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Sample records for radiation sickness chapter

  1. Radiation sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... to determine the amount of radiation exposure from nuclear accidents, the best signs of the severity of the ... doses of radiation, such as radiation from a nuclear power plant accident Exposure to excessive radiation for medical treatments

  2. Mortality among workers with chronic radiation sickness

    SciTech Connect

    Shilnikova, N.S.; Koshurnikova, N.A.; Bolotnikova, M.G.; Kabirova, N.R.

    1996-07-01

    This study is based on a registry containing medical and dosimetric data of the employees who began working at different plants of the Mayak nuclear complex between 1948 and 1958 who developed chronic radiation sickness. Mayak is the first nuclear weapons plutonium production enterprise built in Russia and includes nuclear reactors, a radiochemical plant for plutonium separation, and a plutonium production enterprise built in Russia and includes nuclear reactors, a radiochemical plant for plutonium separation, and a plutonium production plant.Workers whose employment began between 1948 and 1958 exhibited a 6-28% incidence of chronic radiation sickness at the different facilities. There were no cases of chronic radiation sickness among those who began working after 1958. Data on doses of external whole-body gamma-irradiation and mortality in workers with chronic radiation sickness are presented. 6 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. Comparison of symptomatology and performance degradation for motion and radiation sickness. Technical report, 6 January 1984-31 March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    McClellan, G.E.; Wiker, S.F.

    1985-05-31

    This report quantifies for the first time the relationship between the signs and symptoms of acute radiation sickness and those of motion sickness. With this relationship, a quantitative comparison is made between data on human performance degradation during motion sickness and estimates of performance degradation during radiation sickness. The comparison validates estimates made by the Intermediate Dose Program on the performance degradation from acute radiation sickness.

  4. Prevention and treatment of the gastric symptoms of radiation sickness

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, A.; Fiala, N.; Boward, C.A.; Bogo, V.

    1988-09-01

    Currently available treatments for radiation-induced nausea and vomiting either are ineffective or reduce performance. The new antiemetic and gastrokinetic agent zacopride was tested in rhesus monkeys to assess its behavioral toxicity and its ability to inhibit radiation-induced emesis. Zacopride (intragastric, 0.3 mg/kg) or a placebo was given blindly and randomly in the basal state and 15 min before a whole-body 800 cGy 60Co gamma-radiation dose (except for the legs which were partially protected to permit survival of some bone marrow). We determined (1) gastric emptying rates; (2) the presence and frequency of retching and vomiting; and (3) the effect of zacopride on the performance of a visual discrimination task in nonirradiated subjects. No vomiting, retching, or decreased performance was observed after either placebo or zacopride in the control state. Following irradiation plus placebo, 70 emeses were observed in 5 of 6 monkeys, and 353 retches were observed in all 6 monkeys. In contrast, only 1 emesis was observed in 1 of 6 monkeys and 173 retches were seen in 4 of 6 monkeys after irradiation plus zacopride (P less than 0.01). Zacopride also significantly inhibited radiation-induced suppression of gastric emptying. When given after the first vomiting episode in a separate group of irradiated monkeys, zacopride completely prevented any subsequent vomiting. The present results demonstrate that intragastric administration of zacopride significantly inhibited radiation-induced retching, vomiting, and suppression of gastric emptying in rhesus monkeys and did not cause detectable behavioral side effects when given to nonradiated monkeys. This observation has important implications in the treatment of radiation sickness.

  5. Clinical distinctions of radiation sickness with exposure of different parts of the human body to radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nevskaya, G.F.; Abramova, G.M.; Volkova, M.A.; Kavlycheva, Y.V.; Skorik, A.S.; Yurogov, V.V.

    1982-01-12

    The clinical picture of radiation sickness of 139 radiological patients exposed to local irradition of the head, chest, and stomach with efficient doses of 210 rad was examined. It was found that at fractionated local irraditions the clinical symptom-complex of radiation sickness was identifical to that seen as a result of total-body irradiation. During head irradiation the major symptom was headache and during stomach irradiation nausea. The severity level of radiation damage measured with respect to the clinical symptom-complex as a whole with the aid of the bioinformation model was similar during irradiations of the head and stomach, much higher during irradiation of the chest. During head and stomach irradiations the severity level of radiation damage was proportional to the efficient dose. During chest irradiation there was no correlation between the severity level and the exposure to doses of 210 rad.

  6. [New advance of research on therapy of severe acute radiation sickness with mesenchymal stem cells].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ling-Ling; Li, Ming; Xing, Shuang; Luo, Qing-Liang

    2011-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a kind of non-hematopoietic adult stem cells with self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potential, which have special biological characteristics, such as secreting various cytokines, promoting hematopoiesis, accelerating stem cells homing and reconstructing hematopoietic microenvironment. MSC are collected and amplified easily, and can be transfected by exogenous gene. Many reports indicated that MSC were applied in therapy for variety of tissues and organs injury, meanwhile the treatment for acute radiation sickness has made significant progress. In this review, the biological characteristics and new research advance on MSC in treatment of severe acute radiation sickness are summarized and discussed. PMID:21729581

  7. Potential for a pluripotent adult stem cell treatment for acute radiation sickness

    PubMed Central

    Rodgerson, Denis O; Reidenberg, Bruce E; Harris, Alan G; Pecora, Andrew L

    2012-01-01

    Accidental radiation exposure and the threat of deliberate radiation exposure have been in the news and are a public health concern. Experience with acute radiation sickness has been gathered from atomic blast survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and from civilian nuclear accidents as well as experience gained during the development of radiation therapy for cancer. This paper reviews the medical treatment reports relevant to acute radiation sickness among the survivors of atomic weapons at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, among the victims of Chernobyl, and the two cases described so far from the Fukushima Dai-Ichi disaster. The data supporting the use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the new efforts to expand stem cell populations ex vivo for infusion to treat bone marrow failure are reviewed. Hematopoietic stem cells derived from bone marrow or blood have a broad ability to repair and replace radiation induced damaged blood and immune cell production and may promote blood vessel formation and tissue repair. Additionally, a constituent of bone marrow-derived, adult pluripotent stem cells, very small embryonic like stem cells, are highly resistant to ionizing radiation and appear capable of regenerating radiation damaged tissue including skin, gut and lung. PMID:24520532

  8. A possible approach to large-scale laboratory testing for acute radiation sickness after a nuclear detonation.

    PubMed

    Adalja, Amesh A; Watson, Matthew; Wollner, Samuel; Toner, Eric

    2011-12-01

    After the detonation of an improvised nuclear device, several key actions will be necessary to save the greatest number of lives possible. Among these tasks, the identification of patients with impending acute radiation sickness is a critical problem that so far has lacked a clear solution in national planning. We present one possible solution: the formation of a public-private partnership to augment the capacity to identify those at risk for acute radiation sickness. PMID:21988186

  9. Prevention and treatment of the gastric symptoms of radiation sickness

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, A.; Fiala, N.

    1988-01-01

    The new antiemetic and gastrokinetic agent zacopride was tested in rhesus monkeys to assess its behavioral toxicity and its ability to inhibit radiation-induced emesis. Zacopride (intragastric, 0.3 mg/kg) or a placebo was given blindly and randomly in the basal state and 15 min before a whole-body 800 cG Co-60 gamma radiation dose (except for the legs which were partially protected to permit survival of some bone marrow). The authors determined 1) gastric emptying rates; 2) the presence and frequency of retching and vomiting; and 3) the effect of zacopride on the performance of a visual discrimination task in nonirradiated subjects. When given after the first vomiting episode in a separate group of irradiated monkeys, zacopride completely prevented any subsequent vomiting. Results demonstrate that intragastric administration of zacopride significantly inhibited radiation-induced retching, vomiting, and suppression of gastric emptying in rhesus monkeys and did not cause detectable behavioral side effects when given to nonradiated monkeys.

  10. Radiation exposure guidelines for cleanup: Sickness in Mudville

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.G.

    1995-12-31

    Interest in retrospective construction of the radiation exposure doses that might possibly be or have been received by workers and members of the Population surrounding a nuclear industrial site continues to gain momentum. The reasons for the increased enthusiasm for decontamination, decommissioning, and environmental restoration (DD&ER) are not so much attributed to realistic cause-effect phenomena but more to a public apprehension based on the current desire to live in a no-risk society. The apprehension is magnified by political and economic interests plus the ever-present litigiousness. Regardless of the reason, it is an exciting field of science, it deals with the environment, which is important to every individual, and it ultimately leads to a more acceptable living condition for the populace involved. Some regulations have caused the cleanup process to essentially stagnate, awaiting the satisfaction of those who are making judgments on how clean is clean. However, there is seemingly little that can be accomplished to circumvent the bureaucratic processes, so a stalemate exists. In addition, the entire DD&ER process has been lucrative, and if one were to balance the weight of documentation that has been produced against the weight of the cleaned up environment to date, the result would be alarming.

  11. Analysis of chronic radiation sickness cases in the population of the southern urals. Contract report

    SciTech Connect

    Kossenko, M.M.; Akleyev, A.A.; Degteva, M.O.; Kozheurov, V.P.; Degtyaryova, R.G.

    1994-08-01

    This report was prepared for the Defense Nuclear Agency under contract number DNAOO1-92-M-0658. The report is based on information obtained from a 40-year follow-up of people exposed to radiation due to discharges of radioactive waste from an industrial facility, the Mayak Production Association, into the Techa-Iset river system. The results of the medical follow-up have been described in a number of articles published in scientific journals in Russia. This report summarizes dosimetric and medical data within the framework of deterministic effects and, in particular, chronic radiation sickness (CRS). From 1952 to 1961, 940 people out of 28,000 exposed to radiation in the riverside communities on the Techa were diagnosed as having CRS. Conditions of exposure are described, irradiation dose computations are presented, and the clinical picture of CRS is characterized.

  12. Radiation sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... set of symptoms that appear in an orderly fashion. Chronic exposure is usually associated with delayed medical ... pulse. Start CPR , if necessary. Remove the person's clothing and place the items in a sealed container. ...

  13. Acute radiation sickness amelioration analysis. Technical report, 20 July 1990-19 July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.I.; Feister, A.J.; Bareis, D.L.

    1994-05-01

    Three tasks were conducted under the Acute Radiation Sickness Amelioration Analysis in support of the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and NATO Army Armaments Group (NAAG) Project Group 29 (PG-29) on drugs for the prevention of radiation-induced nausea and vomiting: (1) documents were collected and entered into a data base, (2) data reviews and analyses were performed, and (3) PG-29 and Triservice meetings involving anti-emetic drug development were supported and documented. Approximately 2000 documents were collected, with 1424 complete bibliographic citations entered into a WordPerfect 5.1 data base. Eight reviews and analyses addressing different aspects of the safety and efficacy of the candidate anti-emetic drugs ondansetron and granistron were prepared. Support was provided for seven international PG-29 meetings and two U.S. Triservice meetings in which the efforts of PG-29 were discussed. These tasks have enabled the DNA and PG-29 to make good progress toward the goal of recommending a serotonin type-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist anti-emetic drug for use in military personnel.

  14. Risk of Skin Cancer from Space Radiation. Chapter 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; George, Kerry A.; Wu, Hong-Lu

    2003-01-01

    We review the methods for estimating the probability of increased incidence of skin cancers from space radiation exposure, and describe some of the individual factors that may contribute to risk projection models, including skin pigment, and synergistic effects of combined ionizing and UV exposure. The steep dose gradients from trapped electrons, protons, and heavy ions radiation during EVA and limitations in EVA dosimetry are important factors for projecting skin cancer risk of astronauts. We estimate that the probability of increased skin cancer risk varies more than 10-fold for individual astronauts and that the risk of skin cancer could exceed 1 % for future lunar base operations for astronauts with light skin color and hair. Limitations in physical dosimetry in estimating the distribution of dose at the skin suggest that new biodosimetry methods be developed for responding to accidental overexposure of the skin during future space missions.

  15. Emergency preparedness of Research Center for Radiation Medicine and its hospital to admit and treat the patients with signs of acute radiation sickness.

    PubMed

    Belyi, D A; Khomenko, V I; Bebeshko, V G

    2009-06-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the Research Center for Radiation Medicine (RCRM) was established in Kiev (Ukraine). Its main task was to maintain a high level of emergency preparedness and be ready to examine and treat patients who suffer as a result of hypothetical radiation accident. Based on the previous experience, this institution's specialists worked out new diagnostic criteria and drug treatment schemata for acute radiation sickness, created a database on 75 patients with this diagnosis and improved educational programmes for medical students and physicians working in the field of radiation medicine. RCRM collaborates fruitfully with western partners through the joint research projects and connects with the World Health Organization's Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network centre. Collaboration with Kiev Center for Bone Marrow Transplantation allows RCRM to use aseptic wards having highly filtered air for the treatment of most severely irradiated patients. PMID:19429648

  16. Introduction to Radiation Issues for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shavers, M. R.; Saganti, P. B.; Miller, J.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2003-01-01

    understanding of the current ISS space suits and provide insights into improved approaches for the design of future suits. This chapter begins with a summary of the dynamic ionizing radiation environment in LEO space and introduces the concepts and quantities used to quantify exposure to space radiation in LEO. The space suits used for EVA and the experimental partial human phantom are described. Subsequent chapters report results from measured charged particle fields before and after incident protons and secondary particles are transported through the space suits and into organs and tissues.

  17. Putting radiation in perspective. Appendix A. Savannah River Chapter, Health Physics Society, public lecture

    SciTech Connect

    Cofer, C.H.

    1981-06-01

    The Savannah River Chapter of the Health Physics Society has prepared and presented lectures to more than 20 civic groups in the Central Savannah River Area during the last half of 1980. The purpose of the lectures is to improve public understanding of the risks associated with ionizing radiation. Methods of preparation and presentation of the lectures are discussed along with methods used to obtain speaking invitations. Excerpts from the lectures, response to the lectures, and some typical questions from the question and answer sessions are also included.

  18. What's Motion Sickness?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What's Motion Sickness? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Motion Sickness? Print ... motion sickness might get even worse. continue Avoiding Motion Sickness To avoid motion sickness: Put your best ...

  19. Self-Study Manual on Optical Radiation Measurements: Part I--Concepts, Chapters 1 to 3. NBS Technical Note 910-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicodemus, Fred E., Ed.

    This is the initial publication of a series of self-study manuals on optical radiation measurement, and contains the first three chapters. Additional chapters will be published when completed. These chapters include: an introduction to optical radiation and the ray approach to its treatment; an introduction to the basic radiometric quantity…

  20. Morning Sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day What's happening in your area Find out about ... it's called morning sickness, it can last all day and happen any time of day. At least ...

  1. Sleeping sickness

    MedlinePlus

    Human African trypanosomiasis ... Kirchoff LV. Agents of African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolan R, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ...

  2. Serum sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... passive immunization. It gives you immediate, but temporary, protection while your body develops an active immune response against the toxin or germ. During serum sickness, the immune system falsely identifies a protein in antiserum as a ...

  3. Prescriptions for Sick Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1993-01-01

    Increasing insulation in schools as an energy-saving measure has given rise to the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS), which afflicts roughly one-third of the nation's schools. This article examines asbestos, radon, electromagnetic radiation, and chemical pollutants and describes steps to make schools environmentally safe for students. School officials…

  4. Long-term follow-up of the genital organs and eye lenses in three cases of acute radiation sickness from a 60Co radiation accident in China.

    PubMed

    Xing, Zhi Wei; Jiang, En Hai; Du, Jian Ying; Zhao, Feng Ling; Fu, Bao Hua; Jiang, Li Ping; Wang, Xiao Guang; Zhao, Xin Ran; Liu, Qiang; Jiang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    A follow-up study aimed primarily at investigating late radiation effects on the genital organs and eye lenses was performed between 1999 and 2010 on three individuals who suffered from acute radiation sickness in China. The examination included a medical history, a physical examination, ultrasonography, laboratory analysis, and an ophthalmologic examination. In Case 1, amenorrhea occurred after exposure to a Co source. The uterus and ovaries were significantly narrowed in the second year following exposure. The estradiol level decreased significantly during the first 3 y; progesterone was lowest in the second year; and levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone increased, especially in the first year. The lenses in both eyes appeared opaque 6 mo after the exposure, resulting in a gradual deterioration in visual acuity. In Case 2 (8 y old), the levels of testosterone and estradiol were normal. In Case 3, the levels of testosterone and estradiol were also normal, but the sperm count was 0 from 6 mo to 1 y, and the proportion of abnormal sperm was increased from 3-5 y after the accident. The lenses in Case 3 also began to turn opaque in the ninth year after the accident. In Case 1, the ovarian function was reduced, leading to amenorrhea and early menopause. In Case 3, the sperm count was reduced and the number of abnormal sperm was increased due to testicular damage by radiation. Radiation-induced cataracts occurred in both Case 1 and Case 3. PMID:25437514

  5. Emetic mechanism in acute radiation sickness. Technical report, 1 December 1982-30 November 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Borison, H.L.

    1987-08-20

    A dose-response relationship was established in normal cats for the evocation of vomiting within 24 h after whole-body exposure to /sup 60/Co radiation with doses ranging from 7.5 to 60 Gy delivered at 1.0 Gy/min. Vomiting was recorded oscillographically. Radiation-induced vomiting was elicited unabatedly at the optimal dose of 45 Gy in chronically postremectomized cats. Radioemetic susceptibility was evaluated in normal cats after each of two doses of radiation, from 7.5 to 60 Gy, given on successive days. Occurrence of radioemetic protection against the second irradiation was manifested in direct relation to the magnitude of the first exposure, and complete protection for 24 h resulted after second radiation exposure at the highest dose level. Postremectomized cats were also fully protected against the radioemetic effect of a second exposure at 45 Gy. All normal cats vomited in response to an emetic drug injection during the state of radioemetic refractoriness after the second irradiation at 45 Gy. A neural origin of emetic signal generated by first radiation exposure was examined in postrema-intact cats.

  6. [Decompression sickness].

    PubMed

    Sipinen, Seppo

    2010-01-01

    Decompression sickness will develop, when excess concentrations of nitrogen or helium from the respiratory gas have dissolved into the body. The dissolved gases are removed from the body with exhalation. If the level of dissolved gases exceeds their natural rate of removal, bubbles are formed in the circulation and tissues as the pressure surrounding the diver decreases. The bubbles will cause decompression sickness typically manifested as skin symptoms, musculoskeletal pains and disturbances of the central nervous system. The only known and effective treatment is recompression and inhalation of pure oxygen. PMID:20486494

  7. Morning sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... cheese; crackers; milk; cottage cheese; and yogurt; avoid foods high in fat and salt, but low in nutrition. Ginger products (proven effective against morning sickness) such as ginger tea, ginger candy, and ... these bands in drug, health food, and travel and boating stores. If you are ...

  8. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePlus

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  9. Sick sinus syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... chambers is a common cause of sick sinus syndrome. Coronary artery disease , high blood pressure, and aortic and ... pressure may be normal or low. Sick sinus syndrome may cause symptoms of heart failure to start or get worse. Sick sinus ...

  10. Morning sickness.

    PubMed

    Dean, Erin

    2016-08-10

    Essential facts Eight out of ten pregnant women are affected by nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. It is one of the most common reasons for pregnant women being admitted to hospital. Despite being known as morning sickness, symptoms can occur at any time of the day or night. The severe form of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy, hyperemesis gravidarum, is much rarer and affects up to 3% of pregnant women. For most women, their symptoms improve or disappear by around week 14, although for some it can last longer. PMID:27507366

  11. [Mountain sickness].

    PubMed

    Bultas, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Mountaineering brings many health risks, one of which is mountain sickness. Its mildest form - acute mountain sickness - is mainly characterized by subjective symptoms (headache, loss of appetite, insomnia, weakness, nausea and rarely also vomiting). Advanced and life-threatening forms are characterized by tissue edema - cerebral or pulmonary high altitude edema. The common denominator of these acute forms is the low oxygen tension leading to hypoxemia and tissue ischemia. Sum of maladaptive or adaptive processes can modify the clinical picture. Underlying mechanisms of the chronic forms of pulmonary disease are the adaptation processes - pulmonary hypertension and polycythemia leading to heart failure.The only causal therapeutic intervention is to restore adequate oxygen tension, descend to lower altitudes or oxygen therapy. Pharmacotherapy has only a supportive effect. The prophylaxis includes stimulation of the respiratory center by carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (acetazolamide) antiedematous treatment with glucocorticoids (dexamethasone), increase lymphatic drainage of the lungs and brain by β2-agonists (salmeterol) or mitigation of pulmonary hypertension by calcium channel blockers or phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (sildenafil or tadalafil). PMID:26750624

  12. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and the High Speed Civil Transport. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiden, D. L.; Wilson, J. W.; Jones, I. W.; Goldhagen, P.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is produced by extraterrestrial radiations incident on the Earth's atmosphere. These extraterrestrial radiations are of two sources: ever present galactic cosmic rays with origin outside the solar system and transient solar particle events that are at times very intense events associated with solar activity lasting several hours to a few days. Although the galactic radiation penetrating through the atmosphere to the ground is low in intensity, the intensity is more than two orders of magnitude greater at commercial aircraft altitudes. The radiation levels at the higher altitudes of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) are an additional factor of two higher. Ionizing radiation produces chemically active radicals in biological tissues that alter the cell function or result in cell death. Protection standards against low levels of ionizing radiation are based on limitation of excess cancer mortality or limitation of developmental injury resulting in permanent damage to the offspring during pregnancy. The crews of commercial air transport operations are considered as radiation workers by the EPA, the FAA, and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The annual exposures of aircrews depend on the latitudes and altitudes of operation and flight time. Flight hours have significantly increased since deregulation of the airline industry in the 1980's. The FAA estimates annual subsonic aircrew exposures to range from 0.2 to 9.1 mSv compared to 0.5 mSv exposure of the average nuclear power plant worker in the nuclear industry. The commercial aircrews of the HSCT may receive exposures above recently recommended allowable limits for even radiation workers if flying their allowable number of flight hours. An adequate protection philosophy for background exposures in HSCT commercial airtraffic cannot be developed at this time due to current uncertainty in environmental levels. In addition, if a large solar particle event

  13. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePlus

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... If you have fluid in your lungs (pulmonary edema), treatment may include: Oxygen A high blood pressure ...

  14. Chapter 9: Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  15. Fear of movement, passive coping, manual handling, and severe or radiating pain increase the likelihood of sick leave due to low back pain.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Anna P; Schluter, Philip J; Hodges, Paul W; Stewart, Simon; Turner, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    Sick leave due to low back pain (LBP-SL) is costly and compromises workforce productivity. The fear-avoidance model asserts that maladaptive pain-related cognitions lead to avoidance and disuse, which can perpetuate ongoing pain. Staying home from work is an avoidant behavior, and hence pain-related psychological features may help explain LBP-SL. We examined the relative contribution of pain catastrophizing, fear of movement, and pain coping (active and passive) in LBP-SL in addition to pain characteristics and other psychosocial, occupational, general health, and demographic factors. Two-way interactions between age and gender and candidate exposures were also considered. Our sample comprised 2164 working nurses and midwives with low back pain in the preceding year. Binary logistic regression was performed on cross-sectional data by manual backward stepwise elimination of nonsignificant terms to generate a parsimonious multivariable model. From an extensive array of exposures assessed, fear of movement (women, odds ratio [OR]=1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.08; men, OR=1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.29), passive coping (OR=1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.11), pain severity (OR=1.61, 95% CI 1.50-1.72), pain radiation (women, OR=1.45, 95% CI 1.10-1.92; men, OR=4.13, 95% CI 2.15-7.95), and manual handling frequency (OR=1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05) increased the likelihood of LBP-SL in the preceding 12 months. Administrators and managers were less likely to report LBP-SL (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.27-0.71), and age had a protective effect in individuals in a married or de facto relationship (OR=0.97, 95% CI 0.95-0.98). In summary, fear of movement, passive coping, frequent manual handling, and severe or radiating pain increase the likelihood of LBP-SL. Gender-specific responses to pain radiation and fear of movement are evident. PMID:21570184

  16. Munchausen syndrome: Playing sick or sick player.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jyoti; Das, R C; Srivastava, K; Patra, P; Khan, S A; Shashikumar, R

    2014-01-01

    Munchausen syndrome is rare factitious disorder which entails frequent hospitalization, pathological lying and intentional production of symptoms for sick role. Management requires collateral history taking, sound clinical approach, exclusion of organicity and addressing psychological issues. A case which presented with unusual symptoms of similar dimension is discussed here. The case brings out finer nuances in evaluation and management of this entity. PMID:25535450

  17. Munchausen syndrome: Playing sick or sick player

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jyoti; Das, R. C.; Srivastava, K.; Patra, P.; Khan, S. A.; Shashikumar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Munchausen syndrome is rare factitious disorder which entails frequent hospitalization, pathological lying and intentional production of symptoms for sick role. Management requires collateral history taking, sound clinical approach, exclusion of organicity and addressing psychological issues. A case which presented with unusual symptoms of similar dimension is discussed here. The case brings out finer nuances in evaluation and management of this entity. PMID:25535450

  18. Therapeutic effect of long-term melatonin treatment on the course and fatal outcome of modeled acute radiation sickness.

    PubMed

    Vasin, M V; Ushakov, I B; Kovtun, V Yu; Semenova, L A; Koroleva, L V; Galkin, A A; Afanas'ev, R V

    2014-04-01

    We studied the effect of long-term administration of melatonin to male C57Bl/6 mice starting from day 3 after whole-body γ-irradiation (9.5-10.0 Gy, 7.7-17.1 cGy/min). It was found that replacement of drinking water with melatonin solution (5 mg/liter) did not reduce the amount of fluid intake throughout the period of acute radiation injury. The daily dose of melatonin was 0.9-1.2 mg/kg body weight (this parameter was lower at the peak of the disease and increased during the recovery stage). Melatonin by more than 20% (p<0.05) improved survival of mice exposed to γ-irradiation in a dose of LD97/30, reduced leukopenia during the stage of acute manifestations of the disease and maximum mortality, and increased blood leukocyte count by 40% (p<0.05) by day 12 after irradiation. PMID:24824694

  19. Got a Sick Fish?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

  20. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)(4)-1 - Payments on account of sickness or accident disability, or medical or hospitalization expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payments on account of sickness or accident... (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(b)(4)-1 Payments on account of sickness or accident... employer to, or on behalf of, an employee on account of the employee's sickness or accident disability...

  1. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)(4)-1 - Payments on account of sickness or accident disability, or medical or hospitalization expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payments on account of sickness or accident... (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(b)(4)-1 Payments on account of sickness or accident... employer to, or on behalf of, an employee on account of the employee's sickness or accident disability...

  2. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)(4)-1 - Payments on account of sickness or accident disability, or medical or hospitalization expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payments on account of sickness or accident... (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(b)(4)-1 Payments on account of sickness or accident... employer to, or on behalf of, an employee on account of the employee's sickness or accident disability...

  3. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)(4)-1 - Payments on account of sickness or accident disability, or medical or hospitalization expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Payments on account of sickness or accident... (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(b)(4)-1 Payments on account of sickness or accident... employer to, or on behalf of, an employee on account of the employee's sickness or accident disability...

  4. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)(4)-1 - Payments on account of sickness or accident disability, or medical or hospitalization expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments on account of sickness or accident... (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(b)(4)-1 Payments on account of sickness or accident... employer to, or on behalf of, an employee on account of the employee's sickness or accident disability...

  5. Space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homick, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    Research on the etiology, prediction, treatment and prevention of space motion sickness, designed to minimize the impact of this syndrome which was experienced frequently and with severity by individuals on the Skylab missions, on Space Shuttle crews is reviewed. Theories of the cause of space motion sickness currently under investigation by NASA include sensory conflict, which argues that motion sickness symptoms result from a mismatch between the total pattern of information from the spatial senses and that stored from previous experiences, and fluid shift, based upon the redistribution of bodily fluids that occurs upon continued exposure to weightlessness. Attempts are underway to correlate space motion sickness susceptibility to different provocative environments, vestibular and nonvestibular responses, and the rate of acquisition and length of retention of sensory adaptation. Space motion sickness countermeasures under investigation include various drug combinations, of which the equal combination of promethazine and ephedrine has been found to be as effective as the scopolomine and dexedrine combination, and vestibular adaptation and biofeedback training and autogenic therapy.

  6. An initial radiation safety needs assessment of Costa Rica: the South Texas Chapter of the Health Physics Society's strategic planning appraisal for participation in the "Radiation Safety Without Borders" initiative.

    PubMed

    Emery, Robert J; Felknor, S A

    2002-05-01

    In response to the Health Physics Society's recent 'radiation safety without borders" initiative, the South Texas Chapter of the Health Physics Society selected Costa Rica as its partner country of choice. To develop an understanding of the radiation safety needs of this country, the fall 2001 University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of Public Health Environmental Radiation and Radioactivity class was tasked with the assignment of assessing the possible radiation safety needs and concerns for this country. The assignment culminated in a class presentation to the membership of the South Texas Chapter during its annual fall meeting. Using library and web based resources, tile students reviewed a number of public health and radiation-related topics. Life expectancies were found to be equivalent to the United States, even though significant differences in per capita health expenditures were noted. Costa Rica exhibited lower population mortality rates from major causes such as cardiovascular diseases, neoplasms, and external sources. Maternal and infant mortality rates were found to be much higher in Costa Rica than in the United States. Naturally occurring radiation sources such as uranium deposits were not identified as apparent major radiation issues of concern, although ultraviolet radiation exposures are consistently high. Several recent events in the country and the region involving patient overexposures suggest that concerns are likely focused on ensuring the proper use and maintenance of healing arts radiation equipment. The lack of available information on radioactive waste disposal suggests that waste handling also may be an issue warranting attention. The exercise proved to be very educational for the students, and the information gathered will serve to focus the Chapter's efforts when technical exchanges are initiated. The importance of linking this initiative to other existing programs within the country is also discussed. PMID:12003035

  7. The sick child's predicament.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D C

    1985-06-01

    There is widespread criticism of medicine which contrasts with its manifest success in biotechnology. Medicine's failure to convince stems partly from the fact that its successful biotechnology distracts it from the mundane task of responding appropriately to components of commonplace sicknesses which do not stem from disease (things) or illness (symptoms) but from predicaments. Predicaments are painful social situations or circumstances, complex, unstable, morally charged and varying in their import in time and place, which are readily discernible from a good history. Predicaments are distinguished from environmental agents by being an aspect of social organisation rather than structures. Dangerous and excruciating predicaments are described as well as the predicaments of being sick, and being in hospital. Child psychiatrists are often presented with problems where diagnosis of disease or illness in the child is inappropriate and resolution of its predicament alleviates the distress that had been presented in the language of sickness. The model is capable of broader application in psychiatry and medicine. Doctors should be more concerned to know about the context and background of their patients' sickness, as patients give this information very freely if asked. If patients' complaints are misunderstood then medical responses, made in good faith, may be seen as dangerous intrusions leading to a loss of trust, anger, and litigiousness. PMID:3863603

  8. [Mountaineering and altitude sickness].

    PubMed

    Maggiorini, M

    2001-06-01

    Almost every second trekker or climber develops two to three symptoms of the high altitude illness after a rapid ascent (> 300 m/day) to an altitude above 4000 m. We distinguish two forms of high altitude illness, a cerebral form called acute mountain sickness and a pulmonary form called high altitude pulmonary edema. Essentially, acute mountain sickness is self-limiting and benign. Its symptoms are mild to moderate headache, loss of appetite, nausea, dizziness and insomnia. Nausea rarely progresses to vomiting, but if it does, this may anticipate a progression of the disease into the severe form of acute mountain sickness, called high altitude cerebral edema. Symptoms and signs of high altitude cerebral edema are severe headache, which is not relieved by acetaminophen, loss of movement coordination, ataxia and mental deterioration ending in coma. The mechanisms leading to acute mountain sickness are not very well understood; the loss of cerebral autoregulation and a vasogenic type of cerebral edema are being discussed. High altitude pulmonary edema presents in roughly twenty percent of the cases with mild symptoms of acute mountain sickness or even without any symptoms at all. Symptoms associated with high altitude pulmonary edema are incapacitating fatigue, chest tightness, dyspnoe at the minimal effort that advances to dyspnoe at rest and orthopnoe, and a dry non-productive cough that progresses to cough with pink frothy sputum due to hemoptysis. The hallmark of high altitude pulmonary edema is an exaggerated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Successful prophylaxis and treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema using nifedipine, a pulmonary vasodilator, indicates that pulmonary hypertension is crucial for the development of high altitude pulmonary edema. The primary treatment of high altitude illness consists in improving hypoxemia and acclimatization. For prophylaxis a slow ascent at a rate of 300 m/day is recommended, if symptoms persist, acetazolamide at a

  9. Pregnancy sickness: a biopsychological perspective.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael S

    2012-10-01

    Pregnancy sickness is a universal phenomenon, affecting 70% to 85% of all pregnant women. The primary symptoms of pregnancy sickness are nausea, vomiting, and food aversions. In the past, pregnancy sickness was attributed to psychological disturbances of the pregnant woman. However, recent evolutionary psychological and biopsychological studies have reconsidered pregnancy sickness as an embryo-protective mechanism, an evolutionary adaptation to protect the embryo from phytotoxins and other environmental hazards. The biopsychological perspective of pregnancy sickness as an embryo-protective mechanism is presented. PMID:23112071

  10. Radiation Tests of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Space Suit for the International Space Station Using Energetic Protons. Chapter 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.; Miller, J.; Shavers, M.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements using silicon detectors to characterize the radiation transmitted through the EMU space suit and a human phantom have been performed using 155 and 250 MeV proton beams at LLUMC. The beams simulate radiation encountered in space, where trapped protons having kinetic energies on the order of 100 MeV are copious. Protons with 100 MeV kinetic energy and above can penetrate many centimeters of water or other light materials, so that astronauts exposed to such energetic particles will receive doses to their internal organs. This dose can be enhanced or reduced by shielding - either from the space suit or the self-shielding of the body - but minimization of the risk depends on details of the incident particle flux (in particular the energy spectrum) and on the dose responses of the various critical organs. Data were taken to characterize the beams and to calibrate the detectors using the beam in a treatment room at LLUPTF, in preparation for an experiment with the same beams incident on detectors placed in a human phantom within the EMU suit. Nuclear interactions of high-energy protons in various materials produce a small flux of highly ionizing, low-energy secondary radiation. Secondaries are of interest for their biological effects, since they cause doses and especially dose-equivalents to increase relative to the values expected simply from ionization energy loss along the Bragg curve. Because many secondaries have very short ranges, they are best measured in passive track detectors such as CR-39. The silicon detector data presented here are intended to supplement the CR-39 data in regions where silicon has greater sensitivity, in particular the portion of the LET spectrum below 5 keV/micron. The results obtained in this study suggest that optimizing the radiation shielding properties of space suits is a formidable task. The naive assumption that adding mass can reduce risk is not supported by the data, which show that reducing the dose delivered at or

  11. Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mountain Sickness, and Headache Print Email Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness, and Headache ACHE Newsletter Sign up for ... entering your e-mail address below. Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness, and Headache David W. Dodick, MD, FAHS, ...

  12. Space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderploeg, J. M.; Stewart, D. F.; Davis, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    Space motion sickness clinical characteristics, time course, prediction of susceptibility, and effectiveness of countermeasures were evaluated. Although there is wide individual variability, there appear to be typical patterns of symptom development. The duration of symptoms ranges from several hours to four days with the majority of individuals being symptom free by the end of third day. The etiology of this malady remains uncertain but evidence points to reinterpretation of otolith inputs as being a key factor in the response of the neurovestibular system. Prediction of susceptibility and severity remains unsatisfactory. Countermeasures tried include medications, preflight adaptation, and autogenic feedback training. No countermeasure is entirely successful in eliminating or alleviating symptoms.

  13. When You're Sick

    MedlinePlus

    ... and can be life-threatening. Making a Sick-Day Plan Prepare a plan for sick days in advance. Work with your doctor, or a ... have had a fever for a couple of days and aren't getting better you've been ...

  14. Motion sickness on tilting trains

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Bernard; Dai, Mingjia; Ogorodnikov, Dmitri; Laurens, Jean; Raphan, Theodore; Müller, Philippe; Athanasios, Alexiou; Edmaier, Jürgen; Grossenbacher, Thomas; Stadtmüller, Klaus; Brugger, Ueli; Hauser, Gerald; Straumann, Dominik

    2011-01-01

    Trains that tilt on curves can go faster, but passengers complain of motion sickness. We studied the control signals and tilts to determine why this occurs and how to maintain speed while eliminating motion sickness. Accelerometers and gyros monitored train and passenger yaw and roll, and a survey evaluated motion sickness. The experimental train had 3 control configurations: an untilted mode, a reactive mode that detected curves from sensors on the front wheel set, and a predictive mode that determined curves from the train's position on the tracks. No motion sickness was induced in the untilted mode, but the train ran 21% slower than when it tilted 8° in either the reactive or predictive modes (113 vs. 137 km/h). Roll velocities rose and fell faster in the predictive than the reactive mode when entering and leaving turns (0.4 vs. 0.8 s for a 4°/s roll tilt, P<0.001). Concurrently, motion sickness was greater (P<0.001) in the reactive mode. We conclude that the slower rise in roll velocity during yaw rotations on entering and leaving curves had induced the motion sickness. Adequate synchronization of roll tilt with yaw velocity on curves will reduce motion sickness and improve passenger comfort on tilting trains.—Cohen, B., Dai, M., Ogorodnikov, D., Laurens, J., Raphan, T., Müller, P., Athanasios, A., Edmaier, J., Grossenbacher, T., Stadtmüller, K., Brugger, U., Hauser, G., Straumann, D. Motion sickness on tilting trains. PMID:21788449

  15. Prediction of helicopter simulator sickness

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, R.D.; Birdwell, J.D. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering); Allgood, G.O. )

    1990-01-01

    Machine learning methods from artificial intelligence are used to identify information in sampled accelerometer signals and associative behavioral patterns which correlates pilot simulator sickness with helicopter simulator dynamics. These simulators are used to train pilots in fundamental procedures, tactics, and response to emergency conditions. Simulator sickness induced by these systems represents a risk factor to both the pilot and manufacturer. Simulator sickness symptoms are closely aligned with those of motion sickness. Previous studies have been performed by behavioral psychologists using information gathered with surveys and motor skills performance measures; however, the results are constrained by the limited information which is accessible in this manner. In this work, accelerometers were installed in the simulator cab, enabling a complete record of flight dynamics and the pilot's control response as a function of time. Given the results of performance measures administered to detect simulator sickness symptoms, the problem was then to find functions of the recorded data which could be used to help predict the simulator sickness level and susceptibility. Methods based upon inductive inference were used, which yield decision trees whose leaves indicate the degree of simulator-induced sickness. The long-term goal is to develop a gauge'' which can provide an on-line prediction of simulator sickness level, given a pilot's associative behavioral patterns (learned expectations). This will allow informed decisions to be made on when to terminate a hop and provide an effective basis for determining training and flight restrictions placed upon the pilot after simulator use. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  16. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Zientara, S; Weyer, C T; Lecollinet, S

    2015-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a devastating disease of equids caused by an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Reoviridae family, genus Orbivirus. It is considered a major health threat for horses in endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) repeatedly caused large epizootics in the Mediterranean region (North Africa and southern Europe in particular) as a result of trade in infected equids. The unexpected emergence of a closely related virus, the bluetongue virus, in northern Europe in 2006 has raised fears about AHSV introduction into Europe, and more specifically into AHSV-free regions that have reported the presence of AHSV vectors, e.g. Culicoides midges. North African and European countries should be prepared to face AHSV incursions in the future, especially since two AHSV serotypes (serotypes 2 and 7) have recently spread northwards to western (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, Gambia) and eastern Africa (Ethiopia), where historically only serotype 9 had been isolated. The authors review key elements of AHS epidemiology, surveillance and prophylaxis. PMID:26601437

  17. Characterization of the Radiation Shielding Properties of U.S. and Russian Extravehicular Activity Suits. Chapter 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    2003-01-01

    Reported herein are results from the Eril Research, Inc. (ERI) participation in the JSC-sponsored study characterizing the radiation shielding properties of the two types of space suit that astronauts are wearing during the EVA on-orbit assembly of ISS. Measurements using passive detectors were carried out to assess the shielding properties of the U.S. EMU Suit and the Russian Orlan-M suit during irradiations of the suits and a tissue-equivalent phantom to monoenergetic proton and electron beams at LLUMC. During irradiations of 6 MeV electrons and 60 MeV protons, absorbed dose as a function of depth was measured using TLDs exposed behind swatches of the two suit materials and inside the two EVA helmets. Considerable reduction in electron dose was measured behind all suit materials in exposures to 6 MeV electrons. Slowing of the proton beam in the suit materials led to an increase in dose measured in exposures to 60 MeV protons. During 232 MeV proton irradiations, measurements were made with TLDs and CR-39 PNTDs at five organ locations inside a tissue-equivalent phantom, exposed both with and without the two EVA suits. The EVA helmets produce a 13% to 27% reduction in total dose and a 0% to 25% reduction in dose equivalent when compared to measurements made in the phantom head alone. Differences in dose and dose equivalent between the suit and non-suit irradiations for the lower portions of the two EVA suits tended to be smaller. Proton-induced target fragmentation was found to be a significant source of increased dose equivalent, especially within the two EVA helmets, and average quality factor inside the EMU and Orlan-M helmets was 2% to 14% greater than that measured in the bare phantom head.

  18. [Epidemiology of "sick buildings"].

    PubMed

    Sterling, T D; Collett, C; Rumel, D

    1991-02-01

    The indoor environment of modern buildings, especially those designed for commercial and administrative purposes, constitutes a unique ecological niche with its own biochemical environment, fauna and flora. Sophisticated construction methods and the new materials and machinery required to maintain the indoor environment of these enclosed structures produce a large number of chemical by-products and permit the growth of many different microorganisms. Because modern office buildings are sealed, the regulation of humidification and temperature of ducted air presents a dilemma, since difference species of microorganisms flourish at different combinations of humidity and temperature. If the indoor environment of modern office buildings is not properly maintained, the environment may become harmful to its occupants' health. Such buildings are classified as "Sick Buildings". A review of the epidemiology of building illness is presented. The etiology of occupant illnesses, sources of toxic substances, and possible methods of maintaining a safe indoor environment are described. PMID:1784964

  19. Managing space motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Jennings, R T

    1998-01-01

    Space motion sickness is a well-recognized problem for space flight and affects 73% of crewmembers on the first 2 or 3 days of their initial flight. Illness severity is variable, but over half of cases are categorized as moderate to severe. Management has included elimination of provocative activities and delay of critical performance-related procedures such as extra-vehicular activity (EVA) or Shuttle landing during the first three days of missions. Pharmacological treatment strategies have had variable results, but intramuscular promethazine has been the most effective to date with a 90% initial response rate and important reduction in residual symptoms the next flight day. Oral prophylactic treatment of crewmembers with difficulty on prior flights has had mixed results. In order to accommodate more aggressive pharmacologic management, crew medical officers receive additional training in parenteral administration of medications. Preflight medication testing is accomplished to reduce the risk of unexpected performance decrements or idiosyncratic reactions. When possible, treatment is offered in the presleep period to mask potential treatment-related drowsiness. Another phenomenon noted by crewmembers and physicians as flights have lengthened is readaptation difficulty or motion sickness on return to Earth. These problems have included nausea, vomiting, and difficulty with locomotion or coordination upon early exposure to gravity. Since landing and egress are principal concerns during this portion of the flight, these deficits are of operational concern. Postflight therapy has been directed at nausea and vomiting, and meclizine and promethazine are the principal agents used. There has been no official attempt at prophylactic treatment prior to entry. Since there is considerable individual variation in postflight deficit and since adaptation from prior flights seems to persist, it has been recommended that commanders with prior shuttle landing experience be named to

  20. Neural mechanisms of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crampton, G. H.; Daunton, N. G.

    1983-01-01

    The possibility that there might be a neuro-homoral cerebrospinal fluid link in motion sickness was directly tested by blocking the flow of CSF from the third into the fourth ventricle in cats. Evidence obtained thus far is consistent with the hypothesis. Cats with demonstrably sound plugs did not vomit in response to an accelerative motion sickness stimulus, whereas cats with imperfect 'leaky' plugs vomited with little or no delay in latency. Althoough there are several putative candidates, the identification of a humoral motion sickness substance is a matter of conjecture.

  1. Treatment of severe motion sickness with antimotion sickness drug injections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, Ashton; Lackner, James R.

    1987-01-01

    This report concerns the use of intramuscular injections of scopolamine, promethazine, and dramamine to treat severely motion sick individuals participating in parabolic flight experiments. The findings indicate that a majority of individuals received benefit from 50-mg injections of promethazine or 0.5 mg-injections of scopolamine. By contrast, 50-mg injections of dramamine and 25-mg injections of promethazine were nonbeneficial. The use of antimotion drug injections for treating space motion sickness is discussed.

  2. Looking into sick buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Scarry, R.L. )

    1994-07-01

    This article examines the effect of geographic location (humid vs dry climate) and indoor relative humidity on the potential for IAQ problems. Poor indoor air quality (IAQ) has been a problem for centuries. The more current interest surrounds the Legionella pneumophila epidemic of 1976. The Legionnaire's disease outbreak was the first recognized instance of a building related illness (BRI). Sick building syndrome (SBS) is a less well defined condition than BRI. In SBS, occupants of a building suffer ill health due to some obscure condition or conditions in the building. Additionally, the health condition appears to be self-resolving when the person leaves the premises. A complete listing of SBS variables has not been determined, but the general conditions have been identified. The primary groupings include irritants, allergens, and toxins. It should be noted that infectious agents were intentionally omitted as their involvement more specifically indicated a BRI. Additionally, some contaminants may be classified as more than a single type; e.g., Aspergillus sp. may be labeled both allergenic and toxigenic.

  3. Sick-building syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stolwijk, J A

    1991-11-01

    The sick-building syndrome (SBS) is defined as the occurrence of an excessive number of subjective complaints by the occupants of a building. These complaints include headache, irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, lethargy, inability to concentrate, objectionable odors, and less frequently, nausea, dizziness, chest tightness, etc. These complaints will always be reported by a fraction of the occupants of any building if a questionnaire is administered that asks the respondent to recall any subjective symptoms they remember having had in the last 2 weeks or or over some period of time. It is often considered that SBS symptom reports have a minimum prevalence of about 15 to 20% for a 2-week recall period. SBS symptoms reported by 30% or more of occupants are indicative of conditions in the building environment that warrant attention. It is not often that a clear, single cause is responsible for the excess symptom reports. The following factors, often in combinations, are seen to contribute to SBS: outdoor air supply that is inadequate, ventilation distribution or effectiveness that is inadequate, the presence of temporary or long-term sources of contaminants such as tobacco smoke, adhesives, composite materials such as chipboard, and the growth of microorganisms in the HVAC equipment or in carpets or other furnishings. Depending on which causes contribute, the condition may be intermittent or even temporary. Psychosocial factors such as labor-management relations and satisfaction or dissatisfaction with other factors in the work environment can have a profound influence on the level of response of the occupants to their environment. Although hard data are difficult to collect, it is likely that productivity in the office environment is sensitive to conditions causing SBS. PMID:1821387

  4. A computerized databank of decompression sickness incidence in altitude chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, Johnny; Bedahl, Sharon R.; Van Liew, Hugh D.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a hypobaric decompression sickness databank (HDSD) for use with personal computers. The databank consolidates some of the decompression sickness (DCS) information that has accumulated from altitude chamber tests from 1942 to the present. The information was transcribed to a data collection form, screened for accuracy and duplication, and then added to the databank through a computer keyboard. The databank consists of two files; 63 fields contain details of the test conditions in the altitude chamber, the outcome of the test in terms of DCS and venous gas emboli, the physical characteristics of the group of subjects who underwent the test, and the denitrogenation procedures prior to decompression. The HDSD currently contains 378 records that represent 130,012 altitude exposures from 80 sources: scientific journal articles, government and contractor reports, and chapters from books.

  5. Severity levels and symptoms complexes for acute radiation sickness -- description and quantification. Technical report, 6 January 1984-31 March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Anno, G.H.; Wilson, D.B.; Baum, S.J.

    1985-11-30

    This report develops a descriptive/quantifying structure to express and gage the severity of symptoms, from symptom complexes, and construct a dose/time map of the symptom sequelae following prompt ionizing-radiation exposure and injury in humans. Radiation doses in the range of 75 to 4500 rads and postexposure time up to 6 weeks are considered. Symptom-severity levels, ranging from level 1 (no apparent effect) to level 5 (maximum severity), are defined for each of 6 symptoms categories including: (1) upper gastro-intestinal distress, (2) lower GI distress, (3) fatigability and weakness, (4) hypotension, (5) infection, bleeding, and fever, and (6) fluid loss and electrolyte imbalance. Temporal profiles of symptom severity are developed for the 6 symptom categories as well as for the symptom complexes formed by combining each symptom category according to severity level along postexposure time. About 100 different symptom complexes cover the dose and time ranges of interest. A dose/time mapping of the symptom complexes was used to select 30 to 40 of the most important ones. Those were included on U.S. Army questionnaires designed to obtain personnel judgments of task performance under various degress of debilitation. The incidence of upper GI distress, lower GI distress, fatigability and weakness, and early diarrhea are estimated based on probit and logit analyses of medical data.

  6. [Simulator sickness and its measurement with Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ)].

    PubMed

    Biernacki, Marcin P; Kennedy, Robert S; Dziuda, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common methods for studying the simulator sickness issue is the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) (Kennedy et al., 1993). Despite the undoubted popularity of the SSQ, this questionnaire has not as yet been standardized and translated, which could allow us to use it in Poland for research purposes. The aim of our article is to introduce the SSQ to Polish readers, both researchers and practitioners. In the first part of this paper, the studies using the SSQ are discussed, whereas the second part consists of the description of the SSQ test procedure and the calculation method of sample results. Med Pr 2016;67(4):545-555. PMID:27623835

  7. Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy FAQ126, ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  8. 20 CFR 335.4 - Filing statement of sickness and claim for sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Filing statement of sickness and claim for sickness benefits. 335.4 Section 335.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.4 Filing statement of sickness and claim...

  9. 20 CFR 335.4 - Filing statement of sickness and claim for sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Filing statement of sickness and claim for sickness benefits. 335.4 Section 335.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.4 Filing statement of sickness and claim...

  10. 20 CFR 335.4 - Filing statement of sickness and claim for sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Filing statement of sickness and claim for sickness benefits. 335.4 Section 335.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.4 Filing statement of sickness and claim...

  11. 20 CFR 335.4 - Filing statement of sickness and claim for sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Filing statement of sickness and claim for sickness benefits. 335.4 Section 335.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.4 Filing statement of sickness and claim...

  12. 20 CFR 335.4 - Filing statement of sickness and claim for sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing statement of sickness and claim for sickness benefits. 335.4 Section 335.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.4 Filing statement of sickness and claim...

  13. [Estimation of the influence of physical and biological factors on the development of the hematopoietic type of radiation sickness in dogs and two types of monkeys].

    PubMed

    Darenskaia, T A; Nasonova, T A

    2005-01-01

    In this investigation, the analysis of radiobiological experiments on 532 dogs and two types of monkeys (101 animals), irradiated totally in the 1.0 to 6.0 Gy dose range at different irradiation facilities, has been carried out. LD50 values at X-ray and gamma-neutron exposure were close to each other (2.35 and 2.83 Gy, respectively) while at gamma-radiation exposure LD(50/45) increased to 3.09 Gy. Comparison of LD(50/45) values for different kinds of animals allowed us to draw a conclusion of approximately equal radiosensitivities of dogs and Macaca fascicularis monkeys (LD(50/30-45) - 3.09 Gy and 3.17 Gy, respectively); Macaca rhesus monkeys revealed higher radioresistance (LD(50/30-45) - 5.03Gy). Analysis of the influence of several biological factors has not displayed any significant differences in the values of LD(50/45) and average lifespan of male and female dogs. Higher radiosensitivity of dogs with body weight less than 12 kg and lower radiosensitivity of dogs in summer time compared to other seasons have been shown. Dogs at the age of 2 to 3 years appeared to be more radioresistant than animals of the other age. PMID:15810526

  14. Self Motion Perception and Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    The studies conducted in this research project examined several aspects of motion sickness in animal models. A principle objective of these studies was to investigate the neuroanatomy that is important in motion sickness with the objectives of examining both the utility of putative models and defining neural mechanisms that are important in motion sickness.

  15. Physiology of motion sickness symptoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah L.

    1990-01-01

    Motion sickness research is reviewed with the emphasis placed on theories developed to explain its symptomatology. A general review of central nervous system, autonomic nervous system, and neuroendocrine system involvement in the syndrome. Particular attention is given to signs, symptoms, and physiological correlates, methodological issues, and directions for future research based on a dynamic interactive systems model.

  16. Psychophysiological aspects of motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Murray, J B

    1997-12-01

    Motion sickness may occur during travel by sea, automobile, airplane, and space. Susceptibility changes with age and may be influenced by psychological factors. Susceptibility can be reduced in most people by medications that involve histamine or neurotransmitters acetylcholine and noradrenaline, and influence the vestibular system. PMID:9450266

  17. Mechanisms of antimotion sickness drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Manno, J. E.; Wood, M. J.; Manno, B. R.; Redetzki, H. M.

    1987-01-01

    Eight subjects, male and female, were rotated using the step method to progressively increase the speed of rotation (+2 rpm) after every 40 head movements to a maximum of 35 rpm. The end point for motion sickness was the Graybiel Malaise III total of symptoms short of frank nausea. The drug treatments were placebo, scopolamine 0.6 mg and 1 mg, scopolamine 0.6 mg/d-amphetamine 10 mg, scopolamine 1 mg/d-amphetamine 10 mg, and amphetamine 10 mg. Scopolamine increased tolerated head movements over placebo level by + 81; scopolamine 1 mg + 183; d-amphetamine by + 118; scopolamine 0.6/d-amphetamine by + 165; and scopolamine 1 mg/d-amphetamine 10 mg by + 201. The drugs effective in preventing motion sickness are considered to be divided into those with central acetylcholine blocking activity and those which enhance norepinephrine activity. A combination of both of these actions produces the most effective antimotion sickness medications. It is concluded that the balance between the acetylcholine and norepinephrine activity in the CNS appears to be responsible for motion sickness.

  18. Parenthood, gender and sickness absence.

    PubMed

    Mastekaasa, A

    2000-06-01

    It is well documented that women have generally higher morbidity rates than men. In line with this women are also more absent from work due to sickness. This paper considers one popular explanation of the morbidity difference in general and of the difference in sickness absence in particular, viz. that women to a greater extent than men are exposed to the 'double burden' of combining paid work with family obligations. We discuss theories of role overload and role conflict, which both assume that the combination of multiple roles may have negative health effects, as well theories of role enhancement, which assume positive health effects of multiple roles. Using two large Norwegian data sets, the relationship between the number of and the age of children on the one hand and sickness absence on the other is examined separately for men and women and for a number of theoretically interesting subpopulations of women defined in terms of marital status (also taking account of unmarried cohabitation), level of education, and working hours. Generally speaking the association between children and sickness absence is weak, particularly for married people of both genders. To the extent that married persons with children are more absent than married persons without children, this is largely due to respiratory conditions. The relationship between children and sickness absence is somewhat stronger for single, never married mothers, but not for single mothers who have been previously married or for women living in unmarried cohabitation. The findings thus provide little support for either role overload/conflict or role enhancement theories. The possibility that these effects are both present and counterbalancing each other or that they are confounded with uncontrolled selection effects can not, however, be ruled out. PMID:10798335

  19. Theory of antimotion sickness drug mechanisms.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, D. C.; Graybiel, A.

    1972-01-01

    The results of a series of antimotion sickness drug evaluations indicates that drugs with central anticholinergic actions and drugs that increase central sympathetic activity are effective against motion sickness. The combination of these actions produces a synergistic effect against motion sickness. The effect of these medications on central acetylcholine or on norepinephrine could alter a balance between the neurons in the vestibular and reticular areas which influence motion sickness and also sympathetic and parasympathetic reactions. It is suggested that this could be their mechanism of action in preventing motion sickness.

  20. Self-Motion Perception and Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Motion sickness typically is considered a bothersome artifact of exposure to passive motion in vehicles of conveyance. This condition seldom has significant impact on the health of individuals because it is of brief duration, it usually can be prevented by simply avoiding the eliciting condition and, when the conditions that produce it are unavoidable, sickness dissipates with continued exposure. The studies conducted examined several aspects of motion sickness in animal models. A principle objective of these studies was to investigate the neuroanatomy that is important in motion sickness with the objectives of examining both the utility of putative models and defining neural mechanisms that are important in motion sickness.

  1. Simulator sickness provoked by a human centrifuge.

    PubMed

    Voge, V M

    1991-10-01

    Simulator sickness is now a well-recognized entity. It is recognized as a form of motion sickness, having a higher incidence in the more sophisticated simulators. Human centrifuges (dynamic simulators) are the newest innovation in aircrew training devices. Simulator sickness has never been reported in human centrifuges. We are reporting on a case of delayed simulator sickness in a pilot-subject after a centrifuge experience. A review of the "psycho-physiological" problems routinely experienced by subjects on human centrifuges indicates such problems are due to simulator sickness, although they are not reported as such. In this paper, we give a brief overview of simulator sickness and briefly discuss simulator sickness, as related to the human centrifuge experience. PMID:1749507

  2. Recompression therapy of mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Marković, Dubravko; Kovacević, Hasan

    2002-03-01

    This paper describes the treatment of a severe case of acute mountain sickness with a portable hyperbaric chamber. A 37-year old climber was treated for acute high altitude pulmonary oedema, which developed on the North Col of Mount Everest, at an altitude of 7,060 m. The treatment in the portable Gamow bag hyperbaric chamber lasted two hours, with a bag pressure of 103 mm Hg (0.136 kg/cm2 or 2 psig) using ambient air, without the addition of oxygen. With this pressure increase, the hyperbaric chamber lowered the patient's effective ambient altitude from 6,050 to 4,400 m. The treatment was successful and the pulmonary oedema disappeared. Outside the hyperbaric chamber, the patient recovered fully when he reached the altitude of 2,000 m. Portable hyperbaric chamber is recommended for the treatment of severe cases of acute mountain sickness, as well as for risky descent to lower altitudes. PMID:12150075

  3. Spacelab experiments on space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    Recent research results from ground and flight experiments on motion sickness and space sickness conducted by the Man Vehicle Laboratory are reviewed. New tools developed include a mathematical model for motion sickness, a method for quantitative measurement of skin pallor and blush in ambulatory subjects, and a magnitude estimation technique for ratio scaling of nausea or discomfort. These have been used to experimentally study the time course of skin pallor and subjective symptoms in laboratory motion sickness. In prolonged sickness, subjects become hypersensitive to nauseogenic stimuli. Results of a Spacelab-1 flight experiment are described in which 4 observers documented the stimulus factors for and the symptoms/signs of space sickness. The clinical character of space sickness differs somewhat from acute laboratory motion sickness. However SL-1 findings support the view that space sickness is fundamentally a motion sickness. Symptoms were subjectively alleviated by head movement restriction, maintenance of a familiar orientation with respect to the visual environment, and wedging between or strapping onto surfaces which provided broad contact cues confirming the absence of body motion.

  4. Spacelab experiments on space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, C. M.

    1987-01-01

    Recent research results from ground and flight experiments on motion sickness and space sickness conducted by the Man Vehicle Laboratory are reviewed. New tools developed include a mathematical model for motion sickness, a method for quantitative measurements of skin pallor and blush in ambulatory subjects, and a magnitude estimation technique for ratio scaling of nausea or discomfort. These have been used to experimentally study the time course of skin pallor and subjective symptoms in laboratory motion sickness. In prolonged sickness, subjects become hypersensitive to nauseogenic stimuli. Results of a Spacelab-1 flight experiment are described in which four observers documented the stimulus factors for and the symptoms/signs of space sickness. The clinical character of space sickness differs somewhat from acute laboratory motion sickness. However SL-1 findings support the view that space sickness is fundamentally a motion sickness. Symptoms were subjectively alleviated by head movement restriction, maintenance of a familiar orientation with respect to the visual environment, and wedging between or strapping onto surfaces which provided broad contact cues confirming the absence of body motion.

  5. Spacelab experiments on space motion sickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Charles M.

    Recent research results from ground and flight experiments on motion sickness and space sickness conducted by the Man Vehicle Laboratory are reviewed. New tools developed include a mathematical model for motion sickness, a method for quantitative measurement of skin pallor and blush in ambulatory subjects, and a magnitude estimation technique for ratio scaling of nausea or discomfort. These have been used to experimentally study the time course of skin pallor and subjective symptoms in laboratory motion sickness. In prolonged sickness, subjects become hypersensitive to nauseogenic stimuli. Results of a Spacelab-1 flight experiment are described in which four observers documented the stimulus factors for and the symptoms/signs of space sickness. The clinical character of space sickness differs somewhat from acute laboratory motion sickness. However SL-1 findings support the view that space sickness is fundamentally a motion sickness. Symptoms were subjectively alleviated by head movement restriction, maintenance of a familiar orientation with respect to the visual environment, and wedging between or strapping onto surfaces which provided broad contact cues confirming the absence of body motion.

  6. Spaceflight Decompression Sickness Contingency Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dervay, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the Decompression Sickness (DCS) Contingency Plan for manned spaceflight is shown. The topics include: 1) Approach; 2) DCS Contingency Plan Overview; 3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Cuff Classifications; 4) On-orbit Treatment Philosophy; 5) Long Form Malfunction Procedure (MAL); 6) Medical Checklist; 7) Flight Rules; 8) Crew Training; 9) Flight Surgeon / Biomedical Engineer (BME) Training; and 10) DCS Emergency Landing Site.

  7. Space motion sickness status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutyna, Frank

    1986-01-01

    The space motion sickness (SMS) component of the multifactor space adaptation syndrome is anticipated to be a major problem in the spaceflight and habitation conditions that will be encountered in NASA Space Station tours and Mars voyages. The minimization of maladaptive physiological responses while enhancing those mechanisms that can best cope with the gravitoinertial conditions of space flight will require an intimate knowledge of the physiology of adaptive processes. The homeostatic mechanisms involved in SMS are inherent in human physiology.

  8. Sickness Behavior in Honey Bees.

    PubMed

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Klappenbach, Martín; Depino, Amaicha M; Locatelli, Fernando F

    2016-01-01

    During an infection, animals suffer several changes in their normal physiology and behavior which may include lethargy, appetite loss, and reduction in grooming and general movements. This set of alterations is known as sickness behavior and although it has been extensively believed to be orchestrated primarily by the immune system, a relevant role for the central nervous system has also been established. The aim of the present work is to develop a simple animal model to allow studying how the immune and the nervous systems interact coordinately during an infection. We administered a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the thorax of honey bees to mimic a bacterial infection, and then we evaluated a set of stereotyped behaviors of the animals that might be indicative of sickness behavior. First, we show that this immune challenge reduces the locomotor activity of the animals in a narrow time window after LPS injection. Furthermore, bees exhibit a loss of appetite 60 and 90 min after injection, but not 15 h later. We also demonstrate that LPS injection reduces spontaneous antennal movements in harnessed animals, which suggests a reduction in the motivational state of the bees. Finally, we show that the LPS injection diminishes the interaction between animals, a crucial behavior in social insects. To our knowledge these results represent the first systematic description of sickness behavior in honey bees and provide important groundwork for the study of the interaction between the immune and the neural systems in an insect model. PMID:27445851

  9. Sickness Behavior in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Klappenbach, Martín; Depino, Amaicha M.; Locatelli, Fernando F.

    2016-01-01

    During an infection, animals suffer several changes in their normal physiology and behavior which may include lethargy, appetite loss, and reduction in grooming and general movements. This set of alterations is known as sickness behavior and although it has been extensively believed to be orchestrated primarily by the immune system, a relevant role for the central nervous system has also been established. The aim of the present work is to develop a simple animal model to allow studying how the immune and the nervous systems interact coordinately during an infection. We administered a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the thorax of honey bees to mimic a bacterial infection, and then we evaluated a set of stereotyped behaviors of the animals that might be indicative of sickness behavior. First, we show that this immune challenge reduces the locomotor activity of the animals in a narrow time window after LPS injection. Furthermore, bees exhibit a loss of appetite 60 and 90 min after injection, but not 15 h later. We also demonstrate that LPS injection reduces spontaneous antennal movements in harnessed animals, which suggests a reduction in the motivational state of the bees. Finally, we show that the LPS injection diminishes the interaction between animals, a crucial behavior in social insects. To our knowledge these results represent the first systematic description of sickness behavior in honey bees and provide important groundwork for the study of the interaction between the immune and the neural systems in an insect model. PMID:27445851

  10. [Charity in nursing the sick].

    PubMed

    Urbanek, B

    1999-01-01

    The need for support in case of illness or poverty has probably existed ever since. In ancient times this need was indicated by means of a mythical Aesculapius staff. The importance of charity toward one's neighbors was already emphasized by Hippocrates, also in his wording of the medical oath. In those times, however, rationalism determined actual approach towards the sick or unfortunate, and such concepts as "charitas" or "misericordia" were unfamiliar in the contemporary Greece and Rome. The care for the poor and the needy, defined as charity, was adopted by Christianity from the orthodox legislature. In Hebrew it was signified by the words "hesed" and emet". In exegesis it was expressed in terms of selfless and sympathetic attitude to other people, which was also reflected by nursing the sick. However, in Christianity, it developed from the duty into a virtue improving both the supporter and the supported person. The basis for that was thanksgiving, as the answer to the God's mercy. The subject of mercy was then all the misfortune of man, including disease, and the source of charity absolute kindness aiming at eliminating destitution. Since the Middle Ages people have believed that the failure to perform the duty of charity virtue was the abuse of the divine law of ownership. This view became a factor of social dynamics. It made a purpose for the communities predestined to nurse the sick, including the female communities e.g. the charity sisters, or the male communities such as the brothers of the order. At the same time, it resulted in the fact that the commitment of women to the organized service provided to the sick enabled their social promotion and also, indirectly, it had an impact on increasing their role in the Catholic Church. This article, based on various sources, including among others the Old and the New Testament, the rules of orders, the statutes of charity associations, etc., constitutes an attempt to present the process of developing the care

  11. Motion sickness: Can it be controlled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, David

    1988-01-01

    NASA is one of the few research centers concerned with motion sickness. Since the physiology of man has been developed in the one-gravity field Earth, the changes experienced by man in space are unique, and often result in symptoms that resemble motion sickness on Earth. NASA is concerned with motion sickness because it is very uncomfortable for the astronauts. Another concern of NASA is the possibility of a motion sickness astronaut regurgitating while he or she is sealed in an airtight space suit. This could be fatal. Motivated by these reasons, NASA spent thousands of dollars in research and development for a drug or technique for combating motion sickness. Several different treatments were developed for this disorder. Three of the most effective ways of combatting motion sickness are discussed.

  12. Animal models in motion sickness research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daunton, Nancy G.

    1990-01-01

    Practical information on candidate animal models for motion sickness research and on methods used to elicit and detect motion sickness in these models is provided. Four good potential models for use in motion sickness experiments include the dog, cat, squirrel monkey, and rat. It is concluded that the appropriate use of the animal models, combined with exploitation of state-of-the-art biomedical techniques, should generate a great step forward in the understanding of motion sickness mechanisms and in the development of efficient and effective approaches to its prevention and treatment in humans.

  13. sick: The Spectroscopic Inference Crank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Andrew R.

    2016-03-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  14. Motion sickness: more than nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Lackner, James R

    2014-08-01

    Motion sickness is a complex syndrome that includes many features besides nausea and vomiting. This review describes some of these factors and points out that under normal circumstances, many cases of motion sickness go unrecognized. Motion sickness can occur during exposure to physical motion, visual motion, and virtual motion, and only those without a functioning vestibular system are fully immune. The range of vulnerability in the normal population varies about 10,000 to 1. Sleep deprivation can also enhance susceptibility. Systematic studies conducted in parabolic flight have identified velocity storage of semicircular canal signals-velocity integration-as being a key factor in both space motion sickness and terrestrial motion sickness. Adaptation procedures that have been developed to increase resistance to motion sickness reduce this time constant. A fully adequate theory of motion sickness is not presently available. Limitations of two popular theories, the evolutionary and the ecological, are described. A sensory conflict theory can explain many but not all aspects of motion sickness elicitation. However, extending the theory to include conflicts related to visceral afferent feedback elicited by voluntary and passive body motion greatly expands its explanatory range. Future goals should include determining why some conflicts are provocative and others are not but instead lead to perceptual reinterpretations of ongoing body motion. The contribution of visceral afferents in relation to vestibular and cerebellar signals in evoking sickness also deserves further exploration. Substantial progress is being made in identifying the physiological mechanisms underlying the evocation of nausea, vomiting, and anxiety, and a comprehensive understanding of motion sickness may soon be attainable. Adequate anti-motion sickness drugs without adverse side effects are not yet available. PMID:24961738

  15. Predicting Motion Sickness During Parabolic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2002-01-01

    Background: There are large individual differences in susceptibility to motion sickness. Attempts to predict who will become motion sick have had limited success. In the present study we examined gender differences in resting levels of salivary amylase and total protein, cardiac interbeat intervals (R-R intervals), and a sympathovagal index and evaluated their potential to correctly classify individuals into two motion sickness severity groups. Methods: Sixteen subjects (10 men and 6 women) flew 4 sets of 10 parabolas aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Saliva samples for amylase and total protein were collected preflight on the day of the flight and motion sickness symptoms were recorded during each parabola. Cardiovascular parameters were collected in the supine position 1-5 days prior to the flight. Results: There were no significant gender differences in sickness severity or any of the other variables mentioned above. Discriminant analysis using salivary amylase, R-R intervals and the sympathovagal index produced a significant Wilks' lambda coefficient of 0.36, p= 0.006. The analysis correctly classified 87% of the subjects into the none-mild sickness or the moderate-severe sickness group. Conclusions: The linear combination of resting levels of salivary amylase, high frequency R-R interval levels, and a sympathovagal index may be useful in predicting motion sickness severity.

  16. Predicting motion sickness during parabolic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are large individual differences in susceptibility to motion sickness. Attempts to predict who will become motion sick have had limited success. In the present study, we examined gender differences in resting levels of salivary amylase and total protein, cardiac interbeat intervals (R-R intervals), and a sympathovagal index and evaluated their potential to correctly classify individuals into two motion sickness severity groups. METHODS: Sixteen subjects (10 men and 6 women) flew four sets of 10 parabolas aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Saliva samples for amylase and total protein were collected preflight on the day of the flight and motion sickness symptoms were recorded during each parabola. Cardiovascular parameters were collected in the supine position 1-5 days before the flight. RESULTS: There were no significant gender differences in sickness severity or any of the other variables mentioned above. Discriminant analysis using salivary amylase, R-R intervals and the sympathovagal index produced a significant Wilks' lambda coefficient of 0.36, p=0.006. The analysis correctly classified 87% of the subjects into the none-mild sickness or the moderate-severe sickness group. CONCLUSIONS: The linear combination of resting levels of salivary amylase, high-frequency R-R interval levels, and a sympathovagal index may be useful in predicting motion sickness severity.

  17. Metals: In Sickness and in Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Metals: In Sickness and in Health Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Metals: In Sickness and in Health ... Fats Do in the Body? This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  18. Endocrine correlates of susceptibility to motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Motion sickness releases ACTH, epinerphrine, and norepinephrine. The endocrine responses to motion sickness, adaptive responses leading to the resolution of the syndrome, and the way in which antimotion-sickness drugs influence the endocrine responses were studied. Susceptible or insusceptible subjects were administered antimotion-sickness drugs prior to stressful stimulation. Insusceptible subjects displayed more pronounced elevations of ACTH, epinephrine, and norepinephrine after stressful motion. Predrug levels of ACTH were higher in insusceptible subjects (p less than 0.01). Acute blockade of hormone responses to stressful motion or alteration of levels of ACTH by drugs were not correlated with individual susceptibility. No correlation was apparent between epinephrine and ACTH release. These endocrine differences may represent neurochemical markers for susceptibility to motion, stress, or general adaptability, and it may be that the chronic modulation of their levels might be more effective in preventing motion sickness than the acute blockage or stimulation of specific receptors.

  19. Radiation Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... over a short period can cause burns or radiation sickness. If the exposure is large enough, it can cause premature aging or even death. Although there are no guarantees of safety during a radiation emergency, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  20. Paid Sick Leave and Nonfatal Occupational Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Pana-Cryan, Regina; Rosa, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between US workers’ access to paid sick leave and the incidence of nonfatal occupational injuries from the employer’s perspective. We also examined this association in different industries and occupations. Methods. We developed a theoretical framework to examine the business value of offering paid sick leave. Data from the National Health Interview Survey were used to test the hypothesis that offering paid sick leave is associated with a reduced incidence of occupational injuries. We used data on approximately 38 000 working adults to estimate a multivariate model. Results. With all other variables held constant, workers with access to paid sick leave were 28% (95% confidence interval = 0.52, 0.99) less likely than workers without access to paid sick leave to be injured. The association between the availability of paid sick leave and the incidence of occupational injuries varied across sectors and occupations, with the greatest differences occurring in high-risk sectors and occupations. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that, similar to other investments in worker safety and health, introducing or expanding paid sick leave programs might help businesses reduce the incidence of nonfatal occupational injuries, particularly in high-risk sectors and occupations. PMID:22720767

  1. Curricular Orientations. Chapter Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, James R.; Polloway, Edward A.

    The purpose of this chapter is to review the major curricular orientations which can be found in special education settings for students with mental disabilities. Program orientations differ along two primary dimensions: the amount of time students spend in special settings or with special education personnel, and the extent to which the…

  2. Chapter 2. Genetic Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this chapter, four categories of plant genetic resources (PGR) are identified as important for breeding: Wild relatives, ecotypes, landraces, and cultivars. Fodder crops and amenity grasses differ from field crops in the relative importance of these categories, as well as in the relative importan...

  3. Chapter 3: Energy Security

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, Thomas D.; Arent, Doug; de Carvalho Macedo, Isaias; Goldemberg, Jose; Hoysala, Chanakya; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Nigro, Francisco E. B.; Richard, Tom L.; Saddler, Jack; Samseth, Jon; Somerville, Chris R.

    2015-04-01

    This chapter considers the energy security implications and impacts of bioenergy. We provide an assessment to answer the following questions: What are the implications for bioenergy and energy security within the broader policy environment that includes food and water security, development, economic productivity, and multiple foreign policy aspects? What are the conditions under which bioenergy contributes positively to energy security?

  4. Labyrinthine lesions and motion sickness susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Raphan, Theodore; Cohen, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    The angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) has a fast pathway, which mediates compensatory eye movements, and a slow (velocity storage) pathway, which determines its low frequency characteristics and orients eye velocity toward gravity. We have proposed that motion sickness is generated through velocity storage, when its orientation vector, which lies close to the gravitational vertical, is misaligned with eye velocity during head motion. The duration of the misalignment, determined by the dominant time constant of velocity storage, causes the buildup of motion sickness. To test this hypothesis, we studied bilateral labyrinthine-defective subjects with short vestibular time constants but normal aVOR gains for their motion sickness susceptibility. Time constants and gains were taken from rotational responses. Motion sickness was generated by rolling the head while rotating, and susceptibility was assessed by the number of head movements made before reaching intolerable levels of nausea. More head movements signified lower motion sickness susceptibility. Labyrinthine-defective subjects made more head movements on their first exposure to roll while rotating than normals (39.8 ± 7.2 vs 13.7 ± 5.5; P < 0.0001). Normals were tested eight times, which habituated their time constants and reduced their motion sickness susceptibility. Combining data from all subjects, there was a strong inverse relationship between time constants and number of head movements (r = 0.94), but none between motion sickness susceptibility and aVOR gains. This provides further evidence that motion sickness is generated through velocity storage, not the direct pathway, and suggests that motion sickness susceptibility can be reduced by reducing the aVOR time constant. PMID:17256169

  5. General autonomic components of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Suter, Steve; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Naifeh, Karen

    1986-01-01

    This report refers to a body of investigations directed toward the examination of autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness. Heart rate, respiration rate, finger pulse volume, and basal skin resistance were measured on 127 men and women before, during, and after exposure to a nauseogenic rotating chair test. Significant changes in all autonomic responses were observed across the tests (p less than .05). Significant differences in autonomic responses among groups divided according to motion sickness susceptibility were also observed (p less than .05). Results suggest that the examination of autonomic responses as an objective indicator of motion sickness malaise is warranted and may contribute to the overall understanding of the syndrome.

  6. Illusory self motion and simulator sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hettinger, Lawrence J.

    1991-01-01

    Presented here is a discussion of simulator sickness (with applications to motion sickness and space sickness) based on the notion of senses as perceptual systems, and the sensory conflict theory. Most forms of the sensory conflict theory unnecessarily propose the existence of a neural store. The neural store is thought to consist of a record of previous perceptual experiences against which currently experienced patterns of stimulation are compared. The authors seek to establish that in its most parsimonious form the sensory conflict theory does not require a construct such as the neural store. In its simpler form, the sensory conflict theory complements and extends Gibson's view of the senses as perceptual systems.

  7. Space motion sickness monitoring experiment - Spacelab 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Charles M.; Lichtenberg, Byron K.; Money, Kenneth E.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed firsthand report on symptoms and signs of space motion sickness and fluid shift observed by four specially trained crewmembers during Shuttle/Spacelab 1, launched on November 28, 1983 is presented. Results show that three crewmen experienced persistent overall discomfort and vomited repeatedly. Symptom pattern was generally similar to that seen in the individuals preflight, except that prodromalnausea was brief or absent in some cases. Symptoms were clearly modulated by head movement, were exacerbated by unfamiliar visual cues, and could be reduced by physical restraint providing contact cues around the body. The results support the view that space sickness is a form of motion sickness.

  8. 20 CFR 335.2 - Manner of claiming sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manner of claiming sickness benefits. 335.2... INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.2 Manner of claiming sickness benefits. (a) Forms required for claiming benefits. To claim sickness benefits for a period of inability to work due to an illness or...

  9. 20 CFR 335.2 - Manner of claiming sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Manner of claiming sickness benefits. 335.2... INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.2 Manner of claiming sickness benefits. (a) Forms required for claiming benefits. To claim sickness benefits for a period of inability to work due to an illness or...

  10. 20 CFR 335.6 - Payment of sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Payment of sickness benefits. 335.6 Section... INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.6 Payment of sickness benefits. (a) General rule. Except as provided in this section, benefits are payable to any qualified employee for each day of sickness after...

  11. 20 CFR 335.6 - Payment of sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment of sickness benefits. 335.6 Section... INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.6 Payment of sickness benefits. (a) General rule. Except as provided in this section, benefits are payable to any qualified employee for each day of sickness after...

  12. 20 CFR 335.6 - Payment of sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Payment of sickness benefits. 335.6 Section... INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.6 Payment of sickness benefits. (a) General rule. Except as provided in this section, benefits are payable to any qualified employee for each day of sickness after...

  13. 20 CFR 335.2 - Manner of claiming sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Manner of claiming sickness benefits. 335.2... INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.2 Manner of claiming sickness benefits. (a) Forms required for claiming benefits. To claim sickness benefits for a period of inability to work due to an illness or...

  14. 20 CFR 335.2 - Manner of claiming sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manner of claiming sickness benefits. 335.2... INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.2 Manner of claiming sickness benefits. (a) Forms required for claiming benefits. To claim sickness benefits for a period of inability to work due to an illness or...

  15. 20 CFR 335.2 - Manner of claiming sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of claiming sickness benefits. 335.2... INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.2 Manner of claiming sickness benefits. (a) Forms required for claiming benefits. To claim sickness benefits for a period of inability to work due to an illness or...

  16. 20 CFR 335.6 - Payment of sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Payment of sickness benefits. 335.6 Section... INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.6 Payment of sickness benefits. (a) General rule. Except as provided in this section, benefits are payable to any qualified employee for each day of sickness after...

  17. 20 CFR 335.6 - Payment of sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of sickness benefits. 335.6 Section... INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.6 Payment of sickness benefits. (a) General rule. Except as provided in this section, benefits are payable to any qualified employee for each day of sickness after...

  18. General Automatic Components of Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suter, S.; Toscano, W. B.; Kamiya, J.; Naifeh, K.

    1985-01-01

    A body of investigations performed in support of experiments aboard the space shuttle, and designed to counteract the symptoms of Space Adaptation Syndrome, which resemble those of motion sickness on Earth is reviewed. For these supporting studies, the automatic manifestations of earth-based motion sickness was examined. Heart rate, respiration rate, finger pulse volume and basal skin resistance were measured on 127 men and women before, during and after exposure to nauseogenic rotating chair tests. Significant changes in all autonomic responses were observed across the tests. Significant differences in autonomic responses among groups divided according to motion sickness susceptibility were also observed. Results suggest that the examination of autonomic responses as an objective indicator of motion sickness malaise is warranted and may contribute to the overall understanding of the syndrome on Earth and in Space.

  19. Evidence Report: Risk of Decompression Sickness (DCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, Johnny; Norcross, Jason R.; Wessel, James H., III; Klein, Jill S.; Dervay, Joseph P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Given that tissue inert gas partial pressure is often greater than ambient pressure during phases of a mission, primarily during extravehicular activity (EVA), there is a possibility of decompression sickness (DCS).

  20. Motion Sickness, Stress and the Endocannabinoid System

    PubMed Central

    Choukèr, Alexander; Kaufmann, Ines; Kreth, Simone; Hauer, Daniela; Feuerecker, Matthias; Thieme, Detlef; Vogeser, Michael; Thiel, Manfred; Schelling, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    Background A substantial number of individuals are at risk for the development of motion sickness induced nausea and vomiting (N&V) during road, air or sea travel. Motion sickness can be extremely stressful but the neurobiologic mechanisms leading to motion sickness are not clear. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) represents an important neuromodulator of stress and N&V. Inhibitory effects of the ECS on N&V are mediated by endocannabinoid-receptor activation. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the activity of the ECS in human volunteers (n = 21) during parabolic flight maneuvers (PFs). During PFs, microgravity conditions (<10−2 g) are generated for approximately 22 s which results in a profound kinetic stimulus. Blood endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2-AG) were measured from blood samples taken in-flight before start of the parabolic maneuvers, after 10, 20, and 30 parabolas, in-flight after termination of PFs and 24 h later. Volunteers who developed acute motion sickness (n = 7) showed significantly higher stress scores but lower endocannabinoid levels during PFs. After 20 parabolas, blood anandamide levels had dropped significantly in volunteers with motion sickness (from 0.39±0.40 to 0.22±0.25 ng/ml) but increased in participants without the condition (from 0.43±0.23 to 0.60±0.38 ng/ml) resulting in significantly higher anandamide levels in participants without motion sickness (p = 0.02). 2-AG levels in individuals with motion sickness were low and almost unchanged throughout the experiment but showed a robust increase in participants without motion sickness. Cannabinoid-receptor 1 (CB1) but not cannabinoid-receptor 2 (CB2) mRNA expression in leucocytes 4 h after the experiment was significantly lower in volunteers with motion sickness than in participants without N&V. Conclusions/Significance These findings demonstrate that stress and motion sickness in humans are associated with impaired endocannabinoid activity

  1. Diagnostic and vaccine chapter.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, J H; Kokanov, S K; Verkhovsky, O A

    2010-10-01

    The first report in this chapter describes the development of a killed composite vaccine. This killed vaccine is non-infectious to humans, other animals, and the environment. The vaccine has low reactivity, is non-abortive, and does not induce pathomorphological alterations to the organs of vaccinated animals. The second report of this chapter describes the diagnostic value of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Brucella-specific antibodies and its ability to discriminate vaccinated cattle from infected cattle. The results indicated that the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is more sensitive than traditional tests for detecting antibodies to Brucella abortus in naturally and experimentally infected cattle. PMID:20850688

  2. Cardiovascular dynamics during space sickness and deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberger, Ary L.; Rigney, David R.

    1991-01-01

    We are currently funded by NASA for the project, 'Cardiovascular Dynamics During Space Sickness and Deconditioning.' NASA has given priority to the investigation of two problems encountered in the long-term space flights currently being planned: (1) space motion sickness; and (2) cardiovascular deconditioning. We have proposed to use spectral and nonlinear dynamical analysis of heart rate data to quantify the presence of these problems and to evaluate countermeasures against them.

  3. Airborne testing of three antimotion sickness preparations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. H.; Money, K. E.; Graybiel, A.

    1976-01-01

    Thirteen human volunteers were exposed to weekly flights in which standardized, steep turns were used to produce motion sickness. A combination of promethazine hydrochloride (25 mg) plus ephedrine sulphate (25 mg) was found to be equally as effective as the combination of 1-scopolamine hydrobromide (0.35 mg) plus d-amphetamine sulphate (5 mg). Droperidol (2.5 mg) was indistinguishable from the placebo. It was concluded that the treatment of choice for motion sickness is promethazine plus ephedrine.

  4. Relative Deprivation and Sickness Absence in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Helgertz, Jonas; Hess, Wolfgang; Scott, Kirk

    2013-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. Methods: 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual’s degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. Results: The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual’s career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Conclusions: Altering individual’s health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies. PMID:23996012

  5. Susceptibility to motion sickness among Skylab astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.; Miller, E. F., II; Homick, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    The mechanisms causing susceptibility to motion sickness in zero gravity are not well understood. Preflight and postflight motion sickness susceptibility tests conducted on the three Skylab crews are described. Under operational conditions, the first Skylab crew experienced no motion sickness, while the other two crews did. Susceptibility was greater in the Skylab workshop than in the command module. Weightlessness in itself is a unique motion environment. Changes occur in nonrigid body parts and in the response of macular receptors in the otolith organs. Tests in parabolic flight, where zero gravity is the only significant factor in motion sickness susceptibility, indicate that some people need to adapt to weightlessness and others do not. A comparison of all US and Soviet manned missions indicates that a headward shift of fluid on transition to zero gravity is not a predisposing factor in motion sickness. Under certain conditions after adaptation susceptibility was lower in the Skylab workshop than on the ground. The anti-motion sickness drugs used in Skylab are judged effective for prevention and treatment.

  6. Fever and sickness behavior: Friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Harden, L M; Kent, S; Pittman, Q J; Roth, J

    2015-11-01

    Fever has been recognized as an important symptom of disease since ancient times. For many years, fever was treated as a putative life-threatening phenomenon. More recently, it has been recognized as an important part of the body's defense mechanisms; indeed at times it has even been used as a therapeutic agent. The knowledge of the functional role of the central nervous system in the genesis of fever has greatly improved over the last decade. It is clear that the febrile process, which develops in the sick individual, is just one of many brain-controlled sickness symptoms. Not only will the sick individual appear "feverish" but they may also display a range of behavioral changes, such as anorexia, fatigue, loss of interest in usual daily activities, social withdrawal, listlessness or malaise, hyperalgesia, sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction, collectively termed "sickness behavior". In this review we consider the issue of whether fever and sickness behaviors are friend or foe during: a critical illness, the common cold or influenza, in pregnancy and in the newborn. Deciding whether these sickness responses are beneficial or harmful will very much shape our approach to the use of antipyretics during illness. PMID:26187566

  7. Configural Scoring of Simulator Sickness, Cybersickness and Space Adaptation Syndrome: Similarities and Differences?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Robert S.; Drexler, Julie M.; Compton, Daniel E.; Stanney, Kay M.; Lanham, Susan; Harm, Deborah L.

    2001-01-01

    From a survey of ten U.S. Navy flight simulators a large number (N > 1,600 exposures) of self-reports of motion sickness symptomatology were obtained. Using these data, scoring algorithms were derived, which permit examination of groups of individuals that can be scored either for 1) their total sickness experience in a particular device; or, 2) according to three separable symptom clusters which emerged from a Factor Analysis. Scores from this total score are found to be proportional to other global motion sickness symptom checklist scores with which they correlate (r = 0.82). The factors that surfaced from the analysis include clusters of symptoms referable as nausea, oculomotor disturbances, and disorientation (N, 0, and D). The factor scores may have utility in differentiating the source of symptoms in different devices. The present chapter describes our experience with the use of both of these types of scores and illustrates their use with examples from flight simulators, space sickness and virtual environments.

  8. Breast radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... during cancer treatment Eating extra calories when sick - adults Lymphedema - self-care Radiation therapy - questions to ask your doctor Safe eating during cancer treatment When you have diarrhea When you have nausea and vomiting Update Date ...

  9. [Severe decompression sickness in divers].

    PubMed

    Beuster, W; van Laak, U

    1999-01-01

    The term "decompression illness (DCI)" is a disorder which arises from the presence of ectopic gas bubbles following decompression. Scuba diving poses the risk of two typically clinical syndromes: decompression sickness (DCS) and arterial gas embolism (AGE). DCS results from the formation of gas bubbles in the tissues of the body and in the blood due to rapid reduction of the environmental pressure. AGE is caused by pulmonary overinflation if the breathing gas cannot be exhaled adequately during the ascent. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms of these two disorders are quite different, both of them lead to the same result: inert gas bubbles that may cause impairment of vital functions due to hypoxia. Recognizing the signs and symptoms of DCI is the first step of the therapy. The emergency treatment contains: basic life support, advanced life support--if necessary, horizontal positioning of the victim, administration of 100% normobaric oxygen via face mask or endotracheal tube, rehydration, rapid transportation to the nearest emergency department/hyperbaric facility for definitive treatment in order to prevent serious neurological sequelae. PMID:11315407

  10. Prognosis for a sick planet.

    PubMed

    Maslin, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Global warming is the most important science issue of the 21st century, challenging the very structure of our global society. The study of past climate has shown that the current global climate system is extremely sensitive to human-induced climate change. The burning of fossil fuels since the beginning of the industrial revolution has already caused changes with clear evidence for a 0.75 degrees C rise in global temperatures and 22 cm rise in sea level during the 20th century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change synthesis report (2007) predicts that global temperatures by 2100 could rise by between 1.1 degrees C and 6.4 degrees C. Sea level could rise by between 28 cm and 79 cm, more if the melting of the polar ice caps accelerates. In addition, weather patterns will become less predictable and the occurrence of extreme climate events, such as storms, floods, heat waves and droughts, will increase. The potential effects of global warming on human society are devastating. We do, however, already have many of the technological solutions to cure our sick planet. PMID:19149275

  11. [The sick building syndrome (SBS)].

    PubMed

    Ezratty, Véronique

    2003-10-11

    AN INCREASINGLY COMMON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROBLEM: Complaints related to indoor environment represent one of the most frequent problems that environmental health practitioners are confronted with. Hence the incidence of the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) has been increasing since the Seventies. DIFFERING DEFINITIONS AND CLINICAL PRESENTATIONS: The WHO defines SBS as an excess of complaints and symptoms occurring in certain occupants of non-industrial buildings. The syndrome can only be evoked after elimination in the person concerned of a disease related to the building, the aetiological agent of which is identifiable. The symptoms described during SBS (headaches, concentration problems, asthenia, irritation of the skin or nasal mucosa, of the eyes and upper respiratory tract.) are non specific and frequently observed in the general population. AN UNKNOWN CASE, BUT NUMEROUS AETIOLOGICAL FACTORS SUSPECTED: There is no unanimously accepted definition nor physio-pathological theory to explain the occurrence of SBS in a particular building. Many favouring factors, including the type and rate of ventilation, volatile organic compounds, particles and humidity have been suspected. TECHNICAL, SOCIAL, AND MEDICAL MANAGEMENT IS REQUIRED: Although the symptoms are benign, they can be uncomfortable or even handicapping and prevent the functioning of workplaces. The SBS, the social and economical costs of which are high, requires multidisciplinary management. PMID:14576597

  12. Chapter 1: Chapter 1/Migrant, 1992-93. Evaluation Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catterson, Shirin; And Others

    Chapter 1, a federally funded compensatory education program, provided funding to 29 elementary schools with high concentrations of low-income students in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District (AISD). Sixteen of the schools had so many disadvantaged students that they qualified to be Chapter 1 schoolwide projects (SWPs). Chapter 1…

  13. Nutrient dynamics: Chapter 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Likens, Gene E.; LaBaugh, James W.; Buso, Donald C.; Bade, Darren

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the variability and trends in chemical concentrations and fluxes at Mirror Lake during the period 1981–2000. It examines the water and chemical budgets of Mirror Lake to identify and understand better long-term trends in the chemical characteristics of the lake. It also identifies the causes of changes in nutrient concentrations and examines the contribution of hydrologic pathways to the contamination of Mirror Lake by road salt. The role of groundwater and precipitation on water and chemical budgets of the lake are also examined.

  14. Stroboscopic Vision as a Treatment Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Somers, J. T.; Ford, G.; Krnavek, J. M.; Hwang, E. y.; Kornilova, L. N.; Leigh, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    Results obtained from space flight indicate that most space crews will experience some symptoms of motion sickness causing significant impact on the operational objectives that must be accomplished to assure mission success. Based on the initial work of Melvill-Jones, we have evaluated stroboscopic vision as a method of preventing motion sickness. Methods: Nineteen subjects read text while making +/-20deg head movements in the horizontal plane at 0.2 Hz while wearing left-right reversing prisms during exposure to 4 Hz stroboscopic or normal room illumination. Testing was repeated using LCD shutter glasses as the stroboscopic source with an additional 19 subjects. Results: With Strobe, motion sickness was significantly lower than with normal room illumination. Results with the LCD shutter glasses were analogous to those observed with environmental strobe. Conclusions: Stroboscopic illumination appears to be effective where retinal slip is a factor in eliciting motion sickness. Additional research is evaluating the glasses efficacy for, carsickness, sickness in parabolic flight and seasickness. There is evidence from pilot studies showing that the glasses reduce saccade velocity to visually presented targets by approximately half of the normal values. It is interesting to note that adaptation to space flight may also slow saccade velocity.

  15. Melt inclusions: Chapter 6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Audétat A.; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Melt inclusions are small droplets of silicate melt that are trapped in minerals during their growth in a magma. Once formed, they commonly retain much of their initial composition (with some exceptions) unless they are re-opened at some later stage. Melt inclusions thus offer several key advantages over whole rock samples: (i) they record pristine concentrations of volatiles and metals that are usually lost during magma solidification and degassing, (ii) they are snapshots in time whereas whole rocks are the time-integrated end products, thus allowing a more detailed, time-resolved view into magmatic processes (iii) they are largely unaffected by subsolidus alteration. Due to these characteristics, melt inclusions are an ideal tool to study the evolution of mineralized magma systems. This chapter first discusses general aspects of melt inclusions formation and methods for their investigation, before reviewing studies performed on mineralized magma systems.

  16. Does a motion base prevent simulator sickness?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharkey, Thomas J.; Mccauley, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    The use of high-fidelity motion cues to reduce the discrepancy between visually implied motion and actual motion is tested experimentally using the NASA Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS). Ten pilot subjects use the VMS to fly simulated S-turns and sawtooths which generate a high incidence of motion sickness. The subjects fly the maneuvers on separate days both with and without use of a motion base provided by the VMS, and data are collected regarding symptoms, dark focus, and postural equilibrium. The motion-base condition is shown to be practically irrelevant with respect to the incidence and severity of motion sickness. It is suggested that the data-collection procedure cannot detect differences in sickness levels, and the false cues of the motion condition are theorized to have an adverse impact approximately equivalent to the absence of cues in a fixed-base condition.

  17. Motion sickness: part I--a theory.

    PubMed

    Schneider, R C; Crosby, E C

    1980-01-01

    Early reports on space exploration suggested that cosmonauts and astronauts sustained "motion sickness" symptoms described as "dizziness, nausea, vomiting, flashes of light, formed hallucinations or illusions of inversion of image in space." Hallucinations may be due to many causes but most of the above symptoms were similar to those experienced by some patients with expanding intracranial lesions whose symptomatology was referable to the temporoparieto-occipital cortex of the brain. On the basis of our observations, it is suggested that the term "motion sickness" might be applied to earthly symptoms of dizziness, nausea, and vomiting--such as encountered ascending in an elevator or tossing about on the sea--for they are primarily related to the inner ear, the peripheral or end organ. However, when inversion of body image and formed and unformed visual hallucinations are superimposed upon these, there must be interpretation by the temporoparieto-occipital cortex and this might be designed as "motion sickness in space." PMID:7362550

  18. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  19. Gastrointestinal motility in space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Linder, Barry J.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.

    1987-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms in space motion sickness (SMS) are significantly different from those in ordinary motion sickness (MS). Recording and tabulation of sounds was the only technique that could be used as a measure of motility during spaceflight operations. There were 17 subjects, six unaffected by SMS, who made ambulatory recordings preflight and inflight. With one exception, all those affected had sharply reduced sounds, while those unaffected had increases or moderate reductions. The mechanism of vomiting in SMS appears to be secondary to this ileus, in contrast to vomiting in ordinary MS, where the emesis center is thought to be directly triggered by the vestibular system.

  20. Evidence Report: Risk of Decompression Sickness (DCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, Johnny; Norcross, Jason R.; Wessel, James H. III; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Klein, Jill S.; Dervay, Joseph P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The Risk of Decompression Sickness (DCS) is identified by the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) as a recognized risk to human health and performance in space, as defined in the HRP Program Requirements Document (PRD). This Evidence Report provides a summary of the evidence that has been used to identify and characterize this risk. Given that tissue inert gas partial pressure is often greater than ambient pressure during phases of a mission, primarily during extravehicular activity (EVA), there is a possibility that decompression sickness may occur.

  1. Neurohumoral mechanism of space motion sickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, A. I.; Egorov, A. D.; Nichiporuk, I. A.

    This paper reviews existing hypotheses concerning the mechanisms of adaptation of the vestibular apparatus and related somatosensory systems to microgravity with reference to the flight data. Having in view theoretical concepts and experimental data accumulated in space flights, a conceptual model of the development of a functional system responsible for the termination of vestibular dysfunction and space motion sickness manifestations is presented. It is also shown that changes in the hormonal status during motion sickness induced by vestibular stimulation give evidence that endocrine regulation of certain functions can be involved in adaptive responses.

  2. Paid Sick Leave and Job Stability

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Heather D.

    2013-01-01

    A compelling, but unsubstantiated, argument for paid sick leave legislation is that workers with leave are better able to address own and family member health needs without risking a voluntary or involuntary job separation. This study tests that claim using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and regression models controlling for a large set of worker and job characteristics, as well as with propensity score techniques. Results suggest that paid sick leave decreases the probability of job separation by at least 2.5 percentage points, or 25%. The association is strongest for workers without paid vacation leave and for mothers. PMID:24235780

  3. Paid Sick Leave and Job Stability.

    PubMed

    Hill, Heather D

    2013-05-01

    A compelling, but unsubstantiated, argument for paid sick leave legislation is that workers with leave are better able to address own and family member health needs without risking a voluntary or involuntary job separation. This study tests that claim using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and regression models controlling for a large set of worker and job characteristics, as well as with propensity score techniques. Results suggest that paid sick leave decreases the probability of job separation by at least 2.5 percentage points, or 25%. The association is strongest for workers without paid vacation leave and for mothers. PMID:24235780

  4. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  5. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  6. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  7. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  8. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  9. Chapter 20: Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    Graphite is truly a unique material. Its structure, from the nano- to the millimeter scale give it remarkable properties that lead to numerous and diverse applications. Graphite bond anisotropy, with strong in-plane covalent bonds and weak van der Waals type bonding between the planes, gives graphite its unique combination of properties. Easy shear of the crystal, facilitated by weak interplaner bonds allows graphite to be used as a dry lubricant, and is responsible for the substances name! The word graphite is derived from the Greek to write because of graphites ability to mark writing surfaces. Moreover, synthetic graphite contains within its structure, porosity spanning many orders of magnitude in size. The thermal closure of these pores profoundly affects the properties for example, graphite strength increases with temperature to temperatures in excess of 2200 C. Consequently, graphite is utilized in many high temperature applications. The basic physical properties of graphite are reviewed here. Graphite applications include metallurgical; (aluminum and steel production), single crystal silicon production, and metal casting; electrical (motor brushes and commutators); mechanical (seals, bearings and bushings); and nuclear applications, (see Chapter 91, Nuclear Graphite). Here we discuss the structure, manufacture, properties, and applications of Graphite.

  10. Promoting the Spiritual Development of Sick Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, Pat; Pridmore, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers whether there are aspects of spiritual pedagogy specific to the education of children who are sick and asks how these concerns are to be addressed. The context of the enquiry is England and Wales where the promotion of the spiritual development of children is a legislative requirement. The focus of the study is on sick…

  11. [23andMe and motion sickness].

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2016-05-01

    A Genome Wide Association Study on propensity to motion sickness published by 23andMe gives interesting results, shows validity for self-reported phenotypic information and underlines the value of the model developed by the company for customer participation in genetic studies. PMID:27225928

  12. Genetics Home Reference: sick sinus syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... 65. The incidence of this condition increases with age. Related Information What information about a genetic condition can statistics ... adults, sick sinus syndrome is often associated with age-related changes in the heart. Over time, the SA node may ... Related Information What is a gene? What is a gene ...

  13. Sensory neurobiology: demystifying the sick sense.

    PubMed

    Bozza, Thomas

    2015-02-16

    The vomeronasal organ, a sensory structure within the olfactory system, detects chemical signals that affect social and sexual behaviors and that elicit responses to predator odors. A recent study demonstrates that innate avoidance of sick conspecifics requires an intact vomeronasal organ, expanding the repertoire of biological functions known to be mediated by this olfactory subsystem. PMID:25689911

  14. Stroboscopic Goggles for Reduction of Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Somers, Jeffrey T.

    2005-01-01

    A device built around a pair of electronic shutters has been demonstrated to be effective as a prototype of stroboscopic goggles or eyeglasses for preventing or reducing motion sickness. The momentary opening of the shutters helps to suppress a phenomenon that is known in the art as retinal slip and is described more fully below. While a number of different environmental factors can induce motion sickness, a common factor associated with every known motion environment is sensory confusion or sensory mismatch. Motion sickness is a product of misinformation arriving at a central point in the nervous system from the senses from which one determines one s spatial orientation. When information from the eyes, ears, joints, and pressure receptors are all in agreement as to one s orientation, there is no motion sickness. When one or more sensory input(s) to the brain is not expected, or conflicts with what is anticipated, the end product is motion sickness. Normally, an observer s eye moves, compensating for the anticipated effect of motion, in such a manner that the image of an object moving relatively to an observer is held stationary on the retina. In almost every known environment that induces motion sickness, a change in the gain (in the signal-processing sense of gain ) of the vestibular system causes the motion of the eye to fail to hold images stationary on the retina, and the resulting motion of the images is termed retinal slip. The present concept of stroboscopic goggles or eyeglasses (see figure) is based on the proposition that prevention of retinal slip, and hence, the prevention of sensory mismatch, can be expected to reduce the tendency toward motion sickness. A device according to this concept helps to prevent retinal slip by providing snapshots of the visual environment through electronic shutters that are brief enough that each snapshot freezes the image on each retina. The exposure time for each snapshot is less than 5 ms. In the event that a higher

  15. Women's "sickness": a case of secondary gains or primary losses.

    PubMed

    Connors, D D

    1985-04-01

    The functionalist view of the sick role is analyzed in terms of its applicability to women. Rather than focusing on the so-called secondary gains of the sick role, attention is given to the primary losses incurred when women's problems are subject to medical definitions and interventions. Women's "sickness" is placed in a historical and sociopolitical context. The "sickness" of the nursing profession and the "sickness" of women are seen as sharing similar symptoms, the same etiology, and hence a common cure. PMID:3920949

  16. Collective Intelligence. Chapter 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Many systems of self-interested agents have an associated performance criterion that rates the dynamic behavior of the overall system. This chapter presents an introduction to the science of such systems. Formally, collectives are defined as any system having the following two characteristics: First, the system must contain one or more agents each of which we view as trying to maximize an associated private utility; second, the system must have an associated world utility function that rates the possible behaviors of that overall system. In practice, collectives are often very large, distributed, and support little, if any, centralized communication and control, although those characteristics are not part of their formal definition. A naturally occurring example of a collective is a human economy. One can identify the agents and their private utilities as the human individuals in the economy and the associated personal rewards they are each trying to maximize. One could then identify the world utility as the time average of the gross domestic product. ("World utility" per se is not a construction internal to a human economy, but rather something defined from the outside.) To achieve high world utility it is necessary to avoid having the agents work at cross-purposes lest phenomena like liquidity traps or the Tragedy of the Commons (TOC) occur, in which agents' individually pursuing their private utilities lowers world utility. The obvious way to avoid such phenomena is by modifying the agents utility functions to be "aligned" with the world utility. This can be done via punitive legislation. A real-world example of an attempt to do this was the creation of antitrust regulations designed to prevent monopolistic practices.

  17. Advanced Concepts. Chapter 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Mulqueen, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Before there is a funded space mission, there must be a present need for the mission. Space science and exploration are expensive, and without a well-defined and justifiable need, no one is going to commit significant funding for any space endeavor. However, as discussed in Chapter 1, applications of space technology and many and broad, hence there are many ways to determine and establish a mission need. Robotic science missions are justified by their science return. To be selected for flight, questions like these must be addressed: What is the science question that needs answering, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to answer it? Why does answering the question require an expensive space flight, instead of some ground-based alternative? If the question can only be answered by flying in space, then why is this approach better than other potential approaches? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to answer the question in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? There are also many ways to justify human exploration missions, including science return, technology advancement, as well as intangible reasons, such as national pride. Nonetheless, many of the questions that need answering, are similar to those for robotic science missions: Where are the people going, why, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to get there? What is the safest method to achieve the goal? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to get there and keep the crew alive in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? Another reason for some groups sending spacecraft into space is for profit. Telecommunications, geospatial imaging, and tourism are examples of proven, market-driven space missions and applications. For this specific set of users, the

  18. Influenza in workplaces: transmission, workers’ adherence to sick leave advice and European sick leave recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about influenza transmission in the workplace and whether staying home from work when experiencing influenza-like illness can reduce the spread of influenza is crucial for the design of efficient public health initiatives. Aim: This review synthesizes current literature on sickness presenteeism and influenza transmission in the workplace and provides an overview of sick leave recommendations in Europe for influenza. Methods: A search was performed on Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus and SweMed to identify studies related to workplace contacts, -transmission, -interventions and compliance with recommendations to take sick leave. A web-based survey on national recommendations and policies for sick leave during influenza was issued to 31 European countries. Results: Twenty-two articles (9 surveys; 13 modelling articles) were eligible for this review. Results from social mixing studies suggest that 20–25% of weekly contacts are made in the workplace, while modelling studies suggest that on average 16% (range 9–33%) of influenza transmission occurs in the workplace. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce workplace presenteeism is largely unknown. Finally, estimates from studies reporting expected compliance with sick leave recommendations ranged from 71 to 95%. Overall, 18 countries participated in the survey of which nine (50%) had issued recommendations encouraging sick employees to stay at home during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, while only one country had official recommendations for seasonal influenza. Conclusions: During the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, many European countries recommended ill employees to take sick leave. Further research is warranted to quantify the effect of reduced presenteeism during influenza illness. PMID:27060594

  19. Space Flight Decompression Sickness Contingency Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dervay, Joseph; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Ross, Charles E.; Hamilton, Douglas; Homick, Jerry L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The purpose was to develop an enhanced plan to diagnose, treat, and manage decompression sickness (DCS) during extravehicular activity (EVA). This plan is merited by the high frequency of upcoming EVAs necessary to construct and maintain the International Space Station (ISS). The upcoming ISS era will demand a significant increase in EVA. The DCS Risk and Contingency Plan provided a new and improved approach to DCS reporting, treatment, management, and training.

  20. Serum sickness secondary to ciprofloxacin use.

    PubMed

    Guharoy, S R

    1994-12-01

    Although serum sickness-like reactions are uncommon, various drugs have recently been implicated to manifest the reaction. The following case report is of a possible serum sickness-like reaction secondary to ciprofloxacin use, a commonly prescribed antibiotic in the US. A 62-y-old female developed polyarthralgias, myalgia and a generalized urticarial rash following 5 d use of ciprofloxacin. On admission to the hospital, patient was placed on cefazolin and gentamicin for suspected bacteremia. However, the regimen was discontinued after 72 h because of worsening clinical condition. Patient was placed on iv methylprednisolone therapy, and within 18 h a significant improvement was noted in her myalgias and rash. Over the next 72 h the steroid therapy was changed to a po regimen and the patient became asymptomatic 5 d after the initiation of steroid therapy. Patient was discharged on day 9 of hospital admission. Though serum sickness-like reactions have been reported with various drugs, only 1 case has been reported implicating ciprofloxacin. Clinicians should be aware of this potential adverse event secondary to ciprofloxacin use. PMID:7900274

  1. A Countermeasure for Space Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Somers, J. T.; Leigh, R. J.; Jones, G. Melvill

    2006-01-01

    Overall, the results obtained in both the U.S. and the Russian space programs indicate that most space crews will experience some symptoms of motion sickness (MS) causing significant impact on the operational objectives that must be accomplished to assure mission success. At this time the primary countermeasure for MS requires the administration of Promethazine. Promethazine is not a benign drug, and is most frequently administered just prior to the sleep cycle to prevent its side effects from further compromising mission objectives. Clearly other countermeasures for SMS must be developed. Currently the primary focus is on two different technologies: (1) developing new and different pharmacological compounds with less significant side effects, (2) preflight training. The primary problem with all of these methods for controlling MS is time. New drugs that may be beneficial are years from testing and development, and preflight training requires a significant investment of crew time during an already intensive pre-launch schedule. Granted, motion sickness symptoms can be minimized with either of the two methods detailed above, however, it may be possible to develop a countermeasure that does not require either extensive adaptation time or exposure to motion sickness. Approximately 25 years ago Professor Geoffrey Melvill Jones presented his work on adaptation of the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) using optically reversed vision (left-right prisms) during head rotations in the horizontal plane. It was of no surprise that most subjects experienced motion sickness while wearing the optically reversing prisms. However, a serendipitous finding emerged during this research showing that the same subjects did not experience motion sickness symptoms when wearing the reversing prisms under stroboscopic illumination. The mechanism, by which this side-effect was believed to have occurred, is not clearly understood. However, the fact that no motion sickness was ever noted, suggests

  2. Chapter II. Taxonomy and Phylogeny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book chapter presents a review of the taxonomic distribution of ornamental geophytic plants (bulbs, tubers, corms, rhizomes) and the modern classification of the families within which they belong....

  3. Radiation Dose-Response Relationships and Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-07-05

    The notion of a dose-response relationship was probably invented shortly after the discovery of poisons, the invention of alcoholic beverages, and the bringing of fire into a confined space in the forgotten depths of ancient prehistory. The amount of poison or medicine ingested can easily be observed to affect the behavior, health, or sickness outcome. Threshold effects, such as death, could be easily understood for intoxicants, medicine, and poisons. As Paracelsus (1493-1541), the 'father' of modern toxicology said, 'It is the dose that makes the poison.' Perhaps less obvious is the fact that implicit in such dose-response relationships is also the notion of dose rate. Usually, the dose is administered fairly acutely, in a single injection, pill, or swallow; a few puffs on a pipe; or a meal of eating or drinking. The same amount of intoxicants, medicine, or poisons administered over a week or month might have little or no observable effect. Thus, before the discovery of ionizing radiation in the late 19th century, toxicology ('the science of poisons') and pharmacology had deeply ingrained notions of dose-response relationships. This chapter demonstrates that the notion of a dose-response relationship for ionizing radiation is hopelessly simplistic from a scientific standpoint. While useful from a policy or regulatory standpoint, dose-response relationships cannot possibly convey enough information to describe the problem from a quantitative view of radiation biology, nor can they address societal values. Three sections of this chapter address the concepts, observations, and theories that contribute to the scientific input to the practice of managing risks from exposure to ionizing radiation. The presentation begins with irradiation regimes, followed by responses to high and low doses of ionizing radiation, and a discussion of how all of this can inform radiation risk management. The knowledge that is really needed for prediction of individual risk is presented

  4. Chinese hyper-susceptibility to vection-induced motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert M.; Hu, Senqi; Leblanc, Ree; Koch, Kenneth L.

    1993-01-01

    Little is known about the factors that control individual differences in susceptible to motion sickness. A serendipitous observation in our laboratory that most Chinese subjects become motion sick prompted this study. We used a rotating optokinetic drum to provoke motion sickness and compared gastric responses and symptom reports of Chinese, European-American, and African-American subjects. There was no difference in the responses of European-American and African-American subjects; however, Chinese subjects showed significantly greater disturbances in gastric activity and reported significantly more severe symptoms. We suggest that this hypersusceptibility presents a natural model for the study of physiological mechanisms of nausea and other symptoms of motion sickness.

  5. Sick Leave and Factors Influencing Sick Leave in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Appelman-Noordermeer, Simone; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the prevalence of sick leave due to atopic dermatitis (AD). The current literature on factors influencing sick leave is mostly derived from other chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sick leave due to AD and to identify influencing factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adult patients with AD. Outcome measures: sick leave during the two-week and one-year periods, socio-demographic characteristics, disease severity, quality of life and socio-occupational factors. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine influencing factors on sick leave over the two-week period. Results: In total, 253 patients were included; 12% of the patients had to take sick leave in the last two weeks due to AD and 42% in the past year. A higher level of symptom interference (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.13–1.40) or perfectionism/diligence (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.83–0.96) may respectively increase or decrease the number of sick leave days. Conclusion: Sick leave in patients with AD is a common problem and symptom interference and perfectionism/diligence appeared to influence it. Novel approaches are needed to deal with symptoms at work or school to reduce the amount of sick leave due to AD. PMID:26239345

  6. Therapeutic effects of antimotion sickness medications on the secondary symptoms of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Stewart, J. J.; Wood, M. J.; Manno, J. E.; Manno, B. R.

    1990-01-01

    In addition to nausea and vomiting, motion sickness involves slowing of brain waves, loss of performance, inhibition of gastric motility and the Sopite Syndrome. The therapeutic effects of antimotion sickness drugs on these reactions were evaluated. The subjects were rotated to the M-III end-point of motion sickness. Intramuscular (IM) medications were then administered. Side effects before and after rotation were reported on the Cornell Medical Index. Brain waves were recorded on a Grass Model 6 Electroencephalograph (EEG), and gastric emptying was studied after an oral dose of 1 mCi Technetium 99m DTPA in 10 oz. isotonic saline. An increase in dizziness and drowsiness was reported with placebo after rotation. This was not prevented by IM scopolamine 0.1 mg or ephedrine 25 mg. EEG recordings indicated a slowing of alpha waves with some thea and delta waves from the frontal areas after rotation. IM ephedine and dimenhydrinate counteracted the slowing while 0.3 mg scopolamine had an additive effect. Alterations of performance on the pursuit meter correlated with the brain wave changes. Gastric emptying was restored by IM metoclopramide. Ephedrine IM but not scopolamine is effective for some of the secondary effects of motion sickness after it is established.

  7. Chapter A7. Biological Indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Donna N.; Wilde, Franceska D.

    2003-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) provides guidelines and standard procedures for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter of the manual includes procedures for the (1) determination of biochemical oxygen demand using a 5-day bioassay test; (2) collection, identification, and enumeration of fecal indicator bacteria; (3) collection of samples and information on two laboratory methods for fecal indicator viruses (coliphages); and (4) collection of samples for protozoan pathogens. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters are posted on the World Wide Web on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/ (accessed November 25, 2003).

  8. Chapter A6. Field Measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By); Radtke, Dean B.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) provides guidelines and standard procedures for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. Chapter A6 presents procedures and guidelines for the collection of data on air and water temperature, and on dissolved-oxygen concentrations, specific electrical conductance, pH, reduction-oxidation potential, alkalinity, and turbidity in water. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters are posted on the World Wide Web on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A (accessed August 6, 2005).

  9. Analytic gain in probabilistic decompression sickness models.

    PubMed

    Howle, Laurens E

    2013-11-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is a disease known to be related to inert gas bubble formation originating from gases dissolved in body tissues. Probabilistic DCS models, which employ survival and hazard functions, are optimized by fitting model parameters to experimental dive data. In the work reported here, I develop methods to find the survival function gain parameter analytically, thus removing it from the fitting process. I show that the number of iterations required for model optimization is significantly reduced. The analytic gain method substantially improves the condition number of the Hessian matrix which reduces the model confidence intervals by more than an order of magnitude. PMID:24209920

  10. Epidemiology of the sick building syndrome.

    PubMed

    Apter, A; Bracker, A; Hodgson, M; Sidman, J; Leung, W Y

    1994-08-01

    The sick building syndrome (SBS) has been the subject of serious scientific inquiry only in the past 10 years. It is commonly accepted to represent eye, nose, and throat irritation; headaches, lethargy, difficulty concentrating, and sometimes dizziness; nausea, chest tightness; and other symptoms. Evidence suggests that what is called the SBS is at least three separate entities, each of which has at least one cause. This review will summarize the epidemiologic investigations of the SBS and present an overview of etiologic hypotheses. PMID:8077580

  11. Assessment of Psychophysiological Responses During Motion Sickness Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoud, Cynthia S.; Toscano, William B.; Cowings, Patricia; Freidman, Gary

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate a methodology designed to accurately trace the temporal progression of motion sickness and space motion sickness symptoms. With this method, subjects continuously monitor their own motion sickness symptoms during exposure to a provocative stimulus as symptoms occur, in contrast to previous methods during which subjects report symptoms verbally at discrete time intervals. This method not only is comparable to previous methods in the type of symptoms that subjects report, but subjects report symptoms more frequently. Frequent reporting of motion sickness symptoms allows researchers to detail the waxing and waning of motion sickness symptoms for each individual. Previous research has shown that physiological responses to motion sickness stimuli are characterized by unique individual differences in response patterns. By improving our assessment of motion sickness symptoms with continuous monitoring of symptoms, the relationship between specific physiological responses and sickness levels can be more accurately determined for each individual. Results from this study show significant positive relationships between skin conductance levels and symptom levels for ten individuals; a significant positive relationship between temperature and symptom levels for 5 of 10 individuals; and both positive and negative relationships between respiration, heart rate, blood volume pulse and symptom levels. Continuous monitoring of motion sickness symptoms can be used to more accurately assess motion sickness to aid in the evaluation of countermeasures. In addition, recognition of the onset of symptoms that are strongly related to specific physiological responses could be used as cues to initiate procedures (e.g., Autogenic Feedback Training) to prevent the development of severe motion sickness symptoms.

  12. Continuity of nursing and the time of sickness.

    PubMed

    Elstad, Ingunn; Torjuul, Kirsti

    2009-04-01

    This paper explores the relationship between temporal continuity in nursing and temporal features of sickness. It is based on phenomenological and hermeneutical philosophy, empirical studies of sickness time, and the nursing theories of Nightingale, of Benner and of Benner and Wrubel. In the first part, temporal continuity is defined as distinct from interpersonal continuity. Tensions between temporal continuity and discontinuity are discussed in the contexts of care management, of conceptualisations of disease and of time itself. Temporal limitations to the methodological concept of situation are discussed. The main part of this paper explores nurses' possibilities to relate to their patients' time, and how temporal features of sickness may warrant temporal continuity of nursing. Three temporal characteristics of sickness are discussed: the immediacy of patients' suffering, the basic continuity of life through sickness and health care, and the indeterminism and precariousness of sickness. The timing of nursing acts is discussed. The paper explores how sickness is both part of the continuity of life, and threatens this continuity. It concludes that this tension is implicitly recognised in the temporal continuity of nursing, which allows for discontinuous and continuous aspects of sickness time. Nurses accordingly perceive the sick person's time at several levels of temporality, and distinguish highly complex temporal processes in their patients' trajectory. Temporal continuity provides the time, flexibility, and closeness for nurses to perceive and act into time dimensions of individual sickness. The paper shows that temporal continuity of nursing is grounded in temporal characteristics of severe sickness. It suggests that temporal continuity is an important theoretical concept in nursing. PMID:19291197

  13. Chapter 1: Chapter 1/Migrant, 1993-94. Evaluation Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catterson, Shirin; And Others

    Chapter 1, a federally funded compensatory education program, provided funding to 31 elementary schools with high concentrations of low-income students in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District (AISD) through the following components: (1) nonschoolwide projects of supplementary instruction; (2) schoolwide projects (SWP) in the most…

  14. POLLUTION PREVENTION AND LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (CHAPTER 15): BOOK CHAPTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    BOOK NRMRL-CIN-1088 Curran*, M.A., and Schenck, R.C. "Pollution Prevention and Life Cycle Assessment (Chapter 15)." Published in: Handbook of Pollution Control and Waste Minimization, A. Ghassemi (Ed.),New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2001, p. 289-320. /2000 Much has been ac...

  15. Evaluating sensory conflict and postural instability. Theories of motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Warwick-Evans, L A; Symons, N; Fitch, T; Burrows, L

    1998-11-15

    Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the sensory conflict and the postural instability theories of motion sickness. The central hypothesis of sensory conflict theory is that motion sickness is caused by conflict between the current pattern of sensory inputs about self-movement and the pattern that is expected on the basis of previous experience. A subsidiary hypothesis is that the degree of motion sickness is proportional to the magnitude of sensory conflict. The central hypothesis of postural instability theory is that motion sickness is caused by loss of postural control. A subsidiary hypothesis is that the degree of motion sickness is proportional to amount of postural instability, which can be manipulated by physical restraint. In both experiments there were two levels of sensory conflict and two levels of postural restraint. Dependent variables were latency of onset and severity of motion sickness. The widespread occurrence of motion sickness in both experiments clearly confirmed the main hypothesis of sensory conflict theory. The results from Experiment 1, that there was significantly more motion sickness in the restrained condition, and from Experiment 2, that there was no significant difference in symptoms between the two restraint conditions, provide no support for the subsidiary hypothesis of postural instability theory. Evidence relating to the subsidiary proposition of sensory conflict theory was inconsistent. PMID:10052575

  16. 5 CFR 630.502 - Sick leave recredit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sick leave recredit. 630.502 Section 630.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Recredit of Leave § 630.502 Sick leave recredit. (a) When an employee transfers between...

  17. Reliability of provocative tests of motion sickness susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calkins, D. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Kennedy, R. S.; Dunlop, W. P.

    1987-01-01

    Test-retest reliability values were derived from motion sickness susceptibility scores obtained from two successive exposures to each of three tests: (1) Coriolis sickness sensitivity test; (2) staircase velocity movement test; and (3) parabolic flight static chair test. The reliability of the three tests ranged from 0.70 to 0.88. Normalizing values from predictors with skewed distributions improved the reliability.

  18. 5 CFR 630.502 - Sick leave recredit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND... service is entitled to a recredit of sick leave (without regard to the date of his or her separation), if... a recredit of sick leave (without regard to the date of his or her separation), if he or she...

  19. Systematic review of active workplace interventions to reduce sickness absence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The workplace is used as a setting for interventions to prevent and reduce sickness absence, regardless of the specific medical conditions and diagnoses. Aims To give an overview of the general effectiveness of active workplace interventions aimed at preventing and reducing sickness absence. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Psych-info, and ISI web of knowledge on 27 December 2011. Inclusion criteria were (i) participants over 18 years old with an active role in the intervention, (ii) intervention done partly or fully at the workplace or at the initiative of the workplace and (iii) sickness absence reported. Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A narrative synthesis was used. Results We identified 2036 articles of which, 93 were assessed in full text. Seventeen articles were included (2 with low and 15 with medium risk of bias), with a total of 24 comparisons. Five interventions from four articles significantly reduced sickness absence. We found moderate evidence that graded activity reduced sickness absence and limited evidence that the Sheerbrooke model (a comprehensive multidisciplinary intervention) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) reduced sickness absence. There was moderate evidence that workplace education and physical exercise did not reduce sickness absence. For other interventions, the evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions. Conclusions The review found limited evidence that active workplace interventions were not generally effective in reducing sickness absence, but there was moderate evidence of effect for graded activity and limited evidence for the effectiveness of the Sheerbrooke model and CBT. PMID:23223750

  20. Xylazine emesis, yohimbine and motion sickness susceptibility in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.

    1986-01-01

    The possible role of the alpha-2 adrenoceptors in xylazine-induced vomiting and in motion sickness was investigated. Cats were divided into two groups according to motion sickness susceptibility and were observed after s.c. injections of xylazine. The incidence of vomiting increased with the dose, and at each dose the high susceptibility group had a greater emetic incidence than the low susceptibility group. In another experiment with cats divided into two groups according to motion sickness susceptibility, s.c. administration of yohimbine effectively antagonized the xylazine-induced emesis in both susceptibility groups. The cats in the latter experiment were then challenged with a motion sickness stimulus after s.c. pretreatment with yohimbine. Yohimbine failed to prevent motion sickness but did occasion an unexplained variability in the incidence of vomiting. These findings suggest that the emetic effect of xylazine results from stimulation of alpha-2 adrenoceptors but that these receptors are not fundamental to feline motion sickness. The fact that susceptibilities to xylazine-induced emesis and to motion sickness are correlated suggests a point of interaction other than the area postrema, which is known to be essential for xylazine-induced vomiting but not for motion sickness in the cat.

  1. Chapter 2: Official Programmatic Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roholt, Ross VeLure; Hildreth, R. W.; Baizerman, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Youth civic engagement is a diverse field of practice, with each initiative claiming it has a unique approach. This chapter describes three initiatives, Youth-in-Government, Youth Science Center, and Public Achievement from the point-of-view of program staff. Their view is often privileged; it is the one used for official communication and public…

  2. Chapter 17 Berries and Cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major objective of this book is to review in detail health problems occurring with significant frequency in aging adults which are proposed to be treated or ameliorated using nutriceuticals as foods and dietary supplements as well as other complementary and alternative therapies. Chapters primar...

  3. Motion sickness elicited by passive rotation in squirrel monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Current theory and recent evidence suggest that motion sickness occurs under conditions of sensory input in which the normal motor programs for producing eye, head, and body movements are not functionally effective, i.e. under conditions in which there are difficulties in maintaining posture and controlling eye movements. Conditions involving conflicting or inconsistent visual-vestibular (VV) stimulation should thus result in greater sickness rates since the existing motor programs do not produce effective control of eye-head-body movements under such conditions. It is felt that the relationship of postural control to motion sickness is an important one and one often overlooked. The results are reported which showed that when postural requirements were minimized by fully restraining squirrel monkeys during hypogravity parabolic flight, no animals became motion sick, but over 80 percent of the same 11 animals became sick if they were unrestrained and maintained control of their posture.

  4. Stroboscopic Vision as a Treatment for Space Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Somers, Jeffrey T.; Ford, George; Krnavek, Jody M.

    2007-01-01

    Results obtained from space flight indicate that most space crews will experience some symptoms of motion sickness causing significant impact on the operational objectives that must be accomplished to assure mission success. Based on the initial work of Melvill Jones we have evaluated stroboscopic vision as a method of preventing motion sickness. Given that the data presented by professor Melvill Jones were primarily post hoc results following a study not designed to investigate motion sickness, it is unclear how motion sickness results were actually determined. Building on these original results, we undertook a three part study that was designed to investigate the effect of stroboscopic vision (either with a strobe light or LCD shutter glasses) on motion sickness using: (1) visual field reversal, (2) Reading while riding in a car (with or without external vision present), and (3) making large pitch head movements during parabolic flight.

  5. [Comparison between two anti-motion sickness drugs].

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Qian, J K; Wang, B Z; Gao, J Y; Shi, H Z

    1999-04-01

    Objective. To test the validity of an animal model in selecting anti-motion sickness drugs, and compare the effects of two drugs. Method. Anti-motion sickness effects of two drugs (Cyclizine and Scopolamin-d-amphetamin compound) were observed in rats with motion sickness (MS) induced by rotatory stimulation and the amount of Kaolin ate by rats was taken as an evaluation criterion. Result. The consumption of Kaolin by the rats decreased significantly after administration of both drugs, and the effect of Scopolamin-d-amphetamin compound was better than those of Cyclizine under the same condition. Conclusion. It suggests that the rat model of motion sickness is practical and useful in studying anti-motion sickness drugs. PMID:12430546

  6. Motion sickness induced by off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR)

    PubMed Central

    Sofroniou, Sofronis; Kunin, Mikhail; Raphan, Theodore; Cohen, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that motion sickness is produced by an integration of the disparity between eye velocity and the yaw-axis orientation vector of velocity storage. Disparity was defined as the magnitude of the cross product between these two vectors. OVAR, which is known to produce motion sickness, generates horizontal eye velocity with a bias level related to velocity storage, as well as cyclic modulations due to re-orientation of the head re gravity. On average, the orientation vector is close to the spatial vertical. Thus, disparity can be related to the bias and tilt angle. Motion sickness sensitivity was defined as a ratio of maximum motion sickness score to the number of revolutions, allowing disparity and motion sickness sensitivity to be correlated. Nine subjects were rotated around axes tilted 10°–30° from the spatial vertical at 30°/s–120°/s. Motion sickness sensitivity increased monotonically with increases in the disparity due to changes in rotational velocity and tilt angle. Maximal motion sickness sensitivity and bias (6.8°/s) occurred when rotating at 60°/s about an axis tilted 30° Modulations in eye velocity during OVAR were unrelated to motion sickness sensitivity. The data were predicted by a model incorporating an estimate of head velocity from otolith activation, which activated velocity storage, followed by an orientation disparity comparator that activated a motion sickness integrator. These results suggest that the sensory-motor conflict that produces motion sickness involves coding of the spatial vertical by the otolith organs and body tilt receptors and processing of eye velocity through velocity storage. PMID:20535456

  7. Chapter 13. Exploring Use of the Reserved Core

    SciTech Connect

    Holmen, John; Humphrey, Alan; Berzins, Martin

    2015-07-29

    In this chapter, we illustrate benefits of thinking in terms of thread management techniques when using a centralized scheduler model along with interoperability of MPI and PThread. This is facilitated through an exploration of thread placement strategies for an algorithm modeling radiative heat transfer with special attention to the 61st core. This algorithm plays a key role within the Uintah Computational Framework (UCF) and current efforts taking place at the University of Utah to model next-generation, large-scale clean coal boilers. In such simulations, this algorithm models the dominant form of heat transfer and consumes a large portion of compute time. Exemplified by a real-world example, this chapter presents our early efforts in porting a key portion of a scalability-centric codebase to the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. Specifically, this chapter presents results from our experiments profiling the native execution of a reverse Monte-Carlo ray tracing-based radiation model on a single coprocessor. These results demonstrate that our fastest run configurations utilized the 61st core and that performance was not profoundly impacted when explicitly oversubscribing the coprocessor operating system thread. Additionally, this chapter presents a portion of radiation model source code, a MIC-centric UCF cross-compilation example, and less conventional thread management technique for developers utilizing the PThreads threading model.

  8. Threshold altitude resulting in decompression sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. V.; Waligora, James M.; Calkins, Dick S.

    1990-01-01

    A review of case reports, hypobaric chamber training data, and experimental evidence indicated that the threshold for incidence of altitude decompression sickness (DCS) was influenced by various factors such as prior denitrogenation, exercise or rest, and period of exposure, in addition to individual susceptibility. Fitting these data with appropriate statistical models makes it possible to examine the influence of various factors on the threshold for DCS. This approach was illustrated by logistic regression analysis on the incidence of DCS below 9144 m. Estimations using these regressions showed that, under a noprebreathe, 6-h exposure, simulated EVA profile, the threshold for symptoms occurred at approximately 3353 m; while under a noprebreathe, 2-h exposure profile with knee-bends exercise, the threshold occurred at 7925 m.

  9. [Transportation-related disease or motion sickness].

    PubMed

    Perrin, C

    1994-02-01

    The manifestations of motion sickness result from neurovegetative effects linked to a change in the data used by the equilibration function in spatial integration. The syndrome is an adaptation to a physical environment that is different from that in which we live. Although each type of situation involves manifestations with a certain specificity, there is a general table of cinetoses. For the person who must face an environment at risk (usually for professional reasons), it is necessary to obtain active and voluntary adaptation by repeated exposure to the triggering conditions. The occasional traveler can use preventive or curative drugs which usually associate parasympatholytic agents and amphetamines. Despite the association of the latter, the risk of lowered attention level is large enough to preclude this type of treatment in anyone assuming responsibility in transportation. PMID:8178101

  10. Pathology: whales, sonar and decompression sickness.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Claude A; Thalmann, Edward D

    2004-04-15

    We do not yet know why whales occasionally strand after sonar has been deployed nearby, but such information is important for both naval undersea activities and the protection of marine mammals. Jepson et al. suggest that a peculiar gas-forming disease afflicting some stranded cetaceans could be a type of decompression sickness (DCS) resulting from exposure to mid-range sonar. However, neither decompression theory nor observation support the existence of a naturally occurring DCS in whales that is characterized by encapsulated, gas-filled cavities in the liver. Although gas-bubble formation may be aggravated by acoustic energy, more rigorous investigation is needed before sonar can be firmly linked to bubble formation in whales. PMID:15085881

  11. Habituation of motion sickness in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crampton, George H.; Lucot, James B.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty femal cats were subjected to a motion sickness stimulus in three series of tests. A series consisted of five tests given biweekly, weekly, or daily. Each test consisted of 30 min of stimulation followed by 1 min of rest, and series were separated by a period of not less than 14 d. Retching was the dependent variable. No habituation (reduction in the incidence of retching) was found with biweekly testing but pronounced habituation was observed with weekly and daily testing. The 30 cats were divided evenly into high and low susceptibility groups based on the results of the biweekly tests. The rate of habituation was the same for the two susceptibility groups in both the weekly and daily series.

  12. Motion Sickness Treatment Apparatus and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F. (Inventor); Somers, Jeffrey T. (Inventor); Ford, George A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for treating motion sickness. In a preferred embodiment a method of the invention comprises operating eyewear having shutter lenses to open said shutter lenses at a selected operating frequency ranging from within about 3 Hz to about 50 Hz. The shutter lenses are opened for a short duration at the selected operating frequency wherein the duration is selected to prevent retinal slip. The shutter lenses may be operated at a relatively slow frequency of about 4 Hz when the user is in passive activity such as riding in a boat or car or in limited motion situations in a spacecraft. The shutter lenses may be operated at faster frequencies related to motion of the user's head when the user is active.

  13. Vasopressin and motion sickness in cats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, R. A.; Keil, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.; Crampton, G. H.; Lucot, J.

    1987-01-01

    Levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in cats under several motion-sickness-inducing conditions. Plasma AVP increased significantly in both susceptible and resistant animals exposed to motion. When vomiting occurred, levels of plasma AVP were drmatically elevated (up to 27 times resting levels). There was no difference in resting levels of AVP of susceptible and resistant cats. Levels of CSF-AVP were not elevated immediately after vomiting, but the testing levels of CSF-AVP were lower in animals that vomited during motion than in those animals which did not vomit during motion. The results of these experiments show that changes in systemic AVP are directly related to vomiting induced by motion, however, CSF-AVP apparently does not change in association with vomiting. CSF-AVP does appear to be lower in animals that reach frank vomiting during motion stimulation than in animals which do not vomit.

  14. Side effects of antimotion sickness drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Manno, J. E.; Manno, B. R.; Redetzki, H. M.; Wood, M. D.; Vekovius, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects on operational proficiency of the antimotion sickness drugs scopolamine, promethazine and d-amphetamine are tested using a computerized pursuit meter. Proficiency is not significantly affected by oral doses of 0.25 mg or 0.50 mg scopolamine but is descreased by oral or I.M. doses of 25 mg promethazine. The performance decrement associated with 25 mg oral promethazine is prevented when combined with 10 mg oral d-amphetamine. The combination of 25 mg I.M. promethazine, 25 mg oral promethazine and 10 mg d-amphetamine produces less performance decrement than oral or I.M. doses of promethazine alone, though more performance decrement than a placebo. I.M. promethazine is adsorbed slowly and consequently may provoke drowsiness.

  15. The vomeronasal system mediates sick conspecific avoidance.

    PubMed

    Boillat, Madlaina; Challet, Ludivine; Rossier, Daniel; Kan, Chenda; Carleton, Alan; Rodriguez, Ivan

    2015-01-19

    Although sociability offers many advantages, a major drawback is the increased risk of exposure to contagious pathogens, like parasites, viruses, or bacteria. Social species have evolved various behavioral strategies reducing the probability of pathogen exposure. In rodents, sick conspecific avoidance can be induced by olfactory cues emitted by parasitized or infected conspecifics. The neural circuits involved in this behavior remain largely unknown. We observed that olfactory cues present in bodily products of mice in an acute inflammatory state or infected with a viral pathogen are aversive to conspecifics. We found that these chemical signals trigger neural activity in the vomeronasal system, an olfactory subsystem controlling various innate behaviors. Supporting the functional relevance of these observations, we show that preference toward healthy individuals is abolished in mice with impaired vomeronasal function. These findings reveal a novel function played by the vomeronasal system. PMID:25578906

  16. The Person in a State of Sickness.

    PubMed

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur; Hjörleifsson, Stefán

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we discuss the ideas of Eric J. Cassell about the patient-professional relationship. We argue that his approach combines in an interesting way features from the literature on patient autonomy and paternalistic practices. We suggest that these seemingly paternalistic features of practicing medicine, which are widely either ignored or condemned in bioethical discussion, are of vital significance in medical practice. In the first sections of the article, we describe the main features of Cassell's understanding of the sick person and his version of personalized medicine. We pay particular attention to his notion of information control and compare his ideas about conversation with patients to Hans-Georg Gadamer's analysis of patient-professional dialogue. In the latter part of the article, we explore through a couple of examples the implications these ideas have for medical practice. PMID:26957446

  17. Advances in Pharmacotherapeutics of Space Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi

    2006-01-01

    Space Motion Sickness (SMS) is common occurrence in the U.S. manned space flight program and nearly 2/3 of Shuttle crewmembers experience SMS. Several drugs have been prescribed for therapeutic management of SMS. Typically, orally-administered SMS medications (scopolamine, promethazine) have poor bioavailability and often have detrimental neurocognitive side effects at recommended doses. Intramuscularly administered promethazine (PMZ) is perceived to have optimal efficacy with minimal side effects in space. However, intramuscular injections are painful and the sedating neurocognitive side effects of promethazine, significant in controlled ground testing, may be masked in orbit because injections are usually given prior to crew sleep. Currently, EVAs cannot be performed by symptomatic crew or prior to flight day three due to the lack of a consistently efficacious drug, concern about neurocognitive side effects, and because an in-suit vomiting episode is potentially fatal. NASA has long sought a fast acting, consistently effective anti-motion sickness medication which has only minor neurocognitive side effects. Development of intranasal formulations of scopolamine and promethazine, the two commonly used SMS drugs at NASA for both space and reduced gravity environment medical operations, appears to be a logical alternative to current treatment modalities for SMS. The advantages are expected to be fast absorption, reliable and high bioavailability, and probably reduced neurocognitive side effects owing to dose reduction. Results from clinical trials with intranasal scopolamine gel formulation and pre-clinical testing of a prototype microcapsule intranasal gel dosage form of PMZ (INPMZ) will be discussed. These formulations are expected to offer a dependable and effective noninvasive treatment option for SMS.

  18. Is adiposopathy (sick fat) an endocrine disease?

    PubMed Central

    Bays, H E; González-Campoy, J M; Henry, R R; Bergman, D A; Kitabchi, A E; Schorr, A B; Rodbard, H W

    2008-01-01

    Objective To review current consensus and controversy regarding whether obesity is a ‘disease’, examine the pathogenic potential of adipose tissue to promote metabolic disease and explore the merits of ‘adiposopathy’ and ‘sick fat’ as scientifically and clinically useful terms in defining when excessive body fat may represent a ‘disease’. Methods A group of clinicians and researchers, all with a background in endocrinology, assembled to evaluate the medical literature, as it pertains to the pathologic and pathogenic potential of adipose tissue, with an emphasis on metabolic diseases that are often promoted by excessive body weight. Results The data support pathogenic adipose tissue as a disease. Challenges exist to convince many clinicians, patients, healthcare entities and the public that excessive body fat is often no less a ‘disease’ than the pathophysiological consequences related to anatomical abnormalities of other body tissues. ‘Adiposopathy’ has the potential to scientifically define adipose tissue anatomic and physiologic abnormalities, and their adverse consequences to patient health. Adiposopathy acknowledges that when positive caloric balance leads to adipocyte hypertrophy and visceral adiposity, then this may lead to pathogenic adipose tissue metabolic and immune responses that promote metabolic disease. From a patient perspective, explaining how excessive caloric intake might cause fat to become ‘sick’ also helps provide a rationale for patients to avoid weight gain. Adiposopathy also better justifies recommendations of weight loss as an effective therapeutic modality to improve metabolic disease in overweight and obese patients. Conclusion Adiposopathy (sick fat) is an endocrine disease. PMID:18681905

  19. Low back pain predict sickness absence among power plant workers

    PubMed Central

    Murtezani, Ardiana; Hundozi, Hajrije; Orovcanec, Nikola; Berisha, Merita; Meka, Vjollca

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) remains the predominant occupational health problem in most industrialized countries and low-income countries. Both work characteristics and individual factors have been identified as risk factors. More knowledge about the predictors of sickness absence from LBP in the industry will be valuable in determining strategies for prevention. Objectives: The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate whether individual, work-related physical risk factors were involved in the occurrence of LBP sickness absence. Methods: A follow-up study was conducted among 489 workers, aged 18–65 years, at Kosovo Energetic Corporation in Kosovo. This cross-sectional study used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data on individual and work-related risk factors and the occurrence of LBP sickness absence. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations between risk factors and the occurrence of sickness absence due to LBP. Results: Individual factors did not influence sickness absence, whereas work-related physical factors showed strong associations with sickness absence. The main risk factors for sickness absence due to LBP among production workers were extreme trunk flexion (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.05–2.78) as well as very extreme trunk flexion (OR = 6.04, 95% CI = 1.12–32.49) and exposure to whole-body vibration (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.04–2.95). Conclusion: Reducing sickness absence from LBP among power plant workers requires focusing on the working conditions of blue-collar workers and risk factors for LBP. Increasing social support in the work environment may have effects in reducing sickness absence from LBP. PMID:21120081

  20. Coping with space motion sickness in Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.

    1981-01-01

    Lessons learned from Skylab are applied to methods of dealing with space sickness among crewmembers in their first orbital flight. Early experiences on Skylab 3 led to regularly scheduled scopalamine/dexedrine tablets ingestion. Subsequent experiences on the next Skylab mission established a 75% incidence of the sickness among first-time-in-orbit crewmembers, notably in periods of inactivity rather than work periods. Intramuscular injections are recommended to treat acute space sickness. Preflight transdermal scopalamine plus three or four doses of 5 mg amphetamine are chosen preventive measures, giving 12 hours of efficacy.

  1. Pharmacological and neurophysiological aspects of space/motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.

    1991-01-01

    A motorized motion testing device modeled after a Ferris wheel was constructed to perform motion sickness tests on cats. Details of the testing are presented, and some of the topics covered include the following: xylazine-induced emesis; analysis of the constituents of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during motion sickness; evaluation of serotonin-1A (5-HT sub 1A) agonists; other 5HT receptors; antimuscarinic mechanisms; and antihistaminergic mechanisms. The ability of the following drugs to reduce motion sickness in the cats was examined: amphetamines, adenosinergic drugs, opioid antagonists, peptides, cannabinoids, cognitive enhancers (nootropics), dextromethorphan/sigma ligands, scopolamine, and diphenhydramine.

  2. 20 CFR 341.8 - Termination of sickness benefits due to a settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Termination of sickness benefits due to a... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.8 Termination of sickness benefits due to a settlement. (a) Sickness benefits payable to an eligible employee shall be paid...

  3. 20 CFR 341.8 - Termination of sickness benefits due to a settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Termination of sickness benefits due to a... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.8 Termination of sickness benefits due to a settlement. (a) Sickness benefits payable to an eligible employee shall be paid...

  4. 20 CFR 341.8 - Termination of sickness benefits due to a settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of sickness benefits due to a... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.8 Termination of sickness benefits due to a settlement. (a) Sickness benefits payable to an eligible employee shall be paid...

  5. 20 CFR 341.8 - Termination of sickness benefits due to a settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Termination of sickness benefits due to a... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.8 Termination of sickness benefits due to a settlement. (a) Sickness benefits payable to an eligible employee shall be paid...

  6. 20 CFR 341.8 - Termination of sickness benefits due to a settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Termination of sickness benefits due to a... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.8 Termination of sickness benefits due to a settlement. (a) Sickness benefits payable to an eligible employee shall be paid...

  7. 31 CFR 29.332 - Unused sick leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.332 Unused sick leave. (a) For employees separated for retirement as of June... the applicable plan. (b) For employees separated for retirement after June 30, 1997, no unused...

  8. Sick building syndrome, work factors and occupational stress.

    PubMed

    Crawford, J O; Bolas, S M

    1996-08-01

    The sick building syndrome has been associated with certain buildings and environmental characteristics and is estimated to affect up to 30% of new or renovated buildings. Investigations have concentrated on physical factors, and it is only recently that psychological factors have been examined. Work and personal factors have also been considered. Occupational stress has been found to be correlated with symptoms of the sick building syndrome, but much of the research has been of a cross-sectional nature, and it does not indicate whether stress is an active element or an outcome. There is a clear need for further research in this area to examine stress, personality and physical factors associated with the sick building syndrome longitudinally. There is also a clear need to assess the validity of the historical and self-report methods used to assess the sick building syndrome. PMID:8881012

  9. Junior MARSIPAN (Management of Really Sick Patients with Anorexia Nervosa).

    PubMed

    Marikar, Dilshad; Reynolds, Sarah; Moghraby, Omer S

    2016-06-01

    We present a review of the Junior MARSIPAN (Management of Really Sick Patients with Anorexia Nervosa) guideline, which provides paediatricians with a framework for managing Anorexia Nervosa in the inpatient setting. PMID:26407730

  10. Stress of Caring for Sick Spouse May Raise Stroke Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157606.html Stress of Caring for Sick Spouse May Raise Stroke ... University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), said chronic stress boosts blood levels of the hormone cortisol and ...

  11. Is Your School Sick? Five Threats to Healthy Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Deborah; Diamantes, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Examines the five major threats to healthy school buildings: sick building syndrome; health-threatening building materials; environmental hazards such as radon gas and asbestos; lead poisoning; and general indoor air quality. Discusses ways to assess and address them. (SR)

  12. Sickness absence, moral hazard, and the business cycle.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The procyclical nature of sickness absence has been documented by many scholars in literature. So far, explanations have been based on labor force composition and reduced moral hazard caused by fear of job loss during recessions. In this paper, we propose and test a third mechanism caused by reduced moral hazard during booms and infections. We suggest that the workload is higher during economic booms and thus employees have to go to work despite being sick. In a theoretical model focusing on infectious diseases, we show that this will provoke infections of coworkers leading to overall higher sickness absence during economic upturns. Using state-level aggregated data from 112 German public health insurance funds (out of 145 in total), we find that sickness absence due to infectious diseases shows the largest procyclical pattern, as predicted by our theoretical model. PMID:24737552

  13. Paid Sick Leave May Help Health of Whole Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Paid Sick Leave May Help Health of Whole Family Study finds workers without it forgo or delay ... to forego medical care for themselves or their family when they're ill. Not surprisingly, they also ...

  14. Acute Mountain Sickness and Hemoconcentration in Next Generation Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, Johnny

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the threat astronauts face from acute mountain sickness (AMS). It includes information about the symptoms of AMS, the potential threat to astronauts, and future efforts to mitigate the AMS threat.

  15. Flu: What to Do If You Get Sick

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters The Flu: What To Do If You Get Sick Language: ...

  16. Research opportunities in space motion sickness, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Space and motion sickness, the current and projected NASA research program, and the conclusions and suggestions of the ad hoc Working Group are summarized. The frame of reference for the report is ground-based research.

  17. Effects of Autonomic Conditioning on Motion Sickness Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents case-studies of 9 shuttle crewmembers (prime and alternates) and one U.S. Navy F-18 pilot, as they participated in all preflight training and testing activities in support of a life sciences flight experiment aboard Spacelab-J, and Spacelab-3. The primary objective of the flight experiment was to determine if Autogenic-feedback training (AFT), a physiological self-regulation training technique would be an effective treatment for motion sickness and space motion sickness in these crewmembers. Additional objectives of this study involved the examining human Physiological- responses to motion sickness on Earth and in space, as well as developing predictive criteria for susceptibility to space motion sickness based on ground-based data. Comparisons of these crewmembers are made to a larger set of subjects from previous experiments (treatment and test-only controls subjects). This paper describes all preflight methods, results and proposed changes for future tests.

  18. The susceptibility of rhesus monkeys to motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, Meryl L.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    The susceptibility of rhesus monkeys to motion sickness was investigated using test conditions that are provocative for eliciting motion sickness in squirrel monkeys. Ten male rhesus monkeys and ten male Bolivian squirrel monkeys were rotated in the vertical axis at 150 deg/s for a maximum duration of 45 min. Each animal was tested in two conditions, continuous rotation and intermittent rotation. None of the rhesus monkeys vomited during the motion tests but all of the squirrel monkeys did. Differences were observed between the species in the amount of activity that occurred during motion test, with the squirrel monkeys being significantly more active than the rhesus monkeys. These results, while substantiating anecdotal reports of the resistance of rhesus monkeys to motion sickness, should be interpreted with caution because of the documented differences that exist between various species with regard to stimuli that are provocative for eliciting motion sickness.

  19. Braid My Hair - Randy Owen sings out for sick children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Braid My Hair - Randy Owen sings out for sick children Past ... debut performance of his latest song, "Braid My Hair," was the highlight during this year's Songwriter's Dinner ...

  20. Adaptation to vection-induced symptoms of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert M.; Hu, Senqi; Vasey, Michael W.; Koch, Kenneth L.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of repeated exposures to a rotating circular vection drum on the symptoms of motion sickness and tachygastria in humans were investigated. Subjects were sitting in a drum and were exposed to 15 min baseline (no rotation), followed by 15 min drum rotation at 60 deg/s, and, then, by 15 min recovery. Gastric myoelectric activity was continuously recorded with the electrogastrogram. Subjects who were exposed to the drum three times with intervals of 4-24 days all showed symptoms of tachygastria and failed to show an amelioration of motion sickness symptoms. On the other hand subjects who had only 48 h between the three sessions of drum exposure, experienced a reduction in motion-sickness symptoms and in tachygastsria upon repeated exposure to the drum, indicating that training effected a symptomatic and physiological adaptation. It is suggested that preflight adaptation to visual-vestibular sensory mismatch may reduce motion sickness in astronauts.

  1. Stroboscopic Vision as a Treatment for Space Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Somers, J.T.; Ford, G.; Krnavek, J.M.; Hwang, E.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Stroboscopic illumination reduces the severity of motion sickness symptoms, and shutter glasses with a flash frequency of 4 Hz are as effective as a strobe light. Stroboscopic illumination appears to be an effective countermeasure where retinal slip is a significant factor in eliciting motion sickness. Additional research is currently underway to evaluate the stroboscopic glasses efficacy in a variety of different motion environments. Specifically, carsickness, sickness during the microgravity periods of parabolic flight and sea sickness. Possible mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of the glasses are also being investigated. There is evidence from pilot studies showing that the glasses, when strobed at the 4 Hz frequency, reduce saccade velocity to visually presented targets is reduced by approximately half of the normal values. It is interesting to note that adaptation to space flight may also slow saccade velocity.

  2. Industry group assails climate chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, P.

    1996-06-21

    the scientific debate about whether human activity is warming global climate subsided late last year when the world`s leading climate researchers agreed that the answer is probably yes. But recently the political debate heated up by several degrees when an industry group charged that revisions to a crucial chapter in a UN report on climate change violated peer review and amounted to scientific cleansing of doubts about human influences on climate. This article describes the controversy from both points of view - the business group and the scientists involved.

  3. Patterns of Sickness Absence in a Railway Population

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Cecil; Emerson, A. R.; Pugh, Derek S.

    1959-01-01

    This investigation was carried out in order to obtain morbidity statistics in a large industrial population with special reference to the effects of ageing. The population chosen, the “railway research population,” consisted of a sample of Scottish railwaymen, drawn from five of the eight areas in the Scottish Region of British Railways. Only certain occupational grades were studied. Information was obtained over a period of one year by means of a detailed monthly return of (a) sickness absence data and (b) job changes. Indices of sickness absence were defined. The sickness absence experience of the railway research population was compared with that of other populations. It is a healthier group than the total insured population but differs in some respects from that of London Transport. The nature of sickness absence within the railway research population was then studied. It was shown in all but one measure used that sickness tends to increase with age, the most important factor being the increase of long episodes. Examination of the frequency distribution of the duration of sickness episodes revealed that sickness absence tends to be taken in terms of weeks off rather than days off. Analysis of the daily variation in sickness absence showed that the total absence rate increased from Monday to Friday. There was a well defined tendency for sickness to start on Mondays, and in longer episodes an additional tendency to start on Fridays. This was interpreted in terms of morale, both positive and negative. Marked differences of the same order of magnitude as those due to age were noted in the sickness experience of the various grades, related to both conditions of work and responsibility. The reasons for job changes were analysed and the grades to which men were transferred were identified. The choice of suitable grades for older workers was discussed. It was concluded that working conditions might be important factors in the type of sickness absence experienced

  4. Space Motion Sickness and Stress Training Simulator using Electrophysiological Biofeedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudeau, C.; Golding, J. F.; Thevot, F.; Lucas, Y.; Bobola, P.; Thouvenot, J.

    2005-06-01

    An important problem in manned spaceflight is the nausea that typically appears during the first 3 days and then disappears after 5 days. Methods of detecting changes in electrophysiological signals are being studied in order to reduce susceptibility to space motion sickness through biofeedback training, and for the early detection of nausea during EVA. A simulator would allow subjects to control their body functions and to use biofeedback to control space motion sickness and stress.

  5. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence

    PubMed Central

    van Rhenen, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year) is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves. Methods We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD–R) model as theoretical framework. Results Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills) were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence. Conclusions The JD–R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance. PMID:26872050

  6. Calcium antagonists in the prevention of motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Lee, J A; Watson, L A; Boothby, G

    1986-01-01

    Flunarizine is a calcium antagonist which has proved clinically useful in controlling chronic vertigo. In a double blind crossover trial 10 subjects were used to compare the electronystagmic responses to motion in patients taking flunarizine, prochlorperazine maleate, or placebo. Flunarizine is shown to be a powerful peripherally acting labyrinthine suppressant, with application in the prevention of motion sickness. Flunarizine produces none of the central depressive side effects characteristic of antihistamines and anticholinergics, which are the conventional anti-motion sickness drugs. PMID:3510617

  7. 31 CFR Appendixes to Chapter V - Note

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Note Appendixes to Chapter V Money... CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Ch. V, Nt. Appendixes to Chapter V—Note Notes: The alphabetical lists.... References to regulatory parts in chapter V or other authorities: : Western Balkans Stabilization...

  8. A New Measure of Decompression Sickness in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiong; Lambrechts, Kate; Mansourati, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    In this study we assessed the reliability of a tilting-board grip score as a measure of decompression sickness in rats. In experiments using a hyperbaric compression/decompression protocol, rats were observed for signs of decompression sickness and their grip strength measured on a tilting particle board hinged to a metal frame. Angles at which rats lost grip were converted to gravitational vectors. Decreased mean grip scores following decompression were fitted to a logistic regression model with strain, age, and weight. Decrease in grip score was significantly associated with observed decompression sickness (P = 0.0036). The log odds ratio for decompression sickness = 1.40 (decrease in grip score). In rats with no decrease in mean grip score there was a 50% probability of decompression sickness (pDCS). This increased steadily with decreases in mean grip score. A decrease of 0.3 had a 60% pDCS, a decrease of 0.6 had a 70% pDCS, and a decrease of 2.1 had a 95% pDCS. The tilting board grip score is a reliable measure of the probability of decompression sickness. PMID:24963469

  9. Motion sickness, nausea and thermoregulation: The “toxic” hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Nalivaiko, Eugene; Rudd, John A; So, Richard HY

    2014-01-01

    Principal symptoms of motion sickness in humans include facial pallor, nausea and vomiting, and sweating. It is less known that motion sickness also affects thermoregulation, and the purpose of this review is to present and discuss existing data related to this subject. Hypothermia during seasickness was firstly noted nearly 150 years ago, but detailed studies of this phenomenon were conducted only during the last 2 decades. Motion sickness-induced hypothermia is philogenetically quite broadly expressed as besides humans, it has been reported in rats, musk shrews and mice. Evidence from human and animal experiments indicates that the physiological mechanisms responsible for the motion sickness-induced hypothermia include cutaneous vasodilation and sweating (leading to an increase of heat loss) and reduced thermogenesis. Together, these results suggest that motion sickness triggers highly coordinated physiological response aiming to reduce body temperature. Finally, we describe potential adaptive role of this response, and describe the benefits of using it as an objective measure of motion sickness-induced nausea.

  10. Space sickness predictors suggest fluid shift involvement and possible countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simanonok, K. E.; Moseley, E. C.; Charles, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Preflight data from 64 first time Shuttle crew members were examined retrospectively to predict space sickness severity (NONE, MILD, MODERATE, or SEVERE) by discriminant analysis. From 9 input variables relating to fluid, electrolyte, and cardiovascular status, 8 variables were chosen by discriminant analysis that correctly predicted space sickness severity with 59 pct. success by one method of cross validation on the original sample and 67 pct. by another method. The 8 variables in order of their importance for predicting space sickness severity are sitting systolic blood pressure, serum uric acid, calculated blood volume, serum phosphate, urine osmolality, environmental temperature at the launch site, red cell count, and serum chloride. These results suggest the presence of predisposing physiologic factors to space sickness that implicate a fluid shift etiology. Addition of a 10th input variable, hours spent in the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF), improved the prediction of space sickness severity to 66 pct. success by the first method of cross validation on the original sample and to 71 pct. by the second method. The data suggest that WETF training may reduce space sickness severity.

  11. Human heart rate variability relation is unchanged during motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, T. J.; Berger, R. D.; Oman, C. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    In a study of 18 human subjects, we applied a new technique, estimation of the transfer function between instantaneous lung volume (ILV) and instantaneous heart rate (HR), to assess autonomic activity during motion sickness. Two control recordings of ILV and electrocardiogram (ECG) were made prior to the development of motion sickness. During the first, subjects were seated motionless, and during the second they were seated rotating sinusoidally about an earth vertical axis. Subjects then wore prism goggles that reverse the left-right visual field and performed manual tasks until they developed moderate motion sickness. Finally, ILV and ECG were recorded while subjects maintained a relatively constant level of sickness by intermittent eye closure during rotation with the goggles. Based on analyses of ILV to HR transfer functions from the three conditions, we were unable to demonstrate a change in autonomic control of heart rate due to rotation alone or due to motion sickness. These findings do not support the notion that moderate motion sickness is manifested as a generalized autonomic response.

  12. Decompression sickness in breath-hold divers: a review.

    PubMed

    Lemaitre, Frederic; Fahlman, Andreas; Gardette, Bernard; Kohshi, Kiyotaka

    2009-12-01

    Although it has been generally assumed that the risk of decompression sickness is virtually zero during a single breath-hold dive in humans, repeated dives may result in a cumulative increase in the tissue and blood nitrogen tension. Many species of marine mammals perform extensive foraging bouts with deep and long dives interspersed by a short surface interval, and some human divers regularly perform repeated dives to 30-40 m or a single dive to more than 200 m, all of which may result in nitrogen concentrations that elicit symptoms of decompression sickness. Neurological problems have been reported in humans after single or repeated dives and recent necropsy reports in stranded marine mammals were suggestive of decompression sickness-like symptoms. Modelling attempts have suggested that marine mammals may live permanently with elevated nitrogen concentrations and may be at risk when altering their dive behaviour. In humans, non-pathogenic bubbles have been recorded and symptoms of decompression sickness have been reported after repeated dives to modest depths. The mechanisms implicated in these accidents indicate that repeated breath-hold dives with short surface intervals are factors that predispose to decompression sickness. During deep diving, the effect of pulmonary shunts and/or lung collapse may play a major role in reducing the incidence of decompression sickness in humans and marine mammals. PMID:19967580

  13. Cognitive and postural precursors of motion sickness in adolescent boxers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chou; Tseng, Tzu-Chiang; Hung, Ting-Hsuan; Hsieh, City C; Chen, Fu-Chen; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2013-09-01

    Athletic head trauma (both concussive and sub-concussive) is common among adolescents. Concussion typically is followed by motion sickness-like symptoms, by changes in cognitive performance, and by changes in standing body sway. We asked whether pre-bout body sway would differ between adolescent boxers who experienced post-bout motion sickness and those who did not. In addition, we asked whether pre-bout cognitive performance would differ as a function of adolescent boxers' post-bout motion sickness. Nine of nineteen adolescent boxers reported motion sickness after a bout. Pre-bout measures of cognitive performance and body sway differed between boxers who reported post-bout motion sickness and those who did not. The results suggest that susceptibility to motion sickness-like symptoms in adolescent boxers may be manifested in characteristic patterns of body sway and cognitive performance. It may be possible to use pre-bout data to predict susceptibility to post-bout symptoms. PMID:23680426

  14. Go to work or report sick? A focus group study on decisions of sickness presence among offshore catering section workers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To identify and explore the factors promoting sickness presenteeism among offshore catering section workers. Methods Twenty men and women, working in the offshore catering section onboard three offshore oil and gas production platforms on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, participated in three focus groups. Data from the focus groups were analysed according to a phenomenological approach, and supported by theories on presenteeism. Results The results show that the decision to attend work despite illness, first and foremost, was based on the severity of the health complaint. Other factors identified were; the individual's location once the health complaint occurred, job satisfaction, the norms of the team, and experiences of how company policies on sickness absenteeism were implemented by the catering section leaders. Conclusions Offshore working conditions may promote sickness presenteeism. The factors promoting sickness presenteeism onboard the platforms reflected experiences of a healthy work environment. PMID:21418561

  15. The Genetic Basis of Chronic Mountain Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Ronen, Roy; Zhou, Dan; Bafna, Vineet; Haddad, Gabriel G.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is a disease that affects many high-altitude dwellers, particularly in the Andean Mountains in South America. The hallmark symptom of CMS is polycythemia, which causes increased risk of pulmonary hypertension and stroke (among other symptoms). A prevailing hypothesis in high-altitude medicine is that CMS results from a population-specific “maladaptation” to the hypoxic conditions at high altitude. In contrast, the prevalence of CMS is very low in other high-altitude populations (e.g., Tibetans and Ethiopians), which are seemingly well adapted to hypoxia. In recent years, concurrent with the advent of genomic technologies, several studies have investigated the genetic basis of adaptation to altitude. These studies have identified several candidate genes that may underlie the adaptation, or maladaptation. Interestingly, some of these genes are targeted by known drugs, raising the possibility of new treatments for CMS and other ischemic diseases. We review recent discoveries, alongside the methodologies used to obtain them, and outline some of the challenges remaining in the field. PMID:25362634

  16. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats.

    PubMed

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body's H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production. PMID:26853722

  17. Sick sinus syndrome: strategies for reducing mortality.

    PubMed

    Cosín, J; Hernandiz, A; Solaz, J; Andres, F; Olagüe, J

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of sick sinus syndrome is slow, and its clinical and electrocardiographic manifestations are intermittent. A-V and I-V conduction disturbances often arise, but incidence of defects with clinical consequences is too low. Death rate, when large groups are considered, is slightly higher than that of the general population of the same age and with similar pathologies. Mortality depends on concomitant pathologies, on the development of congestive heart failure, on the arterial thromboembolism and on the type of sinus disease. The use of ventricular pacemakers (VVI) did not reduce mortality. Atrial pacing (AAI) gives the auricles electrical stability preventing fibrillation and systemic embolism. The hemodynamic role of the auricles is also preserved. As a consequence, death rate is reduced when AAI is used. In cases with a-v conduction disturbances or with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, dual chamber pacing (DDD) is preferable because it permits ventricular pacing to be continued even if a-v block or paroxysmal or chronic atrial fibrillation appears. When using ventricular pacing and in cases in which pacing is not considered, warfarin or aspirin can prevent strokes and systemic embolism. In bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome requiring treatment of arrhythmias dual chamber pacemaker must be implanted. PMID:1304454

  18. The genetic basis of chronic mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Ronen, Roy; Zhou, Dan; Bafna, Vineet; Haddad, Gabriel G

    2014-11-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is a disease that affects many high-altitude dwellers, particularly in the Andean Mountains in South America. The hallmark symptom of CMS is polycythemia, which causes increased risk of pulmonary hypertension and stroke (among other symptoms). A prevailing hypothesis in high-altitude medicine is that CMS results from a population-specific "maladaptation" to the hypoxic conditions at high altitude. In contrast, the prevalence of CMS is very low in other high-altitude populations (e.g., Tibetans and Ethiopians), which are seemingly well adapted to hypoxia. In recent years, concurrent with the advent of genomic technologies, several studies have investigated the genetic basis of adaptation to altitude. These studies have identified several candidate genes that may underlie the adaptation, or maladaptation. Interestingly, some of these genes are targeted by known drugs, raising the possibility of new treatments for CMS and other ischemic diseases. We review recent discoveries, alongside the methodologies used to obtain them, and outline some of the challenges remaining in the field. PMID:25362634

  19. Implementing prospective budgeting for Dutch sickness funds.

    PubMed

    Okma, K G; Poelert, J D

    2001-06-01

    Most if not all social policies entail redistribution of scarce public resources from central government to regional and local authorities, to individual citizens or non-government agencies. Governments use a wide variety of instruments to allocate public funds, including direct state provision of subsidies and goods and services, setting budgets at different levels, and regulation of social insurance schemes. Most industrialised countries have developed budget models based on implicit or explicit allocation criteria. Governments usually start by determining global budgets for an entire category of public spending and then specifying the amounts allocated for categories of spending, and next, the budgets for individual agencies. Within such a 'cascading' model, the lower level budgets may be more controversial than the global budgets, as they directly affect the amounts available to individual actors in the system, e.g. hospitals or health insurance agencies. Setting budgets not only shifts decision-making authority but also financial risks from the central government to decentralised actors. The introduction of the prospective budgeting model for the Dutch sickness funds illustrates why determining budgets is not merely a matter of choosing objective allocation criteria, but also, of interaction between state and stakeholders. In the typical Dutch neocorporatist policy arena, where organised interests share responsibilities with government for the shaping and implementation of social policies, the health insurance agencies actively participated in the development of the budget model. PMID:11420806

  20. Health and ecological dilemmas. Sleeping sickness.

    PubMed

    Hausner, D S

    1992-01-01

    Although trypanosomiasis is one of the major parasitic diseases facing African people, blind efforts to control the disease may cause greater human suffering by damaging the environment. Trypanosomiasis, commonly known as sleeping sickness, is spread by the bite of the tsetse fly and affects both humans and cattle. The disease usually causes wasting and emaciation; the human or animal wants to sleep all the time, and death may occur within a few months or years. The tsetse fly inhabits an area of 10-11 million sq. km of tropical savannah and dense forest along the same water sources used by humans. The savannahs make excellent grazing land--except for the presence of the tsetse fly. Many pastoralists chose to graze their cattle in arid areas outside the "tsetse belt." But the growth of the cattle population results in overgrazing, environmental degradation, and desertification. Population growth among farmers also limits the land available for grazing, further increasing the likelihood of overgrazing. Methods for controlling trypanosome and the tsetse fly include trypanocidal drugs for preventive and curative therapy, insecticides, traps, and land clearing--all of which possess limitations. Drugs are expensive, difficult to administer and monitor, and unpopular. Traps are effective only in their immediate setting, and insecticides and land clearing affect the environment. Trypanosomiasis control also results in increased population growth and further environmental degradation. Instead of controlling trypanosomiasis blindly, countries need to examine the problem contextually. Not doing so would result in land degradation, desertification, and land-use struggles. PMID:12159268

  1. Submarine tower escape decompression sickness risk estimation.

    PubMed

    Loveman, G A M; Seddon, E M; Thacker, J C; Stansfield, M R; Jurd, K M

    2014-01-01

    Actions to enhance survival in a distressed submarine (DISSUB) scenario may be guided in part by knowledge of the likely risk of decompression sickness (DCS) should the crew attempt tower escape. A mathematical model for DCS risk estimation has been calibrated against DCS outcome data from 3,738 exposures of either men or goats to raised pressure. Body mass was used to scale DCS risk. The calibration data included more than 1,000 actual or simulated submarine escape exposures and no exposures with substantial staged decompression. Cases of pulmonary barotrauma were removed from the calibration data. The calibrated model was used to estimate the likelihood of DCS occurrence following submarine escape from the United Kingdom Royal Navy tower escape system. Where internal DISSUB pressure remains at - 0.1 MPa, escape from DISSUB depths < 200 meters is estimated to have DCS risk < 6%. Saturation at raised DISSUB pressure markedly increases risk, with > 60% DCS risk predicted for a 200-meter escape from saturation at 0.21 MPa. Using the calibrated model to predict DCS for direct ascent from saturation gives similar risk estimates to other published models. PMID:25109085

  2. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment for decompression sickness.

    PubMed

    Moon, R E

    2014-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is a clinical syndrome occurring usually within 24 hours of a reduction in ambient pressure. DCS occurs most commonly in divers ascending from a minimum depth of 20 feet (6 meters) of sea water, but can also occur during rapid decompression from sea level to altitude (typically > 17,000 feet / 5,200 meters). Manifestations are one or more of the following: most commonly, joint pain, hypesthesia, generalized fatigue or rash; less common but more serious, motor weakness, ataxia, pulmonary edema, shock and death. The cause of DCS is in situ bubble formation in tissues, causing mechanical disruption of tissue, occlusion of blood flow, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction and capillary leakage. High inspired concentration of oxygen (O2) is recommended as first aid for all cases and can be definitive treatment for most altitude DCS. For most other cases, hyperbaric oxygen is recommended,most commonly 100% O2 breathing at 2.82 atmospheres absolute (U.S.Navy Treatment Table 6 or equivalent). Additional treatments (generally no more than one to two) are used for residual manifestations until clinical stability; some severe cases may require more treatments. Isotonic, glucose-free fluids are recommended for prevention and treatment of hypovolemia. An evidence-based review of adjunctive therapies is presented. PMID:24851553

  3. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body’s H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production. PMID:26853722

  4. [Saints as protectors against falling sickness].

    PubMed

    Moog, Ferdinand Peter; Karenberg, Axel

    2003-01-01

    In Christian Europe of the High Middle Ages, saints played a central role in the everyday life of the ailing. Alongside healing attempts which involved magic and/or scientifically-based medicine, the invocation of specific patron saints for protection against evils or for the curing of ailments was a widespread practise. A large choice of patron saints was "ävailable" for a wide range of diseases, especially those nowadays classified as neurologic or psychiatric. For the falling sickness alone, e.g., there is evidence of some twenty patron saints reputed to have a particular involvement. Surprisingly, there is no evidence of a comparable devotion to patrons for apoplectics. This "negative result"is confirmed by a thorough examination of medieval sources. St. Wolfgang and St. Andreas Avellino are the only two proven stroke patrons. Both, however, were only known within their respective locations. The absence of a specific supportive Christian figure for stroke victims deserves particular analysis: The high fatality rate of apoplexy and the lack of commercial interest on the part of the Christian places of pilgrimage may serve as possible explanations. PMID:15043049

  5. 26 CFR 31.3503-1 - Tax under chapter 21 or 22 paid under wrong chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax under chapter 21 or 22 paid under wrong... 1954) § 31.3503-1 Tax under chapter 21 or 22 paid under wrong chapter. If, for any period, an amount is paid as tax— (a) Under chapter 21 or corresponding provisions of prior law by a person who is...

  6. Chapter 1 and Chapter 1 Migrant. Evaluation Findings, 1990-91. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christner, Catherine; And Others

    This report describes an evaluation of the Austin (Texas) Independent School District's (AISD) Chapter 1 and Chapter 1 Migrant programs. Chapter 1 is a federally funded compensatory educational program that provided funding in 1990-91 to 25 AISD elementary schools with high concentrations of low-income students. Chapter 1 Migrant is also a…

  7. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 21, Rigid Motions and Vectors, Chapter 22, Computer and Programs. Teacher's Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    The teacher's guide for the eleventh unit in this SMSG series covers the chapter on rigid motions and vectors and the chapter on computers and programs. The overall purpose for each of the chapters is described, the prerequisite knowledge needed by students is specified, the mathematical development of each chapter is detailed, behavioral…

  8. Beyond Chapter 4.7.

    PubMed

    Bandler, Lilon Gretl

    2015-12-01

    Chapter 4.7 of the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research refers specifically to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. It lays out the points at which researchers working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders must consider their approach, and the engagement with individuals, communities or groups who are involved in or affected by their research. History, of Australia and of research involving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, has informed this approach. The response to that history has been a rational, institutionalised, systematic demand for a different perception of what should direct research and research processes to ensure engagement with and service to the community with whom the researchers wish to do the work. This paper considers whether these principles could inform the approach to other research work. PMID:27135116

  9. Numerical Prediction of Dust. Chapter 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, J. M.; Basart, S.; Benincasa, F.; Boucher, O.; Brooks, M.; Chen, J. P.; Colarco, P. R.; Gong, S.; Huneeus, N.; Jones, L; Lu, S.; Menut, L.; Mulcahy, J.; Nickovic, S.; Morcrette, J.-J.; Perez, C.; Reid, J. S.; Sekiyama, T. T.; Tanaka, T.; Terradellas, E.; Westphal, D. L.; Zhang, X.-Y.; Zhou, C.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Covers the whole breadth of mineral dust research, from a scientific perspective Presents interdisciplinary work including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies Explores the role of dust as a player and recorder of environmental change This volume presents state-of-the-art research about mineral dust, including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies. Dust research is a new, dynamic and fast-growing area of science and due to its multiple roles in the Earth system, dust has become a fascinating topic for many scientific disciplines. Aspects of dust research covered in this book reach from timescales of minutes (as with dust devils, cloud processes, and radiation) to millennia (as with loess formation and oceanic sediments), making dust both a player and recorder of environmental change. The book is structured in four main parts that explore characteristics of dust, the global dust cycle, impacts of dust on the Earth system, and dust as a climate indicator. The chapters in these parts provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of this highly interdisciplinary subject. The contributions presented here cover dust from source to sink and describe all the processes dust particles undergo while travelling through the atmosphere. Chapters explore how dust is lifted and transported, how it affects radiation, clouds, regional circulations, precipitation and chemical processes in the atmosphere, and how it deteriorates air quality. The book explores how dust is removed from the atmosphere by gravitational settling, turbulence or precipitation, how iron contained in dust fertilizes terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and about the role that dust plays in human health. We learn how dust is observed, simulated using computer models and forecast. The book also details the role of dust deposits for climate reconstructions

  10. Motion sickness potentiates core cooling during immersion in humans

    PubMed Central

    Mekjavic, Igor B; Tipton, Michael J; Gennser, Mikael; Eiken, Ola

    2001-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that motion sickness affects thermoregulatory responses to cooling in humans. Ten healthy male volunteers underwent three separate head-out immersions in 28 °C water after different preparatory procedures. In the ‘control’ procedure immersion was preceded by a rest period. In the ‘motion sickness’ procedure immersion was preceded by provocation of motion sickness in a human centrifuge. This comprised rapid and repeated alterations of the gravitational (G-) stress in the head-to-foot direction, plus a standardized regimen of head movements at increased G-stress. In the ‘G-control’ procedure, the subjects were exposed to similar G-stress, but without the motion sickness provocation. During immersion mean skin temperature, rectal temperature, the difference in temperature between the forearm and 3rd digit of the right hand (ΔTforearm-fingertip), oxygen uptake and heart rate were recorded. Subjects provided ratings of temperature perception, thermal comfort and level of motion sickness discomfort at regular intervals. No differences were observed in any of the variables between control and G-control procedures. In the motion sickness procedure, the ΔTforearm-fingertip response was significantly attenuated, indicating a blunted vasoconstrictor response, and rectal temperature decreased at a faster rate. No other differences were observed. Motion sickness attenuates the vasoconstrictor response to skin and core cooling, thereby enhancing heat loss and the magnitude of the fall in deep body temperature. Motion sickness may predispose individuals to hypothermia, and have significant implications for survival time in maritime accidents. PMID:11533150

  11. Testosterone treatment diminishes sickness behavior in male songbirds.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Noah T; Hays, Quentin R; Bentley, George E; Wingfield, John C

    2009-06-01

    Males of many vertebrate species are typically more prone to disease and infection than female conspecifics, and this sexual difference is partially influenced by the immunosuppressive properties of testosterone (T) in males. T-induced immunosuppression has traditionally been viewed as a pleiotropic handicap, rather than an adaptation. Recently, it has been hypothesized that suppression of sickness behavior, or the symptoms of infection, may have adaptive value if sickness interferes with the expression of T-mediated behaviors important for male reproductive success. We conduct a classic hormone replacement experiment to examine if T suppresses sickness behavior in a seasonally-breeding songbird, Gambel's white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii). Triggered experimentally by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), sickness behavior includes decreased activity, anorexia, and weight loss. Gonadectomized (GDX) males that were treated with silastic implants filled with T exhibited suppression of behavioral and physiological responses to LPS compared to GDX and sham-GDX controls given empty implants. Sickness responses of control groups were statistically indistinguishable. T-implanted birds had significantly higher plasma T than control groups and levels were within the range associated with aggressive interactions during male-to-male contests. These findings imply that suppression of sickness behavior could occur when T is elevated to socially-modulated levels. Alternatively, it is possible that this suppressive effect is mediated through a stress-induced mechanism, as corticosterone levels were elevated in T-implanted subjects compared to controls. We propose that males wounded and infected during contests may gain a brief selective advantage by suppressing sickness responses that would otherwise impair competitive performance. The cost of immunosuppression would be manifested in males through an increased susceptibility to disease, which is presumably

  12. Delayed Recompression for Decompression Sickness: Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hadanny, Amir; Fishlev, Gregori; Bechor, Yair; Bergan, Jacob; Friedman, Mony; Maliar, Amit; Efrati, Shai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Most cases of decompression sickness (DCS) occur soon after surfacing, with 98% within 24 hours. Recompression using hyperbaric chamber should be administrated as soon as feasible in order to decrease bubble size and avoid further tissue injury. Unfortunately, there may be a significant time delay from surfacing to recompression. The time beyond which hyperbaric treatment is non effective is unclear. The aims of the study were first to evaluate the effect of delayed hyperbaric treatment, initiated more than 48h after surfacing for DCS and second, to evaluate the different treatment protocols. Methods From January 2000 to February 2014, 76 divers had delayed hyperbaric treatment (≥48h) for DCS in the Sagol center for Hyperbaric medicine and Research, Assaf-Harofeh Medical Center, Israel. Data were collected from their medical records and compared to data of 128 patients treated earlier than 48h after surfacing at the same hyperbaric institute. Results There was no significant difference, as to any of the baseline characteristics, between the delayed and early treatment groups. With respect to treatment results, at the delayed treatment divers, complete recovery was achieved in 76% of the divers, partial recovery in 17.1% and no improvement in 6.6%. Similar results were achieved when treatment started early, where 78% of the divers had complete recovery, 15.6% partial recovery and 6.2% no recovery. Delayed hyperbaric treatment using US Navy Table 6 protocol trended toward a better clinical outcome yet not statistically significant (OR=2.786, CI95%[0.896-8.66], p=0.07) compared to standard hyperbaric oxygen therapy of 90 minutes at 2 ATA, irrespective of the symptoms severity at presentation. Conclusions Late recompression for DCS, 48 hours or more after surfacing, has clinical value and when applied can achieve complete recovery in 76% of the divers. It seems that the preferred hyperbaric treatment protocol should be based on US Navy Table 6. PMID

  13. Decompression sickness following breath-hold diving.

    PubMed

    Schipke, J D; Gams, E; Kallweit, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Despite convincing evidence of a relationship between breath-hold diving and decompression sickness (DCS), the causal connection is only slowly being accepted. Only the more recent textbooks have acknowledged the risks of repetitive breath-hold diving. We compare four groups of breath-hold divers: (1) Japanese and Korean amas and other divers from the Pacific area, (2) instructors at naval training facilities, (3) spear fishers, and (4) free-dive athletes. While the number of amas is likely decreasing, and Scandinavian Navy training facilities recorded only a few accidents, the number of spear fishers suffering accidents is on the rise, in particular during championships or using scooters. Finally, national and international associations (e.g., International Association of Free Drives [IAFD] or Association Internationale pour Le Developpment De L'Apnee [AIDA]) promote free-diving championships including deep diving categories such as constant weight, variable weight, and no limit. A number of free-diving athletes, training for or participating in competitions, are increasingly accident prone as the world record is presently set at a depth of 171 m. This review presents data found after searching Medline and ISI Web of Science and using appropriate Internet search engines (e.g., Google). We report some 90 cases in which DCS occurred after repetitive breath-hold dives. Even today, the risk of suffering from DCS after repetitive breath-hold diving is often not acknowledged. We strongly suggest that breath-hold divers and their advisors and physicians be made aware of the possibility of DCS and of the appropriate therapeutic measures to be taken when DCS is suspected. Because the risk of suffering from DCS increases depending on depth, bottom time, rate of ascent, and duration of surface intervals, some approaches to assess the risks are presented. Regrettably, none of these approaches is widely accepted. We propose therefore the development of easily manageable

  14. Speech motor control and acute mountain sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cymerman, Allen; Lieberman, Philip; Hochstadt, Jesse; Rock, Paul B.; Butterfield, Gail E.; Moore, Lorna G.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An objective method that accurately quantifies the severity of Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) symptoms is needed to enable more reliable evaluation of altitude acclimatization and testing of potentially beneficial interventions. HYPOTHESIS: Changes in human articulation, as quantified by timed variations in acoustic waveforms of specific spoken words (voice onset time; VOT), are correlated with the severity of AMS. METHODS: Fifteen volunteers were exposed to a simulated altitude of 4300 m (446 mm Hg) in a hypobaric chamber for 48 h. Speech motor control was determined from digitally recorded and analyzed timing patterns of 30 different monosyllabic words characterized as voiced and unvoiced, and as labial, alveolar, or velar. The Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ) was used to assess AMS. RESULTS: Significant AMS symptoms occurred after 4 h, peaked at 16 h, and returned toward baseline after 48 h. Labial VOTs were shorter after 4 and 39 h of exposure; velar VOTs were altered only after 4 h; and there were no changes in alveolar VOTs. The duration of vowel sounds was increased after 4 h of exposure and returned to normal thereafter. Only 1 of 15 subjects did not increase vowel time after 4 h of exposure. The 39-h labial (p = 0.009) and velar (p = 0.037) voiced-unvoiced timed separations consonants and the symptoms of AMS were significantly correlated. CONCLUSIONS: Two objective measures of speech production were affected by exposure to 4300 m altitude and correlated with AMS severity. Alterations in speech production may represent an objective measure of AMS and central vulnerability to hypoxia.

  15. Radiation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Outside the protective cocoon of Earth's atmosphere, the universe is full of harmful radiation. Astronauts who live and work in space are exposed not only to ultraviolet rays but also to space radi...

  16. Shiftwork and Sickness Absence Among Police Officers: The BCOPS Study

    PubMed Central

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Charles, Luenda E.; Tinney-Zara, Cathy A.; Violanti, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Shiftwork, regarded as a significant occupational stressor, has become increasingly prevalent across a wide range of occupations. The adverse health outcomes associated with shiftwork are well documented. Shiftwork is an integral part of law enforcement, a high-stress occupation with elevated risks of chronic disease and mortality. Sickness absence is an important source of productivity loss and may also serve as an indirect measure of workers’ morbidity. Prior studies of shiftwork and sickness absenteeism have yielded varying results and the association has not been examined specifically among police officers. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rate of sick leave (any, ≥3 consecutive days) among day-, afternoon-, and night-shift workers in a cohort of police officers and also examine the role of lifestyle factors as potential moderators of the association. Participants (N = 464) from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) study examined between 2004 and 2009 were used. Daily work history records that included the shift schedule, number of hours worked, and occurrence of sick leave were available for up to 15 yrs starting in 1994 to the date of the BCOPS study examination for each officer. Poisson regression analysis for ungrouped data was used to estimate incidence rates (IRs) of sick leave by shift, and comparison of IRs across shifts were made by computing incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Sick leave occurred at a higher rate on the night shift (4.37 per 10 000 person-hours) compared with either day (1.55 per 10000 person-hours) or afternoon (1.96 per 10000 person-hours) shifts. The association between shiftwork and sickness absence depended on body mass index (BMI). For overweight individuals (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), the covariate-adjusted incidence rate of sick leave (≥1 day) was twice as large for night-shift officers compared with those working on the day (IRR = 2.29, 95% CI

  17. Shiftwork and sickness absence among police officers: the BCOPS study.

    PubMed

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Hartley, Tara A; Andrew, Michael E; Charles, Luenda E; Tinney-Zara, Cathy A; Violanti, John M

    2013-08-01

    Shiftwork, regarded as a significant occupational stressor, has become increasingly prevalent across a wide range of occupations. The adverse health outcomes associated with shiftwork are well documented. Shiftwork is an integral part of law enforcement, a high-stress occupation with elevated risks of chronic disease and mortality. Sickness absence is an important source of productivity loss and may also serve as an indirect measure of workers' morbidity. Prior studies of shiftwork and sickness absenteeism have yielded varying results and the association has not been examined specifically among police officers. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rate of sick leave (any, ≥3 consecutive days) among day-, afternoon-, and night-shift workers in a cohort of police officers and also examine the role of lifestyle factors as potential moderators of the association. Participants (N=464) from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) study examined between 2004 and 2009 were used. Daily work history records that included the shift schedule, number of hours worked, and occurrence of sick leave were available for up to 15 yrs starting in 1994 to the date of the BCOPS study examination for each officer. Poisson regression analysis for ungrouped data was used to estimate incidence rates (IRs) of sick leave by shift, and comparison of IRs across shifts were made by computing incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Sick leave occurred at a higher rate on the night shift (4.37 per 10,000 person-hours) compared with either day (1.55 per 10,000 person-hours) or afternoon (1.96 per 10,000 person-hours) shifts. The association between shiftwork and sickness absence depended on body mass index (BMI). For overweight individuals (BMI≥25 kg/m2), the covariate-adjusted incidence rate of sick leave (≥1 day) was twice as large for night-shift officers compared with those working on the day (IRR=2.29, 95% CI: 1

  18. Role of orientation reference selection in motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, Robert J.; Black, F. Owen

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of this proposal is to understand the relationship between human orientation control and motion sickness susceptibility. Three areas related to orientation control will be investigated. These three areas are (1) reflexes associated with the control of eye movements and posture, (2) the perception of body rotation and position with respect to gravity, and (3) the strategies used to resolve sensory conflict situations which arise when different sensory systems provide orientation cues which are not consistent with one another or with previous experience. Of particular interest is the possibility that a subject may be able to ignore an inaccurate sensory modality in favor of one or more other sensory modalities which do provide accurate orientation reference information. We refer to this process as sensory selection. This proposal will attempt to quantify subjects' sensory selection abilities and determine if this ability confers some immunity to the development of motion sickness symptoms. Measurements of reflexes, motion perception, sensory selection abilities, and motion sickness susceptibility will concentrate on pitch and roll motions since these seem most relevant to the space motion sickness problem. Vestibulo-ocular (VOR) and oculomotor reflexes will be measured using a unique two-axis rotation device developed in our laboratory over the last seven years. Posture control reflexes will be measured using a movable posture platform capable of independently altering proprioceptive and visual orientation cues. Motion perception will be quantified using closed loop feedback technique developed by Zacharias and Young (Exp Brain Res, 1981). This technique requires a subject to null out motions induced by the experimenter while being exposed to various confounding sensory orientation cues. A subject's sensory selection abilities will be measured by the magnitude and timing of his reactions to changes in sensory environments. Motion sickness

  19. What Is Being Done to Control Motion Sickness?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Y. D.

    1985-01-01

    AFT (Autogenic Feedback Training) involves practicing a series of mental exercises to speed up or slow down the control of autonomic activity. This produces a reduced tendency for autonomic activity levels to diverge from baseline (at rest) under stressful motion-sickness-inducing conditions. Subjects conditions. Subjects engaged in applying AFT exercises are required to closely monitor their own bodily sensations during motion-sickness-eliciting tests. These tests include the Coriolis Sickness Susceptibility Index (CSSI), which consists of sitting a subject into a rotating chair that moves at various speeds while a visual background turns at differing speeds and directions, and the Vertical Acceleration Rotation Device (VARD) test, which involves the placing of a subject in a drum that moves in an upward and downward motion until he or she is sick, while simultaneously monitoring the subject's vital signs. These tests provide investigators with evidence of slight changes in autonomic activities such as increases in heart rate, skin temperature, and sweat. All of these symptoms occur in subjects that experience bodily weakness or discomfort with the onset of motion sickness.

  20. Sensory conflict in motion sickness: An observer theory approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Charles M.

    1989-01-01

    Motion sickness is the general term describing a group of common nausea syndromes originally attributed to motion-induced cerebral ischemia, stimulation of abdominal organ afferent, or overstimulation of the vestibular organs of the inner ear. Sea-, car-, and airsicknesses are the most commonly experienced examples. However, the discovery of other variants such as Cinerama-, flight simulator-, spectacle-, and space sickness in which the physical motion of the head and body is normal or absent has led to a succession of sensory conflict theories which offer a more comprehensive etiologic perspective. Implicit in the conflict theory is the hypothesis that neutral and/or humoral signals originate in regions of the brain subversing spatial orientation, and that these signals somehow traverse to other centers mediating sickness symptoms. Unfortunately, the present understanding of the neurophysiological basis of motion sickness is far from complete. No sensory conflict neuron or process has yet been physiologically identified. To what extent can the existing theory be reconciled with current knowledge of the physiology and pharmacology of nausea and vomiting. The stimuli which causes sickness, synthesizes a contemporary Observer Theory view of the Sensory Conflict hypothesis are reviewed, and a revised model for the dynamic coupling between the putative conflict signals and nausea magnitude estimates is presented. The use of quantitative models for sensory conflict offers a possible new approach to improving the design of visual and motion systems for flight simulators and other virtual environment display systems.

  1. Neurochemical background and approaches in the understanding of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The problems and nature of space motion sickness were defined. The neurochemical and neurophysiological bases of vestibular system function and of the expression of motion sickness wre reviewed. Emphasis was given to the elucidation of the neuropharmacological mechanisms underlying the effects of scopolamine and amphetamine on motion sickness. Characterization of the ascending reticular activating system and the limbic system provided clues to the etiology of the side effects of scopolamine. The interrelationship between central cholinergic pathways and the peripheral (autonomic) expression of motion sickness was described. A correlation between the stress of excessive motion and a variety of hormonal responses to that stress was also detailed. The cholinergic system is involved in the efferent modulation of the vestibular hair cells, as an afferent modulator of the vestibular nuclei, in the activation of cortical and limbic structures, in the expression of motion sickness symptoms and most likely underscores a number of the hormonal changes that occur in stressful motion environments. The role of lecithin in the regulation of the levels of neurotransmitters was characterized as a possible means by which cholinergic neurochemistry can be modulated.

  2. The menstrual cycle and susceptibility to coriolis-induced sickness.

    PubMed

    Cheung, B; Heskin, R; Hofer, K; Gagnon, M

    2001-01-01

    Survey studies on motion sickness susceptibility suggest that females tend to report greater severity in illness and higher incidence of vomiting than males. Menstruation is said to be a contributing factor. A recent study suggested that females were least susceptible to seasickness during ovulation in a "round the world" yacht race. Sixteen subjects (18-36 years old) were exposed to Coriolis cross-coupling stimulation in the laboratory. They were tested once during permenstruation (Day 1-5), ovulation (Day 12-15) and premenstruation (Day 24-28), based on a normalized 28-day cycle, in a randomised design. Physiological measurements of motion sickness included forearm and calf cutaneous blood flow. Subjective evaluation of sickness symptoms was based on Graybiel's diagnostic criteria and Golding's rating method. Our results indicated that under controlled laboratory conditions, different phases of the menstrual cycle appear to have no influence on subjective symptoms of motion sickness or on cutaneous blood flow increase in the forearm and calf. The lack of commonality between the types and levels of hormones that are released during motion sickness and those that are involved in different menstrual phases appears to support our findings. PMID:11847456

  3. Pleasant music as a countermeasure against visually induced motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Hecht, Heiko

    2014-05-01

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known side-effect in virtual environments or simulators. However, effective behavioral countermeasures against VIMS are still sparse. In this study, we tested whether music can reduce the severity of VIMS. Ninety-three volunteers were immersed in an approximately 14-minute-long video taken during a bicycle ride. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups, either including relaxing music, neutral music, stressful music, or no music. Sickness scores were collected using the Fast Motion Sickness Scale and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Results showed an overall trend for relaxing music to reduce the severity of VIMS. When factoring in the subjective pleasantness of the music, a significant reduction of VIMS occurred only when the presented music was perceived as pleasant, regardless of the music type. In addition, we found a gender effect with women reporting more sickness than men. We assume that the presentation of pleasant music can be an effective, low-cost, and easy-to-administer method to reduce VIMS. PMID:23957932

  4. Effects of scopolamine on autonomic profiles underlying motion sickness susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uijtdehaage, Sebastian H. J.; Stern, Robert M.; Koch, Kenneth L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of scopolamine on the physiological patterns occurring prior to and during motion sickness stimulation. In addition, the use of physiological profiles in the prediction of motion sickness was evaluated. Sixty subjects ingested either 0.6 mg scopolamine, 2.5 mg methoscopolamine, or a placebo. Heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (an index of vagal tone), and electrogastrograms were measured prior to and during the exposure to a rotating optokinetic drum. Compared to the other groups, the scopolamine group reported fewer motion sickness symptoms, and displayed lower HR, higher vagal tone, enhanced normal gastric myoelectric activity, and depressed gastric dysrhythmias before and during motion sickness induction. Distinct physiological profiles prior to drum rotation could reliably differentiate individuals who would develop gastric discomfort from those who would not. Symptom-free subjects were characterized by high levels of vagal tone and low HR across conditions, and by maintaining normal (3 cpm) electrogastrographic activity during drum rotation. It was concluded that scopolamine offered motion sickness protection by initiating a pattern of increased vagal tone and gastric myoelectric stability.

  5. Influence of decompression sickness on vasomotion of isolated rat vessels.

    PubMed

    Mazur, A; Lambrechts, K; Buzzacott, P; Wang, Q; Belhomme, M; Theron, M; Mansourati, J; Guerrero, F

    2014-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that endothelial function is impaired following a dive even without decompression sickness. During this study we determined the effect of decompression sickness on endothelium-dependent and independent vasoreactivity. For this purpose twenty-seven male Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to a simulated dive up to 1,000 kPa absolute pressure and divided into 3 groups: safe diving without decompression sickness or dives provoking mild or severe sickness. A fourth control group remained at atmospheric pressure. Endothelium-dependent and independent vasomotion was assessed ex vivo by measuring isometric tension in rings of abdominal aorta and mesenteric arteries. Dose-response curves were obtained with phenylephrine, acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Acetylcholine-induced relaxation was measured in the presence of L-NAME, indometacin or both of them at once.Contraction was significantly decreased after each protocol compared with the control rats. Additionally, the response in animals from the severe group was significantly different from that of the safe and mild groups. Dose response curves for acetylcholine alone and in the presence of inhibitors remained unchanged. We did not observe differences in endothelium-dependent vasodilation after diving or in the presence of decompression sickness. Contractile response to phenylephrine was progressively impaired with increased decompression stress. These results may indicate smooth muscle injury. PMID:24258471

  6. Chapter 4: Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, J; Herzog, H

    2006-06-14

    Carbon sequestration is the long term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. The largest potential reservoirs for storing carbon are the deep oceans and geological reservoirs in the earth's upper crust. This chapter focuses on geological sequestration because it appears to be the most promising large-scale approach for the 2050 timeframe. It does not discuss ocean or terrestrial sequestration. In order to achieve substantial GHG reductions, geological storage needs to be deployed at a large scale. For example, 1 Gt C/yr (3.6 Gt CO{sub 2}/yr) abatement, requires carbon capture and storage (CCS) from 600 large pulverized coal plants ({approx}1000 MW each) or 3600 injection projects at the scale of Statoil's Sleipner project. At present, global carbon emissions from coal approximate 2.5 Gt C. However, given reasonable economic and demand growth projections in a business-as-usual context, global coal emissions could account for 9 Gt C. These volumes highlight the need to develop rapidly an understanding of typical crustal response to such large projects, and the magnitude of the effort prompts certain concerns regarding implementation, efficiency, and risk of the enterprise. The key questions of subsurface engineering and surface safety associated with carbon sequestration are: (1) Subsurface issues: (a) Is there enough capacity to store CO{sub 2} where needed? (b) Do we understand storage mechanisms well enough? (c) Could we establish a process to certify injection sites with our current level of understanding? (d) Once injected, can we monitor and verify the movement of subsurface CO{sub 2}? (2) Near surface issues: (a) How might the siting of new coal plants be influenced by the distribution of storage sites? (b) What is the probability of CO{sub 2} escaping from injection sites? What are the attendant risks? Can we detect leakage if it occurs? (3) Will surface leakage negate or reduce the

  7. Introduction to MODIS Cloud Products. Chapter 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, Bryan A.; Platnick, Steven

    2006-01-01

    The Earth's radiative energy balance and hydrological cycle are fundamentally coupled with the distribution and properties of clouds. Therefore, the ability to remotely infer cloud properties and their variation in space and time is crucial for establishing climatologies as a reference for validation of present-day climate models and in assessing future climate change. Remote cloud observations also provide data sets useful for testing and improving cloud model physics, and for assimilation into numerical weather prediction models. The MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagers on the Terra and Aqua Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms provide the capability for globally retrieving these properties using passive solar reflectance and infrared techniques. In addition to providing measurements similar to those offered on a suite of historical operational weather platforms such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS), and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), MODIS provides additional spectral and/or spatial resolution in key atmospheric bands, along with on-board calibration, to expand the capability for global cloud property retrievals. The core MODIS operational cloud products include cloud top pressure, thermodynamic phase, optical thickness, particle size, and water path, and are derived globally at spatial resolutions of either 1- or 5-km (referred to as Level-2 or pixel-level products). In addition, the MODIS atmosphere team (collectively providing cloud, aerosol, and clear sky products) produces a combined gridded product (referred to as Level-3) aggregated to a 1 equal-angle grid, available for daily, eight-day, and monthly time periods. The wealth of information available from these products provides critical information for climate studies as well as the continuation and improved understanding of existing satellite-based cloud climatologies

  8. Sickness absence at a young age and later sickness absence, disability pension, death, unemployment and income in native Swedes and immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Bo; Nordqvist, Tobias; Lundberg, Ingvar; Vingård, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence with cash benefits from the sickness insurance gives an opportunity to be relieved from work without losing financial security. There are, however, downsides to taking sickness absence. Periods of sickness absence, even short ones, can increase the risk for future spells of sickness absence and unemployment. The sickness period may in itself have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of the study was to investigate if there is an association between exposure to sickness absence at a young age and later sickness absence, disability pension, death, unemployment and income from work. Methods: Our cohort consisted of all immigrants aged 21–25 years in Sweden in 1993 (N = 38 207) and a control group of native Swedes in the same age group (N = 225 977). We measured exposure to sickness absence in 1993 with a follow-up period of 15 years. We conducted separate analyses for men and women, and for immigrants and native Swedes. Results: Exposure to ≥60 days of sickness absence in 1993 increased the risk of sickness absence [hazard ratio (HR) 1.6–11.4], unemployment (HR 1.1–1.2), disability pension (HR 1.2–5.3) and death (HR 1.2–3.5). The income from work, during the follow-up period, among individuals with spells of sick leave for ≥60 days in 1993 was around two-thirds of that of the working population who did not take sick leave. Conclusions: Individuals on sickness absence had an increased risk for work absence, death and lower future income. PMID:25634955

  9. Chapter 12: Human Microbiome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Xochitl C.; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2012-01-01

    Humans are essentially sterile during gestation, but during and after birth, every body surface, including the skin, mouth, and gut, becomes host to an enormous variety of microbes, bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and viral. Under normal circumstances, these microbes help us to digest our food and to maintain our immune systems, but dysfunction of the human microbiota has been linked to conditions ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to antibiotic-resistant infections. Modern high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatic tools provide a powerful means of understanding the contribution of the human microbiome to health and its potential as a target for therapeutic interventions. This chapter will first discuss the historical origins of microbiome studies and methods for determining the ecological diversity of a microbial community. Next, it will introduce shotgun sequencing technologies such as metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, the computational challenges and methods associated with these data, and how they enable microbiome analysis. Finally, it will conclude with examples of the functional genomics of the human microbiome and its influences upon health and disease. PMID:23300406

  10. Sediment transport measurements: Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diplas, P.; Kuhnle, R.; Gray, J.; Glysson, D.; Edwards, T.

    2008-01-01

    Sediment erosion, transport, and deposition in fluvial systems are complex processes that are treated in detail in other sections of this book. Development of methods suitable for the collection of data that contribute to understanding these processes is a still-evolving science. Sediment and ancillary data are fundamental requirements for the proper management of river systems, including the design of structures, the determination of aspects of stream behavior, ascertaining the probable effect of removing an existing structure, estimation of bulk erosion, transport, and sediment delivery to the oceans, ascertaining the long-term usefulness of reservoirs and other public works, tracking movement of solid-phase contaminants, restoration of degraded or otherwise modified streams, and assistance in the calibration and validation of numerical models. This chapter presents techniques for measuring bed-material properties and suspended and bed-load discharges. Well-established and relatively recent, yet adequately tested, sampling equipment and methodologies, with designs that are guided by sound physical and statistical principles, are described. Where appropriate, the theory behind the development of the equipment and guidelines for its use are presented.

  11. VUV thin films, chapter 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zukic, Muamer; Torr, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    The application of thin film technology to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelength region from 120 nm to 230 nm has not been fully exploited in the past because of absorption effects which complicate the accurate determination of the optical functions of dielectric materials. The problem therefore reduces to that of determining the real and imaginary parts of a complex optical function, namely the frequency dependent refractive index n and extinction coefficient k. We discuss techniques for the inverse retrieval of n and k for dielectric materials at VUV wavelengths from measurements of their reflectance and transmittance. Suitable substrate and film materials are identified for application in the VUV. Such applications include coatings for the fabrication of narrow and broadband filters and beamsplitters. The availability of such devices open the VUV regime to high resolution photometry, interferometry and polarimetry both for space based and laboratory applications. This chapter deals with the optics of absorbing multilayers, the determination of the optical functions for several useful materials, and the design of VUV multilayer stacks as applied to the design of narrow and broadband reflection and transmission filters and beamsplitters. Experimental techniques are discussed briefly, and several examples of the optical functions derived for selected materials are presented.

  12. Sick-day management in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Laffel, L

    2000-12-01

    Illness and stress are common occurrences. For the person with type 1 diabetes, these events can be triggers for counterregulation and [table: see text] subsequent metabolic deterioration if there is no attention to diabetes management tasks. Sick-day management requires increased monitoring of blood glucose and assessment for ketosis. Although urine testing for ketones has been the standard approach to sick-day management, new technology for self-monitoring of blood 3HB levels is now available. According to the American Diabetes Association, blood measurement of 3HB "may offer a useful alternative to urine ketone testing." This new technology may provide an opportunity to improve the management of uncontrolled diabetes and sick days in an attempt to reduce the human and economic burden of DKA. PMID:11149158

  13. Semicircular canals as a primary etiological factor in motion sickness.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. F., II; Graybiel, A.

    1972-01-01

    Data are presented which support the view that the semicircular canals of humans can act as the essential factor for the production of motion sickness and the evocation of symptoms characteristic of this malady in the absence of 'motion.' Quantitative grading of acute symptoms demonstrated that motion sickness can be evoked by stimuli which are adequately provocative and unique for the canals. These results are compared with those of two provocative rotational tests that introduce Coriolis (cross-coupled angular acceleration) forces or generate a rotating linear acceleration vector. Wide interindividual differences but only slight intraindividual differences among the six provocative test conditions are revealed, indicating that individuals usually possess an overall susceptibility to motion which is relatively independent of its type. The fact that typical symptoms of motion sickness were also produced by bithermal irrigation of several subjects who represented a wide range of susceptibility adds to the evidence that semicircular canals can act as the primary etiological factor in this malady.

  14. Efficacy of phosphatidylcholine in the modulation of motion sickness susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.; Ryan, P.; Homick, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of pharmacological doses of phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) in the modulation of motion sickness induced by exposure to coriolis stimulation in a rotating chair. Subjects received daily dietary supplements of 25 grams of lecithin (90 percent phosphatidylcholine) and were tested for their susceptibility to motion sickness after 4 h, 2 d, and 21 d. A small but statistically significant increase in susceptibility (+15 percent) was noted 4 h after supplemental phosphatidylcholine, with four of nine subjects demonstrating a marked increase in susceptibility. This finding was attributed to choline's stimulatory action on cholinergic systems, an action which opposes that of the classical antimotion sickness drug scopolamine. Chronic lecithin loading revealed a trend towards reduced susceptibility, possibly indicating the occurrence of adaptive mechanisms such as receptor down-regulation. Withdrawal from lecithin loading, perhaps coupled with anticholinergic treatment, might prove to be a potent prophylactic regimen and ought to be tested.

  15. Role of orientation reference selection in motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, Robert J.; Black, F. Owen

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this proposal were developed to further explore and quantify the orientation reference selection abilities of subjects and the relation, if any, between motion sickness and orientation reference selection. The overall objectives of this proposal are to determine (1) if motion sickness susceptibility is related to sensory orientation reference selection abilities of subjects, (2) if abnormal vertical canal-otolith function is the source of these abnormal posture control strategies and if it can be quantified by vestibular and oculomotor reflex measurements, and (3) if quantifiable measures of perception of vestibular and visual motion cues can be related to motion sickness susceptibility and to orientation reference selection ability demonstrated by tests which systematically control the sensory imformation available for orientation.

  16. Comparison of treatment strategies for space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. R.; Jennings, R. T.; Beck, B. G.

    1991-01-01

    Treatment strategies for space motion sickness were compared using the results of postflight oral debriefings. Standardized questionnaires were administered to all crewmembers immediately following Space Shuttle flights by NASA flight surgeons. Cases of space motion sickness were graded as mild, moderate, or severe based on published criteria, and medication effectiveness was judged based on subjective reports of symptom relief. Since October 1989, medication effectiveness is reported inflight through private medical conferences with the crew. A symptom matrix was analyzed for nineteen crewmembers treated with an oral combination of scopolomine and dextroamphetamine (scopdex) and fifteen crewmembers treated with promethazine delivered by intramuscular or suppository routes. Scopdex has been given preflight as prophylaxis for space motion sickness but analysis showed delayed symptom presentation in nine crewmembers or failed to prevent symptoms in seven.

  17. Motion sickness susceptibility and aerobic fitness: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cheung, B S; Money, K E; Jacobs, I

    1990-03-01

    A longitudinal study evaluated the susceptibility to motion sickness in initially unfit subjects before and after an endurance training program. Motion stimulation was provided by the Precision Angular Mover, in which the subject was tumbled head over heels about an Earth-horizontal axis at 20 cycles per minute in darkness. Maximal aerobic power and the blood lactate response to submaximal exercise were evaluated with cycle ergometry. The training program caused significant improvements in VO2max and endurance capacity, and a significant decrease in percent body fat. There was a significant (p less than 0.0125) increase in motion sickness susceptibility after the physical training, suggesting that increased physical fitness caused increased susceptibility to motion sickness in some individuals. PMID:2156490

  18. When is it socially acceptable to feel sick?

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Patricia C.

    2014-01-01

    Disease is a ubiquitous and powerful evolutionary force. Hosts have evolved behavioural and physiological responses to disease that are associated with increased survival. Behavioural modifications, known as ‘sickness behaviours’, frequently involve symptoms such as lethargy, somnolence and anorexia. Current research has demonstrated that the social environment is a potent modulator of these behaviours: when conflicting social opportunities arise, animals can decrease or entirely forgo experiencing sickness symptoms. Here, I review how different social contexts, such as the presence of mates, caring for offspring, competing for territories or maintaining social status, affect the expression of sickness behaviours. Exploiting the circumstances that promote this behavioural plasticity will provide new insights into the evolutionary ecology of social behaviours. A deeper understanding of when and how this modulation takes place may lead to better tools to treat symptoms of infection and be relevant for the development of more efficient disease control programmes. PMID:24943375

  19. Treatment of motion sickness in parabolic flight with buccal scopolamine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norfleet, William T.; Degioanni, Joseph J.; Reschke, Millard F.; Bungo, Michael W.; Kutyna, Frank A.; Homick, Jerry L.; Calkins, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    Treatment of acute motion sickness induced by parabolic flight with a preparation of scopolamine placed in the buccal pouch was investigated. Twenty-one subjects flew aboard a KC-135 aircraft operated by NASA which performed parabolic maneuvers resulting in periods of 0-g, 1-g, and 1.8-g. Each subject flew once with a tablet containing scopolamine and once with a placebo in a random order, crossover design. Signs and symptoms of motion sickness were systematically recorded during each parabola by an investigator who was blind to the content of the tablet. Compared with flights using placebo, flights with buccal scopolamine resulted in significantly lower scores for nausea (31-35 percent reduction) and vomiting (50 percent reduction in number of parabolas with vomiting). Side effects of the drug during flight were negligible. It is concluded that buccal scopolamine is more effective than a placebo in treating ongoing motion sickness.

  20. Secondary School Mathematics Special Edition, Chapter 1. Flow Charts, Chapter 2. Structuring Space, Chapter 3. Functions, Student's Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVenney, William S.; And Others

    Chapters 1-3 of the special materials written for low achieving students in grades 7-8 by SMSG include flow charting, elementary coordinate geometry, and functions. Included for student use are many tables which are to be used to shorten computational processes. Each chapter also includes pretest exercises, instructional lessons and exercises, and…

  1. Ambulation Increases Decompression Sickness in Altitude Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, Johnny; Pollock, N. W.; Natoli, M. J.; Wessel, J. H., III; Gernhardt, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION - Exercise accelerates inert gas elimination during oxygen breathing prior to decompression (prebreathe), but may also promote bubble formation and increase the risk of decompression sickness (DCS). The timing, pattern and intensity of exercise are likely critical to the net effect. The NASA Prebreathe Reduction Program (PRP) combined oxygen prebreathe and exercise preceding a 4.3 psi exposure in non-ambulatory subjects (a microgravity analog) to produce two protocols now used by astronauts preparing for extravehicular activity (CEVIS and ISLE). Additional work is required to investigate whether exercise normal to 1 G environments increases the risk of DCS over microgravity simulation. METHODS - The CEVIS protocol was replicated with one exception. Our subjects completed controlled ambulation (walking in place with fixed cadence and step height) during both preflight and at 4.3 psi instead of remaining non-ambulatory throughout. Decompression stress was graded with aural Doppler (Spencer 0-IV scale). Two-dimensional echocardiographic imaging was used to look for left heart gas emboli (the presence of which prompted test termination). Venous blood was collected at three points to correlate Doppler measures of decompression stress with microparticle (cell fragment) accumulation. Fisher Exact Tests compared test and control groups. Trial suspension would occur when DCS risk >15% or grade IV venous gas emboli (VGE) risk >20% (at 70% confidence). RESULTS - Eleven person-trials were completed (9 male, 2 female) when DCS prompted suspension. DCS was greater than in CEVIS trials (3/11 [27%] vs. 0/45 [0%], respectively, p=0.03). Statistical significance was not reached for peak grade IV VGE (2/11 [18%] vs. 3/45 [7%], p=0.149) or cumulative grade IV VGE observations per subject-trial (8/128 [6%] vs. 26/630 [4%], p=0.151). Microparticle data were collected for 5/11 trials (3 with DCS outcomes), with widely varying patterns that could not be resolved statistically

  2. Autogenic feedback training experiment: A preventative method for space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.

    1993-01-01

    Space motion sickness is a disorder which produces symptoms similar to those of motion sickness on Earth. This syndrome has affected approximately 50 percent of all astronauts and cosmonauts exposed to microgravity in space, but it differs from what is commonly known as motion sickness in a number of critical ways. There is currently no ground-based method for predicting susceptibility to motion sickness in space. Antimotion sickness drugs have had limited success in preventing or counteracting symptoms in space, and frequently caused debilitating side effects. The objectives were: (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of Autogenic-Feedback Training as a countermeasure for space motion sickness; (2) to compare physiological data and in-flight symptom reports to ground-based motion sickness data; and (3) to predict susceptibility to space motion sickness based on pre-flight data of each treatment group crew member.

  3. Clinical characterization and etiology of space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.; Vanderploeg, James

    1987-01-01

    An inflight, clinically-oriented investigation of space motion sickness (SMS) was begun on STS-4 and revealed the following: compared to motion sickness (MS) on earth, automatic signs are significantly different in SMS vs. MS in that sweating is not present, pallor or flushing may be present, and vomiting is episodic, sudden, and brief. Postflight there is a period of resistance to all forms of MS. There is some evidence for individual reduction in sensitivity on repeated flights. Electrooculogram, audio-evoked potentials, measurement of fluid shifts, and other studies are inconsistent with a transient vestibular hydrops or increased intracranial pressure as a cause.

  4. Early modern green sickness and pre-Freudian hysteria.

    PubMed

    Schleiner, Winfried

    2009-01-01

    In early modern medicine, both green sickness (or chlorosis) and hysteria were understood to be gendered diseases, diseases of women. Green sickness, a disease of young women, was considered so serious that John Graunt, the father of English statistics, thought that in his time dozens of women died of it in London every year. One of the symptoms of hysteria was that women fell unconscious. The force of etymology and medical tradition was so strong that in one instance the gender of the patient seems to have been changed by the recorder to make the case fit medical theory. PMID:20027761

  5. Electrogastrograms during motion sickness in fasted and fed subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, John J.; Wood, Mary J.; Wood, Charles D.

    1989-01-01

    Seven human volunteers were subjected to stressful Coriolis stimulation (rotating chair) either during the fasted state or following the ingestion of yogurt (6 oz). Subjects tested after yogurt reached a malaise-III (M-III) endpoint of motion sickness after significantly (p smaller than 0.01) fewer head movements than subjects tested in the fasted state. Surface electrogastrogram (EGG) recordings at M-III were similar for both dietary stats and consisted of a brief period of tachygastria, followed by a period of low-amplitude EGG waves. Ingestion of yogurt enhanced susceptibility to motion sickness but did not affect the associated pattern of EGG.

  6. The 1990 Hypobaric Decompression Sickness Workshop: Summary and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilmanis, Andrew A.; Stegmann, Barbara J.; Scoggins, Terrell E.

    1992-01-01

    Decompression sickness resulting from exposure to the hypobaric environment was reviewed and discussed at a three day workshop in Oct. 1990. This milestone meeting, attended by over 50 participants representing the Dept. of Defense, NASA, ESA, and academia, updated the current understanding of altitude decompression sickness (DCS). Both research and operational aspects of this illness were addressed through presentations on the pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of DCS, its incidence in aviation and space operations, and existing and proposed measures for DCS prevention. Specific areas requiring further research were also identified. A summary is presented for the material given at the workshop.

  7. Vection and visually induced motion sickness: how are they related?

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Riecke, Bernhard E.; Hettinger, Lawrence J.; Campos, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of visually induced motion sickness has been frequently linked to the sensation of illusory self-motion (vection), however, the precise nature of this relationship is still not fully understood. To date, it is still a matter of debate as to whether vection is a necessary prerequisite for visually induced motion sickness (VIMS). That is, can there be VIMS without any sensation of self-motion? In this paper, we will describe the possible nature of this relationship, review the literature that addresses this relationship (including theoretical accounts of vection and VIMS), and offer suggestions with respect to operationally defining and reporting these phenomena in future. PMID:25941509

  8. Migraine headache confounding the diagnosis of acute mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Karle, Francis J; Auerbach, Paul S

    2014-03-01

    A 36-year-old man with a history of migraine headache attempted to hike from Lukla, Nepal, to Mount Everest Base Camp. On the sixth day of hiking, he had a migraine headache. After achieving resolution with typical therapies and rest, he ascended higher. Another headache developed that was interpreted to be a migraine. The headache was treated, and he ascended higher, after which severe symptoms of acute mountain sickness developed, necessitating his evacuation by helicopter. Persons with headaches in daily life may present challenges to diagnosis when traveling to high altitude. Careful evaluation and decision making are needed to achieve proper diagnosis and treatment of acute mountain sickness. PMID:24462763

  9. Treatment efficacy of intramuscular promethazine for Space Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Jennings, Richard T.; Beck, Bradley G.; Bagian, James P.

    1993-01-01

    Intramuscular promethazine and its efficacy in the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS) were evaluated using standardized questions administered during postflight debriefings to crewmembers immediately after their first Shuttle flight. The comparison showed that 25 percent of crewmembers treated with IM promethazine were 'sick' on flight day 2, compared to 50 percent of crewmembers who did not receive promethazine, 90 percent reported immediate symptom relief as well. Untreated crewmembers typically have slow symptom resolution over 72-96 h, and those treated with oral scopolamine/dextroamphetamine show delayed symptom development. This study suggests that intramuscular promethazine is an effective treatment for SMS and merits continued use and further controlled investigations.

  10. Chapter 1: Biomedical Knowledge Integration

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Philip R. O.

    2012-01-01

    The modern biomedical research and healthcare delivery domains have seen an unparalleled increase in the rate of innovation and novel technologies over the past several decades. Catalyzed by paradigm-shifting public and private programs focusing upon the formation and delivery of genomic and personalized medicine, the need for high-throughput and integrative approaches to the collection, management, and analysis of heterogeneous data sets has become imperative. This need is particularly pressing in the translational bioinformatics domain, where many fundamental research questions require the integration of large scale, multi-dimensional clinical phenotype and bio-molecular data sets. Modern biomedical informatics theory and practice has demonstrated the distinct benefits associated with the use of knowledge-based systems in such contexts. A knowledge-based system can be defined as an intelligent agent that employs a computationally tractable knowledge base or repository in order to reason upon data in a targeted domain and reproduce expert performance relative to such reasoning operations. The ultimate goal of the design and use of such agents is to increase the reproducibility, scalability, and accessibility of complex reasoning tasks. Examples of the application of knowledge-based systems in biomedicine span a broad spectrum, from the execution of clinical decision support, to epidemiologic surveillance of public data sets for the purposes of detecting emerging infectious diseases, to the discovery of novel hypotheses in large-scale research data sets. In this chapter, we will review the basic theoretical frameworks that define core knowledge types and reasoning operations with particular emphasis on the applicability of such conceptual models within the biomedical domain, and then go on to introduce a number of prototypical data integration requirements and patterns relevant to the conduct of translational bioinformatics that can be addressed via the design and

  11. Chapter 1: Biomedical knowledge integration.

    PubMed

    Payne, Philip R O

    2012-01-01

    The modern biomedical research and healthcare delivery domains have seen an unparalleled increase in the rate of innovation and novel technologies over the past several decades. Catalyzed by paradigm-shifting public and private programs focusing upon the formation and delivery of genomic and personalized medicine, the need for high-throughput and integrative approaches to the collection, management, and analysis of heterogeneous data sets has become imperative. This need is particularly pressing in the translational bioinformatics domain, where many fundamental research questions require the integration of large scale, multi-dimensional clinical phenotype and bio-molecular data sets. Modern biomedical informatics theory and practice has demonstrated the distinct benefits associated with the use of knowledge-based systems in such contexts. A knowledge-based system can be defined as an intelligent agent that employs a computationally tractable knowledge base or repository in order to reason upon data in a targeted domain and reproduce expert performance relative to such reasoning operations. The ultimate goal of the design and use of such agents is to increase the reproducibility, scalability, and accessibility of complex reasoning tasks. Examples of the application of knowledge-based systems in biomedicine span a broad spectrum, from the execution of clinical decision support, to epidemiologic surveillance of public data sets for the purposes of detecting emerging infectious diseases, to the discovery of novel hypotheses in large-scale research data sets. In this chapter, we will review the basic theoretical frameworks that define core knowledge types and reasoning operations with particular emphasis on the applicability of such conceptual models within the biomedical domain, and then go on to introduce a number of prototypical data integration requirements and patterns relevant to the conduct of translational bioinformatics that can be addressed via the design and

  12. Volcanism on Mars. Chapter 41

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimbelman, J. R.; Garry, W. B.; Bleacher, J. E.; Crown, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft exploration has revealed abundant evidence that Mars possesses some of the most dramatic volcanic landforms found anywhere within the solar system. How did a planet half the size of Earth produce volcanoes like Olympus Mons, which is several times the size of the largest volcanoes on Earth? This question is an example of the kinds of issues currently being investigated as part of the space-age scientific endeavor called "comparative planetology." This chapter summarizes the basic information currently known about volcanism on Mars. The volcanoes on Mars appear to be broadly similar in overall morphology (although, often quite different in scale) to volcanic features on Earth, which suggests that Martian eruptive processes are not significantly different from the volcanic styles and processes on Earth. Martian volcanoes are found on terrains of different age, and Martian volcanic rocks are estimated to comprise more than 50% of the Martian surface. This is in contrast to volcanism on smaller bodies such as Earth's Moon, where volcanic activity was mainly confined to the first half of lunar history (see "Volcanism on the Moon"). Comparative planetology supports the concept that volcanism is the primary mechanism for a planetary body to get rid of its internal heat; smaller bodies tend to lose their internal heat more rapidly than larger bodies (although, Jupiter's moon Io appears to contradict this trend; Io's intense volcanic activity is powered by unique gravitational tidal forces within the Jovian system; see "Volcanism on Io"), so that volcanic activity on Mars would be expected to differ considerably from that found on Earth and the Moon.

  13. Summary of proceedings of the first meeting of the NASA Ames Simulator Sickness Steering Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hettinger, Lawrence J.; Mccauley, Michael E.; Cook, Anthony E.; Voorhees, James W.

    1989-01-01

    A program of research to investigate simulator induced sickness has recently been initiated under the sponsorship of NASA Ames Research Center to coordinate efforts to investigate and eventually eliminate the problem of simulator sickness. As part of this program, a Simulator Sickness Steering Committee has been assembled, comprised of eighteen representatives from the Army, Air Force, Navy, NASA, NATO, academia, and industry. The proceedings of the first meeting of the NASA Ames Simulator Sickness Steering Committee are summarized and discussed.

  14. Motion sickness in cats - A symptom rating scale used in laboratory and flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suri, K. B.; Daunton, N. G.; Crampton, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    The cat is proposed as a model for the study of motion and space sickness. Development of a scale for rating the motion sickness severity in the cat is described. The scale is used to evaluate an antimotion sickness drug, d-amphetamine plus scopolamine, and to determine whether it is possible to predict sickness susceptibility during parabolic flight, including zero-G maneuvers, from scores obtained during ground based trials.

  15. What you thought you knew about motion sickness isn't necessarily so

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, P. S.; Malmstrom, F. V.

    1984-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms, stimuli, and drug therapy are discussed. Autogenic feedback training (AFT) methods of preventing motion sickness are explained. Research with AFT indicates that participants who had AFT could withstand longer periods of Coriolis acceleration, participants with high or low susceptibility to motion sickness could control their symptoms with AFT, AFT for Coriolis acceleration is transferable to other motion sickness stimuli, and most people can learn AFT, though with varying rates of learning.

  16. Chapter 16. Fine-root Growth Response

    SciTech Connect

    J. Devereux Joslin; Mark H. Wolfe

    2002-07-31

    As part of a multiyear study to evaluate the affects of altered water inputs to an upland forest many aspects of tree growth physiology were studied. Chapter 16 of this book deals with fine root growth as studied over a 7 year period using a variety of methods. This chapter summarizes the results and conclusions from those efforts.

  17. National ESEA Chapter 1 Schoolwide Projects Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland Public Schools, OH.

    This document is a collection of schoolwide compensatory education project plans for 22 elementary schools in the Cleveland (Ohio) Public Schools system, with funding provided by Chapter 1 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act. Chapter 1 project plans are included for the following schools: (1) Alfred A. Benesch; (2) Andrew J.…

  18. Chapter 1 Commission Issues Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Chapter 1, Baltimore, MD.

    This report presents an interim analysis by an independent commission of current moves to reform Chapter 1 of the Hawkins/Stafford Elementary and Secondary School Improvement Amendments of 1988. Chapter 1 is the largest federal assistance program to elementary school and secondary school education. The report responds to questions on strengthening…

  19. Chapter 6: Selenium Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter addresses the characteristics and nature of organic selenium (Se) toxicity to aquatic organisms, based on the most current state of scientific knowledge. As such, the information contained in this chapter relates to the 'toxicity assessment' phase of aquatic ecologi...

  20. Chapter 622: A Guide for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston.

    Massachusetts's Chapter 622 and U.S. Title IX regulations both prohibit discrimination by educational institutions. This guide is designed to assist administrators, particularly in Massachusetts, in complying fully with the spirit and letter of these regulations. The guide is divided into thirteen chapters, seven of which use parallel format to…

  1. Infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool to indicate sick-house-syndrome: a case-study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    1996-03-01

    Every third child and many adults in Sweden have allergic reactions caused by indoor environmental problems. A lot of buildings constructed during the building-boom period of 1950 - 1990 expose the sick-house-syndrome, due to built-in moisture problems and poor ventilation performance of the building. Leaky building construction, transport of humid air condensing on thermal bridges within the construction gives rise to a humid environment, and forms a base for a microbial deterioration process of organic materials, with emissions hazardous for human health. So far there are no universal and cost efficient techniques or methods developed which could be used to reveal the sick-house-syndrome. In this paper we present the results of a case-study of the sick-house-syndrome, and an investigation concept with a combination of different techniques and methods to detect and to map underlying factors that form the base for microbial activities. The concept includes mobile and indoor thermography, functional control of ventilation systems, tracer gas techniques for measurement of air flow exchange rate in different rooms, microbial investigation of emissions, field inspections within the building construction and the building envelope, and medical investigation of the health status of the people working in the building. Mobile thermography of the exterior facades has been performed with a longwave AGEMA THV 900, respectively THV 1000 infrared system, during the period December 1994 - June 1995, at different and similar weather and radiation conditions, and with the building pressurized at one accession. Indoor thermography has been performed with a shortwave AGEMA THV 470 system, for a selection of objects/surfaces with thermal deviations, indicated in thermograms from the different mobile thermographic surveys. Functional control was performed for the ventilation systems, and air flow rates were measured using tracer gas technique for a selection of rooms with different

  2. Chapter 17: Estimating Net Savings: Common Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Violette, D. M.; Rathbun, P.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to particular program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings, but does not prescribe particular methods.

  3. Care for Sick Children as a Proxy for Gender Equality in the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Rickard; Nermo, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Swedish parents are entitled to government paid benefits to take care of sick children. In this paper we show that the gender distribution of paid care for sick children is a good proxy for the gender division of household work. Using two examples we show that registry data on care for sick children is a useful data source for studies on gender…

  4. 20 CFR 335.3 - Execution of statement of sickness and supplemental doctor's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Execution of statement of sickness and supplemental doctor's statement. 335.3 Section 335.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.3 Execution of statement of sickness and supplemental doctor's statement....

  5. Benefits and Harms of Sick Leave: Lack of Randomized, Controlled Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelsson, Inge; Marnetoft, Sven-Uno

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to try to identify those randomized controlled trials that compare sick leave with no sick leave or a different duration or degree of sick leave. A comprehensive, systematic, electronic search of Clinical Evidence, the Cochrane Library and PubMed, and a manual search of the Campbell Library and a journal supplement was…

  6. 20 CFR 336.12 - Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness... Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness benefits. For the purposes of this part, the Board considers that an employee has exhausted his or her current rights to normal benefits for days of sickness if: (a)...

  7. 20 CFR 336.12 - Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness... Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness benefits. For the purposes of this part, the Board considers that an employee has exhausted his or her current rights to normal benefits for days of sickness if: (a)...

  8. 20 CFR 323.2 - Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... unemployment or sickness insurance. 323.2 Section 323.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.2 Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance....

  9. 20 CFR 323.2 - Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... unemployment or sickness insurance. 323.2 Section 323.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.2 Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance....

  10. 8 CFR 334.4 - Investigation and report if applicant is sick or disabled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... sickness or other disability, to appear for the initial examination on the application or for any... circumstances surrounding the sickness or disability. The district director shall determine, based on available medical evidence, whether the sickness or disability is of a nature which so incapacitates the...

  11. 20 CFR 323.2 - Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... unemployment or sickness insurance. 323.2 Section 323.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.2 Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance....

  12. 26 CFR 1.104-1 - Compensation for injuries or sickness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Compensation for injuries or sickness. 1.104-1... Compensation for injuries or sickness. (a) In general. Section 104(a) provides an exclusion from gross income... are received for personal injuries or sickness, except to the extent that such amounts...

  13. 20 CFR 336.12 - Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness... Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness benefits. For the purposes of this part, the Board considers that an employee has exhausted his or her current rights to normal benefits for days of sickness if: (a)...

  14. 26 CFR 1.104-1 - Compensation for injuries or sickness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Compensation for injuries or sickness. 1.104-1... Compensation for injuries or sickness. (a) In general. Section 104(a) provides an exclusion from gross income... are received for personal injuries or sickness, except to the extent that such amounts...

  15. 26 CFR 1.104-1 - Compensation for injuries or sickness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation for injuries or sickness. 1.104-1... Compensation for injuries or sickness. (a) In general. Section 104(a) provides an exclusion from gross income... are received for personal injuries or sickness, except to the extent that such amounts...

  16. 8 CFR 334.4 - Investigation and report if applicant is sick or disabled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... sickness or other disability, to appear for the initial examination on the application or for any... circumstances surrounding the sickness or disability. The district director shall determine, based on available medical evidence, whether the sickness or disability is of a nature which so incapacitates the...

  17. 20 CFR 323.2 - Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... unemployment or sickness insurance. 323.2 Section 323.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.2 Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance....

  18. 26 CFR 1.104-1 - Compensation for injuries or sickness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Compensation for injuries or sickness. 1.104-1... Compensation for injuries or sickness. (a) In general. Section 104(a) provides an exclusion from gross income... are received for personal injuries or sickness, except to the extent that such amounts...

  19. 8 CFR 334.4 - Investigation and report if applicant is sick or disabled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sickness or other disability, to appear for the initial examination on the application or for any... circumstances surrounding the sickness or disability. The district director shall determine, based on available medical evidence, whether the sickness or disability is of a nature which so incapacitates the...

  20. 20 CFR 336.12 - Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness... Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness benefits. For the purposes of this part, the Board considers that an employee has exhausted his or her current rights to normal benefits for days of sickness if: (a)...

  1. 8 CFR 334.4 - Investigation and report if applicant is sick or disabled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... sickness or other disability, to appear for the initial examination on the application or for any... circumstances surrounding the sickness or disability. The district director shall determine, based on available medical evidence, whether the sickness or disability is of a nature which so incapacitates the...

  2. 26 CFR 1.104-1 - Compensation for injuries or sickness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Compensation for injuries or sickness. 1.104-1... Compensation for injuries or sickness. (a) In general. Section 104(a) provides an exclusion from gross income... are received for personal injuries or sickness, except to the extent that such amounts...

  3. 20 CFR 336.12 - Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness... Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness benefits. For the purposes of this part, the Board considers that an employee has exhausted his or her current rights to normal benefits for days of sickness if: (a)...

  4. 8 CFR 334.4 - Investigation and report if applicant is sick or disabled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... sickness or other disability, to appear for the initial examination on the application or for any... circumstances surrounding the sickness or disability. The district director shall determine, based on available medical evidence, whether the sickness or disability is of a nature which so incapacitates the...

  5. 20 CFR 323.2 - Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... unemployment or sickness insurance. 323.2 Section 323.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.2 Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance....

  6. Child Care Providers' Experiences Caring for Sick Children: Implications for Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heymann, S. Jody; Vo, Phuong Hong; Bergstrom, Cara A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the experiences of preschool and school-age child care providers regarding sick child care. Found that providers repeatedly described sick children whose health problems made it impossible to provide adequate care for sick and well children in their care. Findings pose international public health policy implications for child care and…

  7. Head movements in low and high gravitoinertial force environments elicit motion sickness - Implications for space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, James R.; Graybiel, Ashton

    1987-01-01

    Astronauts report that head movements in flight tend to bring on symptoms of space motion sickness (SMS). The effects of head movements in pitch, yaw, and roll (made both with normal vision and with eyes occluded) on susceptibility to motion sickness in the zero G phase of parabolic flight maneuvers were evaluated. The findings are clear-cut: pitch head movements are most provocative, yaw least provocative, and roll intermediate. These experiments suggest that SMS is not a unique nosological entity, but is the consequence of exposure to nonterrestrial force levels. Head movements during departures in either direction from 1 G elicit symptoms.

  8. Chapter I, Chapter II, And State Compensatory Education Program Evaluations, 1983-84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Sherry; And Others

    This report contains administrative summaries for program evaluations of these 11 1983-84 Chapter I, Chapter II, and state compensatory education programs in the Fort Worth Independent School District, Texas. The programs evaluated are the Elementary Resource Teacher/Aide Program; the Chapter I Parochial Reading and Mathematics Program; the…

  9. Chapter 1 in Three Easy Steps: A Manual for Rural Chapter 1 Teachers and Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkowski, Page; And Others

    This manual is designed to help rural Chapter 1 program staff effectively run their programs. Upon reviewing the history of the Chapter 1 legislation and program, the document stresses program design, evaluation, and improvement as three easy ways to understanding the Chapter 1 program. Program design should determine the district eligibility for…

  10. Radiation Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnárovits, L.

    Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

  11. Ionizing radiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter gives a comprehensive review on ionizing irradiation of fresh fruits and vegetables. Topics include principles of ionizing radiation, its effects on pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, shelf-life, sensory quality, nutritional and phytochemical composition, as well as physiologic and...

  12. Evaluation of putative neurochemical intermediaries in space/motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.

    1991-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: the emetic stimuli used on the cats in the study; analysis of the constituents of the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) during motion sickness; evaluation of serotonin-1A agonists; other 5-HT receptors; and additional studies and activities.

  13. Is Your School Suffering from Sick Building Syndrome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Margaret

    1993-01-01

    Three-fourths of American schools are in substandard condition. Health effects associated with indoor air/environmental quality are a major concern. Sick building syndrome, which causes illness in occupants, generally results from particulates, volatile organic compounds, biologicals, or radio-nucleotides. The article recommends how to deal with…

  14. 75 FR 75363 - Absence and Leave; Sick Leave

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... regulations are in response to only a portion of OPM's proposed regulations (74 FR 43064) issued on August 26... regulations (75 FR 33491) amending the definition of family member for sick leave purposes to now cover..., guardianship, and other relationships. The final regulations are available at...

  15. Is Your Sick Leave Bank in Good Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Sick leave banks are a common staple of teacher contracts. Although these banks may benefit employees, they expose school districts to a variety of complications and unintended consequences, including administrative complexity, potential cash flow implications, cost disparities, increased absenteeism, instructional instability, privacy issues, and…

  16. Reliability of psychophysiological responses across multiple motion sickness stimulation tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, C. S.; Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.

    1995-01-01

    Although there is general agreement that a high degree of variability exists between subjects in their autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness stimulation, very little evidence exists that examines the reproducibility of autonomic responses within subjects during motion sickness stimulation. Our objectives were to examine the reliability of autonomic responses and symptom levels across five testing occasions using the (1) final minute of testing, (2) change in autonomic response and the change in symptom level, and (3) strength of the relationship between the change in symptom level and the change in autonomic responses across the entire motion sickness test. The results indicate that, based on the final minute of testing, the autonomic responses of heart rate, blood volume pulse, and respiration rate are moderately stable across multiple tests. Changes in heart rate, blood volume pulse, respiration rate, and symptoms throughout the test duration are less stable across the tests. Finally, autonomic responses and symptom levels are significantly related across the entire motion sickness test.

  17. A global sensitivity analysis for African sleeping sickness

    PubMed Central

    DAVIS, STEPHEN; AKSOY, SERAP; GALVANI, ALISON

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY African sleeping sickness is a parasitic disease transmitted through the bites of tsetse flies of the genus Glossina. We constructed mechanistic models for the basic reproduction number, R0, of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, respectively the causative agents of West and East African human sleeping sickness. We present global sensitivity analyses of these models that rank the importance of the biological parameters that may explain variation in R0, using parameter ranges based on literature, field data and expertize out of Uganda. For West African sleeping sickness, our results indicate that the proportion of bloodmeals taken from humans by Glossina fuscipes fuscipes is the most important factor, suggesting that differences in the exposure of humans to tsetse are fundamental to the distribution of T. b. gambiense. The second ranked parameter for T. b. gambiense and the highest ranked for T. b. rhodesiense was the proportion of Glossina refractory to infection. This finding underlines the possible implications of recent work showing that nutritionally stressed tsetse are more susceptible to trypanosome infection, and provides broad support for control strategies in development that are aimed at increasing refractoriness in tsetse flies. We note though that for T. b. rhodesiense the population parameters for tsetse – species composition, survival and abundance – were ranked almost as highly as the proportion refractory, and that the model assumed regular treatment of livestock with trypanocides as an established practice in the areas of Uganda experiencing East African sleeping sickness. PMID:21078220

  18. Quantitative relationship of sick building syndrome symptoms with ventilation rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from published studies were combined and analyzed to develop best-fit equations and curves quantifying the change in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptom prevalence in office workers with ventilation rate. For each study, slopes were calculated, representing the fractional...

  19. Psychosocial work factors and long sickness absence in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Slany, Corinna; Schütte, Stefanie; Chastang, Jean-François; Parent-Thirion, Agnès; Vermeylen, Greet; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies exploring a wide range of psychosocial work factors separately and together in association with long sickness absence are still lacking. Objectives: The objective of this study was to explore the associations between psychosocial work factors measured following a comprehensive instrument (Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire, COPSOQ) and long sickness absence (>7 days/year) in European employees of 34 countries. An additional objective was to study the differences in these associations according to gender and countries. Methods: The study population consisted of 16 120 male and 16 588 female employees from the 2010 European working conditions survey. Twenty-five psychosocial work factors were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using multilevel logistic regression models and interaction testing. Results: When studied together in the same model, factors related to job demands (quantitative demands and demands for hiding emotions), possibilities for development, social relationships (role conflicts, quality of leadership, social support, and sense of community), workplace violence (physical violence, bullying, and discrimination), shift work, and job promotion were associated with long sickness absence. Almost no difference was observed according to gender and country. Conclusions: Comprehensive prevention policies oriented to psychosocial work factors may be useful to prevent long sickness absence at European level. PMID:24176393

  20. Development of a neural net paradigm that predicts simulator sickness

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.

    1993-03-01

    A disease exists that affects pilots and aircrew members who use Navy Operational Flight Training Systems. This malady, commonly referred to as simulator sickness and whose symptomatology closely aligns with that of motion sickness, can compromise the use of these systems because of a reduced utilization factor, negative transfer of training, and reduction in combat readiness. A report is submitted that develops an artificial neural network (ANN) and behavioral model that predicts the onset and level of simulator sickness in the pilots and aircrews who sue these systems. It is proposed that the paradigm could be implemented in real time as a biofeedback monitor to reduce the risk to users of these systems. The model captures the neurophysiological impact of use (human-machine interaction) by developing a structure that maps the associative and nonassociative behavioral patterns (learned expectations) and vestibular (otolith and semicircular canals of the inner ear) and tactile interaction, derived from system acceleration profiles, onto an abstract space that predicts simulator sickness for a given training flight.

  1. 47 CFR 2.1091 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: mobile devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... between the transmitter's radiating structure(s) and the body of the user or nearby persons. In this... 22 of this chapter, parts 24, 25, 26 and 27 of this chapter, part 80 of this chapter (ship...

  2. Mouth and neck radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... during cancer treatment Eating extra calories when sick - adults Oral mucositis - self-care Radiation therapy - questions to ask your doctor Safe eating during cancer treatment Swallowing problems Tracheostomy care When you have diarrhea When you have nausea and vomiting Update Date ...

  3. Longitudinal associations of active commuting with wellbeing and sickness absence

    PubMed Central

    Mytton, Oliver Tristan; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to explore longitudinal associations of active commuting (cycling to work and walking to work) with physical wellbeing (PCS-8), mental wellbeing (MCS-8) and sickness absence. Method We used data from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (2009 to 2012; n = 801) to test associations between: a) maintenance of cycling (or walking) to work over a one year period and indices of wellbeing at the end of that one year period; and b) associations between change in cycling (or walking) to work and change in indices of wellbeing. Linear regression was used for testing associations with PCS-8 and MCS-8, and negative binomial regression for sickness absence. Results After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical activity and physical limitation, those who maintained cycle commuting reported lower sickness absence (0.46, 95% CI: 0.14–0.80; equivalent to one less day per year) and higher MCS-8 scores (1.50, 0.10–2.10) than those who did not cycle to work. The association for sickness absence persisted after adjustment for baseline sickness absence. No significant associations were observed for PCS-8. Associations between change in cycle commuting and change in indices of wellbeing were not significant. No significant associations were observed for walking. Conclusions This work provides some evidence of the value of cycle commuting in improving or maintaining the health and wellbeing of adults of working age. This may be important in engaging employers in the promotion of active travel and communicating the benefits of active travel to employees. PMID:26740344

  4. Comparison of treatment strategies for Space Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. R.; Jennings, R. T.; Beck, B. G.

    1992-01-01

    Treatment strategies for Space Motion Sickness were compared using the results of postflight oral debriefings. Standardized questionnaires were administered to all crewmembers immediately following Space Shuttle flights by NASA flight surgeons. Cases of Space Motion Sickness were graded as mild, moderate or severe based on published criteria, and medication effectiveness was judged based on subjective reports of symptom relief. Since October 1989, medication effectiveness is reported inflight through Private Medical Conferences with the crew. A symptom matrix was analyzed for 19 crewmembers treated with an oral combination of scopolamine and dextroamphetamine (scopdex) and 15 crewmembers treated with promethazine delivered by intramuscular (IM) or suppository routes. Scopdex has been given preflight as prophaxis for Space Motion Sickness but analysis showed delayed symptom presentation in 9 crewmembers or failed to prevent symptoms in 7. Only three crewmembers who took scopdex had no symptoms inflight. Fourteen out of 15 crewmembers treated with IM promethazine and 6 of 8 treated with promethazine suppositories after symptom development had immediate (within 12 h) symptom relief and required no additional medication. There were no cases of delayed symptom presentation in the crewmembers treated with promethazine. This response is in contrast to untreated crewmembers who typically have slow symptom resolution over 72-96 h. We conclude that promethazine is an effective treatment of Space Motion Sickness symptoms inflight. NASA policy currently recommends treating crewmembers with Space Motion Sickness after symptom development, and no longer recommends prophylaxis with scopdex due to delayed symptom development and apparent variable absorption of oral medications during early flight days.

  5. The Glomerulus and Serum Sickness in Experimental Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Spear, G. S.; Kihara, I.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of prolonged continuous hypoxia with polycythaemia on the rabbit glomerulus was studied by light microscopy and their effect on experimental serum sickness in rabbits was studied by light and immunofluorescent microscopy. Engorgement and enlargement were the principal effects on the glomerulus of hypoxia and polycythaemia, but prominence of the mesangium and focal segmental sclerosis and hypercellularity sometimes occurred. The results of the studies on serum sickness suggested that prolonged hypoxia with polycythaemia did not diminish antibody formation, reactivity of antibody with antigen, or rapid antigen clearance; in fact antigen was cleared more rapidly in hypoxic animals. Chronic hypoxia and polycythaemia did not prevent acute serum sickness including acute glomerulonephritis. The incidence and severity of acute glomerulonephritis, however, may have been diminished whereas the incidence and severity of other visceral involvement by acute serum sickness was not. Although the experimental groups were not large, the possible implications of the data are important. Focal segmental glomerular sclerosis and hypercellularity, and mesangial prominence, to our knowledge have not previously been reported in association with chronic experimental hypoxia and polycythaemia. These lesions resembled some glomerular lesions of cyanotic congenital heart disease. Decrease in glomerulonephritis under conditions in which hydrostatic pressure in the glomerulus is presumably elevated and the glomerulus is subject to injury in some respects would be contrary to expectation. Finally, selective decrease in the glomerulonephritic but not the other lesions of acute serum sickness by altering non-immunological general experimental conditions would be highly unusual. More extensive studies are indicated. ImagesFigs. 1-5Figs. 6-12 PMID:5055712

  6. Increasing accuracy in the assessment of motion sickness: A construct methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, Cynthia S.; Cowings, Patricia S.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose is to introduce a new methodology that should improve the accuracy of the assessment of motion sickness. This construct methodology utilizes both subjective reports of motion sickness and objective measures of physiological correlates to assess motion sickness. Current techniques and methods used in the framework of a construct methodology are inadequate. Current assessment techniques for diagnosing motion sickness and space motion sickness are reviewed, and attention is called to the problems with the current methods. Further, principles of psychophysiology that when applied will probably resolve some of these problems are described in detail.

  7. Head movements in non-terrestrial force environments elicit motion sickness - Implications for the etiology of space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; Graybiel, A.

    1986-01-01

    Space motion sickness has become an operational concern in manned space flight. Considerable evidence exists that head movements in free fall, especially pitch movements, are provocative until adaptation occurs. The question arises whether space motion sickness is an unique nosological entity or is due to body movements in a nonterrestrial force environment, a force environment for which the body's dynamic sensory-motor adaptions to 1 G are no longer appropriate. To evaluate this issue, subjects were asked to make controlled head movements during exposure to high gravitoinertial force levels, 1.8-2.0 G, in parabolic flight maneuvers. Head movements in pitch with eyes open were most evocative of motion sickness, yaw movements with eyes covered were least provocative. This pattern is identical to that which occurs when the same types of head movements are made in the free fall phase of parabolic maneuvers. It appears that space motion sickness is the consequence of prolonged exposure to a nonterrestrial force background rather than of exposure to free fall per se.

  8. Ambulation Increases Decompression Sickness in Spacewalk Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, N. W.; Natoli, M. J.; Conkin, J.; Wessel, J. H., III; Gernhardt, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal activity has the potential to both improve and compromise decompression safety. Exercise enhances inert gas elimination during oxygen breathing prior to decompression (prebreathe), but it may also promote bubble nuclei formation (nucleation), which can lead to gas phase separation and bubble growth and increase the risk of decompression sickness (DCS). The timing, pattern and intensity of musculoskeletal activity and the level of tissue supersaturation may be critical to the net effect. Understanding the relationships is important to evaluate exercise prebreathe protocols and quantify decompression risk in gravity and microgravity environments. Data gathered during NASA's Prebreathe Reduction Program (PRP) studies combined oxygen prebreathe and exercise followed by low pressure (4.3 psi; altitude equivalent of 30,300 ft [9,235 m]) microgravity simulation to produce two protocols used by astronauts preparing for extravehicular activity. Both the Phase II/CEVIS (cycle ergometer vibration isolation system) and ISLE (in-suit light exercise) trials eliminated ambulation to more closely simulate the microgravity environment. The CEVIS results (35 male, 10 female) serve as control data for this NASA/Duke study to investigate the influence of ambulation exercise on bubble formation and the subsequent risk of DCS. METHODS Four experiments will replicate the CEVIS exercise-enhanced oxygen prebreathe protocol, each with a different exception. The first of these is currently underway. Experiment 1 - Subjects complete controlled ambulation (walking in place with fixed cadence and step height) during both preflight and at 4.3 psi instead of remaining nonambulatory throughout. Experiment 2 - Subjects remain non-ambulatory during the preflight period and ambulatory at 4.3 psi. Experiment 3 - Subjects ambulate during the preflight period and remain non-ambulatory at 4.3 psi. Experiment 4 - The order of heavy and light exercise employed in the CEVIS protocol is

  9. Chapter 42. Waterborne and Foodborne Parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter identifies the most prominent parasites in North America that are acquired through contaminated food and water including protozoa (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Entamoeba, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cystoisospora, Cyclospora, Toxoplasma, and Balantidium), nematodes (Trichinella, Angiostrongyl...

  10. AMPLIFICATION OF RIBOSOMAL RNA SEQUENCES - Book Chapter

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter contains the following headings and subheadings: Introduction; Experimental Approach - Precautions, Template, Primers, Reaction Conditions, Enhancers, Post Amplification; Procedures - Template DNA, Basic PCR, Thermal Cycle Parameters, Enzyme Addition, Agarose Ge...

  11. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CHAPTER 65)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion gen-erated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting ...

  12. Student Loan Bankruptcies: A Chapter 13 Revival?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlik, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Unless legislative or judicial action is taken, the current high volume of student loans will likely encourage frequent utilization of Chapter 13 of the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978 for unintended purposes. (Author/IRT)

  13. How to write a medical book chapter?

    PubMed

    Kendirci, Muammer

    2013-09-01

    Invited medical book chapters are usually requested by editors from experienced authors who have made significant contributions to the literature in certain fields requested by an editor from an experienced. Before the start of the writing process a consensus should be established between the editor and the author with regard to the title, deadline, specific instructions and content of the manuscript. Certain issues concerning a chapter can be negotiated by the parties beforehand, but some issues cannot. As writing a medical book chapter is seen as an honor in its own right, the assignment needs to be treated with sincerity by elucidating the topic in detail, and maximal effort should be made to keep in mind that the chapter will reach a large target audience. The purpose of this review article is to provide guidance to residents and junior specialists in the field of urology to improve their writing skills. PMID:26328134

  14. Chapter IV - Safety During Payload Ground Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Paul; Dollberg, John; Trinchero, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the typical hazards that can be expected to be encountered when processing payloads on the ground. Also described are some of the more common controls for these hazards. Many of these controls are based on hard requirements but they are also based on specific lessons learned. This chapter uses the term Flight Hardware (F/H) for all payloads regardless of size.

  15. Where Social and Professional Networking Meet: The Virtual Association Chapter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noxon, Rose

    2011-01-01

    Online Capella University wanted to sponsor an International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI) chapter. Using social networking platforms, a new type of chapter was designed. The virtual chapter breaks new ground on more than the chapter's platform; it is also the first university-sponsored chapter and has a unique approach to…

  16. [Sick leave among workers employed in restructured enterprise].

    PubMed

    Szubert, Zuzanna; Sobala, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    Ownership and restructuring transformations that are taking now place in Poland, as well as the situation on the labor market have their impact on the indicators, which illustrate the workers' health situation, including temporary work disability preceding the issue of the certification granting the disability pension. The aim of this analysis was to identify the changes in the extent and causes of sickness absence among workers after restructuring. The study was carried out in one of the largest transport industry enterprises during the years of its restructuring (1984-1994), covering 8588 workers, and after its restructuring (1997-1999), covering 2702 workers. Following the restructuring, the enterprise's staff was rejuvenated so that the number of workers aged over 50 years decreased by almost fifty percent. The analysis was based on the sickness absence rate calculated as the ratio between the number of days of work disability in a given period of time and the number of person-days in the same period. In 1997-1999, a 33% decrease in sickness absence among women and a 25% decrease among men were observed in the study enterprise as compared with the period of 1989-1994. However, the enhanced absence was also found due to the following diseases: mental disorders (a threefold increase in men); diseases of the musculoskeletal system (by 54% in men and by 43% in women); endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases and immunity disorders (a threefold increase in women). Following the restructuring, considerable changes in the sickness absence structure, by causes of diseases, were revealed. A substantial decrease in the share of male and female absence due to diseases of the respiratory and circulatory systems and almost threefold decrease in complications of pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium in women were noted. In addition, over twofold increase in male and female sickness absence due to diseases of the musculoskeletal system, and lower but significant

  17. Changes in plasma vasopressin during motion sickness in cats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert; Keil, L.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Thomsen, D.; Dictor, M.; Chee, O.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in levels of plasma vasopressin (AVP) and cortisol (C) have been shown to be correlated with motion sickness and nausea in man. As part of the research aimed at validation of the cat as an appropriate animal model for motion sickness research, levels of these hormones were investigated in the cat during motion sickness elicited by vertical linear acceleration of approximately 0.6 Hz and 1 +/- 0.6 G. In Study 1, 15 cats previously screened for susceptibility to motion sickness were prepared with indwelling jugular catheters to permit withdrawl of blood with minimal disruption of the stimulus and minimum stress to the animal. AVP and C were measured in blood samples obtained during exposure to vertical linear acceleration and during control sessions in which the animals were placed in the stationary apparatus. 10 min and 1 min prior to duration; 1, 5, 10, and 20 min after start of motion. Total duration of exposure to motion was 20 min. The data indicate that both AVP and C are elevated during exposure to motion if emesis occurs. AVP reaches maximum levels during or about the same time as emesis, while C increases gradually throughout the period of vertical acceleration. In Study 2, four cats were prepared with indwelling catheters and AVP was measured in blood withdrawn during exposure to the vertical linear acceleration. A single pre-motion sample consisting of three samples drawn 5 min prior to motion onset. Two series of samples consisting of three samples drawn at 3-min intervals were obtained during motion. The first series was initiated at emesis, and the second 25 min after emesis. Results show that levels of circulating AVP were elevated (2 to 27 times the control and pre-motion levels) in the samples taken during emesis and decreased, but remained 1 to 6 times above the pre-motion or control levels within 25 min. The results of these two studies indicate that AVP is elevated during motion-produced emesis than is C. These findings are in general

  18. Body compartment changes in sick children.

    PubMed

    Pencharz, P B; Vaisman, N; Azcue, M; Stallings, V A

    1990-01-01

    Our studies showed that there are important changes in body composition in children in response to dieting and refeeding. Similarly, we showed changes in body composition in response to renal transplantation, which would be expected to restore more normal homeostasis, but in its early phases changes in body composition are complicated by the use of high doses of drugs, notably steroid. Some of the changes in body composition can be predicted from changes in weight but the majority cannot. Relatively simple measurements like the four skinfolds as a means of determining body fat are surprisingly accurate, except in extremely obese subjects. Similarly, the measurements of fat free body mass are useful. However, this measurement does not discriminate changes within fat free body mass in the proportions of body cell mass versus extracellular mass. Similarly, none of these measurements provide any information regarding the composition of body cell mass with regard to its potassium and protein content (as reflected by total body nitrogen). The main drawback with total body nitrogen measurements is the radiation exposure. Thus, we have had to limit the inclusion of total body nitrogen measurements. It has been estimated that two total body nitrogen measurements provide a gonadal dose of radiation roughly equivalent to that experienced by an individual living in a large North American city, that means 30 to 50 mREM per each total body nitrogen measurement. It becomes ethically possible then to carry out nitrogen measurements where it can be argued that their measurement is essential in monitoring the safety and well being of the subject; or alternatively if the subject's life expectancy is limited.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2088286

  19. Decompression sickness in simulated Apollo-Soyuz space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, J. P.; Robertson, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    Apollo-Soyuz docking module atmospheres were evaluated for incidence of decompression sickness in men simulating passage from the Russian spacecraft atmosphere, to the U.S. spacecraft atmosphere, and then to the American space suit pressure. Following 8 hr of 'shirtsleeve' exposure to 31:69::O2:N2 gas breathing mixture, at 10 psia, subjects were 'denitrogenated' for either 30 or 60 min with 100% O2 prior to decompression directly to 3.7 psia suit equivalent while performing exercise at fixed intervals. Five of 21 subjects experienced symptoms of decompression sickness after 60 min of denitrogenation compared to 6 among 20 subjects after 30 min of denitrogenation. A condition of Grade I bends was reported after 60 min of denitrogenation, and 3 of these 5 subjects noted the disappearance of all symptoms of bends at 3.7 psia. After 30 min of denitrogenation, 2 out of 6 subjects developed Grade II bends at 3.7 psia.

  20. Prevention of decompression sickness during a simulated space docking mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, J. P.; Bollinger, R. R.; Richardson, B.

    1975-01-01

    This study has shown that repetitive exchanges between the Apollo space vehicle atmosphere of 100% oxygen at 5 psia (258 torr) and the Soyuz spacecraft atmosphere of 30% oxygen-70% nitrogen at 10 psia (533 torr), as simulated in altitude chambers, will not likely result in any form of decompression sickness. This conclusion is based upon the absence of any form of bends in seven crewmen who participated in 11 tests distributed over three 24-h periods. During each period, three transfers from the 5 to the 10 psia environments were performed by simulating passage through a docking module which served as an airlock where astronauts and cosmonauts first adapted to each other's cabin gases and pressures before transfer. Biochemical tests, subjective fatigue scores, and the complete absence of any form of pain were also indicative that decompression sickness should not be expected if this spacecraft transfer schedule is followed.

  1. The effect of global visual flow on simulator sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharkey, Thomas J.; Mccauley, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    Simulator-induced sickness is investigated in experiments performed at the NASA Ames Army Crew Station Research Facility using the fixed-base helmet-mounted-display flight simulator described by Lypaczewski et al. (1986). The focus of the tests was on the possible roles of (1) global visual flow, as defined by Warren et al. (1982), and (2) maneuvering intensity (in the conflict hypothesis of Reason and Brand, 1975). The results, based on subjective evaluations, physiological measurements, and physical tests on 19 Army helicopter pilots performing a 40-min river-valley following task, are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussed. The data are found to be in agreement with (1) and inconsistent with (2), indicating more sickness at lower altitude instead of with increased maneuvering. Shorter simulator sessions and postponement of low-altitude work until later in the training period are recommended.

  2. Space motion sickness and vestibular adaptation to weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.

    1983-01-01

    Theories of space motion sickness are discussed together with near future vestibular experiments for three Spacelab missions. The sensory conflict theory is covered, as well as theories involving unequal otolith masses, semicircular canals, cardiovascular adaptation and fluid shift toward the head, and extra-labyrinthine effects. Experiments will test the hypothesis that the sensitivity of the otolith organ response is shifted during weightlessness and that this shift carries over to the post-flight experience. Visual-vestibular-tactile interaction, vestibulo-ocular reflexes, ocular counterrolling, awareness of body position, otolith-spinal reflexes, and motion sickness susceptibility are among the parameters to be studied. Preflight and postflight tests will emphasize evaluation of any residual effects of the seven day weightless exposure on vestibulo-spinal and vestibulo-ocular pathways.

  3. Mechanisms underlying the antimotion sickness effects of psychostimulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, Randall L.; Lewis, Michael R.

    1987-01-01

    Data related to the mechanism responsible for the antimotion sickness effects of psychostimulants such as amphetamine are examined. From the analysis of current literature and new evidence, the following three hypotheses are suggested: (1) selective enhancement of dopaminergic, but not noradrenergic, transmission is sufficient to account for amphetamine-induced resistance and, perhaps, for natural resistance to motion sickness; (2) the site of this enhanced dopaminergic transmission is probably within the basal ganglia; and (3) the neuropharmacology of the basal ganglia, but not of the brain-stem vestibular areas, can account for the therapeutic synergism of scopolamine and amphetamine. The therapeutic action of psychostimulants may be dissociable from some of their side effects, particularly cardiovascular effects related to peripheral norepinephrine release.

  4. Mechanisms of selective attention and space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    The neural mismatch theory of space motion sickness asserts that the central and peripheral autonomic sequelae of discordant sensory input arise from central integrative processes falling to reconcile patterns of incoming sensory information with existing memory. Stated differently, perceived novelty reaches a stress level as integrative mechanisms fail to return a sense of control to the individual in the new environment. Based on evidence summarized here, the severity of the neural mismatch may be dependent upon the relative amount of attention selectively afforded to each sensory input competing for control of behavior. Components of the limbic system may play important roles in match-mismatch operations, be therapeutically modulated by antimotion sickness drugs, and be optimally positioned to control autonomic output.

  5. [Reducing problematic sickness absence: of importance to every general practitioner].

    PubMed

    Wind, H; Opstelten, W; Hendriks, A C

    2016-01-01

    Problematic sickness absence is an issue that concerns not only occupational health physicians, but all physicians. More collaboration between occupational health and treating physicians, plus improved alignment of symptom treatment and reintegration counselling, can help avoid long-term sickness absence of employees. Achieving this goal presupposes mutual knowledge of each other's professions. Medical practice guidelines are a tool par excellence to share knowledge and bring this into practice. Treating physicians should not refrain from posing work-related and return-to-work questions, even if the overall responsibility lies with the occupational health physicians in terms of reintegration efforts. The patient's interest should be the leading principle for all physicians involved. This means not only provision of good care, aimed at patient recovery, but also adequate reintegration in the labour market. Occupational health physicians, general practitioners and consultant specialists should share this common goal. PMID:27299497

  6. The neurochemical and neuropharmacological basis of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, C. A.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus suitable for producing motion sickness in laboratory animals and constructed at the university is herein described. The apparatus is a modified version of that previously described by Fox and Daunton. It consists of a 66-inch steel arm anchored at the center to a wooden platform and attached to a motor that makes the arm move in a see-saw fashion. At each end of the steel arm is mounted an aluminum disc that can be rotated by a motorized device. Detachable cages are mounted on each disc for animal holding. The animal can then be exposed to rotational motion by rotation of the aluminum disc, or to see-saw motion simultaneously (Cross-coupled). The apparatus is presently being used in our laboratory to study the neuropharmacological basis of motion sickness in the rat. The device can be adapted for use with other animal species by modifying the cage mounted on the aluminum discs.

  7. Pharmacology in space. Part 2. Controlling motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathers, C. M.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.

    1989-01-01

    In this second article in the two-part series on pharmacology in space, Claire Lathers and colleagues discuss the pharmacology of drugs used to control motion sickness in space and note that the pharmacology of the 'ideal' agent has yet to be worked out. That motion sickness may impair the pharmacological action of a drug by interfering with its absorption and distribution because of alteration of physiology is a problem unique to pharmacology in space. The authors comment on the problem of designing suitable ground-based studies to evaluate the pharmacological effect of drugs to be used in space and discuss the use of salivary samples collected during space flight to allow pharmacokinetic evaluations necessary for non-invasive clinical drug monitoring.

  8. Predictive modeling of altitude decompression sickness in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, D. J.; Hamilton, R. W., Jr.; Colley, I. A.; Schreiner, H. R.

    1972-01-01

    The coding of data on 2,565 individual human altitude chamber tests is reported as part of a selection procedure designed to eliminate individuals who are highly susceptible to decompression sickness, individual aircrew members were exposed to the pressure equivalent of 37,000 feet and observed for one hour. Many entries refer to subjects who have been tested two or three times. This data contains a substantial body of statistical information important to the understanding of the mechanisms of altitude decompression sickness and for the computation of improved high altitude operating procedures. Appropriate computer formats and encoding procedures were developed and all 2,565 entries have been converted to these formats and stored on magnetic tape. A gas loading file was produced.

  9. Investigating motion sickness using the conditioned taste aversion paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    The avoidance of foods which are associated with uncomfortable or aversive internal states has long been recognized. Many people are aware, either directly or via anecdotal reports, of individuals who avoid foods which were eaten just before the onset of sickness. Awareness of this phenomenon can be traced to the writings of John Locke. The disruption of diet during cancer therapy is sometimes ascribed to the attribution of an unpleasant quality to foods eaten preceding the sickness induced by therapy itself. In addition, it has long been recognized by the manufacturers of rodent poisons that animals avoid the injection of food treated with nonlethal doses of poison. An important part of the laboratory study of this phenomenon was directed toward studying the role learning plays in this type of avoidance behavior. Following the lead of Garcia and his associates, this avoidance has come to be interpreted as arising from a form of classical conditioning. In typical laboratory studies of this bahavior, a novel food is ingested just prior to exposure to some stimulus, commonly poisoning or irradiation, which produces illness. Following the terminology of classical conditioning, it is common to describe this procedure as one of 'pairing' a conditioned stimulus (CS), the novel food, with an unconditioned stimulus (US), the illness induced by toxicosis or irradiation. Avoidance of the food in succeeding feeding opportunities is viewed as a learned response or a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Garcia et al. asserted that motion sickness could produce 'gustatory' aversions, but passive motion was first reported as an US to establish CTA by Green and Rachlin. The purpose is to review the manner in which CTA has been used to study motion sickness. Numerous reviews concentrating on other aspects of CTA are available in the existing literature. Readers are encouraged to consult the various papers and edited books for extensive information on other aspects of this literature.

  10. [Evaluation of Motion Sickness Induced by 3D Video Clips].

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Yasuyuki; Takada, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    The use of stereoscopic images has been spreading rapidly. Nowadays, stereoscopic movies are nothing new to people. Stereoscopic systems date back to 280 A.D. when Euclid first recognized the concept of depth perception by humans. Despite the increase in the production of three-dimensional (3D) display products and many studies on stereoscopic vision, the effect of stereoscopic vision on the human body has been insufficiently understood. However, symptoms such as eye fatigue and 3D sickness have been the concerns when viewing 3D films for a prolonged period of time; therefore, it is important to consider the safety of viewing virtual 3D contents as a contribution to society. It is generally explained to the public that accommodation and convergence are mismatched during stereoscopic vision and that this is the main reason for the visual fatigue and visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) during 3D viewing. We have devised a method to simultaneously measure lens accommodation and convergence. We used this simultaneous measurement device to characterize 3D vision. Fixation distance was compared between accommodation and convergence during the viewing of 3D films with repeated measurements. Time courses of these fixation distances and their distributions were compared in subjects who viewed 2D and 3D video clips. The results indicated that after 90 s of continuously viewing 3D images, the accommodative power does not correspond to the distance of convergence. In this paper, remarks on methods to measure the severity of motion sickness induced by viewing 3D films are also given. From the epidemiological viewpoint, it is useful to obtain novel knowledge for reduction and/or prevention of VIMS. We should accumulate empirical data on motion sickness, which may contribute to the development of relevant fields in science and technology. PMID:26832611

  11. IEQ and the impact on employee sick leave

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Satish; Fisk, William J.

    2002-08-01

    When selecting minimum ventilation rates, employers should balance the well-recognized energy costs of providing higher minimum ventilation rates with the expected, but less well quantified, health benefits from a higher ventilation rate. This is a summary of the paper by Milton, et al. that found low employee sick leave associated with high ventilation rates in a set of buildings located in Massachusetts. A simple cost-benefit analysis also is presented.

  12. [A Roman soap opera: Justus' wife and love sickness].

    PubMed

    Gourevitch, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a fiction rather than a story. Galen is called to visit Justus' wife, ill with a mysterious disease. The narrative of love sickness that afflicts her allows the author to draw an interesting picture of the social status of Roman women, the issues of reproduction and maritalbe trayal, and to shed light on magic practices for obtaining or preventing love affairs. PMID:25807730

  13. Recommendations for Control of East African Sleeping Sickness in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kotlyar, Simon

    2010-01-01

    East African sleeping sickness, caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, is prominent in Uganda and poses a serious public health challenge in the region. This publication attempts to provide key components for designing a strategy for a nationwide initiative to provide insecticide-treatment of the animal reservoir to control T. b. rhodesiense. The contents of this article will focus on insecticide-based vector control strategies, monitoring and evaluation framework, and knowledge gaps required for future initiatives. PMID:20300417

  14. EEG-based learning system for online motion sickness level estimation in a dynamic vehicle environment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Tsai, Shu-Fang; Ko, Li-Wei

    2013-10-01

    Motion sickness is a common experience for many people. Several previous researches indicated that motion sickness has a negative effect on driving performance and sometimes leads to serious traffic accidents because of a decline in a person's ability to maintain self-control. This safety issue has motivated us to find a way to prevent vehicle accidents. Our target was to determine a set of valid motion sickness indicators that would predict the occurrence of a person's motion sickness as soon as possible. A successful method for the early detection of motion sickness will help us to construct a cognitive monitoring system. Such a monitoring system can alert people before they become sick and prevent them from being distracted by various motion sickness symptoms while driving or riding in a car. In our past researches, we investigated the physiological changes that occur during the transition of a passenger's cognitive state using electroencephalography (EEG) power spectrum analysis, and we found that the EEG power responses in the left and right motors, parietal, lateral occipital, and occipital midline brain areas were more highly correlated to subjective sickness levels than other brain areas. In this paper, we propose the use of a self-organizing neural fuzzy inference network (SONFIN) to estimate a driver's/passenger's sickness level based on EEG features that have been extracted online from five motion sickness-related brain areas, while either in real or virtual vehicle environments. The results show that our proposed learning system is capable of extracting a set of valid motion sickness indicators that originated from EEG dynamics, and through SONFIN, a neuro-fuzzy prediction model, we successfully translated the set of motion sickness indicators into motion sickness levels. The overall performance of this proposed EEG-based learning system can achieve an average prediction accuracy of ~82%. PMID:24808604

  15. Role of orientation reference selection in motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, Robert J.; Black, F. Owen

    1988-01-01

    Previous experiments with moving platform posturography have shown that different people have varying abilities to resolve conflicts among vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive sensory signals used to control upright posture. In particular, there is one class of subjects with a vestibular disorder known as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) who often are particularly sensitive to inaccurate visual information. That is, they will use visual sensory information for the control of their posture even when that visual information is inaccurate and is in conflict with accurate proprioceptive and vestibular sensory signals. BPPV has been associated with disorders of both posterior semicircular canal function and possibly otolith function. The present proposal hopes to take advantage of the similarities between the space motion sickness problem and the sensory orientation reference selection problems associated with the BPPV syndrome. These similarities include both etiology related to abnormal vertical canal-otolith function, and motion sickness initiating events provoked by pitch and roll head movements. The objectives of this proposal are to explore and quantify the orientation reference selection abilities of subjects and the relation of this selection to motion sickness in humans.

  16. Modeling sensory conflict and motion sickness in artificial gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Paul Z.; Jarchow, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.

    2008-01-01

    It is necessary to characterize the vestibular response associated with head movements for various centrifuge rotation rates if one is to explore short-radius centrifugation as a viable form of artificial gravity for future spaceflights. An existing motion sickness model was modified to design an adaptation protocol to facilitate head movements at a centrifuge speed of 30 rpm. Modification involved addition of a quantitative sensory conflict model to serve as the input to the motion sickness model. Sensory conflict in this context was based on the dynamics of head movements during centrifugation as well as a previously developed transfer function relating angular accelerations to semicircular canal firing rates. Additionally, an adaptation parameter based on comparison between model predictions and previous experimental results was added. A 3-day incremental adaptation protocol was conducted in which 16 subjects successfully made 30 yaw head movements during rotation at 30 rpm on day 3. Motion sickness results showed good agreement with model predictions and demonstrated the feasibility of adaptation to increasingly high rotation rates.

  17. Motion sickness and proprioceptive aftereffects following virtual environment exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanney, K. M.; Kennedy, R. S.; Drexler, J. M.; Harm, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    To study the potential aftereffects of virtual environments (VE), tests of visually guided behavior and felt limb position (pointing with eyes open and closed) along with self-reports of motion sickness-like discomfort were administered before and after 30 min exposure of 34 subjects. When post- discomfort was compared to a pre-baseline, the participants reported more sickness afterward (p < 0.03). The change in felt limb position resulted in subjects pointing higher (p < 0.038) and slightly to the left, although the latter difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.08). When findings from a second study using a different VE system were compared, they essentially replicated the results of the first study with higher sickness afterward (p < 0.001) and post- pointing errors were also up (p < 0.001) and to the left (p < 0.001). While alternative explanations (e.g. learning, fatigue, boredom, habituation, etc.) of these outcomes cannot be ruled out, the consistency of the post- effects on felt limb position changes in the two VE implies that these recalibrations may linger once interaction with the VE has concluded, rendering users potentially physiologically maladapted for the real world when they return. This suggests there may be safety concerns following VE exposures until pre-exposure functioning has been regained. The results of this study emphasize the need for developing and using objective measures of post-VE exposure aftereffects in order to systematically determine under what conditions these effects may occur.

  18. Electrical acustimulation relieves vection-induced motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, S.; Stern, R. M.; Koch, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of electrical acustimulation on gastric myoelectric activity and severity of symptoms of motion sickness. In experiment 1, 16 Chinese subjects received electrical acustimulation in one of two sessions. In experiment 2, 45 white and black American subjects were randomly divided into three groups: acustimulation, sham acustimulation, and control. Each subject sat in an optokinetic drum for 15 minutes baseline and 15 minutes of drum rotation. Subjects' electrogastrograms and subjective symptoms of motion sickness were obtained. In experiment 1, the mean symptom score and tachyarrhythmia during acustimulation sessions were significantly lower than during no-acustimulation sessions. In experiment 2, the mean symptom score of the acustimulation group was significantly lower than that of the sham-stimulation group and the control group; tachyarrhythmia in the acustimulation group was significantly less than that of the control group but not the sham-stimulation group. In conclusion, electrical acustimulation reduces the severity of symptoms of motion sickness and appears to decrease gastric tachyarrhythmia.

  19. Ultrasonographic appearance of adrenal glands in healthy and sick cats.

    PubMed

    Combes, Anaïs; Pey, Pascaline; Paepe, Dominique; Rosenberg, Dan; Daminet, Sylvie; Putcuyps, Ingrid; Bedu, Anne-Sophie; Duchateau, Luc; de Fornel-Thibaud, Pauline; Benchekroun, Ghita; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2013-06-01

    The first part of the study aimed to describe prospectively the ultrasonographic features of the adrenal glands in 94 healthy cats and 51 chronically sick cats. It confirmed the feasibility of ultrasonography of adrenal glands in healthy and chronically sick cats, which were not statistically different. The typical hypoechoic appearance of the gland surrounded by hyperechoic fat made it recognisable. A sagittal plane of the gland, not in line with the aorta, may be necessary to obtain the largest adrenal measurements. The reference intervals of adrenal measurements were inferred from the values obtained in the healthy and chronically sick cats (mean ± 0.96 SD): adrenal length was 8.9-12.5 mm; cranial height was 3.0-4.8 mm; caudal height was 3.0-4.5 mm. The second part of the study consisted of a retrospective analysis of the ultrasonographic examination of the adrenal glands in cats with adrenal diseases (six had hyperaldosteronism and four had pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism) and a descriptive comparison with the reference features obtained in the control groups from the prospective study. Cats with hyperaldosteronism presented with unilateral severely enlarged adrenal glands. However, a normal contralateral gland did not preclude a contralateral infiltration in benign or malignant adrenal neoplasms. The ultrasonographic appearance of the adrenal glands could not differentiate benign and malignant lesions. The ultrasonographic appearance of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism was mainly a symmetrical adrenal enlargement; however, a substantial number of cases were within the reference intervals of adrenal size. PMID:23234721

  20. Absence from work and the medical sickness certificate.

    PubMed

    Massoni, F; Salesi, M; Sarra, M V; Ricci, S

    2013-03-01

    Internet and dematerialization have greatly facilitated the medical profession. Contractual physicians and national health service doctors now have efficient tools for the electronic management of their routine administrative workload. A recent innovation is the medical sickness certificate issued by primary care providers and national health service physicians. Following postponements and uncertainties, procedures for the electronic completion and online transmission of the sickness certificate are now complete. The changes introduced by the so-called "Brunetta decree", however, have made its application difficult and continuous improvement to the system is needed, considering also the severe penalties imposed for violations. In the light of serious legal repercussions for health care professionals, this article examines various critical issues, highlighting the pitfalls and the network's enormous potential for ascertaining evidence of irregularities. The overheated debate on absenteeism due to illness, the diverse roles of national health physicians and self-employed doctors responsible for issuing a sickness certificate, and problems related to circumstances in which a doctor operates, are the key topics in this discussion. Computerization is an effective tool for optimizing public resources; however, it also seeks to ferret out, through the traceability of certification, abuse of medical certification, with severe penalties applied if certificates are discovered to contain misleading or untrue information. PMID:23241839

  1. Sick leave among home-care personnel: a longitudinal study of risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Horneij, Eva L; Jensen, Irene B; Holmström, Eva B; Ekdahl, Charlotte

    2004-01-01

    Background Sick leave due to neck, shoulder and back disorders (NSBD) is higher among health-care workers, especially nursing aides/assistant nurses, compared with employees in other occupations. More information is needed about predictors of sick leave among health care workers. The aim of the study was to assess whether self-reported factors related to health, work and leisure time could predict: 1) future certified sick leave due to any cause, in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group I) and 2) future self-reported sick leave due to NSBD in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group II). Methods Study group I, comprised 443 female nursing aides/assistant nurses, not on sick leave at baseline when a questionnaire was completed. Data on certified sick leave were collected after 18 months. Study group II comprised 274 of the women, who at baseline reported no sick leave during the preceding year due to NSBD and who participated at the 18 month follow-up. Data on sick leave due to NSBD were collected from the questionnaire at 18 months. The associations between future sick leave and factors related to health, work and leisure time were tested by logistic regression analyses. Results Health-related factors such as previous low back disorders (OR: 1.89; 95% CI 1.20–2.97) and previous sick leave (OR 6.40; 95%CI 3.97–10.31), were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to any cause. Factors related to health, work and leisure time, i.e. previous low back disorders (OR: 4.45; 95% CI 1.27–15.77) previous sick leave, not due to NSBD (OR 3.30; 95%CI 1.33–8.17), high strain work (OR 2.34; 95%CI 1.05–5.23) and high perceived physical exertion in domestic work (OR 2.56; 95%CI 1.12–5.86) were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to NSBD. In the final analyses, previous low back disorders and previous sick leave remained significant in both study groups. Conclusion The results suggest a focus on previous low back disorders and

  2. Marine West Coast Forests, Chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Geiser, Linda H.; Lilleskov, Erik A.

    2011-01-01

    Human activities have greatly increased nitrogen emissions and deposition across large areas of Earth. Although nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth, too much nitrogen in excess of critical loads leads to losses of biodiversity, soil and stream acidification, nutrient imbalances, and other deleterious effects. In a new report quantifying critical loads of nitrogen deposition across the United States, USGS scientist Steve Perakis and co-authors provided a chapter about responses of marine west coast forests. Much of this region is understudied with respect to nitrogen deposition, and in this chapter the authors identify known adverse effects and estimate critical loads of nitrogen deposition for western Oregon and Washington and southeast Alaska forests. Perakis also contributed to the synthesis chapter, which includes background, objectives, advantages and uncertainties of critical loads, an overview of critical loads across U.S. ecoregions, and other topics.

  3. Chapter A5. Processing of Water Samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By); Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.

    1999-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter addresses methods to be used in processing water samples to be analyzed for inorganic and organic chemical substances, including the bottling of composite, pumped, and bailed samples and subsamples; sample filtration; solid-phase extraction for pesticide analyses; sample preservation; and sample handling and shipping. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be announced on the USGS Home Page on the World Wide Web under 'New Publications of the U.S. Geological Survey.' The URL for this page is http:/ /water.usgs.gov/lookup/get?newpubs.

  4. Chapter A1. Preparations for Water Sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D.; Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) provides guidelines and standard procedures for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter addresses field-trip preparations, including selection of sample-collection sites for studies of surface-water quality, site reconnaissance and well selection for studies of groundwater quality, and the establishment of electronic files and field files and folders for a sampling site. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters are posted on the World Wide Web on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/ (accessed Jan. 31, 2005).

  5. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 27, Logic, Chapter 28, Applications of Probability and Statistics. Student's Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    One chapter in the fourteenth unit of this SMSG series deals with logic; simple and compound statements, truth tables, logical equivalence, rules of a logical argument, proof, quantifiers, and negations are the topics covered. The second chapter of the unit discusses applications of probability and statistics, including random sampling,…

  6. [Biennial Survey of Education, 1926-1928. Bulletin, 1930, No. 16. Chapter I - Chapter XX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education, United States Department of the Interior, 1930

    1930-01-01

    This document contains the first twenty chapters of the Biennial Survey of Education document, covering the years 1926-1928. The following chapters are included in this document: (1) Higher education (Arthur J. Klein); (2) Medical education (N. P. Colwell); (3) Legal education (Alfred Z. Reed); (4) Significant movements in city school systems (W.…

  7. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 13, Perpendiculars and Parallels (I), Chapter 14, Similarity. Student's Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    The first chapter of the seventh unit in this SMSG series discusses perpendiculars and parallels; topics covered include the relationship between parallelism and perpendicularity, rectangles, transversals, parallelograms, general triangles, and measurement of the circumference of the earth. The second chapter, on similarity, discusses scale…

  8. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 21, Rigid Motions and Vectors, Chapter 22, Computers and Programs. Student's Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    Transformation geometry topics are covered in one chapter of Unit 11 of this SMSG series. Work with translations, reflections, rotations, and composition of motions is included; vectors are briefly discussed. The chapter on computers and programming deals with recent history and uses of of the computer, organization of a digital computer, an…

  9. Sick sinus syndrome associated with hypopituitarism: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dongsheng; Zhang, Qing; Lu, Jingping; Zhang, Gang; Lu, Huihe; Huang, Jianfei; Shan, Qijun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Though an association between autoimmune diseases and sick sinus syndrome has been reported, there has been no report on the association of hypopituitarism and sick sinus syndrome. Herein, we provide the first case report of hypopituitarism accompanying sick sinus syndrome in a 51-year-old woman presented to our hospital with syncope due to cardiac arrest. The patient was successfully managed by pacemaker installation and hormone replacement therapy. PMID:25332716

  10. Use of physical culture to increase resistance of sailors to motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salanin, I. V.

    1980-01-01

    From 50% to 70% of sailors are exposed to motion sickness in storms. A program of physical exercises is described and tested for effectiveness in preventing this problem. In comparing the results of tests of susceptibility to motion sickness given to groups before and after a program of exercises and to a control group, it is found that physical education can strengthen the vestibulary apparatus and help prevent motion sickness.

  11. Introduction and Guide for the Reader Contents and Data of Chapters 2-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, A.; Bernhardt, J. H.; Kramer, H.-M.; Noßke, D.; Valentin, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Chapter '1 Introduction and Guide for the Reader' with the content:

  12. Dosimetry and Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanyár, B.; Köteles, G. J.

    The extension of the use of ionizing radiation and the new biological information on the effects of radiation exposure that is now becoming available, present new challenges to the development of concepts and methodology in determination of doses and assessment of hazards for the protection of living systems. Concise information is given on the deterministic and stochastic effects, on the debate concerning the effects of low doses, the detection of injuries by biological assays, and the radiation sickness.

  13. Cinnarizine for Sea Sickness During a Remote Pacific Ocean Rescue Mission.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Regan F; Rush, Stephen C; Roland, J Thomas; Jethanamest, Daniel; Schwan, Christopher P; Kharon, Chetan U

    2015-01-01

    Motion sickness can be a limiting factor for sea and air missions. We report the experience of a Pararescue (PJ) team on a Pacific Ocean rescue mission in which motion sickness was prevalent. Cinnarizine, an antagonist of H1-histamine receptors, was used to treat affected PJs. We also report findings of a survey of PJs regarding motion sickness. A family of four on a disabled sailboat 900 miles off the coast of Mexico sent out a distress call because their 1-year-old daughter became severely ill with fever and diarrhea. Four PJs were deployed on a C-130, performed a free-fall parachute insertion into the ocean, and boarded the sailboat. All four PJs experienced onset of motion sickness at some point during the early part of the mission and symptoms persisted through the first 24 hours. Three PJs experienced ongoing nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and sensory imbalances. The captain of the sailboat offered the three sick PJs approximately 18mg of cinnarizine two or three times a day with relief of symptoms and improvement on operational effectiveness. A new, anonymous, voluntary survey of Air National Guard PJs and combat rescue officers revealed that 78.4% of Operators have experienced motion sickness at sea. We discuss the current theories on motion sickness, the effect of motion sickness on operational effectiveness, and research on treatment of motion sickness, including the medication cinnarizine. PMID:26125158

  14. Neurological conditions at altitude that fall outside the usual definition of altitude sickness.

    PubMed

    Basnyat, Buddha; Wu, Tianyi; Gertsch, Jeffrey H

    2004-01-01

    Altitude sickness in its commonly recognized forms consists of acute mountain sickness and the two life-threatening forms, high altitude cerebral and pulmonary edema. Less well known are other conditions, chiefly neurological, that may arise completely outside the usual definition of altitude sickness. These, often focal, neurological conditions are important to recognize so that they do not become categorized as altitude sickness because, besides oxygen and descent, treatment may be vastly different. Transient ischemic attacks, cerebral venous thrombosis, seizures, syncope, double vision, and scotomas are some of the well-documented neurological disturbances at high altitude discussed here in order to enhance their recognition and treatment. PMID:15265338

  15. Spatial orientation, adaptation, and motion sickness in real and virtual environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dizio, Paul; Lackner, James R.

    1992-01-01

    Reason and Brand (1975) noted that motion sickness occurs in many situations involving either passive body motion or active interaction with the world via indirect sensorimotor interfaces (e.g., prism spectacles). As might be expected, motion sickness is being reported in VEs that involve apparent self-motion through space, the best known examples being flight simulators (Kennedy et al., 1990). The goals of this paper are to introduce the motion-sickness symptomatology; to outline some concepts that are central to theories of motion sickness, spatial orientation, and adaptation; and to discuss the implications of some trends in VE research and development.

  16. Motion sickness incidence during a round-the-world yacht race.

    PubMed

    Turner, M; Griffin, M J

    1995-09-01

    Motion sickness experiences were obtained from participants in a 9 month, round the world yacht race. Race participants completed questionnaires on their motion sickness experience 1 week prior to the start of the race, during the race, and following the race. Yacht headings, sea states, and wind directions were recorded throughout the race. Illness and the occurrence of vomiting were related to the duration at sea and yacht encounter directions relative to the prevailing wind. Individual crewmember characteristics, the use of anti-motion sickness drugs, activity while at sea, and after-effects of yacht motion were also examined with respect to sickness occurrence. Sickness was greatest among females and younger crewmembers, and among crewmembers who used anti-motion sickness drugs. Sickness varied as a function of drug type and activity while at sea. Crewmembers who reported after-effects of yacht motion also reported greater sickness while at sea. The primary determinants of motion sickness were the duration of time spent at sea and yacht encounter direction to the prevailing wind. PMID:7487823

  17. Chapter 3. Fresh Meat Texture and Tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter summarizes the current state of knowledge of meat tenderness and the antemortem and postmortem strategies that can be used to influence meat tenderness. Tenderness is critical to the consumer acceptance of meat products. Numerous antemortem and postmortem factors can impact tende...

  18. INDOOR AIR QUALITY MODELING (CHAPTER 58)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discussses indoor air quality (IAQ) modeling. Such modeling provides a way to investigate many IAQ problems without the expense of large field experiments. Where experiments are planned, IAQ models can be used to help design experiments by providing information on exp...

  19. Recommended Research on Artificial Gravity. Chapter 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, Joan; Paloski, William; Fuller, Charles; Clement, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    Based on the summaries presented in the above sections of what is still to be learned on the effects of artificial gravity on human functions, this chapter will discuss the short- and long-term steps of research required to understand fundamentals and to validate operational aspects of using artificial gravity as an effective countermeasure for long-duration space travel.

  20. Chapter 8: Youth, Technology, and Media Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefton-Green, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter begins with a scenario contrasting two seemingly different images of child and media from before and after the "digital revolution." The author argues that there is much greater continuity in how this relationship has been conceptualized over the period than is commonly imagined. While not offering a comprehensive study of recent…

  1. Chapter 4. Students' Attitudes toward Computer Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors attempt not only to discern aspects that relate to age, place, and the amount of time devoted to playing computer games in adolescence, but also to study content characteristics of their attitudes such as: the developmental dynamic in the change of their genre preferences in computer games, changes in factors that…

  2. Chapter 12: spatial or area repellents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatial repellents a three-dimensional zone of protection around a host from attacks by biting arthropods. This chapter reviews current knowledge and outlines future directions for utilization of spatial repellents. Current knowledge includes the kinds of products, both active and passive devices,...

  3. Chapter 1 Pre-Kindergarten Program Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Support Programs.

    This document is designed to assist administrators and teachers in developing high quality pre-kindergarten programs which comply with Chapter 1 regulations and guidelines. Information is provided on administration, design, and implementation of programs for disadvantaged young children, as well as on appropriate instructional practices for…

  4. Acute radiation syndrome and chronic radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grammaticos, Philip; Giannoula, Evanthia; Fountos, George P

    2013-01-01

    Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) or sickness or poisoning or toxicity is induced after a whole body exposure of men to high doses of radiation between 1-12Gy. First symptoms are from the gastrointestinal system, which together with bone marrow are the most sensitive parts of our body. Chronic radiation syndrome (CRS) may be induced by smaller than 1Gy radiation doses or after a mild form of ARS. Prophylaxis and treatment suggestions are described. In cases of ARS, a large part of the exposed population after proper medical care may survive, while without medical care this part of the population will be lost. Prophylaxis may also save another part of the population. PMID:23570025

  5. Sickness and sickness absence of remaining employees in a time of economic crisis: a study among employees of municipalities in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Sigursteinsdóttir, Hjördís; Rafnsdóttir, Gudbjörg Linda

    2015-05-01

    This article focuses on sickness and sickness absence among employees of 20 municipalities in Iceland who remained at work after the economic crisis in October 2008. The aim was to examine the impact of economic crisis on sickness and sickness absence of "survivors" working within the educational system (primary school teachers and kindergarten teachers) and the care services (elderly care and care of disabled people) operated by the municipalities. The study was based on mixed methods research comprising a balanced panel data set and focus groups. An online survey conducted three times among 2356 employees of 20 municipalities and seven focus group interviews in two municipalities (39 participants). The generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to analyze the quantitative data, and focused coding was used to analyze the qualitative data. The main finding showed that the economic crisis had negative health implications for the municipal employees. The negative effects grew stronger over time. Employee sickness and sickness absence increased substantially in both downsized and non-downsized workplaces. However, employees of downsized workplaces were more likely to be sick. Sickness and sickness absence were more common among younger than older employees, but no gender differences were observed. The study demonstrates the importance of protecting the health and well-being of all employees in the wake of an economic crisis, not only those who lose their jobs or work in downsized workplaces. This is important in the immediate aftermath of a crisis, but also for a significant time thereafter. This is of practical relevance for those responsible for occupational health and safety, as most Western countries periodically go through economic crises, resulting in strains on employees. PMID:25795993

  6. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 5 (Chapters 38-44)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2004-05-01

    Chapter 38. Photons and Matter Waves. Chapter 39. More About Matter Waves. Chapter 40. All About Atoms. Chapter 41. Conduction of Electricity in Solids. Chapter 42. Nuclear Physics. Chapter 43. Energy from the Nucleus. Chapter 44. Quarks, Leptons, and the Big Bang. Appendix A: The International System of Units (SI). Appendix B: Some Fundamental Constants of Physics. Appendix C: Some Astronomical Data. Appendix D: Conversion Factors. Appendix E: Mathematical Formulas. Appendix F: Properties of the Elements. Appendix G: Periodic Tables of the Elements. Answers to Checkpoints and Odd-Numbered Questions, Exercises, and Problems. Index.

  7. Evaluation of a case management service to reduce sickness absence

    PubMed Central

    Smedley, Julia; Harris, E. Clare; Cox, Vanessa; Ntani, Georgia; Coggon, David

    2013-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether and to what extent intensive case management is more effective than standard occupational health services in reducing sickness absence in the healthcare sector. Aims To evaluate a new return to work service at an English hospital trust. Methods The new service entailed intensive case management for staff who had been absent sick for longer than four weeks, aiming to restore function through a goal-directed and enabling approach based on a bio-psycho-social model. Assessment of the intervention was by controlled before and after comparison with a neighbouring hospital trust at which there were no major changes in the management of sickness absence. Data on outcome measures were abstracted from electronic databases held by the two trusts. Results At the intervention trust, the proportion of 4-week absences which continued beyond 8 weeks fell from 51.7% in 2008 to 49.1% in 2009 and 45.9% in 2010. The reduction from 2008 to 2010 contrasted with an increase at the control trust from 51.2% to 56.1% – a difference in change of 10.7% (95%CI 1.5% to 20.0%). There was also a differential improvement in mean days of absence beyond four weeks, but this was not statistically significant (1.6 days per absence, 95%CI −7.2 to 10.3 days). Conclusion Our findings suggest that the intervention was effective, and calculations based on an annual running cost of £57,000 suggest that it was also cost-effective. A similar intervention should now be evaluated at a larger number of hospital trusts. PMID:23365116

  8. NICE guidance on long-term sickness and incapacity.

    PubMed

    Gabbay, Mark; Taylor, Lorraine; Sheppard, Linda; Hillage, Jim; Bambra, Clare; Ford, Fiona; Preece, Richard; Taske, Nichole; Kelly, Michael P

    2011-03-01

    Long-term sickness absence and incapacity benefits (disability pension) rates have increased across industrialised countries. Effective measures are needed to support return to work. The recommendations of this guidance were informed by the most appropriate available evidence of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Public health evidence was provided by research using a variety of study designs that attempted to determine the outcome of a particular intervention by evaluating status before and after the intervention had been effected, and was not limited to randomised control trials. Where the evidence base was depleted or underdeveloped, expert witnesses were called to give their opinion on the best available evidence and emerging interventions. The process enabled challenge and contestability from stakeholder groups at different points as the guidance was developed. Forty-five heterogeneous studies were included in the review of interventions to reduce long-term sickness absence and transitions from short-term to long-term absence (mainly covering the former and also mainly examining musculoskeletal conditions). The analysis of evidence was restricted to descriptive synthesis. Three general themes emerged from an analysis of the studies that were more likely to report positive results: early interventions; multidisciplinary approaches; and interventions with a workplace component. Two further reviews were undertaken, one on interventions to reduce the re-occurrence of sickness absence, which identified seven studies on lower back pain, and concluded that early intervention and direct workplace input are important factors. The final evidence review focused on six studies of interventions for those in receipt of incapacity benefit. The evidence was that work-focused interviews coupled with access to tailored support are effective and cost-effective interventions. Practitioners should consider the impact of interventions and management options on work ability for

  9. NICE guidance on long-term sickness and incapacity

    PubMed Central

    Gabbay, Mark; Taylor, Lorraine; Sheppard, Linda; Hillage, Jim; Bambra, Clare; Ford, Fiona; Preece, Richard; Taske, Nichole; Kelly, Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Long-term sickness absence and incapacity benefits (disability pension) rates have increased across industrialised countries. Effective measures are needed to support return to work. The recommendations of this guidance were informed by the most appropriate available evidence of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Public health evidence was provided by research using a variety of study designs that attempted to determine the outcome of a particular intervention by evaluating status before and after the intervention had been effected, and was not limited to randomised control trials. Where the evidence base was depleted or underdeveloped, expert witnesses were called to give their opinion on the best available evidence and emerging interventions. The process enabled challenge and contestability from stakeholder groups at different points as the guidance was developed. Forty-five heterogeneous studies were included in the review of interventions to reduce long-term sickness absence and transitions from short-term to long-term absence (mainly covering the former and also mainly examining musculoskeletal conditions). The analysis of evidence was restricted to descriptive synthesis. Three general themes emerged from an analysis of the studies that were more likely to report positive results: early interventions; multidisciplinary approaches; and interventions with a workplace component. Two further reviews were undertaken, one on interventions to reduce the re-occurrence of sickness absence, which identified seven studies on lower back pain, and concluded that early intervention and direct workplace input are important factors. The final evidence review focused on six studies of interventions for those in receipt of incapacity benefit. The evidence was that work-focused interviews coupled with access to tailored support are effective and cost-effective interventions. Practitioners should consider the impact of interventions and management options on work ability for

  10. Motion sickness susceptibility related to ACTH, ADH and TSH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.; Leach, C.; Homick, J. L.; Larochelle, F. T.

    1983-01-01

    The hypothesis that endogenous levels of certain hormones might be indicative of an individual's susceptibility to stressful motion is tested in a comparison of subjects classified as less prone to motion sickness with those of higher susceptibility. The levels of ACTH and vasopressin measured before exposure to stressful motion were twice as high in the less-suceptible group. No significant differences were noted in the levels of angiotensin, aldosterone, or TSH. The differences between the two groups were greater for a given hormone than for any of the changes induced by exposure to stressful motion.

  11. [Sleeping sickness: one hundred years of control strategy evolution].

    PubMed

    Louis, F J; Simarro, P P; Lucas, P

    2002-12-01

    Sleeping sickness has been known since the fifteenth century but the real progress in the knowledge of the disease occurred in the nineteenth century with the development of microscopy. From 1841 to 1901 the parasites and their vectors have been identified, the symptomatology and the epidemiology have been described. However, due to absence of any effective cure, the campaign against the disease was still based on the isolation of the patients and the transfer of exposed populations. The discovery of atoxyl in 1905 provided doctors with their first therapeutic weapon and, in 1910, the first action of vector control was undertaken with success in the Island of Principe. Between the two world conflicts, Jamot published the rules to fight against major outbreaks. Their application in Oubangui-Chari, in Cameroon and in French Occidental Africa brought tremendous results and signed the triumph of the mobile unit concept. Success which will not be denied until the sixties when the disease was believed to be eradicated. From the sixties to the nineties, the concept of the integration of prevention and care added to the exclusion of any vertical system will result in a progressive reniewed outbreak of the sleeping sickness in the known foci. As a paradox, it is a time rich in discovery as regards diagnosis, treatment and entomology. In 1994, the World Health Organisation got concerned with the situation of the disease in Central Africa where the outbreak of the disease reinforced. A second paradox appeared; it is the next to total disinterest from the politics and fund raisers which will save the disease. Today, sleeping sickness is the typical example of the orphan disease, a show case brandished by all the good souls. In 2001, an agreement between the WHO and the pharmaceutical industry brings back the financial funds required to fight the disease. Basically, it is a matter of resuming the action by using what is still existing and by creating new strategies considering

  12. From sick role to narrative subject: An analytic memoir.

    PubMed

    Frank, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Questions of illness experience and identity are discussed, based on the analysis of a story told by the breast-cancer activist Audre Lorde. Displacing Parsons' conceptualization of illness as a sick role, I understand the ill person as a narrative subject, defined by discursive possibilities. Three discourses of illness are proposed: the medical institutional discourse, the discourse of illness experience, and the pink-ribbon discourse. Each has its preferred narratives. These discourses overlap and mutually affect each other. Problems with the Foucauldian conceptualization of the subject are considered, and a dialogical imagination of relations of governmentality is proposed. PMID:26582351

  13. Family-centered Care for Sick Newborns: A Thumbnail View

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Arti; Dasgupta, Rajib

    2016-01-01

    Family-centered care (FCC) for sick newborns is emerging as a paradigmatic shift in the practice of facility-based newborn care. It seeks to transforming a provider-centered model into a client-centered one and thus build a new therapeutic alliance. FCC is the cornerstone of continuum of care, imparting caregiving competencies to parents/caregivers both within institutions as well as after the discharge. This has potential gains for the newborn, family members, and facility-level staff. The initial model piloted in tertiary-care settings is now undergoing translation at five sites across the country; the outcomes are keenly awaited. PMID:26917867

  14. Sickness absence at the French National Electric and Gas Company.

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, A; Luce, D; Blanc, C; Goldberg, M

    1987-01-01

    The certified sickness absence of workers in the French National Electric and Gas Company was studied for 12 months and has been described according to the demographic and occupational characteristics of the employees. The results showed that the principal factors affecting absence are sex, job, and salary. The high percentage of absent women was explained by neither the type of occupation nor family status. Respiratory diseases, accidents, and musculoskeletal and psychiatric disorders were the leading diagnostic categories. Indices of severity, duration, and frequency were calculated and compared between groups. The duration of absence increased with the severity of the medical cause of absence and with the patient's age. PMID:3814541

  15. Decompression Sickness during Construction of the Dartford Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Golding, F. Campbell; Griffiths, P.; Hempleman, H. V.; Paton, W. D. M.; Walder, D. N.

    1960-01-01

    A clinical, radiological and statistical survey has been made of decompression sickness during the construction of the Dartford Tunnel. Over a period of two years, 1,200 men were employed on eight-hour shifts at pressures up to 28 pounds per square inch (p.s.i.). There were 689 cases of decompression sickness out of 122,000 compressions, an incidence of 0·56%. The majority of cases (94·9%) were simple “bends”. The remainder (5·1%) exhibited signs and symptoms other than pain and were more serious. All cases were successfully treated and no fatality or permanent disability occurred. In two serious cases, cysts in the lungs were discovered. It is suggested that these gave rise to air embolism when the subjects were decompressed, and pulmonary changes may contribute more than hitherto believed to the pathogenesis of bends. Some other clinical features are described, including “skin-mottling” and an association between bends and the site of an injury. The bends rate is higher for the back shift (3 p.m. to 11 p.m.) and the night shift (11 p.m. to 7 a.m.) than for the day shift. In the treatment of decompression sickness it appears to be more satisfactory to use the minimum pressure required for relief of symptoms followed by slow decompression with occasional “soaks”, than to attempt to drive the causative bubbles into solution with high pressures. During the contract the decompression tables recently prescribed by the Ministry of Labour were used. Evidence was obtained that they could be made safer, and that the two main assumptions on which they are based (that sickness will not occur at pressures below 18 p.s.i., and that a man saturates in four hours) may be incorrect. It is desirable to test tables based on 15 p.s.i. and eight-hour saturation. The existence of acclimatization to pressure was confirmed; it is such that the bends rate may fall in two to three weeks to 0·1% of the incidence on the first day of exposure. Acclimatization is lost again

  16. Intimate Partner Violence Among Mothers of Sick Newborns in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Spangenberg, Kathryn; Wobil, Priscilla; Betts, Cassandra L; Wiesner, Theodore F; Gold, Katherine J

    2016-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem estimated to affect 15%-71% of women worldwide. We sought to elicit IPV risks among mothers of sick newborns in Ghana. As part of a broader study on postpartum depression, we conducted semistructured surveys of 153 women in a mother-baby unit, assessing demographics, depression, social support, and IPV with the present partner. Forty-six percent of mothers reported some form of violence, mostly emotional (34%), followed by physical (17%), and sexual (15%). The study highlights the frequency of perinatal IPV and the associated risk factors of depression and poor social support. PMID:25864483

  17. Metrology of Large Parts. Chapter 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2012-01-01

    As discussed in the first chapter of this book, there are many different methods to measure a part using optical technology. Chapter 2 discussed the use of machine vision to measure macroscopic features such as length and position, which was extended to the use of interferometry as a linear measurement tool in chapter 3, and laser or other trackers to find the relation of key points on large parts in chapter 4. This chapter looks at measuring large parts to optical tolerances in the sub-micron range using interferometry, ranging, and optical tools discussed in the previous chapters. The purpose of this chapter is not to discuss specific metrology tools (such as interferometers or gauges), but to describe a systems engineering approach to testing large parts. Issues such as material warpage and temperature drifts that may be insignificant when measuring a part to micron levels under a microscope, as will be discussed in later chapters, can prove to be very important when making the same measurement over a larger part. In this chapter, we will define a set of guiding principles for successfully overcoming these challenges and illustrate the application of these principles with real world examples. While these examples are drawn from specific large optical testing applications, they inform the problems associated with testing any large part to optical tolerances. Manufacturing today relies on micrometer level part performance. Fields such as energy and transportation are demanding higher tolerances to provide increased efficiencies and fuel savings. By looking at how the optics industry approaches sub-micrometer metrology, one can gain a better understanding of the metrology challenges for any larger part specified to micrometer tolerances. Testing large parts, whether optical components or precision structures, to optical tolerances is just like testing small parts, only harder. Identical with what one does for small parts, a metrologist tests large parts and optics

  18. Radiation: Doses, Effects, Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lean, Geoffrey, Ed.

    Few scientific issues arouse as much public controversy as the effects of radiation. This booklet is an attempt to summarize what is known about radiation and provide a basis for further discussion and debate. The first four chapters of the booklet are based on the most recent reports to the United Nations' General Assembly by the United Nations…

  19. Ultraviolet radiation changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, Richard L.; Frederick, John E.; Ilyas, Mohammad; Filyushkin, V.; Wahner, Andreas; Stamnes, K.; Muthusubramanian, P.; Blumthaler, M.; Roy, Colin E.; Madronich, Sasha

    1991-01-01

    A major consequence of ozone depletion is an increase in solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation received at the Earth's surface. This chapter discusses advances that were made since the previous assessment (World Meteorological Organization (WMO)) to our understanding of UV radiation. The impacts of these changes in UV on the biosphere are not included, because they are discussed in the effects assessment.

  20. Vaccination against bacterial kidney disease: Chapter 22

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Diane G.; Wiens, Gregory D.; Hammell, K. Larry; Rhodes, Linda D.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been recognized as a serious disease in salmonid fishes since the 1930s. This chapter discusses the occurrence and significance, etiology, and pathogenesis of BKD. It then describes the different vaccination procedures and the effects and side-effects of vaccination. Despite years of research, however, only a single vaccine has been licensed for prevention of BKD, and has demonstrated variable efficacy. Therefore, in addition to a presentation of the current status of BKD vaccination, a discussion of potential future directions for BKD vaccine development is included in the chapter. This discussion is focused on the unique characteristics of R. salmoninarum and its biology, as well as aspects of the salmonid immune system that might be explored specifically to develop more effective vaccines for BKD prevention.

  1. Radiation Physics for Medical Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorsak, Ervin B.

    This book summarizes the radiation physics knowledge that professionals working in medical physics need to master for efficient and safe dealings with ionizing radiation. It contains eight chapters, each chapter covering a specific group of subjects related to radiation physics and is intended as a textbook for a course in radiation physics in medical-physics graduate programs. However, the book may also be of interest to the large number of professionals, not only medical physicists, who in their daily occupations deal with various aspects of medical physics and find a need to improve their understanding of radiation physics.

  2. Correlating the anatomical site of injury and work-related factors with sick leave duration following minor musculoskeletal injuries.

    PubMed

    Alshameeri, Zeiad; Mohammed, Mustafa; Malkan, Dilip

    2011-01-01

    Many factors are associated with long sick leaves and therefore, reliance solely on disease-related factors can potentially underestimate sick leave durations. Here, we wanted to assess the association between the injury sites, work-related factors, and the length of sick leaves. Comprehensive medical legal reports of workers with pure minor musculoskeletal injuries were reviewed. 2029 reports of workers were included. 32.8% had sick leaves of less than a week in duration. Lower limb injuries were associated with longer sick leaves only in patients performing strenuous jobs. Public sector workers sustaining an injury at work and performing strenuous jobs were associated with longer sick leaves. Senior workers returned earlier to work, but age and gender were not strongly correlated with long sick leaves. There was a weak but significant association between sick leave duration and the period spent refraining from hobby activities, and almost all patients returned to their work before their hobbies. PMID:21337182

  3. The impact of effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on teachers' sickness absence.

    PubMed

    Derycke, Hanne; Vlerick, Peter; Van de Ven, Bart; Rots, Isabel; Clays, Els

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of the effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on sickness absence duration and sickness absence frequency among beginning teachers in Flanders (Belgium). A total of 603 teachers, who recently graduated, participated in this study. Effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation were assessed by means of self-administered questionnaires. Prospective data of registered sickness absence during 12 months follow-up were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. An imbalance between high efforts and low rewards (extrinsic hypothesis) was associated with longer sickness absence duration and more frequent absences. A low level of learning motivation (intrinsic hypothesis) was not associated with longer sickness absence duration but was significantly positively associated with sickness absence frequency. No significant results were obtained for the interaction hypothesis between imbalance and learning motivation. Further research is needed to deepen our understanding of the impact of psychosocial work conditions and personal resources on both sickness absence duration and frequency. Specifically, attention could be given to optimizing or reducing efforts spent at work, increasing rewards and stimulating learning motivation to influence sickness absence. PMID:22337584

  4. Long Sick Leave after Orthopaedic Inpatient Rehabilitation: Treatment Failure or Relapse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangels, Marija; Schwarz, Susanne; Worringen, Ulrike; Holme, Martin; Rief, Winfried

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether short-term versus long-term sick leave after orthopaedic inpatient rehabilitation can be predicted by initial assessment information, the clinical status at discharge, or whether the follow-up interval is crucial for later sick leave. We examined 214 patients from an orthopaedic rehabilitation hospital at admission,…

  5. The relationship between motion sickness experience and vestibular tests in pilots and nonpilots.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.; Stewart, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The contribution of the vestibular system to motion sickness experience is studied by means of an attempt to determine the relationship between five subjective tests of vestibular function and reports of motion sickness experiences by pilots and nonpilots. The experimental procedure is described and the obtained results are discussed.

  6. 20 CFR 335.3 - Execution of statement of sickness and supplemental doctor's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-abuse professional as defined in 49 CFR part 40.3, if the infirmity involves alcohol or controlled... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Execution of statement of sickness and... UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.3 Execution of statement...

  7. 75 FR 1301 - Damages Received on Account of Personal Physical Injuries or Physical Sickness; Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... Register on Tuesday, September 15, 2009 (74 FR 47152). Persons who wish to present oral comments at the... Injuries or Physical Sickness; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... of personal physical injuries or physical sickness. DATES: The public hearing is being held...

  8. 20 CFR 335.3 - Execution of statement of sickness and supplemental doctor's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-abuse professional as defined in 49 CFR part 40.3, if the infirmity involves alcohol or controlled... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Execution of statement of sickness and... UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.3 Execution of statement...

  9. 20 CFR 335.3 - Execution of statement of sickness and supplemental doctor's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-abuse professional as defined in 49 CFR part 40.3, if the infirmity involves alcohol or controlled... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Execution of statement of sickness and... UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.3 Execution of statement...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3402(o)-3 - Extension of withholding to sick pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... during which the employee is temporarily absent from work on account of personal injuries or sickness. The term “personal injuries or sickness” shall have the same meaning as ascribed thereto by section... are temporarily absent from work because of sickness or personal injury. Q Company has neither...

  11. Precursors of post-bout motion sickness in adolescent female boxers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chou; Tseng, Tzu-Chiang; Hung, Ting-Hsuan; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2014-08-01

    Athletic head trauma (both concussive and sub-concussive) is common among adolescents. Head trauma often is followed by motion sickness-like symptoms, by changes in cognitive performance, and by changes in standing body sway. We evaluated adolescent female boxers who did and did not report motion sickness after a bout (i.e., a boxing match), together with a control group of non-boxers. We asked whether pre-bout body sway would differ between boxers who experienced post-bout motion sickness and those who did not. In addition, we asked whether pre-bout cognitive performance would differ between non-boxers and boxers with and without post-bout motion sickness. Seven of twenty boxers reported motion sickness after a bout. Pre-bout measures of cognitive performance and body sway were different in boxers who reported post-bout motion sickness than in boxers without post-bout sickness or controls. The results suggest that susceptibility to motion sickness-like symptoms in adolescent female boxers may be manifested in characteristic patterns of body sway and cognitive performance. It may be possible to use pre-bout data to predict susceptibility to post-bout symptoms. PMID:24671652

  12. Are Colombian Sickness Funds Cream Skimming Enrollees? An Analysis with Suggestions for Policy Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Antonio J.; McCalla, Dawn C.

    2004-01-01

    One of the primary objectives of Colombian social health insurance reform was to increase competition among for-profit insurers. Unfortunately, the flat capitated formula creates an opportunity for sickness funds to maximize reimbursement gains by "cream skimming"--selecting against unhealthy individuals. This paper explores sickness fund…

  13. 26 CFR 31.3402(o)-3 - Extension of withholding to sick pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Extension of withholding to sick pay. 31.3402(o)-3 Section 31.3402(o)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(o)-3 Extension of withholding to sick...

  14. 26 CFR 31.3402(o)-3 - Extension of withholding to sick pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Extension of withholding to sick pay. 31.3402(o)-3 Section 31.3402(o)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(o)-3 Extension of withholding to sick...

  15. 26 CFR 31.3402(o)-3 - Extension of withholding to sick pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Extension of withholding to sick pay. 31.3402(o)-3 Section 31.3402(o)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(o)-3 Extension of withholding to sick...

  16. Dust and human health: Chapter 15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morman, Suzette A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that exposure to fine particulate matter may increase risk for human morbidity and mortality. Until recently, population health related studies examining the effects of particulate matter on human health generally examined anthropogenic (industry and combustion by-products) sources with few studies considering contributions from natural sources. This chapter provides an overview of naturally occurring inorganic mineral dust research and associated human health ailments and some of the challenges in elucidating the etiological mechanisms responsible.

  17. Haramekhala - tantra (the first chapter on medicine).

    PubMed

    Sharma, P V

    1986-01-01

    This translation of Haramekhala - tantra of the author is based on Banaras Hindu University manuscript which seems to be a novel one. The manuscript runs into 133 stanzas in all in the form of dialogue between lord Siva and goddess Parvati. This is only the first chapter (of the great work) dealing with medicine. From stanza 109 onwards some magic spells are described and as such those have not been included in this translation. PMID:22557515

  18. Preflight Adaptation Training for Spatial Orientation and Space Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Parker, Donald E.

    1994-01-01

    Two part-task preflight adaptation trainers (PATs) are being developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center to preadapt astronauts to novel sensory stimulus conditions similar to those present in microgravity to facilitate adaptation to microgravity and readaptation to Earth. This activity is a major component of a general effort to develop countermeasures aimed at minimizing sensory and sensorimotor disturbances and Space Motion Sickness (SMS) associated with adaptation to microgravity and readaptation to Earth. Design principles for the development of the two trainers are discussed, along with a detailed description of both devices. In addition, a summary of four ground-based investigations using one of the trainers to determine the extent to which various novel sensory stimulus conditions produce changes in compensatory eye movement responses, postural equilibrium, motion sickness symptoms, and electrogastric responses are presented. Finally, a brief description of the general concept of dual-adopted states that underly the development of the PATs, and ongoing and future operational and basic research activities are presented.

  19. Vestibular system and neural correlates of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Alan D.

    1986-01-01

    Initial studies re-examine the role of certain central nervous system structures in the production of vestibular-induced vomiting and vomiting in general. All experiments were conducted using cats. Since these studies demonstrated that the essential role of various central structures in vestibular-induced vomiting is only poorly understood, efforts were re-directed to study the control of the effector muscles (diaphragm and abdominal muscles) that produce the pressure changes responsible for vomiting, with the goal of determining how this control mechanism is engaged during motion sickness. Experiments were conducted to localize the motoneurons that innervate the individual abdominal muscles and the portion of the diaphragm that surrounds the esophagus. A central question regarding respiratory muscle control during vomiting is whether these muscles are activated via the same brain stem pre-motor neurons that provide descending respiratory drive and/or by other descending input(s). In other experiments, the use of a combination of pitch and roll motions to produce motion sickness in unrestrained cats was evaluated. This stimulus combination can produce vomiting in only the most susceptible cats and is thus not as provacative a stimulus for cats as vertical linear acceleration.

  20. Chronic Mountain Sickness: Clinical Aspects, Etiology, Management, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Corante, Noemí

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Villafuerte, Francisco C., and Noemí Corante. Chronic mountain sickness: clinical aspects, etiology, management, and treatment. High Alt Med Biol. 17:61–69, 2016.—Millions of people worldwide live at a high altitude, and a significant number are at risk of developing Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS), a progressive incapacitating syndrome caused by lifelong exposure to hypoxia. CMS is characterized by severe symptomatic excessive erythrocytosis (EE; Hb ≥19 g/dL for women and Hb ≥21 g/dL for men) and accentuated hypoxemia, which are frequently associated with pulmonary hypertension. In advanced cases, the condition may evolve to cor pulmonale and congestive heart failure. Current knowledge indicates a genetic predisposition to develop CMS. However, there are important risk factors and comorbidities that may trigger and aggravate the condition. Thus, appropriate medical information on CMS is necessary to provide adequate diagnosis and healthcare to high-altitude inhabitants. After reviewing basic clinical aspects of CMS, including its definition, diagnosis, and common clinical findings, we discuss aspects of its etiology, and address its epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment. PMID:27218284

  1. Chronic Mountain Sickness: Clinical Aspects, Etiology, Management, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Villafuerte, Francisco C; Corante, Noemí

    2016-06-01

    Villafuerte, Francisco C., and Noemí Corante. Chronic mountain sickness: clinical aspects, etiology, management, and treatment. High Alt Med Biol. 17:61-69, 2016.-Millions of people worldwide live at a high altitude, and a significant number are at risk of developing Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS), a progressive incapacitating syndrome caused by lifelong exposure to hypoxia. CMS is characterized by severe symptomatic excessive erythrocytosis (EE; Hb ≥19 g/dL for women and Hb ≥21 g/dL for men) and accentuated hypoxemia, which are frequently associated with pulmonary hypertension. In advanced cases, the condition may evolve to cor pulmonale and congestive heart failure. Current knowledge indicates a genetic predisposition to develop CMS. However, there are important risk factors and comorbidities that may trigger and aggravate the condition. Thus, appropriate medical information on CMS is necessary to provide adequate diagnosis and healthcare to high-altitude inhabitants. After reviewing basic clinical aspects of CMS, including its definition, diagnosis, and common clinical findings, we discuss aspects of its etiology, and address its epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment. PMID:27218284

  2. 2014 Decompression Sickness/Extravehicular Activity Risks Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Decompression Sickness (DCS)/Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risks Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on November 4 - 5, 2014. The SRP reviewed the updated Evidence Reports for The Risk of Decompression Sickness (from here on referred to as the 2014 DCS Evidence Report) and the Risk of Injury and Compromised Performance due to EVA Operations (from here on referred to as the 2014 EVA Evidence Report), as well as the Research Plans for these Risks. The SRP appreciated the time and effort that the DCS and EVA disciplines put into their review documents and presentations. The SRP felt that the 2014 DCS Evidence Report and the 2014 EVA Evidence Reports were very thorough and addressed the majority of the known DCS and EVA issues. The researchers at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) have the knowledge base to deal with the DCS and EVA issues. Overall, the SRP thinks the DCS and EVA research teams have compiled excellent reports which address the majority of the literature and background information.

  3. Synthesis of empty african horse sickness virus particles.

    PubMed

    Maree, Sonja; Maree, Francois F; Putterill, John F; de Beer, Tjaart A P; Huismans, Henk; Theron, Jacques

    2016-02-01

    As a means to develop African horse sickness (AHS) vaccines that are safe and DIVA compliant, we investigated the synthesis of empty African horse sickness virus (AHSV) particles. The emphasis of this study was on the assembly of the major viral core (VP3 and VP7) and outer capsid proteins (VP2 and VP5) into architecturally complex, heteromultimeric nanosized particles. The production of fully assembled core-like particles (CLPs) was accomplished in vivo by baculovirus-mediated co-synthesis of VP3 and VP7. The two different outer capsid proteins were capable of associating independently of each other with preformed cores to yield partial virus-like particles (VLPs). Complete VLPs were synthesized, albeit with a low yield. Crystalline formation of AHSV VP7 trimers is thought to impede high-level CLP production. Consequently, we engineered and co-synthesized VP3 with a more hydrophilic mutant VP7, resulting in an increase in the turnover of CLPs. PMID:26686484

  4. Sick man walking: Perception of health status from body motion.

    PubMed

    Sundelin, T; Karshikoff, B; Axelsson, E; Höglund, C Olgart; Lekander, M; Axelsson, J

    2015-08-01

    An ability to detect subtle signs of sickness in others would be highly beneficial, as it would allow for behaviors that help us avoid contagious pathogens. Recent findings suggest that both animals and humans are able to detect distinctive odor signals of individuals with activated innate immune responses. This study tested whether an innate immune response affects a person's walking speed and whether other people perceive that person as less healthy. 43 subjects watched films of persons who were experiencing experimental immune activation, and rated the walking individuals in the films with respect to health, tiredness, and sadness. Furthermore, the walking speed in the films was analyzed. After LPS injections, participants walked more slowly and were perceived as less healthy and more tired as compared to when injected with placebo. There was also a trend for the subjects to look sadder after LPS injection than after placebo. Furthermore, there were strong associations between walking speed and the appearance of health, tiredness, and sadness. These findings support the notion that walking speed is affected by an activated immune response, and that humans may be able to detect very early signs of sickness in others by merely observing their gait. This ability is likely to aid both a "behavioral immune system", by providing more opportunities for adaptive behaviors such as avoidance, and the anticipatory priming of biochemical immune responses. PMID:25801061

  5. Comparison of efficacy of ginger with various antimotion sickness drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Manno, J. E.; Wood, M. J.; Manno, B. R.; Mims, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    Ginger and several other medications were compared with scopolamine and d-amphetamine for effectiveness in prevention of motion sickness. Methods: Double-blind techniques were used. The subjects were given the medications two hours before they were rotated in a chair making head movements until a symptom total short of vomiting was reached. Standardized N.A.S.A. techniques were used for speed of rotation and end-point of motion sickness. Results: The three doses of ginger were all at the placebo level of efficacy. Amitriptyline, ethopropazine and trihexyphenidyl increased the tolerated head movements but the increase was not statistically significant. Significant levels of protection were produced by dimenhydrinate, promethazine, scopolamine and d-amphetamine. Protection was further increased by combination of these latter drugs with d-amphetamine. Efficacy was greatest as the dose was increased. Conclusions: The medication of choice in this study was scopolamine 0.6 mg with d-amphetamine 10 mg. This combination provided good protection with acceptable side effects.

  6. Effectiveness and duration of intramuscular antimotion sickness medications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Stewart, J. J.; Wood, M. J.; Mims, M.

    1992-01-01

    Motion sickness inhibits gastric motility, making the oral route ineffective for medications. The intramuscular route is an effective alternative. The rotating chair was used to produce the M 111 level of motion sickness on the Graybiel Symptom Scale. The intramuscular medications given 30 minutes before rotation were compared with placebo (saline, 1 mL) for effectiveness and duration in increasing the number of tolerated head movements. Average placebo number of head movements was 294. Promethazine 25 mg increased head movements by 78% (P < .05), with a duration of 12 hours. Scopolamine 0.2 mg increased head movements by 91% (P < .05), with a duration of 4 hours. The effect of caffeine 250 mg and ephedrine 25 mg was not significant. When combined with scopolamine, ephedrine produced an 32% additive effect. Scopolamine 0.08 mg, 0.1 mg, and 0.2 mg and also promethazine 12.5 mg and 25 mg were significant (P < .05). Promethazine appears to be the drug of choice for intramuscular use because of a longer duration and a high level of effectiveness. Scopolamine was of high effectiveness, but had a duration of 4 hours. It was eight times as potent by the intramuscular as by the oral route.

  7. ["Sickness behavior"--mechanisms of origin and significance].

    PubMed

    Soszyński, Dariusz

    2004-03-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology, a combination of immunology and neurobiology, is a new field that has emerged over the past 20 years. There is now overwhelming evidence suggesting that the central nervous system is capable of regulating the immune response via two pathways--the autonomic and the neuroendocrine. It is also well documented that the immune system can influence the central nervous system by regulatory molecules or cytokines produced by activated immune cells. In this way, there is a bi-directional communication pathway between the two systems. Sickness behavior seems to present excellent evidence for the existence of immune-system-brain communication. Nonspecific symptoms of infection and inflammation include not only profound physiological but also behavioral changes. Behavioral changes can include anorexia, adipsia, increased sleepiness and depression in social, sexual exploration and general activity. These behavioral changes triggered by pro-inflammatory cytokines are thought to have evolved to conserve the energy necessary to fight infection. They may also minimize infection of conspecifics and reduce susceptibility to predation. Taken together, sickness behavior represents a behavioral reorganization highly motivated to promote survival and recovery. Knowing the mechanisms of neuroimmunomodulation allow us to better understand both the behavioral changes associated with immunotherapy and the changes in immune activation in major depression and other mental disorders. PMID:15069379

  8. [One century of "sleeping sickness" in West Africa].

    PubMed

    Courtin, F; Jamonneau, V; Duvallet, G; Camara, M; Kaba, D; Solano, P

    2008-06-01

    This paper summarizes the geography of sleeping sickness disease (or Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT) over the last 100 years in West Africa, with the objective of identifying today's priority areas for the sleeping sickness surveillance. The history and geography of the disease are based on a bibliographic review of old reports and recent publications on recent results obtained from medical surveys conducted in West Africa up to 2007. This allowed us to situate the historical geography of HAT from the beginning of the 20th century to nowadays. For instance, active HAT foci seem to have moved from the North (savannah area) to the South (forest area) in the last century. Taking into account the limited nature of the information available, endemic HAT presently appears to be limited to areas where annual rainfall is higher than 1,200 mm, although the reasons for this remain unknown. During this period of time there has also been a shift towards the south of the isohyets and of the northern distribution limit of tsetse. Currently the most severely affected countries are Guinea and Ivory Coast, whereas the northern countries seem less affected, but many parts of West Africa still lack information on HAT and remain to be investigated. These observations, put back in the current context of demographic growth and climatic global change, responsible for landscape evolution, political instability and population movements, raise the question of HAT becoming. PMID:18681221

  9. Visually induced motion sickness can be alleviated by pleasant odors.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Stelzmann, Daniela; Paillard, Aurore; Hecht, Heiko

    2015-05-01

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a common side effect in virtual environments and simulators. Several countermeasures against VIMS exist, but a reliable method to prevent or ease VIMS is unfortunately still missing. In the present study, we tested whether olfactory cues can alleviate VIMS. Sixty-two participants were exposed to a 15-min-long video showing a first-person-view bicycle ride that had successfully induced VIMS in previous studies. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups; the first group was exposed to a pleasant odor (rose) while watching the video, the second group was exposed to an unpleasant odor (leather), and the third group was not exposed to any odor. VIMS was measured using a verbal rating scale (0-20) and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Results showed that only half of the participants who were exposed to the odor did notice it (n = 21), whereas the other half failed to detect the odor. However, among those participants who did notice the odor, the rose scent significantly reduced the severity of VIMS compared to the group that did not notice the odor. A moderate positive correlation between odor sensitivity and VIMS showed that participants with higher odor sensitivity also reported stronger VIMS. Our results demonstrate that olfaction can modulate VIMS and that a pleasant odor can potentially reduce VIMS. The relationship between olfactory perception, olfactory sensibility, and VIMS is discussed. PMID:25633319

  10. Chapter A9. Safety in Field Activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, Susan L.; Ray, Ronald G.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols (requirements and recommendations) and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter of the manual addresses topics related to personal safety to be used in the collection of water-quality data, including: policies and general regulations on field safety; transportation of people and equipment; implementation of surface-water and ground-water activities; procedures for handling chemicals; and information on potentially hazardous environmental conditions, animals, and plants. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be announced on the USGS Home Page on the World Wide Web under 'New Publications of the U.S. Geological Survey.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/ index.html.

  11. A Survey of Geologic Resources. Chapter 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonson, Jennifer; Rickman, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the resources available from the Moon itself: regolith, geologically concentrated materials, and lunar physical features that will enable habitation and generation of power on the surface. This chapter briefly covers the formation of the Moon and thus the formation of the crust of the Moon, as well as the evolution of the regolith. The characteristics of the regolith are provided in some detail, including its mineralogy and lithology. The location of high concentrations of specific minerals or rocks is noted. Other ideal locations for in situ resource utilization technology and lunar habitation are presented. This chapter is intended to be a brief review of current knowledge, and to serve as a foundational source for further study. Each concept presented here has a wealth of literature associated with it; the reader is therefore directed to that literature with each discussion. With great interest in possible manned lunar landings and continued study of the Moon by multiple satellites, the available information changes regularly.

  12. Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications. Chapter 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2000-01-01

    This chapter focuses attention on the friction and wear properties of selected solid lubricating films to aid users in choosing the best lubricant, deposition conditions, and operational variables. For simplicity, discussion of the tribological properties of concern is separated into two parts. The first part of the chapter discusses the different solid lubricating films selected for study including commercially developed solid film lubricants: (1) bonded molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), (2) magnetron-sputtered MoS2, (3) ion-plated silver, (4) ion-plated lead, (5) magnetron-sputtered diamondlike carbon (MS DLC), and (6) plasma-assisted, chemical-vapor-deposited diamondlike carbon (PACVD DEC) films. Marked differences in the friction and wear properties of the different films resulted from the different environmental conditions (ultrahigh vacuum, humid air, and dry nitrogen) and the solid film lubricant materials. The second part of the chapter discusses the physical and chemical characteristics, friction behavior, and endurance life of the magnetron-sputtered MoS2 films. The role of interface species and the effects of applied load, film thickness, oxygen pressure, environment, and temperature on the friction and wear properties are considered.

  13. Sickness Absence in the Private Sector of Greece: Comparing Shipyard Industry and National Insurance Data

    PubMed Central

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.; Merekoulias, Georgios; Tanagra, Dimitra; Konstantinou, Eleni C.; Mikelatou, Efi; Jelastopulu, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 3% of employees are absent from work due to illness daily in Europe, while in some countries sickness absence exceeds 20 days per year. Based on a limited body of reliable studies, Greek employees in the private sector seem to be absent far less frequently (<5 days/year) compared to most of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece, using shipyard and national insurance data. Detailed data on absenteeism of employees in a large shipyard company during the period 1999–2006 were utilized. National data on compensated days due to sickness absence concerning all employees (around 2 million) insured by the Social Insurance Institute (IKA, the largest insurance scheme in Greece) were retrieved from the Institute’s annual statistical reports for the period 1987–2006. Sick-leave days per employee and sick-leave rate (%) were calculated, among other indicators. In the shipyard cohort, the employment time loss due to sick leave was 1%. The mean number of sick-leave days per employee in shipyards ranged between 4.6 and 8.7 and sick-leave rate (sickness absenteeism rate) varied among 2% and 3.7%. The corresponding indicators for IKA were estimated between 5 and 6.3 sick-leave days per insured employee (median 5.8), and 2.14–2.72% (median 2.49%), respectively. Short sick-leave spells (<4 days) may account at least for the 25% of the total number of sick-leave days, currently not recorded in national statistics. The level of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece was found to be higher than the suggested by previous reports and international comparative studies, but still remains one of the lowest in the industrialized world. In the 20-years national data, the results also showed a 7-year wave in sickness absence indexes (a decrease during the period 1991–1997 and an increase in 1998–2004) combined with a small yet significant decline as a general trend. These

  14. Sickness absence in the private sector of Greece: comparing shipyard industry and national insurance data.

    PubMed

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Merekoulias, Georgios; Tanagra, Dimitra; Konstantinou, Eleni C; Mikelatou, Efi; Jelastopulu, Eleni

    2012-04-01

    Approximately 3% of employees are absent from work due to illness daily in Europe, while in some countries sickness absence exceeds 20 days per year. Based on a limited body of reliable studies, Greek employees in the private sector seem to be absent far less frequently (<5 days/year) compared to most of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece, using shipyard and national insurance data. Detailed data on absenteeism of employees in a large shipyard company during the period 1999-2006 were utilized. National data on compensated days due to sickness absence concerning all employees (around 2 million) insured by the Social Insurance Institute (IKA, the largest insurance scheme in Greece) were retrieved from the Institute's annual statistical reports for the period 1987-2006. Sick-leave days per employee and sick-leave rate (%) were calculated, among other indicators. In the shipyard cohort, the employment time loss due to sick leave was 1%. The mean number of sick-leave days per employee in shipyards ranged between 4.6 and 8.7 and sick-leave rate (sickness absenteeism rate) varied among 2% and 3.7%. The corresponding indicators for IKA were estimated between 5 and 6.3 sick-leave days per insured employee (median 5.8), and 2.14-2.72% (median 2.49%), respectively. Short sick-leave spells (<4 days) may account at least for the 25% of the total number of sick-leave days, currently not recorded in national statistics. The level of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece was found to be higher than the suggested by previous reports and international comparative studies, but still remains one of the lowest in the industrialized world. In the 20-years national data, the results also showed a 7-year wave in sickness absence indexes (a decrease during the period 1991-1997 and an increase in 1998-2004) combined with a small yet significant decline as a general trend. These

  15. Space motion sickness: The sensory motor controls and cardiovascular correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souvestre, Philippe A.; Blaber, Andrew P.; Landrock, Clinton K.

    Background and PurposeSpace motion sickness (SMS) and related symptoms remain a major limiting factor in Space operations. A recent comprehensive literature review [J.R. Lackner, Z. DiZio, Space motion sickness, Experimental Brain Research 175 (2006) 377-399, doi 10.1007/s00221-006-0697-y] concluded that SMS does not represent a unique diagnostic entity, and there is no adequate predictor of SMS' susceptibility and severity. No countermeasure has been found reliable to prevent or treat SMS symptoms onset. Recent neurophysiological findings on sensory-motor controls monitoring [P.A. Souvestre, C. Landrock, Biomedical-performance monitoring and assessment of astronauts by means of an ocular vestibular monitoring system, Acta Astronautica, 60 (4-7) (2007) 313-321, doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.08.013] and heart-rate variability (HRV) measurements relationship could explain post-flight orthostatic intolerance (PFOI) in astronauts [A.P. Blaber, R.L. Bondar, M.S. Kassam, Heart rate variability and short duration space flight: relationship to post-flight orthostatic intolerance, BMC Physiology 4 (2004) 6]. These two methodologies are generally overlooked in SMS' analysis. In this paper we present the case for a strong relationship between sensory-motor controls related symptoms, including orthostatic intolerance (OI) and SMS symptoms. MethodsThis paper expands on several previously published papers [J.R. Lackner, Z. DiZio, Space motion sickness, Experimental Brain Research 175 (2006) 377-399, doi 10.1007/s00221-006-0697-y; P.A. Souvestre, C. Landrock, Biomedical-performance monitoring and assessment of astronauts by means of an ocular vestibular monitoring system, Acta Astronautica, 60 (4-7) (2007) 313-321, doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.08.013] along with an updated literature review. An analysis of a 10-year period clinical data from trauma patients experiencing postural deficiency syndrome (PDS) show assessment and monitoring techniques which successfully identify trauma

  16. [Duration of sick-leave and the moment of recovery in the hotel industry].

    PubMed

    Folgerø, I S; Larsen, S

    1991-09-10

    The paper addresses the problem of sick leave in the hotel industry. It was hypothesized that there would be a tendency for granted sick leaves to include weekends, thus imposing an additional financial burden on the hotel in question. A total of 401 medical certificates from a large city hotel were reviewed. According to these certificates one third of the patients regained their health between Sunday and Monday. Of the patients with "short" sick leaves (less than a fortnight), 40% recovered between Sunday and Monday. The average duration of the sick leave for this group was 1.3 days longer than that of the patients whose sick leaves ended on other days of the week. The results are discussed in terms of the ambiguous position of the medical practitioner. PMID:1948856

  17. Motion sickness and otolith sensitivity - A pilot study of habituation to linear acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potvin, A. R.; Sadoff, M.; Billingham, J.

    1977-01-01

    Astronauts, particularly in Skylab flights, experienced varying degrees of motion sickness lasting 3-5 days. One possible mechanism for this motion sickness adaptation is believed to be a reduction in otolith sensitivity with an attendant reduction in sensory conflict. In an attempt to determine if this hypothesis is valid, a ground-based pilot study was conducted on a vertical linear accelerator. The extent of habituation to accelerations which initially produced motion sickness was evaluated, along with the possible value of habituation training to minimize the space motion sickness problem. Results showed that habituation occurred for 6 of the 8 subjects tested. However, in tests designed to measure dynamic and static otolith function, no significant differences between pre- and post-habituation tests were observed. Cross habituation effects to a standard Coriolis acceleration test were not significant. It is unlikely that ground-based pre-habituation to linear accelerations of the type examined would alter susceptibility to space motion sickness.

  18. Sickness: From the focus on cytokines, prostaglandins, and complement factors to the perspectives of neurons.

    PubMed

    Poon, David Chun-Hei; Ho, Yuen-Shan; Chiu, Kin; Wong, Hoi-Lam; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung

    2015-10-01

    Systemic inflammation leads to a variety of physiological (e.g. fever) and behavioral (e.g. anorexia, immobility, social withdrawal, depressed mood, disturbed sleep) responses that are collectively known as sickness. While these phenomena have been studied for the past few decades, the neurobiological mechanisms by which sickness occurs remain unclear. In this review, we first revisit how the body senses and responds to infections and injuries by eliciting systemic inflammation. Next, we focus on how peripheral inflammatory molecules such as cytokines, prostaglandins, and activated complement factors communicate with the brain to trigger neuroinflammation and sickness. Since depression also involves inflammation, we further elaborate on the interrelationship between sickness and depression. Finally, we discuss how immune activation can modulate neurons in the brain, and suggest future perspectives to help unravel how changes in neuronal functions relate to sickness responses. PMID:26363665

  19. An appraisal of the value of vitamin B12 in the prevention of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.; Lacey, C. L.; Homick, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    It has been suggested that vitamin B12 given by intramuscular injection can significantly reduce the occurrence of motion sickness in susceptible individuals (Banks, 1980). Since it is known that B12 influences the metabolism of histidine and choline, dietary precursors to neurotransmitters with established roles in motion sickness, an experimental evaluation has been undertaken of the efficacy of B12 in the prevention of motion sickness induced by controlled coriolis simulation. Subjects executed standardized head movements at successively higher rpm until a malaise III endpoint was reached. Following two baseline tests with this motion stressor, subjects received a B12 injection, a second injection two weeks later, and a final motion sickness test three weeks later. No significant differences in the susceptibility to motion sickness were noted after B12.

  20. Demonstrating the potential for dynamic auditory stimulation to contribute to motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Hettinger, Lawrence J; Kennedy, Robert S; Campos, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Auditory cues can create the illusion of self-motion (vection) in the absence of visual or physical stimulation. The present study aimed to determine whether auditory cues alone can also elicit motion sickness and how auditory cues contribute to motion sickness when added to visual motion stimuli. Twenty participants were seated in front of a curved projection display and were exposed to a virtual scene that constantly rotated around the participant's vertical axis. The virtual scene contained either visual-only, auditory-only, or a combination of corresponding visual and auditory cues. All participants performed all three conditions in a counterbalanced order. Participants tilted their heads alternately towards the right or left shoulder in all conditions during stimulus exposure in order to create pseudo-Coriolis effects and to maximize the likelihood for motion sickness. Measurements of motion sickness (onset, severity), vection (latency, strength, duration), and postural steadiness (center of pressure) were recorded. Results showed that adding auditory cues to the visual stimuli did not, on average, affect motion sickness and postural steadiness, but it did reduce vection onset times and increased vection strength compared to pure visual or pure auditory stimulation. Eighteen of the 20 participants reported at least slight motion sickness in the two conditions including visual stimuli. More interestingly, six participants also reported slight motion sickness during pure auditory stimulation and two of the six participants stopped the pure auditory test session due to motion sickness. The present study is the first to demonstrate that motion sickness may be caused by pure auditory stimulation, which we refer to as "auditorily induced motion sickness". PMID:24983752

  1. The Healthy School Handbook. Conquering the Sick Building Syndrome and Other Environmental Hazards In and Around Your School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Norma L., Ed.

    This book compiles 22 articles concerning sick building syndrome in educational facilities in following three areas: determining whether a school is sick; assessing causes and initiating treatment; and developing interventions. Articles address such topics as managing the psycho-social aspects of sick building syndrome; how indoor air quality…

  2. 20 CFR 404.1051 - Payments on account of sickness or accident disability, or related medical or hospitalization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payments on account of sickness or accident..., Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1051 Payments on account of sickness or... payment that an employer makes to you, or on your behalf, on account of your sickness or...

  3. 26 CFR 32.2 - Railroad retirement taxes with respect to payments on account of sickness or accident disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... payments on account of sickness or accident disability. 32.2 Section 32.2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... retirement taxes with respect to payments on account of sickness or accident disability. (a) General rule..., made to, or on behalf of, an employee or any of his dependents on account of sickness or...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1051 - Payments on account of sickness or accident disability, or related medical or hospitalization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payments on account of sickness or accident..., Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1051 Payments on account of sickness or... payment that an employer makes to you, or on your behalf, on account of your sickness or...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1051 - Payments on account of sickness or accident disability, or related medical or hospitalization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments on account of sickness or accident..., Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1051 Payments on account of sickness or... payment that an employer makes to you, or on your behalf, on account of your sickness or...

  6. 26 CFR 32.2 - Railroad retirement taxes with respect to payments on account of sickness or accident disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... payments on account of sickness or accident disability. 32.2 Section 32.2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... retirement taxes with respect to payments on account of sickness or accident disability. (a) General rule..., made to, or on behalf of, an employee or any of his dependents on account of sickness or...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1051 - Payments on account of sickness or accident disability, or related medical or hospitalization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payments on account of sickness or accident..., Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1051 Payments on account of sickness or... payment that an employer makes to you, or on your behalf, on account of your sickness or...

  8. 26 CFR 32.1 - Social security taxes with respect to payments on account of sickness or accident disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... on account of sickness or accident disability. 32.1 Section 32.1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... security taxes with respect to payments on account of sickness or accident disability. (a) General rule... his dependents on account of sickness or accident disability is not excluded from the term wages...

  9. 26 CFR 32.1 - Social security taxes with respect to payments on account of sickness or accident disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... on account of sickness or accident disability. 32.1 Section 32.1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... security taxes with respect to payments on account of sickness or accident disability. (a) General rule... his dependents on account of sickness or accident disability is not excluded from the term wages...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1051 - Payments on account of sickness or accident disability, or related medical or hospitalization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Payments on account of sickness or accident..., Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1051 Payments on account of sickness or... payment that an employer makes to you, or on your behalf, on account of your sickness or...

  11. 26 CFR 32.2 - Railroad retirement taxes with respect to payments on account of sickness or accident disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... payments on account of sickness or accident disability. 32.2 Section 32.2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... retirement taxes with respect to payments on account of sickness or accident disability. (a) General rule..., made to, or on behalf of, an employee or any of his dependents on account of sickness or...

  12. 26 CFR 32.1 - Social security taxes with respect to payments on account of sickness or accident disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... on account of sickness or accident disability. 32.1 Section 32.1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... security taxes with respect to payments on account of sickness or accident disability. (a) General rule... his dependents on account of sickness or accident disability is not excluded from the term wages...

  13. 26 CFR 32.1 - Social security taxes with respect to payments on account of sickness or accident disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... on account of sickness or accident disability. 32.1 Section 32.1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... security taxes with respect to payments on account of sickness or accident disability. (a) General rule... his dependents on account of sickness or accident disability is not excluded from the term wages...

  14. 26 CFR 32.2 - Railroad retirement taxes with respect to payments on account of sickness or accident disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... payments on account of sickness or accident disability. 32.2 Section 32.2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... retirement taxes with respect to payments on account of sickness or accident disability. (a) General rule..., made to, or on behalf of, an employee or any of his dependents on account of sickness or...

  15. 26 CFR 32.1 - Social security taxes with respect to payments on account of sickness or accident disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... on account of sickness or accident disability. 32.1 Section 32.1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... security taxes with respect to payments on account of sickness or accident disability. (a) General rule... his dependents on account of sickness or accident disability is not excluded from the term wages...

  16. 26 CFR 32.2 - Railroad retirement taxes with respect to payments on account of sickness or accident disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... payments on account of sickness or accident disability. 32.2 Section 32.2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... retirement taxes with respect to payments on account of sickness or accident disability. (a) General rule..., made to, or on behalf of, an employee or any of his dependents on account of sickness or...

  17. Effectiveness of early part-time sick leave in musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Martimo, Kari-Pekka; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Kausto, Johanna; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Ketola, Ritva; Riihimäki, Hilkka; Luukkonen, Ritva; Karppinen, Jaro; Miranda, Helena; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2008-01-01

    Background The importance of staying active instead of bed rest has been acknowledged in the management of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). This emphasizes the potential benefits of adjusting work to fit the employee's remaining work ability. Despite part-time sick leave being an official option in many countries, its effectiveness has not been studied yet. We have designed a randomized controlled study to assess the health effects of early part-time sick leave compared to conventional full-day sick leave. Our hypothesis is that if work time is temporarily reduced and work load adjusted at the early stages of disability, employees with MSDs will have less disability days and faster return to regular work duties than employees on a conventional sick leave. Methods/Design The study population will consist of 600 employees, who seek medical advice from an occupational physician due to musculoskeletal pain. The inclusion requires that they have not been on a sick leave for longer than 14 days prior to the visit. Based on the physician's judgement, the severity of the symptoms must indicate a need for conventional sick leave, but the employee is considered to be able to work part-time without any additional risk. Half of the employees are randomly allocated to part-time sick leave group and their work time is reduced by 40–60%, whereas in the control group work load is totally eliminated with conventional sick leave. The main outcomes are the number of days from the initial visit to return to regular work activities, and the total number of sick leave days during 12 and 24 months of follow-up. The costs and benefits as well as the feasibility of early part-time sick leave will also be evaluated. Conclusion This is the first randomised trial to our knowledge on the effectiveness of early part-time sick leave compared to conventional full-time sick leave in the management of MSDs. The data collection continues until 2011, but preliminary results on the feasibility of

  18. 48 CFR Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false A Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7...

  19. 48 CFR Appendix G to Chapter 2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false G Appendix G to Chapter 2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Appendix G to Chapter 2...

  20. 48 CFR Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false A Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7...

  1. 48 CFR Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false G Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7...

  2. 48 CFR Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false G Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7...

  3. 48 CFR Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false G Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7...

  4. 48 CFR Appendix G to Chapter 2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false G Appendix G to Chapter 2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Appendix G to Chapter 2...

  5. 48 CFR Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false G Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7...

  6. 48 CFR Appendix G to Chapter 2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false G Appendix G to Chapter 2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Appendix G to Chapter 2...

  7. 48 CFR Appendix G to Chapter 2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false G Appendix G to Chapter 2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Appendix G to Chapter 2...

  8. 48 CFR Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false G Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes G-H to Chapter 7...

  9. 48 CFR Appendix G to Chapter 2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false G Appendix G to Chapter 2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Appendix G to Chapter 2...

  10. 48 CFR Appendix E to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false E Appendix E to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendix E to Chapter 7...

  11. Space Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Chapter 31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, John H.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Limero, Thomas; Arkin, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometers have been involved in essentially all aspects of space exploration. This chapter outlines some of these many uses. Mass spectrometers have not only helped to expand our knowledge and understanding of the world and solar system around us, they have helped to put man safely in space and expand our frontier. Mass spectrometry continues to prove to be a very reliable, robust, and flexible analytical instrument, ensuring that its use will continue to help aid our investigation of the universe and this small planet that we call home.

  12. Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications. Chapter 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1998-01-01

    This chapter describes powerful analytical techniques capable of sampling tribological surfaces and solid-film lubricants. Some of these techniques may also be used to determine the locus of failure in a bonded structure or coated substrate; such information is important when seeking improved adhesion between a solid-film lubricant and a substrate and when seeking improved performance and long life expectancy of solid lubricants. Many examples are given here and through-out the book on the nature and character of solid surfaces and their significance in lubrication, friction, and wear. The analytical techniques used include the late spectroscopic methods.

  13. Dexamethasone mimicks the antimotion sickness effects of amphetamine and scopolamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Randall Lee

    Based on preliminary suggestions that individual differences in susceptibility to stressful motion might be related to physiological differences in responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, we tested the efficacy of dexamethasone and metyrapone in subjects exposed to cross-coupled accelerative semicircular canal stimulation on a rotating chair. Subjects given 0.5 mg of dexamethasone every 6 h for 48 h could endure 80% more stressful motion ( P = 0.03) in a within-subjects design study, whereas, no improvement followed treatment with 750 mg of metryapone every 4 h for 24 h. The efficacy of dexamethasone might be explained in terms of its neurochemical actions on several neurotransmitter systems which are also modulated by such classical antimotion sickness drugs as amphetamine and scopolamine. Because dexamethasone induces adaptive changes within the central nervous system it may prove superior to scopolamine and amphetamine which possess significant side effects, are short acting, and rapidly tolerated.

  14. Glutamine supplementation in sick children: is it beneficial?

    PubMed

    Mok, Elise; Hankard, Régis

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a critical appraisal of the literature on Glutamine (Gln) supplementation in various conditions or illnesses that affect children, from neonates to adolescents. First, a general overview of the proposed mechanisms for the beneficial effects of Gln is provided, and subsequently clinical studies are discussed. Despite safety, studies are conflicting, partly due to different effects of enteral and parenteral Gln supplementation. Further insufficient evidence is available on the benefits of Gln supplementation in pediatric patients. This includes premature infants, infants with gastrointestinal disease, children with Crohn's disease, short bowel syndrome, malnutrition/diarrhea, cancer, severe burns/trauma, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and type 1 diabetes. Moreover, methodological issues have been noted in some studies. Further mechanistic data is needed along with large randomized controlled trials in select populations of sick children, who may eventually benefit from supplemental Gln. PMID:22175008

  15. Denitrogenation interruptions with air. [resulting in decompression sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    A 3-h denitrogenation period at ground-level pressure with 95% O2-5% N2, with an air interruption of 5 min or more and matched with additional denitrogenation time equal to the interruption, will later result occasionally in altitude decompression sickness ('bends') during a 2-h decompression exposure at 3.8 psia (10,058 m equivalent) with 92% O2- 8% N2. Thus the equal time or 'mirror-image' make-up time for loss of denitrogenation did not prevent bends 7 times in 17 subjects during 71 exposures with air interruptions; on the other hand, no case of bends was reported after uninterrupted denitrogenation periods. Nitrogen-loading during the interruptive period is believed to resupply the bends sites with additional nitrogen, which re-establishes conditions favoring a return to a high incidence of bends.

  16. Spiritual care for sick children of five world faiths.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anne

    2006-12-01

    The holistic care of those with a specific religious faith and those with a spiritual belief is important for good family-centred care. Within a busy clinical setting an important aspect of spiritual care is enabling participation in religious observance, where desired. Children's nurses, midwives and hospital chaplains are instrumental in striving to ensure that both a suitable environment and appropriate spiritual support are offered. According to data from the 2001 census for England, Wales and Scotland, the most common religious affiliations after Christianity are Muslim, Hindu, Sikh, Jewish and Buddhist. This article considers the rites, rituals or ceremonies for each of these religions which are deemed both necessary and helpful after birth or when a child is sick or dying. PMID:17193915

  17. Glutamine Supplementation in Sick Children: Is It Beneficial?

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Elise; Hankard, Régis

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a critical appraisal of the literature on Glutamine (Gln) supplementation in various conditions or illnesses that affect children, from neonates to adolescents. First, a general overview of the proposed mechanisms for the beneficial effects of Gln is provided, and subsequently clinical studies are discussed. Despite safety, studies are conflicting, partly due to different effects of enteral and parenteral Gln supplementation. Further insufficient evidence is available on the benefits of Gln supplementation in pediatric patients. This includes premature infants, infants with gastrointestinal disease, children with Crohn's disease, short bowel syndrome, malnutrition/diarrhea, cancer, severe burns/trauma, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and type 1 diabetes. Moreover, methodological issues have been noted in some studies. Further mechanistic data is needed along with large randomized controlled trials in select populations of sick children, who may eventually benefit from supplemental Gln. PMID:22175008

  18. Update on the incidence and treatment of space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Bradley G.

    1993-01-01

    Flight surgeons routinely monitor crew symptoms and treatment of space motion sickness (SMS), not only during flight, but also to obtain information postflight from each crewmember. Recent statistics indicate that the incidence of SMS has not changed since STS-26 in Sep. 1988. The percentages of mild, moderate, and severe cases has only changed slightly. However, the treatment of SMS has significantly changed since STS-26. Scopolamine/dexedrine is no longer used as a prophylaxis for SMS symptoms because of evidence of delay in symptoms. Intramuscular promethazine has been used in more than 30 individuals with a reported decrease in symptoms greater than 90 percent. A delay in symptoms has not been reported, and the duration of certain SMS symptoms has decreased due to use of intramuscular promethazine. Case studies will be discussed and several therapeutic options and doses will be demonstrated. Further treatment possibilities will be examined.

  19. Motion Sickness-Induced Food Aversions in the Squirrel Monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, M. Aaron; Brizzee, Kenneth R.

    1979-01-01

    Conditioned aversions to colored, flavored water were established in Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) by following consumption with 90 min of simultaneous rotational and vertical stimulation. The experimental group (N= 13) drank significantly less of the green, almond-flavored test solution than did the control group (N=14) during three post-treatment preference testing days. Individual differences were noted in that two experimental monkeys readily drank the test solution after rotational stimulation. Only two of the experimental monkeys showed emesis during rotation, yet 10 monkeys in this group developed an aversion. These results suggest that: (1) motion sickness can be readily induced in Squirrel monkeys with simultaneous rotational and vertical stimulation, and (2) that conditioned food aversions are achieved in the absence of emesis in this species.

  20. The relationship between preflight underwater training and space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youmans, E. M.; Kreutzberg, K. L.

    1988-01-01

    Space Motion Sickness (SMS) severity was compared to WETF-(Weightless Environment Training Facility) trained and nontrained astronauts. Based on postflight medical debriefings, SMS severity was categorized as none, mild, moderate, and severe. The results show 63% of all crewmembers on their first shuttle flight experience SMS. Of those, 55% have symptoms ranked moderate to severe. From the nontrained group, 35% have no SMS, 18% mild, 29% moderate, and 18% severe. From the trained group, 41% have no SMS, 41% mild, 15% moderate, and 3% severe SMS. The results indicate an inverse relationship (p less than 0.01) between WETF training and SMS severity. Preflight WETF training may have operational significance as a viable countermeasure to SMS.