beam. Models that calculate the transient temperature rise from these pulses are developed for both the bone at focus and soft tissue cases. Based on accepted time-temperature dose criteria, it is shown that for pulse lengths and intensities utilized by this technique, temperature may increase to levels that raise safety concerns for bone at the focus of the ultrasound beam. Also, the impact on this modality of the current U.S. Food and Drug Administration output limits for diagnostic ultrasound devices is discussed.

  18. Safety criteria for flying E-sail through solar eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janhunen, Pekka; Toivanen, Petri

    2015-09-01

    The electric solar wind sail (E-sail) propellantless propulsion device uses long, charged metallic tethers to tap momentum from the solar wind to produce spacecraft propulsion. If flying through planetary or moon eclipse, the long E-sail tethers can undergo significant thermal contraction and expansion. Rapid shortening of the tether increases its tension due to inertia of the tether and a Remote Unit that is located on the tether tip (a Remote Unit is part of typical E-sail designs). We analyse by numerical simulation the conditions under which eclipse induced stresses are safe for E-sail tethers. We calculate the closest safe approach distances for Earth, Moon, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Ceres and an exemplary 300 km main belt asteroid Interamnia for circular, parabolic and hyperbolic orbits. We find that any kind of eclipsing is safe beyond approximately 2.5 au distance, but for terrestrial planets safety depends on the parameters of the orbit. For example, for Mars the safe distance with 20 km E-sail tether lies between Phobos and Deimos orbits.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-BASED AND TECHNOLOGY-INDEPENDENT SAFETY CRITERIA FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    William E. Kastenberg; Edward Blandford; Lance Kim

    2009-03-31

    This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public.

  20. Addressing a radiation safety sentinel event alert: one state's experience.

    PubMed

    Temme, James B; Lane, Thomas; Rutar, Frank; McGowan, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Joint Commission issued a Sentinel Event Alert in August 2011 to address the radiation risks related to diagnostic medical imaging. The University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) and Nebraska Coalition for Patient Safety (NCPS) sent a survey to Nebraska hospital radiology departments in May 2012 to solicit responses regarding radiation safety management practices. Survey results demonstrate that Nebraska hospitals perform well in many radiation safety efforts, but lack in others, as well as the need for additional research to track or compare progress. Nebraska's experience can serve as a model for other states to perform similar radiation safety management research. PMID:23270117

  1. Evaluation of a Radiation Worker Safety Training Program at a nuclear facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, J.E.

    1993-05-01

    A radiation safety course was evaluated using the Kirkpatrick criteria of training evaluation as a guide. Thirty-nine employees were given the two-day training course and were compared with 15 employees in a control group who did not receive the training. Cognitive results show an immediate gain in knowledge, and substantial retention at 6 months. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of applications to current radiation safety training was well as follow-on training research and development requirements.

  2. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 236 - Safety Assurance Criteria and Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety Assurance Criteria and Processes C Appendix C to Part 236 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  3. 14 CFR 414.19 - Technical criteria for reviewing a safety approval application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Technical criteria for reviewing a safety approval application. 414.19 Section 414.19 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL... customized by the manufacturer that intends to produce the system, system component, or part. The...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 236 - Safety Assurance Criteria and Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety Assurance Criteria and Processes C Appendix C to Part 236 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  5. NCRP Program Area Committee 2: Operational Radiation Safety.

    PubMed

    Goldin, Eric M; Pryor, Kathryn H

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee 2 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation safety in occupational settings in a variety of industries and activities. The Committee completed three reports in recent years covering recommendations for the development and administration of radiation safety programs for smaller educational institutions, requirements for self-assessment programs that improve radiation safety and identify and correct deficiencies, and a comprehensive process for effective investigation of radiological incidents. Ongoing work includes a report on sealed radioactive source controls and oversight of a report on radioactive nanomaterials focusing on gaps within current radiation safety programs. Future efforts may deal with operational radiation safety programs in fields such as the safe use of handheld and portable x-ray fluorescence analyzers, occupational airborne radioactive contamination, unsealed radioactive sources, or industrial accelerators. PMID:26717157

  6. Provisional standards of radiation safety during flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Radiation effects during space flights are discussed in the context of the sources and dangers of such radiation and the radiobiological prerequisites for establishing safe levels of radiation dosage. Standard safe levels of radiation during space flight are established.

  7. 12 CFR 747.3003 - Review of order reclassifying a corporate credit union on safety and soundness criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... credit union on safety and soundness criteria. 747.3003 Section 747.3003 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS, ADJUDICATIVE... corporate credit union on safety and soundness criteria. (a) Notice of proposed reclassification based...

  8. 12 CFR 747.3003 - Review of order reclassifying a corporate credit union on safety and soundness criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... credit union on safety and soundness criteria. 747.3003 Section 747.3003 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS, ADJUDICATIVE... corporate credit union on safety and soundness criteria. (a) Notice of proposed reclassification based...

  9. Training course for radiation safety technicians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasuk, S. R.; Moe, H. J.

    1967-01-01

    Course of instruction includes sections on basic information, natural radioactivity, properties of alpha, beta, gamma, X rays, and neutrons, concepts of radiation units and dose determinations, shielding, biological effects, background radiation, radiation protection standards, and internal dose calculation.

  10. Radiation safety considerations in proton aperture disposal.

    PubMed

    Walker, Priscilla K; Edwards, Andrew C; Das, Indra J; Johnstone, Peter A S

    2014-04-01

    Beam shaping in scattered and uniform scanned proton beam therapy (PBT) is made commonly by brass apertures. Due to proton interactions, these devices become radioactive and could pose safety issues and radiation hazards. Nearly 2,000 patient-specific devices per year are used at Indiana University Cyclotron Operations (IUCO) and IU Health Proton Therapy Center (IUHPTC); these devices require proper guidelines for disposal. IUCO practice has been to store these apertures for at least 4 mo to allow for safe transfer to recycling contractors. The devices require decay in two staged secure locations, including at least 4 mo in a separate building, at which point half are ready for disposal. At 6 mo, 20-30% of apertures require further storage. This process requires significant space and manpower and should be considered in the design process for new clinical facilities. More widespread adoption of pencil beam or spot scanning nozzles may obviate this issue, as apertures then will no longer be necessary. PMID:24562073

  11. Radiation safety for health care workers in the bronchoscopy suite.

    PubMed

    Jain, P; Fleming, P; Mehta, A C

    1999-03-01

    Increased use of fluoroscopy during flexible bronchoscopy has raised concerns about radiation safety of health care workers in the bronchoscopy suite. We review the potential health risks associated with occupational radiation exposure, the monitoring devices available, and discuss the measures to reduce radiation exposure during flexible bronchoscopy. PMID:10205715

  12. Institutional Radiation Safety Committee--Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1982-09-13

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is amending its regulations regarding hospitals licensed to use radioactive byproduct material for human applications. Currently, such a license requires that the hospital have a Medical Isotopes Committee to review clinical aspects of the use of radioactive materials within the hospital. The amendment requires instead a Radiation Safety Committee with a simplified membership that will focus on the radiation safety of workers and the general public. The rule change acknowledges the Food and Drug Administration's role in regulating the safety and effectiveness of radioactive drugs with respect to the patient. The membership of the new Radiation Safety Committee will include the hospital management and the nursing staff in decisions affecting radiation safety at the hospital and will be easier for smaller hospitals to recruit. PMID:10259789

  13. Criticality safety criteria for license review of low-level waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, C.M.; Odegaarden, R.H.; Parks, C.V.; Fox, P.B.

    1995-03-01

    The handling and burial of specified quantities of special nuclear material (SNM) at low-level-waste (LLW) facilities require a license from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). With assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) staff, the NRC Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Low-Level-Waste and Decommissioning Projects Branch, has developed technical specifications for the nuclear criticality safety of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu in LLW facilities. The objective of the development of these technical specifications was to establish a set of review criteria that are rigorously defensible that can be applied uniformly to all license applications, and that conservatively ensures that buried SNM will not pose a criticality safety concern.

  14. Comparison of radiation safety and nuclear explosive safety disciplines

    SciTech Connect

    Winstanley, J. L.

    1998-10-10

    In August 1945, U.S. Navy Captain William Parsons served as the weaponeer aboard the Enola Gay for the mission to Hiroshima (Shelton 1988). In view of the fact that four B-29s had crashed and burned on takeoff from Tinian the night before, Captain Parsons made the decision to arm the gun-type weapon after takeoff for safety reasons (15 kilotons of TNT equivalent). Although he had no control over the success of the takeoff, he could prevent the possibility of a nuclear detonation on Tinian by controlling what we now call the nuclear explosive. As head of the Ordnance Division at Los Alamos and a former gunnery officer, Captain Parsons clearly understood the role of safety in his work. The advent of the pre-assembled implosion weapon where the high explosive and nuclear materials are always in an intimate configuration meant that nuclear explosive safety became a reality at a certain point in development and production not just at the time of delivery by the military. This is the only industry where nuclear materials are intentionally put in contact with high explosives. The agency of the U.S. Government responsible for development and production of U.S. nuclear weapons is the Department of Energy (DOE) (and its predecessor agencies). This paper will be limited to nuclear explosive safety as it is currently practiced within the DOE nuclear weapons

  15. The maternal early warning criteria: a proposal from the national partnership for maternal safety.

    PubMed

    Mhyre, Jill M; D'Oria, Robyn; Hameed, Afshan B; Lappen, Justin R; Holley, Sharon L; Hunter, Stephen K; Jones, Robin L; King, Jeffrey C; D'Alton, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    Case reviews of maternal death have revealed a concerning pattern of delay in recognition of hemorrhage, hypertensive crisis, sepsis, venous thromboembolism, and heart failure. Early-warning systems have been proposed to facilitate timely recognition, diagnosis, and treatment for women developing critical illness. A multidisciplinary working group convened by the National Partnership for Maternal Safety used a consensus-based approach to define The Maternal Early Warning Criteria, a list of abnormal parameters that indicate the need for urgent bedside evaluation by a clinician with the capacity to escalate care as necessary in order to pursue diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This commentary reviews the evidence supporting the use of early-warning systems, describes The Maternal Early Warning Criteria, and provides considerations for local implementation. PMID:25203897

  16. The maternal early warning criteria: a proposal from the national partnership for maternal safety.

    PubMed

    Mhyre, Jill M; DʼOria, Robyn; Hameed, Afshan B; Lappen, Justin R; Holley, Sharon L; Hunter, Stephen K; Jones, Robin L; King, Jeffrey C; DʼAlton, Mary E

    2014-10-01

    Case reviews of maternal death have revealed a concerning pattern of delay in recognition of hemorrhage, hypertensive crisis, sepsis, venous thromboembolism, and heart failure. Early-warning systems have been proposed to facilitate timely recognition, diagnosis, and treatment for women developing critical illness. A multidisciplinary working group convened by the National Partnership for Maternal Safety used a consensus-based approach to define The Maternal Early Warning Criteria, a list of abnormal parameters that indicate the need for urgent bedside evaluation by a clinician with the capacity to escalate care as necessary in order to pursue diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This commentary reviews the evidence supporting the use of early-warning systems and describes The Maternal Early Warning Criteria, along with considerations for local implementation. PMID:25198266

  17. Radiation safety and nuclear medicine policies and procedures.

    PubMed

    Berman, C G

    1999-07-01

    There is a growing concern over possible adverse effects from medical applications of ionizing radiation. Hospital personnel must be educated in procedures to minimize exposure to themselves and their patients. Basic radiation safety procedures to protect personnel and patients are discussed. Examples of the nuclear medicine policies and procedures used for lymphatic mapping are provided. PMID:10448699

  18. RADIATION ACCESS ZONE AND VENTILATION CONFINEMENT ZONE CRITERIA FOR THE MGR SURFACE FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    D. A. Padula

    2000-09-13

    The objectives of this technical report are to: (1) Establish the criteria for Radiation Access Zone (RAZ) designation. (2) Establish the criteria for the Ventilation Confinement Zone (VCZ) designation. The scope will be to formulate the RAZ and VCZ zoning designation for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface facilities and to apply the zoning designations to the current Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), and Carrier Preparation Building (CPB) configurations.

  19. Safety review of the design, operation, and radiation sections of the General Electric Morris Operation Consolidated Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, J.P.

    1981-01-30

    A safety review was made of Sections 4 through 9 of the Consolidated Safety Analysis Report (CSAR) for the GE Morris Operation spent-fuel storage facility. The sections reviewed include Design Criteria and Compliance, Facility Design and Description, Radiation Protection, Accident Analysis, and Conduct of Operations. The safety review was performed in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 72, ''Licensing Requirements for the Storage of Spent Fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation'' and contains independent estimations of source terms and dose-commitments from postulated accidents in the storage facility and a structural analysis of the Morris Operation cranes as an appendix. The review confirms that the features of the facility as described in Sections 4 through 9 of the CSAR fulfilled the safety requirements of 10 CFR 72, and it is concluded that spent-fuel handling and storage at the Morris Operation do not present significant risks to public health and safety. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. 12 CFR 747.2003 - Review of order reclassifying a credit union on safety and soundness criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review of order reclassifying a credit union on safety and soundness criteria. 747.2003 Section 747.2003 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION... Corrective Action § 747.2003 Review of order reclassifying a credit union on safety and soundness...

  1. 12 CFR 747.2003 - Review of order reclassifying a credit union on safety and soundness criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review of order reclassifying a credit union on safety and soundness criteria. 747.2003 Section 747.2003 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION... Corrective Action § 747.2003 Review of order reclassifying a credit union on safety and soundness...

  2. 12 CFR 747.2003 - Review of order reclassifying a credit union on safety and soundness criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review of order reclassifying a credit union on safety and soundness criteria. 747.2003 Section 747.2003 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION... Corrective Action § 747.2003 Review of order reclassifying a credit union on safety and soundness...

  3. Radiation safety: what can happen in an accident.

    PubMed

    Scully, C; de Almeida, O P

    1992-04-11

    Radiation hazards in dental practice have long been recognized, and the dangers from ionising radiation during dental radiography are discussed elsewhere. Continuing legislation will undoubtedly help reduce the risk of over-exposure and accidents. Nevertheless, it is of some concern that radiation safety is still ignored by some: for example, one recent survey in the UK showed that not all radiography sets conformed to modern safety standards. However, the profession also has reason to be concerned about more public radiation hazards that may affect them, and their families and others, and may, without denying the importance of dental radiation protection, have far greater effects on health. Well-known examples of domestic radon exposure occurred in the UK, particularly in the Lake District and the South West, and the nuclear reactor accidents--notably at Chernobyl in 1986. PMID:1576019

  4. [RADIATION SAFETY DURING REMEDIATION OF THE "SEVRAO" FACILITIES].

    PubMed

    Shandala, N K; Kiselev, S M; Titov, A V; Simakov, A V; Seregin, V A; Kryuchkov, V P; Bogdanova, L S; Grachev, M I

    2015-01-01

    Within a framework of national program on elimination of nuclear legacy, State Corporation "Rosatom" is working on rehabilitation at the temporary waste storage facility at Andreeva Bay (Northwest Center for radioactive waste "SEVRAO"--the branch of "RosRAO"), located in the North-West of Russia. In the article there is presented an analysis of the current state of supervision for radiation safety of personnel and population in the context of readiness of the regulator to the implementation of an effective oversight of radiation safety in the process of radiation-hazardous work. Presented in the article results of radiation-hygienic monitoring are an informative indicator of the effectiveness of realized rehabilitation measures and characterize the radiation environment in the surveillance zone as a normal, without the tendency to its deterioration. PMID:26625607

  5. Preliminary safety criteria for organic watch list tanks at the Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, A.B.; Stewart, J.L.; Turner, O.A.; Plys, M.G.; Malinovic, B.; Grigsby, J.M.; Camaioni, D.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Samuels, W.O.; Toth, J.J.

    1995-11-01

    Condensed-phase, rapid reactions of organic salts with nitrates/nitrites in Hanford High Level Radioactive Waste single-shell tanks could lead to structural failure of the tanks resulting in significant releases of radionuclides and toxic materials. This report establishes appropriate preliminary safety criteria to ensure that tank wastes will be maintained safe. These criteria show that if actual dry wastes contain less than 1.2 MJ/kg of reactants reaction energy or less 4.5 wt % of total organic carbon, then the waste will be safe and will not propagate if ignited. Waste moisture helps to retard reactions; when waste moisture exceeds 20 wt %, rapid reactions are prevented, regardless of organic carbon concentrations. Aging and degradation of waste materials has been considered to predict the types and amounts to organic compounds present in the waste. Using measurements of 3 waste phases (liquid, salt cake, and sludge) obtained from tank waste samples analyzed in the laboratory, analysis of variance (ANOVA) models were used to estimate waste states for unmeasured tanks. The preliminary safety criteria are based upon calorimetry and propagation testing of likely organic compounds which represent actual tank wastes. These included sodium salts of citrate, formate, acetate and hydroxyethylethylenediaminetricetate (HEDTA). Hot cell tests of actual tank wastes are planned for the future to confirm propagation tests performed in the laboratory. The effects of draining liquids from the tanks which would remove liquids and moisture were considered because reactive waste which is too dry may propagate. Evaporation effects which could remove moisture from the tanks were also calculated. The various ways that the waste could be heated or ignited by equipment failures or tank operations activities were considered and appropriate monitoring and controls were recommended.

  6. [Depleted uranium: radiation and ecological safety aspects].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Afanas'ev, R V; Berezin, G I; Zuev, V G

    2003-01-01

    The authors have analyzed the ecological, sanitary-and-hygienic and medicobiologic aspects of using the impoverished uranium in armaments and military equipment. The influence of impoverished uranium on human body (600 cases) was studied using medicobiologic investigation. It was shown that the particles of aerosol of mixed uranium oxide cause the radiation and chemical damage of kidneys, lungs and other internals. Uranium's alpha-radiation is very effective in induction of biologic effects during internal irradiation. Taking into account that bone tissue is the critical organ for uranium isotopes the medullar tissue is exposed to alpha-radiation. In the armed conflicts of the last decade wide use of armour-piercing means with elements consisted of impoverished uranium has led to the appearance of new technogenic risk factor for the environment and the man. PMID:12825370

  7. Radiation safety at accelerator facilities NCRP activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kase, Kenneth R.

    1997-02-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has issued 13 reports, dating back to 1949, giving guidance and recommendations for radiation protection at accelerator facilities. There are six current reports on the topics of neutron radiation; facility and shielding design; alarms and access control systems; and equipment design, performance, and use. Scientific Committee 46 (SC 46) is currently overseeing the development of two reports that will provide up-to-date guidance for the design of medical accelerator facilities and shielding. SC 46 has also proposed that a report be written to provide guidance for the design and shielding of industrial accelerator and large irradiator facilities. This paper describes the status and contents of these reports.

  8. Radiation safety training for accelerator facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Trinoskey, P.A.

    1997-02-01

    In November 1992, a working group was formed within the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) accelerator facilities to develop a generic safety training program to meet the basic requirements for individuals working in accelerator facilities. This training, by necessity, includes sections for inserting facility-specific information. The resulting course materials were issued by DOE as a handbook under its technical standards in 1996. Because experimenters may be at a facility for only a short time and often at odd times during the day, the working group felt that computer-based training would be useful. To that end, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) together have developed a computer-based safety training program for accelerator facilities. This interactive course not only enables trainees to receive facility- specific information, but time the training to their schedule and tailor it to their level of expertise.

  9. Criteria for development of a database for safety evaluation of fragrance ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ford, R A; Domeyer, B; Easterday, O; Maier, K; Middleton, J

    2000-04-01

    Over 2000 different ingredients are used in the manufacture of fragrances. The majority of these ingredients have been used for many decades. Despite this long history of use, all of these ingredients need continued monitoring to ensure that each ingredient meets acceptable safety standards. As with other large databases of existing chemicals, fulfilling this need requires an organized approach to identify the most important potential hazards. One such approach, specifically considering the dermal route of exposure as the most relevant one for fragrance ingredients, has been developed. This approach provides a rational selection of materials for review and gives guidance for determining the test data that would normally be considered necessary for the elevation of safety under intended conditions of use. As a first step, the process takes into account the following criteria: quantity of use, consumer exposure, and chemical structure. These are then used for the orderly selection of materials for review with higher quantity, higher exposure, and the presence of defined structural alerts all contributing to a higher priority for review. These structural alerts along with certain exposure and volume limits are then used to develop guidelines for determining the quality and quantity of data considered necessary to support an adequate safety evaluation of the chosen materials, taking into account existing data on the substance itself as well as on closely related analogs. This approach can be considered an alternative to testing; therefore, it is designed to be conservative but not so much so as to require excessive effort when not justified. PMID:10854123

  10. Computer-based and web-based radiation safety training

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, C., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    The traditional approach to delivering radiation safety training has been to provide a stand-up lecture of the topic, with the possible aid of video, and to repeat the same material periodically. New approaches to meeting training requirements are needed to address the advent of flexible work hours and telecommuting, and to better accommodate individuals learning at their own pace. Computer- based and web-based radiation safety training can provide this alternative. Computer-based and web- based training is an interactive form of learning that the student controls, resulting in enhanced and focused learning at a time most often chosen by the student.

  11. A Criteria Standard for Conflict Resolution: A Vision for Guaranteeing the Safety of Self-Separation in NextGen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar; Butler, Ricky; Narkawicz, Anthony; Maddalon, Jeffrey; Hagen, George

    2010-01-01

    Distributed approaches for conflict resolution rely on analyzing the behavior of each aircraft to ensure that system-wide safety properties are maintained. This paper presents the criteria method, which increases the quality and efficiency of a safety assurance analysis for distributed air traffic concepts. The criteria standard is shown to provide two key safety properties: safe separation when only one aircraft maneuvers and safe separation when both aircraft maneuver at the same time. This approach is complemented with strong guarantees of correct operation through formal verification. To show that an algorithm is correct, i.e., that it always meets its specified safety property, one must only show that the algorithm satisfies the criteria. Once this is done, then the algorithm inherits the safety properties of the criteria. An important consequence of this approach is that there is no requirement that both aircraft execute the same conflict resolution algorithm. Therefore, the criteria approach allows different avionics manufacturers or even different airlines to use different algorithms, each optimized according to their own proprietary concerns.

  12. The controversy over radiation safety. A historical overview.

    PubMed

    Walker, J S

    1989-08-01

    The hazards of ionizing radiation have aroused concern since a short time after the discovery of x-rays and natural radioactivity in the 1890s. Misuse of x-rays and radium prompted efforts to encourage radiation safety and to set limits on exposure, culminating in the first recommended "tolerance doses" in 1934. After World War II, the problems of radiation protection became more complex because of the growing number of people subjected to radiation injury and the creation of radioactive elements that had never existed before the achievement of atomic fission. Judging the hazards of radiation became a matter of spirited controversy. Major public debates over the dangers of radioactive fallout from atmospheric bomb testing in the 1950s and early 1960s and the risks of nuclear power generation in later periods focused attention on the uncertainties about the consequences of exposure to low-level radiation and the difficulties of resolving them. PMID:2664237

  13. Radiation safety at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R.L.

    1997-05-06

    This is a report on the Radiation Safety Program at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). This Program covers a number of activities that support high-level waste solidification, stabilization of facilities, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the Project. The conduct of the Program provides confidence that all occupational radiation exposures received during operational tasks at the Project are within limits, standards, and program requirements, and are as low as reasonably achievable.

  14. Space Weather Nowcasting of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Wilson, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Solomon, Stan C.; Wiltberger, J.; Kunches, Joseph; Kress, Brian T.; Murray, John J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing concern for the health and safety of commercial aircrew and passengers due to their exposure to ionizing radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET), particularly at high latitudes. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection (ICRP), the EPA, and the FAA consider the crews of commercial aircraft as radiation workers. During solar energetic particle (SEP) events, radiation exposure can exceed annual limits, and the number of serious health effects is expected to be quite high if precautions are not taken. There is a need for a capability to monitor the real-time, global background radiations levels, from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), at commercial airline altitudes and to provide analytical input for airline operations decisions for altering flight paths and altitudes for the mitigation and reduction of radiation exposure levels during a SEP event. The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model is new initiative to provide a global, real-time radiation dosimetry package for archiving and assessing the biologically harmful radiation exposure levels at commercial airline altitudes. The NAIRAS model brings to bear the best available suite of Sun-Earth observations and models for simulating the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment. Observations are utilized from ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the METO analysis), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the GCR and SEP energy flux distributions for transport and dosimetry simulations. Dose rates are calculated using the parametric AIR (Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation) model and the physics-based HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) code. Empirical models of the near-Earth radiation environment (GCR/SEP energy flux distributions and geomagnetic cut-off rigidity) are benchmarked

  15. A Radiation Safety Analysis for Lunar Lava Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeAngelis, G.; Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Clem, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work is an assessment of the lunar lava tubes physical characteristics and an evaluation of the their actual safety features from the point of view of the ionizing radiation environment as potential habitats for future lunar exploration crews. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. A new standard for core training in radiation safety

    SciTech Connect

    Trinoskey, P.A.

    1997-02-01

    A new American National Standard for radiation worker training was recently developed. The standard emphasizes performance-based training and establishing a training program rather than simply prescribing objectives. The standard also addresses basic criteria, including instructor qualifications. The standard is based on input from a wide array of regulatory agencies, universities, national laboratories, and nuclear power entities. This paper presents an overview of the new standard and the philosophy behind it. The target audience includes radiation workers, management and supervisory personnel, contractors, students, emergency personnel, and visitors.

  17. Corporate Functional Management Evaluation of the LLNL Radiation Safety Organization

    SciTech Connect

    Sygitowicz, L S

    2008-03-20

    A Corporate Assess, Improve, and Modernize review was conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to evaluate the LLNL Radiation Safety Program and recommend actions to address the conditions identified in the Internal Assessment conducted July 23-25, 2007. This review confirms the findings of the Internal Assessment of the Institutional Radiation Safety Program (RSP) including the noted deficiencies and vulnerabilities to be valid. The actions recommended are a result of interviews with about 35 individuals representing senior management through the technician level. The deficiencies identified in the LLNL Internal Assessment of the Institutional Radiation Safety Program were discussed with Radiation Safety personnel team leads, customers of Radiation Safety Program, DOE Livermore site office, and senior ES&H management. There are significant issues with the RSP. LLNL RSP is not an integrated, cohesive, consistently implemented program with a single authority that has the clear roll and responsibility and authority to assure radiological operations at LLNL are conducted in a safe and compliant manner. There is no institutional commitment to address the deficiencies that are identified in the internal assessment. Some of these deficiencies have been previously identified and corrective actions have not been taken or are ineffective in addressing the issues. Serious funding and staffing issues have prevented addressing previously identified issues in the Radiation Calibration Laboratory, Internal Dosimetry, Bioassay Laboratory, and the Whole Body Counter. There is a lack of technical basis documentation for the Radiation Calibration Laboratory and an inadequate QA plan that does not specify standards of work. The Radiation Safety Program lack rigor and consistency across all supported programs. The implementation of DOE Standard 1098-99 Radiological Control can be used as a tool to establish this consistency across LLNL. The establishment of a site

  18. A management system integrating radiation protection and safety supporting safety culture in the hospital.

    PubMed

    Almén, A; Lundh, C

    2015-04-01

    Quality assurance has been identified as an important part of radiation protection and safety for a considerable time period. A rational expansion and improvement of quality assurance is to integrate radiation protection and safety in a management system. The aim of this study was to explore factors influencing the implementing strategy when introducing a management system including radiation protection and safety in hospitals and to outline benefits of such a system. The main experience from developing a management system is that it is possible to create a vast number of common policies and routines for the whole hospital, resulting in a cost-efficient system. One of the key benefits is the involvement of management at all levels, including the hospital director. Furthermore, a transparent system will involve staff throughout the organisation as well. A management system supports a common view on what should be done, who should do it and how the activities are reviewed. An integrated management system for radiation protection and safety includes key elements supporting a safety culture. PMID:25429027

  19. Improved Performance of Energy Window Ratio Criteria Obtained Using Multiple Windows at Radiation Portal Monitoring Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Weier, Dennis R.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Ely, James H.; Bates, Derrick J.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2006-06-07

    Radiation portal monitors are being used to detect radioactive target materials in vehicles transporting cargo. As vehicles pass through the portal monitors, they generate count profiles over time that can be compared to the average panel background counts obtained just prior to the time the vehicle entered the area of the monitors. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in support of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and U.S. Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), has accumulated considerable data regarding such background radiation and vehicle profiles from portal installations. Energy window criteria have been shown to increase sensitivity to certain types of target radioactive sources while also controlling to a manageable level the rate of false or nuisance alarms. First generation equipment had only two-window capability, and while energy windowing for such systems was shown to be useful for detecting certain types of sources, it was subsequently found that improved performance could be obtained with more windows. Second generation equipment instead has more windows and can thus support additional energy window criteria which can be shown to be sensitive to a wider set of target sources. Detection likelihoods are generated for various sources and energy window criteria, as well as for gross count decision criteria, based on computer simulated injections of sources into archived vehicle profiles. (PIET-43741-TM-534)

  20. Radiation Safety of Sealed Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, Kathryn H.

    2015-01-29

    Sealed radioactive sources are used in a wide variety of occupational settings and under differing regulatory/licensing structures. The definition of a sealed radioactive source varies between US regulatory authorities and standard-setting organizations. Potential problems with sealed sources cover a range of risks and impacts. The loss of control of high activity sealed sources can result in very high or even fatal doses to members of the public who come in contact with them. Sources that are not adequately sealed, and that fail, can cause spread of contamination and potential intake of radioactive material. There is also the possibility that sealed sources may be (or threatened to be) used for terrorist purposes and disruptive opportunities. Until fairly recently, generally-licensed sealed sources and devices received little, if any, regulatory oversight, and were often forgotten, lost or unaccounted for. Nonetheless, generally licensed devices can contain fairly significant quantities of radioactive material and there is some potential for exposure if a device is treated in a way that it was never designed. Industrial radiographers use and handle high activity and/or high-dose rate sealed sources in the field with a high degree of independence and minimal regulatory oversight. Failure to follow operational procedures and properly handle radiography sources can and has resulted in serious injuries and death. Industrial radiographers have experienced a disproportionately large fraction of incidents that result in unintended exposure to radiation. Sources do not have to contain significant quantities of radioactive material to cause problems in the event of their failure. A loss of integrity can cause the spread of contamination and potential exposure to workers and members of the public. The NCRP has previously provided recommendations on select aspects of sealed source programs. Future efforts to provide recommendations for sealed source programs are discussed.

  1. Radiation Safety Design for SSRL Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Khater, Hesham; Liu, James; Fasso, Alberto; Prinz, Alyssa; Rokni, Sayed; /SLAC

    2007-02-12

    In 2003, the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) has upgraded its storage ring to a 3rd generation storage ring (SPEAR3). SPEAR3 is deigned to operate at 500 mA stored beam current and 3 GeV energy. The 234-meter circumference SPEAR3 ring utilizes 60-cm-thick concrete lateral walls, 30-cm-thick concrete roof, as well as 60-cm or 90-cm-thick concrete ratchet walls. A total of 3.5 x 10{sup 15} e{sup -}/y will be injected into the ring with an injection power of 4 W and an injection efficiency of 75%. Normal beam losses occur due to both injection and stored beam operations in the total of 20 low loss as well as 3 high loss limiting apertures. During the 6-minutes injection period, an instantaneous power loss of 0.05 W occurs at each low loss aperture. When averaged over the operational year, the loss of both the injection and stored beams is equivalent to an average loss of 2 mW at each low loss aperture. On the other hand, the average losses in the high loss apertures are 16 mW for the injection septum, 47 mW for the beam abort dump, and 13 mW for the ring stoppers. The shielding requirements for losses in the new ring were based on a generic approach that used both FLUKA Monte Carlo particle generation and transport code and empirical computer codes and formulae.

  2. Radiation safety of crew and passengers of air transportation in civil aviation. Provisional standards

    SciTech Connect

    Aksenov, A.F.; Burnazyan, A.I.

    1985-03-01

    The purpose and application of the provisional standards for radiation safety of crew and passengers in civil aviation are given. The radiation effect of cosmic radiation in flight on civil aviation air transport is described. Standard levels of radiation and conditions of radiation safety are discussed.

  3. Radiation safety of crew and passengers of air transportation in civil aviation. Provisional standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksenov, A. F.; Burnazyan, A. I.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose and application of the provisional standards for radiation safety of crew and passengers in civil aviation are given. The radiation effect of cosmic radiation in flight on civil aviation air transport is described. Standard levels of radiation and conditions of radiation safety are discussed.

  4. Safety, effectiveness and economic evaluation of intra-operative radiation therapy: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Najafipour, Farshad; Hamouzadeh, Pejman; Arabloo, Jalal; Mobinizadeh, Mohammadreza; Norouzi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT) is the transfer of a single large radiation dose to the tumor bed during surgery with the final goal of improving regional tumor control. This study aimed to investigate the safety, effectiveness and economic evaluation of intra-operative radiation therapy. Methods: The scientific literature was searched in the main biomedical databases (Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Cochrane Library and PubMed) up to March 2014. Two independent reviewers selected the papers based on pre-established inclusion criteria, with any disagreements being resolved by consensus. Data were then extracted and summarized in a structured form. Results from studies were analyzed and discussed within a descriptive synthesis. Results: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. It seems that outcomes from using intraoperative radiation therapy can be considered in various kinds of cancers like breast, pancreatic and colorectal cancers. The application of this method may provide significant survival increase only for colorectal cancer, but this increase was not significant for other types of cancer. This technology had low complications; and it is relatively safe. Using intra-operative radiation therapy could potentially be accounted as a cost-effective strategy for controlling and managing breast cancer. Conclusion: According to the existing evidences, that are the highest medical evidences for using intra-operative radiation therapy, one can generally conclude that intra-operative radiation therapy is considered as a relatively safe and cost-effective method for managing early-stage breast cancer and it can significantly increase the survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Also, the results of this study have policy implications with respect to the reimbursement of this technology. PMID:26793649

  5. 12 CFR 747.3003 - Review of order reclassifying a corporate credit union on safety and soundness criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the record nor the Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure (12 CFR part 747) will apply to an informal... HEARINGS, RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE, AND INVESTIGATIONS Issuance, Review and Enforcement of Orders... corporate credit union on safety and soundness criteria. (a) Notice of proposed reclassification based...

  6. 12 CFR 747.3003 - Review of order reclassifying a corporate credit union on safety and soundness criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the record nor the Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure (12 CFR part 747) will apply to an informal... HEARINGS, RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE, AND INVESTIGATIONS Issuance, Review and Enforcement of Orders... corporate credit union on safety and soundness criteria. (a) Notice of proposed reclassification based...

  7. Problems and conception of ensuring radiation safety during Mars missions.

    PubMed

    Petrov, V M

    2004-01-01

    The Mars mission differs from near-Earth manned space flights by radiation environment and duration. The importance of effective using the weight of the spacecraft increases greatly because all the necessary things for the mission must be included in its starting weight. For this reason the development of optimal systems of radiation safety ensuring (RSES) acquires especial importance. It is the result of sharp change of radiation environment in the interplanetary space as compared to the one in the near-Earth orbits and significant increase of the interplanetary flight duration. The demand of a harder limitation of unfavorable factors effects should lead to radiation safety (RS) standards hardening. The main principles of ensuring the RS of the Mars mission (optimizing, radiation risk, ALARA) and the conception of RSES, developed on the basis of the described approach and the experience obtained during orbital flights are presented in the report. The problems that can impede the ensuring of the crew members' RS are also given here. PMID:15881790

  8. Compliance of Bhabhatron-II telecobalt unit with IEC standard - Radiation safety.

    PubMed

    Sahani, G; Kumar, Munish; Dash Sharma, P K; Sharma, D N; Chhokra, Kanta; Mishra, Bibekananda; Agarwal, S P; Kher, R K

    2009-01-01

    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India designed and developed a telecobalt unit, which was named as Bhabhatron-II. In this paper, the results pertaining to radiation safety of indigenously developed Bhabhatron-II telecobalt unit are reported. The various tests were carried out as per requirements of International Electrotechnical Commission standard and acceptance criteria developed nationally. Various devices such as CaSO4:Dy based thermoluminescent dosimeters, farmer type ionization chamber, water phantom and radiographic films were used. All the parameters pertaining to radiation leakage/transmission were within the tolerance limits as per IEC-60601-2-11 standard except the collimator transmission through X collimators (upper jaw), which marginally exceeds the tolerance limit. PMID:19458599

  9. Thyroid cancer radioiodine therapy: health service performance and radiation safety.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzi, S; Liossis, A; Lamprinakou, M

    2015-07-01

    Greek Atomic Energy Commission collected data related to radioiodine I-131 therapy (RAIT) delivery to differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients, for the period 2003-13, corresponding to 100 % of hospitals at national level. Radiation safety and health service performance outcome indicators were assessed. The numbers of hospitals and nuclear medicine (NM) therapy wards, as well as RAIT annual frequencies, have increased. Geographical inhomogeneous distribution of existing infrastructure is recorded. In some cases, the observed inefficient use of NM therapy wards seems to be due to lack of human resources (e.g. nurses). Regular assessment of appropriate key indicators could serve as a useful tool for radiation safety monitoring and health service performance improvement. PMID:25809109

  10. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product...

  11. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product...

  12. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product...

  13. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product...

  14. Developing the radiation protection safety culture in the UK.

    PubMed

    Cole, P; Hallard, R; Broughton, J; Coates, R; Croft, J; Davies, K; Devine, I; Lewis, C; Marsden, P; Marsh, A; McGeary, R; Riley, P; Rogers, A; Rycraft, H; Shaw, A

    2014-06-01

    In the UK, as elsewhere, there is potential to improve how radiological challenges are addressed through improvement in, or development of, a strong radiation protection (RP) safety culture. In preliminary work in the UK, two areas have been identified as having a strong influence on UK society: the healthcare and nuclear industry sectors. Each has specific challenges, but with many overlapping common factors. Other sectors will benefit from further consideration.In order to make meaningful comparisons between these two principal sectors, this paper is primarily concerned with cultural aspects of RP in the working environment and occupational exposures rather than patient doses.The healthcare sector delivers a large collective dose to patients each year, particularly for diagnostic purposes, which continues to increase. Although patient dose is not the focus, it must be recognised that collective patient dose is inevitably linked to collective occupational exposure, especially in interventional procedures.The nuclear industry faces major challenges as work moves from operations to decommissioning on many sites. This involves restarting work in the plants responsible for the much higher radiation doses of the 1960/70s, but also performing tasks that are considerably more difficult and hazardous than those original performed in these plants.Factors which influence RP safety culture in the workplace are examined, and proposals are considered for a series of actions that may lead to an improvement in RP culture with an associated reduction in dose in many work areas. These actions include methods to improve knowledge and awareness of radiation safety, plus ways to influence management and colleagues in the workplace. The exchange of knowledge about safety culture between the nuclear industry and medical areas may act to develop RP culture in both sectors, and have a wider impact in other sectors where exposures to ionising radiations can occur. PMID:24894330

  15. Radiation safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, D.E.; Baum, J.W.; Meinhold, C. B. )

    1991-03-01

    Techniques related to the use of radiolabeled antibodies in humans are reviewed and evaluated in this report. It is intended as an informational resource for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and NRC licensees. Descriptions of techniques and health and safety issues are provided. Principal methods for labeling antibodies are summarized to help identify related radiation safety problems in the preparation of dosages for administration to patients. The descriptions are derived from an extensive literature review and consultations with experts in the field. A glossary of terms and acronyms is also included. An assessment was made of the extent of the involvement of organizations (other than the NRC) with safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies, in order to identify regulatory issues which require attention. Federal regulations and guides were also reviewed for their relevance. A few (but significant) differences between the use of common radiopharmaceuticals and radiolabeled antibodies were observed. The clearance rate of whole, radiolabeled immunoglobulin is somewhat slower than common radiopharmaceuticals, and new methods of administration are being used. New nuclides are being used or considered (e.g., Re-186 and At-211) for labeling antibodies. Some of these nuclides present new dosimetry, instrument calibration, and patient management problems. Subjects related to radiation safety that require additional research are identified. 149 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs.

  16. Laser sources in dentistry and radiation safety regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, D.; Gaeta, G. M.; Lepore, M.

    2007-02-01

    Nowadays laser sources are largely adopted in dentistry due to their unique properties making them good candidates to substitute traditional scalpel and conventional diamond bur in the surgery of the soft and hard oral tissue, respectively. The large use of laser sources outside the research laboratories without the need of highly specialized personnel can ask for a widespread knowledge of safety issues related to this kind of equipment. The main hazard of accidental exposures regards eyes injury but increasing the power of the laser beam also skin can be involved. Safety legislations in Europe and U.S.A. take into account non ionizing radiations and laser radiation for the hazards for the health deriving from physical agents. Laser safety standards introduce 3 useful parameters for hazard characterization: "Accessible Emission Limit" (AEL), "Maximum Permissible Exposure" (MPE) and "Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance" (NOHD). We measured the MPE and NOHD for Er:YAG and other laser sources currently adopted in dentistry and we compared our results with data elaborated from standards in order to single out safe and comfortable working conditions. In fact an experimental assessment of the hazard parameters and the comparison with those of reference from safety standards turns out to be useful in order to estimate the residual hazard that can be still present after applying all the engineering protection and administrative rules.

  17. Optimizing Radiation Safety in the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory: A Practical Approach.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Georgios; Makke, Lorenza; Christakopoulos, Georgios; Kotsia, Anna; Rangan, Bavana V; Roesle, Michele; Haagen, Donald; Kumbhani, Dharam J; Chambers, Charles E; Kapadia, Samir; Mahmud, Ehtisham; Banerjee, Subhash; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2016-02-01

    Reducing radiation exposure during cardiovascular catheterization is of paramount importance for both patient and staff safety. Over the years, advances in equipment and application of radiation safety protocols have significantly reduced patient dose and operator exposure. This review examines the current status of radiation protection in the cardiac and vascular catheterization laboratory and summarizes best practices for minimizing radiation exposure. PMID:26526181

  18. Multi-criteria analysis on how to select solar radiation hydrogen production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badea, G.; Naghiu, G. S.; Felseghi, R.-A.; Rǎboacǎ, S.; Aşchilean, I.; Giurca, I.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a method of selecting hydrogen-production systems using the electric power obtained in photovoltaic systems, and as a selecting method, we suggest the use of the Advanced Multi-Criteria Analysis based on the FRISCO formula. According to the case study on how to select the solar radiation hydrogen production system, the most convenient alternative is the alternative A4, namely the technical solution involving a hydrogen production system based on the electrolysis of water vapor obtained with concentrated solar thermal systems and electrical power obtained using concentrating photovoltaic systems.

  19. Multi-criteria analysis on how to select solar radiation hydrogen production system

    SciTech Connect

    Badea, G.; Naghiu, G. S. Felseghi, R.-A.; Giurca, I.; Răboacă, S.; Aşchilean, I.

    2015-12-23

    The purpose of this article is to present a method of selecting hydrogen-production systems using the electric power obtained in photovoltaic systems, and as a selecting method, we suggest the use of the Advanced Multi-Criteria Analysis based on the FRISCO formula. According to the case study on how to select the solar radiation hydrogen production system, the most convenient alternative is the alternative A4, namely the technical solution involving a hydrogen production system based on the electrolysis of water vapor obtained with concentrated solar thermal systems and electrical power obtained using concentrating photovoltaic systems.

  20. Criteria for onsite transfers of radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Opperman, E.K.; Jackson, E.J.; Eggers, A.G.

    1992-12-31

    A general description of the requirements for making onsite transfers of radioactive material is provided in Chapter 2, along with the required sequencey of activities. Various criteria for package use are identified in Chapters 3-13. These criteria provide protection against undue radiation exposure. Package shielding, containment, and surface contamination requirements are established. Criteria for providing criticality safety are enumerated in Chapter 6. Criteria for providing hazards information are established in Chapter 13. A glossary is provided.

  1. Radiation exposure and safety practices during pediatric central line placement

    PubMed Central

    Saeman, Melody R.; Burkhalter, Lorrie S.; Blackburn, Timothy J.; Murphy, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pediatric surgeons routinely use fluoroscopy for central venous line (CVL) placement. We examined radiation safety practices and patient/surgeon exposure during fluoroscopic CVL. Methods Fluoroscopic CVL procedures performed by 11 pediatric surgeons in 2012 were reviewed. Fluoroscopic time (FT), patient exposure (mGy), and procedural data were collected. Anthropomorphic phantom simulations were used to calculate scatter and dose (mSv). Surgeons were surveyed regarding safety practices. Results 386 procedures were reviewed. Median FT was 12.8 seconds. Median patient estimated effective dose was 0.13 mSv. Median annual FT per surgeon was 15.4 minutes. Simulations showed no significant difference (p = 0.14) between reported exposures (median 3.5 mGy/min) and the modeled regression exposures from the C-arm default mode (median 3.4 mGy/min). Median calculated surgeon exposure was 1.5 mGy/year. Eight of 11 surgeons responded to the survey. Only three reported 100% lead protection and frequent dosimeter use. Conclusion We found non-standard radiation training, safety practices, and dose monitoring for the 11 surgeons. Based on simulations, the C-arm default setting was typically used instead of low dose. While most CVL procedures have low patient/surgeon doses, every effort should be used to minimize patient and occupational exposure, suggesting the need for formal hands-on training for non-radiologist providers using fluoroscopy. PMID:25837269

  2. Enhancing Credibility of Chemical Safety Studies: Emerging Consensus on Key Assessment Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, James W.; Becker, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We examined the extent to which consensus exists on the criteria that should be used for assessing the credibility of a scientific work, regardless of its funding source, and explored how these criteria might be implemented. Data sources Three publications, all presented at a session of the 2009 annual meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, have proposed a range of criteria for evaluating the credibility of scientific studies. At least two other similar sets of criteria have recently been proposed elsewhere. Data extraction/synthesis In this article we review these criteria, highlight the commonalities among them, and integrate them into a list of 10 criteria. We also discuss issues inherent in any attempt to implement the criteria systematically. Conclusions Recommendations by many scientists and policy experts converge on a finite list of criteria for assessing the credibility of a scientific study without regard to funding source. These criteria should be formalized through a consensus process or a governmental initiative that includes discussion and pilot application of a system for reproducibly implementing them. Formal establishment of such a system should enable the debate regarding chemical studies to move beyond funding issues and focus on scientific merit. PMID:21163723

  3. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  4. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  5. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  6. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  7. Update on radiation safety and dose reduction in pediatric neuroradiology.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Mahadevappa

    2015-09-01

    The number of medical X-ray imaging procedures is growing exponentially across the globe. Even though the overall benefit from medical X-ray imaging procedures far outweighs any associated risks, it is crucial to take all necessary steps to minimize radiation risks to children without jeopardizing image quality. Among the X-ray imaging studies, except for interventional fluoroscopy procedures, CT studies constitute higher dose and therefore draw considerable scrutiny. A number of technological advances have provided ways for better and safer CT imaging. This article provides an update on the radiation safety of patients and staff and discusses dose optimization in medical X-ray imaging within pediatric neuroradiology. PMID:26346142

  8. 49 CFR Appendix to Subpart H of... - Explanation of Pre-Authorization Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria for Non-North America-Domiciled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Evaluation Criteria for Non-North America-Domiciled Motor Carriers Appendix to Subpart H of Part 385... America-Domiciled Motor Carriers I. General (a) FMCSA will perform a safety audit of each non-North...-North America-domiciled carrier's basic safety management controls. (b) The safety audit is a review...

  9. Radiation safety system (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, J.E.; Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.

    1998-12-01

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) Backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system insuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS Backbones control the safety fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low energy beam transport. The Backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the Backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two Linac Backbone segments and experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3,500 feet from beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The Backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely.

  10. Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication, and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, J. E.; Sturrock, J. C.; Gallegos, F. R.

    1998-12-10

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system ensuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS backbones control the safety-fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low-energy beam transport. The backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two linac backbone segments and the experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3500 feet from the beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely.

  11. Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication, and installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmarth, J. E.; Sturrock, J. C.; Gallegos, F. R.

    1998-12-01

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system ensuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS backbones control the safety-fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low-energy beam transport. The backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two linac backbone segments and the experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3500 feet from the beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely.

  12. Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication, and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, J.E.; Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.

    1998-12-01

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system ensuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS backbones control the safety-fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low-energy beam transport. The backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two linac backbone segments and the experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3500 feet from the beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 236 - Safety Assurance Criteria and Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... improperly designed human-machine interface; installation and maintenance errors; and errors associated with... Applications: Specification and Demonstration of Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety...

  14. Importance of Bladder Radioactivity for Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gültekin, Salih Sinan; Şahmaran, Turan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Most of the radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are excreted via the urinary system. This study evaluated the importance of a reduction in bladder radioactivity for radiation safety. Methods: The study group of 135 patients underwent several organ scintigraphies [40/135; thyroid scintigraphy (TS), 30/135; whole body bone scintigraphy (WBS), 35/135; myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and 30/135; renal scintigraphy (RS)] by a technologist within 1 month. In full and empty conditions, static bladder images and external dose rate measurements at 0.25, 0.50, 1, 1.5 and 2 m distances were obtained and decline ratios were calculated from these two data sets. Results: External radiation dose rates were highest in patients undergoing MPS. External dose rates at 0.25 m distance for TS, TKS, MPS and BS were measured to be 56, 106, 191 and 72 μSv h-1 for full bladder and 29, 55, 103 and 37 μSv h-1 for empty bladder, respectively. For TS, WBS, MPS and RS, respectively, average decline ratios were calculated to be 52%, 55%, 53% and 54% in the scintigraphic assessment and 49%, 51%, 49%, 50% and 50% in the assessment with Geiger counter. Conclusion: Decline in bladder radioactivity is important in terms of radiation safety. Patients should be encouraged for micturition after each scintigraphic test. Spending time together with radioactive patients at distances less than 1 m should be kept to a minimum where possible. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24416625

  15. PCES 2.0. Performance Criteria and Evaluation System v. 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, L.L.

    1992-04-01

    The Performance Criteria and Evaluation System (PCES) was developed in order to make a data base of criteria accessible to radiation safety staff. The criteria included in the package are applicable to occupational radiation safety at DOE reactor and nonreactor nuclear facilities, but any data base of criteria may be created using the Criterion Data Base Utiliity (CDU). PCES assists personnel in carrying out oversight, line, and support activities.

  16. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 236 - Safety Assurance Criteria and Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... results of system safety analyses provided in the RSPP, PSP, PTCIP, PTCDP, and PTCSP documents as appropriate. An analysis performed under this appendix must: (1) Address each of the safety principles of... system operation. Hazards categorized as unacceptable, which are determined by hazard analysis, must...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 236 - Safety Assurance Criteria and Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... The product design must sufficiently incorporate human factors engineering that is appropriate to the... principles when designing and demonstrating the safety of products covered by subpart H or I of this part. In... associated with the design principle not followed. (1) System safety under normal operating conditions....

  18. Data base management system for a radiation safety program

    SciTech Connect

    McKetty, M.H.; Roach, D.M. )

    1991-03-01

    A data base management system (DBMS) has been developed that simplifies the retrieval of data concerning radioisotope use at a university and hospital. The system customizes software that is commercially available to perform several functions. Reports can be developed concerning receipt of radioactive materials, radioactive waste disposal, and research proposals submitted by investigators. Reports can be prepared that utilize the software's ability to perform numerical calculations. The main advantage of the DBMS is that it allows the easy retrieval of information that is used in the day-to-day operation of a radiation safety office; it also provides easy access and manipulation of data for the preparation of reports, budget proposals, and justifications for purchases.

  19. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Retreatment of Recurrent Head and Neck Cancer After Prior Definitive Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Mark W.; Lawson, Joshua; Garg, Madhur Kumar; Quon, Harry; Ridge, John A.; Saba, Nabil; Salama, Joseph K.; Smith, Richard V.; Yeung, Anamaria Reyna; Yom, Sue S.; Beitler, Jonathan J.

    2011-08-01

    Recurrent and second primary head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas arising within or in close proximity to previously irradiated fields are a common clinical challenge. Whereas surgical salvage therapy is recommended for resectable disease, randomized data support the role of postoperative reirradiation in high-risk patients. Definitive reirradiation is an established approach for patients with recurrent disease who are medically or technically inoperable or decline radical surgery. The American College of Radiology Expert Panel on Head and Neck Cancer reviewed the relevant literature addressing re-treatment after prior definitive radiation and developed appropriateness criteria for representative clinical scenarios. Examples of unresectable recurrent disease and microscopic residual disease after salvage surgery were addressed. The panel evaluated the appropriateness of reirradiation, the integration of concurrent chemotherapy, radiation technique, treatment volume, dose, and fractionation. The panel emphasized the importance of patient selection and recommended evaluation and treatment at tertiary-care centers with a head-and-neck oncology team equipped with the resources and experience to manage the complexities and toxicities of re-treatment.

  20. Replanning Criteria and Timing Definition for Parotid Protection-Based Adaptive Radiation Therapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Wei-Rong; Xu, Shou-Ping; Liu, Bo; Cao, Xiu-Tang; Ren, Gang; Du, Lei; Zhou, Fu-Gen; Feng, Lin-Chun; Qu, Bao-Lin; Xie, Chuan-Bin; Ma, Lin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate real-time volumetric and dosimetric changes of the parotid gland so as to determine replanning criteria and timing for parotid protection-based adaptive radiation therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Fifty NPC patients were treated with helical tomotherapy; volumetric and dosimetric (Dmean, V1, and D50) changes of the parotid gland at the 1st, 6th, 11th, 16th, 21st, 26th, 31st, and 33rd fractions were evaluated. The clinical parameters affecting these changes were studied by analyses of variance methods for repeated measures. Factors influencing the actual parotid dose were analyzed by a multivariate logistic regression model. The cut-off values predicting parotid overdose were developed from receiver operating characteristic curves and judged by combining them with a diagnostic test consistency check. The median absolute value and percentage of parotid volume reduction were 19.51 cm3 and 35%, respectively. The interweekly parotid volume varied significantly (p < 0.05). The parotid Dmean, V1, and D50 increased by 22.13%, 39.42%, and 48.45%, respectively. The actual parotid dose increased by an average of 11.38% at the end of radiation therapy. Initial parotid volume, initial parotid Dmean, and weight loss rate are valuable indicators for parotid protection-based replanning. PMID:26793717

  1. 78 FR 28275 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Safety Approval Performance... hypobaric chamber training for crew and space flight participants to experience and demonstrate knowledge of...), FAA Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST), 800 Independence Avenue SW., Room 331,...

  2. 77 FR 58607 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance..., Licensing and Evaluation Division (AST-200), FAA Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST), 800... Space Transportation. BILLING CODE 4910-13-P...

  3. 10 CFR 35.50 - Training for Radiation Safety Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radioactivity, radiation biology, and radiation dosimetry; or (2)(i) Hold a master's or doctor's degree in... pertaining to the use and measurement of radioactivity; (D) Radiation biology; and (E) Radiation...

  4. 10 CFR 35.50 - Training for Radiation Safety Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radioactivity, radiation biology, and radiation dosimetry; or (2)(i) Hold a master's or doctor's degree in... to the use and measurement of radioactivity; (D) Radiation biology; and (E) Radiation dosimetry;...

  5. 10 CFR 35.50 - Training for Radiation Safety Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radioactivity, radiation biology, and radiation dosimetry; or (2)(i) Hold a master's or doctor's degree in... to the use and measurement of radioactivity; (D) Radiation biology; and (E) Radiation dosimetry;...

  6. 10 CFR 35.50 - Training for Radiation Safety Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... radioactivity, radiation biology, and radiation dosimetry; or (2)(i) Hold a master's or doctor's degree in... the use and measurement of radioactivity; (D) Radiation biology; and (E) Radiation dosimetry; and...

  7. 10 CFR 35.50 - Training for Radiation Safety Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactivity, radiation biology, and radiation dosimetry; or (2)(i) Hold a master's or doctor's degree in... the use and measurement of radioactivity; (D) Radiation biology; and (E) Radiation dosimetry; and...

  8. Radiation safety in the nuclear medicine department: impact of the UK Ionising Radiations Regulations.

    PubMed

    Harding, L K

    1987-09-01

    The practice of nuclear medicine requires integration of radiation safety with patient care and radiopharmaceutical standards. Nationally there was useful discussion in the UK before the Ionising Radiations Regulations and Approved Code of Practice were published, although such consultation had been lacking when the Medicines Act was implemented. Most of the new considerations relating to nuclear medicine stem from Schedule 6 of the Regulations. Generally, the presence of a single patient does not require a controlled area. However, when several patients are present, or radiopharmaceuticals are being prepared prior to injection, a controlled area is required. Classification of workers is not likely to be required in a typical nuclear medicine department in the UK, although most parts of the nuclear medicine department will need to be controlled areas. These include the radiopharmacy, radionuclide dispensary, injection room, and imaging rooms if patients are injected in them. The importance of finger dose measurements is emphasised. Patient wards, however, need not be controlled areas. A particular concern in nuclear medicine was that patients should not need to be admitted to hospital merely to comply with legislation. This is possibly the case and clarification will probably be available when the Notes for Guidance are published. Most procedures in nuclear medicine departments will remain unchanged. Further information is required, however, on patient waiting rooms, handling flood sources, pregnancy, and breast feeding. Within the hospital, detailed and multidisciplinary discussion will need to take place within the forum of the radiation safety committee. PMID:3664186

  9. THE RADIATION SAFETY INFORMATION COMPUTATIONAL CENTER: A RESOURCE FOR REACTOR DOSIMETRY SOFTWARE AND NUCLEAR DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Bernadette Lugue

    2009-01-01

    The Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) was established in 1963 to collect and disseminate computational nuclear technology in the form of radiation transport, shielding and safety software and corresponding nuclear cross sections. Approximately 1700 nuclear software and data packages are in the RSICC collection, and the majority are applicable to reactor dosimetry.

  10. The Radiation Safety Information Computational Center:. a Resource for Reactor Dosimetry Software and Nuclear Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, B. L.

    2009-08-01

    The Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) was established in 1963 to collect and disseminate computational nuclear technology in the form of radiation transport, shielding and safety software and corresponding nuclear cross sections. Approximately 1700 nuclear software and data packages are in the RSICC collection, and the majority are applicable to reactor dosimetry.

  11. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - Explanation of Pre-Authorization Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria for Mexico-Domiciled Motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Explanation of Pre-Authorization Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria for Mexico-Domiciled Motor Carriers A Appendix A to Subpart E of Part 365 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL...

  12. 10 CFR 72.104 - Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radioactive materials, radon and its decay products excepted, to the general environment, (2) Direct radiation... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct...) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE,...

  13. 10 CFR 72.104 - Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... radioactive materials, radon and its decay products excepted, to the general environment, (2) Direct radiation... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct...) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE,...

  14. 10 CFR 72.104 - Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS. 72.104 Section 72.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  15. 10 CFR 72.104 - Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radioactive materials, radon and its decay products excepted, to the general environment, (2) Direct radiation... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct...) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE,...

  16. 10 CFR 72.104 - Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS. 72.104 Section 72.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  17. Instructor qualification for radiation safety training at a national laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Trinoskey, P.A.

    1994-10-01

    Prior to 1993, Health Physics Training (HPT) was conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) health physics group. The job requirements specified a Masters Degree and experience. In fact, the majority of Health Physicists in the group were certified by the American Board of Health Physics. Under those circumstances, it was assumed that individuals in the group were technically qualified and the HPT instructor qualification stated that. In late 1993, the Health Physics Group at the LLNL was restructured and the training function was assigned to the training group. Additional requirements for training were mandated by the Department of Energy (DOE), which would necessitate increasing the existing training staff. With the need to hire, and the policy of reassignment of employees during downsizing, it was imperative that formal qualification standards be developed for technical knowledge. Qualification standards were in place for instructional capability. In drafting the new training qualifications for instructors, the requirements of a Certified Health Physicists had to be modified due to supply and demand. Additionally, for many of the performance-based training courses, registration by the National Registry of Radiation Protection Technologists is more desirable. Flexibility in qualification requirements has been incorporated to meet the reality of ongoing training and the compensation for desirable skills of individuals who may not meet all the criteria. The qualification requirements for an instructor rely on entry-level requirements and emphasis on goals (preferred) and continuing development of technical and instructional capabilities.

  18. 76 FR 30232 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance... associated with suborbital space flight. The reduced gravity levels are: --0.00 g 0.05 g for 17 continuous... Division (AST-200), FAA Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST), 800 Independence Avenue, SW.,...

  19. Neuro-oncology update: radiation safety and nursing care during interstitial brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, T.M.; Drake, D.K.; Sewchand, W.

    1987-12-01

    Radiation control and safety are major considerations for nursing personnel during the care of patients receiving brachytherapy. Since the theory and practice of radiation applications are not part of the routine curriculum of nursing programs, the education of nurses and other health care professionals in radiation safety procedures is important. Regulatory agencies recommend that an annual safety course be given to all persons frequenting, using, or associated with patients containing radioactive materials. This article presents pertinent aspects of the principles and procedures of radiation safety, the role of personnel dose-monitoring devices, and the value of additional radiation control features, such as a lead cubicle, during interstitial brain implants. One institution's protocol and procedures for the care of high-intensity iridium-192 brain implants are discussed. Preoperative teaching guidelines and nursing interventions included in the protocol focus on radiation control principles.

  20. Effects of gamma radiation on raspberries: safety and quality issues.

    PubMed

    Verde, S Cabo; Trigo, M J; Sousa, M B; Ferreira, A; Ramos, A C; Nunes, I; Junqueira, C; Melo, R; Santos, P M P; Botelho, M L

    2013-01-01

    There is an ever-increasing global demand from consumers for high-quality foods with major emphasis placed on quality and safety attributes. One of the main demands that consumers display is for minimally processed, high-nutrition/low-energy natural foods with no or minimal chemical preservatives. The nutritional value of raspberry fruit is widely recognized. In particular, red raspberries are known to demonstrate a strong antioxidant capacity that might prove beneficial to human health by preventing free radical-induced oxidative stress. However, food products that are consumed raw, are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles for transmission of human pathogens. Food irradiation is one of the few technologies that address both food quality and safety by virtue of its ability to control spoilage and foodborne pathogenic microorganisms without significantly affecting sensory or other organoleptic attributes of the food. Food irradiation is well established as a physical, nonthermal treatment (cold pasteurization) that processes foods at or nearly at ambient temperature in the final packaging, reducing the possibility of cross contamination until the food is actually used by the consumer. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of gamma radiation on raspberries in order to assess consequences of irradiation. Freshly packed raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) were irradiated in a (60)Co source at several doses (0.5, 1, or 1.5 kGy). Bioburden, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, physicochemical properties such as texture, color, pH, soluble solids content, and acidity, and sensorial parameters were assessed before and after irradiation and during storage time up to 14 d at 4°C. Characterization of raspberries microbiota showed an average bioburden value of 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU)/g and a diverse microbial population predominantly composed of two morphological types (gram-negative, oxidase-negative rods, 35%, and filamentous fungi, 41

  1. ASCO steam generators operating experience. Safety criteria for defect management and effectiveness of preventive measures

    SciTech Connect

    Toribio, E.L.

    1997-02-01

    ASCO NPP is a two W-PWR 930 Mwe Units. Each Unit is provided with three Westinghouse Model D3 steam generators which are of preheater type and Inconel 600 MA as tube material. The Secondary side was designed and erected with copper alloys. Unit I: 81.072 EFPH, and Unit II: 69.720 EFPH. The results of the Eddy Currents Inspections performed during the first refueling outage showed Denting at tube support plates and PWSCC at roll transition zone in Unit I and Denting in Unit II. Later inspections showed other types of damages, such as: (1) ODSCC at tube support plates intersections. (2) Circumferential cracks OD and ID at roll transition zone. (3) Wear at antivibration bars and preheater baffles level. Consequently, in order to limit the plugging rate, A.N. ASCO decided to license new plugging criteria in addition to the 40% depth criterion included in Technical Specification. The new licensing criteria and surveillance requirements, varying with tube zone, are explained in the paper.

  2. Criteria for the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) safety evaluation process for fragrance ingredients.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bruze, M; Cadby, P; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Ellis, G; Fryer, A D; Fukayama, M; Griem, P; Hickey, C; Kromidas, L; Lalko, J F; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Renskers, K; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Sipes, I G; Smith, B; Vitale, D; Wilcox, D K

    2015-08-01

    The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) has been engaged in the generation and evaluation of safety data for fragrance materials since its inception over 45 years ago. Over time, RIFM's approach to gathering data, estimating exposure and assessing safety has evolved as the tools for risk assessment evolved. This publication is designed to update the RIFM safety assessment process, which follows a series of decision trees, reflecting advances in approaches in risk assessment and new and classical toxicological methodologies employed by RIFM over the past ten years. These changes include incorporating 1) new scientific information including a framework for choosing structural analogs, 2) consideration of the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC), 3) the Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) for dermal sensitization, 4) the respiratory route of exposure, 5) aggregate exposure assessment methodology, 6) the latest methodology and approaches to risk assessments, 7) the latest alternatives to animal testing methodology and 8) environmental risk assessment. The assessment begins with a thorough analysis of existing data followed by in silico analysis, identification of 'read across' analogs, generation of additional data through in vitro testing as well as consideration of the TTC approach. If necessary, risk management may be considered. PMID:25510979

  3. A Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Model to Assess the Safety of Botanicals Utilizing Data on History of Use

    PubMed Central

    Neely, T.; Walsh-Mason, B.; Russell, P.; Horst, A. Van Der; O’Hagan, S.; Lahorkar, P.

    2011-01-01

    Botanicals (herbal materials and extracts) are widely used in traditional medicines throughout the world. Many have an extensive history of safe use over several hundreds of years. There is now a growing consumer interest in food and cosmetic products, which contain botanicals. There are many publications describing the safety assessment approaches for botanicals, based on the history of safe use. However, they do not define what constitutes a history of safe use, a decision that is ultimately a subjective one. The multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), is a model that has been developed, which assesses the safety of botanical ingredients using a history of use approach. The model evaluates the similarity of the botanical ingredient of interest to its historic counterpart – the comparator, the evidence supporting the history of use, and any evidence of concern. The assessment made is whether a botanical ingredient is as safe as its comparator botanical, which has a history of use. In order to establish compositional similarity between the botanical ingredient and its comparator, an analytical ‘similarity scoring’ approach has been developed. Applicability of the model is discussed with an example, Brahmi ( Bacopa monnieri). This evolution of the risk assessment of botanicals gives an objective, transparent, and transferable safety assessment approach. PMID:22025816

  4. Critical Characteristics of Radiation Detection System Components to be Dedicated for use in Safety Class and Safety Significant System

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS, S.J.

    2000-05-25

    This document identifies critical characteristics of components to be dedicated for use in Safety Class (SC) or Safety Significant (SS) Systems, Structures, or Components (SSCs). This document identifies the requirements for the components of the common radiation area monitor alarm in the WESF pool cell. These are procured as Commercial Grade Items (CGI), with the qualification testing and formal dedication to be performed at the Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility (WESF), in safety class, safety significant systems. System modifications are to be performed in accordance with the instructions provided on ECN 658230. Components for this change are commercially available and interchangeable with the existing alarm configuration This document focuses on the operational requirements for alarm, declaration of the safety classification, identification of critical characteristics, and interpretation of requirements for procurement. Critical characteristics are identified herein and must be verified, followed by formal dedication, prior to the components being used in safety related applications.

  5. Inter-comparison of safety culture within selected practices in Ghana utilising ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Faanu, A; Schandorf, C; Darko, E O; Boadu, M; Emi-Reynolds, G; Awudu, A R; Gyekye, P K; Kpeglo, D O

    2010-12-01

    The safety culture of selected practices and facilities in Ghana utilising radiation sources or radiation emitting devices has been assessed using a performance indicator, which provided status information on management and operating staff commitment to safety. The questionnaire was based on the following broad areas: general safety considerations, safety policy at the facility level, safety practices at the facility level, definition of responsibility, staff training, safety of the physical structure of the facility and the emergency plans. The analysis showed that the percentage levels of commitment to safety for the respective practices are as follows: conventional radiography, 23.3-90.0%; research reactor, 73.3%; gamma irradiation facility, 53.3%; radiotherapy, 76.7%; X-ray scanner, 80.0%; gamma scanner, 76.7%; industrial radiography 86.7% and nuclear density practice, 78%. None of the practices or facilities was able to satisfy all the requirements that will ensure a 100% level of safety culture. PMID:20699247

  6. Ionizing and Nonionizing Radiation Protection. Module SH-35. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on ionizing and nonionizing radiation protection is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module describes various types of ionizing and nonionizing radiation, and the situations in the workplace where potential hazards from radiation may exist. Following the introduction, 13 objectives (each keyed to a…

  7. Radiation safety analysis of the ISS bone densitometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Paul; Vellinger, John C.; Barton, Kenneth; Faget, Paul

    A Bone Densitometer (BD) has been developed for installation on the International Space Station (ISS) with delivery by the Space-X Dragon spacecraft planned for mid 2014. After initial tests on orbit the BD will be used in longitudinal measurements of bone mineral density in experimental mice as a means of evaluating countermeasures to bone loss. The BD determines bone mineral density (and other radiographic parameters) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). In a single mouse DEXA “scan” its 80 kV x-ray tube is operated for 15 seconds at 35 kV and 3 seconds at 80 kV in four repetitions, giving the subject a total dose of 2.5 mSv. The BD is a modification of a commercial mouse DEXA product known as PIXImus(TM). Before qualifying the BD for utilization on ISS it was necessary to evaluate its radiation safety features and any level of risk to ISS crew members. The BD design reorients the PIXImus so that it fits in an EXPRESS locker on ISS with the x-ray beam directed into the crew aisle. ISS regulation SSP 51700 considers the production of ionizing radiation to be a catastrophic-level hazard. Accidental exposure is prevented by three independent levels of on-off control as required for a catastrophic hazard. The ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) principle was applied to the BD hazard just as would be done on the ground, so deliberate exposure is limited by lead shielding according to ALARA. Hot spots around the BD were identified by environmental dosimetry using a Ludlum 9DP pressurized ionization chamber survey meter. Various thicknesses of lead were applied to the BD housing in areas where highest dose-per-scan readings were made. It was concluded that 0.4 mm of lead shielding at strategic locations, adding only a few kg of mass to the payload, would accomplish ALARA. With shielding in place the BD now exposes a crew member floating 40 cm away to less than 0.08 microSv per mouse scan. There is an upper limit of 20 scans per day, or 1.6 microSv per day

  8. Radiation Safety Training for Industrial Irradiators: What Are We Trying To Accomplish?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. A.

    1998-06-01

    Radiation safety training at an industrial irradiator facility takes a different approach than the traditional methods and topics used at other facilities. Where the more routine industrial radiation users focus on standard training topics of contamination control, area surveys, and the traditional dogma of time, distance, and shielding, radiation safety in an industrial irradiation facility must be centered on preventing accidents. Because the primary methods for accomplishing that goal are engineering approaches such as safety system interlocks, training provided to facility personnel should address system operation and emergency actions. This presents challenges in delivering radiation safety to an audience of varied educational and technical background where little to no commercially available training material specific to this type of operation exists.

  9. Convex reformulation of biologically-based multi-criteria intensity-modulated radiation therapy optimization including fractionation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Aswin L.; den Hertog, Dick; Siem, Alex Y. D.; Kaanders, Johannes H. A. M.; Huizenga, Henk

    2008-11-01

    Finding fluence maps for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be formulated as a multi-criteria optimization problem for which Pareto optimal treatment plans exist. To account for the dose-per-fraction effect of fractionated IMRT, it is desirable to exploit radiobiological treatment plan evaluation criteria based on the linear-quadratic (LQ) cell survival model as a means to balance the radiation benefits and risks in terms of biologic response. Unfortunately, the LQ-model-based radiobiological criteria are nonconvex functions, which make the optimization problem hard to solve. We apply the framework proposed by Romeijn et al (2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 1991-2013) to find transformations of LQ-model-based radiobiological functions and establish conditions under which transformed functions result in equivalent convex criteria that do not change the set of Pareto optimal treatment plans. The functions analysed are: the LQ-Poisson-based model for tumour control probability (TCP) with and without inter-patient heterogeneity in radiation sensitivity, the LQ-Poisson-based relative seriality s-model for normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) under the LQ-Poisson model and the fractionation-corrected Probit-based model for NTCP according to Lyman, Kutcher and Burman. These functions differ from those analysed before in that they cannot be decomposed into elementary EUD or generalized-EUD functions. In addition, we show that applying increasing and concave transformations to the convexified functions is beneficial for the piecewise approximation of the Pareto efficient frontier.

  10. Critical Characteristics of Radiation Detection System Components to be Dedicated for use in Safety Class and Safety Significant System

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS, S.J.

    2000-12-28

    This document identifies critical characteristics of components to be dedicated for use in Safety Significant (SS) Systems, Structures, or Components (SSCs). This document identifies the requirements for the components of the common, radiation area, monitor alarm in the WESF pool cell. These are procured as Commercial Grade Items (CGI), with the qualification testing and formal dedication to be performed at the Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility (WESF) for use in safety significant systems. System modifications are to be performed in accordance with the approved design. Components for this change are commercially available and interchangeable with the existing alarm configuration This document focuses on the operational requirements for alarm, declaration of the safety classification, identification of critical characteristics, and interpretation of requirements for procurement. Critical characteristics are identified herein and must be verified, followed by formal dedication, prior to the components being used in safety related applications.

  11. Radiation safety audit of a high volume Nuclear Medicine Department

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Abhijith Mohan; Shetye, Bhakti; Shah, Sneha; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu Chandrakant; Monteiro, Priya; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Professional radiation exposure cannot be avoided in nuclear medicine practices. It can only be minimized up to some extent by implementing good work practices. Aim and Objectives: The aim of our study was to audit the professional radiation exposure and exposure rate of radiation worker working in and around Department of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, Tata Memorial Hospital. Materials and Methods: We calculated the total number of nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) procedures performed in our department and the radiation exposure to the radiation professionals from year 2009 to 2012. Results: We performed an average of 6478 PET/CT scans and 3856 nuclear medicine scans/year from January 2009 to December 2012. The average annual whole body radiation exposure to nuclear medicine physician, technologist and nursing staff are 1.74 mSv, 2.93 mSv and 4.03 mSv respectively. Conclusion: Efficient management and deployment of personnel is of utmost importance to optimize radiation exposure in a high volume nuclear medicine setup in order to work without anxiety of high radiation exposure. PMID:25400361

  12. Concepts of radiation safety and protection: Beyond BEIR V

    SciTech Connect

    Farman, A.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The publication of an updated report on the biological effects of ionizing radiation (BEIR V) has focused new attention on the potential hazards associated with the use of low doses of ionizing radiation for diagnostic purposes. This article reviews the BEIR V report findings and suggests methods for reducing the risks to dental patients and the operators of dental x-ray equipment.

  13. Radiation safety for anaesthesia providers in the orthopaedic operating room.

    PubMed

    Rhea, E B; Rogers, T H; Riehl, J T

    2016-04-01

    In many orthopaedic operating rooms, anaesthesia providers routinely wear lead aprons for protection from radiation, but some studies have questioned whether this is needed. We conducted a systematic review to identify studies that measured the amount of radiation that anaesthetists were exposed to in the orthopaedic operating room. Multiple studies have shown that at 1.5 m from the source of radiation, anaesthetists received no radiation, or amounts so small that a person would have to be present in an unreasonable number of operations to receive cumulative doses of any significance. Radiation doses at this distance were often at the limits of the sensitivity of the measuring dosimeter. We question the need to wear lead protection for anaesthesia providers who are routinely at 1.5 m or a greater distance from standard fluoroscopy units. PMID:26874074

  14. The Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC): A Resource for Nuclear Science Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Bernadette Lugue

    2009-01-01

    The Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) has been in existence since 1963. RSICC collects, organizes, evaluates and disseminates technical information (software and nuclear data) involving the transport of neutral and charged particle radiation, and shielding and protection from the radiation associated with: nuclear weapons and materials, fission and fusion reactors, outer space, accelerators, medical facilities, and nuclear waste management. RSICC serves over 12,000 scientists and engineers from about 100 countries.

  15. Radon in the Workplace: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Ionizing Radiation Standard.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Robert K

    2016-10-01

    On 29 December 1970, the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 established the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This article on OSHA, Title 29, Part 1910.1096 Ionizing Radiation standard was written to increase awareness of the employer, the workforce, state and federal governments, and those in the radon industry who perform radon testing and radon mitigation of the existence of these regulations, particularly the radon relevant aspect of the regulations. This review paper was also written to try to explain what can sometimes be complicated regulations. As the author works within the Radon Division of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Radiation Protection, the exclusive focus of the article is on radon. The 1910.1096 standard obviously covers many other aspects of radiation and radiation safety in the work place. PMID:27575350

  16. Provisional standards of radiation safety of flight personnel and passengers in air transport of the civil aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Provisional standards for radiation affecting passenger aircraft are considered. Agencies responsible for seeing that the regulations are enforced are designated while radiation sources and types of radiation are defined. Standard levels of permissible radiation are given and conditions for radiation safety are discussed. Dosimetric equipment on board aircraft is delineated and regulation effective dates are given.

  17. Assessment of radiation safety awareness among nuclear medicine nurses: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, N. A.; Abdullah, M. H. R. O.; Said, M. A.; Ch'ng, P. E.

    2014-11-01

    All nuclear medicine nurses need to have some knowledge and awareness on radiation safety. At present, there is no study to address this issue in Malaysia. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the level of knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among nuclear medicine nurses at Putrajaya Hospital in Malaysia and (2) to assess the effectiveness of a training program provided by the hospital to increase the knowledge and awareness of the nuclear medicine nurses. A total of 27 respondents attending a training program on radiation safety were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire consists 16 items and were categorized into two main areas, namely general radiation knowledge and radiation safety. Survey data were collected before and after the training and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test. Respondents were scored out of a total of 16 marks with 8 marks for each area. The findings showed that the range of total scores obtained by the nuclear medicine nurses before and after the training were 6-14 (with a mean score of 11.19) and 13-16 marks (with a mean score of 14.85), respectively. Findings also revealed that the mean score for the area of general radiation knowledge (7.59) was higher than that of the radiation safety (7.26). Currently, the knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among the nuclear medicine nurses are at the moderate level. It is recommended that a national study be conducted to assess and increase the level of knowledge and awareness among all nuclear medicine nurses in Malaysia.

  18. Quality and safety of medication use in primary care: consensus validation of a new set of explicit medication assessment criteria and prioritisation of topics for improvement

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Addressing the problem of preventable drug related morbidity (PDRM) in primary care is a challenge for health care systems internationally. The increasing implementation of clinical information systems in the UK and internationally provide new opportunities to systematically identify patients at risk of PDRM for targeted medication review. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop a set of explicit medication assessment criteria to identify patients with sub-optimally effective or high-risk medication use from electronic medical records and (2) to identify medication use topics that are perceived by UK primary care clinicians to be priorities for quality and safety improvement initiatives. Methods For objective (1), a 2-round consensus process based on the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method (RAM) was conducted, in which candidate criteria were identified from the literature and scored by a panel of 10 experts for 'appropriateness' and 'necessity'. A set of final criteria was generated from candidates accepted at each level. For objective (2), thematically related final criteria were clustered into 'topics', from which a panel of 26 UK primary care clinicians identified priorities for quality improvement in a 2-round Delphi exercise. Results (1) The RAM process yielded a final set of 176 medication assessment criteria organised under the domains 'quality' and 'safety', each classified as targeting 'appropriate/necessary to do' (quality) or 'inappropriate/necessary to avoid' (safety) medication use. Fifty-two final 'quality' assessment criteria target patients with unmet indications, sub-optimal selection or intensity of beneficial drug treatments. A total of 124 'safety' assessment criteria target patients with unmet needs for risk-mitigating agents, high-risk drug selection, excessive dose or duration, inconsistent monitoring or dosing instructions. (2) The UK Delphi panel identified 11 (23%) of 47 scored topics as 'high priority' for quality

  19. Radiation Dose and Safety in Cardiac Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Thomas C; Kantor, Birgit; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis As a result of the changes in utilization of imaging procedures that rely on ionizing radiation, the collective dose has increased by over 700% and the annual per-capita dose, by almost 600% over recent years. It is certainly possible that this growing use may have significant effects on public health. Although there are uncertainties related to the accuracy of calculated radiation exposure and the estimated biologic risk, there are measures that can be taken to reduce any potential risks while maintaining diagnostic accuracy. This article will review the existing data regarding biological hazards of radiation exposure associated to medical diagnostic testing, the methodology used to estimate radiation exposure and the measures that can be taken to effectively reduce it. PMID:19766923

  20. What Parents Should Know about Medical Radiation Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of study can be misleading and comparing estimated doses for different exams is confusing. One way ... from different sources using millisievert units (mSv). Source Estimated effective dose (mSv) Natural background radiation.............................................. 3 mSv/ ...

  1. Safety of {sup 90}Y Radioembolization in Patients Who Have Undergone Previous External Beam Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Marnix G.E.H.; Abdelmaksoud, Mohamed H.K.; Chang, Daniel T.; Eclov, Neville C.; Chung, Melody P.; Koong, Albert C.; Louie, John D.; Sze, Daniel Y.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: Previous external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is theoretically contraindicated for yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) radioembolization (RE) because the liver has a lifetime tolerance to radiation before becoming vulnerable to radiation-induced liver disease. We analyzed the safety of RE as salvage treatment in patients who had previously undergone EBRT. Methods and Materials: Between June 2004 and December 2010, a total of 31 patients who had previously undergone EBRT were treated with RE. Three-dimensional treatment planning with dose–volume histogram (DVH) analysis of the liver was used to calculate the EBRT liver dose. Liver-related toxicities including RE-induced liver disease (REILD) were reviewed and classified according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.02. Results: The mean EBRT and RE liver doses were 4.40 Gy (range, 0-23.13 Gy) and 57.9 Gy (range, 27.0-125.9 Gy), respectively. Patients who experienced hepatotoxicity (≥grade2; n=12) had higher EBRT mean liver doses (7.96 ± 8.55 Gy vs 1.62 ± 3.39 Gy; P=.037), the only independent predictor in multivariate analysis. DVH analysis showed that the fraction of liver exposed to ≥30 Gy (V30) was the strongest predictor of hepatotoxicity (10.14% ± 12.75% vs 0.84% ± 3.24%; P=.006). All patients with V30 >13% experienced hepatotoxicity. Fatal REILD (n=2) occurred at the 2 highest EBRT mean liver doses (20.9 Gy and 23.1 Gy) but also at the highest cumulative liver doses (91.8 Gy and 149 Gy). Conclusions: Prior exposure of the liver to EBRT may lead to increased liver toxicity after RE treatment, depending on fractional liver exposure and dose level. The V30 was the strongest predictor of toxicity. RE appears to be safe for the treatment of hepatic malignancies only in patients who have had limited hepatic exposure to prior EBRT.

  2. MOX LTA Fuel Cycle Analyses: Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovitchev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    Tasks of nuclear safety assurance for storage and transport of fresh mixed uranium-plutonium fuel of the VVER-1000 reactor are considered in the view of 3 MOX LTAs introduction into the core. The precise code MCU that realizes the Monte Carlo method is used for calculations.

  3. Radiation dose assessment methodology and preliminary dose estimates to support US Department of Energy radiation control criteria for regulated treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes and materials

    SciTech Connect

    Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.; Rhoads, K.; Jarvis, M.F.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    This report provides unit dose to concentration levels that may be used to develop control criteria for radionuclide activity in hazardous waste; if implemented, these criteria would be developed to provide an adequate level of public and worker health protection, for wastes regulated under U.S, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements (as derived from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act [RCRA] and/or the Toxic Substances Control Act [TSCA]). Thus, DOE and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission can fulfill their obligation to protect the public from radiation by ensuring that such wastes are appropriately managed, while simultaneously reducing the current level of dual regulation. In terms of health protection, dual regulation of very small quantities of radionuclides provides no benefit.

  4. [Experience of justification of hygienic standards of food safety with the use of criteria for the risk population health].

    PubMed

    Zaytseva, N V; Tutelyan, V A; Shur, P Z; Khotimchenko, S A; Sheveleva, S A

    2014-01-01

    In the article there is presented the experience of justification of hygienic standards of food safety with the use of criteria for the risk for population health. Health risk assessment under the impact of tetracyclines with food showed that the content of residual amounts of these antibiotics at the level of 10 mg/kg (permissible residual tetracycline accepted in Customs Union Member Countries (CUMC) will not increase the risk to public health, including the most sensitive groups of the population. The assessment ofthe health risk associated with the receipt of ractopamine with food, showed that eating foods containing ractopamine at ADI level (0-1 mg/kg body weight), and even at the limit of quantification levels in meat products, is inadmissible because of unacceptable risk of functional disorders and diseases of the cardiovascular system. The results of the substantiation of the permissible levels of nitrates content in crop production showed that at the level of exposure according to hygienic standards established in the CUMC as at the recommended and actual consumption levels of products ofplant origin, the health risk as carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic, does not exceed acceptable levels. The results of the assessment of the risk associated with the permissible levels of L. monocytogenes in certain food groups showed that an exposure level of hygienic standards established in the CUMC, standards of Codex Alimentarius Commission and EU documents (before release to the market by the manufacturer) the health risk does not exceed the maximum permissible level of the appearance of serious diseases. Adoption of standards of Codex Alimentarius Commission and the EU (for handling products in the market) is not acceptable because it can lead to an unacceptable risk of listeriosis for the population of the Russian Federation as a whole, and for the most sensitive groups. PMID:25831934

  5. US Department of Energy standardized radiation safety training

    SciTech Connect

    Trinoskey, P.A.

    1997-02-01

    The following working groups were formed under the direction of a radiological training coordinator: managers, supervisors, DOE auditors, ALARA engineers/schedulers/planners, radiological control personnel, radiation-generating device operators, emergency responders, visitors, Pu facilities, U facilities, tritium facilities, accelerator facilities, biomedical researchers. General courses for these groups are available, now or soon, in the form of handbooks.

  6. Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Payload Safety Introduction Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Chuck; Lampert, Dianna; Herrburger, Eric; Smith, Clay; Hill, Stuart; VonMehlem, Judi

    2008-01-01

    Mission of the Geospace Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) is: Gain s cientific understanding (to the point of predictability) of how populations of relativistic electrons and ions in space form or change in response to changes in solar activity and the solar wind.

  7. Academic training in radiation safety awareness and practice among Iranian residents/fellows

    PubMed Central

    Safi, Morteza; Aerab-Sheibani, Hossein; Namazi, Mohammad Hassan; Vakili, Hossein; Saadat, Habibollah

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the current state of radiation safety awareness and practice among Iranian radiology/cardiology residents. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 725 Iranian cardiology/radiology fellows/residents (685 residents and 40 fellows) were studied. Radiation safety awareness and practice were assessed using a 13-item survey questionnaire. Based on academic trainings provided in their medical centres, the subjects were divided into two groups (trained vs untrained). Results Trained residents/fellows had better performance compared with untrained ones regarding awareness of radiation dealing instructions, knowing safety experts of their centres (43.8% vs 20.1%, p<0.001) and their contact information (38.4% vs 11.4%, p<0.001), date of the last CBC (complete blood count) checking (15.1% vs 2.5%, p<0.001), use of lead glass (61.6% vs 41.8%, p=0.003), apron (94.5% vs 90%, p=0.016) and radiation shield (71.2% vs 46.2%, p<0.001). Conclusions Awareness/practice of Iranian cardiology/radiology residents/fellows about radiation exposure safety issues is not acceptable currently. Those who received formal training courses at their academic centres about the safety measures had significantly better knowledge compared with those who did not. It is suggested that radiation safety training be offered at the beginning of residency/fellowship for residents/fellows in a comprehensive and uniform way throughout medical universities. PMID:27326189

  8. Radiation safety aspects of commercial high-speed flight transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Nealy, John E.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.; Hajnal, Ferenc; Reginatto, Marcel; Goldhagen, Paul

    1995-01-01

    High-speed commercial flight transportation is being studied for intercontinental operations in the 21st century, the projected operational characteristics for these aircraft are examined, the radiation environment as it is now known is presented, and the relevant health issues are discussed. Based on a critical examination of the data, a number of specific issues need to be addressed to ensure an adequate knowledge of the ionizing radiation health risks of these aircraft operations. Large uncertainties in our knowledge of the physical fields for high-energy neutrons and multiply-charged ion components need to be reduced. Improved methods for estimating risks in prenatal exposure need to be developed. A firm basis for solar flare monitoring and forecasting needs to be developed with means of exposure abatement.

  9. Radiation safety aspects of commercial high-speed flight transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John W.; Nealy, John E.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.; Hajnal, Ferenc; Reginatto, Marcel; Goldhagen, Paul

    1995-05-01

    High-speed commercial flight transportation is being studied for intercontinental operations in the 21st century, the projected operational characteristics for these aircraft are examined, the radiation environment as it is now known is presented, and the relevant health issues are discussed. Based on a critical examination of the data, a number of specific issues need to be addressed to ensure an adequate knowledge of the ionizing radiation health risks of these aircraft operations. Large uncertainties in our knowledge of the physical fields for high-energy neutrons and multiply-charged ion components need to be reduced. Improved methods for estimating risks in prenatal exposure need to be developed. A firm basis for solar flare monitoring and forecasting needs to be developed with means of exposure abatement.

  10. Using tablet technology in operational radiation safety applications.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Andrew; Linsley, Mark; Houser, Mike

    2013-11-01

    Tablet computers have become a mainstream product in today's personal, educational, and business worlds. These tablets offer computing power, storage, and a wide range of available products to meet nearly every user need. To take advantage of this new computing technology, a system was developed for the Apple iPad (Apple Inc. 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino, CA 95014) to perform health and safety inspections in the field using editable PDFs and saving them to a database while keeping the process easy and paperless. PMID:24077083

  11. Radiation Safety System of the B-Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, James C

    1998-10-12

    The radiation safety system (RSS) of the B-Factory accelerator facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is described. The RSS, which is designed to protect people from prompt radiation exposure due to beam operation, consists of the access control system (ACS) and the radiation containment system (RCS). The ACS prevents people from being exposed to the very high radiation levels inside a beamline shielding housing. The ACS consists of barriers, a standard entry module at every entrance, and beam stoppers. The RCS prevents people from being exposed to the radiation outside a shielding housing, due to either normal or abnormal operation. The RCS consists of power limiting devices, shielding, dump/collimator, and an active radiation monitor system. The inter-related system elements for the ACS and RCS, as well as the associated interlock network, are described. The policies and practices in setting up the RSS are also compared with the regulatory requirements.

  12. Modernisation and consolidation of the European radiation protection legislation: the new Euratom Basic Safety Standards Directive.

    PubMed

    Mundigl, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    With the publication of new basic safety standards for the protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation, foreseen in Article 2 and Article 30 of the Euratom Treaty, the European Commission modernises and consolidates the European radiation protection legislation. A revision of the Basic Safety Standards was needed in order (1) to take account of the scientific and technological progress since 1996 and (2) to consolidate the existing set of Euratom radiation protection legislation, merging five Directives and upgrading a recommendation to become legally binding. The new Directive offers in a single coherent document basics safety standards for radiation protection, which take account of the most recent advances in science and technology, cover all relevant radiation sources, including natural radiation sources, integrate protection of workers, members of the public, patients and the environment, cover all exposure situations, planned, existing, emergency, and harmonise numerical values with international standards. After the publication of the Directive in the beginning of 2014, Member States have 4 y to transpose the Directive into national legislation and to implement the requirements therein. PMID:25227437

  13. US Food and Drug Administration Regulation of Medical Devices and Radiation Oncology: Can Reform Improve Safety?

    PubMed Central

    Hattangadi, Jona A.; O'Reilly, James T.; Recht, Abram

    2012-01-01

    Although radiation therapy is highly safe and effective in treating cancer, recent reports of dangerous radiation-related errors have focused a national spotlight on the field of radiation oncology and, more specifically, on the rapidly evolving and complex nature of radiation devices and how they are regulated. The purpose of this review is to explore the issues involved in medical device regulation in radiation oncology. We start with a general review of federal medical device regulation, including explanations of the legal and regulatory framework, and then discuss issues specific to radiation oncology with real-world examples. We also provide our thoughts on potential solutions and reforms to the current system, including better reporting of radiation-related errors in a centralized database, well-defined criteria for establishing substantial equivalence of a new device, and standard postmarket surveillance of radiation devices. Modern radiation therapy is a powerful tool that can help cure many patients' cancers and alleviate others' suffering with limited adverse effects. We must ensure that this promise is never compromised by avoidable mistakes. PMID:22548012

  14. Measurement and standardization of eye safety for optical radiation of LED products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Tongsheng; Peng, Zhenjian

    2013-06-01

    The blue light hazard (BLH) to human eye's retina is now a new issue emerging in applications of artificial light sources. Especially for solid state lighting sources based on the blue chip-LED(GaN), the photons with their energy more than 2.4 eV show photochemical effects on the retina significantly, raising damage both in photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium. The photobiological safety of artificial light sources emitting optical radiation has gained more and more attention worldwide and addressed by international standards IEC 62471-2006(CIE S009/E: 2002). Meanwhile, it is involved in IEC safety specifications of LED lighting products and covered by European Directive 2006/25/EC on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of the workers to artificial optical radiation. In practical applications of the safety standards, the measuring methods of optical radiation from LED products to eyes are important in establishment of executable methods in the industry. In 2011, a new project to develop the international standard of IEC TR62471-4,that is "Measuring methods of optical radiation related to photobiological safety", was approved and are now under way. This paper presents the concerned methods for the assessment of optical radiation hazards in the standards. Furthermore, a retina radiance meter simulating eye's optical geometry is also described, which is a potential tool for blue light hazard assessment of retinal exposure to optical radiation. The spectroradiometric method integrated with charge-coupled device(CCD) imaging system is introduced to provide more reliable results.

  15. Radiation Safety Issues in High Altitude Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.

    1995-01-01

    The development of a global economy makes the outlook for high speed commercial intercontinental flight feasible, and the development of various configurations operating from 20 to 30 km have been proposed. In addition to the still unresolved issues relating to current commercial operations (12-16 km), the higher dose rates associated with the higher operating altitudes makes il imperative that the uncertainties in the atmospheric radiation environment and the associated health risks be re-examined. Atmospheric radiation associated with the galactic cosmic rays forms a background level which may, under some circumstances, exceed newly recommended allowable exposure limits proposed on the basis of recent evaluations of the A -bomb survivor data (due to increased risk coefficients). These larger risk coefficients, within the context of the methodology for estimating exposure limits, are resulting in exceedingly low estimated allowable exposure limits which may impact even present day flight operations and was the reason for the CEC workshop in Luxembourg (1990). At higher operating altitudes, solar particles events can produce exposures many orders of magnitude above background levels and pose significant health risks to the most sensitive individuals (such as during pregnancy). In this case the appropriate quality factors are undefined, and some evidence exists which indicates that the quality factor for stochastic effects is a substantial underestimate.

  16. Radiation safety aspects of the operation of first three synchrotron beam lines of Indus-2.

    PubMed

    Nayak, M K; Nair, Haridas G; Bakshi, A K; Sahani, P K; Singh, Sunil; Khan, Saleem; Verma, Dimple; Dev, Vipin; Sahu, T K; Khare, Mukesh; Kumar, Vijay; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas; Tripathi, R M; Sharma, D N

    2015-04-01

    Five synchrotron radiation beam lines are commissioned and now under regular operation at the Synchrotron Radiation Source, Indus-2 at Raja Ramanna Centre For Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore, India. Nine beam lines are under trial operation, and six beam lines are in the installation stage. In the early phase of installation of beam lines on Indus-2, three bending magnet beam lines, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS, BL-8), Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (EDXRD, BL-11) and Angle Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (ADXRD, BL-12), were installed and commissioned, after approval from Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), India. These beam lines are pink (BL-8), white (BL-11) and monochromatic (BL-12), which are housed in specially designed shielded hutches. In order to ensure safety of users and other working personnel from ionizing radiations present in these beam lines, several safety systems are incorporated and safety procedures are followed. The paper describes the radiological safety aspects of the three beam lines during its initial commissioning trials and also the measurements on radiation levels carried out in and around the beam line hutches. PMID:25209995

  17. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Technical Electronic...

  18. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and ALARA procedures as required by 10 CFR part 20 of this chapter, and reviewing them regularly to ensure that the procedures in use conform to current 10 CFR part 20 procedures, conform to other NRC... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography....

  19. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., and ALARA procedures as required by 10 CFR part 20 of this chapter, and reviewing them regularly to ensure that the procedures in use conform to current 10 CFR part 20 procedures, conform to other NRC... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography....

  20. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and ALARA procedures as required by 10 CFR part 20 of this chapter, and reviewing them regularly to ensure that the procedures in use conform to current 10 CFR part 20 procedures, conform to other NRC... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography....

  1. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and ALARA procedures as required by 10 CFR part 20 of this chapter, and reviewing them regularly to ensure that the procedures in use conform to current 10 CFR part 20 procedures, conform to other NRC... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography....

  2. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., and ALARA procedures as required by 10 CFR part 20 of this chapter, and reviewing them regularly to ensure that the procedures in use conform to current 10 CFR part 20 procedures, conform to other NRC... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography....

  3. 10 CFR 35.57 - Training for experienced Radiation Safety Officer, teletherapy or medical physicist, authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Training for experienced Radiation Safety Officer, teletherapy or medical physicist, authorized medical physicist, authorized user, nuclear pharmacist, and authorized nuclear pharmacist. 35.57 Section 35.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE...

  4. Strategies for Navigating Common Ethical Dilemmas Encountered by Operational Radiation Safety Professionals.

    PubMed

    Emery, Robert J; Rios, Janelle

    2016-02-01

    Because operational radiation safety professionals can encounter ethical dilemmas in the course of their work, codes of ethics and professional standards of conduct are maintained by the Health Physics Society (HPS) and the American Academy of Health Physics (AAHP). While these works provide valuable guidance, they do not operationalize the types of ethical dilemmas radiation safety practitioners might encounter. For example, consider the ethical conundrum of “dual loyalty,” defined as the situation in which an individual holds simultaneous obligations to two or more parties. In the case of radiation safety, practicing professionals hold obligations to the workers being protected and to the leaders of the organization. If these obligations are in conflict, serious difficulties can arise. The conundrum of dual loyalty is described and a strategy for reducing its effect is discussed. Two other common ethical issues; “confidentiality” and “organizational dissent” are similarly presented. A foundation from which to launch an ongoing dialogue about ethical issues within the radiation safety profession is also proposed. PMID:26710164

  5. Occupational Exposure to Diagnostic Radiology in Workers without Training in Radiation Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona, Enrique; Enríquez, Jesús G. Franco

    2004-09-01

    The physicians, technicians, nurses, and others involved in radiation areas constitute the largest group of workers occupationally exposed to man-made sources of radiation. Personnel radiation exposure must be monitored for safety and regulatory considerations, this assessment may need to be made over a period of one month or several months. The purpose of this study was to carry out an exploratory survey of occupational exposures associated with diagnostic radiology. The personnel dosimeters used in this study were thermoluminiscent dosimeters (TLDs). The reported number of monitored workers was 110 of different departments of radiology of the Mexican Republic without education in radiation safety, included general fluoscopic/radiographic imaging, computed tomography and mammography procedures. Physicians and X-ray technologist in diagnostic radiology receive an average annual effective dose of 2.9 mSv with range from 0.18 to 5.64 mSv. The average level of occupational exposures is generally similar to the global average level of natural radiation exposure. The annual global per capita effective dose due to natural radiation sources is 2.4 mSv (UNSCEAR 2000 Report). There is not significant difference between average occupational exposures and natural radiation exposure for p < 0.05.

  6. Integrating an academic radiation safety program into an environmental management system.

    PubMed

    Zurosky, Daniel M

    2003-08-01

    The Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) Program at the University of South Carolina recently developed an environmental management system (EMS) based on the ISO 14001 International Standard. Since our radiation safety program must already meet strict state licensing requirements, the process of conforming to this standard was relatively easy to accomplish. The EH&S program achieved certification to the ISO 14001 standard in August of 2002. The benefits of the EMS include: better interaction between radiation safety and other EH&S program entities, holds all employees accountable by closely tracking program activities, presents a clear picture of program accomplishments to the university administration, allows for better use of limited resources and provides for continuous program improvement. PMID:12865748

  7. Current global and Korean issues in radiation safety of nuclear medicine procedures.

    PubMed

    Song, H C

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the management of patient doses in medical imaging has evolved as concern about radiation exposure has increased. Efforts and techniques to reduce radiation doses are focussed not only on the basis of patient safety, but also on the fundamentals of justification and optimisation in cooperation with international organisations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the World Health Organization. The Image Gently campaign in children and Image Wisely campaign in adults to lower radiation doses have been initiated in the USA. The European Association of Nuclear Medicine paediatric dosage card, North American consensus guidelines, and Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative have recommended the activities of radiopharmaceuticals that should be administered in children. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), developed predominantly in Europe, may be an important tool to manage patient doses. In Korea, overexposure to radiation, even from the use of medical imaging, has become a public issue, particularly since the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. As a result, the Korean Nuclear Safety and Security Commission revised the technical standards for radiation safety management in medical fields. In parallel, DRLs for nuclear medicine procedures have been collected on a nationwide scale. Notice of total effective dose from positron emission tomography-computed tomography for cancer screening has been mandatory since mid-November 2014. PMID:26960820

  8. Probabilistic Modeling Approach for Evaluating the Compliance of Ready-To-Eat Foods with New European Union Safety Criteria for Listeria monocytogenes▿

    PubMed Central

    Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos; Angelidis, Apostolos S.

    2007-01-01

    Among the new microbiological criteria that have been incorporated in EU Regulation 2073/2005, of particular interest are those concerning Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to eat (RTE) foods, because for certain food categories, they no longer require zero tolerance but rather specify a maximum allowable concentration of 100 CFU/g or ml. This study presents a probabilistic modeling approach for evaluating the compliance of RTE sliced meat products with the new safety criteria for L. monocytogenes. The approach was based on the combined use of (i) growth/no growth boundary models, (ii) kinetic growth models, (iii) product characteristics data (pH, aw, shelf life) collected from 160 meat products from the Hellenic retail market, and (iv) storage temperature data recorded from 50 retail stores in Greece. This study shows that probabilistic analysis of the above components using Monte Carlo simulation, which takes into account the variability of factors affecting microbial growth, can lead to a realistic estimation of the behavior of L. monocytogenes throughout the food supply chain, and the quantitative output generated can be further used by food managers as a decision-making tool regarding the design or modification of a product's formulation or its “use-by” date in order to ensure its compliance with the new safety criteria. The study also argues that compliance of RTE foods with the new safety criteria should not be considered a parameter with a discrete and binary outcome because it depends on factors such as product characteristics, storage temperature, and initial contamination level, which display considerable variability even among different packages of the same RTE product. Rather, compliance should be expressed and therefore regulated in a more probabilistic fashion. PMID:17557858

  9. Probabilistic modeling approach for evaluating the compliance of ready-to-eat foods with new European Union safety criteria for Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos; Angelidis, Apostolos S

    2007-08-01

    Among the new microbiological criteria that have been incorporated in EU Regulation 2073/2005, of particular interest are those concerning Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to eat (RTE) foods, because for certain food categories, they no longer require zero tolerance but rather specify a maximum allowable concentration of 100 CFU/g or ml. This study presents a probabilistic modeling approach for evaluating the compliance of RTE sliced meat products with the new safety criteria for L. monocytogenes. The approach was based on the combined use of (i) growth/no growth boundary models, (ii) kinetic growth models, (iii) product characteristics data (pH, a(w), shelf life) collected from 160 meat products from the Hellenic retail market, and (iv) storage temperature data recorded from 50 retail stores in Greece. This study shows that probabilistic analysis of the above components using Monte Carlo simulation, which takes into account the variability of factors affecting microbial growth, can lead to a realistic estimation of the behavior of L. monocytogenes throughout the food supply chain, and the quantitative output generated can be further used by food managers as a decision-making tool regarding the design or modification of a product's formulation or its "use-by" date in order to ensure its compliance with the new safety criteria. The study also argues that compliance of RTE foods with the new safety criteria should not be considered a parameter with a discrete and binary outcome because it depends on factors such as product characteristics, storage temperature, and initial contamination level, which display considerable variability even among different packages of the same RTE product. Rather, compliance should be expressed and therefore regulated in a more probabilistic fashion. PMID:17557858

  10. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed.

  11. Intensive Care Nurses’ Knowledge of Radiation Safety and Their Behaviors Towards Portable Radiological Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Dianati, Mansoor; Zaheri, Azita; Talari, Hamid Reza; Deris, Fateme; Rezaei, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background: Radiological examinations for patients who are hospitalized at intensive care units are usually performed using portable radiography devices. However they may require knowledge and safety precautions of nurses. Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate ICU nurses’ knowledge of radiation safety and their behaviors towards portable radiological examinations. Materials and Methods: In total, 44 intensive care nurses were recruited for this cross-sectional descriptive study using census sampling during April and May 2014. The study setting was at intensive care units of Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Kashan, Iran. An eleven-item questionnaire and a five-item checklist were used for evaluating nurses’ radiation protection knowledge and behaviors, respectively. An expert panel consisting of ten nursing and radiology faculty members confirmed the content validity of the questionnaire and the checklist. Moreover, a Geiger-Müller counter was used for measuring ionizing radiation during portable radiological examinations. Study data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 13.0. Mean, standard deviation, frequency and one-sample t test were used for description of the data. The level of significance was set at below 0.05. Results: The mean of participants’ radiation protection knowledge was 4.77 ± 1.38. The most prevalent radiation protection behavior of nurses was leaving the intensive care unit during portable radiological examinations. Only 6.8% of nurses stayed at the nursing station during radiological examinations. The highest dose of radiation was 0.11 micro Sievert per hour (μSv/h), which was much lower than the highest permitted level of radiation exposure i.e. 0.25 μSv/h. Conclusions: Portable radiological examinations did not expose healthcare providers to high doses of ionizing radiation. Nurses’ radiation protection knowledge was limited and hence, they require in-service education programs. PMID:25741515

  12. Implementation of ANSI 13.36 - Radiation Safety Training for Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Trinosky, P.A.; Wells, L.

    2000-11-18

    ''Radiation Safety Training for Workers'' (ANSI 13.36) specifies a process for developing and implementing radiation safety training using performance-based concepts. In general, radiation safety training includes radiological safety policies, fundamental radiological controls, and the technical functions of specific facilities. Actual training, however, can vary significantly from one site to another, depending on the requirements and potential risks associated with the specific work involved. Performance-based training focuses on the instruction and practices required to develop job-related knowledge, skills, and abilities, rather than on simply prescribing training content and objectives. The Health Physics Society Standards Committee (HPSSC) working group recommended performance-based training, as opposed to a broad training program with prescribed performance objectives, for two main reasons: (1) the wide range of radiological workers to be trained and (2) the concern that a prescriptive program (i.e., 40 hours of training) could be misapplied. In addition, the working group preferred that the scope and depth of training be based on specific hazards and the magnitude of risk posed by those hazards. The group also proposed that passing scores be based on specified goals and the characteristics of test questions used. For instance, where passing scores are established (e.g., multiple-choice exams), they should be based on an analysis of the test questions rather than simply an arbitrary passing score. This standard is not intended to replace regulatory or contractual training requirements that establish minimum objectives, topics, class duration, or passing scores. Nor does it address radiation safety training received as part of an academic program of study. Such individuals would still require site-specific and on-the-job training for certain tasks.

  13. Key Performance Indicators in the Evaluation of the Quality of Radiation Safety Programs.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Cheryl Culver; Shaffer, Sheila; Fink-Bennett, Darlene; Winokur, Kay

    2016-08-01

    Beaumont is a multiple hospital health care system with a centralized radiation safety department. The health system operates under a broad scope Nuclear Regulatory Commission license but also maintains several other limited use NRC licenses in off-site facilities and clinics. The hospital-based program is expansive including diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine (molecular imaging), interventional radiology, a comprehensive cardiovascular program, multiple forms of radiation therapy (low dose rate brachytherapy, high dose rate brachytherapy, external beam radiotherapy, and gamma knife), and the Research Institute (including basic bench top, human and animal). Each year, in the annual report, data is analyzed and then tracked and trended. While any summary report will, by nature, include items such as the number of pieces of equipment, inspections performed, staff monitored and educated and other similar parameters, not all include an objective review of the quality and effectiveness of the program. Through objective numerical data Beaumont adopted seven key performance indicators. The assertion made is that key performance indicators can be used to establish benchmarks for evaluation and comparison of the effectiveness and quality of radiation safety programs. Based on over a decade of data collection, and adoption of key performance indicators, this paper demonstrates one way to establish objective benchmarking for radiation safety programs in the health care environment. PMID:27356165

  14. [Systemic approach to ecologic safety at objects with radiation jeopardy, involved into localization of low and medium radioactive waste].

    PubMed

    Veselov, E I

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with specifying systemic approach to ecologic safety of objects with radiation jeopardy. The authors presented stages of work and algorithm of decisions on preserving reliability of storage for radiation jeopardy waste. Findings are that providing ecologic safety can cover 3 approaches: complete exemption of radiation jeopardy waste, removal of more dangerous waste from present buildings and increasing reliability of prolonged localization of radiation jeopardy waste at the initial place. The systemic approach presented could be realized at various radiation jeopardy objects. PMID:21774123

  15. [SUBSTANTIATION OF DOSE LIMITS FOR A NEW NORMATIVE DOCUMENT ON RADIATION SAFETY OF LONG-DURATION SPACE MISSIONS AT ORBIT ALTITUDES OF UP TO 500 KM].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Grigoriev, Yu G; Shafirkin, A V; Shurshakov, V A

    2016-01-01

    Review of the data of experimental radiobiology and epidemiological follow-up of large groups of people subjected to radiation exposures on Earth has been undertaken to substantiate dose limits for critical organs of cosmonauts in order to ensure good performance and vitality while on long-duration orbital missions. The career dose limits for cosmonauts and astronauts established earlier in the USSR and USA amounted to nothing more but banning the risk of cancer death increase to 3%. To apply more rigorous criteria of delayed radiation risks, the Russian limits for cosmonauts were revised to substantiate a 4-fold reduction of the average tissue equivalent dose maximum to 1 Sv. The total of cancer and non-cancer radiation risks over lifetime and probable reduction of mean life expectancy (MLE) were calculated using the model of radiation-induced mortality for mammals and taken as the main damage to health. The established dose limit is equal to the career dose for nuclear industry personnel set forth by Russian standard document NRB 99/2009. For better agreement of admissible threshold doses to critical human organs (bone marrow, lens and skin) in the revised radiation limits for long-duration space missions and radiation safety limits on Earth, reduction of dose limits for the critical organs were substantiated additionally; these limits comply with those for planned over-exposure on Earth in document NRB 99/2009. PMID:27347592

  16. Radiation safety review for 511-keV emitters in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Dell, M A

    1997-03-01

    With the advent of high-energy collimators and dual-head coincidence cameras, standard nuclear medicine facilities will soon begin imaging with PET isotopes. The use of 511-keV emitters raises new radiation safety concerns for technologists traditionally limited to handling 99mTc and other low-energy isotopes. This article is a basic review of positron emitters, measurement concerns, exposure rates, shielding requirements and external radiation exposure mitigation. Newly developed PET shielding products are presented and regulatory status is discussed briefly. PMID:9239598

  17. Feasibility and safety of outpatient brachytherapy in 37 patients with brain tumors using the GliaSite Radiation Therapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Chino, Kazumi; Silvain, Daniel; Grace, Ana; Stubbs, James; Stea, Baldassarre

    2008-07-15

    Temporary, low dose rate brachytherapy to the margins of resected brain tumors, using a balloon catheter system (GliaSite Radiation Therapy System) and liquid I-125 radiation source (Iotrex), began in 2002 at the University of Arizona Medical Center. Initially, all patients were treated on an inpatient basis. For patient convenience, we converted to outpatient therapy. In this article we review the exposure data and safety history for the 37 patients treated as outpatients. Proper patient selection and instruction is crucial to having a successful outpatient brachytherapy program. A set of evaluation criteria and patient instructions were developed in compliance with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's document NUREG-1556 Volume 9 (Appendix U) and Arizona State Nuclear regulatory guidelines, which specify acceptable exposure rates for outpatient release in this setting. Of the 37 patients monitored, 26 patients were treated for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), six for primary GBM, and five for metastatic brain tumors. All 37 patients and their primary caregivers gave signed agreement to follow a specific set of instructions and were released for the duration of brachytherapy (3-7 days). The typical prescription dose was 60 Gy delivered at 0.5 cm from the balloon surface. Afterloaded activities in these patients ranged from 90.9 to 750.0 mCi and measured exposure rates at 1 m from the head were less than 14 mR/h. The mean exposure to the caretaker measured by personal radiation Landauer Luxel+ whole body dosimeters for 25 caretakers was found to be 9.6 mR, which was significantly less than the mean calculated exposure of 136.8 mR. For properly selected patients, outpatient brachytherapy is simple and can be performed within established regulatory guidelines.

  18. Feasibility and safety of outpatient brachytherapy in 37 patients with brain tumors using the GliaSite Radiation Therapy System.

    PubMed

    Chino, Kazumi; Silvain, Daniel; Grace, Ana; Stubbs, James; Stea, Baldassarre

    2008-07-01

    Temporary, low dose rate brachytherapy to the margins of resected brain tumors, using a balloon catheter system (GliaSite Radiation Therapy System) and liquid I-125 radiation source (Iotrex), began in 2002 at the University of Arizona Medical Center. Initially, all patients were treated on an inpatient basis. For patient convenience, we converted to outpatient therapy. In this article we review the exposure data and safety history for the 37 patients treated as outpatients. Proper patient selection and instruction is crucial to having a successful outpatient brachytherapy program. A set of evaluation criteria and patient instructions were developed in compliance with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's document NUREG-1556 Volume 9 (Appendix U) and Arizona State Nuclear regulatory guidelines, which specify acceptable exposure rates for outpatient release in this setting. Of the 37 patients monitored, 26 patients were treated for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), six for primary GBM, and five for metastatic brain tumors. All 37 patients and their primary caregivers gave signed agreement to follow a specific set of instructions and were released for the duration of brachytherapy (3-7 days). The typical prescription dose was 60 Gy delivered at 0.5 cm from the balloon surface. Afterloaded activities in these patients ranged from 90.9 to 750.0 mCi and measured exposure rates at 1 m from the head were less than 14 mR/h. The mean exposure to the caretaker measured by personal radiation Landauer Luxel + whole body dosimeters for 25 caretakers was found to be 9.6 mR, which was significantly less than the mean calculated exposure of 136.8 mR. For properly selected patients, outpatient brachytherapy is simple and can be performed within established regulatory guidelines. PMID:18697562

  19. Retinal safety of near infrared radiation in photovoltaic restoration of sight.

    PubMed

    Lorach, H; Wang, J; Lee, D Y; Dalal, R; Huie, P; Palanker, D

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic restoration of sight requires intense near-infrared light to effectively stimulate retinal neurons. We assess the retinal safety of such radiation with and without the retinal implant. Retinal damage threshold was determined in pigmented rabbits exposed to 880nm laser radiation. The 50% probability (ED50) of retinal damage during 100s exposures with 1.2mm diameter beam occurred at 175mW, corresponding to a modeled temperature rise of 12.5°C. With the implant, the same temperature was reached at 78mW, close to the experimental ED50 of 71mW. In typical use conditions, the retinal temperature rise is not expected to exceed 0.43°C, well within the safety limits for chronic use. PMID:26819813

  20. Radiation safety assessment of a system of small reactors for distributed energy.

    PubMed

    Odano, N; Ishida, T

    2005-01-01

    A passively safe small reactor for a distributed energy system, PSRD, is an integral type of light-water reactor with a thermal output of 100 or 300 MW aimed to be used for supplying district heat, electricity to small grids, and so on. Candidate locations for the PSRD as a distributed energy source are on-ground, deep underground, and in a seaside pit in the vicinity of the energy consumption area. Assessments of the radiation safety of a PSRD were carried out for three cases corresponding to normal operation, shutdown and a hypothetical postulated accident for several siting candidates. Results of the radiation safety assessment indicate that the PSRD design has sufficient shielding performance and capability and that the exposure to the general public is very low in the case of a hypothetical accident. PMID:16381690

  1. Retinal safety of near infrared radiation in photovoltaic restoration of sight

    PubMed Central

    Lorach, H.; Wang, J.; Lee, D. Y.; Dalal, R.; Huie, P.; Palanker, D.

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic restoration of sight requires intense near-infrared light to effectively stimulate retinal neurons. We assess the retinal safety of such radiation with and without the retinal implant. Retinal damage threshold was determined in pigmented rabbits exposed to 880nm laser radiation. The 50% probability (ED50) of retinal damage during 100s exposures with 1.2mm diameter beam occurred at 175mW, corresponding to a modeled temperature rise of 12.5°C. With the implant, the same temperature was reached at 78mW, close to the experimental ED50 of 71mW. In typical use conditions, the retinal temperature rise is not expected to exceed 0.43°C, well within the safety limits for chronic use. PMID:26819813

  2. Advances in Atmospheric Radiation Measurements and Modeling Needed to Improve Air Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Atwell, William; Beck, Peter; Benton, Eric; Copeland, Kyle; Dyer, Clive; Gersey, Brad; Getley, Ian; Hands, Alex; Holland, Michael; Hong, Sunhak; Hwang, Junga; Jones, Bryn; Malone, Kathleen; Meier, Matthias M.; Mertens, Chris; Phillips, Tony; Ryden, Keith; Schwadron, Nathan; Wender, Stephen A.; Wilkins, Richard; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2015-04-01

    Air safety is tied to the phenomenon of ionizing radiation from space weather, primarily from galactic cosmic rays but also from solar energetic particles. A global framework for addressing radiation issues in this environment has been constructed, but more must be done at international and national levels. Health consequences from atmospheric radiation exposure are likely to exist. In addition, severe solar radiation events may cause economic consequences in the international aviation community due to exposure limits being reached by some crew members. Impacts from a radiation environment upon avionics from high-energy particles and low-energy, thermalized neutrons are now recognized as an area of active interest. A broad community recognizes that there are a number of mitigation paths that can be taken relative to the human tissue and avionics exposure risks. These include developing active monitoring and measurement programs as well as improving scientific modeling capabilities that can eventually be turned into operations. A number of roadblocks to risk mitigation still exist, such as effective pilot training programs as well as monitoring, measuring, and regulatory measures. An active international effort toward observing the weather of atmospheric radiation must occur to make progress in mitigating radiation exposure risks. Stakeholders in this process include standard-making bodies, scientific organizations, regulatory organizations, air traffic management systems, aircraft owners and operators, pilots and crew, and even the public.

  3. Radiation safety requirements for radioactive waste management in the framework of a quality management system

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, M.M.; Benitez, J.C.; Pernas, R.; Gonzalez, N.

    2007-07-01

    The Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) is the institution responsible for the management of radioactive wastes generated from nuclear applications in medicine, industry and research in Cuba. Radioactive Waste Management Service is provided at a national level and it includes the collection and transportation of radioactive wastes to the Centralized Waste Management Facilities, where they are characterized, segregated, treated, conditioned and stored. A Quality Management System, according to the ISO 9001 Standard has been implemented for the RWM Service at CPHR. The Management System includes the radiation safety requirements established for RWM in national regulations and in the Licence's conditions. The role of the Regulatory Body and the Radiation Protection Officer in the Quality Management System, the authorization of practices, training and personal qualification, record keeping, inspections of the Regulatory Body and internal inspection of the Radiation Protection Officer, among other aspects, are described in this paper. The Quality Management System has shown to be an efficient tool to demonstrate that adequate measures are in place to ensure the safety in radioactive waste management activities and their continual improvement. (authors)

  4. Radiation safety education reduces the incidence of adult fingers on neonatal chest radiographs.

    PubMed

    Sahota, N; Burbridge, B E; Duncan, M D

    2014-06-01

    A previous audit revealed a high frequency of adult fingers visualised on neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) chest radiographs-representing an example of inappropriate occupational radiation exposure. Radiation safety education was provided to staff and we hypothesised that the education would reduce the frequency of adult fingers visualised on NICU chest radiographs. Two cross-sectional samples taken before and after the administration of the education were compared. We examined fingers visualised directly in the beam, fingers in the direct beam but eliminated by technologists editing the image, and fingers under the cones of the portable x-ray machine. There was a 46.2% reduction in fingers directly in the beam, 50.0% reduction in fingers directly in the beam but cropped out, and 68.4% reduction in fingers in the coned area. There was a 57.1% overall reduction in adult fingers visualised, which was statistically significant (Z value - 7.48, P < 0.0001). This study supports radiation safety education in minimising inappropriate occupational radiation exposure. PMID:24705198

  5. Comparison of radiation sources and filtering safety glasses for fluorescent nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Richard Daniel

    This study was directed toward the question of whether recent advancements in radiation sources and test media offered significant improvements over the current state of the art. Included were experiments characterizing common penetrant and magnetic particle materials to determine their fluorescent excitation spectra, and a comparison between the fluorescent excitation spectra and the emission spectra of common excitation sources. The relationship between exciter and test medium directly controls the luminance of a defect indication. As indication luminance increases, the probability of it being detected by the inspector increases. Fluorescent penetrant and magnetic particle test media were originally designed around the widely available filtered medium pressure mercury vapor lamp, which remains the standard excitation radiation source. Test media properties, and the types of available excitation sources have changed with time, and it was unclear whether present-day media was still best excited by the historical standard ultraviolet radiation source. Predictions and experimental work was performed to determine the optimal excitation source for fluorescent nondestructive testing, and to determine which safety lens option would offer the highest probability of detection. Improvement in radiation sources was primarily judged by an increase in fluorophore luminance versus background, which led to an increase in signal-to-noise ratio facilitating better indication detectability. Other factors considered were improved health and safety, and ease of use.

  6. Legitimating a nuclear critic: John Gofman, radiation safety, and cancer risks.

    PubMed

    Semendeferi, Ioanna

    2008-01-01

    Whether low-level ionizing radiation has an effect on humans has been a polarizing issue for the last fifty years. The epicenter of this controversy has been the validity of the linear non-threshold dose-response model, according to which any amount of radiation, however small, causes damage to human genes and health. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the nuclear scientist and medical researcher John Gofman (1918-2007) played a pivotal role in the debate. Historical accounts have treated Gofman as a radical antinuclear scientist whose unscientific arguments put enormous political pressure on the nuclear power industry and regulatory agencies. Gofman's bitter struggle with the Atomic Energy Commission, which funded his research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, partly accounts for this view. However, my analysis of Gofman's involvement in the low-level radiation debate shows how he also helped shift the focus in radiation safety from the risks of genetic damage or leukemia to somatic or cancer risks. His arguments led to the introduction of the linear non-threshold radiation model as a means of numerically estimating cancer risks. This was a watershed event in radiation-safety science and politics. Gofman's case sheds light on the process by which a scientist could secure legitimation even when his technical arguments threatened the government's interests. I conclude that it also points to an open issue in the history of antinuclear scientists, or of other politically active scientists or technology critics: treating them as critics should not preclude historians from treating them as scientists. PMID:20073123

  7. Posttherapy radiation safety considerations in radiomicrosphere treatment with 90Y-microspheres.

    PubMed

    Gulec, Seza A; Siegel, Jeffry A

    2007-12-01

    Radiomicrosphere treatment involves the intrahepatic arterial administration of (90)Y-resin or (90)Y-glass microspheres. The microspheres are biocompatible, but not biodegradable, and little to no (90)Y leaches from the microspheres. Without any bioelimination, the beta-dose delivery is generally confined to the liver. Although U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements permit patients treated with these microspheres to be released without the need for dose determination or patient instructions, there are important radiation safety issues that need scientific clarification. We carefully evaluated the radiation exposure mechanisms, including the bremsstrahlung radiation doses to others, for a variety of lifestyle behaviors. Dose estimates were also made for several practical and theoretic situations involving the patient's gonads, an embryo or fetus, and a nursing infant. For the infant, we evaluated the potential beta-dose that might be introduced via breast milk ingestion. The bremsstrahlung component of the decay scheme of the pure beta-emitter (90)Y has traditionally been ignored in internal and external dose calculations. Because the production of in vivo bremsstrahlung with the high-energy pure beta-particle-emitting radionuclides used for therapeutic purposes is sufficient to permit external detection and imaging, we believe that the contribution of such radiation should be considered with regard to patient release; we therefore chose to evaluate this potential external radiation hazard. In all cases, the estimated doses were very small, indicating that no patient restrictions are required for radiation safety purposes after the release of a patient who has been treated with (90)Y-microspheres. PMID:18006608

  8. Regulatory Safety Issues in the Structural Design Criteria of ASME Section III Subsection NH and for Very High Temperatures for VHTR & GEN IV

    SciTech Connect

    William J. O’Donnell; Donald S. Griffin

    2007-05-07

    The objective of this task is to identify issues relevant to ASME Section III, Subsection NH [1], and related Code Cases that must be resolved for licensing purposes for VHTGRs (Very High Temperature Gas Reactor concepts such as those of PBMR, Areva, and GA); and to identify the material models, design criteria, and analysis methods that need to be added to the ASME Code to cover the unresolved safety issues. Subsection NH was originally developed to provide structural design criteria and limits for elevated-temperature design of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems and some gas-cooled systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its Advisory Committee for Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) reviewed the design limits and procedures in the process of reviewing the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) for a construction permit in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and identified issues that needed resolution. In the years since then, the NRC and various contractors have evaluated the applicability of the ASME Code and Code Cases to high-temperature reactor designs such as the VHTGRs, and identified issues that need to be resolved to provide a regulatory basis for licensing. This Report describes: (1) NRC and ACRS safety concerns raised during the licensing process of CRBR , (2) how some of these issues are addressed by the current Subsection NH of the ASME Code; and (3) the material models, design criteria, and analysis methods that need to be added to the ASME Code and Code Cases to cover unresolved regulatory issues for very high temperature service.

  9. New beam-charge interlock system for radiation safety at the KEKB injector linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwada, T.; Kadokura, E.; Satoh, M.; Furukawa, K.

    2008-02-01

    A new beam-charge interlock system is under development for radiation safety and machine protection at the KEKB injector linac. A hardware-based interlock system is required instead of the present software-based interlock system in order to boost its reliability. This system restricts the integrated amount of beam charges delivered to four different storage rings. The beam charges are measured using wall-current monitors and detection electronics at six locations along the linac. The detection electronics independently transmits a beam-abort request through a twisted hardwire cable directly to the safety control system of the linac, when the integrated amount of beam charges exceeds a certain threshold level prescribed for each location. We describe the characteristics and performance of the new beam-charge interlock system along with the details of the experimental tests.

  10. Incident Learning and Failure-Mode-and-Effects-Analysis Guided Safety Initiatives in Radiation Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Ajay; Goode, Gina; Riehl, Catherine; Zuvic, Petrina; Joseph, Sherin; Adair, Nilda; Interrante, Michael; Bloom, Beatrice; Lee, Lucille; Sharma, Rajiv; Sharma, Anurag; Antone, Jeffrey; Riegel, Adam; Vijeh, Lili; Zhang, Honglai; Cao, Yijian; Morgenstern, Carol; Montchal, Elaine; Cox, Brett; Potters, Louis

    2013-01-01

    By combining incident learning and process failure-mode-and-effects-analysis (FMEA) in a structure-process-outcome framework we have created a risk profile for our radiation medicine practice and implemented evidence-based risk-mitigation initiatives focused on patient safety. Based on reactive reviews of incidents reported in our departmental incident-reporting system and proactive FMEA, high safety-risk procedures in our paperless radiation medicine process and latent risk factors were identified. Six initiatives aimed at the mitigation of associated severity, likelihood-of-occurrence, and detectability risks were implemented. These were the standardization of care pathways and toxicity grading, pre-treatment-planning peer review, a policy to thwart delay-rushed processes, an electronic whiteboard to enhance coordination, and the use of six sigma metrics to monitor operational efficiencies. The effectiveness of these initiatives over a 3-years period was assessed using process and outcome specific metrics within the framework of the department structure. There has been a 47% increase in incident-reporting, with no increase in adverse events. Care pathways have been used with greater than 97% clinical compliance rate. The implementation of peer review prior to treatment-planning and use of the whiteboard have provided opportunities for proactive detection and correction of errors. There has been a twofold drop in the occurrence of high-risk procedural delays. Patient treatment start delays are routinely enforced on cases that would have historically been rushed. Z-scores for high-risk procedures have steadily improved from 1.78 to 2.35. The initiatives resulted in sustained reductions of failure-mode risks as measured by a set of evidence-based metrics over a 3-years period. These augment or incorporate many of the published recommendations for patient safety in radiation medicine by translating them to clinical practice. PMID:24380074